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Course Content Learning Outcomes Method of Instruction List of Books List of Chemical Engineering Journals List of Chemical/Process Design Softwares Class Grouping for Process Design

Course Content
Scope of Design Project Sources of Design Data Equipment Design and Specification Mechanical Design of Process Vessels and piping Site Location and Layout Process Services Environmental Consideration Design Report Elements of Modular Simulation Use of Computer Software in Design of Process Plants(Hysys, ChemCAD, Pro II, Prosim etc)

Learning Outcomes
Scope a design project Collect and collate design data Design and Specify any process equipment Work effectively in a design team Establish passion for the use of computer software in the design of a chemical plant Familiarity with Hysys and other computer softwares

Method of Instruction
Lectures Class Exercises Home Assignments Assessments Video Presentation Industrial Visits Invited Guest Speakers

Class Discussion
Students Expectations How to realise these expectations Appointment of Class Industrial liaison officer Listing of Potential Industries to visit

List of Books
R.H. Perry and D.W. Green (Editors), The Chemical Engineers Handbook, McGraw Hill Book Company, 7th Edition, (1997) M.S. Peters and K.D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, McGraw Hill Book Company, 5th Edition, (2003) D.M. Himmelbau, Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, PrenticeHall International, 6th Edition, (1999) J.M. Coulson and J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, Pergamon Press, ( 1999 )

List of Books Cont.

B.D. Smith, Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes, McGraw Hill Book Company, 4th Edition, (1984) R.K. Sinnott, An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Design, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, (1983) W. D. Baasel, Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design, Elsevier Publishing Company Inc., NY, (1976) H.Z. Kister, Distillation Design, McGraw Hill Book Company, (1992)

List of Chemical Engineering Journals

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers Journal Chemical Engineering The Chemical Engineer Chemical Engineering Progress Chemical Engineering Science Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Process Design and Development

List of Chemical Engineering Journals Cont.

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Fundamentals Hydrocarbon Processing Chemical and Engineering News Oil and Gas Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry Computer and Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Education Chemical and Processing Engineering

List of Chemical Engineering Softwares

Hysys ChemCAD Pro II Prosim Design 2000 Aspen Plus EnviroPro

Design Scope
Definitions Parts of Project Design Scope Emphasis on safety during the design stage Scoping a chemical Engineering Project Assignment ONE

Definition of Scope
A clear definition of the project is the first stage of plant design. A clear definition of the project makes preliminary process design easy, which in turn provides a reasonably accurate cost estimates.

Items that must be included in the Scope

The product (s) Quantity of each product Quality of each product Storage requirements for each product Raw material for each product Quality of raw material Storage requirement for the raw materials By products Process to be used, including yields and conversion

Items of Design Scope Cont.

Waste disposal requirements Utilities requirements What provision should be made for future expansion Location of the plant Operating hours per year Completion date Shipping requirements Laboratory requirements Special Safety consideration

Size of container Size of expected orders How much material must be sold (predicted by marketing expert) Technical and economic questions Board of Directors make final decision on size of plant Plant can be large, small, multipurpose Containers (steel drums, filler drums, Polyethylene drum/bags, boxes, car bays, pails, cans)

Number and types of processing steps determine purity of products Use very expensive raw material when small quantity is required Purify raw material of low quality when large quantities are processed Set product specification at the time of deciding the capacity

Raw Material Storage

Ensure plant never shuts down becoase of lack of raw material Estimate maximum and minimum elapsed time between placing of orders Difference between the two determines how much feed must be on hand when order is placed. Maximum amount sets the size of the storage facilities

Product Storage
Product storage must be large enough that it does not impede production Consider whether product has a steady market or vary with season of the year

Waste Disposal, Utilities, shipping and laboratory requirements

Which of these will be constructed? Which services will be bought? Which are already present? Which will be expanded? Omission of these items can cause capital costs to greatly exceed estimates.

