Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

# Section 9, Page 30

## 3. Differentiated series diverges for all x.

5. Uniform con for: Ixl ~ c < >. Ixl ~ c < 1. Ixl ~ 1. Ixl < >. Ixl ~ c < 0.1. 12x - ".nl ;:: c > 0
where n is the odd integer nearest to 2x/ .. 1 < c ~ Ixl < >.
6. Uniform con for: Ixl ~ c < >. Ixl ~ c < 1. Ixl ~ c < 1. Ixl < >. Ixl ~ c < 0.1; same as Prob. 5,
Ixl 2: c > 1 or Ixl ~ c < 1.
9. (c) About e1.000-,"" 10'" terms.

<
<

L i:

3. (b) tan-I x =
\'

## 1. - V2 < x < V2. all x, -3 < x < 3. - V'3 < x

1, -2 ~ x ~ 0, 1 ~ x ~ 3, x = I, -4 < x < O.

x4n+1

~n1 X,.+I.

\'

(n + 1)(5n

2.

\' nxn+"
\' (_I)nx8n+'
L, n + 14' L,
8n + 3

n
1
+ 6)' L, 3n + 7x,n+7.

",nf<

I, (p/~e)p.

5. c

<

-1. c

< -31.

> 31.

<

>.

\'

4n + l' L, (-I)n

5. L, (-1)n

< V'3.

- X.x'.

## Section 14, Page 47

3. Izi < 1,Izi < I, Izi < >,\zl < e-I, Izi < >.
4. Partial answer: Iz - 31 < 31, z = -4, Iz + 11 < 1.
5. First case: the strip defined by 1 < i < 3. - > < y

## Section 10, Page 35

1. (a) -1 < x
(b) -3 ~ x

3. (a) 0,00167.
4. 1%
%x' + ....
5. 3.004; 0.985; 0.545; 2.036.
6. 0.310,0:020, -0.103.0.94.
9. }ix'
10, 0.621.0.493,0.747,0.764.

## sin (n + l)x/2 sin (=/2)

sin (x/2)
, x r= 0, 2"., 4"., ....

## Section 18, Page 60

Section n, Page 39
1. -1 + 3x - 3x' + x' = (x - I)'. 2 + x' = 3 + 2(x - I) + (x - I)'.
x. = 1 + 4(x - 1) + 6(x - 1)' + 4(x - I)' + (x - 1)',
\' (-I)'
~

\' 2nxn

\' (-I)"

2"+1

z"

\'

= ~

(x - l)n,

3"+1

11","+1

L,(-l)"(2n+l)lx,n+I=L,(_1)n+1

L nr

\'

11"211+1(2

\'

2"(x

## 1. 0 if m' r= n', 271'if m = n = 0, 71'if m' = n2 r' O.

2.

(2n+l)1

7471'

+ \' (_I)n-1 cos (2n - l)x - sin (2n - l)x + sin 2(2n - l)x
L,
, 2n _ 1
.

I)"

n!

'

1)2"'+1

3/

3. -12LCOS2=
- --71' 71' 4n' - 1

+ 31 sm.

4. 4
-

x.

L~

?r

\'

x'".

\'

x'n+l

\'

(x ~.

## cos 1 L, (- 1)" (271) I + Sm 1 L, (- l)n (2n + 1)I = L, (_1)n

2. (a) e"

(x ~Ia)";

(b)

(-I)" (x n-

1)'"
w

~);+I.

(2n)1

(x _ ,,:),n + ),-2V32:(_I)n
6

\'
x'n+ 1
\'
L, 3( - 9)n (2n + I) " L, (-I)n

6.

where

CnX'.

Co

o.

c" =

x'"

\'
L, (-I)"

n!'

__

1__

(2n

x'n+'

(211+

1)1

- l)n,

(n ~~)

\' 135
(?n - I) (
2 ..\ 6 ..-. 2n
I

\'
x'n
\'
2x''''''
\'
I) " 2 L, (2n) ,; L, (2Tl + 1)" L, (-

~ +

x'n+'

4.

2,.-

,.- L,
n

71' L,
n
1

Ik'

7. See Sec. 9.

L,

## ~ + ~ \' sin (2n - l)x + \' (-I)n sin =.

71' L,
2n - 1
L,
n

1. First sketch for -71' < X < 71';then extend to adjacent intervals by repetition; finally add dots
indicating correct value ),-2(J(x+) + f(x-)]
at points of discontinuity.

(x _ ,,:),n+1

k-l

8.

7.

Yz, cos X.

## fi. ":+ 4 \' sin (2n - l)x _ \' sin 2nx.

2
L, 2n - 1
L, n

3. 1:(-1)"(x
- I)". 2:J,H<_3)-"-1 - 1](x - 1)", 1:Ya(2( _1)"+1 - I - (-3)-"-I](X
1:(-l)n+I(4-n-' - 2(5)-"-I](X - 1)". 1:7:i(2(_4)-n + 5( -3)-n-'
- l](x - 1)n.
4. ),-21:(
-1)" _1_

nsin 2= +
---4n' - 1

X

sin (4n - 2)x.
4
L,
2n - 1
L,
2n - 1
L,
4n - 2

= 0 being J.

1,

I'

12, Page In

Section

## \' (-1)nX'"+1 \'

+ I)n" L, (2n

J. L, (2n

\'

2X'"+1
')
(-I)"X'"+'
1)(2n + 1)1' t,., (4n + 3)(2n

": +
4

I)"

),-2CDS2x.

