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VOCATIONAL HIGHER SECONDARY

TEACHERS SOURCE BOOK

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF RADIO AND TELEVISION


SECOND YEAR

Government of Kerala Department of Education 2006


STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING (SCERT) Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram-12

Prepared by: State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT) Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12 Kerala
E-mail:scertkerala@asianetindia.com

Type setting by: SCERT Computer Lab.

Government of Kerala Education Department 2006

Foreword
Dear Teachers,

This Teachers Sourcebook on Maintenance and Repairs of Radio

and Television introduces the teacher to the main principles and practices of the revised pedagogy which is activity-based, processoriented and learner-centred. The realisation that learning is not mere storing information in memory and that real learning is construction of knowledge through observation, comparison, classification and analysis has led us to give a new thrust to the teaching-learning process at Vocational Higher Secondary level to make it more meaningful and learner-friendly. This sourcebook has been developed primarily for the benefit of teachers who teach Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television at Vocational Higher Secondary level. The subject matter has been dealt with utmost care, in tune with the revised curriculum and pedagogic principles. It is hoped that this book will enable the teacher to provide suitable learning activities for effective learning. The success of the approach depends upon the vision and commitment of the teacher. They are expected to make use of this sourcebook at all stages of their teaching process. It is also expected that the teacher would seek help and guidance from other sources like libraries and websites. Hope that this sourcebook will help the teacher to develop the skills and experience required for effective classroom transaction. Creative criticism and suggestions for improvement are most welcome. With regards,

Thiruvananthapuram July, 2006

Dr E. Valsala Kumar Director SCERT, Kerala

CONTENTS
Part I General Approach ................................................................... 6 Subject Approach .................................................................. 24 Teaching and Learning Strategies .......................................... 30 Syllabus .................................................................................. 40 Planning .................................................................................. 43 Evaluation .............................................................................. 53 Curriculum Objectives .......................................................... 64 Part II - Unit Wise Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Radio Audio Communication ...................................................................................7 0 Equipments ............................................................................................7 5 Transmission ................................................................................7 9 Television Receiver .............................................................8 4

Television Monochrome

Colour TV Receiver ........................................................................................9 1 Video Satellite Equipments .............................................................................................9 8 Communication ............................................................................ 1 0 3

Advances in Television Technology ...................................................... 1 0 8

Part III Practical Evaluation ............................................................. 114 Practicals ............................................................................... 116 Appendix .............................................................................. 211

Part I

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

GENERAL APPROACH

SIGNIFICANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. Education should enable the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well. The attitude and potential to work has determined the destiny, progress and cultural development of the human race. As we all are aware, the objective of education is to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. The educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and values in tune with these work culture. Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream of education. In another sense, every educational process should be vocationalised. However due to our inability to utilize the resources wisely, scarcity of job opportunities is a severe issue of the present society. For overcoming this deep crisis, emergent techniques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have to be seriously carried out. It is in the sense that the content and methodology of Vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached. The need for meaningful linkages between the world of work and world of education is well recognized. The essence of the recommendations made by various commissions and committees is that the vocationalisation should be the main feature of the future system of education at the higher secondary stage, it can be extended to school level also. Vocational education is system of education which intends to prepare learners for identified occupations , opening several areas of activities. The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. The relevance of vocational education is very great in this age of unemployment. This education system, which ensures a job along with higher education stands aloof from other systems of education.

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This education imparts the life skills required by the youth to enter the world of work and assuming the responsibilities of adulthood. As per the expert meeting report (2001) of UNESCO, the life skills are grouped under 4 categories. They are 1. 2. 3. 4. Skills for personal fulfillment Skills for living in society Skills for dealing with changing economies Skills for dealing with changing work patterns.

Vocational Education ensures fulfillment of manpower requirement or national development and for social security for the citizens through self-employment. It also helps to reduce the migration of rural youth to urban areas and thus helps in rural development. The learners of Vocational Education get an opportunity to avail one year apprenticeship training in industries to improve their practical skill. During the course of study, on the job training (OJT) for 10 days in a year is arranged to improve the skill and efficiency of the learner. This education system motivates the attitude towards self employment through Production Cum Service Training Centres. (PSTC)
OBJECTIVE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

The National policy on education has accorded very high priority to the program of vocationalisation of education, considering the following objectives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. To fulfill national goals of development and the removal of unemployment and poverty. To impart education relevant to increased production and productivity, economic development and individual prosperity. To make available skilled work force at all levels to alleviate the rural unemployment and for the development of nation. To develop environmental awareness to ensure sustainable development. To develop vocational aptitude, work culture, values and attitudes of the learners so as to enrich the productivity of the nation. To develop entrepreneurial competencies and skills of learners for self reliance and to undertake gainful self employment. To facilitate the expansion of higher education and explore future opportunities through innovative guidance and programmes. To develop vocational competencies, creative thinking in the related areas and facilitate training. To create awareness on mental, physical and social health. To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds for acquiring higher level training in subjects concerned.
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Learning

Learning is construction of knowledge through a continuous mental process. It is advancement through adding and correcting in the light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts. Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorization of facts. Learning is a conglomeration of a variety of activities like problem solving, finding out co-relations, prediction, arriving at conclusions, rational as well as critical thinking, finding applications, grouping for other possibilities and extracting the crux when opportunities are provided for intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get strengthened.
Theoretical foundations of learning

Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. It should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice. There should be conscious programme of action to develop nationality, humanness and love against the encroachment of sectarianism of caste and religion. The learner should become cognisent of the implications of privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc. They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a liberative weapon. They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well being. A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life is essential for all learners. The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence our educational philosophy. The solution to the present day perplexities of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life. It is high time that education was recognized on the basis of the philosophy of human education. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content, learning process and outlook. The perspective of 'learning to be' and learning to live together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existential, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence. The basis of new approaches on curriculum and teaching- learning process are derived from the developments took place in the east and west of the world. When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process, the teaching process has to be changed timely. It is the result of the rapid growth and development of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to undergo the changing process, we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner that they have
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great curiosity good imagination numerous other qualities and interests independent individuality interest in free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. interest in enquiring and questioning. ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking. ability for manifest and establish freely the conclusions arrived at. interest for recognition in the society. determination to face the interference of society and make components which is a part of social life.

When we consider the learning system, the domains to be stressed in education according to the modern development becomes relevant. The knowledge domain consists of Facts Ideas Laws The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists.

The learning is a process. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal is process. The skills which are parts of the process to analyze the collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. Some important process skills are, the skills; To observe To collect data and record To classify To measure and prepare charts To experiment To predict To recognize and control the variables To raise questions To generalize To form a hypothesis and check. To conclude
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To communicate To predict and infer To use tools.

Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. It is purely objective oriented. Learning experiences which provide the use all the sense may be used. The process of grouping is known as classifying. Starting from simple groupings of data, it can extend to the level of classification into minute sub-groups. In addition to this, consider the skills related to creative domain also, they are skills: To visualize To connect facts and ideas in new ways. To find out new and uncommon uses of objects To fantasize To dream To develop creative isolated thoughts

Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. The element of creativity is involved in finding out problems, formation of hypothesis, finding 'solutions' to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning experiences, opportunities to express creativity can be created. Again, the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important as; Self confidence Love for scientific knowledge Attitude to know and value history Respect human emotions Decide with reasonable present problems Take logical decisions ragarding personal values

'Hypothesis' is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. Based on knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and solutions can be guessed. As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to:
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observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired. take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life. choose a scientific life style connect the ideas acquired with other subjects.

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integrate the subjects with other subjects.

Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes are required in the following factors. The vision, approach, structure and content of the curriculum. The vision, approach, structure and content of the textbooks. Role of the teacher and the learner. Learner atmosphere, learning materials and learning techniques.

Some scientific perspectives accepted by modem world in educational psychology are given below.
Constructivism

This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge. New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. That is assimilated into the cognitive structure of one's knowledge. This method which gives priority to critical thinking and problem solving provides opportunity for self motivated learning.
Social' Constructivism

Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. Knowledge is formed, spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social environment. Interactive learning, group learning, co-operative participatory learning, all these are concepts put forward by social constructivism. The main propounders of constructivism are Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner. Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning takes place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. The activities of a learner who confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome it leades to the renewal of cognitive structure. it is through this process construction of new knowledge and the assimilation of them take place. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner advances towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing concepts. Learning is a live mental process. Rather than the ability for memorization of facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. The process of problem analysis, elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relation, prediction, hypothesis formation, application, probing for other possibilities, extracting the crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning. Constructivism gives greater predominance to co-operative learning. Social and cultural factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge and experience among learners,
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collective enquiry, assessment and improvement, group activity and collaborative learning by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity, provide opportunity for effective learning. In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. The learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Learning situation should be capable of forming a sense of ownership in the learner regarding the learning process. Learning is not a linear process. It progresses in a spiraled way advancing deeper and wider.
New concepts of Learning

1. Discovery Learning The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts and facts, instead of listening always. Creating occasion to progress towards discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate the models, situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves. 2. Learning by discussion Discussion leads to learn is Burner's theory. Here discussion is not opposing each other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations, by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving. 3. Problem solving and learning Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes the responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is also needed to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems are to be presented in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner. 4. Collaborative learning This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members of the group keeping common learning objectives. The common responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally through the activity with mutual understanding. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilities to be discharged. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. Collaborative learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole group. 5. Co-operative learning This is the learning in which the learners help one another. Those who have more knowledge, experience and competency, will help others. By this exchange of resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. As there are no high ups and
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low ones according to status among the learners they can ask the fellow learners doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It should be on the basis of actual needs. So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas, among the members of the group cautious acceptance is to be observed as a convention. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members 6 Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky observes that there is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers and peers and elders. Even though some can fulfill the learning activity by themselves there is the possibility of a higher excellence. If appropriate help is forth covering every learner can better himself. 7 Scaffolding It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get support at the proper-time-The learner may require the help of the teacher in several learning activities. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity taking responsibility by himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful. 8. Learning an active mental process Learning being a cognitive process, the teacher needs to know cognitive processes to facilitate the creation of learning opportunities. Learning can be made effective by providing learning experiences involving mental processes like Retrieves/recollects/retells information Readily makes connections to new information based on past experiences and formulates initial ideas /concepts. Detects similarities and differences Classifies/categorise/organizes information approximately. Translates/transfer knowledge or understanding and applies them in a new situation. Establishes cause-effect relationships Makes connections/relates prior knowledge to new information/applies reasoning and draw inferences Communicates knowledge/understanding through different media. Imagines/fantasises/designs/predicts based on received information

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Judges /appraises/evaluates the merits or demerits of an idea/develops own solutions to a problem.

9. Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is given more importance than extrinsic motivation. The teacher has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner. A person internally motivated alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. A unified approach to multiple intelligence
Components of intelligence

1.

Verbal/Linguistic intelligence

The ability for reading, writing, verbal production speak and communicate effectively belong to this type. This type of intelligence can be developed through activities such as oral communication, report writing etc. 2. Logical/Mathematical intelligence.

Abilities like logical thinking and finding out patterns and relations belong to this component. This type of intelligence developed through establishing relationships and mathematical operations. 3. Visual/Spatial intelligence

People with prominently visual/spatial intelligence will be able to design models and execute ideas they have. Architects, designers and sculptures will be strong in this type of intelligence. Model building, making of art material, painting and drawing will help this component develop. 4. Bodily/ Kinesthetic intelligence.

This intelligence is related to the ability to move the body parts. Dancers, actors and sports people who can move the body aesthetically and express emotions through body movements belong to this category. Activities involving Dance, aerobic, sports and games help the development of this type of intelligence. 5. Musical intelligence.

It is believed that this type of intelligence is highly developed in people with the ability to distinguish the different elements in music, performing musicians and those who can appreciate music. Playing musical instruments, singing along with others, keeping rhythm etc are activities that help the development of this component. 6. Interpersonal intelligence

People who demonstrate leadership qualities and are able to interact in a positive way with others will have a better developed interpersonal intelligence. They can understand
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the thinking of others and can successfully involve in negotiation activities. Role play and group activities can be used to cultivate this intelligence. 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence

This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognize their own abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analyzing way and assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of intelligence 8. Naturalistic Intelligence

A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area. 9. Existential Intelligence

The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe, ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realize the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these re the peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence

The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used in framing the new curriculum. The fact that one's Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of learners need to concentrate on the following. i) Ability to take decisions

Rather than imposing decision on learners while planning and executing activities, the learners may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting learners suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated. ii) Ability to reach consensus iii) When different opinions, ideas and positions arise, the learners may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. Imagining what would be the course of action in some situtations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals.

Problem solving Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem. Training in finding reasons for problems. Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. Discussing social problems.
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Analyzing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.

Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem. Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems which can influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute solution need to be posed Self criticism, evaluation Ability to face problem-situation in life Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one would respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence.

iv)

Life skills

Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed : skills required for-success in life. Self awareness Empathy Inter personal relations Communication Critical thinking Creative thinking Decision making Problem solving Coping with emotion Coping with stress

The new curriculum addresses these areas. Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning activities.

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Role of a Vocational Teacher


In the earlier approach the teacher was mainly depending on the lecture method for teaching. But in the new method of education the learner centered approach in given more importance than the teacher centered approach. Under this changed scenario the vocational teacher has to perform the following roles in the classroom. The Vocational teacher should be A facilitator of learning A guide to the overall development of the learner A good observer and motivator Able to consider the activities, needs, special features and age group of learners at higher secondary level. Able to understand the limitations of learner and their learning problems. An instructional material developers A good communicator An innovator Able to raise leadership qualities and self confidence of the learner An authoritarian in the concerned subject Able to arrest and sustain the attention of the learner Able to bring out and encourage the inborn talents. A resource manger to ensure the optimum utilization of resources. A systematic record keeper A counselor to issue guidance to the learner. A person with high level of practical competency Able to correlate area of study with familiar environmental situations A self evaluator and good listener Able to create awareness in social problems A person with democratic and humanitarian approach A professionalist as well as philosopher A good evaluator A good organizer and a friend. A co-learner as well as co-researcher Able to give assistance and advice in placement needs and self employment by giving moral and technical support
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Able to keep moral values A person equipped with skill for using new techniques of learning Optimistic and impartial

Child friendly Class Room Atmosphere

Learning can be effective and enjoyable only when the class atmosphere is according to the new conception of learning and the characteristics of higher secondary learner. Class and seating are arranged in an attractive way Democratic nature is upheld Always active Learners interact with teachers without fear Opportunity for a variety of activities Learners allowed to involve interesting group activities Learning speed, learning style and differencing levels of attitudes are considered. Help is extended whenever needed. Sufficient instructional materials are available There is freedom of expression, learners share their ideas and experiences Learners are given acceptance and encouragement Healthy atmosphere Needs of each learner is given consideration. Happy and energetic atmosphere Teachers work considering the rights of learners Problems handled in a patient way Teachers work at all events from the learners view point

There will be learners of various ability levels in every class because learning style, learning speed, varying exposure to language experiences, physical and psychological problems and varying socio-cultural background. The learning experiences provided must help to bring the low activities to an expected level and extended the breadth and depth of the skills of the high activities. By repeating experiences, introducing variations in a learning experience to suit different levels and if needed, formulating additional experiences the problem of varying ability levels can be tackled.

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Role of Learner
The learner in second year has undergone a learner centered and process oriented learning experience up to first year. The learner at this age is in awakening stage and he is enthusiastic about environment. He needs recognition and encouragement from environment and also recognize as a grown up man. He is adequately competent to select vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interest and to acquire higher education and profession as he wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular age for seeming national and international job opportunities. Some of the peculiarities of learner at this stage are; Physical, intellectual and emotional changes are intensive during the age and their reflections can be observed Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena Readiness to undertake challenges Capacity to shoulder leadership roles Attempt to interpret oneself Susceptibility to different pressures Doubts, anxieties and eagerness about sex Imaging for social recognition Active participant in the learning process Act as a researcher Sharer of information Sharer of responsibilities Collect information Jakes leadership Involves in group work Act as a co-participant Observes his environment Experiments and realize Make interpretations and draw inferences Mould himself in to an active contributor for the welfare of the society

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Needs of Learner

To make acquaintance with a job or self employment through vocational education To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education To recognize and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent period To enable him to defend against the unfavorable circumstances without any help

Evaluation

In vocational higher secondary education, a new approach to education and evaluation should be made. Evaluation must be a systematic and continuous process. As the curriculum is based on vocational stream, capacity building is a most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. The technical skills, interest in the particular field, communication skill, analysis organizing and presentation skills etc have to be evaluated. The personal and social qualities also have to be evaluated. Therefore, evaluation should be transparent, continuous and comprehensive.
Monitoring system

Education is a kind of journey from darkness to light satisfying the needs and the wants of the individual and the society. The modernization of education through activity oriented system enhances free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. It is a qualitative process not a quantitative one this necessitates a proper monitoring system. The system of monitoring should have the following features. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1. 2. 3. It must be transparent It must enrich the ideas of the facilitator through innovative process It must be time bound and rational It must motive the facilitator to adopt new strategies It must be recordable and ensure effective feedback for the effective monitoring of the system, three levels of the mechanism should be setup. School level monitoring group Regional level monitoring group State level monitoring group

Moreover a social auditing system is advisable to attain the objective effectively.


Supporting System

In learner centered vocational education, a learning methodology has to be organized and a proper learning atmosphere is to be provided. Many organizations can support the
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learning activity. They are:1) School Resource Group (SRG) Comprising all teachers (vocational and non vocational) instructors, and lab assistants with academic head as the group leader. 2) School support Group (SSG) Comprising PTA president, members of local bodies, members of social clubs, subject experts etc who can contribute guidance /technology /infrastructure / financial assistance etc. 3) Parent Teacher Association (PTA) Can provide adequate funds for field trips, production cum training centers (PCTC), exhibition, On Job training (OJT) etc. 4) Local bodies Grama Panchayat, district panchayat and block panchayat can provide infrastructure ie, class rooms, laboratory, library, seminar hall, audiovisual equipment etc. 5) Subject club All vocational teachers handling same vocational subjects should form a subject club at regional level or district level. This will helps to share the knowledge and practical facilities, production and marketing of materials, service etc. 6) 7) Based on the excellency, district wise nodal schools may be selected to provide facilities like central library, museums, video conferencing etc. Institution Industry Interaction Project (III P) This should be implemented in every institution to update knowledge this also helps for OJT , PCTC and field visit.
Features of learning process in the new system of education

In the new system of education the learning process should be modified in such a way as to enable the learner to construct the knowledge of his own through observation, co-operation, problem solving, social interaction etc. The learning process should consider the nature ability, social setup, inborn talents and subject selected by the learner. Therefore the learning process should be, A continuous mental process Simple - learner must feel that he is able to undertake the task Enable the learner to attain the curriculum objective Interesting Suitable to the age and attitude of the learner

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Future possibilities Enable group activity Challenging Time bound Constructive and curiosity developing Possibilities for evaluation Capacity to generate independent thinking Ability to enquire discovers and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena.

Learning Aids

To make the teaching and learning process simple and effective, certain learning aids and necessary use of such aids are transacting a complex idea makes the class room live and learners get more and more involved. The advancement of science and technology may be effectively utilized for this purpose. Some of the learning aids listed below.
Society

Multimedia Over Head Projector Computer Internet Liquid Crystal display Projector TV, VCD, DVD and tape recorders Working models Charts Slides Video Conferencing facility Library Text book Source book

The new educational policy uplifts the social commitment of the learner. Therefore the society can also give some valuable contributions in this changing situation. The new system also ensures that the learner can perform certain useful services for the betterment of society. The social obligations can be illustrated as follows. To enrich social values, aptitude and ability in learner

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To develop entrepreneurial aptitude and ability which helps social welfare and self employment New system of education adopts OJT, PSTC etc as a part of vocational curriculum which helps to make close contact with the society. The resources available from our society can be positively utilized to convene seminars, interview etc. Social organizations can help learners to make their education socially committed. The social clubs like NSS, Tourism club, Eco club, energy club etc functioning in schools can make direct link with the society.

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SUBJECT APPROACH

Introduction
The eternal search of the mankind for better living conditions and comfort has forced a radical revolution in the field of science and technology. Starting from the invention of wheels, it has passed through many stages and steps to enter into the era of computers and information technology. Though the progress was steady and gradual at the initial stages, non in the modern times, when the world is dashing from electronics to photonics, the developments has acquired an unimaginable pace and depth. Neverthless to say, for any one who glimpses around these changes it is very clear and factual that electronics serves the foundation for most of these developments. No matter, if it is simple calculator or a highly sophisticated space craft. This undebatable relevance of electronics in the modern world has ofcourse paved the way for the creation of a large number of opportunities in the related fields. In this context, the vocational higher secondary course in MRRTV is so designed as to enable the learner to develop the necessary skills to establish himself as a prominant service technician in this field. With this concept in mind, the subject is given a clean orientation towards practical applications. Any how theoretical explanations and hypothesis are supplemented when and where required.

Curriculum Objectives
l l

To familiarise the learner with the types modulation and modulators. To develop basic idea about AM and FM Radio transmitters and the corresponding receivers. To understand the function of various audio equipments like Audio tape recorder, PA system, CD player, MP3, Dolby system, etc.. To develop the basics behind Television transmission. To create awareness about the various sections of a monochrome receiver and its trouble shooting. To create awareness about the basics of a colour TV transmission. To create awareness about the various sections of a colour TV receiver and its trouble shooting.

l l

l l

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l

To create awareness about the various video equipments such as VCR/VCP, VCD player, DVD player, Digital Camera, etc. To familiarise the learners with the working of TV Tuner Card. To familiarise the learners with the satellite communication system. To familiarise with digital receiver (DTH) and its trouble shooting. To obtain clear idea about the working of CATV and CCTV. To develop basic idea about EDUSAT. To develop basic idea about the modern television technologies such as HDTV, OLED TV, Mobile TV, Plasma TV etc.

l l l l l l

In brief the curriculum is framed to achieve the objective of equipping the learner to develop the skills for servicing different electronic equipments such as radio, television, taperecorder, music systems, VCD, DVD, DTH etc. based on the sound knowledge of the basic theories, components, devices and circuits acquired in the previous year.

Contents of the Course Syllabus


1. Radio Communication

Modulation and Demodulation: Modulation, Need for modulation types of modulationAM and FM modulating circuits. Demodulators (simple circuits only). Radio Transmitters : Basic accepts of radio transmission and propagation. AM radio transmitter, FM radio transmitter -block diagram. Radio Receivers : AM Radio receiver- introduction, super heterodyne receiver block diagram, controls, Typical faults and remedies. FM. Radio receiver -introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies.
2. Audio Equipments

Audio tape recorder (Mono and Stereo) - Introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies - Public Address system- Introduction, block diagram, trouble shooting - CD Player- Introduction, block diagram, MP3 system, Dolby system, DTS (basic treatment only.
3. Television Transmission

Introduction, aspect ratio, scanning, interlaced scanning, TV camera tube (vidicon), composite video signa, negative modulation, VSB transmission, intereference, TV transmission standards, television transmitter - Block diagram.
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4.

Monochrome Television Receiver

Introduction, block diagram-explanation, RF section, IF section, Video detector, Sync section, Horizontal and vertical section, AGC & AFC, Sound section, Power supply and EHT. User antenna and transmission lines trouble shooting of different stages.
5. Colour TV Receiver

Introduction, compatibility, colour fundamentals, colour mixing, luminance and chrominance signal, colour difference signals, colour synchronization and burst, colour composite video signal, colour TV system-NTSC, PAL, SECAM (Basic Concept only). PAL colour receiver Block diagram description. User and technician controls, PIL colour picture tube schematic diagram, convergence and purify basic idea, pincushion distortion, Automatic degaussing, trouble shooting in colour TV receivers. Remote control-Basic principle.
6. Video Equipments


7.

Video cassette player / recorder - Introduction, Basic principle, VCD player - Block diagram, Working, controls, trouble shooting. DVD player (Basic concept only) Digital camera - Introduction and basic concept TV Tuner card - Introduction

Satellite Communication

Introduction, satellite communication system, transponders, digital transmission-basic principle, dish antenna, satellite receiver DTH-block diagram, working, accessories(splitter, connector, repeater) trouble shooting (able TV & closed circuit TV-basic principle) working, application, educate Introduction, application.
8. Advances in Television Technology

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plasma Television, LCD Television, Project Television Mobile television, OLED Television, High Definition Television (HDTV) Hollo graphic Television DLP (Basic concepts only)

Learning Approach
Any modern curriculum visualises learning as a continuous and smooth process leading to a behavioural change in the learner. In that sense, the learner himself is the creator of knowledge. Real knowledge is a result of factual experiences and is cemented through activities in which the learner should be the main participant. As far as learning of
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technical subjects are concerned, this is more significant. Because only that knowledge acquired through real practical or working experience can be effectively applied to tackle a needy situation. In general the curriculum envisages to promote three basic qualifiers - multiple intelligence, constructivism and emotional quotient(E.Q) - of the learner. That is, the learning process should contribute for the overall development of various facts of multiple intelligence such as linguistic intelligence, logical intelligence, visual intelligence, kinaesthetic (bodily) intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intra-personal intelligence, musical intelligence and naturalistic intelligence of the learner. Secondly the various methods adopted for learing should be helpful to develop the constructivism within the learner. Methods, like Inquiry learning, Problem solving learning ........ etc are highly useful in this regard. Last but not the least important is the improvement of the emotional quotient of the learner. Emotional quotient (E.Q) of a person is an indicator of his ability for decision making, problem solving, investigative thinking and innovative approach which lead to the leadership qualities within him. The learning methods should enhance these qualifies and raise the E.Q of the learner. Apart from above listed personal aspects, another significant factor that should be considered while framing a curriculum is the social impact on the outcome of the learning process. The knowledge and skill acquired by the learner must be contributive for the overall development of the society and should serve as a catalyst for the social development of the region or area where he resides. To achieve the above goals, the learning process must be compatable and flexible to face the needs and necessities of that particular region. It should be always ready to lend the ears to catch the beats of the social and economical environment prevailing there. That is why the vocational higher secondary course adopted a locally specific, participatory curriculum based on a need analysis survey. To brief up, it can be emphattically said that, the successful completion of the course will help the learner to find his livelyhood from his own surrounds and will ensure a respectable identity within the society. Moreover, that will contribute, an enthusiastic, selfreliant model citizen who is always at will to care for others and D extend his services to his fellow people, to the society.

Participatory Curriculum
Role of the teacher

(i) (ii) (iii)

Facilitator- who encourage the students to identify the problems and to tackle them fruitfully. Motivator- who motivates the students to accept challenges enthusiastically. Friend- who develops a sound relationship with the students in and outside the classroom
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(iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)

Leader- who is willing to share his views and impart his ideas while caring others suggestions Resource Person- who is mastered in the subject and well-versed in the modern stratagies of learning. Scaffolder- who brings the students to the expected level of learning when they fail to achieve it by themselves. Evaluator- who evaluates the performance of the students at different stages and motivate them to try for better heights. Co-learner- who is a co-learner in the constructive learning process. Researcher- who applies his own stratagies and skill to find solution for problems faced by the learners. Life time learner- who updates his knowledge time to time, polishes it through different activities and tries to acquire more knowledge and skill always.

Role of the learner

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

Enthusiastic participant in the learning process. Present innovative ideas of their own. Active participant in group activities. A nice co-participant. Willing to share ideas and responsibilities. A good leader. A good observer and experimentalist.

Learning Atmosphere
For the effective implementation of the modern learning methods and stratagies, it is of paramount importance to setup the right atmosphere or environment for learning. The environment should satisfy the physical, psychological and social requirements to attain the desired results. A well-furnished class-room, well-equipped laboratory, a good library, a resource room, internet facilities, LCD and OHP projectors, a play ground, an auditorium...etc are some of physical requirements to create the right atmosphere. Psychological factors include the co-operation of the management, principal, teachers, students, parents and the society, a disciplined campus atmosphere and facilities for counselling and guidance. The availability of academicians, industrial experts and other resource persons, active support of the PTA, local bodies and social workers...etc are the social requirements for a good learning atmosphere.

Modern Learning Methods


According to the modern concept, the learning process will be more effective and fruitful if the following methods are adopted:
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(i) (ii)

Problem solving method Experimentation in the lab, project, assignments.....etc Discovery learning method - Project, Feild visit, Assignment

(iii) Co-operative learning method - Group discussion, Debate, Seminar (iv) Inquiry learning method - Survey, Reference work in library or internet reports...etc (v) Collaborative learning method - Group discussion or analysis.

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LEARNING STRATEGIES
In the modern era of globalization the introduction of new technologies ensure only the survival of the fittest. So it becomes a necessity to equip the leanness to face the growing challenges in the competitive world. Hence the traditional approach to learning is no more relevant in the present context. The teacher should use instructional techniques that motivate the learner to construct his own knowledge. Now the learners are not passive listeners, but they are the active participants in the construction of knowledge. Here the teacher - learner interaction should be given much importance. In the new instructional strategy while selecting the methods of teaching, the social and psychological aspects of the learner is to be taken into consideration. The given activities for learning are only suggested one. It can be altered according to the discretion of the teacher. To obtain the objectives, the new system of education is introduced in the Vocational Higher Secondary Education for attaining the objectives of the courses in this system, we can adopt the following strategies.
1. Assignment

Assignment is some specific work assigned to the learners as a part of their academic enrichment. There are learning activities undertaken as a continuation of class room activities to realize the curriculum objectives to a broader extent. They should be completed in time bound manner. They help to lead learner to higher level of learning from the present status. Challenging assignment can motivate the learners to involve in group dynamics and achieve fruitful results. The teachers may act as a guide. Assignment may be given on individually or on group basis. Assignment includes preparation of notes, preparation of charts, models, collection, of materials from institutions etc. Assignment develop skills of reference, observation, enquire reporting etc. It ensure the effective utilization of leisure time of the learners.
2. Seminar

Seminar is a learning strategy involving an in-depth analysis of specific topic, preparation of a paper and presentation. The paper is presented by either one learner or a

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group of learners. After the presentation, there will be a discussion/ interaction in which all the learners can participate. The learners get an opportunity to clear their doubts and make clarification. Seminar helps to develop communication skill and overcome stage fright.
Stages

1.

Selection of Topic The topic of seminar should be relevant to the subject of study

2.

Assignment of topic to individuals learners or team The topic may be assigned to each learner or subtopics may be given to a group of learners

3.

Collection of relevant information Information required for seminar can be collected from various sources namely books, magazines, internet, institutions, place and persons.

4.

Preparation of draft paper Based on the information collected the learner may prepare a draft paper and submit it to the teachers for comments. Revise the draft paper based on the comments of the teachers. The required draft is submitted for approval.

5.

Program Scheduling The date, time and venue of the seminar is fixed. A seminar leader may be selected from the learners

6.

