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Ex ipso fonte

St.-Petersburg State University


Faculty of History
Department of the History of Ancient Greece and Rome
Centre of Ancient Studies

MNEMON
Investigations and Publications on the History of
Ancient World
Edited by Ed.Frolov

St.-Petersburg
2007



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1978 . (Imperialism in the Ancient World / Ed. by P.D.A,Garnsey and
C.R,Whittaker. Cambridge, 1978). .
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imperium ajrchv,
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18

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povlin tuvrannon, 124, 3).

(turannivda <...> e[cete aujth;n [sc. th;n ajrchvn], II, 63, 2),

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22

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Locus communis 1 2.


, , . , , v.v.
.

, ,
1
( )
. : ,
,
(Raaflaub K. Democracy, Power, and Imperialism // Athenian Political Thought
and the Reconstuction of American Democracy / Eds. J.P. Euben, J.R. Wallach,
J. Ober. Ithaca; L., 1994. P. 104, note 2). :
, -
( )
, (Finley M.I. Empire in the Greco-Roman
World // G&R. Vol. 25. 1. 1978. . 1).
2
., : .. //
. . I. ., 1983. . 327, 354-365; .
// . 1984. 3. . 49-59; ..
( ) //
. ., 2004. . 160-161; Will ., Moss C., Goukowsky
P. Le monde Grec et lOrient. T. 1: Le V-e sicle (510-403). P., 1972. P. 173; Martin
J. Von Kleisthenes zu Ephialtes // Chiron. Bd. 4. 1974. S. 41; Peirka J. Die
athenische Demokratie und das athenische Reich // Klio. Bd. 57. S. 307-311;
Finley M. Democracy Ancient and Modern. New Brunswick NJ, 1996. . 84-87.

..

24

polupragmosuv nh ( ,
), (Thuc.,
I, 70, 8-9)3.
(I, 70-71, 80-84). , , , , ,
. , , , , , .
, , , . (I, 77, 2) , ,
( filovdikoi).
4 , , ,
,
,
5.
, : V . ..
, - , ,
. -
.
, , ,
, .
. : Ehrenberg V.
Polypragmosyne: A Study in Greek Politics // JHS. 1947. V. 67. P. 46-67; Adkins
A.W.H. Polu pragmosune and Minding Ones Own Business: A Study in
Greek Social and Political Values // ClPh. Vol. 71. 1976. P. 301-327.
4
.: Ehrenberg V. Polypragmosyne. 47; Will ., Moss C., Goukowsky P.
Le monde Grec et lOrient. T. 1. P. 174; Galpin T.J. The Democratic Roots of
Athenian Imperialism in the Fifth Century B.C. // CJ. Vol. 79. 1983/84. P.108.
5
Raaflaub K. Democracy, Power, and Imperialism P. 114.
3

25

6: , ,
.
,
, .
,

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,
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, ,
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, , .
V .,
, , .
, (Thuc., I, 96) .
: , ,
,
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()7.
-
(V, 69-71). . , , ,
, : , , , , , (tau`q juJmw`n
aujtw`n ejgw; oij~mai memnh`sqai tou; presbutevrou, tou; de; newtevrou
punqavnesqai w{sper ejmev 71). . . . 55.
.. . :
. , 1997. . 278-279.
6
7

26

..