( - I)"x"+,+>
-I.x~

> _ I'

## cos (2n - 1)x, 4 ~ sin (2n - 1lx,

1
L,
2n - 1

2n -

n. 31 - 31 cos 2x, 31 +

\'
( - I )"x'"+'p+,
L, (<In
2p
2)(2n)

(-I)n-l

L,
1

(- I )"X'"+I
\'
(- I)nx'n+1
L, (2Tl + 1)(2n + 1)1'
(2n + 1)(2n + 2)(
\' (- I)"xn+ p
\'
3. L,nl(p+n)'P>0;L(n+l)(n+p+2)'P>

2~

I p

\'
,

135
... (2Tl 2 .\. 6 ... 2n

I)

I;
X'dp+
-In
p

+ +

I' P

> -

h
. were

## 2. ~ \' sin (2n + 1)(7I'/2)x.

,.-L,
o

2n

3.

first cocnicicnt = I,
5. fix)
I
4. +L,

\,(q-l)(q-2)(qn)
TlI(p+n)(-I)n

'q>0.p>"O.-I.-2

31

2
,.-

-y'-

31 -

1)7I'x.

(-1)"+1
cos (2n 2n - 1

---

6. f(x)

1)-'
2

4 \'

L.

..

2. x
1 -

~x'

+ l~,"'.

),-2x - rbx'.

+ x + J,~x'.

I
1 -

Y~7.2 -

j~4I4.

),-2x'

),-2x -

+ y"x'.
1~~.X'.

;1 +

}:'i';r -

x - ~x'

~8Z3.

+ Jo\oI'.

2.

CO'

## = sinh 11'''' + sinh "'''' ~ (-1)"2", cos =

~a
7l'"
al
nJ

L
1

_ 2 sinh
.

21'''' ~
~

(-I)nn
al

sin =.

+ n~

cos 2n,.-x,'
(2n2l')'

('NSWERS

~
sin "fJ \'

5.

6. PartIal

Section

24, Page

2.

= ;.' O'J =

\'

sin "fJ
"fJ

(! + \'

cos
(no)'

(-I)"2fJ
cos
fJ' - n'

=).

5, Page

107

2. (a) x'
xy = cx', ye'/%lI
(b) xOy = cev, y - 2 tan-I

= \'

(_1)"+'

x'

(2'"

~h'+

(_1)"

n'

sin nx,

240)

n"

Section

12..-'
120,,'
-- -n2
nJ

C"':,-

(-1)"

+ -720)
n

cos nx -

1, Page

(-1)"

(6

2
+n ".'

.)

sin nx.

92

2, Page

\.

3, Page

(b)

2.

(a)
(b)
3. 3,2,

hr.

x = tan (y
e). sin-' x - sin-' y = e or X = I or y = I,
y - I = eeI'(y
n, .\cos y = sin 2x - 2x e;
y = (I - X)-I. Y = 1
2x, tan y = see X -' 1
tan I, y = tan (2~
3x'y
y'. = e, y = x sin log (e.r) or y = x, Y = -x sin-' log (ex);
x' - 2xy = y' - 2, 3y' log y
x' = y'. y +'y log x = x, y = x.
I, 25, ,\.

5. (a) 2 tan-I
or y = 0;

+ ~".).

+ log

## [e t"nh (.r/2) = or.r = O.y = X log ex, y = ee-'VI!v

(b) X-I - y-I = 1011 (ey) or y = 0, log (eI)
e-vl, = 0.

or y

## y(.\ - log y') = ton' r

e, tan Y2y = e ton Y2I.
6. e' cos (2
y - x) = e. x
y
3 = ton (y
e), y' = x' log (ex)'. eV-'
= 2
7. v = t\) tanh ([11/ .,,) . = 1\>(1 - __ , ;"')11.
8. 72 sec.
9. Ahout ~ efs.

+ +

I.
2.
1.
6.
II.

'\, P"ge

0. x

ee'Vv!I

+ cev+'.
+

(a) e'
x - y = e, nol exact. x'y - xy' = e. (b) I' + y' = e, yc' = e, xy(x'
y') = e,
(c) x'
sin xy = e, r'.v
xy'
x = e, (d) not exoct. x cos Iy' = e.
y'
,I(x'
y')'; = e. (xt
y')'
r' = c.
3. (I
y)c'v = c.
y
Ix
y) 1011 c(x
y) = O. IeZ'V = e.
,.\ = b, B = e; 31-' = x(ax'
2bIy
ey')
y(Ar'
2/3ry
Cy').
(a) y = ex; (b) x'
y' = e'; (e) e I = VI - y' - sech-I y; (d) y = ec'; (e) y = cosh x.

+
+
+ +

+ 4x

c),

x' -

c,)(xy

= 0; x = eP(l
p)
2p
4cx] = 0.

c,) = 0,

+ C, y

+ c, y

= log (p'
p);
= p'(l
eP) - 1;

+ x' - c,) = 0;
+ 1) + c,
+ 1.

+
+

## (a) x = sin (clY

e,). y = )/gx'
e,x'
c" y = Y2x'
c,x-,
c"
y = (x
C,) log (x
e,) - x log x
C" COI" = x'
c,;
(b) y = C,
e,x, y = 2e, tan (c,x
c,), y = CI
ctc', Y = c, sin (2x
c,),
y = -log (e,x
c,), CO,X
C,COlx-y = C" x = f (e
siny)-'/'dy.
(c) y = e, - (1
x) log CIX, Y = e,COlx,y = %x'
c,x-I
e" e" = c, cos (x
y = (x
c,) log (x
CI) - 3x log x
2x
e,.
4. p' = 2x'
m' - 2, m' = 2, (7y
c)' = 8x'; xp' = x'
m' - I, m' = I, (5y
eP = 2(x' - 1)
em+l, m = log 2 - 1, y = x(log 2x' - Y2x - 2)
c;

ro,

## (xp)' = %(x' m' =

27(y
c),
5. p' = 2y
y'
m', m' = I, y = ceL - 1; p'
p' = Y2y'
m', m = 0, y(e x) = V2;

+
1) + m',

+
+

16x'.
= 2ev

+ m'

2, m' = 2, x

+ C,),

+ c)'

= 4x';

c V2e"/';

+
+

e"

+ ce"',

y'

x'(2ev

+ c),

y-'

= :\

## (d) (y - log e,x)(y - X - e,).;

0, y = X - log cx,
y = v log cvx where v =
x'
y' - y, x
y = tan (x

+ 2xy

_ y' _ 2x

## 11. Let v, he the speed

the y axis is the left
y =
Then 2y
which it approaches,
12. t = !x,!b/(b' - a');

+00.