Seminar paper presentation The learner/ learners shall present the paper in the seminar. The teacher may function as the moderator during the initial stages.

7.

Discussion / Interaction A number of respondents from the learners make comments on the topic. This will be followed by a general discussion. All the group members should actively participate in discussion.

8.

Summing up deliberation The moderator sums up the deliberation

9.

Evaluation / Feed back Both teachers and learners evaluate the programme.

10.

Preparation of final report A final seminar report is prepared covering all the additional points discussed and consolidated.

3.

Panel Discussion

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It is a learning strategy in which a panel of experts are allowed to discuss a specific subjects under the control and direction of a moderator. Subjects can be divided according to the number of panel members. Number of panel members are fixed according to subdivision of points in the subject. Relevant materials and hand out may be given in advance to the learners. The monitor or moderator introduces the subject of discussion and invite a panel member to start the discussion. Each panel member is invited for discussion afterwards. After briefing by the panel members the question are raised from the audience and the panel members give suitable answer to them. A report should be submitted by each learner to the moderator.
4. Project

Project is a self-learning strategy which can exert great influence on the overall development of the learner. Project as learning strategy is to be selected where a problem arises in any part of the curriculum. The learners may be divided into groups and assigned different aspects of the problem. Each group works independently .Specific aspects of the problem such as data collection, classification, analysis, report preparation and presentation is to be undertaken by each of the members. Even though the work is divided among the members, it must be ensured that the execution of each and every activity is done with the active participation of all. After analyzing data collected from different sources, the learner arrives at a conclusion, which helps to solve the problem. There by learner learns the topic though his own activity. The other advantage of this learning activities is that it helps the learner to scientifically handle any problematic situation. It helps in the development of scientific thinking and thereby builds up the learners aptitude for the subject.
Stages of the project

1.

Selection of a topic The project selected should be related to the curriculum and it should not be a project for projects sake. The topic or problem should arise from the curriculum.

2.

Planning of the Project

(A) Hypothesizing: Hypothesizing means making assumptions based on the available primary information. (B) Methods and Techniques : The methods and technique should be based on the aim and Hypothesizing of the project. The nature of the project, suitability of the tools, and the methods of learning should be related to each other.
3. Collection and Tabulation of Data

The data may be primary, Secondary or teritiary. Either census or sambling method can be used based on the objective of the project. Suitable questionnaires are to be prepared for the collection of primary data.

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The collected data is to be classified and tabulated so as to make it easily understandable.


4. Analysis of data and formulation of conclusion

By analyzing the data, the reliability of the hypotheses can be examined. Preparation of graphs and diagrams and maps will positively help the analysis. The similarities relations and differences gathered from the analyzed information would tell whether the hypotheses should be accepted or rejected.
5. Preparation of Report

The cover page should have the title of the project, the period of study, name (s) of investigator / group, and the address of the school. The report should be structured in the following order. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
6.

Title Preface Hypotheses and aim Methodology Sources of data Analysis and conclusion Suggestions (if any) References Appendices (Questionnaire, Observation schedule, check list Etc.)

Presentation of the Project

When the project is presented, the learner is being evaluated and accepted. During presentation ideas are shared with others. The project method promotes scientific self learning and makes him capable of solving the problem arising in real life situations.
5. Debate

Debate is a hot and interesting learning activity. A debate can be organized only on a topic on which there is difference of opinion. Therefore a topic suitable for debate has to be found. Debate can be on relevant topic that is different and interesting to the learners and relevant to society. Learners with different opinion have to be identified for discussion. Those who have similar opinion should join together to form a side. Those who hold the opposite view with form the other side. It would be good to write down the topic of the debate and displayed in advance. There should also a person to control debate. Learners should be given opportunity to absorb the ideas obtained from discussion and debate, develop the idea through reading and study, and to express them through
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writing or other means


Stages of Debate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
6.

Topic Selection Selection of panels keeping in balance with intelligence, gender etc. Selection of moderator Collection of information guided by the teacher Conducting the debate under the control of moderator by avoiding any sort of personal conflicts Conclusion by the moderator expressing his final version or verdict.

Case Study

A case may be a person, institution or a community case study is an in depth analysis of an actual event or situation. It presents real pictures of situation with facts, objective information or data learners analyse the case to interpret, predict and resolve issues associated with it. The case study provides the learner an opportunity to analyse and apply concepts, data and theory taught from the class. Learners can work individually or in groups. By studying realistic cases in the classroom, learners develop new insights into the solution of specific on - the - job problem and also acquire knowledge of the latest concepts and principles used in problem solving. Case may be presented by the teachers or may be provided in print form. A simple case study may have the following steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. collection of data Conversion of data into information Analysis of the case in groups Presentation of the finding by each group leader. Evaluation

In addition to the above mentioned learning strategies there are many other learning strategies which can be used in appropriate situations to enrich learning process such as Problem solving, Role play, Brain storming, etc
7. Brain Storming

This is the best method for solving creative problems. It facilitates generation of ideas quickly. Rules for conducting Brain storming. 1. 2. No response is wrong - welcome every response. Welcome as many responses as possible

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3. 4.

No criticism is allowed allow to work on others idea

Steps in Brain storming

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Presentation of the problem Provide relevant information Record the ideas put forth by the participants Combine similar ideas Evaluate each idea and solution Selection of the best solution

If brainstorming is used as an instruction strategy, the last step is not essential


8. Discussion

Discussion is essential for the learner to share new finding, ideas and conclusion at each stage of learning with follow learners and teachers. In general discussion the teachers should guide the discussion though questioning and summarizing. The major steps involved are 1. 2. 3. 4.
9.

Introduction initiated by the teacher Development of discussion by giving lead points and follow up interactions Transaction stage in which the key points are reviewed by the teacher and Summarizing stage in which teacher provides additional support materials to ensure the achievement of the objectives

Group Discussion

Group discussion is an ideal method to develop Co-operation, democratic attitude, friendliness and compromising attitude which are the ultimate aims of education. During group discussion the teacher may observe each group and it needed help them to channellise the discussion towards the common objectives. All learners may be given opportunity to take part and express their ideas within a time limit. The conclusion reached may be entered by each learners. A group representative must present this during consolidation in which the teacher may correct or add information's to ensure that all the relevant ideas have been covered
10. Collection

Collection is a continuous learning activity, which ensure complete participation of learners. The collected item may be materials, pictures, charts, ideas, data etc. Collection provides direct experience to learn. An exhibition of collected materials will help to strengthen the concept.

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11.

Practical works

Experimentation contains the process skill in an integrated way. In the new approach of curriculum the learner forms idea and comes to conclusion though process. The term 'Practical 'when associated with a science subject usually means an experiment. The objective of doing an experiment is to explore new ideas through investigation only. Its main purpose is to verify some principles associated with theory. The relevance of 'practical' in the traditional science subjects ends here. But this is not the case with 'Vocational Practical' The ultimate goal of a Vocational Education is to generate skill through continuous practice along with investigation and invention. Continuous practice transforms the unskilled to the skilled. This is the significance and importance of practical in the Vocational stream. Hence it is very crucial that Vocational teachers as well as instructor should understand the importance of vocational practical and act accordingly.
10. Quiz

Quiz programmes can be used as an interesting class room tool for transaction of curriculum objectives as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of transaction and achievement of learners. For conducting a quiz programme a topic should be selected based on the above objective The learners are asked to prepare question based on the topic individually. The next day / next hour the learners are grouped into 3-4 groups randomly. A question is raised by a particular team and the other teams to answer them if they can answer the question they get points for that if all other teams fail to answer the question raised by the 1St team the 1st team answer the question and explain the background if necessary. All the teams get equal number of chance to ask the question . Time limit is also prescribed for the conduction of the programme. The team who scores maximum points wins All the participants can make notes on the questions asked answer and their explanation which help them in learning
13. Models

Models are used in learning process. It enhanced the leaning experience. This is based on the 'seeing is believing". It helps the learner a chance to see feel the model presented . Still models and working models help the learners to understand the structure , working principles, actual operation etc.
Several steps are involved

1. 2. 3.
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Feeling the problem The teacher should plan the type of model according to curricular objectives. Grouping the learners

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4.

Briefing the tasks- Aim - Need - Material required - Source & Materials - Cost of materials - Division of Labour - Guidance - Fixing of a time limit

5.

Presentation by each group about (A) (B) How the models were prepared Details of - Expenses - working and principles

Finally Documentation of the process 6. Evaluation - By the other groups Later a consolidation by teachers is to be done.
14. Games

Class rooms can be made attractive by introducing different types of games. Games should be interesting as well as informative some of suitable games are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
15.

Odd man out Cross word puzzles Match the following Aswamedham. Link game - Answer using clues.

Survey

This strategy involves collection of data from the group under study (book, person, materials etc.) It develop the social interaction and communication ability of the learner. It also provide a scope for discovery learning. Step involved in survey - Objective of survey - Selection of area for survey/sampling frame - Selection of survey method
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- Direct method - With help of questionnaire/schedule - Tabulation and analysis - Considation and Presentation

16.

Exhibition

It is a learning strategy by which the learner can get a chance to show the skill developed. It provides the intrinsic motivation and exposure. Exhibition item can be conducted either individually or as a group task. It can be conducted at school / Regional/State/National Level. Necessary publicity and other arrangement can be provided. Presentation, documentation participation and innovative skills of the learner can be evaluated.
17. Interview

Interview is one of the important learning strategies taking the help of a resource person. Interview is an inner view which provides opinion and information about a topic. An interview is conducted by the following steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How to introduce a problem? Invite a resource person Decide the questions by learners Decide the time, place etc. How to discuss How many learners to participate Implementation of the interview Conclusion (Facilitator)

Items required

1.

Interview Schedule List of question prepared by learners Selection of learners, selected names sequence of question

18.

Field Visit

Field visit is an inevitable vocational tool to be implemented in vocational Higher Secondary Education. This helps the learners to familarise with the modern technologies and new situation in a different atmosphere. It provides learning though viewing. It is based on the principle that seeing is better than having. It enables the learning to retain the learned informations longer and to make the subject more interesting. It motivates and give
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more confidence in his/her particular vocation. The facilitation should identify suitable center/ institution/site. Get prior permission from the authorities before conducting the field visit. Give instructions to the learners for collection data's/information's/materials/Specimens. Teacher may assign different duties to learners by working them different groups. Each learner should take utmost care and interest during the visit. He/She should observe and interact at the center/ institution where the field visit is conducted After the visit, learner should acquire the ability to apply the ideas/concepts in his future carrier. Each learner should submit a detailed repot about the field visit.
20. Demonstration

Though demonstration we can present an item/product and emphasis its features very effectively Eg:- To understand the functioning of a computer 1. 2. 3. 4. Material/Item/Process Demonstration Venue Additional requirements depending upon the nature of the item

Demonstration Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
20.

Introduction about the item/Material Principles - Working Operation Components Merits of the item

Chart display

It is also one of the important teaching aid. It can be used in every activities of a learning process. Chart display is a written or pictorial representation of idea or concept. It is abbreviate brief and clear. It is prepared by study
Benefits

1. 2. 3. 4.

A learner gets clear idea about the concept The leaner can retain the ideas in his mind for longer periods A complicated idea can be simplified though a chart Cheap method of teaching aid.
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SYLLABUS
1. Radio Communication

Modulation and Demodulation: Modulation, Need for modulation types of modulation-AM and FM modulating circuits. Demodulators (simple circuits only). Radio Transmitters : Basic accepts of radio transmission and propagation. AM radio transmitter, FM radio transmitter -block diagram. Radio Receivers : AM Radio receiver- introduction, super heterodyne receiver block diagram, controls, Typical faults and remedies. FM. Radio receiver -introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies.
2. Audio Equipments

Audio tape recorder (Mono and Stereo) - Introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies - Public Address system- Introduction, block diagram, trouble shooting - CD Player- Introduction, block diagram, MP3 system, Dolby system, DTS (basic treatment only.
3. Television Transmission

Introduction, aspect ratio, scanning, interlaced scanning, TV camera tube (vidicon), composite video signa, negative modulation, VSB transmission, intereference, TV transmission standards, television transmitter - Block diagram.
4. Monochrome Television Receiver

Introduction, block diagram-explanation, RF section, IF section, Video detector, Sync section, Horizontal and vertical section, AGC & AFC, Sound section, Power supply and EHT. User antenna and transmission lines trouble shooting of different stages.
5. Colour TV Receiver

Introduction, compatibility, colour fundamentals, colour mixing, luminance and chrominance signal, colour difference signals, colour synchronization and burst, colour composite video signal, colour TV system-NTSC, PAL, SECAM (Basic Concept only). PAL colour receiver Block diagram description. User and technician controls, PIL colour picture tube schematic diagram, convergence and purify basic idea, pincushion distortion, Automatic degaussing, trouble shooting in colour TV receivers. Remote control-Basic principle.
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6.

Video Equipments


7.

Video cassette player / recorder - Introduction, Basic principle, VCD player - Block diagram, Working, controls, trouble shooting. DVD player (Basic concept only) Digital camera - Introduction and basic concept TV Tuner card - Introduction

Satellite Communication

Introduction, satellite communication system, transponders, digital transmission-basic principle, dish antenna, satellite receiver DTH-block diagram, working, accessories(splitter, connector, repeater) trouble shooting (able TV & closed circuit TV-basic principle) working, application, educate Introduction, application.
8. Advances in Television Technology

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plasma Television, LCD Television, Project Television Mobile television, OLED Television, High Definition Television (HDTV) Hollo graphic Television DLP (Basic concepts only)

LIST OF PRACTICALS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Amplitude Modulator AM Detector Radio components Lay-out Voltage data collection and tuning of radio receiver Radio receiver- Fault finding Tape recorder- Wiring diagram- PCB layout Voltage data collection of tape recorder Head adjustment (Azimuth Adjustment) Tape Transport Mechanism Fault finding in tape recorder PA system installation Identify and operate B&W TV controls Identify and assemble a television antenna - Yagi Anteena Tracing of power supply/SMPS stage of B/W TV receiver.
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15. Mounting and testing the picture tube in the cabinet. 16. Tracing and fault finding of the horizontal sub section of a B & W TV receiver 17. Trouble shooting in horizontal output stage of a B&W TV receiver. 18. Trouble shooting in vertical section of a B&W TV receiver. 19. Trouble shooting in video amplifier stage of a B&W TV receiver. 20. Trouble shooting in sound section of B&W TV receiver. 21. Trouble shooting in VIF amplifier of B&W TV receiver. 22. Mounting and testing of VHF tuner. 23. Identify different stages and main components of colour TV. 24. Identify and test neck components of a colour picture tube 25. Tracing the SMPS stage of a colour TV receiver. 26. Identify controls and sockets of a color TV and tune program channels. 27. Identify tuner terminals and replace tuners 28. Tracing of videos IF amplifier section 29. Tracing sound section of a colour TV receiver. 30. Tracing Sync separators, AFC, and horizontal oscillator 31. Tracing horizontal output section. 32. Tracing vertical sweep section of a colour TV receiver. 33. Tracing of chroma section of colour television. 34. Tracing of video output section. 35. Identify the important parts in the tape path of VCR/VCP. 36. Identify the servo components in VCR/VCP. 37. Identify sensors and limit switches of a VCR/VCP. 38. General maintenance of VCR/VCP. 39. Identify and operate the controls of a compact disc player. 40. Identify different equipments and modules used in CATV system. 41. Installation of CCTV network. 42. Installation, tracking and trouble shooting of DTH receiver. 43. Installation of software and hardware of TV tuner card in computers.

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PLANNING

In the context of changing scenario in the field of education the role of teacher as well as the role of learner has changed. The emerging needs of education evolved the role of teacher as a facilitator. The learning process has been learner centered and activity oriented . Learning activities must enable the learner to develop process domain and multiple intelligence skill to its maximum extent. No matter whether these skills are attained inside or out side the classroom, teacher must be in mind that they are to be accomplished in time. In order to achieve this, the teacher must make necessary plans. The plan must be structured as Year plan, covering the entire activities for the whole year Unit plan, which has to be prepared just before each unit. Daily plan to provide activities for a day learning.

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TERM PLAN (THEORY)


MRRTV Unit No Name of Unit Hour Total

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

STANDARD XII

Term

Month

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST SEPTEMBER

64

II

OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

48

III

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8

Radio Communication Audio Equipments Audio Equipments Television Transmission Monochrome Television Receiver Monochrome Television Receiver Colour Television Receiver Colour Television Receiver Video equipments Video equipments Satellite Communication Satellite Communication Advances in Television Technology Advances in Television Technology

Curriculum Objectives 1.1-1.12 2.1-2.3 2.4-2.7 3.1-3.9 4.1-4.10 4.11-4.16 5.1-5.4 5.1-5.4 6.1-6.6 6.7-6.10 7.1-7.4 7.5-7.7 8.1 8.2

12 4 6 10 16 8 8 16 16 8 8 8 8 16

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YEAR PLAN (PRACTICALS)


MRRTV Hour Total Exp.No 1 2 3 4 Name of Experiment

Term

Month

June

Curriculum Objectives 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.10

July

August 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

5 6. 7. 8 9 10 11 12

1.10, 1.11 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5 4.3

September

4.13 4.14 4.14 4.14


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Amplitude Modulator AM Detector Radio Components Lay out Voltage data collection and tuning of radio receiver Radio receiver - Fault finding Tape recorder - wiring diagram - PCB layout Voltage data collection of tape recorder Head adjustment (Azimuth adjustment) Tape transport mechanism Fault finding in tape recorder PA system installation Identify and operate B&W television control Identify and assemble a television antenna Yagi-Uda Tracing of power supply/SMPS stage of B/W TV receiver Mounting and testing the picture tube in the cabinet Tracing and fault finding of the horizontal subsection of a B&W TV reciever. Trobleshooting in horizontal output stage of a B& W TV receiver. Trobleshooting in vertical output stage of a B& W TV receiver. Trobleshooting in video amplifier stage of a B& W TV receiver.

YEAR PLAN (PRACTICALS)


Exp.No 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 5.9 5.13 5.13 4.6 4.11 5.13 5.13 5.13 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.6 7.6 7.3 6.10 5.9 5.13 4.3 4.14 Name of Experiment MRRTV Hour Total Curriculum Objectives 4.15

Term

Month

46 Trobleshooting in sound section of a B& W TV receiver. Trobleshooting in VIF amplifier of a B& W TV receiver. Mounting and testing of VHF tuner Identify different stages and main components of a colour television Identify and test neck components of a colour picture tube. Tracing the SMPS stage of a colour television receiver Identify controls and sockets of a colour television and tune channels Identify tunner terminals and replace tuners Tracing of v ideo IF amplifier section Tracing sound section of a colour Television receiver Tracing Sync separators, AFC and horizontal oscillator. Tracing horizontal output section Tracing vertical sweep section of a colour television receiver Tracing of chroma section of colour television Tracing of video output section Identify the important parts in the tape path of VCR / VCP Identify the servo components in VCR/VCP Identify sensors and limit switches of a VCR / VCP General maintenance of VCR/VCP Identify and operate the controls of a compact disc player Identify different equipments and modules used in CATV system Installation of CCTV network Installation of tracking and troubleshooting of DTH receiver Installation of software and hardware of TV tuner card in computers

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

II

October

November

December

III

January

February

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UNIT PLAN
Introduction
Unit plan is a specified plan of action of a unit. It will be in tune with activities assigned in the year plan. It also helps to arrange the learning and evaluation activities suitably to attain the curriculum objectives. In this source book a model unit plan is suggested. It tried to define the curriculum objectives of one unit, a few learning activities are proposed and the concept / idea / terms are also identified. In this unit plan the learning material including reference books and website are also mentioned. It is only are also a suggested model, hence the teacher can modify learning activities according to the need and demand of the classroom environment and situations.

Sample Unit Plan


Name of teacher Name of School Subject Unit Class Time : : : MRRTV : RADIO COMMUNICATION : XII :

Curriculum Objectives
To create awareness about the basic principle of modulation and demodulation through general discussion followed by the presentation of the report To develop an idea of various reasons that makes modulation necessary in radio communication through classroom transaction To create a basic idea of different types of modulation (AM and FM) through preparation of chart. To create a basic idea of the working of a simple AM modulator circuit through demonstration and practical work in the laboratory. To create a basic idea about the working of a simple AM detector (diode) circuit through demonstration and practical work in the laboratory. To develop an idea about the working of an AM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different section through field visit and preparation of chart.

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To develop an idea about the working of FM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different sections by visiting nearby FM radio station and prepare a report. To refresh the basic concept of radio reception through group discussion and present the report. To introduce basic working principle of super heterodyne AM radio receiver through seminar and practical work To discuss the various faults and their remedies of AM radio receivers through panel discussion, practical work, typical case studies and prepare notes. To develop the idea of FM radio receiver through seminar and demonstration and submit the report To discuss the various faults and remedies of FM radio receiver through panel discussion, typical case studies and prepare notes.

Syllabus
Modulation and Demodulation: Modulation, Need for modulation types of modulationAM and FM modulating circuits. Demodulators (simple circuits only). Radio Transmitters : Basic accepts of radio transmission and propagation. AM radio transmitter, FM radio transmitter -block diagram. Radio Receivers : AM Radio receiver- introduction, super heterodyne receiver block diagram, controls, Typical faults and remedies. FM. Radio receiver -introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies.

Content Specification
Modulation Need for modulation AM and FM AM transmitter Demodulation Super heterodyne radio receiver FM receiver

Learning Activities

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Discussion on modulation and demodulation Practical work on AM modulator and demodulator Chart preparation on AM and FM waves Field visit to AM and FM stations, to collect dates

MRRTV

Discussion on radio reception Seminar on FM radio receiver

Concepts / Ideas / Terms / Name


Modulation Demodulation AM Modulator AM detector AM receiver FM receiver Propagation Super heterodyne principle If signal

Learning Materials
Chart, Reference book, Journals, Lab facilities, internet data

Output
Discussion note, Seminar report, Practical work recordings, Charts field visit report.

CE Items
Seminar

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DAILY PLAN
Introduction
Daily plan is the systematic organization of the entire learning activities for each period The activities designed should be appropriate to achieve curriculum objectives. It includes curriculum objectives, content specification, CE items and a list of essential learning materials. It can be prepared in two columns. The first column contains the learning activities (process) and the second column for responses. Proper planning of lesson enhances both the learner and teacher to achieve the objectives.

Guidelines for preparing a daily plan based on learning


Curriculum objective should be stated clearly. Include content specification. Learning activities should be appropriate to time, need of the learners, learning atmosphere and also considering the age of the learner. The teacher can club the period judiciously to get continuity in learning process. Individual participation should be ensured in the group activities and group discussion. Learning activities should be challenging, interesting, live and thought provoking. The teacher must motivate the learner by giving tips and clues in every stage of learning process. Proper guidance explanations and relevant examples should be given wherever it is necessary. Evaluation questions may be asked to understand the level of comprehension of the learner. Response part of the daily plan can be completed only after the execution of the classroom activity. Further planning should be based on this response. CE items and its activities should be given in detail. Special information, principles, ideas and concepts also be written separately in a box in the process column. Term evaluation questions may be written at the end of the daily plan.

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Sample Daily Plan


Name of the Teacher Unit Topic Standard Strength Period Date : : : : : : : I hour Radio communication Modulation - need for modulation, AM, FM XII

Curriculum Objectives
To create awareness about basic principle of modulation and demodulation through general discussion followed by the presentation of the report /discussion note. To develop an idea about various reasons that make modulation necessary in radio communication through classroom transaction. To create a basic idea about different types of modulations (AM and FM) through preparation of chart.

Content Specification
Modulation Need for modulation Amplitude modulation (AM) Frequency modulation (FM)

Concept / Idea
Modulation, AM, FM

CE Items
Chart preparation

Learning Materials
Reference books, journals, internet data.

Output
Discussion note / Report

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Process Grouping the students in to five by numbering. The groups are asked to discuss about the terms modulation and demodulation with some examples by brushing up their previous knowledge. The groups are asked to prepare discussion notes and let them present it. The teacher then consolidate the points The teacher should explain the need for modulaton and the types of modulation.

Response The grouping was effective. The response of group four was not satisfactory. All other groups actively participated and concluded in the main points.

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EVALUATION

Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, synthesizing and interpreting evidences of learners' progress and achievements both in cognitive and noncognitive areas of learning. Evaluation has to play significant role in making the learning process more effective. It provides diverse experiences to the learners, keeping in view the skill to be attained continuously by them. As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation in the selected stream is the most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. Technical skills, interest and devotion in the field, communication skills, organizational and presentation skills are to be evaluated. Evaluation of the personal and social qualities also should be done. So the evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive.

Terminal or Term End Evaluation (TE)


It is the written form of evaluation aimed at evaluating the facts, concepts and ideas gained by the learner. The test should not be aimed to evaluate the memory alone. Questions are framed in such a way that the learners are able to apply different mental process while answering. The Terminal Evaluation questions give more emphasis on application, analysis and synthesis level. The maximum scores for TE is 80 and the minimum is 24 (30%). The questions should be formulated taking into consideration the time required to read, think, understands and write answers. These aspects should be considered while fixing the scores also. To avoid blind guessing, multiple choice and application level questions may be mixed. The total number of questions may vary from time to time. All the questions should be based on the curricular objectives. Open ended questions but the choice questions also should be based on the same curricular objectives.

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)


Our traditional evaluation method measures only the memory and recollection capacity of the learner. To eliminate/ overcome the limitation the evaluation should be done on multi dimensional ways by measuring multiple intellectual capacities of the learner. So it is better to evaluate the learner in a continuous and comprehensive manner. CCE helps the learner to understand and develop adequate his own progress and to develop adequate strategies for further improvement.
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Merits Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis through a variety of activities. Effective feed back is possible Remedial diagnostic teaching is possible Process as well as products are assessed.

A series of learning activities are grouped into five major thrust areas as follows 1) Investigative activities Activities which create a spirit of enquiry, investigation and a mind for research in the learner belongs to this group for example. 2) Study project Case study Field study Interactive activities Activities which improve the communication skill, activities of sharing ideas, etc. For eg: Seminar Panel discussion Debate Group discussion 3) Assigned task Activities assigned to the learners to enrich/ strengthen the concept and ideas. For eg: Assignment Collections 4) Performance task (Tests) Activities related to the achievements of the learner. For eg: Class test (oral/ written/ performance test) Quiz Open book examination Interview
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Group testing 5) Practical based activities line Preparation of working model Album Improvisation From the above five group of activities, the teacher has the freedom to choose any three areas for evaluation purpose. 1. 1.
Sl.No 1.

Investigation Activity
Stages Planning Criteria Relevance of the study Identification of problem Ability to select appropriate tools, ability to select suitable bearing method. Ability to collect sufficient and relevant data. Ability to classify and arrange data for analysis. Reliability and authenticity of the data collected. Ability to analyses the data Systematic arrangements. Ability to draw inferences based on analysis. Ability to give suggestions based on inference. Ability to present in logical and sequential order, authenticity of report, time bound completion. Knowledge of content and process. Ability to analyze data. Ability to justify inference. Ability to explain. Strategies and methods adopted. Score Total Scores

Study Project

4/3/2/1

2.

Data Collection

4/3/2/1

3.

Analysis and Inference

4/3/2/1

4.

Report presentation

4/3/2/1

5.

Viva-Voice

4/3/2/1

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Sl. No. 2.

Criteria Case Study Identifying the problem Approach to the problem Time bound Action Analysis of the problem Problem solving / Reporting Field studyAttitude and readiness towards the task Capacity for Observation Data collection Application of ideas Documentation / Recording AssignmentAwareness of the content Comprehensiveness of the content Systematic and sequential arrangement Observation/suggestion/views/judgment/evaluation Timely Submission SeminarPlanning and Organization Collection and data / content Observation / appraisal and clarity Content knowledge Presentation Debate, Panel discussion Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify the stand Presentation Group Discussion Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify in a democratic way Leadership quality Interview Planning Preparation of Questions Communication skill ParticipationReport preparation Collection Collection of materials/Documents Relevance and comprehensiveness Presentation Awareness of the content Time bound progress of work at each stage Quiz Preparation of questions Relevance of question Presentation Active participation Time management

Score

4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Practical Evaluation (PE)


The goal of vocational Education is to generate skills through continuous practices along with investigation and innovations. Continues and comprehensive practice transforms the unskilled learner to a skilled one. This is the importance and significance of vocational practicals. PE is done to evaluate the practical skills achieved by the learner in the concerned vocational subject Total Scores for PE is 150 and minimum is 60 score ie 40%. Practical Examination is conducted for a batch of 8 learners having 6 hours duration. Practical evaluation should be done taking into account the whole practicals included in the curriculum since Learning of practical skills is a continuous process through out the period of study.

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Vocational Competency Evaluation (VCE)


Vocational Competency Evaluation is to evaluates the vocational skill and aptitude developed by the learners during the learning process. This is a system to judiciously evaluate the required value addition and consequent capacity building in the concerned vocational curriculum. The vocational education is aimed at developing interest, skills and devotion in specific vocational fields. As other evaluation components like CE. PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competences and professional skills, acquired by the learners an internship evaluation (IE) components has been introduced to meet this requirement. Internship evaluation should be done based on the following components like regularity and punctuality, value addition and capacity building. 1. Regularity and punctuality Regularity and punctuality has vital role in vocational education learning continuous process, the regular presence of the Learner is must for attaining maximum efficency. 2. Value Addition Value addition is the qualitative measure of the learner's interest, devotion perseverance and efficiency. Value addition can be evaluated through conducting field visits/ vocational survey. The experiences gained through field visit / vocational survey increases the level of intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards the vocational field and thereby increase his value as a semiprofessional. 3. Capacity Building It gives a quantitative measure of the learner's skill in graded area exposure. Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following activities. 1. OJT / Simulated experiment 2. Performance - camp/exhibition/clinic 3. Performance - PCT/Service cum Training center. These components help the learner to practice the acquired skills in the real situation and thereby increasing self-confidence and promoting self reliance.

Vocational Competency Evaluation Indicators


No. 1 2 3 Items Regularity and punctuality Field visit / survey (anyone) vocational project OJT/Simulated experiment performance Camp/exhibition/clinicPerformance PSCTC (anyone)/Practical skills Total
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Scoe 10 20 20

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Regularity and punctuality can be assessed by using attendance of the learner and time bound completion of tasks. It is evaluated by using 5 point grading system.
Rating scale

Sl.No 1.

Items Regularity

1 Never regular

2 Often regular Often punctual

3 Usually regular Usually punctual

Most of the time Always regular regular

2.