- 416 414 ., ..
, -, 50- 40- 8. (tou`to
de; peri; crhmavtwn aijtivan pote; scovnte oujk ou\san),
, , ,
(ejkei`noi me;n a|pante ajpevqanon ojrgh`/ ma`llon h] gnwvmh/, plh;n eJno;
69). (to; de;
pra`gma u{steron katafane; ejgevneto 69), ,
(kai; ejn touvtw/ ejdhlwvqh tw`/ trovpw/ ajpwlwvlei
ta; crhvmata 70 , ).
, , (70).
: , ,
(. ) (.. ..) ,
, (kai; oJ ajnh;r
ajphvcqh uJpo; tou` dhvmou tou` uJmetevrou paradedomevno h[dh toi` e{ndeka,
oiJ d ja[lloi ejtevqnasan oujde;n ai[tioi o[nte 70). uJpo; tou` dhvmou,
,
. , ,
:
,
,
. . ,
9.
,
.
divkai ajpo; sumbolw`n . C , suvmbola ,
8
.: Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. Oxford, 1972. . 246. .
440/39 . (Ostwald M. From Popular Sovereignty
to the Sovereignty of Law. Berkeley; Los Angeles, 1986. . 66).
9
Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. . 246.

27

(suvmbola ta; sunqhvka, a} a]n ajllhvlai aiJ povlei qevmenai tavttwsi


toi polivtai w{ste didovnai kai; lambavnein ta divkaia)10. , ,
() ,
suvmbola ,
11. , .. , : actio sequitur forum rei ( ),
12 , actio sequitur forum contractus
(.. ), . ,
.
.
(IG I3, 66, 14-16)13 (IG I3,
127, 17-18) , 14, ..
, , , (actio sequitur forum rei).
: -
sumbovlaion (suvmbola) - ,
(. : Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction in
the Athenian Empire // lQu. Vol. 11. 1961. . 95-106,
),
, divkai ajpo; sumbolw`n.
11
.: Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction . 95; Meiggs R. The
Athenian Empire. P. 229. , ,
(IG II2, 46) ,
.
12
Lipsius J.H. Das attische Recht und Rechtsverfahren. Leipzig, 1905-1915.
S. 966; Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction... P. 106.
13

: IG I3 Inscriptiones Graecae. Editio tertia. V. I:
Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno anteriores / Ed. D.M. Lewis. Berlin, 1981.
: http://epigraphy.packhum.org/
inscriptions/
14
, , : kai; ajpo; csumbol][o`n
div]ka didovn[ta] pro;V Aqen[aivo kai; decomevno][ ka]ta; ta; csu[mbo]la; ?ai;
e\san [pro; to` . 14 -16.
10

28

..

, ,
, , (o{ ti a]m
me;[n] jAq[hnhsi x]u[mb]ovlaion gevnhtai [pro; F]ashlit[w`]n tina,
jAqhv[n]h[si ta; div]ka givgnesqai par[a; tw`i po]lemavrcwi, kaqavper
C[ivoi, kai;] a[lloqi mhde; aJmo` IG I3, 10, 6-11).
. -, ,
sumbovlaion , , . ,
, ( ,
) , 15 .
, sumbovlaion , ,
,
, .. actio sequitur forum
contractus, .
, , (?) ( ) ([Dem.], VII, 9-13). , suv m bola
: ,
, (ouj k ej l usitev l ei suv m bola
poihsamevno ou[tV ejk Makedoniva plei` jAqhvnaze divka lhyomevnou,
ou[qV hJmi`n eij Makedonivan 13). . -
actio sequitur forum rei16 , in toto
, . , , ..
actio sequitur forum concursus17 .
15
Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction . 101-108. ,
sumbovlaion legal right of action, legal action,
.
16
., : Harrison A.R.W. Demosthenes. De Halonneso, 13 //
ClQu. Vol. 10. 1960. P. 248; Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction
. 106,111 (Appendix C, Ps.-Dem., VII, 9-13);
Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. . 230.
17
.. // . 1974.
2. . 57-64.

29

, 18;
, ajpo; sumbolwn ,
(I, 77, 1). ..
, , ,
19.
, (
suvmbola), -
, , .
, , ,
, , , .
, , : ,
, . : ,
. , , (IG I3, 65, 20-23 me; ejcse;nai aujto;n medeni;
zemio`sai a[neu to` devmo to` jAqenaivon; IG I3, 70
). ,
(IG I3, 55, 5-7 , , 5- ; IG I3, 19 ;
IG I3, 91, 20-24 , ;
IG II2, 38; IG I3, 91; IG I3, 164)20. .. , , ,
,
( .. // .
1947. 2. . 19-21).
19
.. . C., 2003. . 250.
20
, ,
, . .: Wade-Gery H.T.
18

30

..