10\

+
+

1.

c,e-') = 0, y = X
e, (y' c,eI)(y - c,e~) = 0;

Section
Section

## (c) (y' - 4x)(cy - 1 - c'x) = 0; y = sin (x

c); (y - Cle')(y
(y - e' - cI)(2y
x' - c,) = 0; 8x = 3 log (2p - 1)
6p(p
16y = 3 log (2p - 1)
6p(p
1)
8p'
c, or 16y = 8x
2. Yes: x = -g'(p),
y = g(p) - pg'(p) if g is differentiable.

9. x'

e"

+
+

::i

## 9. 200 v's lb.

p
1 = (m
I)e"
y or also p =
if m = 0, m = -1, y = 1
cf';
p' = Y2 - y
(m' - Y2)e-'v, m' = Y2, 4y
(c x)' = 2.
6. (a) Circles centered at the origin.
7. (a) 4xy
y' = e, y tan-' x = e, x ~ y = e(l
xy);
(b) x sin 2y = e, c''' = c - x, x = Y2y - X
ce-tv, x-, = Y
Y2
ee'v;

.\. 2 in.

100

(a)

00

c,ex'!')(y

3. 2.32, 3.:12,

7 .. 3l\ g. 3 log
log 32 years.
Section

97

2. Y2 log 2.

e;

+~

1. 2. 2. 2. 1.
2. (b) y = x', x'. x'
1. x' - 2; (c) The differential equation makes the slopes agree at corresponding
values of x; (d) Yes.
3. Yes.
'I. Exceptional
if the points are on a line x = e. as (1.2) and (1.3). for example.
5. (c) y = j1x'
x.
i. x'y = e. xy = e. xy = e. x'
3y' = e, x'
3y' = e.
9. Partial answer: v = V 6\ - 2ys. / = 8/g '" 0.2485 sec.
10. %g.
I\. Partial answer: v = y'2gh, s = Y2ql' sin e.
13. First equation:
y"(I)
y'(l} = sin I, -00 < / < 00; or y"
y' = S, where S is the function defined by S(l} = sin I, -00 < / < 00.
See tion

HI

6, Page

3.

Section

## + c, y = p' + Xx' - c,)

2:,0)

(b) x = 2p - %p-'
(y - C,X - c,')(Y
(y - I)[(y - x -

coo nx.

4 -

1. (a) (y - cle'x)(y
(y -

+".' +

j1".t

6.2-

,to,,' +

cx or xy = 0, (x'
y')l' - xy
(x/y) = e or y = 0, ye"'v = cx;

x'
a.

3.

e'=.

= h'

0,03

Section

## (c) xev = cy, x'

y' = cy, tan-' (y/x)
(x'
y')-l' = c.
(a) (1
x')(Y - I)' = c, 3(x'
l)y = x'
c,
xy = 2x sin x
(2 - x') cos x
c, y = e - c exp (-e');
(b) y = 1 - 2e-I'!2,
y = e-I'(x
- I), y = cos' x
2 sin x - 2, 4y = x' - 3e-I'
4. (a) 3x'y' - 2x' = c, y-' = x
Y2
ce"', y-' = %x'
cx', x = y log ex;
(b) y-' = 1
log x
ex, y-' = 1
x'
eex', y' = 4
ce~, e'" = y'(l>x
c).
5. x-, = y
Y2
cetv, 2x = y'
cy, ev
xy = e, sec y
tan y = cex see Y.
6. (a) y = sin x
ce', 1 - x = ce-Y'It,
x' - y' = x log cx or y'. = x';
(b) x'(1
4y')' = c, x sin-I x
='ev(y - 1) - Y2y'
c, y = ceI-x'lt
.

no .

79

01

..-

=,

~
+L1

IL
72

(-I)"2n
sin
fJ' - nt

7, Page

+ 2y

= e.

= u
dv
2u

10. ~

+ v,
+

3u
v 2u

+ c).

+ v, sin
+v

1
+ 18
+ ee";

u u

v, (u
2V)'.
2u - v

+v

## of the boat and v, = et\) the speed of the river.

Choose coordinates
so that
bank, the boat heads toward the origin, and the direction of /low is toward
= x[(cx)-'
- (ex)'], c > 0. When r = 1 the boat follows a parabolic path on
but does not reach, a point (O,y,), y, > 0.
almost within Y2lx,l.

116

1. (b) Infinitely
many through the origin. one through other points; none through
the origin. one
through other points.
(c) For y = f(x): infinitely many through the origin, one through points where x "" 0, none through
points where x =
and y "" 0; none through points on the x axis, one through othe~oints.
2. (b) Increasing for x > 0, xy > 0, xy < 0, x(y - x) > 0.
(c) Concave up for all (x,y), y(y' - x') > 0, Y > 0, x < 0.
(d) At (x,O) slopes ore x. 00. 0, - I; at (O,y) they are 0. 0, - 00. 00.

(l""WERS

= 1 on locus: x = I, x = y, x = -y,2x = y.
= c, xy = c, y = -x log cx.
answer: y' = max on circles x' + y' = (n + Y2h,

(g) y = ~x' + c, x' - y'

3. Yes; yes.
4. Partial
5. Cd) 4(y - x) = y'(y' - 2).
9. Partial answer: (x - c),
y'

Section

8, Page

6. Partial

4y

+ (y')'

Section

0,2,4,

= 4y'x; yes.

