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Spread Spectrum and CDMA

Principles and Applications

Valery P. Ipatov
University of Turku, Finland and St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETI, Russia

Spread Spectrum and CDMA

Spread Spectrum and CDMA


Principles and Applications

Valery P. Ipatov
University of Turku, Finland and St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETI, Russia

Copyright 2005

John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (44) 1243 779777

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Contents
Preface 1 Spread spectrum signals and systems 1.1 Basic definition 1.2 Historical sketch 2 Classical reception problems and signal design 2.1 Gaussian channel, general reception problem and optimal decision rules 2.2 Binary data transmission (deterministic signals) 2.3 M-ary data transmission: deterministic signals 2.4 Complex envelope of a bandpass signal 2.5 M-ary data transmission: noncoherent signals 2.6 Trade-off between orthogonal-coding gain and bandwidth 2.7 Examples of orthogonal signal sets 2.7.1 Time-shift coding 2.7.2 Frequency-shift coding 2.7.3 Spread spectrum orthogonal coding 2.8 Signal parameter estimation 2.8.1 Problem statement and estimation rule 2.8.2 Estimation accuracy 2.9 Amplitude estimation 2.10 Phase estimation 2.11 Autocorrelation function and matched filter response 2.12 Estimation of the bandpass signal time delay 2.12.1 Estimation algorithm 2.12.2 Estimation accuracy 2.13 Estimation of carrier frequency 2.14 Simultaneous estimation of time delay and frequency 2.15 Signal resolution 2.16 Summary Problems Matlab-based problems 3 Merits of spread spectrum 3.1 Jamming immunity 3.1.1 Narrowband jammer 3.1.2 Barrage jammer xi 1 1 5 7 7 11 17 23 26 28 31 31 33 33 37 37 39 41 43 43 46 46 48 53 55 58 61 62 68 77 77 78 80

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3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Low probability of detection Signal structure secrecy Electromagnetic compatibility Propagation effects in wireless systems 3.5.1 Free-space propagation 3.5.2 Shadowing 3.5.3 Multipath fading 3.5.4 Performance analysis 3.6 Diversity 3.6.1 Combining modes 3.6.2 Arranging diversity branches 3.7 Multipath diversity and RAKE receiver Problems Matlab-based problems

82 87 88 89 90 90 91 95 98 98 100 102 106 109 115 115 117 118 119 121 124 124 125 129 130 135 135 136 137 139 142 145 145 146

4 Multiuser environment: code division multiple access 4.1 Multiuser systems and the multiple access problem 4.2 Frequency division multiple access 4.3 Time division multiple access 4.4 Synchronous code division multiple access 4.5 Asynchronous CDMA 4.6 Asynchronous CDMA in the cellular networks 4.6.1 The resource reuse problem and cellular systems 4.6.2 Number of users per cell in asynchronous CDMA Problems Matlab-based problems 5 Discrete spread spectrum signals 5.1 Spread spectrum modulation 5.2 General model and categorization of discrete signals 5.3 Correlation functions of APSK signals 5.4 Calculating correlation functions of code sequences 5.5 Correlation functions of FSK signals 5.6 Processing gain of discrete signals Problems Matlab-based problems 6 Spread spectrum signals for time measurement, synchronization and time-resolution 6.1 Demands on ACF: revisited 6.2 Signals with continuous frequency modulation 6.3 Criterion of good aperiodic ACF of APSK signals 6.4 Optimization of aperiodic PSK signals 6.5 Perfect periodic ACF: minimax binary sequences 6.6 Initial knowledge on finite fields and linear sequences 6.6.1 Definition of a finite field 6.6.2 Linear sequences over finite fields 6.6.3 m-sequences 6.7 Periodic ACF of m-sequences 6.8 More about finite fields

149 149 151 154 155 159 161 161 163 165 167 170

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6.9 Legendre sequences 6.10 Binary codes with good aperiodic ACF: revisited 6.11 Sequences with perfect periodic ACF 6.11.1 Binary non-antipodal sequences 6.11.2 Polyphase codes 6.11.3 Ternary sequences 6.12 Suppression of sidelobes along the delay axis 6.12.1 Sidelobe suppression filter 6.12.2 SNR loss calculation 6.13 FSK signals with optimal aperiodic ACF Problems Matlab-based problems 7 Spread spectrum signature ensembles for CDMA applications 7.1 Data transmission via spread spectrum 7.1.1 Direct sequence spreading: BPSK data modulation and binary signatures 7.1.2 DS spreading: general case 7.1.3 Frequency hopping spreading 7.2 Designing signature ensembles for synchronous DS CDMA 7.2.1 Problem formulation 7.2.2 Optimizing signature sets in minimum distance 7.2.3 Welch-bound sequences 7.3 Approaches to designing signature ensembles for asynchronous DS CDMA 7.4 Time-offset signatures for asynchronous CDMA 7.5 Examples of minimax signature ensembles 7.5.1 Frequency-offset binary m-sequences 7.5.2 Gold sets 7.5.3 Kasami sets and their extensions 7.5.4 Kamaletdinov ensembles Problems Matlab-based problems 8 DS spread spectrum signal acquisition and tracking 8.1 Acquisition and tracking procedures 8.2 Serial search 8.2.1 Algorithm model 8.2.2 Probability of correct acquisition and average number of steps 8.2.3 Minimizing average acquisition time 8.3 Acquisition acceleration techniques 8.3.1 Problem statement 8.3.2 Sequential cell examining 8.3.3 Serial-parallel search 8.3.4 Rapid acquisition sequences 8.4 Code tracking 8.4.1 Delay estimation by tracking 8.4.2 Earlylate DLL discriminators 8.4.3 DLL noise performance Problems Matlab-based problems