Plans for future Expansion

Provision for future expansion will reduce cost of that expansion Design some equipment with excess capacity to facilitate future expansion Put in extra capacity in continuous units Plan layout that will easily allow addition of batch units

Hours of Operation
There are 8,760 hours in a year For a small plant involving new technology, allow 90 percent of total time (7900 hours) For a large plant using well documented processes, use 95 percent Consider shift arrangements In general design for 300 days in the year

Completion Date
Completion date has effect on cost and profitability Prices change with time However rushing can cause increase in prices(You speed up equipment delivery and do things in more expensive ways to save time) It takes two to three years after the scope is written before the plant is ready for start up

A major design consideration Bury tanks, provide fire walls, separate parts of the plant Provide a sprinkler system Storage facilities should be at least 500m form processing equipment Record all dangerous aspects of chemicals and processes Safety consideration will reduce the probability that some safety features will be omitted Such omission can cause injury to man, equipment and environment Prepare hazard sheets for all chemicals

Class Exercise
Think of a process plant Develop a design scope for the process plant Draw up a hazard sheet for one of the hazardous chemicals. (20 minutes)

Home Assignment
Get a recent copy of one of the national dailies and find a scope of a project. Write out the important sub-heads of the scope. Get a copy of the article stated below and read and do a summary write up on it. Glen Rosentrater, Preliminary and Final Engineering Scope of Work, Chemical Engineering Progress, vol.97, no.12, Dec. 2001

Course Assignment one

Alkylbenzene sulphonate (ABS) can be prepared from hydrocarbon intermediates in a refinery. Dodecene (Propylene tetramer) is popularly used for the alkylation of benzene to get Alkylbenzene with C12 for the alkyl side chain. The alkylation step is followed by sulphonation and neutralization. (i) Carry out a literature survey to get the following: - Different manufacturing schemes for ABS - Process description for the production of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (ii) Sketch the process flow diagram using computer (iii) Write on safety consideration for the process

Lecture Number 2 Design Information and Data

Sources of Information on Manufacturing Processes Sources of Physical/Chemical properties Accuracy Required of Engineering data Prediction of Physical Properties (density, heat capacity, latent heat of vapourisation, vapour pressures, diffusion coefficients, surface tension, critical constants, enthalpy of reactions, enthalpy of formation, phase equilibria data) Design Data Book

Sources of Information on Manufacturing Processes

Information on manufacturing processes, equipment parameters, materials of construction, costs , physical and chemical properties of process materials are needed in various stages of process design (initial screening of possible processes, plant start up and production) For new processes, data and information must be obtained from literature, or by experiments (research laboratory, pilot plant studies) or purchased from other companies.

Information on Manufacturing Processes

They can be obtained from general literature They are useful during the initial stages of process design They are descriptive and may not be useful for detailed design/evaluation. They lack the detailed information on reaction kinetics, process conditions, equipment parameters, and physical properties. They help to search for possible process route during the drawing of process flowsheet. Most information on manufacturing processes can be obtained from the following:

Information on Manufacturing Processes

Kirk and Othmer (2001), Encyclopedia of Chemical Processes Mcketta (2001), Encyclopedia of Chemical Processes and Design data, Marcel Dekker Shreves Chemical Process Industries, (1998) Edition updated by Austin G.T. and Basta, N., McGraw Hill Ullman (2002), Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th Edition, VCH, Germany

Info. On Manuf. Processes Cont.

Books become outdated quickly and many of the processes described in them may be obsolete. Up to date description of processes in current use can be found in technical journals, e.g. Hydrocarbon Processing Petrochemical handbooks, patents. Word Wide Web (WWW). Search for information on the internet processes, equipment, products and physical properties. Many manufacturing and governments departments maintain web sites (information on Health and environmental effects of products)

Internet Sources
Key words Chemical Engineering Information www.hw.ac.uk/lib www.che.ufl.edu/ www.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de/chem-eng Many of the important sources of engineering information are subscription services Knovel organisation: Provides on line access to most standard reference books. Although subscriptive, it can be accessed through many libraries including professional engineering ihstitutions and some universities

http://www.che.com http://www.cepmagazine.org http://www.aiche.org http://www.ualberta.ca/cmeng www.sciencedirect http://www.blueskythinker.co.uk (geniusDirector of information), (Exploitation of Science, technology, innovation and technology transfer)

General Sources of Physical Properties

International Critical Tables, now available as EBook. It can be referenced on Internet through Knovel (2003) Handbook on Chemical Engineering e.g. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, Handbook of Chemical and Environmental Engineering calculations. ESDU The Engineering Science Data Unit(www. Ihsesdu.com). Set up to provide validated data for engineering design. Developed under guidance and approval of engineers from industry, universities and research institutions. Includes equipment design data, software and high quality physical data.