9, Page

2. The

/ 2:

(0/2))"",

+ x' = e;
+ cos 0), r =

where

n = a/ and

## be thought of as f(l)g instead, where f(l) = 0 for 0 ::; I

(9-1) would be written: dy/dl = wr
flOg - ry/G.
kAoe-" - ry/G.
5. (A - y)/(B - y) = (A/B)e"(A-B).

wr

Prob.

0 is a parameter.

<1

0,

and f(l)

1 for

Section

L -'e-CR'LI'

II,

Page

fa' Eo(l)eCRILHdl.

127

+
+

+
+

13, Page

1. Elymax

2. 2y = log
5. Regions:
Solutions:
Singular
changing

Iy -

10.
Section

+ z)(1

[cO

(b)

6. XY'
Section

by

15, Page

3,

because

it is obtained

= e,

16, Page

x =

cle-

w'm.

cy". stable

node; stable

focus. solvable

y1.

3, Page

C2

Section

+ 4v'

+ c2e-St,

ele-St

Y = cle-t

+ c2e'.

nonlinear,

linear,

linear,

## = 81; (b) Any for which

Cl

4, Page

a); -2;

w,

6. v'

+ y'

= 2E.

1.

91.'

+ 13e-").

linear.

+ 4y,'

= 81.

175

and

C3

-1.

arbitrary;

4. Tends

to zero.

or

C2

0,

'1

and

+ e,t)e",
=

+ e,t;
+ c,e-.') with

y = e,

e-"'(e.e"

k = VS/2.

5. v/u = const.
C3

arbitrary.

178

5, Page

182

3. y = 10 cos VMSI.

Section

-I.

as in Fig. 15.

4. Y = lOe-"

v2201

CDS

vho

cos (5001

~)

V = 100e-500V21(1

+ y'

log 4.

6, Page

+ [(120".)' + (log

+ VS

2)']y

sin v2201):

+ 500-v2t),

R = 400VMS

cosh 10,OOOVSI).
0 if

is in minutes.

185

+ +

y = e, cos I
e, sin I
I' (e) y = e,e"
c,e" - e"(I'/4

+
+
+
+

3.

51;

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

m;

## + i' + 3i' + 61), y = c,e' + ""Ie' + e'(Yot' - Y2t').

+ 18t + 61' + I');
+
+ + 301 + 181')/36, y = e, + e,e" - (61 + 15t' + 251')/125,
Y = e, + c,e-" + Yooe".
y = I - e-' + I' - I, y = 0, y = 7"'e-" - Yze-' + 73, y = Ys - 1/4 - i'/4 - e"/8 + te"/2.
(a) y = -I - i + I' + e-'; y = -Yo + 1/3 + 2e-' - 5e-"/9;
(b) y ~ ~i - Yo; y = -11 + lIe-' + 12i - 6/' + 2/'.
+

y = e,
e,i
e-'(48
(j) y = c,e"
e,e"
(19

4.

dynes.

R = 500-v2.

## 1. (a) y = 121' - 24, y = 241 - 12i'

41', Y = i'; (b) y = e", y = 12te", y = 6I'e".
2. (a) y = e,e"
e,e"
).>2e",y = (e,
e,l)e-'
t - 2, y = e,e-"
c,e-"
71"e';
(b) y = (e,
e,l)e'
i
2, y = e,e'
e,e-' - 5t
2, Y = e,e'
e,e-'
e"(~1 9l
(c) y = (c,
c,l)e'
Yr,t'e', y = e,e"
e,le"
Yzt'e", y = c,
c,e~t;
(d) y = c, CDS 31
e, sin 3i
(91' - 181
7)/81, y = e,e'
e,e-'
Y2te',

Cte-H);

The behavior as 1---->00 is easily analyzed. and, except in the last case. the orbits are ellsily found
~y eliminating
I. These results Ilgree with the answers given previously.
Expressions involv109 e" can be reduced
to real form b)' choosing e, = l,.
3. z - CI~', Y .=z c2e-': x = cle-cal, y ~ c~-'; :r = e-ca'(cleif
c2e-if), y = ie-ca'(cleif _ C,e-if).

Y =

- 7e-"), y = ~(23e-"

## 4. y = yo exp [p<>(Io - I)].

==

4/"

172

+ c,e", y = e'.
+ C2e-u, Y = ele-3f + c2e-u,

2. Y = cle-St
3. y = 73(1ge-"

11. y"

151

+ Ctel',

## 6. V = 20VSe-,,000l(5 sinh 10,OOOVSI

= -2cle-1
2c2e3t.
(b) :c - cd
C2. Y Cl; I =- Cle', y = cze'; x = elell
C'Ie-it, y = i(ele"
X =- Cl~-l. Y = c~t; 7 = Clet,
y = C2ett; Z = Cle', y = C2ef
cde';
x ..,. e'(Clei'
Cte-if). y = ief(Cleit
C2e-it).

l. (0) 11 =

VIO/2,,;
(b) y = 2 cos VIOl; (c) Y = VIO sin VIOt.
4. Y = Yo cos I
y, sin t.
5. w = VI/ Le.

- w,'), k

5. V = 100V2e-""

""'I.

