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A STUDY ON FACTOR AFFECTING ABSENTEEISM

[A STUDY UNDERTAKEN WITH 70 RESPONDENT (WORKER) OF NIF GROUP OF INDUSTRY, NAVSARI. ]

A RESEARCHER DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO

SMT. S. J. PATEL & SMT K. K. PATEL DEPATRMENT OF SOCAIL WORK SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY VALLABH VIDHAYNAGAR IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQURIEMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK RESEARCH GUIDE: MS. SHIVANI MISHRA RESEARCHER: JASHMINA N. CHAUDHARY

PREFACE

With the changing Industrial landscape of the country the growth of new Industrial township & the dispersal of captivity, a process of Industrial culturailisation of workers has set in new working class have come into being & old ones are expanding. The National commission on labour has observed In the new trend of industrial- many labour problems are recorded. Absenteeism is one of the ever present problem of the organization. Absenteeism when an employee fails to attend work, when he is expected to attend, he may be regarded as absent. When an employee stays away from work and fails to inform the management about his intention of staying away, he would be regarded as absent. The problem area on which this research work is focused related to Absenteeism. I am motivated to take this topic, as research work because Absenteeism is burning problems in Industry, Which is one of the major problems and an issue affecting adversely employees, organization, nation and others in the society. Thus the Absenteeism in Indian industries is a complex socio-economic problem. Absenteeism is a very critical issue of industrial relation and has many important facts to be studied and focused. Absenteeism pattern among the workers followed every year. The related factors to the Absenteeism like Personal factors, Family problems, Social & religions factors, Health factors, Working condition, welfare facilities, working hours etc when the management side affected factors like very strict policy, average relationship between employer and employee are play very important role in increase the rate of absenteeism. To carry the study of Absenteeism among worker are very important to improve the productivity of the management and labour. In presenting in this study researcher try to focus on to know about the reason of the Absenteeism in the Industry. Jashmina N. Chaudhari.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I, Jashmina N. Chaudhari, student of master of social work take this opportunity. I would like to express my gratitude and profound thank to management of NIF group of Industry, Navsari . Who granted me permission for data collection and summer training . This was indeed a golden opportunity for me to work with them and learn the important aspects. I express my gratitude to my research guide respected Ms. Shivani Mishra who constructively guided me in every phase of my study and assisted and supporting in the overall completion of this Dissertation. I would like to very much thank to Mr. Vijay Kansara the general manager of NIF group of Industry for granting me permission and guided me. I express my profound gratitude to Mr. Sanjay Talwekar, HR Officer (personnel Department) who helped me and guided me to carry on data collection and research work in their Industry. Under whose guidance & co-operation I would achieve my goal. I am also thankful to the management and all concerned officer and respondent of NIF group of Industry, without those co-operation this study could not have been possible. Lastly, I would like to thank to department of social work and all respective staff member and my friends who co-operation and support me. Jashmina N. Chaudhari.

INDEX

SR.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PREFACE

CONTENT

PAGE NO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF GRAPHS CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION CHAPTER II - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

7 8 9

CHAPTER III - REVIEW OF LITERATURE CHAPTER IV- RESEARCH SETTING CHAPTER V - DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

10

CHAPTER VI - FINDING, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND PLAN OF ACTION

11 12

BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE- QUESTIONAIRE SCHEDULE

LIST OF TABLE

SR.NO

TITAL

PAGE NO

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Showing Age-wise distribution of respondents.

Showing Religion-wise distribution of respondents.

Showing Marital status of the Respondents.

Showing distribution of respondents based on education.

Showing distribution of respondents based on Length of service.

Showing distribution of respondents based on Nature of Service.

Showing distribution of respondents based on Place of Residence.

Showing Distributions of Respondents According to Family Type.

Showing Distribution of Respondents According to Relation with family member.

FACTORS RELATED TO JOB

10

Showing whether respondents satisfaction with the work place or not.

11

Showing whether respondents satisfaction with the present Income or not.

12

Showing whether respondents inform their superior before taking leave or not.

13

Showing if one of the staff member is absent in the department which kind of problem arise.

WORKING CONDITION

14

Showing respondents likeness regarding working environment.

15

Showing respondents relations:

A.

With their supervisor

B.

With their co-worker

16

Showing whether respondents get good guidance & response from their supervisor or not.

17

Showing whether respondents get good guidance & response from their supervisor or not.

18

Showing whether respondents remain absent effect their interest in work or not.

19

Showing which type of facilities available for worker.

20

Showing whether respondents are satisfied with the facilities provided to them or not.

21

Showing whether respondents face any kind of problem while reaching the work place or not.

22

Showing whether respondents attend their work when they are sick or unhealthy or not.

23

Showing whether respondents suffer any illness during the last one year or not.

24

Showing whether respondents attend their work when any of their family members is sick or not.

25

Showing whether respondents any family member suffered from any kind of major or minor illness during the last one year or not.

26

Showing whether respondents do any surgery or accidental surgery during the last one year or not.

ACCCIDENT

27

Showing whether respondents remained absent due to any accident during the last one year or not.

28

Showing whether respondents any family members suffered from any accidents & has their caused they remain absent from work or not.

SOCIAL FACTOR

29

Showing whether celebration of any festival affected respondents present at the factory during the last one year or not.

30

Showing whether respondents marriage ceremony affected their present in the factory during the last one year or not.

31

In the past one year was there occasion or instance where in your remain absent due to guest.

ECONOMIC FACTOR

32

Showing respondents what to do in case of financial crisis.

33

Showing whether respondents have any part time job or business or agriculture or not.

34

Showing whether respondents family have own any piece of land? Or involved in any kind of seasonal job or not. OTHER FACTOR

35

Showing whether respondents take visit their native place during festival days or holidays or not.

36

Showing whether respondents drink alcohol or not.

37

Showing whether respondents feel burden of work or not.

38

Showing whether respondents have sufficient knowledge of their work or not.

39

Showing respondents reason of absence.

40

Showing whether respondents absenteeism due to stress or not.

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

ABSENTEEISM INTRODUCTION Absenteeism is one of the major human problems of the day in industrial are an. It affects the cost of production, and creates problems in achieving production targets and of securing accelerated economic growth. Absenteeism is a social malady in an industry which disrupts work schedules, imposes extra burden on co-workers, reduces efficiency in labour productivity and lowers workers morale. In a planned economy, absenteeism creates hindrances in production targets, profit prospects, investments and incentives to working class. The first and foremost question therefore, is to understand the concept of Absenteeism. The word absenteeism signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work, it is unauthorized, unexplained, unavoidable, and willful absence from work. Absenteeism has also been defined as the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work, for example when their names are actually on the pay rolls of the organization. K.N.Vaid opined that the definition adopted by the Labour Bureau and other authorities are not acceptable because of defective use of tool for its measurement. The efficiency and experience of worker is affected by the rate of absenteeism and labour turn over. The Production of an industry largely depends upon the efficiency and experience of its worker. Hence it is very important to analyze and control absenteeism and labour turn over. Absence is complex phenomenon. The increasing inter-dependence of the people with key skills to be replaced by others even on temporary basis during absence. Loss to employer is still grater as both discipline & efficiency suffers. It gives rise to many industrial labour & social problems. It also reflects the attitude of the worker towards industrial life. Absenteeism is a very critical issue of industrial relation and has many important facts to be studied and focused. Absenteeism is a symptom of workers dissatisfaction to work in the organization. It may be either because of management attitude such as quality of supervision and behavior of the supervisor, size of the department or nature of work. The reasons may be because of workers self-illness, difficulty of transportation or full\filament of religious rituals. Absenteeism is of two types; (1) chronic absentee, where the employee is habitual to remain absent only in unavoidable and uncontrollable reasons. (2) Rare absenteeism 1.CHRONIC ABSENTEEISM Human resource managers also grapple with problems posed by workers who are chronically absent. The legal right of employer to discipline employees who are

chronically absent is firmly established; employers must first, however, make such employees aware of the problem and give them a chance to improve. Some companies have implemented a surprisingly simple solution to the problem of chronic absenteeism: they have the worst offender counsel each other. In one research study patterned after drug and alcohol abuse programs, a company paired valued employees who had absence problems with each other. If one felt like skipping work, he or she was encouraged to call the buddy to talk it out. During the study, the employees absence rates dropped by nearly 50 percent. Once they stopped participating in this absence-intervention program, their absence levels increased, but they remained lower than they had been before peer counseling. Employees who participated in the study found that they could talk freely with each other about the reasons behind their absences. The buddy would help talk through the problem, and encourage the wavering employee to return to work. Absenceintervention programs have also revealed that absentee workers have little idea how much time they were really missing from work. They knew they were taking too much time, but until the buddy started tracking it for them, they were unaware of how their absence was affecting the company. Similarly, companies are increasingly aware that, by understanding the cause of absenteeism, the phenomenon can be reduced to its lowest possible level. Additionally, a workers family status is a key predictor of absenteeism. Employees with children, particularly single parents, are far more likely to be absent than those without children. As such, future absence-management policies will most likely include the concept of paid time off coupled with improved family health, children care/elder care, and other programs designed to improve the quality of employees live and relieve some of their family and other network responsibilities. 2. RARE ABSENTEEISM

DEFINITIONS & CONCEPT AS Following are some definition of Absenteeism ABSENCE: The fact of being away from ones position while scheduled to be on duty. ABSENTEE: A person who fails to report to work when scheduled to do so. Absenteeism voluntary and involuntary absence from work of the failure of worker to report on the job when they are scheduled to work. Considerable difference in interpretation of absenteeism is difficult. In an effort to improve comparability, statisticians suggest that the term should not include absence due to holiday, strikes or termination of employment. Absenteeism is higher in time of full employment than in periods of low demand for labour. Some of the leading industrialist has defined. Absenteeism as: The failure of worker to report to work he is required to do so. The worker who stops attending work at the factory site without informing the authorities of his absence till he is removed from the service or resigns. From his job. The worker is marked absent if he goes late for five times in a month. This may vary from industry to industry. This however comes under force absenteeism. The failure of a worker to report for work when he is schedule to work. The Factories Act,1947 The concept of absenteeism rate indicates the sum total of time lost due to all type of leave and unauthorized absence. Authorized leave includes proper vacations, sickness, accident, casual leave or recognized over-stay and any other absence condoned by the employers before or after the fulfillment of leave. Unauthorised absence includes all those cases where work is available, the worker knows about it but fails to report for duty and the employer has no prior information for the workers failure. Absences may also be due to strikes and lock-outs (both the legal and illegal) and lay off. Absenteeism rate indicates more or less unavoidable Some loss either by authorised or unauthorised absence at a given point of time. Is absenteeism means:

Absence from the duty in the following cases - should be include in absenteeism.