, , , , , 5 (IG I3, 19; IG II2, 38; II2, 32, 914; IG I3, 91; 156; 161; 162; 164 etc.)21. , ,
, .
( , IG I3,
164, 25-26; II2, 32, 11) (timwriva),
22. , , , 23.
, ,
(prostavtai tou` dhvmou) , 24. , ,
ejn tw`n povlewn w|n jAqhnai`o i kratou`sin,
,
. - : (, , oiJ
plouvsioi kai; oiJ crhstoiv), (eij de;
oi[koi ei\con e{kastoi ta; divka),
(a{te ajcqovmenoi jAqhnaivoi), ,
Essays in Greek History. Oxford, 1958. . 188, note 2; Ste. Croix G.E.M., de.
Notes on Jurisdiction . 101.
21
5 IG I3, 19, 7-11 IG II2, 38 (,
), (Pax, 169-172).
22
, ,
,
- (kaqavper ejanv ti jAqhnaivwn) (
,
). ,

(.: Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. . 228),
.. .
23
.: Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction . 275.
24
.: Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction . 274-278; Meiggs R.
The Athenian Empire. . 227-228; ..
. . 65-66. ,
, -
.

31

(touvtou a]n sfw`n aujtw`n ajpwvllusan oi{tine fivloi mavlista


h\san jAqhnaivwn tw`/ dhvmw/ I, 16).
,
, (
),
25.
100 , .. ( , ,
(450/49 .) IG I3, 21, 46-47)26. : ( ) (oJ Samivon qavnaton e] fuge;n e] devmeusin cremavton,
kuvrion e[sto IG I3, 96, 7), ,
, , (tou; crhstou; ajtimou`si kai;
crhvmata ajfairou`ntai kai; ejxelauvnontai kai; ajpokteivnousi I, 14).
,
, , , 27. , .
: , , [] -
(aujtoi; katagnovnte to;n qavnaton tou` ajdro; ajpekteivnate:
o} oujde; povlei e[xestin, a[neu A
j qhnaivwn oujdevna qanavtw/ zhmiw`sai V,
47). , ( ) , :
28, , Lipsius J.H. Das attische Recht... S. 971-973; Bonner R.J., Smith G. The
Administration of Justice from Homer to Aristotle. Vol. I. Chicago, 1930. P. 314317; Ste. Croix G.E.M., de. Notes on Jurisdiction... . 270-272; ..
. 64-68.
26
:??]tele`[sqa]i ta; de; ?upe;r ?ekato;[n
dracma; ???????????25????????????](46).
27
., : Bonner R.J., Smith G. The Administration of Justice... Vol.
I. P. 310; .. . . 248-249;
.. . . 327, 363; ..

. , 1987. . 63.
25

32

..

, . :
,
. , ,
(tivmhma) () ,
(ajgw`ne
ajtivmhtoi), ,
(ajgw`ne timhtoiv) .
, , , , (prostivmhma).
, ,
( ajgw`ne ajtivmhtoi
ajgw`ne timhtoiv) ,
IV .,
29. , ,
, ?

( ,
, ), , .
,
, .. , .
28
: ,
, . :
.. . . 248-249; ..
. . 364; Will ., Moss C., Goukowsky P. Le monde Grec
et lOrient. T. 1. . 201; Rhodes P.J. The Athenian Empire. Oxford, 1985. P. 39.
29
,
, ( : Lys., III, 44;
XII, 37; XIII, 69; XIV, 23; XXII, 2; XXVIII, 1; Dem., XVIII, 198; XIX, 3, 101, 131,
335 XXI, 12, 21; XXIV, 104; LIV, 22; Lyc., I, 131-134, 150).