## y,. (l - x')y; = xy,.

(b) Second equation: y; = y" y; = y,y,.
y; = y,. xy; = -Ix - 2y,.
ex, x' + y' = e, i:y = e, y = ex', y = I log ex. In the last case r' = r, 0'

..

by inter-

147

70,000,000,000

## 3. e" cos I, e" sin i.

4. (a) y = c,e-" + e,e", y = e.e" + e,e", y = e-"(c, cos I + ""sin I);
\
(b) y = (e, + c,i)e', y = e,e" + e,e-", y = e-"(e. coo 2/ + c, sin 21);
,
(c) y = e, coo 2i + c, sin 21, y = (c, + c,l)e", y = e-""[el cos (V7i/2) + ""sin (V7t/2)];
(d) y = e"(e. cos I + e, sin I), y = e'(c, coo 7i + c, sin 7t), y = e-"(cos V26t + e, sin V261).
6. (a) y = e,e(-2+ .,(4-0'lt + c,e(-2- .,(4-0lt, if a' '" 4; Y = e,e-" + e,le-", if a' = 4.
7. (a) y = c,e(-b+ .,(b'-2lt + c,e(-b- ,lb'-2)I, if b' ;c 2; y = e,e-b1 + e,le-bt, if b' = 2.

e, y =
hence r =- ce-'.

2, Page

1. y = c.e'

Section

1x' '" O. x' > y' '" 0, 1y > x'. y' > x' '" O.
2cy = e' + Ix'. y' + 2ex + e' = 0, y = Y2x' + ex + c'.
solution: y' = '~I', y' = x' .~y = I'. The singular solution can be found by each method.
are not provided
x and y.

7. m = w,'m,/(w'

9.

>

## I. (a) First equation: y(

(c) Third equation:

2.

x)-'],

V2.

170

3. I; la+b-'(b

+ rck-'I,

141

y'

1, Page

137

14, Page

XU

1. Y = (I
21)e", y = O.
2. (a) y = (e,
e,l)e-", y = (c,
(b) y = (e,
""I)e', y = (e,
e,t)e"", y = c,e"
e,e-o",. y

## 2. Elymax = 5wl'/384. if simply supported;

Section

2. (a) y"
IOy = 0, ~
3. Y = (mg/k) cos ~I.

Section

W/'/48.

I by a factor

## 7. (a) An ellipse, 91'

1. I = ",,/pg, So = '/2pg.
5. v = Vo clog 2.
6. Equation
is dv/dl
kv(mo - rI)-' = -g
re(mo - rl)-',
V = A(m.
- rl)'"
gem. - rl)(r - k)-'
rek-',
s = A [moCH>l" - (mo - rI)"+T)/']{k
r)-'
g[(mo - rI)' - m.'][2r(k - r)]-'
where A = mo"'["" - gm.(r - k)-' - rek-'].
7. y = -g(2tll' cos' a)-'x'
x tan a: range is max for a = ,,/1; region is described
y ::; '/(2g) - gx'/(2tll)'.
9, tan 0 = tan 00
2eE/(wmoe).
Section

Section

Section

6. Let x represent the amount of substance dissolved after time I, A the amount present when x = 0,
I = 0, and e the proportionality
constant.
If v is the volume of solvent and S the saturate concentration, then dX/~1 = e(A - x)(S - x/v), if the dissolving substance does not change the volume v.

7. (a) J

2xll

+ 63 + 2,079 + 59,535'

e cos O.

122

rate 9 would
10 Equation

3. dy/dl

+ n)[tan

A cos (0

x7

xS

3' y,

## For the error estimate,

use mo = Yz, k .::; 2(max lylJ '::;2 max Ixl =
2. Since Iyl ::; Ixl in the given region, use y' = x'
y' to get Iyl .::; %Ix/'.
The choice k '= 21yl,
mo = x' gives the desired result.
For Ixl = 0.1 and n = 3 this estimate
is better than that of

119

Section

1. y, =

....

= a'.

x =

155

x3

## 1. (a) y = ex, x' - y' = c, x'

ny' = c, y' = cx', 3x'y - y' = c, 2y
(b) y' = e - 2x, y = ee-", y' = -log ex, 0 = e, r = ee-II'/2, r = e(l
5. Seif-orthogonal
family.
6. F(x,y,-I/y')
= 0, if a = ,,/2.
7. (a) y'
2:z:y - x' = e; (b) x'
y' = e(y - x).
8.

17, Page

728

(
Section?,

age 188

1. (b) y = -2 cas 21 + 16 sin 21; y = -16 cas 21 istic equation have negative real parts.

2 sin 21.

Because

the

roots

of the character-

2. (a) y = cle' + c,e" - (3 sin 21 + cos 21)/20, y = c, sin 21 + c, cos 21 - % cos 31;
(b) y = c,e' + c,e-'" + 2 sin I, y = c,e-" + c,e" + 3Ie-" + ~oe";
.
(c) y = e-'(c, sin 21 + c, cas 21) + e'(~~o sin 21 - )1,0 cas 21), y = c,e" + c,e-" + 11o,e"(5 sin 31 _
3 cas 31).

## = c,e" + c,e-" + )l,ole" - ~~.I' + ~~.I - 7b, y = c, sin I + c, cos I +

= e'(c, sin 31 + c, cas 31) + %e' + ~~7 (6 cas 31 + sin 31),
= c, sin I + c, cas I + 1 - Yzi cas I - )i cas 21.
= (sinh I - sin 1)/2. y = O. y = J;,W sin I - t' cas I);
= - X + %oe" + e-'()I,o cas I - )i sin I),

(d) y
(e) y
y
3. (a) y
(b) y

cos 31 -

sin 21.