Puntuality

Never punctual

Most of the time Always punctual punctual Scores 10 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 Score

Item Equality and punctuality Value addition

Evaluation indicators Field visit 1. Attitude and readiness towards the task 2. Capacity for observation 3. Data collection 4. Application of ideas 5. Documentation/recording Or Survey 1. Planning 2. Data collection 3. Consolidation of data and analysis 4. Drawing inference 5. Reporting OJT/Simulated experiment 1. Involvement/participation 2. Skills in doing work/ communication skills 3. Time bound action 4. Capacity for observation, analysis and innovation 5. Documentation, recording and display Or Performance in camp/exhibition/clinic 1. Ability for planning and organizing 2. Mastery of subject 3. Ability for communication 4. Innovation 5. Involvement/social commitment Or Performance in production/service cum training center (PSCTC) 1. Mastery of vocational skills 2. Managerial capacity 3. Promoting self confidence 4. Innovation approach 5. Promoting self reliance

20

Capacity Building

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Criteria for Promotion


l

A minimum of 80% attendance is required to register for the public examination. Those who are having at least 65% can apply for condo nation from higher authorities. Those who have shortage of attendance below 65% should re[eat the second year. The learners should obtain minimum 30% score in all subjects separately in TE. In first year if the learner failed to obtain 30% minimum score in any subject he will be promoted and will be given chance for improvement. The learners should obtain a minimum of 40% score in the vocational practical Evaluation (PE) that is 60 out 150 score. If a learner fails to attain the minimum required score for TE and secure minimum score for pass in TE, he need not reappear for practical examination and vice versa.

Consolidated forms of CE, TE, VCE and PE

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Format for Subject Wise Evaluation


CCE Grade PE
1 2 3 4 5 6 Regularity T o - Grade and tal Punctuality (10) Value Addition (20) Capacity building (20)

Sl. No. TE (80) (100) Total

Name

Vocational Competency Evaluation


Total (50) Grade

2 1 3 Total (20) (20) (20) T o - out tal Class As- Semiof Test sign- nar/ (60) 20 m e n t Project

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CE

CE

TE

CE

TE

VCE

General Foundation Course


TE PE CE TE CE TE CE TE PE Total Grade Total Grade Total Grade Total Total Grade Total Grade PE Grade Grade

CE

Total

TE

Total

Grade

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Format for School wise Score Sheet


English Vocational Subjects Physics Chemistry Mathematics

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

Sl no:

Name

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Government of Kerala
Board of Vocational Higher Secondary Examinations
Thiruvananthapuram Reg: No. Dated :

Evaluation Sheet

Sri./Smt. is awarded Scores/grade as detailed below in the First Year Vocational Higher Secondary Examination held in
Name of School : Admission No :

Name of Vocational Course :


Subject
CE 20

Score Obtained
TE 80 PE 150 IE 50 Total

Positional Grade

Grade in words

Part- I English General Foundation Course Part- II Vocational Subjects Vocational Theory Vocational Practical Vocational Competency Part- III Optional Subjects
20 60 20

Physics Chemistry 20 Mathematics 80

CE- Continuous Evaluation, TE- Term End Evaluation, PE- Practical Evaluation, IE- Internship Evaluation.
Grades A+ 90% and Above Outstanding B+ 70 - 79% Very Good C+ 50 - 59% Above Average D+ 30 - 39% Marginal E Below 20% Need improvement Marks Entered by Marks checked by Supdt/ T. O A B C D 80- 89% 60- 69% 40- 49% 20- 29% Excellent. Good Average Need improvement

SECRETARY
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CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES

RADIO COMMUNICATION

1.1 To create awareness about basic principle of modulation and demodulation through general discussion followed by the presentation of the report. 1.2 To develop an idea of various reasons that makes modulation necessary in radio communication through class room transaction. 1.3 To create a basic idea of different types of modulation (AM and FM ) through preparation of chart. 1.4 To create a basic idea of the working of a simple AM modulator circuit through demonstration and practical work on laboratory 1.5 To create a basic idea about the working of a simple AM detector (Diode detector) circuit through demonstration and practical work on laboratory. 1.6 To develop an idea about the working of an AM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different sections through field visit and preparation of chart. 1.7 To develop an idea about the working of FM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different section by visiting nearby FM radio station and prepare a report. 1.8 To refresh the basic concept of radio reception through group discussion and present the report. 1.9 To introduce basic working principle of super heterodyne AM radio receiver through seminar and practical work. 1.10 To discuss the various fault and their remedies of AM radio receivers through panel discussion, practical work, typical case studies and prepare notes. 1.11 To develop the idea of FM radio receiver through seminar and demonstration and submit the report. 1.12 To discuss the various faults and their remedies of FM radio receiver through panel discussion, typical case studies and prepare notes.
II AUDIO EQUIPMENTS

2.1 To brush up the knowledge about the working of tape recorder through discussion followed by the presentation of report. 2.2 To develop an idea about the working of record / play back head and erase head through discussion and present the report.
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2.3 2.4

To enable the students to identify different parts of tape transport mechanism, its working and its trouble shooting through observation and practical work. To introduce the basic concept of monophonic and stereophonic sound system through class room presentation of block diagram and demonstration. Trouble shooting by practical work and presentation of report. To familiarize the different controls and connections of PA system through observation. Trouble shooting by practical work and presentation of report. To introduce the working of CD player through demonstration by practical work and present the report. To intriduce the working of MP3 player, Dolby system and Dts through survey and present the report.

2.5 2.6 2.7


III

TELEVISION TRANSMISSION

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9


IV

To introduce the concept of aspect ratio, scanning and interlaced scanning through demonstration and class room transaction. To develop an idea about vidicon camera tube and its working through demonstration of chart, field visit and presentation of report. To develop an idea about composite video signal through demonstration and prepare chart and presentation of report. To enable the students to get an idea about negative and positive modulation through demonstration of diagram followed by the presentation of the report. To introduce the concept of vestigial sideband transmission through demonstration and class room transaction and presentation of report. To introduce the concept of channel band width through demonstration followed by the presentation of the report To introduce ghost interference through observation, discussion and presentation of report. To introduce the standards of TV transmission through discussion and chart presentation. To introduce the basic concept of TV transmitter, with block diagram through discussion, field visit and presentation of report.

MONOCHROME TELEVISION RECEIVER

4.1

To develop an idea about the concepts of TV reception from their previous knowledge of radio reception through brain storming and preparation of the report. To create awareness about the different blocks of monochrome television receiver through classroom transaction, audio visual aids and preparation of chart
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4.2

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4.3 To develop an idea about RF section through assignment, practical experiment and presentation of chart. 4.4 To acquire knowledge about the IF section through demonstration, classroom transaction and presentation of chart. 4.5 To create an ides about the working of video detector through demonstration in the lab and preparation of chart 4.6 To develop an idea about the sync section , Synchronous Seperator , Integrator, differentiator, vertical section, horizontal section and yoke through panel discussion and preparation of report 4.7 To create awareness about the basic concept of AGC, keyed AGC, delayed AGC and AFC through classroom transaction and preparation of chart. 4.8 To develop an idea about intercarrier sound system and separation of sound through classroom transaction and preparation of report. 4.9 To brush up the idea about the sound section through panel discussion, practical experiment and preparation of report. 4.10 To get a clear idea about the low voltage power supply through assignment, circuit tracing and voltage measurement. 4.11 To acquire knowledge about the working of EHT (LOT) through demonstration of different circuits and preparation of chart. 4.12 To familiarize the user controls and technician controls of monochrome TV receiver through practical experiments. 4.13 To acquire knowledge about monochrome picture tube through observation , demonstration, preparation of chart and voltage measurements. 4.14 To familiarize the students with common faults of various section of the B&W TV receiver through different practical experiments. 4.15 To get a clear idea about the concept of receiving antennas and the working of yagi-uda antenna through observation, classroom transaction and practical work. 4.16 To give an idea of twine wire lead and co-axial cable transmission lines through observation, general discussion and preparation of notes.
V COLOUR TV RECEIVER

5.1 To get a clear idea about the concept of compatibity and colour fundamentals through brain storming. 5.2 To develop an idea about colour mixing theory through chart demonstration. 5.3 To acquire knowledge about the terms luminance, hue, saturation and chrominance signal through classroom transaction. 5.4 To obtain the basic idea about the extraction of colour difference signals through demonstration of block diagram.
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5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

To obtain a clear idea about the colour burst signal and composite colour video signal through demonstration of chart. To introduce the three different colour TV systems-NTSC, PAL and SECAM through classroom transaction. To introduce an idea about the PAL receiver through demonstation of block diagram. To obtain knowledge about the working of PAL receiver through panel discussion. To familiarize the students with the user and technician colour controls of PAL receiver through practical experiments.

5.10 To get a clear idea about the PIL picture tube through demonstration of chart. 5.11 To obtain a basic idea about convergence purity and pincushion correction through class room transaction. 5.12 To get an idea about degaussing and the function of automatic degaussing coil through classroom transaction 5.13 To familiarize the students with common faults of various sections of the colour TV receiver and their trouble shooting procedure through different case studies. 5.14 To understand the basic principles of remote control used in television through assignment.
VI VIDEO EQUIPMENTS

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9

To acquire knowledge about the basic principle of video cassette player VCP / VCR through classroom transaction, demonstration and preparation of report. To develop the idea of different blocks of VCD player through classroom transaction and preparation of chart To familiarize the different controls of VCD player through practical experiments and demonstrations To familiarize the common faults in VCD player and the methods of their trouble shooting through case studies To acquire knowledge about DVD player through group discussion and preparation of chart To familiarize the working of DVD player through general discussion and practical experiments. To familiarize the working of different controls through practical experiments. To familiarize the common faults in DVD player and the methods of their trouble shooting through case studies. To familiarize the basic concept of digitals camera (still & movie) through observation, survey and preparation of report. To familiarize the basic concept of TV tunner card through class room transaction and practical work.
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6.10 To familiarise the basic concept of TV tuner card, throguh class room transaction and practical work.
VII SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

7.1 To introduce the basic idea of satellite communication system , through general discussion. 7.2 To familiarize the students with the transponders, digital transmission (basic concept) Dish Antenna, through field visit and preparation of report. 7.3 To develop an idea about the satellite TV receiver (DTH) through demonstration of block diagram, practical experiments and field visit 7.4 To familiarize the digital receiver accessories like splitter, connector, repeater etc. through collection and chart preparation. 7.5 To familiarize the students with common faults and trouble shooting connected with digital receiver and accessories through typical case studies. 7.6 To obtain a clear idea about basic concept, working and application of CATV and CCTV through survey and preparation of project report 7.7 To get a basic idea about EDUSAT through field visit and preparation of report
VIII ADVANCES IN TELEVISION TECHNOLOGY

8.1 To develop basic idea about the modern television technologies, projection Television, HDTV, OLED TV, Hollographic TV, Mobile TV, Plasma TV etc. through survey, field visit and preparation of report 8.2 To develop basic idea about the modern display technologies - LCD,TFT&DLP

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Part II Unit Wise Analysis

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1
RADIO COMMUNICATION
1.1 Introduction
Since the fundamentals and basic techniques do not change with time, before going into the depth of the subject, students have to get familiar with the fundamentals. Radio transmission is an important milestone in the field of communication. This chapter is aimed to give the basic idea about this fact. The objective of this chapter is to make the students aware about modulation (AM and FM), demodulation, different types, block diagram of AM and FM transmitter and block diagram of radio receiver (AM and FM) One of the prominent job oriented fields is the servicing and repairing of various electronic devices. So to enable the students acquainted with the initial steps of servicing and repairing, some typical faults and remedies of AM and FM radio receivers are also discussed here.

1.2 Syllabus
Modulation and Demodulation: Modulation, Need for modulation types of modulationAM and FM modulating circuits. Demodulators (simple circuits only). Radio Transmitters : Basic accepts of radio transmission and propagation. AM radio transmitter, FM radio transmitter -block diagram. Radio Receivers : AM Radio receiver- introduction, super heterodyne receiver - block diagram, controls, Typical faults and remedies. FM. Radio receiver -introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies.

1.3 Curriculum Objectives


1.3.1 To create awareness about basic principle of modulation and demodulation through general discussion followed by the presentation of the report. 1.3.2 To develop an idea about various reasons that make modulation necessary in radio communication through classroom transaction 1.3.3 To create a basic idea about different types of modulation (AM and FM) through preparation of chart 1.3.4 To create a basic idea about the working of a simple AM modulator circuit through demonstration and practical work in the laboratory 1.3.5 To create a basic idea about the working of a simple AM Detector circuit (Diode Detector) through demonstration and practical work in the laboratory
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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

1.3.6 To develop an idea about the working of an AM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different sections through field visit and preparation of chart 1.3.7 To develop an idea about the working of FM radio transmitter and familiarize with its different sections by visiting near by FM radio station and prepare a report 1.3.8 To refresh the basic concept of radio reception through group discussion and present the report 1.3.9 To introduce basic working principle of super heterodyne AM radio receiver through seminar and practical work 1.3.10 To discuss the various faults and their remedies of AM radio receivers through panel discussion, practical work, typical case studies and prepare notes 1.3.11 To develop the idea of FM radio receiver through seminar and demonstration and submit the report 1.3.12To discuss the various faults and their remedies of FM radio receiver through panel discussion, typical case studies and prepare notes.

1.4 Points to be highlighted


Modulation Amplitude modulation Frequency modulation AM modulator AM detector AM and FM Transmitter AM radio receiver FM radio receiver

1.5 Learning Activities


1.5.1 The teacher can conduct a general discussion on the basic principles of modulation and demodulation by brushing up their previous knowledge. The students are advised to present the reports individually.
Discussion Points

1 2 3

Modulation Types Need for modulation

1.5.2 The teacher can demonstrate the working of an AM modulator and AM demodulator through chart and explain its working through practical work in the laboratory 1.5.3 The students are asked the prepare colourful charts describing the basics of AM and FM waves. Comparison by observation of the charts and by listening respective stations are also directed.
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1.5.4 Conducting a field visit to the nearby AM and FM station. The students are directed to identify the different section of AM an FM radio transmitters. They can also collect the data's like modulator, oscillator and transmitting antennas. They are also asked to display the block diagrams of AM and FM transmitter. 1.5.5 The teacher can conduct a general discussion on the basic concept of radio reception and super heterodyne AM radio receiver by brushing up their previous knowledge. The students are directed to present the reports individually.
Discussion points

1. 2.

Super heterodyne principle Working of AM radio receiver

Display the block diagram of super heterodyne radio receiver Construction of AM radio receiver and its fault analysis and trouble shooting by signal injection and voltage measurement techniques in the practical class 1.5.6 Conducting a seminar on FM radio receiver. The students are directed to present the report. Study of fault analysis and trouble shooting of FM receiver is recommended

1.6 Practical laboratory work


Activity 1.5.2 Activity 1.5.5

1.7 Items for continuous Evaluation


Seminar on FM receiver

1.8 Items for T.E


1 2 You are given with an AM radio receiver. Can you identify the different sections of the receiver? Explain the different section with a neat block diagram From a radio you are able to hear a noise free programme. Can you identify the receiver. Explain its working with suitable block diagram.

1.9 Out put / Out come


Discussion note, seminar report, practical work recordings, chart, field visit report

1.10 Reference
1 2 3 4 5. 6
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Principles of Electronics-V.K.Mehta Electronic Communication systems-Kennedy Basic Radio and Television -S.D.Sharma Electronic Communication-Sanjeeva Gupta www.radioelectronics.com www.radiodesign.com

UNIT ANALYSIS - 1 Concept/ Area CRO Learning materials Chart Evaluation

RADIO COMMUNICATION
Output/ Outcome Ability to understand Discussion facts and presentation report report Chart

Curriculum Objectives

Chart

Ability to understand facts and report submission.

Chart

Chart CRO CRO circuit components of AM diode modulator, Chart CRO circuit components of AM Detector Chart

Knowledge about AM and FM chart preparation.

Chart

Practical work record

Knowledge about AM modulator and the skill of assembling an AM modulator Knowledge about AM detector and the skill of assembling an AM modulator Ability to understand about different sections of an AM radio transmitta.

Practical work record

Concept/ Process Activities ideas skills 1.To create awareness about basic Modulation Basic idea of Ability to understand General modulation the concept of discussion, principle of modulation and and modulation and Preparation of demodulation demodulation through general demodulation. chart discussion followed by the presentation of the report. Ability to understand Chart preparation 2 To develop an idea about various Modulation Need for modulation the need for reasons that makes modulation modulation. necessary in radio communication through class room transaction. 3 To create a basic idea about different Modulation Classification Ability to understand Chart preparation of AM and the AM and FM types of modulation (AM and FM ) FM Modulators through preparation of chart. 4 To create a basic idea about the Modulation AM modulator Ability to understand the Demonstration of working of AM circuit diagram, working of a simple AM modulator modulator and to get assembling and circuit through demonstration and of a simple practical knowledge of testing detector as practical work on laboratory diode AM modulator circuit. practical work. 5 To create a basic idea about the workingDe AM modulator Ability to understand the Demonstration of working of AMdetector cirucuit diagram. of a simple AM detector (Diode Modulation and through circuit assembling. Assembling AM detector) circuit through demonstration testing of detector and practical work on laboratory. 6 To develop an idea about the Radio Knowledge about AM Chart preparation, AM radio field visit, report working of an AM radio transmitter Transmitter transmitter radio transmitter presentation and familiarize with its different sections through field visit and preparation of chart.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Chart, Field visit report

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Curriculum Objectives

Concept/ Area

Concept/ Process Activities Learning ideas skills materials Chart preparation, Chart Knowledge about FM FM radio field visit, report radio transmitter transmitter presentation

Output/ Outcome Ability to understand Chart, Report about different sections of an FM radio transmitta. Knowledge about concept of Radio Reception. Chart, Report

Evaluation

Reception principle Group discussion, Report presentation Seminar, Report Submission Chart Super hetero To develop an idea dyne AM about AM radio Radio receiver receiver AM radio receiver To initiate the skill of fault finding and servicing of AM radio receiver. Panel discussion, Report presentation, Practical work

To develop an idea about radio reception.

Chart

Know how about AM Chart radio receiver practical Seminar report skill of assembling the above. Chart, CRO, multimeter, AM radio kit. Practical knowledge about repairing an AM radio kit. Chart, Discussion report, Practical work record Chart, OHP Know how about the FM radio receiver. Chart, Seminar report

7.To develop an idea about the Radio working of FM radio transmitter and transmitter familiarize with its different section by visiting nearby FM radio station and prepare a report. 8 To refresh the basic concept of Radio radio reception through group reception discussion and present the report. 9 To introduce basic working Radio principle of super heterodyne AM reception radio receiver through seminar and practical work. 10 To discuss the various fault and their Radio remedies of AM radio receivers reception through panel discussion, practical work, typical case studies and prepare notes. 11 To develop the idea of FM radio Radio receiver through seminar and reception demonstration and submit the report. FM radio receiver To develop an idea Seminar, about FM radio demonstration receiver. FM radio receiver To get familiar and Panel discussion, Chart develop the ideas about Report Submission. servicing of FM radio receiver.

12 To discuss the various faults and Radio their remedies of FM radio receiver reception through panel discussion, typical case studies and prepare notes.

Knowledge about Discussion servicing of FM radio report, Chart, receiver. Report

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

2
AUDIO EQUIPMENTS
1.1 Introduction
External to the ear, sound is a longitudinal wave motion consisting of a train of compressions and rare factions travelling in a medium. When sound waves strike the eardrum, these are converted into electrical signals. The auditory nerves carry these signals to the brain which interprets them into what we call sound This Chapter deals with equipments connected with sound like audio tape-recorder (Mono and Stereo) A Detailed version is given in this chapter with block diagrams and typical faults with remedies Since the intensity of sound decreases with distance, the need of amplifying the signal arises so that people at a distance from the stage may receive good intensity of sound when a large gathering is to be addressed. A system which fulfils this function is called public Address system or P.A system. This chapter also aims to give clear idea to students about P.A system with its block diagram and trouble shooting procedure. An outlook is also given to the basic ideas of MP3 system, Dolby system and DTS. This chapter also gives a detailed overview of the working and trouble shooting of A.C.D player

2.2 Syllabus
Audio tape recorder (Mono and Stereo) - Introduction, block diagram, controls, typical faults and remedies - Public Address System- Introduction, block diagram, trouble shooting CD Player- Introduction, block diagram, MP3 system, Dolby system, DTS (basic treatment only.

2.3 Curriculum objectives:


2.3.1 To brush up the knowledge about the working of tape recorder through discussions followed by the presentation of report 2.3.2 To develop an idea about the working of record / play back head and erase head through discussion and present the report 2.3.3 To enable the students to identify different parts of tape transport mechanism, its working and its trouble shooting through observation and practical work.

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2.3.4 To introduce the basic concept of monophonic and stereophonic sound system through classroom presentation of block diagram and demonstration. Trouble shooting by practical work and presentation of report 2.3.5 To familiarize the different controls and connections of PA system through observation and trouble shooting by practical work and presentation of report 2.3.6 To introduce the working of CD player through demonstration by practical work and present the report 2.3.7 To introduce the working of MP3 player, Dolby system and DTS through survey and present the report

2.4 Points to be Highlighted:


Tape recorder Monophony and stereophony Public Address system CD Player Dolby system DTS

2.5 Learning Activities:


2.5.1 The teacher can conduct a general discussion regarding the working of tape recorder by brushing up the previous knowledge of the students. The students are then asked to present a detailed report about the working 2.5.2 Demonstration of internal structure of a tape recorder and explanation about the working of different parts including the tape transport mechanism can be done in the laboratory. The teacher can also explain different faults and their trouble shooting procedures in the practical class 2.5.3 The teacher can conduct a discussion on monophonic and stereophonic sound system and introduce the basic concept through classroom transaction. They can be practically observed and compared . The block diagrams can be developed by discussion. One of the students may present a report. 2.5.4 Demonstrating a public system and familiarizing the different controls and connections through practical work. The students are asked to present as report. The trouble shooting can be done with the practical work 2.5.5 A CD player is demonstrated in the classroom and the students are asked to prepare a report on the working with block diagram. The trouble shooting in a CD player can be done with the practical work.

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

2.5.6 The students are asked to conduct a survey on MP3 player, Dolby system and Dts. The students can present the reports on the classroom and the teacher can consolidate the working

2.6 Practical Laboratory work


Activity 2.5.2 Activity 2.5.4 Activity 2.5.5

2.7 C.E Items


Survey on MP3 player, Dolby system and Dts.

2.8 T.E Items


1 2 What will be the difference in effect when we hear a programme in monophony and stereophony? Why? You are directed to install a PA system in year school for a function. Draw the connection diagram you are going to instal.

2.9 Output / Outcome / Product:


Discussion notes, Survey report, Practical work recordings, charts.

2.10 Reference
1 2. 3. Audio and video Engineering- R.G.Gupta www.howstuffworks.com www.cd-info.com

ADDENDUM
Dts - Digital Theatre System - Multichannel Surround Sound used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications.

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 2 Concept/ Area Discussion Ability to explain Reference books working of tape recorder. Tape recorder Reference books Tape recorder Reference books Charts Activities Learning materials Tape recorder Evaluation

AUDIO EQUIPMENTS
Output/ Outcome Discussion report

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

Curriculum Objectives

Discussion Demonstration Observation Practical work

Presentation of report Discussion report Practical record Practical work record

Demonstration Practical record practical on trouble Referencebooks shooting

Practical record Chart

Practical work record

Observation Practical

PA system Block diagram Practical record Practical work Practical Record Internet data Reference book Survey report Intenet data Journals

Practical record

Practical work record

Concept/ Process ideas skills 1.To brush up the knowledge about Audio tape Brushig the Ability to participate in the working of tape recorder recorderknowledge discussions and to note through discussion followed by the about tape points. Introduction. presentation of report. recorder 2 To develop an idea about the Audio tape Concept of Ability to understand working of record / play back head recorder different types the function of different and erase head through discussion types of heads of reads and present the report. 3 To enable the students to identify Audio tape Concept of tape Ability to do practical transport - work and ability to different parts of tape transport recorder mechanism mechanism, its working and its and trouble handle different troubles trouble shooting through observation shooting and practical work. 4 To introduce the basic concept of Monophony Concept of Ability to distinguish monophonic and stereophonic sound and Monophonic monophonic and stereo system through class room presentation phonic sound and to of block diagram and demonstration. Stereophony and stereo phonic sound understand the features Trouble shooting by practical work and of stereo phonic sound. presentation of report. 5 To familiarize the different controls Public Connection Ability to install a PA and connections of PA system Address and working system and to control it. through observation and trouble of PA system shooting by practical work and system presentation of report. 6 To introduce the working of CD CP Player Basic working Understand working of player through demonstration by principle of CD player practical work and present the CD player report. Introduction Ability to understand the Survey about MP3, working briefly. Dolby and DTS Ability to understand facts.

Ability to do practical Practical work work record. Survey report

7 To intriduce the working of MP3 MP3 Player player, Dolby system and Dts Dolby system through survey and present the report. DTS

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

3
TELEVISION TRANSMISSION
3.1 Introduction
Television stands for "seeing at a distance" It became possible when variations in brightness and colour could be converted into electrical variations at the transmitter and the electrical signals reconverted into brightness and colour at the receiver This chapter introduces the basic principles used for converting the variations in light intensity into electrical signal and how it can be transmitted to long distances with the help of a radio frequency carrier. At the receiver end, the video signals can be recovered from the modulated wave by adopting the techniques of super heterodyne detection and amplification. TV transmission and reception is not as easy as audio transmission and reception. The chapter begins with a description of what TV must produce and the standards that must be defined inorder to produce this. A brief idea is then given as to how the picture signal and the sound information is transmitted on the same channel. Vidicon camera tube is also mentioned here. The unit also deals with the elements of monochrome transmission, scanning, synchronization and transmitting antennas.

3.2 Syllabus
Introduction, aspect ratio, scanning, interlaced scanning, TV camera tube (vidicon), composite video signa, negative modulation, VSB transmission, intereference, TV transmission standards, television transmitter - Block diagram.

3.3 Curriculum Objectives:


3.3.1 To introduce the concept of aspect ratio, scanning and interlaced scanning through demonstration and classroom transaction 3.3.2 To develop an idea about vidicon camera tube and its working through demonstration of chart, field visit and presentation of report 3.3.3 To develop an idea about composite video signal through demonstration, prepare chart and presentation of report 3.3.4 To enable the students to get an idea about negative and positive modulation through demonstration of diagram followed by the presentation of the report 3.3.5 To introduce the concept of Vestigial Side Band transmission through demonstration and classroom transaction and preparation of report
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3.3.6 To introduce the concept of channel band width through demonstration followed by the presentation of the report 3.3.7 To introduce Ghost interference through observation, discussion and presentation of report 3.3.8 To introduce the standards of TV transmission through discussion and chart presentation 3.3.9 To introduce the basic concept of TV transmitter with block diagram through discussion, field visit and presentation of report

3.4 Points to be Highlighted:


Interlaced Scanning Composite video signal Vidicon camera tube Negative Modulation VSB transmission and channel band width TV transmission standards TV transmitter (Block diagram)

3.5 Learning Activities:


3.5.1 The teacher can introduce the concept of aspect ratio, scanning and interlaced scanning through chart preparation and the students are directed to read the chart and through that activity the idea of scanning and interlaced scanning can be better conveyed 3.5.2 The teacher can demonstrate the idea about vidicon camera tube and enable the students to recollect all their doubts about camera and ask them to prepare a questionnaire and clear all those doubts through a field visit. Students are also directed the present the report The teacher can explain the concept of synchronization through classroom transaction with example 3.5.3 The teacher can demonstrate the composite video signal on CRO and explain. Students are directed to present a report 3.5.4 The teacher can demonstrate the idea about negative and positive modulation, vestigial side band transmission and channel band width through chart preparation and classroom transaction. Students are directed to find the picture carrier and sound carrier of different channels. They are asked to prepare individual report 3.5.5 The teacher can convey the idea of ghost inference through discussions and the inference can be observed in the Television receiver by adjusting the receiving antenna and students can observe it in the lab and they are also directed to present a report

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

3.5.6 The teacher can demonstrate about the standards of TV transmission through a chart presentation 3.5.7 The teacher can conduct a general discussion about the basic concept of TV transmission, propagation of wave, antennas and transmission lines and help the students to prepare a questionnaire covering all the above aspects and the answers can be collected through a field visit. Students are also directed to present an individual report

3.6 C.E Items


Study of vidicon camera tube through a field visit to a near by TV transmission station.

3.7 TE Items
1 2 Name the instrument which can be used to convert picture signal to electrical signal. Explain with a diagram, such type of an instrument which is commonly used With a block diagram explain the working of a TV transmitter

3.8 Output / Outcome / Product


Report presentation, Report of the field visit conducted, chart presentation

3.9 Reference
1 2 3 Monochrome and color Television - R.R.Gulati Basic Radio and Television - S.D.Sharma Audio and video Engineering - R.G.Guptha

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 3 Concept/ Area Can explain the concept of scanning Can present a report Concept/ Process Activities ideas skills Concept of Ability to participate in Demonstration how scanning discussions and to note is carried out. points. Chart Learning materials CRO Evaluation

TELEVISION TRANSMISSION
Output/ Outcome Report

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

Curriculum Objectives

1.To introduce the concept of aspect aspect ratio ratio, scanning and interlaced scanning scanning through demonstration Interlaced and class room transaction. scanning 2 To develop an idea about vidicon TV camera camera tube and their working tube through demonstration of chart, field visit and presentation of report. Reference books Charts

Report

Preparation of chart

Chart

Diagrams Reference books Audio visual aids OHP Reference books, Journals

Ability to compare Discussion negative modulation Report with positive modulation. Ability to understand Report advantage of USB trnasmission. Reference books Ability to understand Report concept of channel and and charts. channel - band width in TV Reference books Ability to understand about -Ghost image Report in TV Report

Idea about how Can explain this Demonstration a camera tube working of camera tube converts optical Field visit information into electrical signal Concept of Ability to understand the Demonstration 3 To develop an idea about composite Composite video signal through demonstration video signal tape transport term and preparation of Preparation of and prepare chart and presentation - mechanism chart. and trouble chart of report. shooting 4 To enable the students to get an idea Positive and Concept of Ability to understand the Demonstration about negative and positive negative Monophonic advantages of negative Discussion modulation through demonstration of modulation and stereo modulation. diagram followed by the phonic sound presentation of the report. 5 To introduce the concept of vestigial Transmission The concept Ability to understand Demonstration, sideband transmission through t e c h n i q u e of VSB VSB transmission and D i s c u s s i o n , Preparation of demonstration and class room transmission its advantages. report transaction and presentation of report. (VSB) 6 Tointroduce the concept of channel VSB Total channel Understand concept of Demonstration, band width through demonstration transmission bandwidth in channel bandwidth. Preparation of followed by the presentation of the report TV transmision report 7 To introduce ghost interference Interferecne Concept of Ability to understand Observation through observation, discussion and Ghost image Ghost interference and Discussion presentation of report. in television how it can be removed.