1)

If

employee

is

on

CL/SL/EL

should

be

include

in

absenteeism

2) If employee in on Official Duty - should be include in absenteeism 3) Without Pay - should be include in absenteeism Worker: This term covered all persons who were defined as workers in the Factories Act, 1948, i.e., all persons employed directly or through any agency, whether for wages or not, in any manufacturing process or in cleaning any part of machinery or premises used for manufacturing process or in any other kind of work, incidental to, or connected with the manufacturing process or the subject of manufacturing process. Thus, the term worker covered those workers who were directly employed by the factory/establishment and those who were employed through contractors. Absenteeism; for purposes of the survey, the term Absenteeism was defined as the failure of a worker to report for work when he was scheduled to work. Absenteeism consists of days not at work, being late and taking excessively long breaks: Guinness (5th Edition) Absenteeism is the term used to describe the fact of an individual's missing his or her regular daily activity. For adults, absenteeism generally refers to individuals' absence from their jobs. In analyses of the indirect costs of all illness, all days of absence from work attributable to sickness are included in calculating the absenteeism component of indirect cost. In analyses of the indirect costs of specific illnesses or unhealthful behaviors like cigarette smoking, the productivity loss of interest is that associated with excess. Absenteeism due to the disease or condition at issue. The essential word here is "excess." Nearly all workers experience some days of absenteeism during the course of the normal work year. However, workers who suffer from specific acute or chronic illnesses are likely to miss more work days than usual. It is these extra days of missed work that create the lost productivity calculated as an indirect cost of specific illnesses. The costs associated with absenteeism are estimated by multiplying the number of days of absenteeism by the best measure of workers' contribution to productivity: their daily wage rate. In the case of conditions that are distributed among the population reasonably independent of people's age and occupational status, an average wage rate for the population as a whole may be applied. In the case of many illnesses, however, the distribution of the conditions is not independent of age and occupation. In these instances, analysis attempt to associate age-and occupation-specific wage rates with the days of work missed due to morbidity or disability. For example, were one interested in assessing the costs associated with back pain, one of the most common causes of work loss in America, one would emphasize wage rates paid to industrial and other blue-collar workers whose jobs require them to lift and move heavy objects. An analysis of the social

costs of breast cancer, a disease that afflicts primarily women, would utilize wages earned by women in calculating the burden of absenteeism attributable to the disease. Not all disease-related work loss occurs among paid workers. Conditions that afflict people caring for their children or cleaning their homes also impose costs on society. A complete estimate of the burden of disease must account for absenteeism in this sector of the society as well. Formal analyses often include unpaid work loss by multiplying days lost by what economists call a "shadow price," an estimate of the value of the unpaid labor performed. For example, unpaid child care may be valued at the wages of paid daycare providers. Similarly, housework time lost may be valued by the wage rate of paid domestic house cleaners. Although there is no argument about whether absenteeism imposes a significant cost on members of society, economists and public health analysts frequently differ on whether they consider such absenteeism a social cost. To public health analysts, illness-and injury-related absenteeism represents a burden on society as a whole, a social cost of enormous proportions. In contrast, to economists such productivity losses represent primarily private costs borne directly by the sick and disabled workers and their families, not the broader society. How one classifies such costs is not merely an academic exercise. Certain public health policies, such as the taxation of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages, are based in part on determination of the social cost of the consumption of these products. If the cost to society is deemed large, a high tax may be warranted to signal smokers and drinkers that the implications of their behaviors burden the rest of society, not merely themselves. However this argument is resolved, no one challenges the notion that illness-and behavior related absenteeism constitutes an important element of the burden of disease.

CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is not a single problem, it inheres many problems in itself. It is a symptom of a complex disease in an industry. The phenomenon of absenteeism has been explained I various ways. According to one line of thought, absenteeism is due to a lack of commitment on the part of work force. Clark kerr and his association are of the opinion that since the degree if the commitment varies with the degree of a countrys industrial growth or maturity, absenteeism is inversely related to industrial development.The worker in the process of the early stages on industrialization is more prone to absenteeism, prolonged and sporadic withdrawal from industrial work, wildcat stoppages, naked violence, and destruction of machines and property. Absenteeism is due to the factors that influence a workers commitment. The principal causes of absenteeism of industrial workers in present day time are not the same.

GENERAL CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Maladjustment with factory conditions:As a worker continues to live in the city, urban life become distasteful to him because of the insanitary condition prevailing there. He finds himself caught within great factory walls; he is bewildered by heavy traffic, by jostling, by stranger speaking different language; he is confused by different religions and tastes; and he is weary of the misery of slums and of toiling for long hours. He is subject to strict discipline and is ordered by complete stranger to do the things which he cannot understand. As a result, he is under constant strain, which cause him serious distress and impairs his efficiency. All these factors tend to persuade him to maintain his cont Sickness:Sickness is the main cause and is responsible for a considerable part of absenteeism. Most of our industries are not paying attention towards the maintenance of hygienic condition. So sickness is a common problem for working population in developing country like India. Rural Ties:In Indian industries most of the labour force is of migratory character. They come from rural places to urban industrial area in search of livelihood. Indian worker is still a part time peasant. It has been noticed that the workers go back to their village at the time of the harvesting and sowing of the crops. Besides their visit to the village home is frequent and hence increases the rate of absenteeism. Shifts:The night shift is also one of the causes of absenteeism. As it is difficult to work in night shifts as compared to day shifts, and also the other cause behind it is that one prefers to remain at home with family, and also discomfort faced in night duties results in a greater percentage of absenteeism during night shifts. Accident:An industrial accident is another cause of absenteeism in heavy industries. Accident is a common affair with worker. In case of hazardous nature of job, the accident occurs more frequently, which leads to higher rate of absenteeism. Improper safety provisions, lack of concentration, lack of training are some common reasons of accidents. In some cases fear to work in certain type of work that involves chances of accidents.

Social and Religion Ceremonies:Social and Religion functions diverts workers from work to social activities. On all plants absenteeism is high during local festivals irrespective of whether the workers are from rural areas or not. As Aristotle has rightly said, `Man is a social animal` he likes to form social groups and celebrate various social and religious functions. Since workers like to stay with their families on such occasions hence they go back to their village for short period. The workers who are related to political party and social institution as an active member always remain absent during election, meeting. Unhealthy working Condition:Irritating and intolerable working condition exist in factories. Heat and moisture (which rapidly exhaust the worker), noise and vibration in the factory9which affect the hearing), bad lighting condition (which causes of eye-strain), problems of dust, fumes, overcrowding. All these affect workers health causing him to remain absent work for a long time. Absence of adequate welfare facilities:Absenteeism is also due to the inadequate welfare facilities available to the worker, for a vast majority of industrialists in India still look upon welfare work as a barren liability rather than a wise investment. The national commission on labour observes: The statutory welfare amenities have not been properly and adequately provided. In several cases, particularly in medium and small sized units, the standards are distinctly poor. The studies made by some state in respects of the different component of the welfare include sanitation, washing and bathing facilities, first aid appliances, ambulance rooms, drinking water, canteens, rest rooms, and crches, which strengthen the general impression that compliance with statutory welfare provisions is half-hearted and inadequate. Fed up with the absence of basic facilities, the worker often migrates to his rural home. Industrial fatigue:Low wages compel a worker to seek some part-time job to earn some side income. But this often result in constant fatigue, which compel him to remain absent for next day; and if fatigue affects him seriously, his absence may continue for quite some time. Beldamus and Behrens observed: owing to cumulative fatigue , the number of absentees in a factory should be expected to increase through Monday to Friday if in reality the opposite happens, factors other than fatigue or working condition may be involved, notably morale.

Indebtedness:Most of the worker suffers from a high degree of indebtedness. Premchand and Ramprakash found that a worker had borrowed more than 11 times his net pay; another more than time 9 time; a third more than 8 times; a fourth one more than 7 times; yet another more than 6 times, and so on.. This is the general case in Indian industry. Workers are always worried about financial matter. Such worker absent themselves or even resign to escape the pathan moneylenders. As a result absenteeism is high. Improper and Unrealistic Personnel Policies:In most case, unskilled, untrained, illiterate and inexperienced worker are recruited who fail to cope with, and adapt themselves to their job and industrial environment. Favouritism and nepotism are rampant. These factors generate a frustration in the mind of worker which results in low efficiency, low productivity and unfavourable employee-employer relationship which in turn, lead to long period of absenteeism. Inadequate leave facilities:Negligence on the part of the employer to provide adequate leave facilities compels the workers to fall back on E.S.I. leave. Under E.S.I. scheme, they are entitled to 56 days leave in a year on half pay. Instead of going without pay, the worker avail themselves of this E.S.I. facility. Supervisor with a work oriented rather than man oriented approach are also a factor which compels worker to absent themselves on an E.S.I. certificate rather than avail of the leave on bonafide grounds. Misbehaviors of Supervisor:The worker expects normally a good and respectful behavior from their supervisors. It is the single factor in the development of sense of belonging and good will on the part or worker. In many instances it is found that supervisors behave rudely towards the workers. The workers prefers to remain at home rather reporting to duty and falls victim too the harsh treatment. Transportation:Rate of absenteeism is higher in those factories where transport facilities are not easily available. Nature of Job:Rate of absenteeism is mainly depending upon the nature of the job. If the nature of the job is tough, cumbersome or monotonous naturally it will lead to higher rate of absenteeism.

Working Hours:The long hours of works also affect the workers efficiency and their sickness rate and hence absenteeism rate is increase. Alcoholism:The habit of alcoholism among workers is a significant cause of absenteeism. Analytical studies those to degrees individual bad habits are responsible for absenteeism in Indian Industries.

THE COST OR EFFECT OF ABSENTEEISM Unauthorized and willful absenteeism will pose greater problems not only to the absentee but also to other employees, employers and the organization which employs these workers. The losses caused by absenteeism can be put briefly as under: Disturbing manpower planning. Disturbing work schedule. Creates stress for supervisor in terms of administration of finding substitute & for time office staffs time, energy & resources wasted on making & maintaining these records. It causes production losses in terms of quality and quantity. Earnings are reduced to the organization. Dislocation of work, production capacity is lost or under-utilization due to understaffing. If process is inter-dependent in the modern industries it creates bottle necks in production. Increased labor cost in terms of overtime payment. Cost of training.

Losses to workers: Financial losses: reduced wage, intensives, bonus, and payments. Loss in skill & efficient. Habitual absence causes general morale degradation. Stability of works affected.

Losses in general: In general, any absence weakens the companies goals and productivity as whole.

There are also some other cost of absenteeism are; Decrease in productivity Employee may be carrying an extra work load or supporting new or replacement staff. Employee may be required to train and orientate new or replacement worker. Staff morale and employee service may suffer.

Financial costs Payment of over-time may result. Cost of self-insured income protection plans must be borne plus the wage costs of replacement employees. Premium cost may rise for insured plans.

Administrative costs Staff time is required to secure replacement employees or to re-assign the remaining employees. Staff time is required to maintain and control absenteeism.

RESOLVING APPROACH
Reducing the High cost of Absenteeism

Employer pays a high price for absenteeism, often more than they may realize, in term of both financial and production losses and employee morale. Managers may view the tasks of finding a substitute employee as a shorter inconvenience; however, absenteeism frequently has more serious long-term effects. Employers can, nevertheless, ensure that employees report in regularly and remain on the job. Before employers can determination the best way to combat absenteeism, they must identify the organizational and individual factors that contribute to the problem. Among the most common potential problem areas employers need to explore are the following: Job satisfaction: Employee who like their job are more likely to come to work than those who find work unstimulating.

Work attitude: Some employees come to work no matter how sick they feel, while other call in sick no matter how well they feel. Company culture: If managements attitude is lax and absenteeism is accepted as a normal practice, the organizations culture may have to be changed before attendance can be improved. Excessive rates of sick leave: As some insurance companies are now doing, employers need to monitor sick leave rates reward employees who use fewer sick leaves.
Change Management Style: We are all aware of the fact that when employees call in ill, it does not mean they are truly too physically ill to work. One reason, outside of illness, that employees are absent is stress, and the number one reason employees are stressed has to do with their relationship with their manager/supervisor.

Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism among employees. Authoritarian managers are managers who have poor listening skills, set unreachable goals, have poor communication skills, and are inflexible. In other words, they yell too much, blame others for problems, and make others feel that it must be their way or the "highway." Authoritarian managers tend to produce high absenteeism rates. By identifying managers who use an authoritarian style, and providing them with management training, you will be taking a positive step not only toward reducing absenteeism, but also reducing turnover, job burnout, and employee health problems such as backaches and headaches.

Change Working Conditions:

The employees in your company probably work in a well-lighted climate controlled building. The working conditions referring to relate to coworker relationships. Not only does relationship stress occur between the employee and manager, but it also exists between employees. These employees usually report they just could not deal with "so and so" today, so they called in ill. Companies that adopted policies and values that promote employee respect and professionalism, and promote an internal conflict resolution procedure, are companies that reduce employee stress. A reduction in employee stress reduces employee absenteeism.

Provide Incentives: Giving employees incentives for reduced absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or giving employees bonuses for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. It simply helps the

employee decide to go to work versus staying home and watching Jerry Springer.

The types of incentive programs used by companies are numerous. Some companies allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an employee two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others provide employees with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratchoff card concealing prizes. The type of incentive program that your company uses should be one created especially for your company. You can create an incentive program tailored to your unique company by allowing employees to help you develop the incentive program. For example, your employees may not care about receiving a $25.00 U.S. saving bond for perfect attendance, but they might respond very well to being able to leave one hour early on Friday if they have perfect attendance all week. The duration of the incentive program is also very important. Once again allow your employees to help guide you to determine the length of time between incentives. Some companies find that they can simply reward employees with perfect attendance once a year, while others decide once a month is best, and still others decide once a week works best. The general rule of thumb is to reward workers more frequently the younger they are and the more difficult the work is to perform. Also, it is best to start with small incentives and work up to larger ones if necessary.