>3

>3

Section

>3

8, Page

Section

12, Page

Section
2. Y

204

13, Page

CDS

2i -

## '}fe-31 sin 21.

207

yoe-PI.
3. y
5. y = y,I'/2 + y,I'/6.

w') cos wi + 2bw sin wl]/[O - w')' + 4h'w']. y "': cas wilO - w').

y = [(I -

## 7. y = I' + e', y = 1 - e-' - 2[e'/2 sin (V3112)J/Vi

1. lis, lis'.
2. bl(s' - b'), sl(s' - b').
3. (3s' + 2s - 8)/s', 2sl(s' + 9) - 8/(s' + 4),
1/(s - 1) + I/(s' - 2s + 2), I/(2s) - sl[2(s' + 4)].
4. e" + 2e-" + 3e-". % sin 21 + 3 sinh 21, 3 CDS 41 + X sin 41, e-" + 4e-31
5. (5Is)(I - e-'), [1/(s + 1)](1 - e-('+'), 2e-'ls + 3e-'ls' + lis - 31s',
..(e-' + 1)/(s' + .'), 1/(1 + s)' - e-('+')(s + 2)/(1 + s)'.
6. (a) e-'Is. (Ae-' + Be-,b)ls; (c) [Ae-' + Be-,b + Ce-K]ls.

## -cos 1+ (t sin 1)/2 + 1, Y = e'/10 - (3 cas 31 + sin 31)/30.

.~. y =
sin 21 sin I - cas I, y = I' + e', y =
(sin I + sin 21).
5. (a) y = [(3 - w') coswl + 4w sin WI]/(w' + lOw' + 9); not stable;
y = [101(3 cos I + sin I) - 11 cos I - 2 sin 1]/400;
(b) y = [(13 - 4<.>')sin wi - Sw cos wl]/[(13 - 4<.>')' + 64<.,'], not stable;
y = [(2 - 9w') sin wi - 6w cos wIJ/[(2 - 9w')' + 36w'J.
8. y = [(a' - w') cos wi + 2w sin wIJ/[(a' - w')' + 4w'J,
y

(b) y = cle' + c,e-' + c, cos ( + c, sin I, X= c,e' +,c,e-' - c, cas I -:- c, sin I;
y = c,e' - Yze-'I'[(c, + c,V3) cos ('v'3i/2) + (c, - V3c,) sin (V3112)),
x = c,e' + [c, cas (v"31/2) + c, sin (v"3U2)e-tI2;
y = CI(1 + v'Z)evi,
+ c,(1 - V2)e- V2t, x = cleV2t + e:e,- ."I2t.
6, x = c,e(3+ .,,117)1/2+ c,e(3- .,,117)'/2+ Yze' - Yz.
.

I' + I + 1.

4. Y

121', Y

41', Y

I" y

41', y

0, y

(11105.

## 6. y = e-"(% cosh 21v3 - %V3 sinh 21/V3).

7, (a) y = e-' cas
(b) y = sin I + cos I.

t;

191

= tan-'

8. (a) y

+ 3)/4.;

## = e-"/'(cosh Yzv51 - %V5 sinh YzVSI).

'% sinh %/) == I%e-" - %e-",
y = .-"(4 cosh 21 + '% sinh 21),
y = )ie-'''''(20 cosh %1 + 34 sinh %1), y = 4 cosh 31 - >3 sinh 31.
10. (a) y = Y,e'" sinh (31/4), y = sinh I, y = % e-I/' sinh %/, y = Ie";
(b) y = ."'(cosh
?41 - >3 sinh ?41), y = cosh I,

[2bwl(1 - w')J.

(e-"

(b) y

9. y = e-7'/'(4 cosh %t +
Section

9, Page

194

## 1. Y = c, + c,l + c,l' + c,I', Y = c, + c,1 + c,I' + c'I' + I' + cos I.

2. Y - c, + c,e' + c,e" + 21 + e".
3. y = c, + c,e-' + e'''(c, cas Yzlv'~ + c, sin Yzlv'~) + (w' cas wi + sin wl)/(w7 + w),
Y = c, + 'c,e-' + e'''(c, cas Yzlv'3 + c, sin YzIV3) + (w'sin wi - cas wt)/(w7 + w).
4. y = - Yze-' + %e' - t.
5. y = e-"/3
17e'/12 + 7e-'/2 - e-"/4 - 21' + 21 6. Y = clee
c,e-t
cJe-J1
c4le-Jt.

Section

10, Page

11, Page

200

(d) y
(e) y
y
(j) Y
(g) y
y

(h) y

## c, cas ki + c, sin kl + c, cosh kl + c, sinh kl. y = c,.-' + (c, + c,l)e";

c, + f"[c, cos (VlSI/2) + c, sin (VlSI/2)]
+ 1'/2 + (I + e')/4,
= el/ ."I2[c,sin (v'Z1/2) + c, cas (v'Z1/2) ] + e-I/ ."I2[C,sin (V21/2) + c, coo (V21/2)J
= c,e' + c,e" + c,ie" - XI' - I - I}'- Y = c,e-' + c,e' + c,e" + Yz + Yzle'.
= c, + c,l + e-'(c, + c,I),
= c,e-' + c, cas 1+ c, sin t + (XI - %)e'.
- c, + cil + e:t' + ",e-' + (4 cos 41 - sin 41)/1,088,

## y = c,e-' + .-'''(c, CDS %,131 + c, sin %,131) - (6 cas 21

5 sin 21)/13.
y - c,
c,1 e'(c,
c,1)
/'(12
31
YzI'
~~ol'),
y - c,."
(c,
e:1).' - 4 - I.
3. (a) y = %0(-7 cos 21 + sin 21), y = (~~0,,)(-17
sin 31 - 7 coo 31);
(b) y - Y.,,(3 COS 1 + 2 sin I), y = 11 (4 sin I - 7 coo I).
4. CI - 1%&. C2 - -43~oo.
5.

(0)

## cos t + c, sin i, Z =: c\ sin t - c, coo l; Y = cle'

y - (c, + c,I).', z = e'(c, + Yzc, + c,l).
y -

CI

Ylk'~'.