Curriculum Objectives Knowledge about different TV standards Presentation of field report and collection of data.

Concept/ Area

Learning materials Discussion note Reference book Chart Field report Internet data Reference books

Evaluation

Output/ Outcome Chart Discussion report Report

Concept/ Process Activities ideas skills Concept of Understand different Discussion 8.To introduce the standards of TV TV transmission through discussion and transmission different TV standards Chart preparation standards standards chart presentation. 9 To introduce the basic concept of Television - Concept of TV Ability to understand Demonstration TV transmitter, with block diagram Transmitter transmission working of different Field visit and different sections of a transmitter. through discussion, field visit and blocks of transmitter presentation of report.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

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4
MONOCHROME TV RECEIVER
4.1 Introduction
A black and white receiver has six main sections - Tuner, IF, Video, Audio, deflection and power supply. The tuner selects the desired channel signal from those picked up by the antenna and converts it into the Intermediate frequencies. The IF section provides large amplification to the weak IF signal and the video detector produce composite video and inter carrier FM sound signals. The video signal is amplified and fed to the picture tube. Similarly the inter carrier sound IF signal is amplified, limited and detected to obtain audio signal. The weak audio signal is given sufficient amplification to obtain the desired audio signal. This chapter is designed to describe functions of various sections of a monochrome receiver without going into circuit details.

4.2 Syllabus
Introduction, block diagram-explanation, RF section, IF section, Video detector, Sync section, Horizontal and vertical section, AGC & AFC, Sound section, Power supply and EHT. User antenna and transmission lines trouble shooting of different stages.

4.3 Curriculum Objectives


4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 To develop an idea about the concepts of TV reception from their previous knowledge of radio reception through brain storming and preparation of the report. To create awareness about the different blocks of monochrome television receiver through classroom transaction , audio visual aids and preparation of chart To develop an idea about RF section through assignment , practical experiment and presentation of chart To acquire knowledge about the IF section through demonstration, classroom transaction and preparation of chart To create an idea about the working of video detector through demonstration in the lab and preparation of chart To develop an idea about the sync section, synchronous separator, Integrator differentiator, vertical section, horizontal section and yoke through panel discussion and preparation of report

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

4.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.9

To create awareness about the basic concept of AGC, keyed AGC and delayed AGC and AFC through class room transaction and preparation of chart. To develop an idea about inter carrier sound system and separation of sound through class room transaction and preparation of report. To brush up the idea about the sound section through panel discussion, practical experiment and preparation of report.

4.3.10 To get a clear idea about the low voltage power supply through assignment, circuit tracing and voltage measurement. 4.3.11 To acquire knowledge about the working of EHT (LOT) through demonstration of different circuits and preparation of chart. 4.3.12 To familiarize the user controls and technician controls of monochrome TV receiver through practical experiments. 4.3.13 To acquire knowledge about monochrome picture tube through observation, demonstration, preparation of chart and voltage measurement. 4.3.14 To familiarize the students with common faults of various section of the black and white TV receiver and their trouble shooting procedure through different practical experiments or through field visit. 4.3.15 To get a clear idea about the concept of receiving antennas and the working of Yagiuda antenna through observation, classroom transaction and practical work in the lab. 4.3.16 To give an idea of twin wire lead and co-axial cable transmission lines through observation, general discussion and preparation of notes.

4.4 Points to be Highlighted:


Block diagram of monochrome TV Receiver AGC, AFC, EHT Yagi-uda antenna Monochrome Picture tube Typical faults and remedies

4.5 Learning Activities


4.5.1 The teacher can conduct a brain storming section to introduce the basic concepts of radio reception and can there by brush up their previous knowledge. From that the principles of TV reception can be introduced. The students can present a report on TV reception 4.5.2 The teacher can introduce the basic block diagram of monochrome TV receiver by using overhead projector. The students must be asked to prepare colorful charts individually 4.5.3 The students are asked top prepare an assignment on VHF and UHF tuners. The teacher can demonstrate the tuner sections of receiver and can differentiate between them.
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4.5.4 The teacher can demonstrate the diagram and circuit board of IF amplifier, wave traps and video detector sections to the students and should explain briefly their working. 4.5.5 The teacher can conduct a panel discussion on raster section (Sync Separator, integrator, differentiator, vertical section, horizontal section and yoke) The reports can be presented and the teacher can consolidate the ideas 4.5.6 The teacher can demonstrate the block diagrams of AGC, keyed AGC and delayed AGC and explain their working. Separate charts can be prepared by the students 4.5.7 The teacher can introduce the inter carrier sound system and separation of sound to the students through classroom transaction and prepare the notes individually. A panel discussion is conducted on sound section and present the report. A practical experiment is conducted on sound section 4.5.8 The students are asked to prepare an assignment on the low voltage power supply (SMPS) A practical work is conducted to trace the circuit board and the voltages are measured 4.5.9 Conduct a practical session to familiarize the user controls and technician controls of monochrome TV receiver 4.5.10 The teacher can demonstrate a monochrome picture tube and the students are directed to observe the various aspects of the picture tube. The teacher can explain the working and voltages at different pins are also measured. Students are asked to prepare individual report. 4.5.11 The teacher can conduct a practical experiment on fault finding and trouble shooting of monochrome TV receiver in laboratory and can conduct a field visit to a near by TV service station 4.5.12 The teacher can demonstrate Yagi antenna and different cables to the students and can make the connections practically. 4.5.13 The teacher can demonstrate the circuit board of EHT and explain its working. The students are asked to prepare the reports.

4.6 Practical Laboratory work:


Activity-4.5.8 Activity-4.5.9 Activity-4.5.11 Activity-4.5.12 Activity-4.5.13

4.7 CE Items
Chart preparation, Assignment on VHF & UHF tuner, Assignment on SMPS
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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

4.8 TE Items
1 Your friend Anu is trying to identify the different parts of a monochrome TV receiver. He identified the following parts (1) Picture tube, (2) Loud speaker, (3) Antenna, (4) LOT (5) Video amplifier (6) b Sync separator (7) RF tuner. Can you help him to identify the rest of the parts and also show them in the proper order by drawing the block diagram? 2 Where and how the sound signals are separated in a TV receiver?

4.9 Output / Outcome / Product


Discussion notes, charts, assignment, practical work report.

4.10 Reference
1. 2. 3. 4. Audio and Video Engineering -R.G.Gupta Monochrome and color Television - R.R.Gulati Modern Television Practice - R.R.Gulati www.howstuffworks.com

ADDENDUM
Digital Camera No film or processing is required. Filmless digital cameras are a technological advancement in the professional photography world. Electronic sensors inside the camera transmit the different levels of liht, which enter through the red, green, and blue fitters on to a CCD (photo sensitive semiconductor) The CCD digitally records the image and stores it into a PCM-CIA card - a tiny hard disc drive.

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 4 Concept/ Area


To brush up and Brain storming develop the idea about TV reception. Preparation of

MONOCHROME TELEVISION RECEIVER


Concept/ ideas Process skills Activities Learning materials Charts Output/ Outcome Knowledge about the Chart idea of TV reception. Evaluation

Curriculum Objectives

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

1.To develop an idea about TV the concepts of TV recepton reception.

2 To create awareness about TV the different blocks of reception monochrome television receiver. Monochrome TV receiver (RF section)

Ideas Principle of TV reception Monochrome TV receiver

report

Slides, Charts Knowledge about Chart monochrome television receiver

3 To develop an idea about RF TV section reception

4 To acquire knowledge about TV the JF section. reception

To develop the Cross section awareness about transaction, different sections OHP, Preparaof monochrome tion of chart television receiver. To develop the Assignment, chart knowledge abuot RF section working. Practical tracing of the circuit. To develop aware- Class room ness about JF sec- transaction, chart tion working. preparation Chart, video detector assembled circuit, CRO, Multimeter Chart

Chart, Circuit Knowledge about Assignment, diagrams, CRO, the working of RF Chart M u l t i m e t e r , section. Practical M o n o c h r o m e skill the service the RF section TV trainer Knowledge about Chart Chart the working of IF section.

5To create an idea about the TV working of video detector. reception

6 To develop an idea about the TV Synch section. reception

IF section of m o n o chrome TV receiver. Video To develop idea Preparation of detector of about the working chart, Demonmonochrome stration in the TV receiver of video detector. lab Synch. sepa- To create idea Panel discusrator, Integra- about different sion, Preparator, differe- circuits of Synch tion of report. ntiator, verti- section. cal and horizontal section and yoke of monochrome TV receiver.

Knowledge about Chart the working of IF section, Circuit assembling skill. Know about Discussion notes different sections of monochrome TV receiver skill about circuit tracing.

Curriculum Objectives
To develop idea Class room trans- Charts about AGC, Keyed action and Chart AGC, delayed preparation. AGC and AFC AGC, Keyed AGC, delayed AGC & AFC circuits

Concept/ Area

Concept/ ideas

Process skills

Activities

Learning materials

7.To create awareness about TV the basic concept of AGC, recepton Keyed AGC and delayed AGC and AFC.

Output/ Outcome Knowledge about Chart

Evaluation

8 To develop an idea about TV intercarrier sound system reception and separation of sound. Charts Sound section

AGC Keyed AGC, Delayed AGC and AFC of monchrome TV receiver FM Inter carrier sound system. room To develop the Class knowledge about transaction and sound seperator. Chart preparation. To develop the Panel discusknowledge about sion, Practical sound section. e x p e r i m e n t , Practical skill de- Preparation of velopment of the report. circuit. To develop awareness about IF section working.

9 To brush up the idea about TV the sound section. reception

9 Tobrush up the idea about TV the sound section. reception

Knowledge about Chart sound seperation circuit. CRO multim- Knowledge regard- Discussion notes eter chart, ing sound section. sound section Practical knowlcircuit from TV edge about sound section circuit. trainer Tracing knowledge of sound section. Knowledge about Chart Chart the working of IF section.

10. To get a clear idea about TV SMPS. reception

IF section of m o n o chrome TV receiver. SMPS of monochrome TV receiver

Class room transaction, chart preparation To develop idea A s s i g n m e n t , Voltage chart, about SMPS Chart prepara- CRO, Multimeter, SMPS of theretically and tion monochrome practically. TV receiver trainer.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

11 To acquire knolwedge TV about the working of EHT. reception

Idea about the Assignment working of SMPS. Skill of tracing Chart SMPS circuit. Skill to measure voltages at different points. EHT of To develop the Demonstration Circuit of EHT Idea about the Chart monochrome knowledge about of circuit, from mono- working of EHT. TV receiver EHT circuit. skill Preparation of chrome TV Practical about EHT circuit trainer, Chart chart.

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Curriculum Objectives
Different controls of m o n o chrome TV receiver. ent controls of monochrome TV receiver Practical skill to operate the same. Picture tube of monochrome TV receiver. To obtain knowledge about monochrome picture tube. Practical idea the measure voltages at different pins. Monochrome picture tube, CRO, Multimeter, Chart A monochrome TV receiver, CRO, Multimeter, Chart To develop the Field visit, knowledge about Practical servicing of experiment monchrome TV reciever Observation, demonstration, Preparation of chart, Voltage measurement. To familiarise thor- Practical experi- Chart oughly the user and ment TV receiver technician controls of a monochrome TV receiver.

Concept/ Area

Concept/ ideas

Process skills

Activities

Learning materials

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

12. To familiarise the user TV controls and technician recepton controls of monochrome TV receiver.

Output/ Outcome Idea about differ- Chart

Evaluation

13. To acquire knowledge TV about monochrome reception picture tube.

Knowledge about Data collected monochrome picture tube. Practical skill to measure voltages. Practical skill Report, Record about trouble work shooting and servicing of monochrome TV receiver. T e c h n i c a l Chart knowledge about Yagi Uda antenna

14. To familiarize the students TV with common faults of reception various sections of Black and White TV receiver and their trouble shooting procedure. 15. To get a clear idea about TV the concept of receiving reception antennas and the working of Yagi-Uda antenna.

Trouble shooting procedure

R e c e i v i n g To develop the Observation, Yagi Antenna antennas knowledge about C l a s s r o o m Chart receiving antenna transaction practical skil about the assembling of antenna. D i f f e r e n t To develop the transmission knowledge about cables twin wire lead and co-axial cable transmission lines. Observation, General discussion, Preparation of notes. A sample twin wire lead cable and co-axial cable.

16. To give an idea of twin TV wire lead and co-axial reception cable transmission lines.

Knowledge about different transmis- Discussion notes sion cables used for TV reception.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

5
COLOUR TV RECEIVER
5.1 Introduction
The quest for more comfort and pleasure is a material instinct driving the mankind. Once the dream of visualizing live scenes was satisfied, the next attempt was to make it more lively and realistic. Colour television with its material appearance was a real milestone in this effort which is still proceeding with a greater momentum. In colour television, an additional signal carrying the colour information - the chrominanace signal is to be accomodated along with the luminance and sound signals. Ofcourse, the transmitting and receiving equipments are to be modified to meet his additional requirement. In a colour TV reciever it is the chroma section which handles the colour signal and converts it into the realistic colours on the screen. In this effort it requires the help of certain auxilliary circuits and a few minor (not always) modifications of the existing ones. This chapter gives an overall idea aobut the major functionaries of a CTV receiver, the PAL-D decoder being taken as the role model (Americans please excuse). Intrusive treatment of all the circuit details are not intended, but mentioned as and when warrenteed. Finally a logical approach to the trouble shooting is presented with a few tips that may serve as a ready reckoner. But remember, trouble shooting is a skillful art that can be nurtured only through hands on work and experience and can never be injected in a single doss to ones mind.

5.2 Syllabus
Introduction, compatibility, colour fundamentals, colour mixing, luminance and chrominance signal, colour difference signals, colour synchronization and burst, colour composite video signal, colour TV systems - NTSC, PAL, SECAM (Basic Concept only). PAL colour receiver, Block diagram description. User and technician controls, PIL colour picture tube, convergence and purity, basic idea, pincushion distortion, Automatic degaussing, trouble shooting in colour TV receivers. Remote control-Basic principle.

5.3 Curriculum Objectives


5.3.1 5.3.2 To get a clear idea about the concept of compatibility and colour fundamentals through brain storming. To develop an idea about colour mixing theory through chart demonstration
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5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9

To acquire knowledge about the terms luminance, hue, saturation and chrominance signal through classroom transaction To obtain the basic idea about the extraction of colour difference signals through demonstration of block diagram. To obtain a clear idea about the colour burst signal and composite colour video signal through demonstration of chart. To introduce the three different colour TV systems - NTSC, PAL and SECAM through classroom transaction. To introduce the idea about PAL receiver through demonstration of block diagram. To obtain knowledge about the working of PAL receiver through panel discussion To familiarize the students with the user and technician controls of PAL receiver through practical experiments.

5.3.10 To get a clear idea about the PIL picture tube through demonstration of chart. 5.3.11 To obtain a basic idea about convergence, purity and pincushion correction through classroom transaction. 5.3.12 To get an idea about degaussing and the function of automatic degaussing coil through classroom transaction 5.3.13 To familiarize the students with common faults of various sections of the colour TV receiver and their trouble shooting procedure through different case studies. 5.3.14 To understand the basic principles of remote control used in television through assignment.

5.4 Points to be Highlighted


Compatibility, Hue, Luminance and saturation Colour composite video signal Colour burst signal PIL picture tube Degaussing, Purity and convergence Remote control Typical faults and remedies in colour TV

5.5 Learning Activities:


5.5.1 5.5.2 The teacher can conduct a brain storming section on compatibility, fundamentals of colour, persistence of vision etc. which help them to refresh the knowledge With the help of chart, introduce the concept of both additive and subtractive colour mixing.

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

5.5.3

Conduct a discussion about the terms luminance, hue, saturation, Y-signal and chrominance signal. Also with the help of block diagram, explain the extraction of colour difference signal and the formation of Y signal. With the help of chart demonstrate the idea of colour burst and composite colour video signal. The colour burst and composite colour video signal can be observed during the field visit. The teacher can convey the idea of the three difference colour TV systems (NTSC, PAL and SECAM) by preparing a chart and through classroom transaction. The teacher can demonstrate the idea and working of the PAL receiver through preparation of block diagram. An OHP can be used. Students are asked to prepare charts individually. Conduct a practical session to familiarize with the user controls and technician controls of the PAL receiver. Can conduct a visit to a nearby TV service station The teacher can demonstrate the working of PIL picture tube through chart preparation. The teacher can convey the basic idea about convergence, purity, pincushion correction, degaussing and automatic degaussing through classroom transaction. Students are asked to prepare chart.

5.5.4

5.5.5 5.5.6

5.5.7 5.5.8 5.5.9

5.5.10 The teacher can conduct practical experiments on fault finding and trouble shooting of colour TV receiver in the laboratory and can conduct a field visit to a near by colour TV service station 5.5.11 Students are asked to submit an assignment on remote control used in TV receiver and are directed to practice its working in the laboratory.

5.6 Practical laboratory work


Activity 5.5.7 Activity 5.5.10

5.7 CE Items
Assignment on remote control

5.8 TE Items
1. Suppose you are TV technician and let a customer approach you with a faulty TV. From your observation you found a monochrome display in that colour TV (A) (B) (C) 2. Can you identify the faulty stage? What are the probable faults you expect in that section? Write the trouble shooting procedure for the particular fault?

Describe the automatic method of removing colour patches in the TV screen.

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2.9 Reference
1. 2. 3. 4. Monochrome and colour Television - R.R.Gulati www.howstuffworks.com www.epanorama.net www.radioelectronics.com

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 5 Concept/ Area


Colour television Colour fundamentals Reference books the terms. Reference books, Charts

COLOUR TV RECEIVER Concept/ ideas Process skills Activities Learning materials Evaluation

Curriculum Objectives

1.

To get a clear idea about the concept of compatibility and colour fundamentals.

Output/ Outcome Ability to recollect Report

2. To develop an idea about Colour colour mixing theory. mixing

Brain storming Compatibil- Brain storming ity primary Questioning a n d complementary colours. A d d i t i v e Chart preparation Demonstration, and subtracChart preparative mixing. tion.

Class room trans- Classroom To acquire knowledge Luminanme, Colour characteris- action transaction, about the terms - hue saturaDiscussion luminance, lue, saturation, tion and tics chrominance signal. chrominanance Seperation Demonstration of Demonstration, 4. To obtain the basic idea Colour of audio and block diagram. about the extraction of trap Discussion picture colour difference signals. signal 5. To obtain a clear idea Colour Synchronis- Demonstration of Demonstration about the colour burst ation of chart Preparation of signal and composite burst colour sigchart colour video signal nal Basis of NTSC, PAL, SECAM

3.

Ability to under- Chart stand additive and subtractive mixing. Reference Ability to under- Notes books, Charts stand facts.

to Discussion Block diagram Ability understand the notes OHP working of trap circuits R e f e r e n c e Chart preparation Chart books Ability to underInternet data stand colour synchronisation. Chart Ability to under- Understandstand the concept ing of fact of the three sysNotes tems.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

6. To introduce three Colour TV different colour television systems - wise, PAL and systems SECAM

To understand dif- Class transac- Reference ference between tion books the three Internet data Journals

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Curriculum Objectives
Block dia- Block diagram Demonstration analysing gram of PAL receiver. Reference books, Discussion note the discussion.

Concept/ Area

Concept/ ideas

Process skills

Activities

Learning materials

Evaluation

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

7.

To introduce idea about PAL the PAL receiver. colour receiver

Output/ Outcome Performance in Notes

8. To obtain knowledge P A L Working of Analyse the work- Panel re- ing of each block. discussion about the working of PAL colour re- PAL ceiver. receiver. ceiver. Ability to under- Practical stand and to oper- experiment ate the controls. Reference books, Block diagram, Discussion note Reference books, Practical record

Ability to analyse Discussion the functions of note each block. Ability to do prac- Practical tical in the labora- record tory.

9.

To familiarise the students Controls of User and with the user and PAL re- technician controls technician controls of PAL ceiver receiver. Colour picture tube Class room transaction. Demonstration, Chart Discussion OHP Reference books Working of Understand how PIL tube. colour details are produced in the screen. Colour pic- Ability to correct convergene the colour screen. and purity ture tube adjustments

10. To get a clear idea about the PSL picture tube through demonstration of chart. 11. To obtain basic idea about convergene, purity and pineushion correction.

Preparation chart

of Chart

Ability to correct Understandthe colour signals ing of fact on screen. Class room Colour TV transaction Circuit diagram Ability to under- Understandstand degausing ing of fact coil

Understand 12. To get an idea about Degausing Need for degaaussing and the degaussing method of function of automatic and method degausing. degausing coil. of degaussing.

Curriculum Objectives
TV Trouble fication. shooting chart Common faults and trouble shooting Fault-find- Identification of Case studies ing and the fault and ability t r o u b l e to rectify it. shooting Reference books, Journals

Concept/ Area

Concept/ ideas

Process skills

Activities

Learning materials

13. To familiarise the students with common faults of various sections of colour TV receiver and trouble shooting procedure.

Output/ Outcome Ability to identify Ability to a fact and its recti- trouble shoot

Evaluation

14. To understand the basic R e m o t e Principle of Working principle Assignment, remote - of remote control Discussion principles of remote control control control used in Television.

Submission of as- Assignment signment and collection of data.

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6
VIDEO EQUIPMENTS
6.1 Introduction
The field of Electronics has grown to such an extent that VCDs and DVDs have stolen the place of earlier VCPs / VCRs in video recording and reproduction. Now a days Digital signal processing over ruled the analog type due to many advantages. This chapter covers the basic details of tape recording and both the theoretical and practical aspects of modern digital video equipments like VCD, DVD, Digital camera and the installing of TV tuner card in computer. It may not be so easy to cover each and every type of VCD/ DVD/Digital Camera/TV tuner card, but a noble attempt is made to cover different aspects of these instruments like familiarization, typical faults study and their trouble shooting procedures.

6.2 Syllabus
Video cassette player / recorder - Introduction, Basic principle, VCD player - Block diagram, Working, controls, trouble shooting. DVD player (Basic concept only), Digital camera - Introduction and basic concept, TV Tuner card - Introduction

6.3 Curriculum Objectives


6.3.1 To acquire knowledge about the basic principle of video cassette player VCP /VCR through class room transaction, demonstration and preparation of report 6.3.2 To develop the idea of different blocks of VCD player through classroom transaction and preparation of Chart 6.3.3 To familiarize the different controls of VCD player through practical experiments and demonstration 6.3.4 To familiarize the common faults in VCD player and the methods of their trouble shooting through case studies 6.3.5 To acquire knowledge about different blocks of DVD player through group discussion and preparation of chart 6.3.6 To familiarize the working of DVD player through general discussion and practical experiments 6.3.7 To familiarize the working of different controls through practical experiments

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6.3.8 To familiarize the common faults in DVD player and the methods of their trouble shooting through case studies 6.3.9 To familiarize the basic concept of digital camera (Still and movie) through observation survey and preparation of report. 6.3.10. To familiarise the basic concept of TV tuner card, throguh class room transaction and practical work.

6.4 Points to be Highlighted


VCP / VCR VCD Player DVD Player Introduction to- Digital camera, TV tuner card.

6.5 Learning Activities:


6.5.1 Demonstrate to the students the internal structure of a VCP/VCR and explain the functions of different devices / components therein. Students are then asked to collect as much data as they could and prepare a detailed report 6.5.2 Students are asked to refresh their knowledge about CD player. With the help of block diagram, explain to them the working of CD player. Demonstrate the internal structure of VCD player and explain the working of laser eye, different motors etc. Familiarize them with different circuits of VCD player and the methods of trouble shooting different faults. Ask students to make a detailed report with the help of charts individually. 6.5.3 Introduce the concept of DVD player through classroom transaction. Introduce DVD player to the class and help students to get familiarized with the working of different controls in it. Also help students in trouble shooting different faults in it through practical experiment in the laboratory 6.5.4 Demonstrate a still and movie camera in the classroom and give them the basic concept and working principle of that. Ask them to prepare a detailed report of the above said by conducting a survey. 6.5.5 Demonstrate the installation of TV tuner card as practical work in the laboratory.

6.6 Practical laboratory work


Activity 6.5.2 Activity 6.5.3 Activity 6.5.5

6.7 C.E Items


Data collection on VCR/VCP, VCD & DVD
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6.8 T.E Items


1 2 Compare VCD with DVD Explain with block diagram the working of a VCD player

6.9 Output/ Outcome / Product


Report on Data collection, Demonstration report, Practical work report, Survey report

6.10 Reference
1 2 3. 4. 5. Audio and video Engineering -R.G. Gupta Monochrome and colour TV - R.R.Gulathi ww.cd-info.com www.play-hookey.com www.howstuffworks.com

ADDENDUM DVD Player


Has much larger data capacity than CD (7 times) Upto 133 minutes of high -resolution video Provides 5.1 channel Dolby Digital Surround Sound/DTS Picture quality better than CDs Compatible with audio CDs DVD movies have several sound tracks on them. It is possible to select the part of the movie we want to view with remote, which eliminates the need of fast-forward or fast rewind. Multi layer storage Single - sided/Single layer Single - sided/ double layer Double - sided/ Singlelayer Double - sided/double layer 4.38 GB 7.95 GB 8.75 GB 15.9 GB

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 6 Concept/ Area


VCP/VCR Chart To develop the Class room Sample VCP/ working idea of transaction, demonstration, VCR VCP/VCR. preparation of report

VIDEO EQUIPMENTS Concept/ ideas Process skills Activities Learning materials Evaluation Output/ Outcome

Curriculum Objectives

1.

To acquire knowledge Video about the basic principle of equipvideo cassette player. ments

2. To develop the idea of Video different blocks of VCD equipments player.

VCD player To develop the Class room Chart working idea of transaction Sample VCD VCD Player. Preparation of player chart VCD player, Service equipments inlcuding CRO, multimedia, Chart

Knowledge about Report VCP/VCR Practical knowledge about the working of VCP/ VCR Know about work- Report ing of VCD Player

3.

To familiarise the different Video controls of VCD player. equipments

4. To familiarise the common Video faults in VCD player and equiptheir trouble shooting. ments

Knowledge about Report the working of VCD player. Practical skill about servicing of VCD player. VCD player, Knowledge about Chart service equip- fault finding and trouble shooting of ments, Chart VCD palyer Chart Knowledge about Report DVD player basics. A sample DVD player, Servicing equipments, Chart Idea about DVD Chart and player working report and servicing.

5. To acquire knowledge Video about DVD player equipments

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

6. To familiarise the working Video of DVD player. equipments

VCD Player To develop the Demonstration, idea about VCD Practical experment player. Practical skill about VCD player VCD Player To acquire practi- Practical excal knowledge periment, chart covering faults of typical, case and remedies of studies. VCD player. To develop the Group discusDVD Player knowledge about sion, chart DVD player. preparation DVD Player To develop a thor- General discusough knowledge sion, Practical about the working of DVD player. experiment. To attain practical skill about DVD player.

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Curriculum Objectives
DVD player To make familiar Practical with the different experiment controls of DVD player. DVD player, servicing kit Servicing of To get knowledge Typical case DVD player, DVD player about servicing of studies servicing kit DVD player. Practical experiment Digital camera To get idea about Observation, survey, digital camera. Preparation of report. Knowledge about Report servicing of DVD player.

Concept/ Area

Concept/ ideas

Process skills

Activities

Learning materials

Evaluation

Output/ Outcome

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

7.

To familiarise the working Video of different controls of equipDVD player. ments

8. To familiarise the Video common faults in DVD equipplayer and their trouble ments shooting procedure.

Practical knowl- Report edge about servicing of DVD player

9.

To familiarise the basic Video concept of digital camera equipments (still and moving) TV tuner card

A sample digital Know how about Survey recamera, chart basics of digital port, chart camera.

10.

To familiarise the basic Video concept of TV tuner card, equipments throguh class room transaction and practical work.

To get idea about Practical work P.C, tuner card, Practical experi- Practical Cable ence on assem- record, TV tuner card. bling and servicing Report

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

7
SATELITE TELEVISION
7.1 Introduction
Considering the limitations of ground and sky wave propagation, the space wave propagation arises as an alternative. Despite of large attenuation in this mode, it has an advantage that these waves are not refracted by ionospheric layers. To extend the transmission distance of radio waves in the VHF and UHF micro wave bands, the technique of communication satellites are introduced. The technique involved for transmission via satellite is quite complex, but an attempt has been made in this chapter to convey the essentials of satellite TV Cable TV (CATV) was initially introduced for the benefit of communities in rural areas that were beyond the range of brodcasting, especially for those living in shadow zones. Modern cable system carry a number of modern techniques and this has generated great interest and demand from the public. In this chapter, an over view of different aspects of cable TV is covered. CCTV is one of the most popular visual systems which has a wide application area in modern life. An attempt is made in this chapter to convey the basic idea about CCTV to the students. This chapter also covers the impact of digital technology on TV transmission and reception The Direct to Home satellite TV (DTH) system enables viewers to receive many channels of high quality TV programmes via high powered KU-Band satellites. DTH is similar to Digital satellite system. However since it needs more explanation, a detailed version with block diagram is given in this chapter.

7.2 Syllabus
Introduction, satellite communication system, transponders, digital transmission-basic principle, dish antenna, satellite receiver DTH-block diagram, working, accessories(splitter, connector, repeater) trouble shooting (cable TV & closed circuit TV-basic principle) working, application, EDUSAT Introduction, application.

7.3 Curriculum Objectives


7.3.1 Ti introduce the basic idea of satellite communication system, through general discussion 7.3.2 To familiarize the students with the transponders, digital transmission (basic concept) Dish antenna through field visit and preparation of report 7.3.3 To develop an idea about satellite TV receiver (DTH) through demonstration of block diagram, practical experiments and field visit
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7.3.4 To familiarize the digital receiver, accessories like splitter, connector, repeater, etc. through collection and chart preparation 7.3.5 To familiarize the students with common faults and troubleshooting connected with digital receiver accessories through typical case studies 7.3.6 To obtain a clear idea about basic concept, working and application of CATV and CCTV through survey and preparation of project report 7.3.7 To get a basic idea about EDUSAT through field visit and preparation of reaport.

7.4 Points to be Highlighted


Digital transmission DTH system Satellite communication Cable TV CCTV EDUSAT

7.5 Learning Activities:


7.5.1 Ask students to refresh their knowledge about satellite communication and also discuss about different satellites (communication) of India and different frequency bands through which communication is carried out 7.5.2 Help students to prepare a questionnaire about satellite reception. Conduct a field visit to the nearby cable operating station from where they could collect ideas regarding Dish antenna, wave guides, digital receiver, transponder, up linking, down linking and also about various accessories like splitter, connector etc. Also help them to make a detailed report with block diagram if necessary 7.5.3 Ask students to collect as much as faulty and scrap accessories of dish antenna as they can from nearby service centers or from cable operators. Tell the students to prepare a chart showing their functions, where used, what for etc. 7.5.4 Introduce the concept of troubleshooting of different faults connected with digital receiver through different case studies and with the help of charts 7.5.5 Ask students to conduct a survey regarding basic concept , working installation and application of CATV and CCTV Help them to prepare a detailed report as study project. 7.5.6 Take students to nearby Edusat centers and help them to acquire knowledge regarding the transmission, reception and advantages. Ask the students to prepare detailed report with the help of colourful chart as an assignment.