33

( ) , (IG I3 , 40). ,
. - . -, . ,
(eu[qunai) , , , (ple;n fuge` kai; qanavtou kai; ajtimiva 73-74)
(e[fesin) . . - . : e[fesi , ab initio 30. ,
, , , , , , .
, ,
. .
, , (IG I3 , 34 40- . 30- . V . ..),
. : - (aj d ikei` peri; to; ]n fov r on) ,
(e[sto aujto;n
g]ravfesqai pro; [to; prutavne toi` b]olomevno[i jAqena]ivon kai; to`n
cs[ummavcon);
(?oi de; prutav]ne ejsag[ovnton] ej te;m bole;n [te;n
grafe;n e] eujq]unevsqo dovro[n murivaisi dracm]e`s[i ?evkasto);
, ,
( ..) ,
([oJ d ja]n] katagnoi` ?[e bolev, me; tima`n aujt]oi`
kuriva e[sto [ajll j ejs]ferevto ej t[e;n eJliaivan eujquv]);
, .: Wade-Gery H.T. Essays in Greek History. . 192-195; Ste. Croix G.E.M.,
de. Notes on Jurisdiction . 271-272. : Meiggs R. The
Athenian Empire. . 226. , ,

(reference) (. 226).
30

..

34

31 (o{ tan de; dovc sei


[ajdike`]n, gnovma po[ievsqon ?oi pru]tavne ?ov ti a]n dok[ei` aujt]o;m
paqe`n e] aj[potei`sai 31-41).
(IG I3 , 68 426/5 . ..),
(povle fovron fevros[i 6), .
-
,
(43-46);
(?o[i de; ej p imeletai;
ejsagov]nton e[mmena ej to; d[ikastevrion 47-48). ,
(eja;n dev to ka]tagnoi` to; [dik]astevrion
tim[a`n o{ ti cre; aujto;n p]aqe`n e] [ajp]otei`sai 50-52).
(IG I3,
71), 425/24 . , . ,
, (ejisagwgeuv )
(ej s agogev o n de; ?o la]co; n ka[i; ?]o
polevmar[co ajnakrinavnton ta; divka ejn t]ei` eJliaivai [kaqavper ta;
divka ta; a[l]la to`[n e]Jliaston 13-14). , , 1000 (?oi de; [nomo]qevta[i32 dikastervion]
nevon ka[q]istavnton cilivo dikastav 16). :
(ta; [de; tavcse] ?ovsai [a]n kat]a; p[ovlin diadikavzontai
to; pr]utavne[] ?oi; a]n tovte tugcavnosi prut[aneuvont]e kai; to;[n
gra]mm[ateva te` bole` delo`sai ej t]o; dikastevrion ?ovtan peri;
to`n tavcs[eon ei` ?]ovpo a]n a[ujta; aj]nq[omologo`ntai ?oi dikasta]iv
51-54).
,
(paqei`n h] ajpotei`sai) .
paqei`n ..
, , ; ajpotei`sai .
32
[nomo]qevta[i, ATL
Inscriptiones Graecae, ,
.
31

35

, , (fr. 2533, Thalheim) (fr. 49-56). ,


.
, ( fr. 49),
(- ) (hJ ga;r nhso h}n e[comen...ejstin uJyhlh; kai; traceia
kai; ta; me;n crhvsima kai; ejrgavsima mikra; aujth ejsti fr. 50).

