1
10 ton Buckton UTM
2
To overview the location, orientation and purpose of the machinery in the strength of materials laboratory
Max capacity = 010 tons
1 ton = 2240lbs Operation: Electric/Manual (Lever arm system) Parts: upper & lower
Measuring scales:
0 – 10 tons
Types of tests: 


Tension test 

Compression test 

Bending test 

Shear test 

Torsion test 

Punching test 
Max capacity: 
0 – 50 tons 

Operation: 
Electric hydraulic system 

Parts: Upper & Lower 

Measuring scales: 

0 
– 05 tons 

0 
– 10 tons 

0 
– 25 tons 

– 50 tons Types of tests: 0 
Tension test
Compression test
Bending test
Max capacity: 500 KN (1 ton = 9.981 KN) Operation: electrically operated Measuring scales:
0 – 10 KN
0 – 25 KN
0 – 50 KN
0 – 100 KN
0 – 200 KN
0 – 500 KN
Types of tests:
Tension test
Compression test
Bending test
Maximum capacity: 0 – 1500 lbinch
Parts:
Fixed head & Twisting head
Rotational speeds:
0 – 3 1/3 Degree per minute
0 – 10 Degree per minute
0 – 30 Degree per minute
0 – 90 Degree per minute
Measuring scales:
0 – 1500 Poundinch
0 – 3000 Poundinch
0 – 7500 Poundinch
0 – 15000 Poundinch
Max capacity: 0 – 170 degrees
Scales:
0 – 180 degrees
Operation: Manual Types of tests:
Tension test
Bending test
Max capacity: 0 – 200,000 Pounds Operation: Electric Measuring scales:
0 – 20,000 Pounds
0 – 200,000 Pounds Types of tests:
Tension test (bars, plates etc.)
Compression test (bars, plates etc.)
Bending test (bars, plates, concrete beams etc.)
Operation: Manual Scales:
Bfor low carbon steel
Cfor high carbon steel Types of test:
Hardness test
Penetrators:
Steel ball 1/16 inch diameter (For low carbon steel)
Diamond cone (for high carbon steel)
4
This job was really informative for understanding the operations of different machinery places in the Strength of Materials laboratory.
5
Awareness of various small instruments which are used in lab for small measurements
1) 
Venire caliper. 
2) 
Micro meter screw gauge. 
3) 
Deflection gauge. 
4) 
Baty’s extensometer. 
5) 
Dial gauge. 
6) 
Outside caliper & inside caliper. 
7) 
Spring divider. 
Least count = 0.05 mm = 1/128”
There are two scales of Vernier caliper. Main scale Vernier scale Reading = main scale reading + (Vernier scale reading × least count) For example:
Main scale reading = 6 mm Vernier scale reading = 8 × 0.05 = 0.40 mm Total reading = (6 + 0.40) mm = 6.40 mm
Least count = 0.01 mm There are two scales:
Main scale Circular scale Circular scale moves on the main scale of the screw gauge. Reading = main scale reading + (circular scale reading × least count) For example:
Main scale reading = 6.5 mm Circular scale reading = 36 mm Total reading = 6.5 + (36 × 0.01) = 6.86 mm
Max length measured = 1 inch
Least count = 0.1/100 = 0.001”
There are two circular dials of deflection gauge. When the needle of the main dial rotates one cycle, it means it measures 1 inch. The distance between two divisions on dial is 0.1 inch.
Reading = main scale reading + (large scale reading × least count)
6
For example:
Main scale reading = 0.1 Large scale reading = 76 Total reading = 0.1 + (76 × 0.001) = 0.176 inch
Least count = 1/20000” = 0.00005”
This instrument is used to measure extension or elongation normally in steel bars.
This instrument is used to measure dimensions. This is used to measure up to one inch. Least count = 0.0025 inch
These calipers are used to measure the inside or outside diameter of the object.
Spring divider is used to measure the elongation of specimen. For example steel bars and other bars.
These small instruments are very important for small measurements because they give accuracy up to the third and fourth digit of the inch. The problem only is that the number of instruments available was not sufficient so that all of us can perform in the proper way and get the chance to learn these instruments thoroughly.
8
To study the various properties of a mild hot rolled deformed steel bar under tension
500KN shimadzu universal testing machine.
Extensometer
Steel
Gauge marking tools
Steel ruler
Spring divider
Depending upon the type of behavior of materials under the stresses they are broadly classified into two types
Brittle 
Ductile 

i. 
Brittle material fractures at much lower 
Ductile material withstands large strains before 
strains. 
the specimen rupture. 