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7.6 Practical laboratory work


Activity 7.5.4

7.7. CE Items
Report on satellite receiver after field visit, Chart preparation of different accessories of dish antenna after site inspection. Survey report on CATV and CCTV.

7.8 T.E Items


1 Suppose in your home you have a cable connection from a private agency. They are hiking the monthly subscription in each month and you want to stop their connection. Do you know an alternative method to get the same channels directly in your home? Explain that technique with a block diagram Suppose you are attending a wedding reception in an auditorium. At all corners of the auditorium, TV monitors are installed. Each one can watch the ceremoney from every corner . Name and Explain the working of that system, with block diagram

7.9 Reference
1. 2. Monochrome and colour Television - R.R.Gulathi Modern Television Practice - R.R.Gulathi

ADDENDUM
DTH - Direct to Home Television Reception of satellite programme with a personal dish. No need of cable operator and puts the broadcaster directly in touch with consumer. DTH consists of a broadcasting centre, satellite, encoders, multiplexers, modulators and DTH receivers. For transmission, KV band transponders in the satellite are necessary. Encoder converts audio, video and data signals into the digital format and multiplexer mixes these signals. At the receiving end, there will be a small dish antenna ( 45 cm dia) and set-top boxes to decode and view numerous channels. One can use the same connection for multiple connections in the same premise provided every TV set has individual set Top Box DTH transmission is digital and offer stereophonic sound effects. DTH allows internet access, video conferencing and E-mail Cable operator under report the number of customer to broad casters causing huge financial loss to them where as in this case consumers directly pay to the broad caster. Since DTH transmission is digital, more channels can be accommodated in the allowed frequency spectrum.
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STB (JRD) - Digtial Integrated receiver/Decoder

CATV-Cable Television CATV involve distributing a number of television channels collected at a centre location to subscrebers by means of a network of optic fibres/co-axial cables. Popular way to interact with world wide websites. System of providing TV signals, FM radio programmes and other services to customers via radio frequency signals. Use of different frequencies allows many channels to be distributed through the same cable without seperate wires for each Tuner of the television selects one channel from this mixed signal.

CCTV - Closed Circuit Television Used in areas of high security viz banks, airports etc. Uses television cameras for surveillance All components are directly linked via cables or other direct means.

EDUSAT Satellite launched by ISRO on 20th September - 2004 Purpose provide education to all people primarly children who cannot go to schools/ colleges. Classes conducted by state education boards, NCERTs, CBSE etc. Interactive and non-interactive session Classes will be conducted in a studio environment and televised to the entire nation. To enable this, schools/colleges should have an interactive receiving terminal. Education will be available at a fraction of its cost to a large number of students. Edusat placed at 36000 km hight geostationary orbit weight-1950 kg and has 5 kv band transporders.

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 7 Concept/ Area


Diagram

SATELLITE TELEVISION Concept/ ideas Process skills Activities Learning materials Evaluation Output/ Outcome

Curriculum Objectives

1.

Can explain about D i s c u s s i o n satellite communi- Report cation.

2. Field diary

Can identify the Field Report parts specified.

3.

Lab facility

Can install and Project trouble shoot DTH Report

4.

Chart

Can identify the C o l l e c t i o n parts specified. chart Document for Can rectify faults Case study case study report Can explain CCTV Survey report, & CATV Project report

5.

To introduce the basic idea Satellite Concept of Understand the ba- General discusof satellite communication communi- how satellite sic behind satellite sion system. cation c o m m u n i - communication. cation is carried out. To familiarise the students Transpon- Familiarize Can identify the Field visit with the transponders, der, digi- and identify parts digital transmission Dish tal trans- transponder, antenna. m i s s i o n , Dish antenna. Dish antenna Complete Can construct in- Practical work To develop an idea about Digital idea to satellite stall and trouble Project. the satellite TV receiver install and shoot DTH receiver (DTH) trouble shoot DTH Concept of Identify the parts C o l l e c t i o n To familiarize the digital Digital accessories receiver accessories like satellite Chart preparasplitter, connector, repeater. receiver tion T r o u b l e - Can trouble shoot Case study To familiarise the students Video shooting in and rectify the with common faults and equipdigital retrouble shooting connected ments faults. with digital receiver. ceiver Understand the Survey, Project Survey diary basic principle of report CATV & CCTV Understand the Field visit basic principle of EDUSAT Field diary

6. To obtain a clear idea CATV, about basic concept, CCTV working and application of CATV and CCTV

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Working and application of CATV & CCTV 7. To get a basic idea about EDUSAT Working to EDUSAT through field applications visit. of EDUSAT

Can identify the Field report parts specified

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ADVANCES IN TELEVISION TECHNOLOGY

8.1 Introduction
Television industry is now passing through a period of intensive development efforts towards improvements in transmission and reception techniques. Along with these developments lot of research has been made to improve in picture resolution and the quality of associated sound. Innovations towards achieving these include HDTV. Advances in TV technology including plasma TV, LCD TV, TV, Mobile TV, OLED TV, Hollographic TV and DLP are briefly described in this chapter.

8.2 Syllabus
Plasma Television, LCD Television, Project Television, Mobile television, OLED Television, High Definition, Television (HDTV) Hollo graphic Television, DLP (Basic concepts only)

8.3 Curriculum Objectives


8.3.1 To develop a basic idea about modern Television technologies-projection TV, HDTV, OLED TV, Hollographic TV, mobile TV, Plasma TV etc. through survey, field visit and preparation of report. 8.3.2 To develop basic idea about the modern display technologies-LCD, TFT and DLP and submit an assignment

8.4 Points to be Highlighted:


Plasma TV LCD TV HDTV Projection TV OLED and Hollographic TV

8.5 Learning Activities


8.5.1 Give a briefing about the latest television technologies like projection TV, HDTV, LCDTV, OLEDTV, Hollographic TV, DLP Technology, Plasma TV etc. through classroom transaction and with the help of charts. Ask students to collect as much
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information as they could by conducting surveys, referring books or by browsing net. Now tell them to make a detailed report with the help of necessary charts describing the different technologies individually. Also conduct field visits to the nearby show rooms and get familiarized with these developments.

8.6 CE Items
Survey report on different types of TVs Assignment on Activity 8.3.2

8.7 TE Items
1 2 Through advertisement, you may be well aware about the latest technologies of Television receiver. Can you give a list of the above? Please specify the merits and demerits of each Can you list out the modern display technology used in modern TV Receiver.

Reference
1 2 3 4 5 6 Modern Television Practice -R.R/Gulathi www. howstuffworks.com www.epanorama.net. www.play-hookey.com www.radiodesign.com www.apple.com

ADDENDUM
Holographic Television A projector shines on a thin holographic screen attached to a transparent surface like glass. The effect is an image that appears to float on mid air.

TFT Technology - Thin Film Transistor Technology A type of LCD flat panel display screen in which each pixel is controlled by from one to four transistors. TFT technology provides the best resolution for all the flat panel techniques. TFT screens are also called as active matrix LEDs. Image quality increased by this technology.

DLP Technology- Digital light processing Technology Technology developed by Texas DLP chip is a reflective surface made of thousands of pixels. Small package size Produce higher contrast video with deeper black levels.
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Crystal clear clarity Reproduces a wide range of colours upto 35 trillion.

OLED - Organic Light Emitting Diode These are solid state semi conductor devices that are 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than human chair which emits light with the application of electricity through a process called electro phosphoroscence. Merits - The plastic/organic layers of OLED are thinner, lighter and more flexible than that in an LED or LCD. OLED are brighter than LCDs OLEDs do not require back lighting like LCDs These are easier to produce. Large viewing angles are possible like 1700 .

PLASMA TV Plasma is a flat light weight surface covered with millions of tiny glass bubbles. Each bubble contains gas (neon-xenon mixture) like substance called plasma. When it is time to display an image signal, a digitally controlled circuit current flows through the screen causing the bubbles give off ultra violet rays. This light courses the phosphor coatings to glow the appropriate colour. No need of scanning in TV. Plasma TV has a half life of 30,000 to 60,000 hrs. ie. it will loose approximately 50% of its brightness during that term. The gas in plasma TV does not leak. If a pixel fail, it cannot be repaired physically or by recharging the gas. If large number of pixels go dark, entire panel need to be replaced.

LCD Vs PLASMA
Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 LCD PLASMA Thin Thin (32 to 60) (larger than LCD-13 to 45) Viewing angle up to 1750 upto 160 0 Life span Good Good Issues Some times suffer from burn in effect Picture Sharp and Wide range of colours and accurate vibrant colour colour reprodcution Brighness Better in bright light In darkness, it produces black spots conditions. In darkness, it produces very dark charcoal grey spots Contrast Greater than LCD Weight Heavier than LCD Fragile than LCD Particular Size

7 8

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HDTV - High Definition TV Means broadcast of TV signals with a higher resolution than NTSC/PAL/SECAM Is designed as 1080 active line, aspect ratio 16:9 It is capable of theatre quality audio because it uses the Dolby Digital (AC-3) format to support 5.1 surround sound. The pixel aspect ratio of High Definition signals is 1.0 or 1 pixel length = 1 pixel width. HD signal will deliver either an excellent picture or no picture at all. The colours will look more realistic due to their greater bandwidth. Standard TV signals broadcast basic stereo audio signals where as Dolby Digital 5.1 sound is broad cast along with HDTV video signal with HDTV video signal. Minimum vertical resolution - 720 lines.

Projection Television Can provide a much bigger picture than CRT sets can. It creates a much smaller picture and then uses a beam of light the display that picture at a much larger size. 2 types - Front projection and rear projection. Front projection uses a projector and a seperate screen. It projects images to the front of that screen - as in a movie theatre. Rear projection system display images on the back of the screen and the projector is contained with the TV itself - as in the traditional TV.

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UNIT ANALYSIS - 8 Concept/ Area


To acquire U n d e r s t a n d i n g Survey field basic idea about modern tech- visit about mod- nologies ern TV technologies

ADVANCES IN TELEVISION TECHNOLOGY Concept/ ideas Process skills Activities Learning materials Evaluation Output/ Outcome

Curriculum Objectives

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

1.

To develop basic idea Projection about the modern TV TV, technologies. HDTV, OLED, Hollow graphic TV, Mobile TV Plasma TV

Reference Abilty to partici- Field diary books, Internet pate in the survey Survey data and ability to col- report lect data.

2. To develop basic idea LCD, TFT To get basic Understand about Survey about the modern display and DLP idea about modern technolo- visit modern dis- gies technologies. play technologies

field Reference Ability to prepare Survey books, Internet survey report and Report data, Journals to collect data.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Part III Practicals

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Practical Evaluation
Distribution of scores of P.E Practical (MRRTV)
Score Part I Part II Part III Part IV Part V Identification of the given components & drawing their symbols Construction of the given circuit and checking its performance Fault analysis of the given faculty equipment and its rectification Viva Observation/Record book Total 25 50 40 25 10 150

Guidelines of practical evaluation


Part I Item Identification of 5 different resistors Identification of 5 capacitors (disc, electrolytic, ceramic polyster) Identification of 2 transistors and their leads Identification of volume control variable resister Diode, Zener diode, LED etc. (4 Nos) Drawing of symbols of all the above components Evaluation points Proper identification Proper identification Score 5 5

Proper identification Proper identification

5 6

( for each) total 4 Part I

Construction of the given circuit Item Drawing the circuit diagram and labeling the components Setting up the circuit Recording the voltages & Computation, plotting graph Evaluation points Correct symbols & connection Neatness, Component values Neatness, Observing O/P, measurement of O/P Proper recording Score 15 25 10

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Fault finding and Rectification Item Analysing the given fault Rectifying the fault Evaluation points Systematic analysis i. Systematic working ii. rectification Part IV Viva voce Item Viva voce Evaluation points Analytical skill, theoretical backing and ability to explain (Based on vocational subject) Part V Item Observation/ Record Evaluation points Practical works Score 10 Score 25 Score 20 15 5

Practical examination is conducted for a batch of 8 learners and the duration of examination is 6 Hrs.

Practical Evaluation
Course Class
SL No.

: :
Name I II Score III IV V

Year :
Total 150 Grade

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MRR TV- PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS Electronic is a field of innovations Taking this into account a humble venture is made in the is book to cover some ken owned and popular areas of this field but with an effort of not imposing too much strain to the students studying this course. Maintenances and repairs of electronic derives is one of the wast job oriented fields in the industry. Even in this field devices coming under audio and video Engineering plays a leading role in our day-to-day life and so in the practical syllabus, a modest endeavaur is done to deal with the servicing of instruments coming under this head. Trouble shooting and servicing is of course a skill in itself and does not come automatically by reading books and remembering circuit alone books give only guidelines to locate faults. Servicing needs long experience and there are no shoot cuts to it
LIST OF PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.


116

Amplitude Modulator AM Detector Radio Components Lay out Voltage data collection and tuning of Radio receiver Radio Receiver Fault finding Tape Recorder Wiring Diagram- PCB lay out Voltage Data collection of Tape recorder Head adjustment (Azimuth Adjustment ) Tape Transport Mechanism. Fault finding in tape recorder P A System Installation Identify and Operate B&W TV controls Identify and assemble a television antenna Yagi Antenna Tracing of power supply/ SMPS stage of B/W TV Receiver. Mounting and testing the picture tube in the cabinet. Tracing and fault finding of the horizontal sub section of a B/W TV receiver Trouble shooting in vertical section of a B/W TV Receiver. Trouble shooting in vertical section of a B&W TV receiver

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Trouble shooting in video amplifier stage of a B&W TV. Receiver Trouble shooting in sound section of a B&W TV receiver Trouble shooting in VIF amplifier of a B&W TV receiver Mounting and testing of VJF tuner Identify different stages and main components of a colour TV. Identify and test neck components of a colour picture tube Tracing the SMPS stage of a colour TV receiver Identify controls and sockets of a colour TV and tune program channels. Identify tuner terminals and replace tuners Tracing of video If amplifier section Tracing sound section of a colour TV receiver Tracing sync separator , AFC, and horizontal oscillation Tracing horizontal out put section Tracing vertical sweep section of a colour TV receiver Tracing of chroma section of colour Television Tracing of video output section Identify important parts in to tape pat of VCR/VCP Identify the servo components in VCR/VCP Identify sensors and limit switches of a VCR/VCP General maintenance of a VCR/VCP Identify and aperate the controls of a wonpact disc player Identify different equipmens and modules used in CATV system Installation of CCTV nework Installation, trackin and trpuble sootin of DT receiver Inststallation of TV Tuner card.

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EXPERIMENT 1 - AMPLITUDE MODULATOR


Objectives

On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Construct and test an amplitude modulator

Requirements Materials/Components Refer Fig 1 for component list. Bread Board -1 No Hook-up wires - as reqd. Procedure 1. Refer the circuit diagram of a simple amplitude modulator and transmitter shown in Fig 1 Make the list of the components required to construct the AM modulator/teansmitter circuit. Get the list approved by your instruc tor. Collect the components and check the components to confirm its good working condition. 2. Construct the circuit and get it checked by your instructor. 3. Temporaily disconnect the link A-B to test the AF amplifier and oscillator sections separately. Link A-B disconnects the AB signal input to the modulator. 4. Power ON DC supply to the circuit and check for RF signal (oscillator output) at the collector of Q2 5. Tune the core of the oscillator coil to set the frequency of oscillations to around 650 KHz (1.5 Sec) Measure and record the frequency and amplitude of RF oscillation. 6. Feed a 1KHz AF Signal at the AF input and check for presence of AF at the collector of Q2 7. Connect the link A-B disconnected at step 3. 8. Feed a signal of 1 KHz at the AF input of the modulator. 9. Observe the wave-form at the output of the modulator using a CRO. 10. Adjust the output level of the AF signal generators such that the modulated output is similiar to that shown in Fig.2 11. Referring to Fig2, measure and record the level of Vmax and Vmin. 12. From the recorded reading of V max and Vmin calculate and record the depth of modulation of modulation index(m) and prcentage of modulation m% using the for mula. 118 Tools/Equipments/Instruments DC power supply: 12V, 100mA -1 No Oscilloscope, 20 MHz -1 No Signal generator(AF) -1 No

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Dept of modulation Precentage of modulation m% = m x 100. The termm indicates the level to which the RF is modulated. The maximum value of m can b E 1. 13. Get the modulated output wave form and your readings checked by your instructor. 14. Increase the output level of the AF signal generator slowly till the value of Vmin = 0 as shown in Fig 3. This is the condition of 100% modulation or m=1. 15. Disconnect the signal generator and connect a crystal or a dynamic microphone at the AF input terminals of the modulator. 16. Speak into the microphone and observe the modulated output wave -form.

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EXPERIMENT 2 - A.M.DETECTOR
Objectives 1 2 To Understand the function/ working of each component in the circuit To observe /Measure both input and output ware forms.

Requirement Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments

Refer Fig 1 for component list. Refer fig for component list Bread Board 1 No. Hook up Wirer - as required

DC power supply: 12V, 1 C RO Digital Multi Meter

Procedure 1. Refer the circuit diagram of a simple diode detector as shown in fig. 2. Check all components and rig up the circuit 3. Apply A.M. Modulated signal to the circuit and observe the output CRO. 4. Get the working of the detector checked

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

EXPERIMENT 3 - RADIO COMPONENT LAY OUT


Objectives 1 2 3 4 To To To To know the component lay out of radio Rx- PCB sketch the layout identify the stages of radio Rx. identify and familiarize the various components on PCB.

Requirements Radio receiver , screw driver set

CIRCUITIDEA: Lay out is the component side view of the PCB, arranged in a systematic order . The layout desining is in such a way as to reduce circuit complexity and the various stages of the radio receiver circuit and we become familiar whith components used in radio and its locations

SAMPLE LAY OUT


SW.ANTENNACOIL TRTMMER
ANTENNA COIL M.W.

SW
BAND SWITCH

MW
220 F CAPACITOR

AF
TRANSISTER

A1015V

SW OSC COIL BF 194

RF STAGE
MW OSC COIL

GANG 2J
DRIVER TRANSFORMER

5 F F AF
VOLUME CONTROL Ist IFT

220

AVC

BC 548

AF STAGE

II nd IFT

IIIrd IFT

IF STAGE

BF195C

BF 195 D

DETECTOR STAGE
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Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9. Collect radio receiver and tools Open the back cover of radio receiver whith screw driver Observe the wiring and locatins of various component Carefully take out the PCB from the cabinet receiver PCB Identify the various stages and components of receiver PCB Carefully fix the PCB on the cabinet Replace the back cover and tight it Return the radio receiver to the lab.

122

Circuit diagram of Radio Receiver

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

EXPERIMENT 4 - VOLTAGE DATA COLLECTION AND TUNING OF RADIO RECEIVER


Objectives
On completion of this experiment you shall able to 1. 2. 3. 4. To To To To know the circuit of radio receiver identify the test points on PCB measure and record various voltages of active components. perform the function of tuning different Stations Tools/Equipments/Instruments Screw driver Digital Multimeter R.F. Generator,6/12 power supply, loud speaker Hints Students may be divided in to batches of 5/6 each to perform the lab work and ask them to prepare a chart showing voltage levels at different points, which will be helpful for fault analysis

Materials/Components Radio Receiver Tracing Sheet/ graph sheet

Circuit diagram of your radio receiver

Procedure
1. Collect Radio receiver and tools and equipments from the laboratory 2. Set different frequencies on RF generator and connect it to the Antenna termmals of SHR. Now tune the set for a proper sound in the loud speaker 3. Open the back cover with proper tools 4. Locate various Stage and active components 5 Identify the test points 6,. Measure various voltages at different test points by using digital Multimeter ( In D.C. mode) 7. Tabulate these readings and compare with standard voltage Tabulation Column Stage RF IF Driver AF Transistor E Volts B Volts C Volts

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SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF RADIO RECEIVER


RF

2V

4V

400
mV

2800 mV

AMPLIFIER AND
MIXER

AMPLIFIER $ # $
810 mV

IF

DETECTOR

AF AMPLIFIER
LS

LOCAL OSCILLATOR

#
A .V. C

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

EXPERIMENT 5 - RADIO RECEIVER FAULT FINDING


Objectives
1 2 3 4 To To To To know the concept of fault finding identify the symptom of fault locate the faulty stage of radio Rx logically rectify the fault

Circuit are
The methods applied to locate the faulty stage of a radio receiver are personal observation signal injection and signal tracing. First find out what the receiver really like by listening check. From the symptom identify the faulty stage by logical approach and rectify the fault using voltage data and referring circuit.

Tools, euipments, materials


Screw driver , soldering iron , DMM, CRO, AF- RF signal generator, Radio receiver assorted components etc.

Prcedure
1. Collect the faulty receiver and equipments 3. Identify the symptoms of given faulty receiver. A. SYMPTOM :- Dead Receiver Additional Symptom :- No sound , not even hissing sound Operating steps:1 Switch on the receiver and confirmed the complaint. 2 Identified the possible causes for the complaint. 3 Checked the power supply stage and found that it is faulty. 4. Check each components and connections and confirmed that transformer primary winding was open . A 5. Replaced the transformer with new one. 6. Tested the receiver for its working condition. DEAD RECEIVER
DEFECTIVE POWER SUPPLY

3 MAINS CORD OK

TRANSFORMER PRIMARY WINDING OPEN

8
SWITCH

REPLACED NEW ONE SET OK

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B. SYMPTOM :Low Audio output with volume control Maxpos Additional Symptom:- Distortion in the output
Operating Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Identified the possible causes for the complaint Check the power supply stage and found ok. Checked the loud speaker and found ok Checked the voltage at the loud speaker point in AF stage and found ok. Checked the output transistors and confirmed that one is open Replaced the transistor with new one and tested the working condition of receiver.

B
LOW AUDIO OUTPUT WITH VOLUME CONTROL MAXIMUM

DEFECTIVE AF STAGE
OUT PUT TRANSISTOR OPEN

1. POWER SUPPLY 2. LOUD SPEAKER 3 O/P ELECTROLYTiC CAPACITOR ( AF STAGE )

OK

REPLACED NEW ONE SET OK

C. SYMPTOM:- Hissing noise in output


Operating Steps 1 2 3 4. Identified the possible causes for the complaint Checked the AF stage and found OK Checked the detector stage and formd detector diode open Replaced the diode and checkd the working condition

C
HISSING NOISE IN OUTPUT

DEFECTIVE DETECTOR STAGE

6 AF STAGE OK

DETECTOR DIODE OPEN

REPLACED NEW ONE SET OK

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

D SYMPTOM:- Some station picked up at two places


Operating steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Identified the possible causes for the comlaint Checked the IF stage found that IFTs are misaligned Aligned the IFTs and put soft wax on IFTs Checked the working condition

D
SOME STATION PICKED UP AT TWO PLACES

q MISALIGNED IFT q ALIGNED IFTs SET OK

E. SYMPOM : Station not picked up at either end of band


Operating steps 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. Identified the possible cause for the complaint Checked the IF stage and found ok Checked the converter stage and found the RF transistor defective Replaced the defective transistor with new one and tested the working condition Carry/out the general cleaning of the receiver after servicing Replaced the cabinet if it was removed for s servicing Returned the radio & materials to the store. E
STATION NOT PICKED UP AT
q

LOVER END OF BAND

DEFECTIVE CONVERTER STAGE


q

IF - OK STAGE

RF TRANSISTOR OPEN
q

REPLACED NEW ONE

Skill Table
Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Skills Identification of symptom Location of faulty stage Rectification of faults in Rx Score

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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 6 - TAPE RECORDER WIRING DIAGRAM PCB LAY OUT


Objectives 1. To identify and familiarize parts of tape recorder: 2. To identify the stage of tape recorder 3. To. Draw the s layout wiring diagram Hints : Collect the lay out of the tape recorder and issue before starting the experiment Circuit Idea Tape recorders are the simplest and most commonly used device next to Radio . The tape recorders are mainly used by music lovers, journalists , educationalists, ete. It is a combination of mechanical assembly and electrical / electronics units . The know how of wiring diagram and components layout is essential for servicing purposes. By this we can identify the components ,R/P switches , and stage of tape recorder and know the connection terminals of the components out side the PCB. Equipments, Tools & Materials Tape recorde, Screw driver, tweezers Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Collect tape recorder and tools Open the back cover with screw driver of proper size Observe the wiring and locations of various components in the PCB and outside the PCB. Carefully take out the PCB from the cabinet Sketch the PCB layout of tape recorder Sketch the wiring diagram also. Carefully fix the PCB and mechanical assembly on the cabenet. Replace the back cover and tight it .

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

EXPERIMENT 7 - VOLTAGE DATA COLLECTION OF THE RECORDER


Objectives 1. To know the circuit of electronic section of tape recorder 2. To identify the test points on PCB. 3 To measure and record voltage data. CUIRCUIT IDEA:The know how of the voltage data of electronic section is required for fault finding purposes. Voltage data collection can be performed in the electronic circuit of tape recorder which includes power supply , Pte-amp, equalizer/,driver and o/p stage and H F bias oscillator. During recoding mode , the play back section remains inoperative . During play back recording section remains inoperative. Equipments, Tools & Materials Tape recorder , Screw driver, Digital multimeter , probes, power supply, cassette Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Collect the tape recorder from the lab. Open the back cover with proper screw diver Locate the various stages and active components. Identify the lest points. Select DMM with sharp probes Measure various voltage at different test point in both playback and record mode. Tabulate these readings and compare with standard voltage. Replace the back cover and tight it. Return the tool and tape recorder to lab

Tabulation Column (sample) Component Play Back Mode Transistor Emitter Base Collector BC 149 B BC 148 B BC 148 C IC TBA 820 Pin No. Voltage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recording bias in dc (Record Head) Erase bias in dc (erase head) = =

Emitter

Record mode Base collector

Pin No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Voltage

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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 8 - HEAD ADJUSTMENT (AZIMUTH ADJUSTMENT)


Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. To To To To know the idea of head adjustment (azimuth adjustment) identify the head adjustment point. perform the head adjustment (Azimuth adjustment) verify the effect of head adjustment.

Basic Idea The misalignment of head has the effect of increasing the effective gap of the playback head. This causes reduction in output at high frequencies. The recording /play back heads are mounted in a way which permits alignment of the azimuth. The azimuth of the head can be adjusted by trimming the azimuth adjustment screw. The head can be aligned with a special cassette test tape . These test tapes are precision recorded on cassette tape recorders , the heads of which are aligned very accurately. The frequency recorder on these cassettes for alignment of the head is about 4 KHz. Equipments, Tools & Materials The recorder , screw driver set , cassette, Multimeter. Operating Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Place the test cassette tape on the recorder. Connect an output meter or multimeter on a range. 2.5 V AC Set the volume control to mid way Play back the head alignment part of tape . If necessary adjust the volume control for a convenient reading on meter. 5 Adjust the head azimuth adjustment screw for maximum reading on meter ( by turning screw slowly side till the output increases to one side and then to the other 6 If head has been replaced , the azimuth may be much out . In this case azimuth should be adjusted till a clear defined peak is obtained and the 0utput reaches a maximum value.

Skill Table Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Skills Score Identification of head adjustment screw Handling of head & method of operation Verification of head adjustment

130

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 9 - TAPE TRANSPORT MECHANISM


Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. To To To To know the tape transport mechanism . identify the main parts of transport mechanism know the function and necessity of each parts sketch the tape transport diagram.

Basic Idea Function of the transport mechanism in tape recorder is to roll the tape from one side to other side of cassette and vise versa as and when required , ensuring constant and swift speed of tape. The tape mechanism also enables the tape to be wound quickly on either side red for fast forward and rewind operations . Main parts are motor , Belt , Flywheel,Capstan , pinch roller and idles wheel / idler pulley/ tension pulley. The motor drives the tape transport parts. The fly wheel is made of material having more weight and so it rotates in constant and swift speed without flutters . Capstan and pinch roller provides constant speed of the tape . Idler wheel /pulley/ tension pulley are used to move the tape in either directions .The different modes are record, play back, F F, and rewind . Variation slow speed causes Vow effect variation of high & speed causes FLUTTER effect. Equipments, Tools & Materials Tape recorder , screw driver , tweezers ,

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Collect tape recorder Open the back cover using appropriate screw driver Unscrew the related screw those who holds the mechanism to the cabinate Remove the mechanism out of the cabinet. See the mechanism from all sides and locate the important parts such as motor, belt, heads, leaf, switch, Fly wheel etc. 6. Press PLAY button and observe the respective pulleys engaged for play mode and draw the transport mechanism. 7. Similarly observe the arrangement of tape transport mechanism for RECORD, FF and REW mode. 8. Fix the mechanism back to the body and put the cover and return it to lab

Sl.No. 1. 2. 3.