(IG I3, 1453), , . ,

33. , ;
. 34;
, ,
35. , : 449 .
20- . .. .,
: .. // . XVI. 1999. .
25-49 (
); ..
// . X. 1972. . 6473; Mattingly H.B. The Athenian Coinage Decree // Historia. Bd. 10. 1961. P.
148-188; Meritt B.D., Wade-Gery H.T. The Dating of Documents to the Midfifth Century-I // JHS. Vol. 82. 1962. P. 67-74; Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. .
167-172; Lewis D.M. The Athenian Coinage Decree // Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian War: the Ninth Oxford Symposium on Coinage
and Monetary History / Ed. I. Carradice. Oxford, 1987. P. 53-63; Vickers M. Fifth
Century Chronology and the Coinage Decree // JHS. Vol. 116. 1996. P. 171-174.
34
, , ,
,
, .. .: ..
. . 359-360; ..
. . 29; Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. . 211-215.
33

..

36

,
; , , (eja;n
dev [ti a[llo t]w`n ajrcovn[twn ejn t]ai`si povlesi mh; poih`i ka[ta; ta;
ejyhfis]mevna h] tw`n [poli]tw`n h] tw`n xevnwn, [a[t]im[o e[stw kai; ta;
crhv]mata dhmovsia [e[s]tw kai; th` qeou` to; ejpidevkaton IG I3, 1453
B/G, 3.1).
- , ,
, ,

( ,
,
), . ,
,
V .
- (tw`n de; summavcwn e[seion tou; pacei`
kai; plousi;ou), ,
(.. ) (aijtiva a[n
prostiqevnte, wJ fronei` ta; Brasivdou 639-640). , (147-148), ,
: , ! 36 .
, . : (klhthvr eijmi nhsiwtiko; kai; sukofavnth 1422),
, : . , , , (kai; pragmatodivfh ei\ta devo mai ptera; labw;n kuvk lw/
perisobei`n ta; povlei kalouvmeno 1424). , - ,
ajrconte ejn tai` povlesi
. .:
Leppin H. Die ajrconte ejn tai` povlesi des Delisch-Attischen Seebundes //
Historia. Bd. 41. 1992. S. 257-271.
36
,
.
35

37

; klhthvr
, , . .. ,
, , 37.
; , , (wJ a]n tou; xevnou
kalesavmeno ka`t jejgkeklhkw; ejnqadi; kat jau\ pevtwmai pavlin ejkei`se
Av., 1455-1456). , 38 (klhth;r nhsiwtikov), (aJrpasovmeno ta;
crhvmata aujtou` 1460).
.. .. , 39. .
, :
,
(797-8).
: , (1089). , , ; (
).
, - , , , , . -,

, .
,
.
37

.. // . 1979. 3. .

38

.. ( . .

31.
23).

.. . . 20, 23; ..
. . 30, 32. .. ( . . 360) .
39

..

38

,
. ,
( , ),
, (1032,
1053) (tw; kavdw).
.. , tw; kavdw
, , , ,
(Equit., 1317; Nub., 207-208; Av.,
39-44, 109-112; Pax, 505; Vesp. 208, 662 etc.)40. .. :
41 , , .
.
,
42. , , , ,
. (50- .) ,
, ,
; , , (IG I3, 14, 29-31).
,
, , , ,
. ,

. , ,
, . (divkai ajpo; sumbolw`n) , , .. . . 32.
.. . . 23.
42
.: Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. . 221.
40
41

39

.
, ;
, ; . , ,
(kata; tavde to;n ovrkon ojmovsai A
j qenaivon te;n bole;n kai; to; dikastav?
IG I3 , 40, 3-4); , .
, , ,
: (, , ) 6000 ,
, , 300
(Vesp., 662-663).
- ,
: , ,
(ajpo; tw`n prutaneivwn to;n misto;n
di jejniautou` lambavnein); (oi[koi kaqhvmenoi a[neu new`n e[kplou
dioikou`si ta; povlei ta; summacivda);
, ,
(kai; tou; me;n tou` dhvmou swvzousi, tou; d j
ejnantivou ajp olluvousin ejn toi` dikasthrivo i I, 16).