Develop an Attendance Policy: Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a primary reason for employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic violence, and family problems. If you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism, and they inform you it is due to personal problems, consider referring the employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

REMEDIAL MEASURES FOR REDUCING ABSENTEEISM Remedial measures are discussed under the three categories, discussed above viz. organization, environmental and personal. Under-each category, we have both short-term steps and long term steps. Some of these are listed here: (1)Organizational Remedies: Each organization is unique. Hence it is not possible to suggest a uniform system of remedies. However, certain broad assumption is made, based on which some suggestion are given here.

Carry out periodic collection of data on absenteeism and analyze them to find out the trend of absenteeism. Find out its trend analysis on trade wise, sex-wise and age-wise for further studies. In order to find out cause, carry out Morale or Attitude survey and identify among others the following. Causes and correlation of absenteeism. Gap between employees expectation and reality. Level of job-satisfaction of employees. Introduce suggestion scheme and obtain employees view points for reducing absenteeism. Improve supervision and communication. Introduce incentive scheme like attendance bonus (short-term positive step) Improve working condition (long-term) Improve safety, health and welfare services (long-term) Impose penalty/ punishment /fines for absence (short-term negative step) Improve organizational climate/culture (long-term) Increases quality of work life (QWL) of employees (long-term) Introduce flexi-timing if feasible.

(2)Environmental Remedies: While organization as such, has little say on the socioeconomic and cultural-religious aspects which contribute to absenteeism, certain steps can be done to improve QWL. It however depends on the type, nature and resource available by each industry. Provide campus/quarters and housing facilitates on hire-purchase basis. Improve hygiene of living quarters. Provide reasonable health care/hospital facilities. Provide services like subsidized canteen, transport and schools. Organize religious/cultural festivals and facilities including

temples/churches/mosques within the campus. Propagate family welfare scheme and virtues of maintaining small family. Organize sports and other recreational and entertainment facilities.

(3)Personal Remedies: While nothing much can be done on changing biographical factors which might influence on absenteeism, development of positive attitude among the workers can improve their attendance. Other aspects to reduce absenteeism are listed below. Increase intrinsic motivation. Identify chronic absentees and attend to them individually.

Carry out counseling of individuals, identified as chronic absentees and those exhibiting signs of mental illness. Introduce participative management system by discussing problem regarding absenteeism and arriving at remedial steps in consultation with employees. Introduce both positive steps (incentive bonus for better attendance) and negative steps (disciplinary action like fine). Take preventive steps to avoid accidents and excessive drinking (alcoholism). Provide permanent counselors to carry out individual counseling.

CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

TITLE OF THE STUDY A Study on Factors affecting Absenteeism in NIF group of company INTODUCTION One of the basic problems of industrialization, which badly affect industrial production and economic growth of the nation, has been the problem of absenteeism. Absenteeism refers to workers absence from his regular work when he is normally scheduled to work. Absenteeism is a symptom of workers dissatisfaction to work in the organization. It may be either because of management attitude such as quality of supervision and behaviour of the supervisor, size of the department or nature of work. In India, factories were established in presidency and industrial town and workers migrated from rural area to these town. Home sickness, a desire of free life, fresh atmosphere, fulfillment of socio-religious obligations resulted in frequency and severity of absenteeism. In the first phase of industrialisation in India, the rate absenteeism of factory workers was very high. The government, philanthropic employers and national and social leaders tried to reduce the average rate of absenteeism by resorting to many measures. The government imposed statutory obligations on employers to ensure health, safety and welfare of industrials workers. That is why the percentage rate of absenteeism reduced considerably after Independent. Absenteeism are of two type ; 1. Chronic absentee 2. Rare absentee. The Chronic absentee ,where the employee is habitual to remain absent from work, and The Rare absentee, where an employee remain absent only in unavoidable and uncontrollable reasons. The chronic absentee are considered to be strange variety of human beings whose different work behaviour arises in an entirely different way from that of regular workers. Some trace this behaviour to poverty and others to biological weakness or feeble-mindedness. SIGNIFICANTS OF THE STUDY Absenteeism is one of the ever present problem Of the organization. In absenteeism the contributing factors to absence include social such as alcoholism, family conflict, lack of proper motivation, working problems, health problem, transport problems, religious and age factor etc. have been identified as contributing factors to absenteeism. An employee means idle machine or unoccupied work space with consequent direct loss & an indirect reduction in the tempo of production. Absenteeism being a social phenomenon. A high

degree of absenteeism is definitely, a result of poor morale & visually mal-adjusted workers. Therefore, the need for the study of absenteeism is very important because it affects the production adversely as the work schedule are upset & delayed & consequently management has to give time which increases the cost of production. Hence, the significance of the study can be viewed from print of social work intervention at the family, community as well as industrial level. And this study is also very important for the company, because on the basis of finding a reason of absenteeism the employer taken a action regarding the reduce the rate of absenteeism so that it affect the increasing production of the Industry. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To study the various causative factors leading to absenteeism in Industry. To study the absenteeism with regard to their personal information, family background, occupational information etc. To study various suggestion as given by respondents to curb absenteeism. To study about the problems of the worker they face under various situations during the working. To analyze various components such as Wage/Salary, Bonus, social security, staff welfare, etc. in manufacturing industries. To provide comprehensive factual and systematic data on different aspects of labour for future planning and policy formulation. To find out the absenteeism rate of company. To find out the causes of absenteeism.

SAMPLING METHOD The sample for the study taken from the yearly absenteeism reports of the different three company of NIF group. To take seventy respondents from annual absenteeism report of company who had yearly absenteeism upon 15th percent. The sample for the study consists of seventy respondents from different company of NIF group. To selected respondent from study are chronic cases of (regular absenteeism) from company.

SAMPLE SIZE The sample size for the study are seventy respondent.

RESEARCH DESIGN Each study design has its own specific purpose. This mainly descriptive study variables are based on certain assumption on investigator has made attempt to show some relation between causes and corresponding absent. There are three types of Research design: 1. Exploratory 2. Descriptive 3. Causal For the study Descriptive and exploratory research design has been adopted. DATA COLLECTION METHOD For the research study researcher take 70 sample from the different 3 units of NIf group of Industry, who are the cases of habitual or continuous absenteeism. The researcher has devided his interview schedule into two section: Personal data, Causes of absenteeim DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE: For data collection researcher used Questionnaire and Interviewing method. UNIVERSE: In this research the universe consists the study of all the workers of NIF group of industry. Navsari. TOOL FOR DATA COLLECTION A Structure had been prepared for data collection was interview scheduled. The question of relating to facilities are respondent to share their view, opinion, and attitude to remain absent of employee in work place. VARIABLE A) Independent The independent variable consist of personal information of the respondent like name, age, sex, education qualification, department etc B) Dependent Dependent variable consists of the aspects related to the factor affecting absenteeism.

ANALYSIS OF DATA To minimize manual work of calculation help of computer has been taken. The work was done on Microsoft ward, graphical aids like Pie chart and tables etc. have been prepared for better understanding and interpretation of data for these Microsoft excel has been used by the researcher. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There is no activity that can be completed without any limitations or problems. Researcher faced the following some problems: Time was one of the major constraints in the study because of the respondent busy with scheduled of their work, to completed target of work so that not to be able to devote more time for giving information. Respondent not sharing their view freely because of fear of job security. Due to lack of awareness in certain areas of the question could not be effectively communicated to the respondent.

CHAPTERIZATION CHAPTER-1 Introduction In chapter 1 introduction part to given a information about concept, factos which affects to absenteeism, effects of absenteeism, how to reduce the absenteeism rate etc. CHAPTER-2 Research Methodology This chapter indicates that the significance of the study, which methodology used by researcher for the purpose of study. CHAPTER-3 Review of literature Review of literature also refers by research for to get brief review and appraisal of the related studies and to see what present study contributes more

knowledge further in the areas under study. CHAPTER-4 Research Setting This chapter also given a information about the universe of study, the area in which researcher done study and related information. CHAPTER-5 Data Analysis and Interpretation It is a main aspects of study, it indicates the analysis of data and interpreted and on that basis researcher come at the finding and suggestion for subjective study.

CHAPTER-6 Finding, Suggestion, Conclusion. These chapter indicates the results of the study, and given a recommendation for the purpose of reduce problems, effective work, improvement in some area like on production related, policy, rules, provided adequate facilities etc, and last conclusion covers the all over summary of the study.

CHAPTER-3 REVIEW OF LITERATU

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A review of literate is a must for scientific approach. It also gives the investigation an understanding of the preview of the work has been done related to the present study are cannot develop an insight into various factors of a problems unless or until one has leant various theories & research development in the subject. Research is concerned with the systematic gathering of information. Its purpose is to help in the research for truth.
Man is the only creative that does not have to renew every generation but can take the advantages of the knowledge of about has accumulated thorough the centuries.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief and initial review and appraisal of the related studies and to see what present study contributes more knowledge further in the areas under study. Zarqa, (2006) did study on Administrative factors affecting employees absenteeism in academic and public libraries in Jordan. Absence from work is a persistent and challenging problem confronting organizations. This study aims to analyze the effect on absence rates of the following administrative factors: line of authority, work climate, leadership, communication, employment, supervision, decision-making, and innovation; the extent of occupational variables: library type, specialization, and organizational department; and employees characteristics: gender, age, marital status, and experience, at eight state academic and six public libraries in Jordan. Data was collected via field visits, personal interviews and a questionnaire. Of the 132 staff applicable to the study objectives, 115 (87.1%) responded. ANOVA, T-test and Duncan dimensional comparisons methods were used for statistical data analysis. Study findings revealed that poor organizational structure, improper work climate, poor leadership and

communication processes, the absence of sensible employment policies, poor supervision, and managers passiveness are administrative factors negatively affecting employees absence from work. Statistical analysis of mean values revealed that there is a significant statistical difference, at the 0.05 level, between all administrative factors attributed to respondents personal characteristics and occupational variables. Recommended solutions include establishing sensible organizational structures delegating authority, promoting teamwork practice, developing job descriptions and evaluation systems, allowing employees freedom of choice to perform job duties, supporting cooperative working relations, promoting managers attitudes towards delegation of authority, open-door communication policies, and providing employees with training opportunities and motivations.

Joseph J. Martocchio & Diana I. Jimen (2003) did study on Employee absenteeism as an affective event. It consider theoretical and empirical developments in personality, affect, and absenteeism research. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between these three constructs and propose a theoretical perspective about the importance of affect in mediating the effect that personality has on absenteeism. One of our main goals is to look at both positive and negative consequences of absenteeism. We propose a model of the personality types that have a higher likelihood of using absenteeism to their benefit (i.e., to recharge and change negative affect) and therefore have the absence be functional (i.e., positive affect and higher productivity upon returning to the job) rather than dysfunctional (i.e., negative affect and person is still unproductive or has less productivity than before the absence event). We conclude by emphasizing the theoretical contributions that this model makes and by suggesting ways in which the model could be tested. Luz J, Green MS. (1997) did study on sickness absenteeism from work. Medically certified absence (absence from work attributed to disease and accident) is an important and convenient index of workers' health and attitudes. It also constitutes the largest part of total absence from work. Depending on the country and on industry and population characteristics, sick-leave accounts for 60-70%, and injuries for another 7-20%. The balance is defined as "healthy-worker absence", taken with or without prior permission or post-facto justification. It is characteristic of the first and last phases of an employee's history at the firm; either before he has time to become a permanent employee and adapt to the local "absence culture", or when he contemplates leaving. On the other hand, certified absence is confirmed by a higher authority, and so it is accepted by management, the insuring institution, and the peer group (which often have to carry the extra workload). This absence belongs to the phase of regular relationships, which both sides seek to maintain. Whether and how often the employee has recourse to certification depends on a number of factors. Those mentioned most often in the literature are: (a) absence--proneness-apparently a defined personality trait (psychological or