Sources of Physical Properties Contd.

Results of Research work (Journal of Chemical Engineering data, Engineering Information and web based references owned by Elsevier Information . www.ei.org PP DS (Physical Property data Services) now available from NEL (www.nel.uk) DIPPR TM databases (Design Institute for Physical Properties of AIChE) www.aiche.org/dippr/projects.htm

Prediction of Physical Properties

Use textbooks . Reid et al (1987), Poling et al (2000) Group contribution techniques for estimation of physical properties of a compound based on a knowledge of structural formula of the compound Carry out a project on the Estimation of Physical Properties of Terpens using Group Contribution technique.

Estimation of Properties
Specific heat capacity, latent heat of vapourisation Vapour Pressures, use the equation

A, B, C are called Antoine Constants compiled by Ohe (1976, 1989,1990) Enthalpy of Reaction/Formation Phase Equilibria Data Diffusion Coefficients needed in the design of mass transfer processes of gas absorption, liquid-liquid extraction

Take Home Assignment

Write a technical paper on any one of the following: Estimation of vapour pressures Determination of liquid phase diffusion coefficients Thermal conductivity of solids/liquid/gases Vapour-Liquid equilibria Determination of heat of reaction for the transesterification of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)

Course Assignment Two (To be carried out in groups)

Develop a Design Data Book on the Following Projects: Group A Sulphuric Acid from iron Pyrites Group B - Nitric Acid Group C Ammonia from natural gas Group D Ethanol from Natural Gas Group E Methanol from Natural Gas Group F Urea from Natural Gas Group G Pulp and Paper from Bamboo Group H Animal Feed Concentrate from raw fish Group I Liquid Soap from rubber seed oil Group J Furfural from Agricultural wastes Group K Sustitute Natural Gas from Coal Submission date on or before 5th June 2010. On line submission preferred: Email samuelogbeide@gmail.com

Development of Design Data Book

Product (uses, form, quality and quantity) Reactants (nature, availability, impurities, specification) Reactions (basic reactions, Thermodynamics, Equilibrium, catalyst, by products) Physical Properties of Reactants, Products and by products (s.g., electrical cond., dielectric const., maximum inerts, freezing pt., density of vapour, latent heat , heat capacity, maximum heating value etc.) Chemical Properties of reactants, products and by products (oxidation ability, reaction with chlorine, reaction with metals, reaction with nonmetals) Environmental consideration (Hazards, Toxic effects, Government regulations) Flow sheet for various manufacturing schemes Material and Energy Balances

Lecture Number 3
Equipment Design and Specification Classification of Processing Equipment Design Equations Codes and Standards Equipment Specification Sheet

Classification of Processing Equipment

Unit process principles are used in the design of major pieces of equipment. These equipment are classified as follows: I. Columns (distillation) separation. No of plates, operating conditions, column diameter and height, materials of construction, plate layout etc. II. Vessels size (dictated by hold up time), materials of construction, parking/baffles to be specified.

Classification of Vessels Contd.

III. Reactors: Catalyst type and size, bed diameter and thickness, heat exchange facilities, recycle and regeneration arrangement, materials of construction. IV. Heat Exchangers/Furnaces: Duty, corrected log mean temperature difference, percent vapourised, pressure drop desired, materials of construction.

Classification of Equipment Contd.

V. Pumps and Compressor: Specify types, power requirement, pressure difference, gravities, viscosities, working pressures, material of construction. VI. Instruments: Designate function and any particular requirements VII. Special Equipment: Specification for mechanical separators, mixers, driers etc.

Equipment Specification
Standard equipment should be selected. If equipment is standard, manufacturer may have desire size in stock. Manufacturer will quote a lower price and give better guarantees than for special equipment. A lot of valuable information can be obtained from equipment manufacturers who specialise in particular types of equipment. Before contacting a manufacturer, the engineer evaluates the design needs and prepare a preliminary specification sheet for the equipment.