, .
T.V. Kudrjavzeva

Heliaia in the context of the Athenian imperial policy


The influence of the Athenian Empire on the legal proceedings in
Athens and the role played by the Athenian peoples court in the
government of ajrch are examined in the article. There was an increase
in the quantity of meetings, suits and in the number of jurors in the
Athenian heliaia as the consequence of the further development of the
Sea Power. In the trials of div k ai aj p o; sumbolw`n (predominantly
commercial and contract cases) the Athenians kept the general rules
and formally didnt have any advantages over their allies. The lawsuits
from allied states involving severe penalties (the death penalty, exile,

40

..

loss of civic rights, confiscation of property) were compulsory transferred


to heliaia for appeal or for the final judgment. The suits of the Athenian
proxenoi were tried in the Athenian courts as well as different disputes
in connection with the allies payments and the collection of fovro.
Heliaia played an important role in executing measures prescribed by
the Coinage decree. It was a powerful instrument of setting up Athenian
control over the allies contributing to the transformation of summaciva
to ajrchv.

..


:
*

, 1.

VI V . .., 2.
-
,
. ,

. 540- . .. , :
I 514 . ..; 492 . .. ;
,
- (
), 06-01-00438.
1
. . (Hammond M.
Ancient Imperialism: Contemporary Justifications // HSCPh. 1948. Vol. 58.
P. 105161),
.
2
.: Walser G. Persische Imperialismus
und Griechische Freiheit (Zum Verhltnis zwischen Griechen und Persern in
frhklassischer Zeit) // Achaemenid History / Ed. by Heleen SancisiWeerdenburg and Amelie Kuhrt. Leiden, 1987.Vol.2.P.155-165.
*

42

..

490 . ..; , ,
480 . .. , , , ,
,
, 3. :
.


4. , . ,

5,
3

: .. . ., 1961;
.. 1) . ., 1963; 2)
. ., 1985; ..
. ., 1998;

. (Briant P. 1) Histoire de lEmpire perse.
De Cyrus a Alexander. P., 1996; 2) From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the
Persian Empire / Engl transl. by P. T. Daniels. Winona Lake (Indiana), 2002).
4
.: Ehrenberg V. From
Solon to Socrates: Greek History and Civilization During the 6th and 5th Centuries
BC. L.-N.Y., 1973. P. 133; Sealey R. A History of the Greek City-States. P. 181,
200; Cartledge P. Sparta and Laconia. A Regional History. L., 1979. P. 129;
Lazenby J. The Defence of Greece, 490479 BC. Warminster, 1993. P. 45;
Doenges N.A. The Campaign and Battle of Marathon // Historia. 1998. Bd. 47.
Ht. 1. S. 2; Bederman D.J. International Law in Antiquity. Cambridge, 2001. P. 55.
.: . . //
:
. ., 2006. . 338341. ,
, (.: . . ., 1977. . 122;
Orlin L.L. Athens and Persia ca 507 BC.: A Neglected Perspective // Michigan
Oriental Studies in honor of G.G. Cameron. Ann Arbor, 1976. P. 265-266; Kuhrt A.
Earth and water // Achaemenid History / Ed. by A. Kuhrt and H. SancisiWeerdenburg. Vol. 3: Method and Theory. Leiden, 1988. P. 98.)
5
, I
(Hdt.
VII. 146147).

43

, , 6.
.
, . , ,

7.
, ,
.

I
,
, .
514512 . .. I, ,
.
(V, 1721) I
. , , (Speusipp. Ep. ad Philip. 8),
, , 481 . ..
(Syncell.,
Chronogr. P. 469 Dindorfi). ,
I, I, , ,
, 8.
Kuhrt A. Earth and water. P. 8799.
.
(Badian E. Herodotus on Alexander I of Macedon: A Study in Some Subtle
Silences // Greek Historiography / Ed. by S. Hornblower. Oxford, 1996. P. 108
109).
8
.. ( ..
. . 1. , 1960. . 120; 2)
6
7

44

..