psychosomatic) leading to repeated absences; (b) poor working conditions; (c) lack of group cohesiveness--members of a well-structured group are upheld by its solidarity and sense of belonging ("esprit de corps"); this is observed in smaller and more closely-knit groups such as shift and group teams, as in the Volvo experiment; (d) quality of the leadership and organizational behavior; (e) job satisfaction--deprivation of recognition, use of abilities, responsibility, and interest have strong psychosomatic repercussion; (f) interaction with external forces, especially marketplace conditions--lack of external demand may restrain absence. Christa Craven & Robert Ledman (1996) did study on Managing Absenteeism for Greater Productivity. Unauthorized or unscheduled absenteeism is a problem for every organization or business. It creates cost and productivity problems, puts an unfair burden on the majority of employees who show up for work, ultimately hinders customer

satisfaction, and drains the country's economy. Experience shows that better attendance is synonymous with better quality, lower costs, and greater productivity (Hazzard, 1990). This paper reviews the literature related to absenteeism and suggests how managers can improve their absenteeism rate and, as a result, improve productivity. At least 50% of all employee absenteeism is not caused by bona fide illness or other acceptable reasons. Experts estimate that absenteeism in the U.S. results in the loss of over 400 million workdays per year - an average of approximately 5.1 days per employee (Gwaltney, 1994). In the U.S., one million employees a day will not attend their regularly scheduled work at an estimated annual cost of $40 billion per year (Dalton and Enz, 1987). Steers and Rhodes (1984) report that for every 0.5% increase in national absence rates in the U.S., the gross domestic product drops $10 billion. Based on the size of today's GDP compared with the early 1980s, that figure is surely substantially larger today. Leigh (1986) estimated that hours lost in absenteeism is over 40% larger than the number of hours lost in unemployment. Markowich (1993) cited a survey of 5,000 companies conducted by Commerce Clearing House, Inc., Chicago that found that unscheduled absences cost small businesses an average of $62,636 a year in lost productivity, sick time, and replacement costs. Absent... Dion Greenidge and Jase Ramse (2007) did study on Job attitudes and absenteeism: A study in the English speaking Caribbean This paper examines the relationships of job attitudes (facets of job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and personality characteristics to absenteeism, in five manufacturing companies in Barbados, an Englishspeaking Caribbean country. The relationships examined are based on well-established theories from the developed world, especially the USA. In addition, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance were measured. The results show that an employee's levels of satisfaction with co-workers, activity, responsibility, and job security, as well as loyalty to the organization, are related to absenteeism. These results are similar to those found in past research in the developed world. The most important single predictor of absence was satisfaction with co-workers. Respondents were moderate on individualism, high on uncertainty avoidance, and low on power distance. The cultural scores are used to help interpret the results. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of expanding the reach of an established theory, and relative to decreasing absenteeism in Barbados. Breuner C.C. & Womack W.M. (March 2004) did study on Factors Related to School Absenteeism in Adolescents With Recurrent Headache. Objective:

To examine possible risk and protective factors for school absenteeism among adolescents referred to a hospital-based behavioral treatment program. Design: Data obtained from intake interviews, screening questionnaires, and baseline headache diaries of 283 consecutive adolescents referred for behavioral treatment of recurrent headache were reviewed for demographics, length of headache history, headache type, current headache activity, symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived self-efficacy regarding headache control, school performance, participation in extracurricular activities, and school absenteeism. The study population was divided into 2 groups at the median number of days missed due to headache in the previous 6 months that school was in session. Adolescents who missed 2 or less days of school due to headache (low absenteeism) were compared with those who missed more than 2 days (high absenteeism). Results: Compared with the low absenteeism group, the high absenteeism group had higher scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (8.7 6.5 versus 6.8 6.2, P < .05 ) and lower academic performance (2.1 1.0 versus 1.7 0.8, P < .0001 ). The 2 groups were not statistically different in age, sex, length of headache history, type of headache, current headache frequency or intensity scores, anxiety scores, self-efficacy ratings, or participation in extracurricular activities. Conclusions: In a referred population, students who missed more school due to headache had higher depression scores and lower academic performance than students who missed less school. A directional relationship, however, cannot be implied from these results. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between recurrent adolescent headache, potential risk or protective factors, and school absenteeism. E C Isah, and L Oyovwe (2008) Self-Reported Absenteeism Among Hospital Workers in Benin City, Nigeria. Background Absenteeism is a major cause of loss in jobs, man-hours, productivity, and lives in the health sector. It also has grave consequences for global economies. Objective To determine the overall absenteeism rate and the factors that conduces to absenteeism among hospital workers. Design Cross sectional descriptive type. Setting and Participants

The entire staff in the hospital was enlisted in the study and data were collected through self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire. Results Fifty three percent of the 474 respondents reported at least one absence spell in the year. Absenteeism was highest among domestic staff (70.8%) and lowest among the doctors (46.9%). The average number of spells per absentee per year was 1.7 and the average duration of spells was 4.1 days while the incapacity rate was 7.2 days. The overall absenteeism rate was 1.7%. Absenteeism was significantly associated with increasing age (p=0.000), gender, [females<males (p=0.001)] and with marital status

[married<unmarried (p= 0.02)]. Higher rates of absenteeism were recorded among staffs who were stressed (92.1%), not satisfied with the working environment (66.7%) and those who experienced job dissatisfaction (64%). Engagement in physical activities impacted positively on absenteeism (p=0.02). Ill health accounted for 54.6% of absenteeism, with the bulk of it (67.5%) due to malaria Conclusion Though the overall absenteeism rate (1.7) was lower than the level of 4 considered to be excessive, 53% of the study population had been absent from work at least once in the study year. There is therefore the need to improve on the social and physical work environment in order to reduce absenteeism among these workers. Introduction Absenteeism is the frequent absence from work, especially without good reasons. It is a global occurrence among workers and in Nigeria it is a source of concern in view of the weak national economy and of the health system. Absenteeism has been shown to result in loss in man-hours, productivity, finance, jobs and in the health sector, of lives. Workers absent themselves from work for various reasons that include ill health, accidents/ injuries, family commitments such as caring for a sick family member, entitlement mentality (where the worker assumes the employer owes him some time away from work), economic pressures necessitating keeping a second job and stress. Absenteeism is also influenced by the physical demands of the job such as standing or squatting to work, bending of the neck and back, carrying, lifting or pushing heavy loads, etc and psychosocial factors such as job demands, excess workload, inability to cope, job dissatisfaction, social support and attitude of management etc. and conditions of the workplace. The direct and indirect cost of high level of absenteeism in the health sector include the cost of medical bills, paying of additional overtime to staff, employing temporary staff, reduction in the standard of care to patients, disruption of working schedule, the lowering of morale and increased dissatisfaction among staff. Absenteeism is not easily

quantifiable, as it is often difficult to verify employees' claim about the causes of their absence, thus making it difficult to distinguish between avoidable and unavoidable absence. Moreover, many organizations, surprisingly do not keep good and accurate attendance records.

The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the overall level of absenteeism and the factors that conduce to absenteeism among hospital workers, with the aim of making recommendations on ways of reducing it and enhancing productivity in the health sector. There is also the need to generate data that will fill in the gaps due to the dearth of literature on absenteeism among Nigerian workers. Material and Method A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the Central Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. The hospital is a state-owned secondary health facility situated in the central area of the City and has a staff population of 502, cutting across all cadres of health care workers. Informed consent was sought and obtained from the management and staff of the hospital, both verbally and in writing. In order to minimize bias, the objective of the study was further explained to the respondents and anonymity assured them during administration of the questionnaire. The research instrument was a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, which contained questions addressing the demographic profile of respondents, self-reported frequency of and reasons for absenteeism Absenteeism rates were calculated using the standards established by the United States Bureau of Labour Statistics, and those of the Canadian Ministry of Industry, Labour and Household surveys. The Computer Programs for Epidemiologists and the Microsoft Excel soft ware were used for data analysis. Reasons for absenteeism Sickness accounted for 54.6% of absenteeism, family problems accounted for 18.7%; other causes included attendance at examinations 12.7%, social events like marriage and burial 5.2%, adverse weather condition 4.4% travel 3.2% and transportation problems 1.2%, absence due to ill health was mainly due to malaria fever (67.5%) while surgical interventions accounted for the least (1.7%). DISCUSSION This study has determined different absence rates including the overall absenteeism rate and the factors influencing them among hospital staff. In this study, the incidence of absence among the workers was 53%, comparing well with results obtained in another study where 57.6% of the studied population had at least one absence spell in the year, but contrasts with a lower figure of 15.8% recorded in another. Doctors and nurses had the lowest (46.9% and 48.0%, respectively) of crude absence rates. Studies have shown an inverse association between absence rates and the grade of employees/job type: the lower the grade of the employee, the higher the absence rate. This inverse relationship was found among the staff in this study. Doctors and nurses have to be physically present at all times to monitor and nurse patients and this probably explains the low rates of absence among them.

In this study, average number of days lost per absentee in the year (incapacity rate) of 7.2 days is lower than the value of 14.3 days obtained among hospital workers in Chile, but higher than those in other studies where 3, 4.7 and 5 days were obtained. The overall absenteeism rate of 1.7% is also lower than the rate of 4%, considered to be excessive by the United States Bureau of Labour Statistics. Chevalier et al reported rates between 1.98% and 2.80%, while Gazmuri et al, reported rates between 2.25% and 3.59% among various categories of hospital workers. The apparent lower rates of incapacity and absenteeism reported in this study are probably due to problem of recall or deliberate under-reporting by respondents, in order to avoid administrative sanctions. Besides, workers tend to cover up for each other and so management is often unaware about such absenteeism. Again, self-reported absence due to sickness has been found to be generally lower than recorded absence rates elsewhere. These rates even when they are modest, are a major cause of loss in productivity with high financial implications such as, payment for replacement of absentee staff and other administrative costs of managing absence and for re-scheduling of work. This subsequently affects the general economy of any nation especially that of a developing nation like Nigeria. The correlates of absence rates as shown in are not surprising. The rates which increased with increasing age could be due to the fact that generally, younger workers tend to be more energetic and may be more enthusiastic about their jobs. Several studies have found absence rates higher among females than among males. Females are more likely to be absent from work for reasons other than illness or injuries in order to fulfill other family responsibilities such as caring for sick family members. The higher rates for married staff could also be due to greater family responsibilities and household chores. The effect of the physical and psychosocial work environment on absenteeism is well documented. Poor relationship with managers or supervisors, with co-workers and the unavailability of work implements often lead to low morale and frustrations among workers, hence absenteeism and lowered productivity. It is thus not surprising that high proportion of workers with job stress, job dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction with the working environment was absent from work. Physical activities seemed to have a positive impact on absenteeism as those engaged in them had less absence rate compared to those who did not. Statistically significant higher rates of absenteeism have been found among employees not engaged in sporting activities. Ill health was the commonest cause (54.8%) of absenteeism among the staff with malaria contributing 67.5% of these medical causes. Luz and Green had indicated that medically certified absence accounted for 60 to 70% of work absenteeism among workers. Other studies have also identified the role of illness in absenteeism among workers. It is not surprising that malaria contributed over two thirds of the reported cases of absences due to illness among respondents. This is understandable in view of it's endemicity in Nigeria. Foster and Leighton estimated the value of malaria - related loss in production to be between 2 and 6% of Kenya's gross domestic product and between 1 and 5% of that of Nigeria. The World Health Organization estimates an equivalent of ten working days of lost labour to malaria. Pregnant women and children are the most vulnerable groups in

malaria endemic regions and they need care by the economically viable, who take time off work and spend their meager financial resources to provide this care. The health care sector is also affected as it expands both financial and human resources on this preventable illness, which is a source of huge economic burden to the nation.