172 174 176 177 179 181 185 186 187 192 194 196 203 203 203 207 212 214 214 215 223 227 232 235 235 236 239 241 243 246 251 251 253 253 254 258 261 261 262 263 264 265 265 267 270 273 274

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9 Channel coding in spread spectrum systems 9.1 Preliminary notes and terminology 9.2 Error-detecting block codes 9.2.1 Binary block codes and detection capability 9.2.2 Linear codes and their polynomial representation 9.2.3 Syndrome calculation and error detection 9.2.4 Choice of generator polynomials for CRC 9.3 Convolutional codes 9.3.1 Convolutional encoder 9.3.2 Trellis diagram, free distance and asymptotic coding gain 9.3.3 The Viterbi decoding algorithm 9.3.4 Applications 9.4 Turbo codes 9.4.1 Turbo encoders 9.4.2 Iterative decoding 9.4.3 Performance 9.4.4 Applications 9.5 Channel interleaving Problems Matlab-based problems 10 Some advancements in spread spectrum systems development 10.1 Multiuser reception and suppressing MAI 10.1.1 Optimal (ML) multiuser rule for synchronous CDMA 10.1.2 Decorrelating algorithm 10.1.3 Minimum mean-square error detection 10.1.4 Blind MMSE detector 10.1.5 Interference cancellation 10.1.6 Asynchronous multiuser detectors 10.2 Multicarrier modulation and OFDM 10.2.1 Multicarrier DS CDMA 10.2.2 Conventional MC transmission and OFDM 10.2.3 Multicarrier CDMA 10.2.4 Applications 10.3 Transmit diversity and spacetime coding in CDMA systems 10.3.1 Transmit diversity and the spacetime coding problem 10.3.2 Efficiency of transmit diversity 10.3.3 Time-switched spacetime code 10.3.4 Alamouti spacetime code 10.3.5 Transmit diversity in spread spectrum applications Problems Matlab-based problems 11 Examples of operational wireless spread spectrum systems 11.1 Preliminary remarks 11.2 Global positioning system 11.2.1 General system principles and architecture 11.2.2 GPS ranging signals 11.2.3 Signal processing

277 277 279 279 281 284 285 286 286 289 292 296 296 296 299 300 301 302 302 304 307 307 307 309 311 314 315 316 316 317 318 322 325 326 326 327 329 331 333 334 336 339 339 339 340 341 343

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11.2.4 Accuracy 11.2.5 GLONASS and GNSS 11.2.6 Applications 11.3 Air interfaces cdmaOne (IS-95) and cdma2000 11.3.1 Introductory remarks 11.3.2 Spreading codes of IS-95 11.3.3 Forward link channels of IS-95 11.3.3.1 Pilot channel 11.3.3.2 Synchronization channel 11.3.3.3 Paging channels 11.3.3.4 Traffic channels 11.3.3.5 Forward link modulation 11.3.3.6 MS processing of forward link signal 11.3.4 Reverse link of IS-95 11.3.4.1 Reverse link traffic channel 11.3.4.2 Access channel 11.3.4.3 Reverse link modulation 11.3.5 Evolution of air interface cdmaOne to cdma2000 11.4 Air interface UMTS 11.4.1 Preliminaries 11.4.2 Types of UMTS channels 11.4.3 Dedicated physical uplink channels 11.4.4 Common physical uplink channels 11.4.5 Uplink channelization codes 11.4.6 Uplink scrambling 11.4.7 Mapping downlink transport channels to physical channels 11.4.8 Downlink physical channels format 11.4.9 Downlink channelization codes 11.4.10 Downlink scrambling codes 11.4.11 Synchronization channel 11.4.11.1 General structure 11.4.11.2 Primary synchronization code 11.4.11.3 Secondary synchronization code References Index

344 344 345 345 345 346 347 347 347 348 349 351 352 353 353 355 355 356 357 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 365 366 366 366 367 369 375