Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

ARCHES

ARCH An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight(e.g. a doorway in wall, windows, ventilators, opening). Arches appeared as early as the 2000 BC in Mesopotamia brick architecture and their systematic use started with the Ancient Romans who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. The arch supports a vertical load primarily by axial compression of its wedgeshaped voussoirs

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:

PIER:

Pier is a solid block of masonry supporting an arch. They are often made of stone, but those serving as primary support for large arches are usually made of concrete

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue)

FOUNDATION:

The foundation is a large stone that is set into the ground. The piers are then built on top of it. It transfers the weight of the arch to the soil in the ground.

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue)

IMPOST:

An impost is the topmost part of an architectural column. Also called an abacus, it is usually a flat piece of stone. It can be carved or decorated

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue)

CENTRE: This is the midpoint of the circle which describes the curve of the arch (b). CROWN: This is the portion of the arch which forms the top of the curve (c). EXTRADOS: The outer curved line of an arch, or the upper surface of the arch stones(d). HAUNCH: The flanks of an arch, the sides of the curve (e). INTRADOS: The under surface or soffit of an arch (f).
KEYSTONE: The central wedge-shaped arch stone at the crown of an arch (g), which is the last stone to be put in place. RADIUS: The straight line (h) from the centre of an arch to any point on its intrados (the shorter radius, r); or to any point on its extrados (the longer radius, R).

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue)

SPRINGING LINE: The line across the arch which would connect the springing points (j). RISE: The height of an arch measured perpendicularly from the springing line to the highest point of the intrados (k). SPRINGER: The first stone laid in an arch on either side (1). SKEWBACK: That portion of the abutment which directly supports the springers (m). It is so called because the surface slopes towards the opening. SPAN: The horizontal distance between the springing points (n); the length of the springing line. CAMBER: This is the space between the springing line and the intrados (o). ARCHSTONES: These are any of the stones or blocks which form the arch itself.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES

The various arches types are classified as:

A. Classification of arches according to shape.

B. Classification of arches according to numbers of centers.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

C. Classification of arches according to workmanship.

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape.

Flat Arch:

an arch with mutually supporting voussoirs that has a straight horizontal extrados and intrados. Usually the skewback forms

an angle of 60 degree.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Segmental Arch:

The centre of arch is situated below the springing line. In this arch type the curve is a less than semicircular segment of a

circle

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Semi Circular Arch:

The centre of the arch lies on the springing line and the shape of curve of an arch is a semicircular. It is drawn from a single center

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Semi Elliptical Arch:

This arch has more than one centre and its shape is that of a semi ellipse.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Inverted Arch: An arch with the crown downward, below the line of the springing; commonly used in tunnels and foundations. Also known as inflected arch. This arch is constructed to increase

the bearing power of the soil.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Pointed Arch: This type of arch consists of two curves which meet at the apex of the triangle. This triangle formed may be equilateral or isosceles. The centers of the arch

may be above or below the


springing line and they may be in between or outside the springing line

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Relieving Arch:

An arch, usually segmental and often a blind arch, built above the lintel of a door or window to discharge the weight of the wall above the lintel to each side.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Horse-shoe Arch: The horseshoe arch, also called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch, is the arch of Islamic architecture. Formed

in the shape of a
horseshoe.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Stilled Arch:

It consists of a semi-circular arch attached at the top of two vertical imposts.

Springing line of the arch


passes through the top of vertical imposts.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Venetian Arch: In this type of arch, the depth at crown is more than that at the springing line. The venetian arch has four centers.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

A. Classification of arches according to shape. Florentine Arch:

This type of arch is similar to the venetian arch except that the intrados has the shape of a semi-circular curve, there are

three centers for this type.

IN NEXT CLASS

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. One centered Arch Two centered Arch

Three centered Arch


Four centered or Tudor Arch Five centered Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. One centered Arch This type of arch has one center only . Flat, segmental,

semicircular, horse-shoe and


stilled arches are one centered . Sometimes circular windows are used to have an architectural effect. For this purpose a bulls eye arch is adopted.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. Two centered Arch

This type of arch has

two center. A pointed


arch is a good example of this type.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. Three centered Arch

This type of arch has

three centers. It is in
the form of semiellipse. The other example of this type is Florentine arch.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. Four centered or Tudor Arch

This type of arch has four

centers. It consists of two


different curves and has the appearance of an ellipse at the haunches. The venetian arch is the good example of this type.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. Five centered Arch

This type of arch has

got five centers and its


look like a semielliptical arch.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

C.Classification of arches according to workmanship.

Rough Arch

Axed or Rough cut Arch

Gauged Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

C.Classification of arches according to workmanship.


Rough Arch This type of arch is constructed from ordinary uncut bricks. As the

bricks are rectangular in shape,


mortar joints become wider at the extrados than at the intrados. A rough arch is used where appearance is of secondary importance.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

C.Classification of arches according to workmanship.


Axed or Rough cut Arch

This type of arch is

constructed from bricks


which are cut to a wedgeshape by means of an axe. The bricks are roughaxed or fine axed.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

C.Classification of arches according to workmanship.


Gauged Arch

This type of arch is constructed

from bricks which are finely cut


by means of wire saw. The surfaces of bricks are finished with a file. This arch is used where a fine finish of the surface is required. The mortar joints are thin as 1.50 mm to 0.75 mm.

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Timber Arch

Stone Arch

Brick Arch

Metal Arch

Concrete Arch

THE END

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Brick Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Stone Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Concrete Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Timber Arch

2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue)

D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.


Metal Arch