Preliminary Specification Sheet

Used by engineers as basis for the preparation of the final specification It can be sent to a manufacturer with a request for suggestion and fabrication information It should show the following: Identification, Function, Operation, Material Handled, Basic Design data, Essential controls, Insulation requirements, Allowable tolerances, Special information and details of particular equipment e.g. materials of construction, insulation, necessary delivery date, supports, comments.

Specification Sheet Contd.

Potential Manufacturer make suggestions before detailed specification is prepared. The final design include small changes that reduce first cost with no decrease in the effectiveness of the equipment. E.g. the tubes in standard heat exchangers are 8, 12, 16, or 20 feet long. These lengths are keep in stock by manufacturers and maintenance departments. If a design specification calls for 15 feet long, the manufacturer would use 16 feet tubes cut off to the specified length. Thus an increase from 15 to 16 feet for the specified length could cause a reduction in the total cost of the unit. Labour cost for cutting the standard length tube is eliminated. Replacement of tubes after some service time would be less for 16 feet tubes than for 15 feet tubes.

Specification Sheet Contd.

The details of mechanical design, such as thicknesses of shell, headers will be considered later. Location and sizes of outlets, supports and other fabrication information can be presented with the specification in the form of comments or drawings.

Specification Sheet for a Heat Exchanger

Identification Item Condenser Item No. H-5 No required 1

Heat Exchanger
Date : 30/05/2010 By : Dr. S. E. OGBEIDE

Function : Condense over head vapour from methanol fractionation column

Operation : Continuous Type: Horizontal Fixed Tube sheet Expanding ring in shell Duty 3,00,000 BTU/h Tube side Fluid Handled Flow rate Pressure Temperature Head material Shell side Fluid Handled: Flow rate Pressure Temperature Cooling water 380 gpm 20 psig 15OC to 25OC Carbon steel Methanol vapour 7000 lb/h 0 psig 65OC to a constant temperature

outside area: 470 sq ft Tubes: 1in. Dia. 14 BWG 1.25 centimetre Pattern 225 tubes each 8ft long 2 passes Tube material Carbon Steel Shell: 22 in dia. 1 pass Transverse baffles , Tube support required Longitudinal baffles 0 required Shell material Carbon Steel

Utilities : Untreated cooling water . Controls : cooling water rate controlled by vapour temperature in vent line. Insulation: 2 in rock cork or equivalent weather proof. Tolerances: TEMA Standards. Comments on Drawing: Location and sizes of inlets and outlets as shown in drawing.

Specification Sheet for Sieve Tray Distillation Column

Identification Item Item No. No Required Distillation Column DC 121-4 1

Date : 30/05/2010 By: Dr. S. E. Ogbeide

Function : separation of a mixture Operation: Continuous Materials Handled: Quantity: Composition: Temperature: Design data: Feed ------------------------------------Overhead ---------------------------------------------Reflux --------------------------------------Bottoms -------------------------------------------------------

No of trays: ---------------Pressure: ----------------Functional height: ---------------Material of construction: -------Diameter: -----------------Max. Allowable vapour velocity: ft/s ----------------Max. vapour flow rate: ft3/s ---------------Recommended inside diameter: --------------Hole sizes and arrangement: ------Tray thickness: ----------------------

Reflux Ratio: -----------------------------Tray spacing: -----------------------------Skirt Height: ------------------------------

Utilities: ----------------------, Tolerances: ------------------,

Controls: ------------------------------------------------, Insulation: -----------------------------------------------------Comments on Drawing: ---------------------------------------------

Design Methodology
Design Steps/Procedure Design Equations Standards and Codes Interaction with Manufacturers Final Design Specification Sheets on all equipment Engage a fabricator

Individual Home Assignment

Write a technical essay on computer aided design of a process equipment of your choice. Submission date is on or before 17/05/2011

Course Assignment
Divide the class further into group of 4 students to carry out assignment a) Design of air cooled condenser b) of vertical thermo-siphon reboiler c) of kettle type evaporator d) ,, of finned tube heat exchanger e) of reciprocating compressor f) of centrifugal compressor g) of blowers/vacuum pump h) of steam turbines i) of surge drums/tanks j) of gas turbines

Course Assignment Contd.