Skill Table Skills Identification of main parts of transport mechanism Verification of roles of each parts in various modes Sketching of transport mechanism

Score

133

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 10 - FAULT FINDING IN TAPE RECORDER


Objectives 1. To know the symptoms in tape recorder 2. To analyse the causes for symptom 3. To know the shortest path for rectifying the defect using service flow sequence or trouble shooting chart 4. To verify each causes and rectify the defect Basic idea When a tape recorder is defective , at first it is required to determine the nature of fault in it. When it is switched ON it shows a symptom by which we can identify whether its mechanical section is faulty or electronic section is faulty or both can be suspected. From the observed symptom applying the knowledge of working of tape recorder. The faulty area can be thought of and from further tests we can identify the defective component. It is to be analysed the cause for defect before replacing the defective component. Equipments, Tools & Materials Tweezers, wire stripper, wires, DMM, faulty tape recorder, servicing components Operating Steps 1. Collect the faulty tape recorder 2. Identify the symptom of tape recorder 1 SYMPTOM:- NO TAPE MOVEMENT Additional Symptom:- when v/c put to max position, a small hissing sound is heard. 1. Remove the back cover 2. Identify the possiblecauses 3. Checked motor rotation, found okay. 4. Checked Fly wheel rotation, found not rotating 5. Belt found broken, replaced, set okay (2) SYMPTOM:- NO SOUND Additional symptom:- Tape movement okay, no recording 1. Checked loudspeaker, okay. 2. Checked power ampr stage, okay 3. Checked driver stage, transistor defective (base emitter open) 4. Replaced transistor, tape recorder okay
MOTOR
checked rotation, okay

SYMPTOM 1 NOTAPEMOVEMENT

q
FLYWHEEL
checked rotation, not ok checked belt, broken replaced belt

SYMPTOM NOSOUND
q

LOUD SPEAKER POWERAMPr


q q

checked OK

} checked OK }checked , found defective } checked found defective(BC


148 base-emitter open) Replaced transistor BC 148 set OK

DRIVER STAGE
q

DRIVER TRANSISTOR

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

(3) SYMPTOM:- TAPE SPEED NOT CONSTANT 1. Checked pinch holler surface for its sticky nature, found defective. 2. Replaced pinch holler, tape recorder oky (4) SYMPTOM:LOW VOLUME OUT PUT 1 Checked adjustment of head , found defective (misadjustment ) 2. Adjusted the head, set okay Switch off the tape recorder and return materials to labe

SYMPTOM 3
SYMPTOM : TAPE SPEED NOT CONSTANT
q

PINCH ROLLER
q

} checked,
found stickn(defective)

SPRING TENSION OF PINCH ROLLER

} Replaced pinch roller

checked OK

SYMPTOM 4
SYMPTOM : LOW VOLIME

HEADP- MISADJUSTNENT

} checked, found
Misadjusted Adjusted head Set OK

Sl.No. 1. 2. 3

Skill Table Skills Identification of symptom Location of faulty stage Rectification of fault

Score

135

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 11 - P A SYSTEM INSTALLATION


Objectives 1. To become familiar with PA System and its control 2. To know the installation of PA System. 3. To operate its control and observe the effects. Circuit Idea Public address (PA) system is an electroaccoustic system, in which sound is first converted into electrical signal (audio) by microphones, and then audio signals are processed and amplified and finally are fed to loud speakers which convert them back to sound. The amplified sound provides confortable listerning to large gatherings as in public meetings, sports concerts, functions or to isolated locations as at railway station , airports etc.. A number of microphone or loudspeakers are be simultamosry operated with a PA amplifier. A speaker type of transformer (LMT) is used for coupling the loudspeakers to the amplifier Equipments, Tools & Materials PA amplifier microphones, loudspeaker , conecting cables, wires, screwdriver etc..

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Collect the equipments form store. Refer the manual of PA amplifier identify each connector Connect the given microphone & loud speaker to the PA and with suitable position. Switch on the PA amplifier & microphone. Adjust the volume control of each microphone

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

6. Adjust the overall volume level with Master control at about 6 to 8 position. 7. Adjust the tonal quality as per the requirement by using bass & Treble controls. 8. Check the sound volume & quality with different inputs. 9. Switch off equipments. 10. Collect the Information regarding PA installation to public meeting, auditorium etc... PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHILE INSTALLING PA SYSTEM 1. Acconstic feedback should not occur 2. Amplifiers audio output power should be suffieiant and should be informly divided by using several loud speakers. 3. Excessive reverberation should be reduced by appropriate furnishing and proper place ment of loud speakers. 4. Loud speakers should be properly oriented to direct the sound to the audience. 5. Noise cancelling microphones and treble boost in amplifaier should be used where ambient noise is high as in sports. 6. Amplifier should have automatic level limiter to reduce distortion due to over loading. 7. Microphones should be carefully selected to suit the programme. 8. Matching of impedance between microphone and amplifier input and between amplifier output and loud speakers is essential. 9. Microphone leads should be isolated from a.c leads to iliminate chance of picking up a.c.hum. 10. Radio fequency pich-up should not occur.

BACK VIEW (Sample)

Skill Table Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Skills PA sytem Installition Setting of different control Handly of equipement Score

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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 12 - IDENTIFY AND OPERATE B & W TV CONTROLS


Objectives On completion of this excercise you shall be able to * Locate and identify controls on the front panel and other terminal sockets of a B&W TV set * Tune the B&W TV receiver for different aired TV Channels * Adjust controls for better picture and sound * Use pattern generator to adjust TV controls for optimum brightnness and contrast * Use pattern generator to identify linearity defects on the TV Screen. * Operate B & W Television using remote control. Requirements Equipments, Tools & Materials

B&W TV receiver of different - 1 Set/batch make with/without remote RF cable (direct probe)- 4 cables Trainees tool kit - 1 set Note: Minimum of four B&W TV sets of different makes shall be used for this exercise.

A batch of 4 trainees shall work on each TV at a time. Hint to Instructor: 1. Instructor shall cover all the identification marks, names of the controls & sockets and provide labels (A,B.C......or 1,2,3......) for the same before the start of the exercise so that the trainees can perform the identification exercise. 2. Instructor shall give four Xerox copies of operating Instruction sheets of the TV per batch of trainees. And he shall demonstrate the functions of the controls after comple tion of task1. 3. Demonstrate the procedure for tuning with turret type tuner and Electronic tuner TV for receiving the local TV channel. 4. Demonstrate the operation of remote control unit Procedure TASK 1 - Identify external controls and sockets of a B&W TV set. 1. Select any one of the labelled B&W TV and Record the name and its function on the O&T sheet Table 1 and 2 by referring to the given TV operating manual. 2. Repeat step 1 for all other labels. 3. Get your work checked by the instructor. 4. Connect the antenna to the RF input TV and switch ON, adjust the brightness and contrast control to the middle position. 5. Tune the receiver to the available on the air programme (local TV channel) as demon strated by your instructor) 6. Repeat step 5 for different channels. 138

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

TASK 2: Identify Linearlty defects on the TV screen Using pattern generator. 1. In the pattern generator given, locate, identify and record the input, output controls and their functions in table 3. 2. List out the patterns available in the given pattern generator in Table 4. 3. Connect the output of the pattern generator to the antenna input of B & W TV, as demonstarted by your instructor. 4. Power ON pattern generator, Select channel 4 in TV receiver and tune it for clear pattern. 5. Select gray scale pattern. 6. Adjust brightness, contrast and fine tune controls of TV to get distinguish visible gray scale pattern. 7. Write down the number gray scales in O&T sheet. 8. Select horizontal pattern in the pattern generator. 9. Check it there are any defects in Linearity. Record defects observed in Table 6. Identification of defect was demonstated by instructor. If any doubt consult your instructor. 10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 by selecting other patterns available in the pattern in the pattern generator. 11. Get your work checked by your instructor. TASK 3:- Identify the different controls/ functions available on the remote control unit of a TV set. 1. Refer the remote control manual and identify the location and functions of different control buttons as identified in Task 1. Record the positions of the buttons on the O&T sheet. 2. Operate different controls of TV through the remote control unit and set brightness, contrast and sound to required level. 3. Get your work checked by instructor. 4. Vary the distance and angle between the remote control and the TV and operate the remote control unit to find the approximate maximum distance in which the remote control work effectively. Record the distance and the angle in the O&T sheet. 5. Get your work checked by instructor. 6. Switch OFF the TV and remove antenna connection.

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EXPERIMENT 13 - IDENTIFY AND ASSEMBLE A TELEVISION ANTENNA


Objectives On completion of this excercise you shall be able to * Identify the TV antenna elements * Assemble the antenna elements * Terminate Wires from the dipole * Set the orientation of the antenna. Requirements Materials/Components TV antenna 3 Element type - 2 Nos TV antenna 5 Element type - 2 Nos Antenna cable (flat/ribbon) - 4 Mts. Balloon transformer - 4 Mts Insulation tape - as reqd Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees Tool Kit Spanners (Required size)- 4Sets. Cutting pliers -4 Nos Measuring tape (1 mtr) - 4 Nos

Procedure TASk 1:- Identification of TV antenna Elements Hints to Instructor: 1. 2. 3. 4. At least one TV antenna should be provided to a group of 4 trainees. Provide the TV antenna of the trainees without support pole for easy handling. Label the antenna elements before the exercise. All the trainees should do identification on both 3 and 5 element antenna.

1. Record the type of antenna in the O&T sheet based on the number of elements. 2. Select one of the label from the given antenna, identify the name and record in the O&T sheet. 3. Measure and record the length of the identified element in the O&T sheet. 4. Repeat step 2 and 3 for other labels. 5. Measure and record the distance between the elements in the record sheet through a rough sketch. 6. Get your work checked by your instructor. 7. Repeat step 1 to 6 for the other type of antenna.)

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Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

TASK2: Assemble a TV antenna Hints to Instructor: 1. 2. Demonstrate the method of assembling the antenna elements for 5 element and 3 element antennas. Each batch should assemble 5 element as well as 3 element antennas

1. Visually inspect the given TV antenna, bolt & nuts, for any rusting, apply rust remover or kerosene in case of any rust, and allow five to ten minutes for the solution to penetrate. 2. Identify and record the type of antenna elements given to you form O&T sheet. 3. Assemble the given antenna referring to the details availabe in your O&T shhet. 4. Get the work checked by your instructor. 5. Clean the end of the dipole by Scrapping/applying emery sheet. 6. Strip the given antenna wire ends to 10 cm, and connect to dipole as shown in fig.1.

7. Apply a PVC insulation tape over the wire-dipole joints as shown in fig2.

8. Attach the terminal box to the dipole as demonstarted by your instructor. 9. Get the work checked by your instructor. 10. Fix the antenna to the support pole and fix the antenna unit temporarily in the side of work bench or any where outside. The assembled antenna fixed with support pole may be installed in the top of any building availabel for mare realistic practice. 11. Fix the antenna in the direction such that the director faces the direction of the TV tower. 12. Connect the antenna cable to a TV and tune the TV for the Aired program. 13. Adjust the antenna direction slightly (left and right) till a clear picture is obtained. 14. Get the work checked by your instructor. 141

Teachers Sourcebook VHSE

EXPERIMENT 14 - TRACING OF POWER SUPPLY/SMPS STAGE OF B/W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to * Identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols * Trace out the circuit diagram of given SMPs stage of a B/W TV * Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output. * Identify and measure voltage at test points. Equipments, Tools & Materials * * * * TV receiver Trainees tool kit Table lamp magnifying lens 1 No (batch of 4 trainees) 4 set. 1 No. 1 No.

Hints to Instructor 1. The instructor shall keep a commercially available circuit/service manual for the TV models available in the LAB. If the circuit given in this materials is different to that of your TV. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram in stages as given in this material for the trainees to perform this exercise. Issue the actual circuits only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. If spare boards of the TV is available it may be given for tracing and only the voltage measurement can be taken from the working TV. Precautions 1. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. 2. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force wires. 3. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered correctly. Procedure 1. Remove the back cover of the TV receiver and unscrew the chaissis / mains PCB fitting screws, Keep all screws, nut fateners etc, safetly in a transparent cover. 2 Detach the connectors wherever possible and take the PCB out of the cabinet without in a stretching the soldered wires too much. Label the connectors for easy identification 3. Position the PCB such that all component side faces towards you. Provide a support for the stable positioning of the PCB. 4. Locate all the components of SMPS stage on PCB referring to the lesson, record their symbols on the place marked for rough sketch, in the O&T sheet as laid out in the PCB. 5. Count the toatal number of each category of component, and enter in the O&T sheet. 6. Keep a lamp at the backside of the PCB. Use a table lamp or a test lamp. Do not keep the bulb very close to the PCB. Do not keep the bulb coninuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 142

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

7. Start the tracing work of the circuit from mains cord, to dc outputterminals of SMPS by marking the links/connections between component symbols drawn on the O&T sheet. 8. Referring to the circuit diagram of that brand/model TV obtained from your instructor, rearrange the traced out circuit in sequence from input to output. 9. Mark the locations of the test points on the rough sketch of the traced circuit and on the rackside of the PCB with a sketch pen. 10. Record the specified voltage for the test points in table 2 of record sheet referring circuit diagram. 11. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor. 12. Re-fix the connectors and place the PCB conveniently in position that so the trackside of the PCB is faces you. 13. Switch on the TV in the presence of your instructor. Note down the symptoms in the O&T sheet. Beaware that you are working in a very high voltage enviornment. Do not measure voltage other than places marked. 14. Measure the voltage on the test points using Multimeter and record in table 2 of O&T sheet.

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EXPERIMENT 15 - MOUNTING AND TESTING THE PICTURE TUBE IN THE CABINET


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to * Mount the picture tube into the cabinet. * Test the picture tube * Connect the picture tube, PCB, yoke, and EHT * Troubleshoot the picture tube faults. Materials/ Components * Available cabinet suitable for 20 picture tube - 1 No * 20 picture tube - 1 No Hints to Instructor: The instructor shall demonstrate the picture tube mounting and detaching procedures using a working TV receiver. Procedure TASK 1:- Detaching and mounting the picture tube 1. As demonstrated by your instructor detach and mount the picture tube from/ to the cabinet. 2. Get your work checked by your instructor. Note: 1. Do not hold picture tube on neck side. 2. Do not rest the picture tube on neck (side wise) TASK 2:- Make connections to the picture tube 1. Fix the yoke at the neck of picture tube 2. With reference to the circuit diagram connect the picture tube base socket to the picture tube base pins. 3. Make horizontal and vertical connections to yoke 4. Fix the EHT connection to the EHT soket in the picture tube. 5. Fix earth shield connections over the graphite coating outside surface of the glass neck. 6. Get your connections checked by the instructor. 7. Switch ON the TV set. Adjust the controls to get clear picture and noise free sound. 8. Measure and note the voltages at all the pins of picture tube in O&T sheet. Refer circuit for various voltages to be availabe are CRT pins for the safety of the meter and self. Do not try to measure the EHT voltage. 9. Switch off TV set. 10. Get your work checked by instructor. 11. Discharge the stray capacitance of the picture tube.

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Picture tube specifications 500C1 P 4 , 590C1 P 4 ,610C1 P 4 pins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Filament Cathode Control grid Accelarating anode Focussing No Connection 1&8 7 2&6 3 4 5
3 2 1 5 4 6 7

310C1 P 4 , 470 C1 P 4 pins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Filament Cathode Control grid Accelarating anode Focussing No Connection 3&4 2 5&1 6 7 8
2 1 3 4

6 7

TASK 3:- Rectify the simulated fault in the picture tube control circuit of the B & W TV receiver 1. Switch ON the set to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the informed com plaint and the identified complaint in O&T sheet. 2. Identify the defect causing the complaint. Refer problem tree discussed in lesson for early identification of the defect. 3. Record the identified defect. Refer troubeshooting chart for the remedial measures. 4. Service the defect. Test the set for its satisfactory working. If the complaint is not rectified/if complaint other than informed exists consult your instructor. 5. Record the remedial action taken during servicing along with the components replaced if any in the O&T sheet. 6. Get your work checked by your instructor.

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TROUBLESHOOTING CHART Sl No 1 Observable symptom Curved raster (Neck shadow) Additional symptom Picture ok Sound ok Probable defect(s) Improper Positioning of Yoke Causes reasons Yoke fixing Screws loosened Remedial measures

Check and correct the position of the Yoke and tighten the screws Turn the yoke to get correct raster. Check and correct the yoke position Replace the wires correctly

Diagonal raster

Picture ok Sound ok Picture, raster ok

Tilted yake

Mispositioning of yoke

Picture upside down

Upside down Mispositioning tilted yoke of yoke Connections Wrong to Vertical connections deflection coil reversed

4.

Pin cushion effect (raster distortion Blackended corner raster not available at the corner (raster distortion) EHT arcing

Picture ok sound ok

Misaligned pin cushion magnet

Displaced pin Check and correct the cushion magnet position

Sound ok Picture visible

Misaligned ring Displaced ring magnets Magnets

Check and correct the position

Noise at the EHT Raster sound ok

Interpol EHT

EHT connector Check and tighten the loose contact EHT connector. Wrong connection Rectify

Lateral inverted picture

Hoz deflection coil connection intercharged

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EXPERIMENT 16 - TRACING AND FAULT FINDING OF THE HORIZONTAL SUB SECTION OF A B & W TV RECEIVER
Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to * Identify the components / devices of the horizontal sub section and draw their corre sponding symbols * Trace the circuit diagram of the horizontal sub section of given B&W TV * Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output * Rectify the simulated fault in the horizontal sub section. Requirements Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments

B&W TV receiver - 1No

Trainees kit - 1 No CRO 15 MHz - 1No

Hints to Instructor
1 2 3. 4. 5. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the B & W TVs models used in this exercise. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (horizontal sub section for this exercise) for the traniees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercise. Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit, if spare boards of the same B&W TV is available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing. The instructor shall simulate certain faults in the horizontal sub section of the TV receiver set, for the trainees to carryout fault finding and servicing. rafer problem tree for simulating defects. If the trainee is able to trouble shoot created defect early, create another defect and ask the trainee to service that and then other defect and so on.

6.

Procedure

TASK 1:- Identification of components and Tracing the circuit


1. Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB is such that the compo nent side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut fateners etc, saftely in a transparent cover, Label all the detached onnectors/ Wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Referring to the circuit schematic of the horizontal sub section, locate the components of horizontal sub section on PCB. Record the identified components symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the place marked as Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks. 3. Count the local number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc.) Identified in horizontal sub section and enter in the O&T sheet.

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4. Get the rough sketch of traced components of the horizontal sub section cheked by the instructor. 5. Place a table lamp of around 40W at the back side (Solder side) of the PCB.DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as his may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 6. Trace the of horizontal sub section by marking the links/and connections between compo nent symbols , drawn on the O&T sheet at step 2. 7. Referring to the circuit diagram of the horizontal sub section from the lesson or given to you by your instructor rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet in the space marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 8. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor O&T sheet -observation and tabulation sheet. TASK 2:- Rectifying the aimulated fault in the horizontal sub section of the given faulty TV receiver 1. Switch ON the TV set to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the informed complaint and the identified complaint in the sheet. 2. Record the identified defect. Refer trouble shooting chart for the remedial measures. 3. Service the defect. Test the stage for its satisfactory working. 4. record the remedial action taken during servicing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet. 5. Get your work checked by your instructor.

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Sl Observable No Symptom 1

Additional sympton

Probable defect(s) No deflection current flow through horizontal deflection coil

Causes/ reasons C522(220kpf) open horizontal deflection coil open Horizontal deflection coil connecting wires open. H.hold control defective Incorrect setting of H.hold control VR501. Defective R507 R508,C505,and C504.

Remedial measures

Bright vertical Sound ok line

Test and replace C522, and horizontal deflection coil and connecting wires

Horizontal rolling (diagonal rolling)

Picture ok Sound ok

Incorrect horizontal frequency

Test and replace H.hold control VR501. Reset the VR501 to lock diagonal rolling.

Loss of H.sync Signal Loss of feeback from LOT

Check and replace

R514 27K Check and replace C507-220kpf No voltage atpin Check voltage with the no.5 of CA920. data given Due to aging Check and replace Q503.

Horizontal fold over

Sound ok Picture visible

Defective horizontal transistor Q503 BU505 Defective line output transformer inter oscillation Defective by pass Defective wave shaping component R526.

Due to repalce new LOT excessive heat produce inter oscillation Leaky C515 Check and replace 100 Fcapacitor C515 100. R526 open due to long long use. Check and replace R526.

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EXPERIMENT 17 - TROUBLE SHOOTING IN HORIZONTAL OUTPUT STAGE OF A B& W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to * Identify the components/ devices and draw their corresponding symbols. * Trace the circuit diagram of horizontal output section of given reference B&W TV * Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output * Rectify the simulated fault in the horizontal output section. Requirements Materials/Components B&W TV receiver - 1 No/Batch Tools/Equipments/Instruments

Traniees kit - 1 No CRO 15 MHz - 1 No

Hints to Instructor: 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the B&W Tvs models used in this exercise. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (horizontal output section for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercise. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit, if spare boards of the same B&W TV are available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. 4. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing. 5. The instructor shall simulate certain faults in the horizontal output section of the TV receiver set, for the trainees to carryout fault finding and servicing. Refer problem tree for simulating defects. 6. If the trainee is able to trouble shoot the created defect early. create another defect and ask the trainee to service that and then other defect and so on. Procedure TASK 1:- Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB is such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut fateners etc, saftely in a transparent cover, Label all the detached onnectors/ Wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Referring to the circuit schematic of the horizontal output section, locate the components horizontal output section on PCB. Record the identified components symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the place marked as Space for rough skotch of the component layout with tracks. 150

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

3. Count the local number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc.) Identified in horizontal output section and enter in the O&T sheet. 4. Get the rough sketch of traced components of the horizontal out put section cheked by the instructor. 5. Place a table lamp of around 40W at the back side (Solder side) of the PCB. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 6. Trace the horizontal sub section by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the O&T sheet at step 2. 7. Referring to the circuit diagram of the horizontal out put section from the lesson or given to you by your instructor rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit 8. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor. TASK 2:- Rectifying the simulated fault in the horizontal out put section of the given faulty TV receiver 1. Switch ON the TV set to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the informed complaint and the identified complaint in the sheet. 2. Record the identified defect. Refer trouble shooting chart for the remedial measures. 3. Service the defect. Test the stage for its satisfactory working. If the complaint is not rectified complaint other than informed exists consult your instructor. 4. Record the remedial action taken during, servicing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet. 5. Get your work checked by your instructor.

TROUBLESHOOTING CHART FOR HORIZONTAL OUTPUT STAGE Sl. Observable No. symptom 1 No. raster Probable defect(s) No EHT No input at the baseof Q 502 Causes/reasons Remedical measures

Horizontal output transistor Q503 BU505 defective. Horizontal teansistor Q502 BD 115 defective Open LOT primary wibding. R530 50 open R528-4K7 open C523 -3K9 shorted. Defective horizontal oscillation section

Check and replace Q503

Check and replace Q502

Check and replace LOT Check and replace R530 Check and replace R528 Check and replace C 523 Check input to Q 502

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EXPERIMENT 18 - TROUBLE SHOOTING IN VERICAL SECTION OF A B & W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the components/devices of the vertical section and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of vertical section of given reference B&W TV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output Rectify the simulated fault in the vertical section Requirements Materials/Components B& W TV receiver - 1 No. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees kit 1 No. CRO 15 MHz with B.N.C. connector 1 No.

Hints to Instructor 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/ service manual for the B &W TVs models used in this exercise. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (vertical section for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercise. Issue the copies of the circuit only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit , if spare boards of the same B& W TV is available , the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. 4. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB suitable for tracing. 5. The instruction shall simulate certain faults in the vertical section of the T.V. receiver set, for the trainees to carryout fault finding and servicing . Refer problem tree for simulating defects. 6. If the trainees is able to trouble shoot created defect early , create another defect and ask the trainee to service that and then other defect and so on. Procedure Task 1 : - Identification of components and tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver . As demonstrated by you instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabin easily for the purpose of circuit tracing . Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wire s so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Referring to the circuit schematic of the vertical section, locate the components of vertical section onPCB ,. Record the identified components symbols is the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout ) in the place marked as Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks 3 Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor , transistor etc. ) identified in vertical stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 4. Get the traced rough sketch of component of the ertical section checked by the inatructor 152

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

5. Place a table lamp of around 40W at the back side (Solder side) of the PCB.DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 6 Trace the vertical section by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the O&T sheet as step 2 7 Referring to the circuit diagram of the vertical section,( from lessonor given to you by your instructor rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9 Get the traced circuit checked by your instruction Task 2 Rectifying the simulated fault in the vertical section of the given faulty TV receiver 1. Switch On the TV not to conform the informed complaint Record both the informed complaint and the identififed complaint in the O &T sheet 2. Record the identified defect. Refer trouble- shooting shart for the remedial measures specified voltage levels at different the test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3. Service the defect. Test the stage for its satisfactory working If the complaint is not rectified ,complaint other than informed exists consult your instructor. 4 Record the remedial action taken during serviciing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet 5 Get your work checked by your instrucor.

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SL Observable No. symptom 1 Bright horizontal line only

TROUBLESHOOTING CHART 1 FOR VERTICAL SECTION Causes Additiona Probable Remedial reasons Synplom defect(s) measures Defective transistor Check and replace the Sound ok Defective vertical BC 147 oscillation section defective component Defective vertical out put section Defective vertical deflection coil Less/No power supply to vertical section / Defective IC Open Coil Defective power line and series resistor and filter capacitor/ Check and replace the defective component Check and replace the defective component Check and replace the defective component Check and replace VR 402, R411 R 410 and Vr 403 Check and replace Q401 Check VR 401 and replace Check the wiring from pin no.7 of CA 920, R401,10k, C401,22kpf, R402k. C401, 22kpf and C403 1uf. Check and correct the voltage gain to pin no.10 of IC 1044 Check C 703 0.15uf and Check C705 25uf/25v and replkace Check the voltages in each pin if found variation replace the IC Check R 707 and R 708 open/short and replace by new one Check R704, R705 and R709 and found if change in value replace them.

Less voltage at Height control Insufficient Sound ok enitter of Q 401V VR 402 , 470 K Defective R 411, picture/raster Picture ok R410 and VR 403 height/ Voltages abnormal at Q401 Leaky transistor due to ageing

3. Picture rolling Sound ok Q401 base voltage Defective hold Picture ok/ abnormal VR 401 control. qvertically There may be loose 50 Hz pulses not contact through the wiring from pin no.7 available at the base of Q 401 of CA 920 to base of Q401 Sound ok Abnormalvoltage Low power supply functuation 10 IC 1044

Picture cramping or fold over the bottom

Defective leakuy Due to long use. capactor Defective IC 1044 Due to long use. Defective resistors R707, R to8, R 704 , R705

Due to long use .

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EXPERIMENT 19 - TROUBLE SHOOTING IN VIDEO AMPLIFIER STAGE ON A B & W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of video amplifier section of a B& W TV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to out put Rectify the simulated fault in the video amplifier section Requirements Materials/Components B&W TV receiver 1 No. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees kit CRO 15 MHz Hints to Instructor: 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the B&W TVs models used in this exercise. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages ( video section for this exercise ) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercise 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit, if a spare board of the same B&W TV is available , the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. 4. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing . 5. The instructor shall simulate certain faults in the video section of the T.V receiver set, for the trainees to carry out fault finding and servicing . Refer problem tree for simulating defects. 6. If the trainee is able to trouble shoot created defect early, create another defect and ask the trainee to service that and then other defect and so on. 1 No

Procedure
Task 1 : - Identification of components and tracing the circuit 1 . Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver.As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabin easily for the purpose of circuit tracing . Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws , nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wire s so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Referring to the circuit schematic of the video section, locate the components of video section on PCB ,. Record the identified components symbols is the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout ) in the place marked as Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks

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3. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc) Identified in video l section and enter in the O&T sheet. 4. Get the traced rough sketch of components of the video section checked by the instruction 5. Place a table lamp of around 40w at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components . DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 6 Trace the video section by marking the links/and connection between component symbols drawn on the O &T sheet at step 2 7 Referring to the circuit diagram of the video section from the lesson or given to you by your instructor rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit 8 Get the traced circuit checked by your instruction Task 2. Rectifying the simulated fault in the video section of the given faulty TV receiver 1 Switch On the TV set to confirm informed complaint. . Record both the informed complaint and the identified complaint in the O & T sheet. 2 Record the identified defect. Refer trouble-shooting chart for the remedial measures. 3 Service the defect. Test the stage for its satisfactory working If the complaint not rectified/the complaint other than informed exists. Consult your instructor 4 Record the remedial action taken during servicing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet 5 Get your work checked by your instructor

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TROUBLESHOOTING CHART 1 FOR VERTICAL SECTION SL. Observable Additional No.symptom Symptom 1 No picture Sound ok Probable defect(s) Defective video out put transistor BD115/in Operativ /inOperative Video transistor BD 115 Causes reasons Transistor leaky Due to aging and surge voltage the resistor may get open Remedial measures Test and replace BD 115. Test and replace R209

2 Dull picture Sound ok Contrast control defective (poor Mechanical defect Contrast) Loose/dry soldered joint

Due to frequent and Replace and test. long use/poor quality Long use Resolder

3.

Leaky output Due to long use transistor BD 115 (Q201) Smeared Sound ok, Bypass capacitor Poor quality picture/ Brightness defective C 206,204 and Shorted video contrast Poor quality coupling capacitor also ok C202,C203 Intermittent Sound ok Picture Dry/loose solder at the video output stage Defective brightness and contrast control Long use

Replace/ test Q201 Test and replace C206 C203 Test and replace C202, C 203 Resolder

Dirty/ Wornout

Test and replace

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EXPERIMENT 20 - TROUBLE SHOOTING IN SOUND SECTION OF A B & W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to . identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols . trace the circuit diagram of sound section of given reference B&W TV . rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output . rectify the simulated fault in the sound section. Requirements Materials/Components B& W TV receiver - 1 No./batch. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees kit A.M/F.M.signal generator CRO 15 MHz Hints to Instructor: 1 The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the B&W TVs models used in this exercise. 2 Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages [sound section for this exercise] for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercis. 3 Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit, if spare board of the same B&W TV is available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. 4 Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing. 5 The instructor shall simulate certain faults in the sound section of the T.V receiver set, for the trainees to carryout fault finding and servicing. Refer problem tree for simulating defects. 6 The trainess may be given as many as defects one by one depending on the availability of time. Procedure TASK 1:-Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1 Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor,detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pukked out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2 Referring to the circuit schematic of the sound section,given in the lesson or given to you by your instructor locate the components of sound section on PCB. Record the identified components symbols in the O&T sheet [similar to the PCB layout] in the place marked as Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks 3 Count the total number of each category of component [like resistor,transistor etc.] Identified in sound section and enter in the O&T sheet. 158 - 1 No. - 1 No.

Maintenance and Repairs of Radio and Television

4 5

6 7

Get the rough sketch of traced compoments checked by the instructor. Place a table lamp of around 40W at the back side [solder side] of the PCB. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously on for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. Trace the sound section by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the O&T sheet at step 3. Referring to the circuit diagram of the sound section from the lesson or given to you by your instructor rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in theO&t sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor.

TASK 2:- Rectifying the simulated faults in the sound section of the faulty TV receiver set 1 2 3 4 5 Swith ON the B&W TV set to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the in formed complaint and the identified complaint in the O&T sheet. Record the identified defect. Refer trouble-shooting chart for the remedial measures. Service the defect. Test the stage for its satisfactory working. if the complaint is not rectified/if complaint other than informed exist,consult your instructor. Record the remedial action taken during servicing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet. Get your work checked by your instructor.