Conclusion This study has determined the overall absenteeism rate, the reasons for absenteeism and the various factors influencing absence rates. Though absenteeism rate was less than the level considered excessive, more than half of the respondents had been absent from work at least once in the study year. The habitual practice of failing to turn up for work leads to reduced productivity and constraints the economic viability of any nation. Creating a better physical working environment, reduction of stress among employees can be achieved by improvement in the manager or supervisor-worker and workerworker relationship. Managers and supervisors should thus be adequately trained to handle staff generally well with better attention given to staff welfare. Providing incentives for reduced absenteeism among staff could help in motivating them to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. This incentive programme should be worked out over time and the most appropriate and workable method adopted. A work attendance policy should be put in place, to enable managers and supervisors monitor absenteeism and to intervene early enough when employees are frequently absent from work in order to get them back to work as soon as possible. It is also recommended that workers be encouraged to participate in an employee fitness programme as this has been found to reduce absenteeism. Continuous education of both the employer and employees on all facets of absenteeism and its disadvantages is of utmost importance; this should include education on preventive measures against malaria infection. These measures if properly integrated will go a long way to reduce absenteeism and improve the workplace environment. Mark G. Spigt and Gerard M. H. Swaen (2006) did study on Leisure time physical activity and sickness absenteeism; a prospective study Aim To establish whether workers with frequent leisure time physical activities are at higher or lower risk of sickness absence compared to inactive workers. Method Self reported and company recorded sickness absence data were collected during 18 months of follow-up for 8902 workers. Frequency of leisure time physical activities was queried at baseline. Results

Overall, we found that workers active in their leisure time twice or more each week reported significantly less sickness absence compared to inactive workers (14.8 versus 19.5 days/year), mainly due to a decrease in sick leave because of musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion Demotivating sports participation by making workers liable for workdays lost due to sporting injuries might be counter-productive in decreasing absenteeism and its related costs. Promoting worker participation in sport might lead to reduced absenteeism. Awad S. Hanna and Joseph R. Sargent (2005) did study on Factors Affecting Absenteeism in Electrical Construction. Construction contractors continue to be faced with the challenge of improving productivity in order to remain successful in an increasingly competitive industry. One factor that contributes to lower productivity is absenteeism. Yet, little is known or understood about the reasons electricians miss work, and very few studies have been conducted on absenteeism in the construction industry. As a positive step to reduce the problems associated with voluntary and involuntary absences, a study was initiated to identify why workers miss work and what steps should be taken to minimize absenteeism. The main objectives of the study were to learn the reasons for absenteeism and to quantify the impacts so that solutions can be developed to help contractors improve their productivity. The study determined that managers and electricians agreed that illnesses and medical appointments were two common reasons workers missed work. However, managers also believed workers were absent because of a lack of interest or irresponsibility, while electricians reported injuries and unsafe working conditions as reasons for missing work. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the data revealed that when the absenteeism rate was between 0 and 5%, there was no loss in productivity. However, when the absenteeism rate was between 6 and 10%, a 24.4% loss in productivity was experienced. By understanding what causes electricians to miss work, and the effect of absences on productivity, a company can manage and control absenteeism on electrical construction projects.

Aaron Cohen & Ronit Golan (2007) did study on Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes: An empirical examination of female employees in long term nursing care facilities. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of prior absenteeism, demographic variables, and work attitudes (job satisfaction, perceptions of health, and work commitments forms) on absenteeism and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach: This study is a longitudinal survey. The questionnaire used established scales of the research instruments. The sample was composed of 119 female employees working in five long term nursing facilities in northern Israel. Findings: The findings showed a strong effect of prior absenteeism on later absenteeism. They also showed that among work attitudes, job satisfaction is a strong predictor of absenteeism, while commitment forms, particularly organizational commitment, are related to turnover intentions. Research limitations/implications: Using a survey questionnaire for collecting most of the data might cause common method error. Practical implications: The findings of this study shed some more light on important work outcomes in general and in the health care industry in particular. Increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment seem to be good strategies for reducing absenteeism and turnover intentions, as the findings here suggested. A higher rate of absenteeism provides an early indication of a withdrawal process among employees, and the organization should treat such information as more than just data on absence rates. Originality/value: Very few papers have used a longitudinal design examining the effect of both prior absenteeism and work attitudes on turnover intentions and actual absenteeism.

CHAPTER-4 RESEARCH SETTING

RESEARCH SETTING Introduction of NIF Group of Industries History The NIF Began with advertising advent of Navsari Iron foundry and Mechanical Works in the first event at Navsari near Surat in Gujarat. With hopes , dream and desire for a brighter tomorrow. They took up jobs to repair oil engines, automobiles, pumps sets, tractors etc A founder member of the company is Mr. Satyadev Kansara, Mr. Ratilal Kansara, Mr. Rameshbhai Kansara, and Mr. Hasmukhbhai Kansara. In a company promoter are Mr.Vijay Kansara, Mr.Shailesh Kansara, Mr.Dinesh Kansara, Mr.Ketan Kansara . Having lit the torch in 1953 a team of inspired younger brothers decided to spread their wings and started making casting, steel fabrication, utensils and stone crashers for local market. Time to time enterprising partners of NIF decided to diversify their activities. Who had a touch in plastic, textile and chemical industries. The new warriors of NIF Group broad about innovative changes with a nod from the senior and steered the technology cal and management philosophy of the group. Involvement of experts, installation of high tech machineries and computerization of business activities proved to became basic need of the group.

Company Profile

NIF means Navsari Iron Foundry. NIF Group of Industry has mainly five units. The all five are different. They are as following.

1. NIF Mechanical Works Pvt. Ltd. 2. J. S. Metal Travers Co. 3. Dinesh Plastic Products. 4. Propylon Products. 5. Pradip Polyfils Pvt. Ltd.

1. NIF Mechanical Works Pvt. Ltd.

NIF Mechanical Works Pvt. Ltd. Is established in 1965 and it is converted in to private Limited in 1990.

Today NIF Manufactures Bakelite Drums and Steel Drums, in a various size. Bakelite Drums are made from the Bakelite Powder and components. NIF manufactures standardize drums. so company receive a regularly orders from the customers. Company have consultant for the specific function for the company. Capital structure of the company is depending upon share capital of share holders. The raw material of the company comes from the Maharashtra and other state.

Product Profile

1. Textile Machine Part

I. Bakelite Grooved Drums II.Steel Traverse Rolls

By

NIF Mechanical Pvt. Ltd.

Use of Product Row Material

: :

Winding in Textile Industries. Bakelite Powder, Iron Casting

2. J. S. Metal Traverse Co. Established in 1965 J. S. Metal Traverse Co. has grown steadily with a strong foundation of technical, commercial and production facility. Today company manufactures a wide range of Aluminum Drums from high quality raw material having different shapes and diameters. The company greatest pride and satisfaction is in the fact that several hundreds of its customers have standardize on its products, which is evident from the regular orders it receives. J. S. Metal Traverse Co. is also known in the market as WINDWELL.

Product Profile

2. Textile Machine Part

: 1. Bakelite Grooved Drums 2. Uncoated Aluminum Drums Hallo-Light Weight Solid -Heavy Weight 3. Cast Iron Grooved Drums 4. Hard anodized Aluminum Drums 5. Hard Chrome 6. Engineers File 7. Nitrided steel Drums

By

: J. S. Metal Travers Co.

Name of Product

: WINDWELL

Use of Product Row Material

: Winding in Textile Industries : Bakelite Powder, Iron Casting, Steel, Aluminum etc

3. Dinesh Plastic Product. Established in 1975, DPP has grown steadily with a strong foundation of technical, commercial and production facilities. Today, DPP manufactures a wide range of Ball Valves, Diaphragm Valves, Cheek Valves, Foot Valves, Butterfly Valves, Sight Glass Valves, Drip Irrigation Valves, Fitting and Filter From high quality thermo-plastic.

Product Profile

4. Valves

1. Ball Valves 2. Diaphragm Valves 3. Check Valves 4. Foot Valves 5. Butterfly Valves 6. Sight Glass Valves 7. Drip Irrigation Valves 8. Fitting & Filter Valves

By

Dinesh Plastic Product

Use of product jointer

Irrigation for the chemical and liquid flow and as

Row Material

Thermoplastic PP, HDPE & PVDF Plastic

4. Propylon Products and Pradip Polyfils Pvt. Ltd.

Known how does not come overnight but has to be acquired. It has result of high investment for the solution and implementation of theoretical findings in practice, for the new possibilities and consciously stepping across borders on the way to human future. Keeping close contact, with our customer R&D and knowing the industries exact requirement, guarantees that the innovation remain practicable and strengthens the partnership type co operation. For all of us at Pradip Polyfils Pvt. Ltd., research and development is no end in itself but to solve specific users problems which permits practical solution within a short

time and just in line with that the market expects. We can offer innovation and yet perfect designs fulfills customers need.

Product Profile 3.Filter Plates, Filter Press, Accessories : 1. Membrame Filter Plate 2. Chember Filter Plates 3. CGR Filter Element plate and Frams 4. Special Filtter Plates and Accessories 5. Filter Press

By

: Pradip Polyfils & Propylon Products.

Use of Product

: Chemical Filteration, Water Filteration, Solid Liquid Sepration water and sewage treatment, chemical paper, ceramic and mining

Row Material

: EPDE, Nitrile, Viton, EPPP, Thermoplastic Elastomers,

Polypropylene, Reinforced Polypropyle

Registered office

:-

NIF Group of Industries, P.O.Box No.69, Chapara Road, NIF Compound, Navsari 396445

Form of Organization Size of Organization Company Secretary & General Manager Bankers

:-

Private Sector.

: - Small Scale Size Unit.

::-

Mr. Vijay Kansara. IDBI Bank ICICI Bank Canara Bank

VISION One plan weighing in tradition and the others in technology, we synchronies the tow and carry our dream future where we work towards self attainment by providing quality and customer satisfaction.

DREAM

N.I.F. began with an advertising advent of Navsari Iron Foundry and Mechanical Works in 1945, the first ever at Navsari near Surat in Gujarat, India. With hopes, dreams and desires for a brighter tomorrow.

During mid sixties, the conventional technology, upgraded with innovation, R & D and professional administration, turned the Foundry into a more organized industrial enterprise. With the dawn of this new age, in 1965, Metallic groove drum for Textile winding machines was introduced first in India which was indigenous to house technology.

QUALITY POLICY It is the policy of NIF Group of Industries to maintain market leadership by delivering our products to complete satisfaction of our customers though constant improvement, technological progress and motivated employees.

Major Customers Company is mostly selling its product to customers of South India and Abroad. Domestic Customers 1.Shamaru Machinary Manufactures 2. Vigneshwar Textile Industries 3. Alidhra Textile Industries 4.Rajendra Textile Industries Export 1. Tallers Filcono S. L. 2. Milhan Makina 3. Izumi International co. Ltd. 4. Techno Textile Ltd. Spain Turkey Japan Bangladesh Coimbatore Coimbator

Silvassa Coimbator

Departments of NIF Group of Industries 1. HR Department 2. Personnel & Industrial Relation Department 3. Finance Department 4. Purchase Department 5. Production Department 6. Quality Control Department 7. Dispatch Department 8. Marketing Department 9. Sales Department 10. Import and Export Department 11. security Department 12. EDP Department

1.HR Department Functions of HR Department To establish public relation with surrounding village leaders, other authorities. Finding out training needs of employees. To arrange monthly internal and external training programmes. To manage training records.

To nomination for training programmes. To prepared Performance Appraisal Report for employee. To arrange induction program for the new employees. To pass out any kind of circulation. To arrange welfare programme for the employee like HIV/AIDS awareness program, medical check up etc To establish profit earning policies. To manage recruitment and selection procedure. To give approval for the recruitment. To manage interview process. To establish promotion policy for the motivation of the employees. To take a decision on resignation kind of atmosphere in working places.

HR Policy in NIF Quality Policy Recruitment Policy Information Technology Policy Personnel Policy Training and Development Policy Corporate Responsibility Policy Performance Appraisal Policy

1. P & IR Department
Personnel management can be defined as a process of developing organizational objectives by acquiring, terminating, development and properly using the human resource in an organization. Of all the factors of production, man is the most important one. The importance of human factor is any type of co operative endeavor cannot be overemphasized. It is the matter of common knowledge on which every institution depends on for its effective and efficient functioning. Not so much dependent on its material or financial resources as on its pool of able and willing human resources. In an Indian context, personnel management as specialized discipline has made rapid studies that a business organization needs to have a four Ms, via 1. 2. Money. Material.

3. Manpower. 4. Management

NIF MECHANICAL WORKS PVT. LTD. ORGANISATION CHART

PRODUCT MFG BAKELITE TRAVERSE DRUMS

Managing Partner Mrunalbhai Kansara

Order Processing Mahendra Khartri

Jayantibhai Patel Poodution Dipt.

Type name here TypeDe title here

Moulding Upesh Naika

Machininig Rakesh J. Patel

Buffing-Polishing Ambu Chhagan

Finishing & QC Department

Maintenance Spl. Oper.