k) Design of Distillation column l) Design of Adsorption column m) Design of Absorption column n) Design of Extraction Column o) of Extractive distillation column p) of Biochemical reactor q) of Fixed bed catalytic reactor r) of Fluid bed catalytic reactor s) of Driers t) of Centrifuges u) of Crystalisers v) of Nuclear reactor (2 Class Champions) w) of Twin Screw Extruder (2 Class Champions)

Additional list of Hand books

Joseph P. Reyholds, John S. Jeris and Louis Theodore (Editors), Handbook of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Calculations, J. Wiley and sons inc. , New York, (2002) Ernest E. Ludwig, Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volumes 1-3, Third Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, Boston (volume 1-Process Planning, scheduling, flowsheet design, fluid flow, pumping of liquids, mechanical separation, mixing of solids, ejectors, process safety and pressure relieving devices. Volume 2 distillation and packed towers. Volume 3 heat transfer, refrigeration systems, compression equipment, surge drums, mechanical drivers)

Lecture N. 4
Classification of Pressure Vessels Pressure Vessels Codes and Standards Fundamental Principles and equations

General Design Considerations

Design pressure Design Temperature Materials of construction Design Stress Welded Joint Efficiency Corrosion Allowance Design loads Minimum practical wall thickness

Design of Thin Walled Vessels under Pressure

Cylinders and spherical shells Heads and Closures Design of Flat ends Design of Doomed ends Conical section and end enclosures Compensation for openings and branches

Design of Vessels Subject to External Pressure

Cylindrical Shells Design of stiffness rings Vessel heads

Design of Vessels Subject to Combined Loading

Weight loads Wind loads Earthquake loads Eccentric loads Torque

Vessel Supports
Saddle Supports Skirt Supports Bracket Supports

Bolted Flanged Joints

Types of Flange and selection Gaskets Flange Faces Flange Design Standard Flanges

Heat Exchanger Tube Plate

Welded joint Design Fatigue Assessment of Vessels Pressure Tests

High Pressure Vessels

Fundamental Equations Compound Vessels Liquid Storage tanks (Mechanical Design of Centrifuges: centrifugal pressure, bowl and spindle motion, critical speed)

Chemical Engineers Specialist Designers

Chemical engineers develop and specify the basic design information Require general appreciation of pressure vessels Work closely with the specialist designer conversant with design codes and practices

Data Needed By Specialist Designers

Vessel function Process materials and services Operating and design temperature and pressure Materials of construction Vessel dimension and orientation Types of vessel heads to be used Openings and connections required Specification for heating/cooling Types of agitators Specification of internal fittings

Pressure Vessel
Any closed vessel over 150mm diameter subject to a pressure difference of more than 0.5 bar They are divided into two groups depending on the ratio of wall thickness to wall diameter thin walled vessels (thickness ratio less than 1:10) Thick walled vessels (thickness ration more than 1:10)

Principal Stresses on Vessels

Longitudinal stress ------ 1 Circumferential stress--- 2 Radial stress--------------- 3

Design and Fabrication of Thin Walled Vessels

Covered by National Standards and Codes of Practice In UK, according to British Standard PD 5500 European Standard according to EN 13445 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Codes ASME codes Coeds cover design, material of construction, fabrication (manufacturing and workmanship), Inspection and testing Latest edition of PD5500 BS 4994

Codes and Standards

Drawn by committees of engineers experienced in vessel design and manufacturing techniques (blend theory, experiment and experience) Give general guidance for design and construction Consult the latest appropriate national codes and standards Any extension beyond code requirements is determined by agreement between manufacturer and customer For information on the latest, try internet www.bsiglobal.com Computer programme to aid in design of vessels to PD5500 and ASME codes can be found by making a search of the world wide web.