ii. 
It has more carbon content. 
It has relatively less carbon content. 
iii. 
Brittle material has often large ultimate 
Ductile material has often less ultimate 
strength. 
strength. 

iv. 
Brittle materials break without much 
Ductile materials show large yielding and 
warning. 
strain before breaking. 

v. 
Brittle materials do not show necking. 
Ductile materials show necking process. 
vi. 
Glass and cast iron are the examples of 
Aluminum and steel usually fall in this 
brittle materials 
category. 

vii. 
Stressstrain Graph. 


9
Concrete is good for taking compressive loads but not good for tensile loads and fails under tensile loads.
Steel bars are good for tensile forces.
We reinforce concrete with the steel bars to make it good for both compressive as well as tensile forces.
The steel bars are inserted in the lower part of the concrete slab.
There are two types of steel reinforcement:
1. Plain steel reinforcement.
2. Deformed steel reinforcement.
1. Hot rolled steel bar
2. Cold rolled/worked steel bar.
In this process the steel passes through the process of torsion under normal temperature.
When we work on cold steel bars to make those torsteel bar, it given torsion and due to this torsion its nature makes it brittle due to which it is prohibited.
To limit cracks that may develop in reinforced concrete around mild steel bars due to stretching of bars and some loss of bond under load it is common to use deformed bars that have projecting ribs or are twisted to improve the bond with concrete.
During tensile testing of a material sample, the strainstress curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between the strain and stress in the material.
Suppose that a material is placed in tension compression testing machine and an axial load is applied over it which is gradually increases, then there will be certain elongation in the original gauge length, which is measured and this is continued until the failure occurs. By knowing the original cross sectional area and the length of specimen the stress δ and the strain ε can be found.
From point O to the point called proportional limit the stressstrain curve is the straight line this was
first discovered by Sir Issac newton and this is called the Newton’s law that within proportional limit
stress is directly proportional to the strain.
σ∝ε
σ= Eε
The constant of proportionality is called modulus of elasticity or the bulk modulus and is equal to the slope of the curve from O to P
The elastic limit is the limit beyond which the material will not go to its original shape after the removal of load or it is that maximum stress which can be developed in the material without any permanent or residual deformation in the material when the load is removed.
The region in the stressstrain diagram from O to P is called the elastic range, and the region from P to R is called the plastic region.
The yield point is the point at which the material will have an appreciable elongation in length without any increase in load.
The maximum ordinate in the stressstrain diagram is the ultimate strength or tensile strength.
Rapture strength is the strength.
strength
of the material
at
the
rupture. This is
also known as breaking
Modulus of resilience is the work done on the unit volume of material as the force is gradually increased from O to P which is N m/m ^{3} . This may be calculated as the area under the stressstrain curve from origin up to the elastic limit E. The resilience of the material is its ability to store energy without any permanent elongation.
It is the work done on a unit volume of the material as the force is gradually increased from O to R in Nm/m ^{3} . This may be calculated as the entire area under the entire curve. The modulus of toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy without causing it to break.
11
Working stress is defined as the actual stress of a material under a given loading. The maximum safe stress that a material can carry is termed as the allowable stress. The allowable stress should be limited to values not exceeding the proportional limit. However, since proportional limit is difficult to determine accurately, the allowable tress is taken as either the yield point or ultimate strength divided by a factor of safety. The ratio of this strength (ultimate or yield strength) to allowable strength is called the factor of safety.
It is very important. It gives us the warning before failure of the structure. It causes necking. We can define the phenomenon of ductility by two processes:
%age elongation
%age reduction in area
If the percentage is great the ductility is greater and the carbon content is lesser.
No of 
Applied Load 
Dial Gauge 
Elongation 
strain(%age) 
Stress (MPa) 
Observations 
(KN) 
Reading 
(mm) 