Worker

Leath

Groove Cutting

Buffing

Polishing

Balance & Testing

Run out

Checking

Maintanance

Spl. Operation

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

Worker

PERSONNEL & HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS

PERSONNEL

ADMINISTRATION

HUMAN RESOURCES

Wage & Salary

Attendance

Welfare

Govt. & Legal Formalities

House Administration

Security

Recruitment Training Policy & Procedure & Devt

Orgn Dev
t

Retirement, Discharge or

Industrial Relations

Prgs. Resignation

Function of Personnel Department Recruitment of employee. Induction of trainee. Resignation of employee. Leave travel allowance orders Promotion of employee. Pay fixation of employee. Apprentice work. Increment work. Man Power Details. Group Insurance work. Confirmation work. No Objection Certificate NOC. Internal Networking computer work. Employment Exchange. Notification and Compliance, Returns Preparing Providing dates and information for various statutory. Information about various authorizes and other management. Performance Appraisal. Settlement in salary.

Function of Public Relation Department Tender work of complexes for job, labor work contracts revision of above contracts. Disciplinary of welfare items. Identifying of welfare items. Drafting of rules and settlements. Assisting in negotiation with union, pension matter. Communicate with PF office. To assist labor commissioner.

To manage spot activities. To budgeting for procurement uniform, cloths, napkins, and other welfare items. Superannuation fund and welfare trust work, processing for management approval of education, pilgrimage advances payment, employees pension scheme work. Overtime posting, short leave posting, accident report and register posting, office order for leave encashment, absences report, distribution of medicines of first aid to various departments etc Passing medical bills (hospitalization in long term and short term) of employees and take care of employees who meet with an accident. Credit society record keeping and disbursement of loans.

Pay Roll System

Pay Roll system is the fundamental system of the organization. Its importance is like the wheel of the motorcycle. Every organization should have fundamentally strong Pay Roll System. If the fundamental structure of organization strong, the entire person should satisfy with the job. After all person concern with the money.

In the J. S. Metal Traverse Co. the Pay Roll System is fundamentally strong. They are calculated the salary on the basis of the following.

They are calculate the salary first on the basis of attendance record. In attendance are calculated on the basis o CL, PL, and SL. CL Casual Leave given 6 in a year. PL Privilege Leave given 15 in a year. SL Sick Leave given 6 in a year. On the basis of employee leave card record Pay Roll Administration define the PL, SL, CL. The payroll system other main things Basic & D.A. Organization should given a Basic & D.A. as per minimum wage Act. J. S. Metal, Organization follows all the rules and regulations.

Company given a different type of allowances of employee which are add in a salary & wages. Allowances are paid in addition to the basic salary that is: Dearness allowances House rent allowances Tea allowances Special allowances Medical allowances Festival allowances Conveyance allowances Production allowances

Payment of Salary Company is paying their salary on the basis of government rules and regulation. Basic salary is paid on the basis of the employees skill ability. Company paying a salary before the 5 TH Day of the month.

Leave Rule 27 days full time is available for every employee in a calendar year. A part from Saturday and general holiday as declared by government for each calendar year is applicable to employee.

Welfare Benefits These benefits are declared under the factory Act. 1948. the lists of Benefits are divided in two categories.

1.Following are the statutory Benefits. Sitting arrangement First Aid Appliance Shelter, Rest Room and Lunch Tent

2.

Following are the Non Statutory Benefits. Medical facilities Occupational Health services Family planning Recreational and cultural facilities Educational facilities Co operative customer stores Consumer credit society Personal counseling Financial Benefits Loan facilities

3.

List of other Benefits. Uniform Shoes Loan for house Gratuity Scheme Pension scheme Bonus Provident Fund P.F. Leave traveling allowances Welfare fund Marriage loan Leave encashment Group insurance scheme Shift allowances

3.

Subsidiary or other welfare Housing facility Canteen and Rest room facility Uniform facility Sports facility Insurance facility

Medical facility Training programmes Clean drinking water facility Utility facility etc There are also called labors welfare measures of an organization.

Labors Welfare Measures NIF provides different labors welfare facilities to their workers which are as under:

Uniform and shoes facility School Notebooks facility Clean drinking water facility Rest room and lunch room facility Sport facility

CHAPTER-5 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

FACTOR AFFECTING ABSENTEEISM

(1)PERSONAL INFORMATION Table: - 5.1 Showing Age-wise distribution of respondents. Age 18 - 25 years 26 - 35 years 36 - 45 years Above 46 years TOTAL Frequency 21 29 7 13 70 Percentage (%) 30 41.42 10 18.57 100

Age

18 - 25 year 26 - 35 year
30%

19%

10%

36 - 45 year More than 46 year

41%

From the table no.5.1 it can be depicts that 30 percent (n=21) respondents were belongs to the age group of 18-25 years, 41.42 percent (n=29) respondents were belongs to the age group of 26-

35 years, 10 percent (n=7) were belong to age group of 36-45 years while 18.57 percent (n=13) were more than 46 years.

Table: 5.2 Showing Religion-wise distribution of respondents.

Religion Hindu Muslim Other TOTAL

Frequency 66 1 3 70

Percentage (%) 94.28 1.42 4.29 100

Religion
1% 5%

Hindu Muslim
Nepali
94%

From the table no.5.2 it can be depicts that 94.28 percent (n=66) respondents were Hindu, 1.42 percent (n=1) were Muslim religion and 4.29 percent (n= 3) were belonging other religion.

Table: - 5.3 Showing Marital status of the Respondents.

Marital status Married Unmarried TOTAL

Frequency 42 28 70

Percentage (%) 60 40 100

Marriage status

40% 60%

Married Unmarried

From the table no. 5.3 it can be depicts that 60 percent (n=42) respondents were married and 40 percent (n=28) were unmarried.

Table: 5.4 Showing distribution of respondents based on education. Education Illiterate Primary Secondary Higher secondary I.T.I Any other TOTAL Frequency 3 22 35 3 5 2 70 Percentage (%) 4.29 31.42 50 4.29 7.14 2.86 100

Education 3% 4% 4% 7% 32% Illiterate Primary Secondary Higher Secondary

I.T.I
Any other 50%

From the table no.5.4 it can be depicts that 4.29 percent (n=3) respondents were illiterate, 31.42 percent (n=22) were primary education, 50 percent (n=35) were secondary education, 4.29 percent (n=3) were higher secondary, 7.14 percent (n=5) were I.T.I. and 2.86 percent (n=2) were got any other qualification.

Table: - 5.5 Showing distribution of respondents based on Length of service.

Length of service 1 - 5 year 6 - 10 year 11 - 15 year Above 16 year TOTAL

Frequency 40 9 8 13 70

Percentage (%) 57.14 12.86 11.43 18.57 100

Length of service

19% 11%

1 - 5 year 6 - 10 year
57%

11 - 15 year Above 16 year

13%

From the table no.5.5 it can be depicts that 55.71 percent (n=40) respondents had 1-5 years of experience, 12.86 percent (n=9) respondent had 6-10 years experience 11.43 percent ( n=8) has 11-15 years of experience while 18.57 percent (n=13) had more than 16th year of experience.

Table: 5.6 Showing distribution of respondents based on Nature of Service.

Nature of Service Permanent Temporary TOTAL

Frequency 50 20 70

Percentage (%) 55.71 14.28 100

Nature of service

20%

Permanent Temporary
80%

From the table no.5.6 it can be depicts that 55.71 percent (n=50) respondent were permanent, while 14.28 percent (n=20) were temporary worker.

Table: 5.7 Showing distribution of respondents based on Place of Residence.

Place of Residence 0 - 5 km 5 - 10 km More Than 10 Quarters TOTAL

Frequency 35 8 24 3 70

Percentage (%) 50 11.42 34.29 4.29 100

place of residance 4% 0 - 5 km 34% 50% 5 - 10 km More Than 10

Quarters
12%

From the table no.5.7 it can be depicts that the 50 percent (n=35) respondent were living 0 5 km away from the company, 11.41 percent (n=8) respondent were live 5 10 km away from company. 34.29 percent (n=24) respondent were more than 10km. from company, While 4.29 percent (n=3) were live in company quarters.

Table: 5.8 Showing Distributions of Respondents According to Family Type.

Family Types Nuclear Joint Single TOTAL

Frequency 24 40 6 70

Percentage (%) 34.29 57.14 8.57 100

Family Type

9%
34%

Nuclear Joint

57%

Single

From the table no.5.8 it can be depicts that majority of respondent 57.14 percent (n=40) were live in joint family, 34.29 percent (n=24) were live in nuclear family and 8.57 percent (n=6) were live alone.

Table: 5.9 Showing Distribution of Respondents According to Relation with family member.

Relation with family member Good Satisfaction Not Good TOTAL

Frequency 41 24 5 70

Percentage (%) 58.57 43.29 7.14 100

Relation with family member 6% Good 40% Satisfaction 54% Not Good

From the table no.5.9 it can be depicts that 58.57 percent (n=41) respondent had good relation with family member, 43.29 percent (n=24) had satisfy relation with family while 7.14 percent (n=5) respondent had not good relation with his family member.

FACTORS RELATED TO JOB

Table: - 5.10 Showing whether respondents satisfaction with the work place or not.

Response Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied TOTAL

Frequency 39 23 8 70

Percentage (%) 55.71 32.86 11.43 100

From the table no.5.10 it can be depicts that 55.71 percent (n=39) respondents were healthy satisfied, 32.86 percent (n=23) were satisfied and 11.43 percent (n=8) were not satisfied with their present job.

Table: 5.11 Showing whether respondents satisfaction with the present Income or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 25 45 70

Percentage (%) 35.71 64.29 100

From the table no.5.11 it can be depicts that 35.71 percent (n=25) respondents were satisfied and 64.29 percent (n=45) were not satisfied with their present income.

Table: 5.12 Showing whether respondents inform their superior before taking leave or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 55 15 70

Percentage (%) 78.57 21.43 100

From the table no.5.12 it can be depicts that 78.57 percent (n=55) respondents were inform their supervisor before taking leave while 21.43 percent (n=15) were not inform their superior before taking leave.

Table: 5.13 Showing if one of the staff member is absent in the department which kind of problem arise.

Response Overload on existing employees Difficulty in performing task on behalf of absentee employee Delay in job report Entire schedule disturbs TOTAL

Frequency 10

Percentage (%) 14.29

31

44.29

9 20 70

12.86 28.56 100

From the table no.5.13 it can be depicts that 14.29 percent (n=10) respondents were feel overload on existing employees, 44.29 percent (n=31) respondents were difficulty in performing task on behalf of absentee employee, 12.86 percent (n=9) respondent were delay in job report while 28.56 percent (n=20) respondent were feel that entire schedule disturbs.

3. WORKING CONDITION Table: 5.14 Showing respondents likeness regarding working environment.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 54 16 70

Percentage (%) 77.14 22.86 100

From the table no.5.14 it can be depicts that 77.14 percent (n=54) respondents were like working environment while 22.86 percent (n=16) were not like their working environments.

Table: 5.15 Showing respondents relations: A. With their supervisor Response Good Satisfactory Poor TOTAL Frequency 63 5 2 70 Percentage (%) 90 7.14 2.86 100

From the table no.5.15 it can be depicts that 90 percent (n=60) respondents were good relation, 7.14 percent (n=5) were satisfactory relation while 2.86 percent ( n=2) were poor relationship with their supervisor.

B. With their co-worker

Response Good Satisfactory Poor TOTAL

Frequency 62 8 0 70

Percentage (%) 88.57 11.43 0 100

From the table no. 5.15(b) it can be depicts that 88.57 percent (n=62) respondents were good relation, 11.43 percent (n=8) respondents were satisfactory relationship with their coworker.

Table: 5.16 Showing whether respondents get good guidance & response from their supervisor or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 70 0 70

Percentage (%) 100 0 100

From the table no.5.16 it can be depicts that majority of the respondents 100 %( 100) were get good guidance & response from their supervisor.

Table: 5.17 Showing whether respondents feel that their relation with their colleague & supervisor affect their present at the work place or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 9 61 70

Percentage (%) 12.86 87.14 100

From the table no.5.17 it can be depicts that 12.86 percent (n=9) respondents were yes while 87.14 percent (n=61) were not feel that relation with their colleague & supervisor affect their present at the work place.