Group Assignment
Text Book (Chemical Engineering Vol.6 p. 890) Problem 13.5 Groups 1&2 Problem 13.4 Groups 3&4 Problem 13.6 Groups 5&6 Problem 13.7 Groups 7&8 Problem 13.9 Groups 9&10

Individual Take Home Assignment

A heat exchanger with two tube passes has been selected for cooling distill water from 93 to 85OF. The proposed unit contains 160 copper tubes, each in OD, 18BWG and 16 ft long. The tubes are laid out on 15/16 in triangular pitch, and the shell ID is 151/4 in. Twenty five percent out segmental baffles spaced 1 ft apart are located in the shell. The correction factor Fs, for use in evaluating the outside film coefficient can be assumed to be 1.3. Cooling water at 75oF will be used to remove the heat, and this fluid will flow through the tubes at a velocity of 6.7 ft/s. Under these conditions, the fouling coefficient is 2000 BTU/hr ft2 oF for distill water and 1000 BTU/hr ft2 oF for the cooling water. The pressure drop on the tube side and the shell side should not exceed 10 psi. Would the selected unit be satisfactory for cooling 175,000 lb/hr of distilled water? Use references on next slide and any other information at your disposal Submission Date: 15th May 2011

Mukherjee, R. , Effectively Design Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Chemical Engineering Progress, vol.94, No. 2, pp.21 37, (Feb. 1998) Mukherjee, R. , Broaden your heat exchanger design Skills, Chemical Engineering Progress, vol.94, no. 3, pp.35-43, (March 1998) Aurioles, G. Comply with ASME Codes during early design stages, Chemical Engineering Progress, vol.943, no.6, pp.45-50, (1998) M. Sloan, Designing and trouble shooting plate heat exchanger, Chemical Engineering, vol.105, no.5, pp.78-83, (May 1998)

The Design Report

During the course of a design project, the engineer prepares a report which explains what has been done, presents conclusions and recommendations. The decision of whether to continue or not continue the project is based on the material presented in the report. A good report must consider the readership of the report

Questions addressed before starting, while writing and after finishing a report
What is the purpose of report? Who will read the report? Why will they read it? What are their functions? What technical level will they understand? What background information do they have?

Parts of a Design Report

Covering Letter of Transmittal Title Page Table of Content Abstract or Summary of Report Body of Report (Essential information presented in the form of discussion, graphs, tables and figures) Appendix

1. Letter of Transmittal
Indicates why report has been prepared. Gives essential results that has been specifically requested.

2. Title Page
Includes title of report name of person to whom the report is submitted Includes writers name and organisation and date

3.Table of Content
Includes location and title of figures, tables and all major sections

4. Summary
Briefly presents essential results and conclusions in clear and precise manner

5. Body of Report
Introduction Presents a brief discussion to explain what the report is about and the reason for the report. Previous work (discuses important results obtained from literature surveys, and other previous work) Discussion

5. Body of Report
Outlines the method of attack on the project and gives the design basis. Includes graphs, tables, figures that are essential for understanding the discussion Discuss technical matters of importance Indicates assumptions made and their justification Gives a general discussion of results and proposed design

6.Final Recommended Design with Appropriate Data

Drawings of proposed design o Qualitative Flow Sheets o Quantitative Flow Sheets o Detailed Flow Sheets o Tables listing equipment and specifications o Tables giving material and energy balances o Process Economics, including costs, profits and return on investment

7. Conclusions and Recommendations

Presented in more detail than in summary

8. Acknowledgements
acknowledge important assistance of others who are not listed as preparing report

9. Table of Nomenclature 10. References to literature

Give a complete identification of literature sources referred to in the report

11. Appendix
Sample calculations Derivation of equations essential to understanding the report but not given in the main body Tables of data employed with reference to some part Results of laboratory tests (to obtain design data)

Steps in Preparing the Report

Define subject matter, scope and intended audience Prepare a skeleton outline and then detailed outline Write the first draft Polish and improve on the first draft and prepare the final draft Check the written draft carefully, have the report typed , and proofread the final report

Check List For The Final Report

Does the report fulfil its purpose? Will it be understandable to the principal reader? Does the report appear to cover too broad a subject? Is sufficient information presented? Is too much detail included in the body of the report? Are the objectives clearly stated? Is the reason for the report stated? Is the summary concise? Is there an adequate description of the work done? Are important assumptions and degree of accuracy indicated?

Check List For The Final Report

Are the conclusions and recommendations valid? Have previous data and earlier studies in the field been considered? Is the report well organized? Is the style of writing readable and interesting? Has the manuscript been rewritten and edited ruthlessly? Is the appendix complete? Are the tables, graphs, and illustrations presented in a neat, readable and organised form? Has the report been proofread? Are the pages, tables and figures numbered properly? Is the report ready for submittal on time?


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