0 
0 
0 
0 

5 
0.01 
0.02 
39 

10 
0.02 
0.04 
80 

15 
0.03 
0.06 
125 

20

0.05 
0.1 
154 

25 
0.09 
0.18 
192 

30 
0.13 
0.26 
231 

35 
0.16 
0.32 
270 

40 
0.2 
0.4 
308 

10 
45 
24 
0.24 
0.48 
347 
11 
50 
28 
0.28 
0.56 
385 
12 
55 
34 
0.34 
0.64 
424 
13 
60 
46 
0.46 
0.92 
463 
14 
65 
250 
0.7 
1.4 
516 
15 
70 
52 
2 
4 
540 
16 
75 
53 
3 
6 
579 
17 
80 
54 
4 
8 
617 
18 
85 
55 
5 
10 
656 
19 
90 
56 
6 
12 
714 
20 
95 
56.5 
6.5 
13 
733 
21 
100 
57 
7 
14 
777 
22 
103.5 
58 
8 
16 
798 
23 
98.2 
59 
9 
18 
757 
24 
95 
60 
10 
20 
733 
12
As the line touches the graph at 490MPa so the yield strength is 490 MPa
Yield Limit = 490MPa Proportional Limit = 410MPa Ultimate Strength = 800MPa Rupture Strength = 725MPa Elastic Limit = Modulus of elasticity: E = slope of curve in proportional limit = stress/strain = 300MPa/5.8×10 ^{}^{3}
Cumulative Gauge Length (mm) 
%age Elongation 
Elongation (mm) 
0 
0 
0 
50 
19.35 
62 
100 
33.88 
117 
150 
51.47 
182 
200 
67.08 
237 
250 
82.90 
297 
13
Cummulative gauge length (mm)
14
To get a practical overview of the direct and punching shear by performing the test.
50 tons Buckton Universal Testing Machine
Steel bar
Vernier caliper/ micrometer screw gauge
Steel ruler
Shear Jigs
One way shear is a shear in which there is only one plane of failure.
=
15
Two way shear or double shear is a shear in which there are two planes of failure.
=
The shear in which some part of same body slides is known is called as punching shear.
1) 
Measure the diameter of steel bar and find its cross sectional area. 
2) 
Fix the lower jig and upper jig in the machine. 
3) 
Fix the zero error of the machine. 
4) 
Place the steel sample over the lower jig. 
5) 
Apply the shear load until the bar gets sheared. 
6) 
Apply the load gradually and note the reading when the bar gets sheared. 
7) 
Calculate the shear strength by using the relationship. 
16
17
To study the anisotropic behavior of wood
Wood samples
500KN shimadzu universal testing machine
Deflection Gauge
Steel rule/Vernier caliper
The property of being isotropic means having the same value when measured in different directions.
It gives the sense that in isotropic behavior a thing always shows the same properties along all the orientations.
Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which implies identical properties in all directions. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties (absorbance, refractive index, conductivity, tensile strength, etc.)
The force/load required to produce a unit displacement is called stiffness.
It is a ratio between stress and strain
Initial thickness=5cm Final thickness=4.7cm
18
SR 
LOAD 
D.G 
DEFLECTION 
%STRAIN 
STRESS 
E 

NO 
(KN) 
READING 
kN/m ^{2} 
kN/m ^{2} 
K 

mm 
m 

1 
0 
200 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
2 
5 
252 
0.00132 