Table: 5.18 Showing whether respondents remain absent effect their interest in work or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 20 50 70

Percentage (%) 28.57 71.43 100

From The table no.5.18 it can be seen that 28.57 percent (n=20) respondents were yes while 71.43 percent ( n=50) respondents were no basis on their late/remain absent effect their interest in work.

Table: 5.19 Showing which type of facilities available for worker.

Response Sport facility Medical facility Any other TOTAL

Frequency 17 46 7 70

Percentage (%) 24.29 65.71 10 100

From the tableno.5.19 it can be depicts that 24.29 percent (n=17) respondents were sport facility, 65.71 percent (n=46) respondents were medical facility while 10 percent (n=7) respondents were any other basis on the facilities available for worker.

Table: 5.20 Showing whether respondents are satisfied with the facilities provided to them or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 41 29 70

Percentage (%) 58.57 41.43 100

From the table no.5.20 it can be depicts that 58.57 percent (n=41) respondents were satisfied while 41.43 percent (n=29) respondents were not satisfied with the facilities provided by company.

4. TRANSPORT Table: 5.21 Showing whether respondents face any kind of problem while reaching the work place or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 22 48 70

Percentage (%) 31.43 68.57 100

From the table no.5.21 it can be depicts that 31.43 percent (n=22) respondents were faces problems while 68.57 percent (n=48) respondents were no faces any kind of problem while reaching the work place.

5. HEALTH Table: -5.22 Showing whether respondents attend their work when they are sick or unhealthy or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 30 40 70

Percentage (%) 42.86 57.14 100

From the table no.5.22 It can be depicts that 42.86 percent (n=30) respondents were yes while 57.14 percent (n=40) respondents were not attend their work when they are sick or unhealthy.

Table: -5.23 Showing whether respondents suffer any illness during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 31 39 70

Percentage (%) 44.29 55.71 100

From the table no. 5.23 it can be depicts that 44.29 percent (n=31) respondents were suffer from any illness while 55.71 percent (n=39) respondents were not suffer from any illness in past one year.

Table: 5.24 Showing whether respondents attend their work when any of their family members is sick or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 33 37 70

Percentage (%) 47.14 52.86 100

From the table no.5.24 it can be depicts that 47.14 percent (n=37) respondents were attend their work, while 52.86 percent (n=37) respondents were not attend their work when any of their family members were sick.

Table: -5.25 Showing whether respondents any family member suffered from any kind of major or minor illness during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 25 45 70

Percentage (%) 35.71 64.29 100

From the table no. 5.25 it can be depicts that 35.71 percent (n=25) respondents were family member suffer from any kind of illness while 64.29 percent (n=45) respondents any family members were not suffered from any kind of major or minor illness in past one year

Table: -5.26 Showing whether respondents do any surgery or accidental surgery during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 8 62 70

Percentage (%) 11.43 88.57 100

From the table no.5.27 it can be depicts that 11.43 percent (n=8) respondents were done any surgery or accident while 88.57 percent (n=62) respondents were no had done any surgery or accidental surgery during the past one year.

6. ACCCIDENT Table: 5.27 Showing whether respondents remained absent due to any accident during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 11 59 70

Percentage (%) 15.71 84.29 100

From the table no.5.28 it can be depicts that 15.71 percent

(n=11) respondents

were remain absent due to accident while 84.29 percent (n=59) respondents were not remained absent due to any accident in the past one year.

Table: 5.28 Showing whether respondents any family members suffered from any accidents & has their caused they remain absent from work or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 11 59 70

Percentage (%) 15.71 84.29 100

From the table no.5.28 it can be depicts that 15.71 percent (n=11) respondents were remain absent due to family members suffered from any accident, while 84.29 percent (n=59) respondents were not remain absent from work due to any family members suffered from any accident.

7. SOCIAL FACTOR Table: 5.29 Showing whether celebration of any festival affected respondents present at the factory during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 45 25 70

Percentage (%) 64.29 35.71 100

From the table no.5.29 it can be depicts that 64.29 percent (n=45) respondents were remain absent from work due to celebration of any festival, while 35.71 percent (n=25) respondents were no affected celebration of any festival in present at the factory during the last one year.

Table: 5.30 Showing whether respondents marriage ceremony affected their present in the factory during the last one year or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 46 24 70

Percentage (%) 65.71 34.29 100

From the table no.5.30 it can be depicts that 65.71 percent (n=46) respondents were absent at work place because of marriage ceremony, while 34.29 percent (n=24) respondents were no affected marriage ceremony during the past one year to present in the factory.

Table: 5.31 In the past one year was there occasion or instance where in your remain absent due to guest.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 39 31 70

Percentage (%) 55.71 44.29 100

From the table no.5.31 it can be depicts that 55.71 percent (n=39) respondents were absent due to guest, while 44.29 percent (n=31) respondents were not remain absent because of occasion or instance where due to guest in the past one year.

8. ECONOMIC FACTOR Table: 5.32 Showing respondents what to do in case of financial crisis.

Response Take loan from money lenders TOTAL

Frequency

Percentage (%)

70 70

100 100

From the table no.5.32 it can be depicts that majority of the respondents 100 percent (n=70) respondents were take loan from money lenders in case of financial crisis.

Table: 5.33 Showing whether respondents have any part time job or business or agriculture or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 26 44 70

Percentage (%) 37.14 62.86 100

From the table no.5.33 it can be depict that 37.14 percent (n=26) respondents had any part time business or agriculture land while 62.86 percent (n=44) respondents had no any part time job or business or agriculture.

Table: 5.34 Showing whether respondents family have own any piece of land? Or involved in any kind of seasonal job or not.

Response Yes No Total

Frequency 27 43 70

Percentage (%) 38.57 61.43 100

From the table no.5.34 it can be depicts that 38.57 percent (n=27) respondents were family had own land or involved in any kind of seasonal job, while 61.43 percent (n=43) respondent family were not involved in any kind of seasonal job.

9. OTHER FACTOR Table: 5.35 Showing whether respondents take visit their native place during festival days or holidays or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 38 32 70

Percentage (%) 54.29 45.71 100

From the table no.5.35 it can be depicts that 54.3 percent (n=38) respondents were taken visit of their native place during festival days or holidays, while 45.7 percent (n=32) respondents were not taken visit their native place during festival days or holidays.

Table: 5.36 Showing whether respondents drink alcohol or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 33 37 70

Percentage (%) 47.14 52.86 100

From the table no.5.36 it can be depicts that 47.14 percent (n=33) respondents were drink alcohol, while 52.86 percent (n=37) respondents were no habit of drink alcohol.

Table: 5.37 Showing whether respondents feel burden of work or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 13 57 70

Percentage (%) 18.57 81.43 100

From the table no.5.37 it can be depicts that 18.57 percent S (n=13) respondents were feel burden of work, while 81.43 percent (n=57) respondents were feel not burden of work.

Table: 5.38 Showing whether respondents have sufficient knowledge of their work or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 63 7 70

Percentage (%) 90 10 100

From the table no.5.38 it can be depicts that 90 percent (n=63) respondents had sufficient knowledge of their work, while 10 percent (n=7) respondents had no sufficient knowledge of their work.

Table: 5.39 Showing respondents reason of absence.

Response Poor working condition Inadequate leave facility Benefits which continue and income during period of illness or accident Absence of adequate welfare facility No comments TOTAL

Frequency 4 24

Percentage (%) 5.71 34.29

26

37.14

2 14 70

2.86 20 100

From the table no.5.39 it can be depicts that respondent remain absent because of some reasons like 5.71 percent (n=4) respondents were poor working condition, 34.29 percent (n=24) respondents were inadequate leave facility, 37.14 percent (n=26) respondents were benefits which continue and income during period of illness or accident, 2.86 percent (n=2) respondents were absence of adequate welfare facility and 20 percent (n=14) respondents were no comments on the basis of the reason of absence.

Table:-5.40 Showing whether respondents absenteeism due to stress or not.

Response Yes No TOTAL

Frequency 26 44 70

Percentage (%) 37.14 62.86 100

From the table no.5.40 it can be depicts that 37.14 percent (n=26) respondents were remain absent due to stress, while 62.86 percent (n=44) respondents were not remain absent due to stress. In which 12.9 percent (n=9) respondents were feel stress due to personal reason, 12.9 percent (n=9) respondent were family reason while 11.43 percent (n=8) respondent were feel stress due to work load.

CHAPTER-6 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATION & PLAN OF ACTION

FINDINGS

1. PERSONAL INFORMATION.

Most of respondent 41.42% (n=29) were belongs to the age group of 26-35 years. Majority of respondent 94.28% (n=66) were Hindu. Majority of respondent 60% (n=42) were married. Majority of respondent 50% (n=35) were got secondary education. Majority of respondent 55.71% (n=39) had 1-5 years of experience. Majority of respondent 50% (n=35) respondent were living 05 km away from the company. Majority of respondent 57.14 (n=40) were live in joint family. Majority of respondent 58.57% (n=41) respondent have good relation with family member.

Majority of the respondent 55.71% (n=39) respondents were healthy satisfied. Majority of the respondent 64.29% (n=45) were not satisfied with their present income. Majority of the respondent 78.57% (n=55) respondents were inform their supervisor before taking leave. Most of the respondent 44.29% (n=31) respondents were face difficulty in performing task on behalf of absentee employee. Majority of the respondent 77.14% (n=54) were like working environment. Majority of the respondent 90% (n=60) were good relationship with supervisor. Majority of the respondent 88.57 % (n=62) respondents were good relationship with their co-worker. Majority of the respondent 100% (n=70) were get good guidance & response from their supervisor. Majority of the respondent 87.14% (n=61) were not feel that relation with their colleague & supervisor affect their present at the work place.

Majority of the respondent 71.43% (n=50) were not feel that their late/remain absent effect their interest in work. Majority of the respondent 58.57% (n=41) respondents were satisfied with facilities provided by company. Majority of the respondent 68.57% (n=48) were no faces any kind of problem while reaching the work place. Majority of 57.14 % (n=40) respondents were not attend their work when they are sick or unhealthy. Majority of 55.71% (n=39) respondents were not suffer from any illness in past one year. Majority of 52.86% (n=37) respondents were not attend their work when any of their family members were sick. Majority of 64.29% (n=45) respondents any family members were not suffered from any kind of major or minor illness in past one year. Majority of 88.57% (n=62) respondents were no had done any surgery or accidental surgery during the past one year. Majority of 84.29 % (n=59) respondents were not remained absent due to any accident in the past one year. Majority of 84.29% (n=59) respondents were not remain absent from work due to any family members suffered from any accident. Majority of the respondent 64.29% (n=45) were remain absent from work due to celebration of any festival. Majority of the respondents 65.71% (n=46) were absent at work place because of marriage ceremony. Majority of the respondents 55.71% (n=39) respondents were remain absent due to guest in occasion or instance. Majority of the respondents 100% (n=70) respondents were take loan from money lenders in case of financial crisis. Majority of 62.86% (n=44) respondents had no any part time job or business or agriculture.

Majority of 61.43% (n=43) respondent family were not involved in any kind of seasonal job. Majority of 54.3% (n=38) respondents were taken visit of their native place during festival days or holidays. Majority of 52.86% (n=37) respondents were no habit of drink alcohol. Majority of 81.43% (n=57) respondents were feel not burden of work. Majority of 90% (n=63) respondents had sufficient knowledge of their work. Most of 37.14% (n=26) respondents were remain absent due to benefits which continue and income during period of illness or accident, while most of the respondent remain absent due to absence of adequate welfare facility. Majority of 62.86% (n=44) respondents were not remain absent due to stress. In which majority of respondent feel personal and family stress.