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Sl. Observable No. symptom 1 No sound

Additional Probable symptom defect[s] Picture ok Defective volume control

Causes/ reasons Ageing/long use

Remedial measures Replace

D f c i es e k r S e k r v i e o lRepl c t e eetv pae pae ocCi ae h o e d et pn u o speaker ln ue og s. One of the end R - o d r t e esle h wi e o t e rs f h end wi eo r r Speaker d ys l e e r odrd may be open No l w DC suppl 220 f or /o y Check and available at 100K at pin replace. the pin no.10 shorted/ no10 of CA 1190 leaky Defective IC1190 Short circuited Check and replace in side the ICabnormal voltage at IC - terminals C301 4.7PF open Check and reaplace

Open circuit sound take off point to sound IF input

Weak Sound

Picture ok

Defective IC Defective volume control

Partial short inside Check and replace the IC Center or hot end point of V/C may Re-soldered the get dry soldred joints or [open]
Mechanical Check and replace disconnection due the new volume to frequent use control

Defective speaker 3 Hum in sound Picture ok

Cone paper eaten Check and replace by insects new speaker

Sound disturded intermittently Uncontrolled sound

Sound ok

Distorted sound

Low Voltage power Filter capacitor C4, Check and replace supply defect 470 F and C306 , filter capacitor 220 F leaky due to long use Defect in singnal Shielded wire earthCheck and solder line wiring connection drythe shielded earth soldered connection Defective volume Dust formation Check and replace control VR 302 inside the volume the volume control contorl VR 302 Centre tap contact Check and replace loosen of VR 302 the volume control Defecive volume Volume control Re-solder the control CR 302 earth end soldered earth end of VR 302 open Volume control Replace the earth end broken volume control VR 302

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EXPERIMENT 21 - TROUBLE SHOOTING IN VIF AMPLIFIER OF A B & W TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to . identity the components/devices of VIF amplifier stage and draw their corresponding symbols . trace the circuit diagram of VIF section of given reference B&W TV . rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output . rectify the simulated fault in the VIF section. Requirements Materials/Components B&W TV receiver -1 No/batch Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees kit. A.M/F.M signal generator C.R.O 15 MHz Hints to Instructor: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the B&W TV models used in this exercise. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages [VIF section for this exercise] for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercise Instead of asking the trainees to open the B&W TV and trace the circuit, if a spare board of the same B&W TV is available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing. The instructor shall simulate certain faults in the VIF section of the T.V receiver set, for the trainees to carryout fault finding and servicing. Refer problem tree for simulating defects. The trainees may be given as many as defects one by one depending on the avail ability of time. -1 No. -1 No.

Procedure TASK 1:-Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1 Remove the back cover of the given B&W TV receiver. As demonstrated by your insturctor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws,nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the deached connectors/wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. Referring to the circuit schematic of the sound section, locate the components of VIF section on PC. Record the identified components symbols in the O&T sheet [similar to the PCB layout] In the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks proved in the O&T sheet. Count the total number of each category of component[like resistor, transistor etc.] Identijied 161

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4 5

6 7

in VIF section and enter in the O&T sheet. Get the rough sketch of traced components of the VIF sectionchecked by the instructor Place a table lamp of around 40W at the back side [solder side] of the PCB. DONT keep the buib very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up Tracing of VIF section by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the O&T sheet at step 3. Referring to the circuit diagram of the VIF section from lesson or given to you by your instructoe rear-range and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor

TASK 2:- Rectifying the simulated fault in the V.I.F stage of a faulty TV receiver 1 Switch ON the TV set to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the informed complaint and the identified complaint in O&T sheet. 2 Record the identified defect. Refer troubleshooting chart for the remedial measures. 3 Service the defect. Test the stage foe its satisfactory working. 4 Record the remedial action taken during servicing along with the components replaced if any, in the O&T sheet. If the complaint is not rectified/if complaint other than informed exists consult your instructor. 5 Get your work checked by your instructor.

TRQUBLESHOOTING CHART -1 FOR VISIOM IF AMPLLIFRE Sl. Obsevable Additional Probable No, sympotom sympotom defect(s) 1. No picture, Raster Ic shorted no sound normal IC pins making Loose Contact No low voltage supply Causes/ reasons Due to long use Remaedial measeues Check and replice the VIF IC 7611 Re-soldering the IC pin and check Check and replace R104

Dry soldering

Limiting resisor R104 gets open C117 leaky AGC VR 301 damaged

Check and replace C117 Check and replace VR 301

Excessive AGC

2 Weak Picture Raster poor contrast normal

Due to long use Replace the V.I.F IC 701 (Note: The voltage in pins may be normal ) AGC insufficient AGC VR 101 Check and correct AGC misposition voltage between -2 to- 4V by adjusting VR 301 for correct contrast

Weak IC

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EXPERIMENT 22 - MOUNTING AND TESTING OF VHF TUNER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to . mount the tuner into a cabinet . test the tuner . rectify the simulated faults in the tuner section. Requirements Materials/Components VHF tuner-turret type with -1 No. knobes-12 channel Partially assembled kit -1 No. Yagi antenna-5 element -1 No. with cable for local TVstation. Hints to Instructor: 1 2 3 The instructor shall demonstrate the removing & mounting procedure of turret tuner into the available cabinet For testing the tuner, a working TV receiver may be used. In this, replace the old tuner with new tuner. Then testing of tuner may be carried out. The demonstration of mounting and testing of ELECTRONIC TUNER may also be carried out if available. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Traineeskit Working B/W TV receiver -1 No. Multimeter -1 No.

Procedure TASK 1:- Mounting of tuner 1 2 Mount the turret/electronic tuner into the available cabinet as demonstrated by your instructor. Get your work checked by the instructor.

TASK 2:- Connecting and testing of tuner 1 2 3 4 5 6 With reference to the circuit diagram. Connect B+, AGC, -ve, input wire connections of turret/electronic tuner. Get the connections checked by the instructor. Connect antenna to the TV receiver. Switch ON the receiver, and set the tuner to the local channel,adjust the fine-tuning control for sharp picture and noise free sound. Measure and record the DC voltage at B+, AGC in the O&T sheet. Get your work checked by your instructor.

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TASK 3:-Rectify the simulated faults in the tuner 1 Switch ON the TV receiver to confirm the informed complaint. Record both the informed complaint and the identified complaint in the O&T sheet. 2 Record the identified defect. Refer trouble-ahooting chart for the remedial measures. 3 Service the defect. Test the TV tuner for its satisfactory working. If the complaint is not rectified/if complaint other than informed exists consult your instructor.

TROUBLESHOOTING CHART -1 for Sound section Sl. Observable No. symptom 1 No picture no sound Additional Probale Causes/ symptom defect[s] reasons Raster No signal input Antenna problem with snow to the tuner Antenna cabledefective Open Balun Defective tuner Remedial measures Check antenna connection check and replace Check and replace Balun Check and replace tuner

No voltage available to the tuner

R-1KW open. Check and replace C-100uF shorted Check and replace 12V+ve wiring Check and connect discinnection. -ve supply line out. Check and connect Check and correct Check and select correct channel and tuner Check and replace Check and correct C and R the supply voltage to the tuner

Weak signal Incorrect antenna available to the orientation. tuner Incorrect channel selection. Tuner output low Defective tuner Low+ve voltage

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EXPERIMENT 23 - IDENTIFY DIFFERENT STSGES AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF A CTV


Objectives On . . . completion of this exercise you shall be able to identify the different stages of a CTV identify the different service controls provided on CTV PCB identify various components in different stages.

Requirements Materials/Components CTV receiver - 1 No./batch. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Hints to Instructor: 1 ASSUMPTION MADE:During the development of this Exercise and for some informaions given in lessons, as a refernce, ITT colour Television Kit [German] has been choosen as it is found to be easy to understand as well quite popular. Hence, for the circuit, component layout etc., to the ITT kit is chosen as reference. If the institute is using any other kit such as Hitachi, National,Samsung, BELetc., then, the instructor has to carry out suitable modifications in the exercises. Although, care is taken to make the procedural steps in the exercises quite applicable to whatsoever the kit used for training, certain material that go with the procedural steps such as,the component layout, circuit diagram need to be modified. Therefore,for those institutes using CTV kits other than the ITT kit they shouldprepare necessary materias at least one week in advance before conducting this and subsequent exercises and its related lessons. Instructor shall label the main components and service controls [refer table given at the end of this exercise] on the component side of the CTV PCB. The labelling can be A-1 to Axx,B-1 to B-xx, C-1 to C-xx and so on. The label A-xx shall correspond to to a particular stage[for example: Power supply stage] label B-xx shall correspond to an other stage [for example: Horizontal section] and so on. Hints given at 1 and 2 above is applicable for all the four different types/kits of CTV to be given for the trainess for practice. Trainees minium tool kit - 1Set. Colour sketch pens -1Set.

Procedure Precaution: In this exercise, since you are opening the CTV and handle the PCB, this exercise should be done with the mains cord removed from mains supply. Hence, DO NOT start this exercise unless the mains cable to the CTV is removed from the mains supply socket. 1 As demonstated by your instructor, open the back cover of the CTV and pull out the PCB out of the chassis. Place the pulled out PCB on the rubber mat[if the connected wire lengths allow] or make it rest stably on one of the side walls of the CTV cabinet or as suggested by your instructor. 2 Refer Table given at the end of this exercise and locate component/control[Mains supply input points,M1-M2] on the pulled out PCB. On locating the component/control you will find, a label number[for example, A-9 or B-7 and so on]&-some printed information by the side of the component on the PCB. 165

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3 In the component layout diagram [without the component details marked] given in record sheet record the label number of the located component. 4 Get the located component checked by your instructor. 5 Repeat step 2 and 3 for all the listed components given in table and any other additional components added to the list by your instructor. 6 From the recorded table number of the compoents, in the component layout [in record sheet], identify the components belonging to a stage. Using colour pencils mark all the compoents/controls of a perticular stage using one colour as suggested in table. 7 Get the located compoents and coloured stage wise compononts checked by your instructor

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EXPERIMENT 24 - IDENTITY AND TEST NECK COMPONENTS OF A COLOUR-PICTURE TUBE


Objectives
On completion of this exercise you shall be able to . identify the external parts of a colour picture tube . measure resistance of yoke colls . identity magnets in the neck of the picture tube . check the degaussing operation. Requirements Materials/Components Colour TV receiver -1 No. Multimeter -1 No. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Minimum tool kit -1 Set.

Hints to Instructor: 1 2 Do not connect power supply to the colour TV set while doing this exercise. Before conducting this exercise label the parts of a colour picture tube for the trainees to identify. Referlesson 19.04 for the different parts to be labeledPrecaution: Do not disturb the setting of made at the picture tube neck assembly. Also do not disturb the rubber wedges used for fixing the deflection yoke.

Procedure TASK 1:- Name the external parts of a colour picture tube 1 2 3 4 5 Remove the back cover of the CTV and keep the fitting screws safely. Select a label put on the picture tube. Identify the name of the labelled part and record in Table 1 of O&T sheet. Repeat step 2 and 3 for all the other labels. Get the work checked by your instuctor.

TASK 2:- Identification of picture tube-neck components 1 2 Identity deflection yoke and its connection. Note down the colours of wires Refer Fig 1 for help. Remove the wire connection to the yoke. Measure resistance across coil terminals[horizontal and vertical coils] of the yoke and record in Table 2. The yoke coil has 4 terminals, 2 for horizontal defection coil and the other two for vertical deflection. 167

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3 Fix the connections of deflection yoke in original position. 4 Identify the degaussing coil. Refer Fig 2 for help. 5 Identify the different magnets and record their name in the Table 3 of O&T sheet. Refer Fig 1 for help. Get your work checked by your instructor.

Fig 2

TASK 3:- Degaussing operation


1 Connect a Multimeter/voltmeter across the degaussing coil connector. Get it checked by instructor. Ensure that the TV is in Off condition while measuring. Set the Multimeter to AC 300/ 500V range or use a suitable range voltmeter 2 Switch ON TV observing Multimeter deflection and the duration for which the deflection existed. 3 Record the observed maximum voltage reading and approximate duration for the voltage to become mimimum in Table 4 of O&T sheet. 4 Repeat step 3 by sswitching OFF and ON the TV atleast 2 times to confirm recording reading. 5 Get the recored reading checked by your instructor. Close the back cover of the TV. Colour picture tube specification 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Control grid Green cathode Screen grid(G2 ) Red cathode Filament Blue cathode No connection 5 6 7 8 9, 10 11 4, 12.

12 11 10 9 8 7

1 2 3 4 5 6

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EXPERIMENT 25 - TRACING THE SMPS STAGE OF A GIVEN CTV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of given SMPS stage of CTV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to output Identify and measure voltage at test point Requirements Materials/Components CTV receiver -no/batch Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit Table lap -1No./ batch

Magnifying glass 1 No. /batch

Hints to Instructor 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/ service manual for the colour TVs models used in this exercise if the circulit of the CTVs used is different from the ITT kit for which details are given here. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (SMPS stage for this exercise )for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises .Issue the copies of the circuit, only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit , if spare boards of the same CTV is available , the spare boards can be given for tracing practice. And only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing .and voltage measurement practice Precautions 1. Discharge the stray capacitance of the picture tube. 2. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task 3. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wires. 4. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered. Procedure Task 1 : - Identification of components and tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given C TV receiver . As demonstrated by you r instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabin easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws , nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wire s so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place.

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2 Keep ready the circuit diagram of the SMPS stage of the CTV in the pulled out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the SMPS stage given in lesson 24,04. or given you by your instructor 3. Referring to the circuit schematic of SMPS stage, locate the components of SMPS stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. 4 Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor , transistor etc. ) identified in SMPS stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 5. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the SMPS stage checked by instructor. 6. Keep an adjustable type table lamp at the back side (soldor side) the PCB Use table lamp of at least 40w. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the component .DON,T keep the bulb continuously drawn ON for more than 10 to 20 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7 Tracing SMPS stage starting from mains cord, to DC output terminals of SMPS by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8 Referring to the circuit diagram of the SMPS stage given to you by your instructor ) rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9 Get the traced circuit checked by your instruction Task 2 Identify and measure voltage at test points of SMPS stage of CTV. 1. Referring to the given circuit of the SMPS, mark the location of the test point on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different the test points 3. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram , the expected / specified voltage is also given four your reference while making voltage mesurememt 4. Fix the connectors (removed for tracing ) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltages at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor , switch on the TV and check it is working satisfactory. If not, consult you instructor .Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6 As demonstrated by your instructor , measure the voltage levels at the test point and record measured values in of O&T sheet. Do not measure voltage at points / placed other than those marked. 7 Get the recorded voltage at the test point checked by your instructor. 8. Switch off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its original position. Get it checked by your instructor. 9 Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performace of the TV.

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EXPERIMENT 26 - IDENTIFY CONTROLS & SOCKETS OF CTV AND TUNE PROGRAM CHANNELS
Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Locate and identify control and sockets on the front & rear panel of the given Colour TV set. Tune the colour TV receiver program channels for different on-the air TV program . Adjust controls for good quality picture and sound. Operate Colour Television using remote control and adjust picture and sound. Requirements Materials / Components Colour TV receiver with remote -1 Set /batch RF cable (direct probe) - 1 No./batch

Tools/ Trainees tools kit Trainees tool kit -1 set

Hints to Instructor 1. Minimum of four Colour TV sets of different makes need to be used for the exercise. A batch of 4 trainees shall work on each CTV at a time. 2. Demonstrate the function of controls & sockets found on he front & rear panel of CTVs. 3. Demonstrate the procedure for tuning the CTV for receiving the local TV program. 4. All the controls & sockets of the CTV given to trainees should be labeled (A,B,C,.. or 1,2,3, )before conducting. 5. Instructor should give Xerox copies of the relevant operating manual of the CTV and the remote control. Instructor should demonstrate the use of control on the remote unit before the trainee s practice task 2 of this exercise. Procedure
Task 1 : - Identify controls & sockets on the front and rear panels of CTV. 1- Identify & record the name and function of the labelled controls & sockets available at the front & rear panel of the given CTV in Table 1 of O&T sheet. Refer given CTV operating manual if necessary. 2. Get the identified parts & functions checked by your instructor. 3. Connect antenna to the RF input of the CT.V. Switch On main supply to CTV and adjust the brightness . Contrast, Sharpness ,Colour & Volume controls to the mid position. This ensures sure visibility of picture and audibility of sound while tuning the CTV to programs. 4. As demonstrated by your instructor tune the program selector-1 of the CTV to any of the available on-the-air program (local TV channel as demonstrated by your instructor. 5. Re adjust the brightness, Contrast, Sharpness ,Colour & Volume controls such that the picture and audio is clear and sharp. Record the received program channel(viz ,DD Sports in the table 2 of O&T sheet. 6 Get the tuned program and the set controls checked by your instructor.

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7 Repeate steps 4 and 5 to tune Program selectors .2 to 6 on the CTV to different programs. 8 Get your work checked by your instructor. Return the given CTV and obtain another CTV of new type /make/model On completion of this step, instructor will give you a different make of CTV in which the controls and sockets on the front & rear panels my be different. 9. Repeat steps 1 to 7 for the newly given CTV. 10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 till you have practiced this task for at least four different type of CTVs. TASK 2 :-Identify the different controls/ functions available on the remote control unit of a Colour TV set. 1 Refer the given remote control unit manual and identify the location and functions of different control buttons on the given remote control unit. Record the symbol of the buttons on the remote (rough sketfch only) and their functions in the space provided in O&T sheet and Table 3. 2. Operate different controls of TV through the remote contorl unit and set Colour, brightness, contrast and sound to required level for all the programs to which the CTV was turned at Task 1. 3. Get your work checked by instructor. 4. Very the distance & angle between the remote control and the TV and find the approximate maximum distance and angle within which the remote control works effectively. Record the distance and the angle in the O&T sheet. 5. Get your work checked by instructor . 6. Switch OFF the CTV and remove antenna connection

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EXPERIMENT 27 - IDENTILY TUNER TERMINALS AND REPLACE TUNERS


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to identify Tuner terminals measure voltages at terminals replace tuner. Requirements Materials/Components Colour TV receiver -1 No. / batch Tuner - 1 No. / batch. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit Multimeter - 1 Set. -1 No.

Procedure Task 1:- Identify tuner and measure voltage at tuner terminals 1. Remove the back cover of the CTV receiver, and position the PCB such that the solder side of the PCB faces you as demonstrated by your instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label the detached connectors for easy identification 2. Identify the tuner and is terminals referring the Fig and record the Terminals pin names / identification marks on Table 1 of the Record sheet. 3. Mark the test points on the track side of the PCB with a sketch pen referring to the given circuit. 4. Get the marked test points checked by your instructor. 5. Record the specified voltage for the test points in Table 1 of record sheet. 6. Switch - on the Television. 7. Measure the voltage on the marked terminals of the tuner and record the same in Table 1 of the record sheet. 8. Switch off the Television. 9. Get the work checked by your instructor. Task 2 : - Removing and re-fixing tuner In the reference ITT circuit provided the RF, IF, AF modules are arranged in a separate board which is soldered to the main PCB. In other type of circuits / models brands the Tuner comes as a separate unit in a box which is soldered to the Main PCB and all other stages are accommodated in the main PCB. In such cases the tuner can be replaced easily... 1. De-Solder the tuner terminals. 2. Detach the tuner form the PCB as demostrated by your instructor. 3. Re-fix a tuner on the PCB. Before replacing a new tuner verify the terminals for compatibility with the old/new tuner which is removed. In case of non compatibility, manually wire the tuner terminals. 173

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4. Solder the tuner terminals. 5. Get the work checked by your instructor. 6. Switch-on the Television, tune the Television for available channels. 7. Get the work checked by your instructor. 8. Close the back cover of TV.

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EXPERIMENT 28 - TRACING OF VIDEO IF AMPLIFIER SECTION


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols trace the circuit diagram of video IF amplifier section of CTV rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Identify and measure voltage at test points. Requirements Materials/Components C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch. Table lamp -1 No. batch. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit Magnifying glass -1 No. batch

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available cirucit/service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise . 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages. (Video amplifier stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if spare boards on the same CTV is available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstr the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurement practice. Precautions 1. 2. 3. 4. Discharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. While tracing the circuit never bend the component of force the wires. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered.

Procedure Task 1:- Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your insstructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 175

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2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the video IF stage of the CTV. In the pulled-out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the video IF stage given. 3. Referring to the circuit schematic of the video IF stage, locate the components of Video IF stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. 4. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor ertc,) indentified in video IF stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 5. Get the traced rough shetch of traced components of the video IF stage checked by instructor. 6. Keep an adjustable type lable lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use a table lamp of atleast 40w, DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuoualy ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7. Tracing of video IF stage starting form input to output terminals of video IF by marking the links/ and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8, Referring to the circuit diagram of the video IF stage by your instructor rearrange and redraw the trced circuit in the O & T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor TASK2 :-Identify and measure voltage at test points of video IF stage of CTV 1. Referring the given circuit of the video IF, mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage level at different test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram, the expected/specified voltage is also given for your reference while making voltage mesurement. 4. Fix the connectors (removed for tracing) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltage at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5. In the presence of your instructor, switch on the TV and check it is working satisfacotirily. If not, consult your instructor. Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6. As demonstrated by your instructor, meausre the voltage levels at the testpoints and record measured values in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 7. Get the recorded voltage at the test points checked by your instructor,. 8. Switch-off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its original position. Get it checked by your instructor. 9. Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV.

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EXPERIMENT 29 - TRACING SOUND SECTION OF A COLOUR TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols trace the circuit diagram of video IF amplifier section of CTV rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Identify and measure voltage at test points. Requirements Materials/Components C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch Table lamp -1 No./ batch. Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit -1 Set.

Magnifying glass -1 No./ batch

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available cirucit/service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise . 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages. (Video amplifier stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if spare boards on the same CTV is available, the spare boards can be given for tracing practice and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurement practice. Precautions: 1. Discharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. 2. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. 3. While tracing the circuit never bend the compediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered. Procedure Task 1:- Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1. remove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors form the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Lable all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place.

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2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Sound stage of the CTV. In the pulled-out PCB, referrring to the circuit schematic of the Sound stage given to you by your instructor. 3. Refferrring to the circuit schematic of the Sound stage, locate the components of sound stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to 52 the PCB layout) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. 4. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc,) identified in sound stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 5. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Sound stage cheked by instructor. 6. Keep an adjustable type lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use table lamp of atleast 40w DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heatup the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7. Tracing of Sound stage starting form input terminals of Sound by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8. Referring tothe circuit diagram of the Sound stage (given to you by your instructor), rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O & T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor TASK 2 :- Identify and measure voltage at test points of Sound stage of CTV 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Sound, mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different test points in Table 2 of O & T sheet. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram, the expected/specified voltage is also given for your reference while making voltage mesurement. 3. Fix the connectors (removed for tracing) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltages at test points are to be measured in the next step. 4. In the presence of your instructor, switch on the TV and check it is working satisfactorily, If not, consult your instructor. Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 5. As demostrated by your instructor, measure the voltage levels at the test points and record measured values in Table 2 of O&T sheet. Do not measure voltage at points/placed other than those marked. 6. Get the recorded voltage at the test points checked by your instructor. 7. Switch -off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its orginal position. Get it checked by your instructor. 8. Close the back cover of the T V and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV.

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EXPERIMENT 29 - TRACING SYNC SEPARATOR, AFC AND HORZONTAL OSCILLATOR


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols trace the circuit diagram of video IF amplifier section of CTV rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Identify and measure voltage at test points. Requirements Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch. Table lamp -1 No. batch. Trainees tool kit -1 Set. Magnifying glass-1 No. batch

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (Horizontal oscillator stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if spare boards of the same CTV is available, the spare borads can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the mathod of pullining out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurment practice. Precautions: 1. Discharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. 2. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. 3. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wires. 4. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered. PROCEDURE TASK 1: Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors form the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it chaecked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Sync separator, AFC and horizontal oscillator stage of the CTV. In the pulled-out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the Sync separator, AFC and horizontal oscillator stage given to you by your instructor. 3. Referrring to the circuit schematic of the Horizontal oscillator stage, locate the components of Horizontal oscillator stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the space for rough sketch of the component 179

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4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc,) identified in Honrizontal oscillator stage and enter in the O&T sheet. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Horizontal oscillator stage checked by instructor. Keep an adujstable type lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use table lamp of atlseast 40w, DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. Tracing of Horizontal oscillator stage starting from input to output terminals of Horizontal oscillator by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. Referring to the circuit diagram of the Horizontal oscillator stage (given to you by your instructor), rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor.

TASK 2 :- Identify and measure voltage at test points of Horizontal osscillator stage of CTV 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Horzontal oscillator, mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different the test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram, the expected /specified volage is also given for your reference while making voltage mesurement. 4 Fix the connectors (removed for tracing back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltage at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor, on the TV and check it is working satisfactorily. If not , consult your instructor. 6 As demonstrated by your instrucor,measure the voltage levels at the test points and record measured values. 7 Get the recorded voltage at the test points checked by your inistructor. 8 Switch-of CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its origional position.Get it checked by your instructor. 9 Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV.

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EXPERIMENT 30 - TRACING SYNC SEPARATOR, AFC AND HORIZONTAL OSCILLATOR


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols trace the circuit diagram of video IF amplifier section of CTV rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Identify and measure voltage at test points. Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch. Table lamp -1 No. batch. Trainees tool kit -1 Set. Magnifying glass-1 No. batch

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise. 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (Horizontal oscillator stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if spare boards of the same CTV is available, the spare borads can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the mathod of pullining out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurment practice. Precautions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Discharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wires. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered.

Procedure TASK 1: Identification of components and Tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors form the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing. Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it chaecked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Sync separator, AFC and horizontal oscillator stage of the CTV. In the pulled-out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the Sync separator, AFC and horizontal oscillator stage given to you by your instructor. 181

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3. Referrring to the circuit schematic of the Horizontal oscillator stage, locate the components of Horizontal oscillator stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the O&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout) in the space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. 4. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc,) identified in Honrizontal oscillator stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 5. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Horizontal oscillator stage checked by instructor. 6. Keep an adujstable type lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use table lamp of atlseast 40w, DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7. Tracing of Horizontal oscillator stage starting from input to output terminals of Horizontal oscillator by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8. Referring to the circuit diagram of the Horizontal oscillator stage ( given to you by your iinstructor), rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor. TASK 2 :- Identify and measure voltage at test points of Horizontal osscillator stage of CTV 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Horzontal oscillator, mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different the test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram, the expected /specified volage is also given for your reference while making voltage mesurement. 4 Fix the connectors (removed for tracing back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltage at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor, on the TV and check it is working satisfactorily. If not, consult your instructor. 6 As demonstrated by your instrucor,measure the voltage levels at the test points and record measured values. 7 Get the recorded voltage at the test points checked by your inistructor. 8 Switch-of CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its origional position.Get it checked by your instructor. 9 Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV.

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EXPERIMENT 31 - TRACING HORIZONTAL OUTPUT SECTION


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols trace the circuit diagram of given section of CTV rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Identify and measure voltage at test points. Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch. Table lamp -1 No. /batch. Trainees tool kit -1 Set. Magnifying glass -1 No./ batch.

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available circuit /service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise. . 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (Horzontal output stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent exercises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the traineec completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if spare boards of the same CTV is available, the spare borads can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the mathod of pullining out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurment practice. Precautions: 1. Descharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. 2. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. 3. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wires. 4. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered. Procedure TASK :- Identification of components and Tracing the circult 1. Romove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, deatch the connectors form the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easily for the purpose of circuit tracing.Possition the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Horizontal output stage of the CTV. In the pulled-out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the Horizontal output stage given to you by your instructor. 3. Referring to the circuit schematic of the Horizontal output stage, locate the comonents of Horizontal outpyut stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbol in the O&T 183

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4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

sheet (similar the PCB layout) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O & T sheet. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc.) identified in Horizontal output stage and enter in the O & T sheet. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Horizontal output stage checked by instructor. Keep an adjustable type table lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use a table lamp of atleast 40W DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the components.DONT keep the bulb continuosly ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. Tracning of Horizontal output stage starting from input to output terminals of Horizonal output by marking the links / and connections between component sybols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. Referring to the circuit diagram of the Horizonal output stage (given to you by you instructor), rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor

TASK 2: - Indentify and measure voltage at test points of Horzional output stage of CTV 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Horizontal output, mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage level at different test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram, the expected /specified voltage is also given for your reference while making voltage mesurement. 4. Fix the connectors (removed for tracing) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltages at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5. In the presence of your instructor, switch on the TV and check it is working satisfacotirily. If not, consult your instrucor. Beaware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6. As demonstrated by your instructor, measure the voltage levels at the test points and record measrued values in Table 2 of O&T sheet. Do not measure voltage at points/placed other than those marked. 7. Get the recorded voltage at the test points checked by your instructor 8. Switch -off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its origional position. Get it checked by your instructor. 9. Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV

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EXPERIMENT 32 - TRACING VERTICAL SWEEP SECTION OF A COLOUR TV RECEIVER


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identity the components / devices and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of given section of CTV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence form input to output Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments C T V receiver - 1 No./Batch. Table lamp -1 No. batch. Trainees tool kit -1 Set. Magnifying glass -1 No. batch.

Hints to Instructor : 1. The instructor shall make available circuit /service manual for the Colour TVs models used in this exercise 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages for the trainess to perform this exercise and subsequent exerxcises. Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainees,completes the rough tracing. 3. Instead of asking the trainees to open the CTV and trace the circuit, if space boards of the same CTV is available, the spare borads can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV. 4. Demonstrate the mathod of pullining out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing and voltage measurment practice. Precautions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Descharge the stray capacitance of picture tube. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wires. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get it resoldered.

Procedure TASK 1 :- Identification of components and Tracing the circult 1. Romove the back cover of the given CTV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, deatch the connectors form the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabinet easly for the purpose of circuit tracing.Possition the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws, nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/ wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2. Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Vertical Sweep stage of the CTV. In the pulled- out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the Vertical Sweep stage given to you by your instructor. 3. Referring to the circuit schematic of the Vertical Sweep stage, locate the comonents of Vertical Sweep stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbol in the O&T sheet 185

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4. 5. 6

7.

8.

9.

(similar to the PCB layout) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O & T sheet. Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc.) identified in Vertical Sweep stage and enter in the O & T sheet. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Vertical Sweep stage checked by instruction. Keep an adjustable type table lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB. Use a table lamp of atleast 40W. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the compoonents. DONT keep the bulb continuously ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. Tracing to Vertical Sweep stage starting from input to output terminals of Vertical Sweep by marking the likns/and connections between component symbols drawn on those record sheet at step 3. Referring to the circuit diagram of the Vertical Sweep stage rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked a sSpace for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. Get the traced circuit checked by your instructor.

TASK 2 :- Identify and measure voltage at test points of Vertical Sweep stage of CTV 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Vertical Sweep , mark the locations of the test points on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen. 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different the test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3 In the test points marked on to the given circuit diagra , the expected /specified voltage mesurement. 4 Fix the connectors (removed for tracing) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltage at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor, on the TV and check it is working satisfacotirily.If not, consult your instructor. Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6 As demonstrated by your instructor, meaisure the voltage level of the test point and record the measured values in Table 2 of O & T sheet. Do not measure voltage at points/placed other than those marked. 7. Get the recorded voltage at the points/placed other than those marked. 8. Switch -off CTV and place at the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its origional position. Get it checked by your instructor. 9. Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performance of the CTV

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EXPERIMENT 33 - TRACING OR CHROMA SECTION OF CTV


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of given chroma section of CTV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to out put Identify and measure voltage at test points Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit 1 set

Materials/Components CTV receiver - 1 No./batch Table lamp - 1 No./batch

Magnifying glass 1 No. /batch

Hints to Instructor: 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for C TVs models used in this exercise . 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (Chroma stage for this exercise ) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent .Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the tracing. 3 Instead of asking the trainees to open the C TV and trace the circuit, if spare board of the same C TV is available , the spare boards can be given for tracing practive and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated working CTV 4 Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing . Precautions. 1. 2. 3. 4. Discharge the stray capacitance in the picture. Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wire. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get resoldered.