3.79× 10 ^{6} 

3 
15 
262 
0.00157 


9.55× 10 ^{6} 

4 
20 
267 
0.00170 


11.76× 10 ^{6} 

5 
25 
271 
0.00180 


13.89× 10 ^{6} 

6 
30 
275 
0.00191 


15.71× 10 ^{6} 

7 
35 
279 
0.00201 


17.41× 10 ^{6} 

8 
40 
283 
0.00211 


18.96× 10 ^{6} 

9 
45 
287 
0.00221 


20.36× 10 ^{6} 

10 
50 
291 
0.00231 


21.65× 10 ^{6} 

11 
52 
292 
0.00234 


22.22× 10 ^{6} 

12 
54 
294 
0.00239 


22.59× 10 ^{6} 

13 
56 
295 
0.00241 


23.24× 10 ^{6} 

14 
58 
296 
0.00244 


23.77× 10 ^{6} 

15 
60 
298 
0.00249 


24.10× 10 ^{6} 

16 
62 
300 
0.00254 


24.41× 10 ^{6} 

17 
64 
301 
0.00257 


24.90× 10 ^{6} 

18 
66 
302 
0.00259 


25.48× 10 ^{6} 

19 
68 
304 
0.00264 


25.76× 10 ^{6} 

20 
70 
305 
0.00267 


26.22× 10 ^{6} 

21 
72 
306 
0.00269 


26.77× 10 ^{6} 

22 
74 
308 
0.00274 


27.01× 10 ^{6} 

23 
75.7 
309 
0.00277 


27.33× 10 ^{6} 
19
Initial thickness = 5cm Final thickness = 3.605cm
SR NO 
LOAD 
D.G 
DEFLECTION 
%STRAIN 
STRESS 
E 
K 
(KN) 
READING 
(m) 
(Pa) 
(Pa) 


200 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 


211 


0.018× 10 ^{9} 


219 


0.021× 10 ^{9} 


227 


21.87× 10 ^{9} 


238 


20.37× 10 ^{9} 


268 


14.45× 10 ^{9} 


350 


7.87× 10 ^{9} 


319 


6.62× 10 ^{9} 


439 


5.6× 10 ^{9} 

10 
36 
484 


5.0× 10 ^{9} 

11 
38 
535 


4.5× 10 ^{9} 

12 
38.5 
555 


4.3× 10 ^{9} 
20
To determine the hardness of the given sample to get an idea about the strength of the material
Rockwell Hardness testing machine
Steel specimen
Indenter
a) Steel ball indenter
b) Diamond cone indenter
“Hardness is a measure of resistance of material against abrasion, scratching, indentation and punching.”
There are so many ways of determining hardness of the materials like Moh scale of hardness. But this method is valid in geology and not in the mechanics. We perform so many types of tests on the materials to determine their hardness value but these values are not comparable with one another. Generally there are two types of approach.
i. 
National Approach (having no mathematical/numerical approach) 
ii. 
Empirical Approach (having no mathematical/numerical approach) 
The other two methods for testing hardness are as follows: 

i. 
Brinell Hardness Test 
ii. 
Vickers’s Hardness Test 
The values of these three test are not comparable with each other. Hardness assists us in quality control of material.
“The element producing indentation is known as indenter.”
In Rockwell hardness test we use two types of indenters:
21
1) 
Raise the specimen till it touches the underside of indenter and the pointer of the dial gauge is at 
2) 
initial position. Apply a minor load for 10 – 15 seconds. 
3) 
Then apply a major load 
4) 
There will be a certain impression on the surface of the material. 
5) 
Remove the major load and note the hardness value from the dial gauge of the machine. 
e = Permanent increase in depth due to major load E = constant, depending upon the form of indenter
Scale 
Indenter 
Miner Load 
Major Load 
Total Load 
Value of E 

A 
Diamond cone 
10 
50 
60 
100 

B 
1/16” Steel Ball 
10 
90 
100 
130 

C 
Diamond cone 
10 
140 
150 
100 

Observations and calculations: 

Sr No 
specimen 
Type of indenter 
scale 
Load 
Hardness 
Mean 

Minor 
Major 
No 
Hardness 


1/16” dia steel 
10 


B 
HR 93 B 


ball 
10 

B 


10 

B 


10 

46 
C 


Diamond cone 
C 
10 

HR 45 C 


10 

Test can be performed in only two to three minutes
Sample can be used again
No two values should be taken close to each other (on surface of material)
The values should not be taken very close to the edge of material
22
To measure the strength or response of material against impact loading
Charpy’s impact testing machine
Steel samples for tension and bending test
i. Point load: It is a load which is localized to a specific location on a structure. It is also known as concentrated load.
ii. 
Uniformly distributed load 
A load applied to a structure that is evenly distributed across the area where it is maintained. For 

example a layin ceiling tile… 



iii. 
Uniformly varying load It is a load which is varying uniformly (increasing or decreasing) from one side to the other of the beam. It is denoted by a triangle. 
23
“The load which is applies momentarily is known as impact load.” “High intensity load applied for a short time like hammering, slapping etc.”
“Energy stored per unit volume is known as modulus of toughness.”
Modulus of toughness =
1) 
First of all raise the liver of the machine. 
2) 
Then release the liver and it will swing freely. 
3) Note the angular measurement from the free swinging of the liver. 