14, Page

210

Section

15, Puge

214

## y = ~(e-" '- e-I); (b) y = -Ie-"; (c) y = (%)e'3t/'sinh

(5112); (d) y = -2Ie-';
y = ~,e-' - 3e-"; (b) y = e-"(1 + I); (e) y = %e-U + %e-"; (d) y = e-' - 2ie-';
Lx = (s' - 2s + 3)/(s' + 3s' + 2), Ly = (s' - 4s + 5)/(s' + 3s' + 2);
Lx = [.(s' + .~) - + 1]/(s' + 4)'. Ly = (s' + 5 - .)/(s' + 4)';
Lx = [s(s' + 7) + 2J/(s' + 13s' + 36), Ly = (s' + 3. + 6)/(" + 13s' + 36);
Lx = [s(s' + I) + 2s + 2]1(s' + I)', Ly = (s' - 2. - I)/(s' + 1)'.
(0) Lx = (s' + s + I)/(s' +2s'
+ 2), Ly = (s' - s + I)/(s' + 2s' + 2).
5. y = 2 + e-" - 3e-' - ie-I. I = -3 - 2e-" + 5e-' + 2Ie-'.
6. :v = I = W = el/,.
10. x = a(I - cas wI), y = a(wl - sin wI), where w = Helm, a

(a)
2. (a)
L (a)
(b)
(e)
(d)
I.

+ H.(6yo -

## where p = (RC)-' and q = pEo(p'

W')-I.
H. Partial answer: YzEo(sin wof - wol cas wot),
Eowo(wo'- w')-'(wo sin wi - w sin woI), where Wo = (LC)-"'.

(;)

+ y,)e"

## 2. Y = 7S sin 1 + cas 21 - '(sin 20/6.

3. y = },I' - I + sinh I.
,i. Y = I - cas 1 for 1 > O. y = 0 for 1 < 0, no.
13, q(we-p, + p sin wi - w cas wI), q(p cas wi + w sin wi - pe-p,),

cas z + c sin z.

## 1. y = c,e' + c,e-I/', y = c,e-' + c,e', y = c,e-" + c,e', y = (c, + c,l)e".

2. (a) y = c, + c,e-w, + c,e", y = c, sin 1+ c, cas 1+ e-'(c, cas 21 + c, sin 21);
(b) y = c,e-'
c,le-' + c,l'e-', y = c,e-"
e'(c, sin V31 + c, cos V31);
(c) y = (c, + c,I).' + c,. y = (c,
c,1 c'/').-, + c,;

I%tJ
== Yi.(9yo

Section
exist; y = 1 -

+ >3

7fl
sinh %/), y = e" - 31e3l;
y = e-3I/'[yo cosh '%1 + (%.y, + )iyo) sinh

## 12, LCy) = [F(s) + (s + 2b)yo + y,]/(s' + 2bs + a').

13, (a) First problem: Ly = 6s(s;
4)-I(S + I)-'(s + 2)-'.

197

Section

y = e-I/'(cosh

II.

5.

+ cas I;

## This is a cycloid generated

Section

16, Page

c,e-c;
7. Y = e-ll

[Y.il

219
cosh V21 -

4~

sinh V21}

a.

ElwH ..

Section

17, 'Page

1. V

(e-I

Section

223

derivatives

discontinuous.

In Jast case, y is

2. y =

13.

1. Y

fo']H

dT, y

t'

2. y = -- 1
{3 - a

](T)(e-(I-

sinh (I -

fo' ](T)e'-'

T) dT, Y

sin (I -

y = Jo' ](T) (I -

## r) dT, Y = fa' ](T) (I -

T)e-(I-

dT.

%e-" -

Xe-',

for ](1)

Section

e3l;

230

fa"

e-',

5. I = Frl Vo + (K
6. 1= L-Ie-RI/L.

7. RLI

fa'

Fr'Vo)e-R'IL

fa'

dT dT, = e-'

e"](T)

V(T)e-(RILH'-

dT

(e' -

e"-')](T)

Lx"/n!

I, Y

Lx'"/(2"n!)

3. y

-2

2x -

0', Y

= e",

~2"xn/n!

sin wi with K

e(RILHhl]

dT

-1

L[1 -

x'-

~
\'
+L

3i

6. y = 1 -

x"

AwL/(R'

+ w'L').

1 -

x,

G(x,t)

_
Y -

(
/10

\'

UI

147z'
- -9-1-

x'

1 ..1710x"
+
121

x'

8. At least if

1 ,Ix'

3x6
+

51

Ixl <

9. (a) y = CLX".
(
b)

y = tlo

\'

## where first coefliciellt

-

1 ..\ 7x'
+ -9-'+

36x'

General

[(x
I + ~

(x
x -

+ [
a,

369x"
+ -1-1-1-

+ -HI2, Y =

c,

L;S +

solution:

2)'

I.

Y = sin x, y = ae'"

CIX-I

+ c,xo'.

(b) alliinearl)'

independent.

t)o'-'f(t)

2, y = -sin

x'ex'-ax

x log lese x

ae-a%

dx -

x'ex'+ax

+ cot

xl;

+ c,x + x' + 1.

4. y = c,o'

(}.-ilx -

}h, y = x

dt;

1)10'-' if 0

2, Page

< I < x,

G(x,t)

= ()11 -

1)xo'-'

if x

<I<

1.

()
a

261

+C

IAI;

(6)

O.

+ D), B = )1(S

3. A = )1(S

(ATAl + Illi'
B)

D).

## 9. (a) They forn. a right triangle;

...

1)]1' Y =

(b) OP = )1(A +

B).

I -

x)

+ a,

2)'

(/10

I) cos x + a, Sill x,

(x -

2)'

3i

+ 3j + 3k,

= 3;
3j + 3k; B + C = 2i
j; associative
6k, :ji + 6j
9k, 3i
6j
9k, distributive
law;

6i

+ 9j + 12k;

x'n+1

aL '--'

2x'

4f

2n(2n

2 5x'

71

+ c,(1

x),

+ c, L

-10,

I)nl'

25 8x'0

-Iil!