Procedure Task 1 : - Identification of components and tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given C TV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor, detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabin easily PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws , nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wire s so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2 Keep ready the circuit diagram of the Chroma stage of the CTV . In the pulled out PCB, referring to the circuit schematic of the Chroma stage given to you by your instructor.

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3. Referring to the circuit schematic of the Chroma stage, locate the components of Chroma stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in the )&T sheet (similar to the PCB layout ) in the Space for rough sketch of the component layout with tracks provided in the O&T sheet. 4 Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc.) identified in Chroma stage and enter in the O&T sheet. 5. Get the traced rough sketch of traced components of the Chroma stage checked by instructor 6. Keep an adjustable type table lamp at the back side (soldor side) the PCB Use table lamp off at least 49 w. Dont keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the component .DON,T keep the bulb continuously drawn ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7 Tracing Chroma stage starting from input to output terminals of Chroma by marking the links/and connections between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8 Referring tp the circuit diagram of the Chroma stage rearrange and redraw the traced circuit in the O&T sheet marked as Space for redrawing the final circuit diagram of the traced circuit. 9 Get the traced circuit checked by your instruction Task 2 Identify and measure voltage at test points of Chroma stage of CTV. 1. Referring to the given circuit of the Chroma , make the location of the test point on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen 2. Record the specified voltage levels at different test points in Table 2 of O&T sheet. 3. In the test points marked on the given circuit diagram , the expected / specified voltage is also given four your reference while making voltage mesurememt. 4. Fix the connectors (removed for tracing ) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltages at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor, switch on the TV and check it is working satisfactorily. If not, consult you instructor . Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6. As demonstrated by your instructor , measure the voltage levels at the test point and record measured values in Table 2 of O&T sheet. Do not measure voltage at points / placed other than those marked. 7. Get the recorded voltage at the test point checked by your instructor. 8. Switch off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its original position. Get it checked by your instructor. 9. Close the back cover of the TV and recheck the satisfactory performace of the TV.

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EXPERIMENT 33 - TRACING OF VIDEO OUT PUT SECTION


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the components/devices and draw their corresponding symbols Trace the circuit diagram of video output stage of CTV Rearrange the traced circuit in sequence from input to out put Identify and measure voltage at test points Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit 1 set Magnifying glass 1 No. /batch

Materials/Components CTV receiver 1 No./batch Table lamp 1 No./ batch

Hints to Instructor: 1. The instructor shall make available circuit/service manual for the Colour TVs models used in lab 2. Make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages (video output stage for this exercise) for the trainees to perform this exercise and subsequent .Issue the copies of the circuits only after the trainee completes the tracing. 3 Instead of asking the trainees to open the C TV and trace the circuit, if spare board of the same C TV is available , the spare boards can be given for tracing practice and only voltage measurement can be done using the integrated work the CTV 4 Demonstrate the method of pulling out the PCB from the TV and positioning the main PCB suitable for tracing .and voltage measurement Precautions 1. 2. 3. 4. Discharge the stray capacitance in the picture.tube Keep the TV OFF when performing the tracing task. While tracing the circuit never bend the component or force the wire. If any wire gets cut during the tracing work, immediately inform the instructor and get resoldered.

Procedure Task 1 : - Identification of components and tracing the circuit 1. Remove the back cover of the given C TV receiver. As demonstrated by your instructor , detach the connectors from the PCB such that the PCB can be pulled out of the cabin easily for the purpose of circuit tracing . Position the PCB such that the component side of the PCB is facing you. Get it checked by instructor. Keep all screws , nut, fasteners etc. safely in a transparent cover. Label all the detached connectors/wires so that it is easy while reconnecting them back in their place. 2 Keep ready the circuit diagram of the video output 189

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3. Referring to the circuit schematic of the video output stage, locate the components of the video output stage on PCB. Record the identified component symbols in lab record 4 Count the total number of each category of component (like resistor, transistor etc. ) identified in video output stage and enter in the record book 5. Get the traced rough sketch of traced component of the video output stage checked by instructor. 6. Keep an adjustable type table lamp at the back side (solder side) of the PCB Use table lamp of at least 40 W. DONT keep the bulb very close to the PCB as this may heat-up the component .DON,T keep the bulb continuously drawn ON for more than 10 to 15 minutes to avoid PCB getting heated up. 7 Tracing video output stage starting from input to output terminals of video output stage by marking the links/and connection between component symbols drawn on the record sheet at step 3. 8 Referring to the circuit diagram of the video output stage rearrange and redraw the traced circuit 9 Get the traced circuit checked by your instruction Task 2 Identify and measure voltage at test points of video output stage of CTV.

1. Referring to the given circuit of the video output , make the location of the test point on the traced circuit and on the track side of the PCB using a red colour sketch pen 2. Record the specified voltage levels 3 In the test point s marked on the given circuit diagram , the expected / specified voltage is also given four your reference while making voltage mesurememt. 4 Fix the connectors (removed for tracing ) back to the main PCB and get it checked by your instructor. Keep the PCB outside the cabinet as voltages at test points are to be measured in the next step. 5 In the presence of your instructor , switch on the TV and check it is is working satisfactory. If not, consult you instructor . Be aware that you are working in a very high voltage environment. 6 As demonstrated by your instructor, measure the voltage levels at the test point and record measured values. Do not measure voltage at points / placed other than those marked. 7 Get the recorded voltage at the test point checked by your instructor. 8. Switch off CTV and place the PCB back inside the TV cabinet in its original position . Get it checked by your instructor.

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EXPERIMENT 35 - IDENTIFY IMPORTANT PARTS IN THE TAPE PATH OF VCR/C/VCP OBJECTIVES


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the following parts of a given VCR/VCP supply tension post - static guides - full erase head - impedance roller - tape guides - video head drum - video head tip - capstan roller - pinch roller - audio/control head. Materials/Components Trainee tool kit - 1 set Tools/Equipments/Instruments VCR/VCP (different make) 2 Nos(min)

Hints to Instructor: 1. The VCP/VCR are to be kept ready on table with their cabinet removed. 2. All important parts (video head drum, Audio head . Pinch roller, Capstan, etc.)which are to be identified by the trainees are to be labeled as 1,2,3. and so on and the same parts of other VCP should be labeled differently. 3. A batch of 4 trainees can use one VCP/VCR. (less no. of trainees per batch is preferred if more no. of VCPs can be provided) 4. Interchange the VCR/VCPs between batches in order that the trainees do the exercises in all available VCPs . 5. Arrange parts of VCP/VCR mentioned above, for more familiarisation to the trainees. Procedure 1. Record the make ,type and the model of the given VCP on O&T sheet. 2. Select a labeled part, referring to the service manual of the VCR/VCP identify the name of the part and record the same in the O&T sheet 3. Repeat 1,2 and for other VCPs. 4. Get your work checked by instructor.

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EXPERIMENT 36 - IDENTITY THE SERVO COMPONENTS IN VCR/VCP


Objectives

On completion of this exercise you shall be able to


Identify the following parts of a given VCR/VCP drum FG drum motor Capstan motor Capstan FG drum pulse pickup control head -

Requirements Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit VCP (different make) 2Nos(min)

Hints to Instructor: 1. The VCP/VCR are to be kept ready on table with their cabinet removed. 2. All important parts which are to be identified by the trainees are to be labeled 1,2,3, and so on and the same part of other VCP should be labeled differently . If spare / defective parts are available it may be issued to trainees for better understanding. 3. A batch of 8 trainees can use one VCP (less no. of trainees per batch is preferred if more no of VCPs can be provided.) 4. Interchanging the VCPs between batches in order that the trainees do the exercises in all available VCP/VCR . 5. Arrange some of the servo components for better familiarisation to the trainees. Procedure 1. Record the make ,type and the model of the given VCP on O&T sheet. 2. Select a labeled part, referring to the fig. 1 or the service manual of the VCR/VCP identify the name of the part and record the same in the O&T sheet 3. Repeat 1 and 2 for other VCP/VCRs. 4. Get your work checked by instructor.

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EXPERIMENT 37 - IDENTIFY SENSORS AND LIMIT SWITCHES OF A VCR/ CVCP


Objectives On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the following parts of a given VCR/VCP Cassette in detector record tape sensor drum rotation sensor tape end sensor (play mode) tape end sensor ( rewind mode) dew sensor supply reel sensor take up reel sensor cue head tape slack sensor tape loading start/end sensors loading motor lock

Requirements Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit - 1 Set VCP (different make) 2 Nos(min)

Hints to Instructor: 1. The VCP/VCR are to be kept ready on table with their cabinet removed. 2. If spare/defective parts are available it may be issued to trainees for better understanding 3. A batch of trainees can use on VCP/VCR (less no.of trainees per batch is preferred if more no. of VCP can be provided) 4. Interchange the VCPs between batches so that the trainees do the exercises in all the available VCP/VCR 5. Arrange the parts mentioned to have a better familiarisation to the trainees. Procedure 1. Record the make ,type and the model of the given VCP on O&T sheet. 2. Select one of the listed part from the O&T sheet and identify the part in the VCR/VCP referring to the manual of the VCR/VCP .Mark the location of the part in the O&T sheet 3. Lable the marking as 1,2,3, and , provide legend in the O&T sheet. 4. Repeat 1 and 2 for other components listed in O&T sheet. 5. Get your work checked by the instructor. 194

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EXPERIMENT 38 - GENERAL MAINTENANCE OF A VCR/VCP


Objectives
On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Clean the video head by using video head cleaner Clean the audio/control head by using a head cleaning agent Remove dust and oxide deposited in guide rollers Wipe out oxides dust accoumulated in capstan and the puinch roller Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees tool kit - 1 Set VCP/VCR (different make) -2Nos(min) Feather touch brush(ordinary)-1 No.

Materials/Components Hints 1 2 3 4

Cleaning solution/spray -100ml bottle Head cleaning tape -1 No. Clean cloth/chamois leather -1 No.

The VCR/VCP are to be kept ready on table with their cabinet removed. A batch of trainees can use one VCP. (less no. of trainees per batch is preferred if more no. of VCPs can be provided) Interchange the VCP/VCR between batches in order to the trainees do the excercises in all available VCP/VCR. Demonstrate the method of cleaning the video and audio/control head to remove the pinch roller, clean and refix the pinch roller.

Procedure TASK 1:Cleaning video head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Inspect the video and audio head for their condition record your observation in the O & T sheet Rotate the video head drum in such a way the head tip is positioned in a convenient position to approach for cleaning. Apply the head cleaning solution through a clean cloth or spray the solution over the head tip. Clean the tip with gently with an horizontal movement (similar to tape movement) using clean cloth as demonstrated by your instructor Get your work checked by instructor Repeat step 2 to 5 for other head tips in the drum. Play a tape and confirm good working of the VCR/VCP.

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TASK 2: Cleaning audio/control head 1 Inspect the audio and control head for their condition record your observation in the O&T sheet 2 Apply the head cleaning solution through a clean cloth or spray the solution over the head tip. 3 Clean the tip gently with an horizontal movement (similar to tape movement) using clean cloth demonstrated by your instructor. 4 Get your work checked by instructor. TASK 3: Cleaning capstan, guide posts and rollers 1 Inspect the capstan, guide post and the rollers for their condition. Record your observation in the O&T sheet. 2 Apply the cleaning solution through a clean cloth or spray the solution over posts and rollers. 3 Clean the posts and rollers using clean cloth demonstrated by your instructor. 4 Get your work checked by instructor. TASK 4: Cleaning Pinch roller and rubber components 1 Record the make, type and model of the given VCP on O &T sheet. 2 Identify the pinch roller and observe for any deposit of oxide/dust layers record the observation in the O&T sheet. 3 Remove the pinch roller as demonstrated by your instructor. 4 Wipe off the deposits with a clean cloth dipped with cleaning liquid. Some cleaning liquids corrode the rubber surfaces hence always test the cleaning solutions on some waste rubber components before use. 5 Get your work checked by instructor. 6 Refix the pinch roller as demonstrated by your instructor. 7 Get your work checked by the instructor. 8 Repeat th step 2 to 7 for other belts/rubber components used in the VCR/VCP.

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EXPERIMENT 39 - IDENTIFY AND OPERATE THE CONTROLS OF A COMPACT DISC PLAYER


Objectives: On completion of this exercise you shall be able to Identify the external switches, controls and sockets of a CD player Interconnect and tune CD-TV, CD-amplifier setup Play a compact disc (audio/video) through a CD player Materials/Components Hints 1 Trainees may be divided into small batches according to the number of CD players available. This excercise canbe performed either with Audio CD player/Video CD player .Preferrablywith both. The instructor shall demonstrate the use of various controls and input/output sockets. He shall demonstrate the method of interconnecting the CD to Audio amplifier/TV. Instructror shall label the controls, switches and sockets before the excercise for the trainees to identify and provide a copy of the operating manual of the given CD player to the trainees. Audio/Video CDs -1No/Batch RF connecting cord -1No/Batch Colour Television receiver -1No/Batch Tools/Equipments/Instruments Trainees Kit -1 set CD Player audio/video -1No/Batch

2 3

Procedure Follow the procedure adopted by the Instructor during demonstration to perform the steps given below. TASK: Audio CD Player 1 Select a labeled part and identify its name and function of the given CD player referring to the operating manual. Record the details in the O&T sheet. Repeat step 1 for all the labels. Get your work checked by instructor.

2 3

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4 Inter connect the CD player ( Audo / Video ) to an audio amplifier as shown in the fig.1. Record the sockets and specifications of cable used for inter-connection in O & T sheet. 5 Switch on the CD player and the audio amplifier. 6 Insert the CD in the player and play the CD as demon strated by the instructor 7 Get your work checked by instructor. 8 Operate other controls available on the CD player as recorded in table1 of the O&T heet and reconform the functions. 9 Get your work checked by instructor. TASK 2: Video CD player 1 select the labeled part and identify its name and function of the given CD player referring to the operating manual. Record the details in the O&T sheet. 2 Repeat step 1 for all the labels. 3 Get your work checked by instructor. 4 Interconnect the CD Player (video CD) to a CTV as shown in the Fig.2 5 Get your work checked by instructor. 6 Switch on the VCD player and the CTV. 7 Switch the TV to AV mode. 8 Play the VCD. 9 Operate the other controls available on the CD player as recorded in table2 of the O&T sheet and conform the functions. 10 Get your work checked by instructor.

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EXPERIMENT 40 - IDENTIFY DIFFERENT EQUUIPMENTS AND MODULES USED IN CATV SYSTEM


Objectives
Identify the equipments/modules used in cable TV Identify cables and connectors used in cable TV Identify the components used in cable TV Masure the signal strength by using signal strength meter. Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments RG 6 cable with connector -as reuired TVRO -1 No

RG 11 cable with connector -as reuired Co-axial cables -as reuired F connectors -as reuired RCA connectors -as reuired Audio Video cable -as reuired

Modulator -1 No Combiner -1 No Line amplifier -1 No Splitters -1 No Power divider -1 No Signal strength meter -1 No PDA -1 No Bullet amplifier -1 No Cable equalise -1 No Attenuator -1 No

Hints Group the Equipments/Modules, components separately. Each group of trainees have to be supplied one set of items. Instructor has to ensure all the equipments/modules are pasted with specification. Procedure TASK1 : Identify and record the specification of the CATV Equipments/Modules 1 2 3 4 5 Pick a CATV module from the group of modules given to you and record the name and specifications in table 1 of O&T sheet. Record the input and output connector details of the equipments in the subsequent columns of the table1 of O&T sheet. Get the recorded information cheked by your instructor. Repeat the steps 1 and 2 for all other equipments given to you in the table 1 of O&T sheet. A sample entry is made in table 1 of the O&T sheet for your referance. Get the recorded information cheked by your instructor.

TASK2: Identify and record the specification of CATV cables and connectors given to you 1 2 3 Identify the names of different cables, and record it in the table 2 of O&T sheet. Record the other details/specifications of the component and fill the subsequent col umns in the table 2 of O&T sheet. Get the recorded information cheked by your instructor. 199

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4 Repeat the steps 1 and 2 for all other equipments given to you in the table 2 of O&T sheet. A sample entry is made in the table 2 for your reference. 5 Get the work cheked by your instructor. TASK3: Measure the signal strength and identify the frequency band and channel N.B : Arrange a TV set which can display th efrequency band while changing channels. In some old model TV receiver sets this facility is not provided. Connect the signal cable to the power divider. Use a suitable cable connector for this purpose. Connect the signal strength meter to the power divider signal output and TV receiver to its respective terminals. Get the connections cheked by your instructor. Switch on the power divider, signal strength meter and TV receiver.ake sure all the units are working normally. Operate the TV for a particular channel by using manual channel selector or with a remote control operation. Note down the channel name and band displayed on the TV screen in table 3 of O&T sheet Record the signal strength indicator by the signal strength meter in the table 3 of O&T meter. Get the recorded information cheked by your instructor. REpeat the steps of 5 and 6 for other channel. Record the corresponding information in the table 3 of record sheet for each channel. A sample entry is made in the table 3 of O&T sheet for your reference. Coplete the entry by checking all the channel available. Remove the connections and switch off the unit. Get the recorded information cheked by your instructor.

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

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EXPERIMENT 41 - INSTALLATION OF CCTV NETWORK


Objectives
On completion of this exercise you shall be able to - Identify the basic controls and sockets of a television camera - Connect camera to a TV/monitor - Operate the television camera - Identify basic controls & sockets of a switcher - Install a TV camera, a test pattern generator and a VCR in the control room - Prepare and lay long cables (audio and video) from the control room to the monitors - Assemble a CCTV system and operate. Requirements Materials/Components Tools/Equipments/Instruments Tools equipment /instruments Trainees tool kit -1 No. Television camera /CCTV camera -1No. Television set/monitor 1No. Wire stripper 1No. Audio video switcher as reqd. Video distribution amplifier 1 No. Co-axial cable with connectors -as reqd. Audio video monitors - 3 Nps CCTV camera - 1 No. Video test pattern generaor - 1No VCR & video cassette as reqd

Long video and audio cables as reqd. Audio distribution amplifier 1 No.

Hints to Instructor: Label all the parts / controls /sockets of TV camera/CCTV camera to be identified by the trainees , Demonstrate the interconnections of CCTV system used in the exercise. . Demonstrate the operational control of the CCTV camera/ TV camera. Procedure Task 1 : - Identify the basic parts , control and input output sockets of a television camera. 1. choose a labeled part/control/sockets in the camera and identify the name and function referring to the manual. 2. Record the name and the function of the identified part in the O&T sheet. 3. Repeat sets 1 and 2 for other labels. 4. Get the work checked by your instructor.

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TASK 2;- Capturing images through a television camera. 1. Connect the camera out put signale to a TV set/monitor as shown in Fi 1. 2. Set the camera iris control to auto position if available or set it in the mid position manually. 3. Get the work checked by your instructor. 4. Switch on the camera and the television set, turn the camera towards a well lit object or window. 5. Select AV mode in TV if the camera is connected through audio-video inputs or tune the television to receive the picture if the camera is connected through an RF input. 6. Adjust camera zoom lens to tele position ( magnified image on the screen ) and record the focal length in the Record sheet. 7. Adjust the iris control, focus control for clear and sharp picture through view finder /TV. For precise focusing , always perform the focus adjustment keeping the lens in tele position , i.e. at the maximum magnification of the image. 8. Place a white card in front of the camera (when viewed through camera the card should fill 2/3 of frame area) and adjust white balance and record the type of White balance used. Refer user manual of the camera for any suggest method of doing colour balance. 9 Turn the camera towards an object, adjust the zoo lens to wide position (minimum of the focal length ) record the focal length of the lens 10. Get the work checked by your instructor. TASK:- 3 Identify the basic parts, controls & input-output sockets of an audio video switcher. 1 Select a labelled part/control/sockets in the switcher and identufy the name and function referring to the manual. 2. Record the name and the function of the idenified part in the O & T sheet. 3. Repeat step 1 and 2 for other labels. 4. Get the work checked by your instructor. TASK :- 4. Connect a TV camera , Test pattern generator and VCR to CCTV net work and operate.
Fig 2

1. Choose three location in the TEST OATTERN 4 building where CCTV monitors are VIEDO GENERATOR 4 to be installed. & TONE 4 (VDA) 2. Install three audio/video monitors VIDEO DISTRIBUTION in these three locations . AUDIO AMPLIFIER VEDEO SWITCHER 3. Choose a location for the control CCIV A B C 4 CAMERA & room and install the equipment as MIC 4 shown in Fig 2. (ADA) AUDIO 4. Prepare long length video (RG 59) DISTRIBUTION and Audio cables to connect the AMPLIFIER 4 contol room to the monitors. Lay 4 A= TV STATION 1 VCR the cable through shortest possible AUDIO 4 B= TV STATION 2 route. Fix the conne ctors at the C= TV STATION 3 monitor ends of the cable. SIMPLE CCTV SYSTEM The connectors should match the input connectors of the monitors. 202

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5. Similarly fix the connectors at the control room end the cables matching the VDA and ADA output connectors Audiodistribution amplifier and video cable and amplifier can be eliminated in case of using a single monitor. 6. Prepare short length audio and video cable and interconnect the pattern generator, CCTVcamera and VCR with the audio switch as shown in Fig. 2. 7. Switch On all the equipments and watch the different outputs on the monitors by selecting the source by the audio/video switcher. Install one monitor in the control room to view the selected channel 8. Get the work checked by your instructor.

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EXPERIMENT 42 - DTH RECEIVER


Objectives: On Completion of this exercise you shall be able to Install a DTH antenna and receiver Track the receiver for different channels Identify the faults in a DTH receiver and rectify them.

Requirements
Materials/Components Hints 1. Try to make available the user manual, service manual and circuit diagram of the DTH receiver used in this exercise. 2. Try to make copies of the circuit diagram of different stages for reference 3. Try to arrange dummy kits for identification and tracing practice, since they may be rough handled by the students. 4. Demonstrate each stage separately before asking the students to start. Procedure: Task 1: Installation of the antenna and receiver. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select a suitable location (open space) for the antenna. Fix the antenna loosely on the stand provided for it. Fix the stand without jerking or other owkward movements. Never tighten the screws before traking Connect one end of the cable to the LNB Connect the other end of the cable to the receiver input Connect the output of the receiver to the television receiver either using a RF cord or AVcord. Tools/Equipments/Instruments

DTH receiver (any brand) - 1 No. Dish antenna (small) - 1 No Wire cutter cum strippers

Multimeter Colour Television receiver - 1 Connecting Cable (RF SAV)-1

Task 2: Tracking the Receiver 1. Stitch on the DTH Receiver 2. Adjust the position of the according to the direction of the satellite (as per the manual) 3. Make find adjustment in azimuth and elevation of the antenna so that the signal strength display shows the maximum. 4. The signal strength can also be measured using the meter. 5. While making the adjustments, the picture can be viewed on the TC Screen and make sure maximum picture quality and sound quality. Task: 3 Trobleshooting the DTH Receiver

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EXPERIMENT 42 - TELEVISION TUMER CARD FOR COMPUTERS.


Objective 1. 2. 3. 4. On completion of this exercise the learner will be able to: Install the hardw are of television tuner card (external type only) in personal computers. Instal the necessary software for TV tumer card in computers. Identify the preliminary faults in the working of TV tuner card Rectify the simple faults in the working of TV tumer card.

Requirements: 1. Personal computer 2. Television tuner card external type 3. Television tuner card internal type Hints: 1. Before starting the installation procedure, make sure that the users manual for the tumer card is available with you. 2. Prepare a diagram showing the interfacing connections of the tumercard with the PC. Procedure Task 1: To install the external type tuner card in Personal Computer Make the connections as per the directions available from the instruction manual. Make sure that all the connections are in fact. Connect the input terminals of the tuner card to the RF output terminals of the satellite (DTH) receiver. Connect the output of the tumercard to the RF input of the television receiver. Switch on the tumer card and television receiver. Make necessary adjustments enlisted in the Menu to get maximum picture and sound quality. Tune for different channel either manually on automatically and save them in the memory. Task 2: Installation of software for external type tuner card for the Operation of any device interfaced to a computer a software called the driving file is needed to be installed. Generally in the case of tuner card, once the hardware installation is completed, the driving file is automatically get installed without the need for external intervention. Anyhow, if the driving file is not available within if,the software for the installation should be made available separately in a CD and installed into the PC for the commencement of the operation of the tunercard.

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STANDARD LIST OF ITEMS REQUIRED FOR PRACTICALS IN THE MRR TV LABORATORY NON CONSUMABLES:
No. Equipment Specification Quantity (Nos)

1.

COMPUTER

PENTIUN IV256 MB with Internal/external modem and DVD drive 1 2

2. 3.

CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE ANALOG MULTIMETER 20mHz dual trace 0 10000 VAC, 0 250 V DC, 0 to 250 MA 5 3 3 3 3 2 1 4 1 1 1

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

DIGITAL MULTIMETER AMMETER DC Voltmeter DC DC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY (VARIABLE) DC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY (FIXED) DUAL POWER SUPPLY (VARIABLE)

12 digit 0 to 500 MA 0 to 20 V 0 to 30 v, 2 A 5V, 500 MA + 12 v, 500 MA 0 12V, 1A 0 to 100 KHz 0 100 MH Microfarads range Amplifier, Microphone, Loud speaker, Box containing woofer, Squaker, Tweetor with cross over network

10. BATTERY ELIMINATOR 11. FUNCTION GENERATOR

12. INDUCTANCE BOX 13. CAPACITANCE BO 14. P.A. SYSTEM

1 1 3 3

15

AM RECEIVER

TRAINER TRAINER

16. FM RECEIVER 17. AM RADIO KIT 18. FM RADIO KIT 19. TAPE RECORDER
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MONO AND STEREO

2 each

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No.

Equipment

Specification

Quantity (Nos)

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26 27 28. 29. 30 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

VCR/VCP VCD Player VHF TUNER MONOCHROME TV RECEIVER MONOCHROME TVRECEIVER COLOUR TV RECEIVER COLOUR TV RECEIVER TV ANTENA TV BOOSTER WITH POWER SUPPLY TV TUNER CARD DTH RECEIVER DVD Player STABILIZER Tape Recorder Storage Cell CCTV CAMERA SPEAKER ASSEMBLY WOOFER, SQUAKER, INTERNAL, CROSS OVER NETWORK 500 VA Trainer 12v/4 AH INTERNAL/EXTERNAL DISH ANTENNA, LNB, RECEIVER 14"/20"/21" TRAINER 14/20/2 (With and ewithout Remoto control Yagi-Uda Trainer TURRET AND ELECTRONIC TYPES

1 1 1 each 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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TOOLS
NO. TOOLS SPECIFICATION UANTITY(NOS)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

SOLDERING IRON PCB DRILLING MACHINE DE SOLDERING PUMP PCB Bread Board Neon Tester Tweezers Combination pliers Cutting pliers Nose pliers (long) Heavy duty cutters Side cutters

10W/25W50W/100 W Hand / Electrical Common purpose 500 v 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 1. Flat 5/driver set3. 444 30 CM x 10 6" Small 0 to 1 K 2, 1 A

81 1 2 25 5 5 5 5 5 10 2 2 Watch makers Star 5/driver

13. Screw driver sets 5/driver set 2. set 14. 2 15. 16. 17. 18. HACK SAW Wire strippers ALLEN KEY SET Rheoslat Mirror with stand for (TV servicing) CONSUMABLE No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Components Resistors Wire wound resistors VDR LDR Potentice meter (Linear) (Log) Thermistor

5 1 1 1

Specification W, W, 1W, 2W All values Different waltages

Quantity 20 Nos. each 10 Nos. each 2 2 33 2

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NO.

TOOLS

SPECIFICATION

UANTITY(NOS)

8. 9.

2) Electrolytic 3) Mica4) Paper Capacitors GangTrimmer, Padder Coils

All standard values 25 Nos.

each22 4 each

10.

Transformers

11.

Diodes

12.

Diodes

13.

LED

Medium wave and short wave antenna coilsMW and SW oscillator 6v 6-0-6v, 9-0-9v12-0-12v Driver JFT SM transformer L.O.T. Black and white and colour 1 N series 0 A 79 TV 20 1) Pin 2) Shottkey 3) Gunn 4) Impatt 5) Trapatt 6) Photec diode 1) Single colour 2) Bi colour 3) Tri colour. 4) Infra red 6.3 v/9.2 v

5 each 2 Nos 2 3 2 2 25 Nos cach 1

14. 15. 16.

17. 18.

Laser diode Zener diode FET, MOSFET, UJT, SCR, DIAC TRIAC Relay Transistors (low frequency)

1 each 20 Nos 10Nos. 5 Nos .5 Nos. 1 10

12v, 6v, 24v BC seriesBF

1 each 2 each 20 each

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NO.

TOOLS

SPECIFICATION

UANTITY(NOS)

High frequency 19. Power transistors

BF. series 2 N series AC series BV series BD series 2N 3055 SL 100 SK 100

5 each

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Photo transistor LCD Optic coupler CCD Seven segment Display Intergrated circuitAnalog

Digital 26. Multiplexer Demultiplexer A/D & D/A convertor Flip Flop, counters JCS used in your TV sets/CD player/ Compact Disc/DTH Consumables Copper Clad board Copper sulphate Wire a) Single bad b) Three core c) Flexible Solder Flux Insulation tape Pen cell Bulb

555 741 7805, 7812 7905, 7912 Logic gates 74 series

10 each 2 3 3 1 3 5 5 3 each 3 each 2 each

2 each

27.

As required Specification Quantity (Nos.) 2 sheets 1kg

No. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

10 m each 100 gms 50 gms 1.5 v 40 w/60 w

5 roll 5 boxes 2 roll 12 Nos. 3 each

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Part IV Appendix

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REFERENCE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Principles of Electronics-V.K.Mehta Electronic Communication systems-Kennedy Basic Radio and Television -S.D.Sharma Electronic Communication-Sanjeeva Gupta www.radioelectronics.com www.radiodesign.com Monochrome and colour Television - R.R.Gulathi Modern Television Practice - R.R.Gulathi Audio and video Engineering -R.G. Gupta

10. ww.cd-info.com 11. www.play-hookey.com 12. www.howstuffworks.com

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