4) 
Take this value of the angle as θ _{1} . 
5) 
Now place the specimen in the machine. 
6) 
Raise liver again and release it. 
7) 
The liver will strike against the specimen. 
8) 
The height after placing the specimen will be decreased and the 
9) 
angle which will now be noted will be known as θ _{2} . From this ∆E will be calculated. 
10) By dividing ∆E from V we will get modulus of toughness.
∆E = energy utilized to break the material ∆E = E _{1} + E _{2}
E _{1} = mgh _{1} = mg {h _{o} + R Sin (θ _{1} – 
90)} 
E _{2} = mgh _{2} = mg {h _{o} + R Sin (θ _{2} – 
90)} 
24
∆E = mg [{h _{o} + R Sin (θ _{1} –
90)}  {h _{o} + R Sin (θ _{2} –
90)}]
∆E = mg {h _{o} + R Sin (θ _{1} –
90)  h _{o}  R Sin (θ _{2} –
∆E = mg {R Sin (θ _{1} –
90)  R Sin (θ _{2} –
90)}
90)}
∆E = mg (R Cos θ _{2}  R Cos θ _{1} )
∆E = mg R (Cos θ _{2}  Cos θ _{1} )
Modulus of toughness =
Mass = m = 22.9 Kg Radius = R = 0.7 m Gravitational acceleration = g = 9.81 m s ^{}^{1}
Volume of Sample = 0.335 in ^{3} = 0.00000548966644 θ _{1} = 136 ^{o} θ _{2} = 107 ^{o}
We know that:
∆E = mg R (Cos θ _{2}  Cos θ _{1} )
Putting the values:
∆E = 0.0229 × 9.81 × 0.7 (Cos 107 ^{o}  Cos 136 ^{o} ) ∆E = 0.0671 joule
Modulus of toughness =
Modulus of toughness = 12.23K Pa
Volume of Sample = 0.25 in ^{3} = 0.000004096766 θ _{1} = 139 ^{o} θ _{2} = 62 ^{o}
We know that:
∆E = mg R (Cos θ _{2}  Cos θ _{1} )
Putting the values:
∆E = 0.0229 × 9.81 × 0.7 (Cos 62 ^{o}  Cos 139 ^{o} ) ∆E = 0.193 joule
25
Modulus of toughness =
Modulus of toughness = 46.9 K
26
To find modulus of rupture, wooden behavior in bending and effect of two point loading
10 Ton Buckton Universal Testing Machine
Wooden beam
Deflection gauges
Steel ruler
Isotropy is uniformity in all directions; it is derived from the Greek iso (equal) and tropos (direction).
One way shear is a shear in which there is only one plane of failure.
=
27
Two way shear or double shear is a shear in which there are two planes of failure.
=
The shear in which some part of same body slides is known is called as punching shear.
A bending moment exists in a structural element when a moment is applied to the element so that the element bends.
1) 
We take a given wooden sample and take the measurement of its dimensions. 
2) 
Then this material is placed under the two point loading under the Universal Testing Machine. 
3) 
The three gauges are placed under the beam and their first readings are noted. 
4) The load is then increased by 0.1 ton at each successive reading and the measurements of the 

5) 
deflections gauges are noted. As the beam breaks from the center, the maximum breaking load is noted. 
6) Now calculations are made and the values of modulus of Rupture and modulus of Elasticity are
28
calculated and a graph is drawn between load and deflection.
(Graph of Load and deflection)
a = 150 mm = 0.150m l = 500 mm = 0.500m b = 50mm = 0.050m h = 50 mm = 0.050m Breaking Load = 1.25 Tons = 12262.5 N
Modulus of Rupture = f = 3.P.a / b.h ^{2}
Modulus of Elasticity = E = 3a.l ^{2} / 4 .bh ^{3}
Pˈ/d = 2,000 N/mm = 2,000,000 N/m
Modulus of rupture = 44.1MPa Modulus of Elasticity = 9 MPa
29
is 
useful 
in 
knowing its 
uses 
in 
the 
construction. There might be chances of error due to 
instruments. 
30