CONCLUSION Absenteeism is a complex problem and rate of absenteeism is different from industry to industry, nature of work and person to person. Absenteeism is genuine, it affects optimum utilization of man power which result in loss of output. It is learnt from the study that the absenteeism in industry is a sociological as well as behavioral problem it is a problem to the management which affects the efficiency and production of the factory. Here the quantity and quality of the product both are affected and at the same time it create difficulties in administration. Similarly it can also be viewed as a problem to the organization or it brings misfortunate to them. In this chapter effort has been make to enquire in to the factors which are found important in the studies organization. In general, the factors which affect to the absenteeism like past job experience, Illness or sickness, fatigue, habits, late coming, long distance between working and living place, problem of transportation, lack of perceiving the consequences of absenteeism on the part of factory socio-religious festival, lack of commitment, social and cultural behavior pattern, managerial attitude, work environment and personal factor of individual employee, customs, ritually, marriage, guest, visit of native place, family quarrel, economic factor, also overtime work, part time service either occupation or business, income of other members, independents, housing prof. etc. and factor with in the factory like job dissatisfaction poor working condition, Inadequate welfare facilities, dishermoniolis relations, with colleges and supervisor etc. are found responsible for absenteeism. Absenteeism is one of the socio-economic evils of the industrialization. Its control and management is necessary for the accelerated growth of production and development. Absenteeism affects not only concerned employees and employer but it affects the production, the industry as a whole, the consuming society and overall nation. If an employee availed leave with pay, he does not have any income loss but visiting home town or other places for recreation and pleasure may affect the savings of the employee. In the case of absence without pay he has to suffer income loss. In both case employee has to finance from the friends or a loan from the employer or in some cases a debt from money leader to meet out family requirement. Absenteeism due to alcoholism and gambling totally imbalanced the family budget if the

employee. In such cases they remains indebtedness and the debt amount increased enormously and becomes manifold to the principal debt. There are cases when from generation to generation worker and his family remained in economic bondage. Shortage of money leads to school dropouts of employees children and inability to provide comfort and proper treatment to family member. In case of chronic absentees, the employer terminates their service. They become redundant to the industry and can face the unemployment crisis. Thus, absenteeism affects the concerned workman badly. The employer suffer due to high percentage rate of absenteeism or because of frequency and severity rate of absence. Absenteeism affects turnover, cost of production and profitability. On the basis of the studies as discussed, the following causes and factory may be considered the most important of increasing the rate of absenteeism: A. Personal characteristics of the Employees. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Age, Sex, Experience, Habits, and Temperament.

B. His Ability or Inability to Attend the work. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Sickness, Accident, Accident prone behavior, Family Responsibility, Transportation Problems. Month because of too much hot/cold, and Day, When essentials are to be procured.

C. Pressure to attend the Work i. ii. Job security, Salary

iii. iv.

Incentives, and Overtime.

D. Job Related Factors i. ii. iii. iv. v. Physical working conditions, Nature of job, Job scope, Group Size, and Supervision and Leadership.

E. Organisational Reasons i. ii. iii. iv. Size of organization, Departmental Differences, Shift and working hours, and Team work and group cohesiveness.

F. Employee value and expectations. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Job Satisfaction, Attitude, Morale, Need Satisfaction, Job enrichment, and Job enlargement.

G. Employees Personality i. ii. iii. iv. Individuality, Mental Health, Emotional Health, and Handicaps. The causes of absenteeism which were prevalent in the beginning of industrialization in India have been remedied to the maximum extent. However, some new

causes and compulsions have emerged. For Example, worker migrated from rural area to industrial town in the beginning did not like the congested and inhumane work environment and living conditions. They frequently visited their home town to enjoy free and conducive life. Home sickness and meeting with family were the principal reasons. Slums, inhumane working condition, non-protection of health and safety and absence of welfare measure were also the reason for absence. During the data collection, researcher has observed that the working condition of NIF GROUP OF INDUSTRY was good. On the basis of study and analysis and also according to the respondents Researcher find that the main causes of absenteeism were health problem, Sickness of family member, Visiting native place, Marriage ceremony of relatives and friends, also due to guest in any occasion or festival. To keep the absenteeism rate low, company has applied some rules and regulation in case of long period absenteeism of a worker.

SUGGESTIONS An empirical study and analysis of the problem of absenteeism in N.I.F. GROUP OF COMPANY its impact on workers, and ultimately on production. On the basis of conclusion drawn, the researcher offer following suggestion for immediate consideration by policy makers and plant authorities. The term absenteeism denotes absence of a worker from work when he is scheduled to work. At present the parameter adopted by the institution collecting and compelling data on absenteeism, the term absenteeism was not properly interpreted. Absence on account of authorised leave with pay has been included in the total absence while in real sense it is not a case of absence. The employer grant to the worker leaves with pay either a casual leave or privilege leave and thus it should not be treated as an absence. Casual leave and privilege leave with pay have become a matter of right the workers and every one avails it. It should, therefore, be excluded from the content and components of total man-days lost due to absence. So that position of true absenteeism can be discerned. Self-sickness is one of the principal causes of absenteeism. The employer should search out the factor of work environment and health-hazard for such sickness. After diagnosing the causes of sickness, the employer should offer proper treatment and create conducive work-environment. The employer should arrangement that worker sickness could be controlled. In this company there are causes of chronic absentees in unskilled cadre of workers. It may be because of worker bad habits. Alcoholism and gambling are prime habits among workers. The employer should be try to uproot these bad habits through counseling. The employer should give notice to these chronic absentees for their removal from service if they remain absent frequently in future. The manager personnel should visit the house of the chronic absentee and make him and his family aware about the after effect of his

termination. In this way the employer would be successful in controlling the bad habits of the worker and percentage rate of absenteeism. Accident may be one of the reasons of absenteeism. The Factories act, 1948 provides that the employer shall ensure health and safety of the workers. These provisions are preventive statutory measures to avoid accident. There are some personality factors responsible for absenteeism. The individuality, psychology and emotion of the individual worker play a major role for his present and absent at work. The behaviour of the supervisor, the attitude of the co-worker and importance of his work given by the employer should be such that the worker should involve in the production activity as a responsible partner. It would reduce absenteeism rate. The employer should investigate the liking and disliking of workers about their placement. In case of disliking the worker should be placed on the job of liking. The maintenance of the data and information on absenteeism by all the industries is defective. It does not indicate the frequency and severity rate of absenteeism. It is a fundamental principle that man is always on war with himself. He is heavily toned between his instincts, impulses and rationality. He swings between right and wrong. The management personnel should not only be worried about organizational activities of the industry but he should be worried about the worker as a total man. Managerial strategy should be so sound to consider worth and worries of the workers. There should be sound policy of communication between management and worker to eliminates misconception, friction and misgivings. Therefore, through participation in day-to-day management of the industry workers could be psychological and emotionally satisfied.

Absenteeism affects the financial position of the worker in case he remain absent without pay. Absenteeism due to bad habits lowered down his social status and goodwill in the society. His social and psychological inhibition ruins the whole family. There may be fighting between spouses, unnecessary beating of children, school drop-outs of the children, instance of joining job by the children of tender age, indebtedness and economic bondage. Therefore, the first and foremost task of the supervisors and trade union leaders should be to educate the workers about pros and cons of his unauthorized absence. The literacy campaign of workers education and job training should be launched for the betterment of workers. In the case of chronic absentees due to their bad habits, a scheme of workers adoption should be implemented. Such chronic absentees should be handed over to social-work organizations financially supported by the employer for their rehabilitation. The effective and vigorous efforts of socio-economic crisis. The factory act, 1948 should be suitably amended to incorporate effective provisions for ensuring health, safety and welfare of workers. The provision relating to canteen should be liberalised.

India is on the threshold of new kind of industrial and economic revolution on account of globalization of economy. At this juncture in the history of Nations industrial and economic growth. The optimum utilization of manpower in these fields is not only indispensable but crucial for the improving the overall work culture, the malaise of absenteeism has to be checked and eradicated to boost industrial production and economic growth. On the basis of empirical study in N.I.F. group of company and analysis of other studies on absenteeism, the research has offered above suggestion with a hope that if they are materialized and implemented, the percentage rate of absenteeism would be considerably reduced.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Mamoria C. B. & Gankar S. V. personnel Management Himalaya publishing House, 22nd Edition; 2002; PP263-271. 2. Kavita Tiwari. Absenteeism & Industrial Development Deep & Deep Publication; PP I-40,239-260 3. F.J. Gaudet Solving the problem of employee absence 4. K.G. Desai Absenteeism in the Indian Industry 5. Chars A. Myers Labour problem in the industrialization of India 6. www. Emeraldinsight.com

ANNEXURE

FACTOR AFFECTING ABSENTEEISM INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1.2 Age : 1.3 Religion : 1.4 Status : 1.5 Education: ( ) Primary Technical: ( ) I.T.I 1.6 Length of service: ( ) 1-5 years ( ) 5-10 years ( ) 10 -15 years 1.7 Nature of service: ( ) Permanent ( ) Temporary 1.8 Place of Residence: ( ) 0-5km 1.9 Type of family: ( ) Nuclear ( ) Joint ( ) Single ( ) 5-10km ( ) more than 10 ( ) above 15 years ( ) Any other ( ) Secondary ( ) Higher Secondary ( ) Married ( ) Unmarried

1.10How are your relation with your family member: ( ) Good ( ) Satisfactory ( ) Not Good

1 FACTORS RELATED TO JOB 2.1Are you satisfied with your present job? ( ) Highly satisfied ( ) Satisfied ( ) Not satisfied

2.2Are you satisfied with your present income? ( ) Yes ( ) No

2.3 Do you inform your superior before taking leave? ( ) Yes ( ) No

2.4 What kind of problem arise when someone is absent in your department? ( ) Overload on existing employees. ( ) Difficulty in performing task on behalf of absentee employee ( ) Delay in job report ( ) Entire schedule disturbs. 2 WORKING CONDITION

3.1Do you like working environment? ( ) Yes ( ) No

3.2 How are your relations: A. With your supervisor? ( ) Good ( ) Satisfactory ( ) Poor

B. With your co-worker? ( ) Good ( ) Satisfactory ( ) Poor

3.3 Do you get good guidance & response from your supervisor? ( ) Yes ( ) No

3.4 Do you feel that your relation with your colleague & supervisor affect your present at the work place? ( ) Yes ( ) No

3.5 How? Come late / remain absent effect your interest in work? ( ) Yes ( ) No

3.6 What are the facilities available for worker? ( ) Canteen ( ) Rest room ( ) Sport facilities ( ) Any other

( ) Medical facilities

3.7 Are you satisfied with the facilities that provided? ( ) Yes 4 TRANSPORT 4.1 Do you face any kind of problem while reaching the work place? ( ) Yes 5 HEALTH 5.1 How is your health presently ? ( ) Good ( ) Normal ( ) Not Good ( ) No ( ) No

5.2 Do you attend your work when you are sick or unhealthy? ( ) yes ( ) No

5.3 In the past one year have you suffered from any illness? ( ) yes ( ) No

5.4 Do you attend your work when any of your family members is sick? ( ) yes ( ) No

5.5 In the past one year any family member suffered from any kind of major or minor illness? ( ) yes ( ) No

5.6 You have any surgery or accidental surgery during the past one year? ( ) yes 6. ACCIDENT 6.1In the past one year have you remained absent due to any accident? ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No

6.2 Has any family members suffered from any accidents & has their caused you to remain absent from work? ( ) Yes ( ) No

7 SOCIAL FACTOR 7.1 Has celebration of any festival affected your present at the factory during the last one year? ( ) Yes ( ) No

7.2 During the past one year have marriage ceremony affected your present in the factory? ( ) Yes ( ) No 7.3 In the past one year was there occasion or instance where in you remain absent due to guests? ( ) Yes 8 ECONOMIC FACTOR ( ) No

8.1 In case of financial crises what do you do? ( ) Take loan from money lenders ( ) Borrow money from other

8.2 Do you have any part time job or business or agriculture? ( ) Yes ( ) No

8.3 Does your family have own any piece of land? Or involved in any kind of seasonal job? ( ) yes 9 OTHER FACTOR ( ) No

9.1 Do you take visit your native place during festival days or holidays? ( ) Yes ( ) No

9.2 Do you drink alcohol? ( ) yes ( ) No

9.3 Do you feel burden of work? ( ) Yes ( ) No

9.4 Do you have sufficient knowledge of your work? ( ) Yes ( ) No

9.5 What was the reason of absence? ( ) Poor working condition ( ) Inadequate leave facility ( ) Benefits which continue and income during period of illness or Accident ( ) Absence of adequate welfare facilities 9.6 Is your absenteeism due to stress? ( ) Yes ( ) No

A. If yes, whether it is related to

( ) Personal reason ( ) Family reason ( ) Work related B. If work related, then due to: ( ) Lack of safety measures ( ) Overburden ( ) Shift problems