+ ...

law;

(e) -1.

+
+

)1.

yc'.

-i

- j + k.

## 3. (a) No; (b) yes.

4. (a)

+ 3k, 3i
v'\%;.

- j - k, 2i

+ 3j + 3k,

6, Pagc

7, Page

-%.

:li - j -

k; (c) i + 2j

+ 2k;

(d)

_
(c) V69/2.

26ll

2. (a) 0; (b) x =

%;

(d) 0, O.

270

## 1. (a) H'(t) = 2; + 61j

;Wk; (b) H'(I) = 2;
6j
3k; (c)" = 2i + 6j
3k, Ivl = 7.
2. (a) v = H'(t) = i
j cos t - k sin I; 1R'(t)1 = V2; (h) s = 2V2.
9. R H' X R"', R X R".

..
2)10

6. N = (3;
2j - '\k)/V29,
7. (a) No, no; (6) yes, no; (c) yes. no; (d) no,..!!."; te) no, no.
9. (a) (i
j + k)/V3;
(e) (Hi
j - 2k)/V69.
10. (a) V3/2;

(x -

'I,

(- ~~"X";
+

## 10; (e) 12;

(j) s = - 7/3; (g)

Section
5, Page 266
1. (a) -2;
:jj - .lk, 5i - '1j

Section

(x - 2)'
(x - 2)'
+ 2.3.5.6
+ 2.3.5.6.8.9

+ -3-.-\-

2. (b) x
\'

00

x +

= Cle'

+ 9k,

+ B) + C

+ 1) + k,

Scction
y = CILX"

262

(d) 3i + 6j

+ ....
c,(

3, Page

Section
4, Pa/-lc 264
1. (a) 10,2,8;
(1 6, 'I, ;
(d) cos-'3/V21;
(e)~/v5;

.. ,

2"nlx2{n+1)

+ L [2(11 +

]).nl

3i + (IT'-

1+

+ 2i

x'n+1

L 2"(2n +

+ 2x/9

x')/3

+
+

dependent;

## 1. (a) 5j, -5j;

(b) A
B = 2i + 3j
'~k; (A
(c) 5i
lOj X 15k, -2; -1j
-

1)"

= 1 + x + 21x' + 31x'
2161x" + 3171x' +
y
41
5!
4181
5191
7. Y = /1oL( -1)"x'"/(2n)
I + alL( - 1)"x'"+'/(2n
+ 1) I, y = 1 +

y = a{)

254

J.,

(b)

Section
n(n

13 ... (2n - 1)
I
2 ..\ ... 2n
2n + lX'"+',

14x"
+ -61-

}.-ilV31og x) + %x'.
x[(log x)'/2
log x].

e-(RILl<] V(O).

= 20' -

x + 2Lx"/nl

+ c, sin

250

7. (a) y = {x (x -

dT.

11-2

.
\'
5. y = sm-I x =

+ ....

e"/2.

x'; y

2'4'6'

(b) y = 0'/12,

23l

2. Y

x'
-

+ c'x' + c,x'.

## 3. Y = - (x' log x)/9.

K cos wi + (RK)(wL)-'

L Jo' V'(T)(I

+
+

25, Page

2. A + B
20, Page

x
+ 2'4'

246

24, Pagc

Section
Section

1. (a) y = (x' -

2. y = l'e-"/18;
y = 6e'(cos 21 - sin 21); y = e-t'/720.
3. y = (1/18)(sin I + c, cos 21 + c, sin 2t), y = (1'/96) cos 21:
y = (1'/240)(2 cos I + sin I).

fo'

x2

2'

y = 1 -

## y = log x, y = -}.-il cos 2x.

c,x[log 11
xl - log 11 - xl], y

1. IV = O.
Section

4. y = e-I

7'

3. y = o'[(3x - x')c.
c,].
4. a = -)1.
10. (a) (1 - x')-',
ex', (1 - X')-l/',
(1 - x)o'.
13. Y = C'X

19, Page

+ c,x~-'.

c,x"

sin x

+ 1)1 =

23, Page

1. y = -1/x,
2. Y = CIX

e-~(hl]dT.

## 5. y = w(w' - WI')-'(W sin w,1 - WIsin wI) if w r' WI

10. y = }.-il- e-' + }.-ile-", for ](1) = H(I); Y = }~oe" y = -y. + }.-ill+ e-I - Xe-", for j(t) = I.

Section

(a) y = CIX-'
c,x-'
}.-illog x - %,..2' = x'/2(c, cos }.-ilV31og x
(b) y = c,x'
.,x(5+ ..,r2I}/2
c,x(5- v'21)/2 - }.-il,Y = CIX'
c,x -

Section

T) dT.

3. Rest solutions:

L (2n

226

Jo' ](T)e'-'

2,39

+ c,x',

c,x'

## 7. a.n(n 2p) = -an'+

9. (b) y = V2/(7I'x)(cI COSX + c, sin x).
12. y = x[c, + c,log x + c,(log x)' + }f4(lOg x)'].
See shift theorem of Sec. 19.

discontinuous.
'l. All linear except N] = [f(l)J'.

18, Page

\' (-I)nx2"

## Z. Partial answer: y = I, I, 1'/2 for 1 > O.

3. y"', y", y', ycontinuous,
respectively,
and higher

Section

21, Page

1. (a) y

e-")/2.

IS. I'Y"

Section
12y = OIy'

I.

H, Page

275

## ta) IV = 0; (6) IV = -2;

3. (I)

" = kA

(e) IV =1.

X B; (h) " = kC X fA -

ll).

+ 4k.
+ j).

2. (a) T = - i
2j - 3k; (b) T = 2; - .-Ij
6. (a) H = %(2;
5j); (b) R(I,2) = %(4i

%.