, , , , , -,

, ,
. ,
512 . .. , ,
, , I 491 . .., 481 . .. .
508/7 .
.. (V. 73) , ,
I, pevmpousi ajggevllou ej Savrdi,
summacivhn boulovmenoi poihvsasqai pro; Pevrsa.
, , , ,
, . :
, ,
, eij me;n didousi basilei Dareivw/ A
j qhnaioi
ghn te kai; u{dwr, oJ de; summacivhn sfi suneqivqeto, eij de; mh; didousi,
ajpallavssesqai aujtou; ejkevleue) (Hdt. V. 73).
, , .

.
- // . . 1. 1993.
. 102104). , .
,
I
492 . .. (Borza E.N. In the Shadow of Olympus. The Emergence of
Macedon. Princeton, 1990. P. 101105). .,
,
,
I (Badian E. Herodotus on Alexander I of Macedon.P.107-120).

45

,
508/7 . .. , , . , , .
, 9. .. , , 10. , ,
,
,
- 11. ..
, . ,
508/7 . .. 12.
. . , ,
, .
. : ...
(treaty-vassal), (contract-breaker); ,
(a disobedient vassal),
...13. . ,
,
;
Holladay A.J. Medism in Athens 508480 B C. // G&R. 1978. Vol. 25. 2.
P. 179.
10
..
.
VIIV . .. ., 2000. . 71.
11
.. 1) . .
. ., 2005. . 256, 285-286; 2)
. ., 2006. . 329.
12
Schachermeyer F. Athen als Stadt des Grossknigs // GB. 1973. Bd. 1.
S. 211220
13
Orlin L.L. Athens and Persia ca 507 B C. P. 265.
9

..

46

. , . , 491 . .. , , ,

.

480-479 . ..14.
e , ,
,
, . ,
, I.
,
. 15. ,
, , .
.
. -, ,

16. -, .. , , ( ,
). ,
. (ejp i; sfevwn aujtwn),
Kuhrt A. Earth and Water. P. 91-92.
Kramer N. Athen keine Stadt des Grossknigs! // Hermes. 2004. Bd. 32.
S. 257270.
16
Kelly T. Persian Propaganda A Neglected Factor in Xerxes Invasion of
Greece and Herodotus // IA. 2003. Vol. 38. P. 177; Wiesehfer J. O Master,
Remember the Athenians: Herodotus and Persian Foreign Policy // The World
of Herodotus / Ed. by V. Karageorgis and I.Taifacos.Nicosia,2004. P. 212.
14
15

47

aijtiva megavla eij~con


(Hdt. V, 73). -,
(V. 73), oiJ de; a[ggeloi... balovmenoi
divdonai e[fasan; ,
: , , ,
- 17. ,
, . I

.

II
491 . .. ,
, : : (o{ t i ej n nov w / e[ c oien, kov t era polemev e in eJ w utw/ h]
paradidovnai).

(dievpempe wj~n khvruka a[llou a[llh/ tavxa ajna; th JEllavda, keleuvwn
aijtevein basilei ghn te kai; u{dwr). -
, ,
,
.
,
, .
, (toisi h{kousi ej th;n JEllavda khvruxi polloi;
me;n hjpeirwtevwn e[dosan ta; proi?sceto aijtevwn oJ Pevrsh, pavnte
de; nhsiwtai ej tou; ajp ikoivato aijthvsonte) (Hdt., VI, 48-49).
.. 491 . .. ,
I
, .

481 . ..18 Kramer N. Athen keine Stadt des Grossknigs! S. 260.
Beloch K.J. Griechische Geschichte.Bd.2. Abt.1.2 Aufl. Strassburg,
1922.S.40, Anm.6.
17
18

..

48

19. , ,
491 . ..20
,
I 491 . ..,
,

492 . .. 490 . ..
, :
, (provschma
hj~san tou stovlou). (Hdt., VI, 44).

490 . ..: (ejcovmeno th
profavsio) ,
(mh; dovnta aujtw/ ghn te kai; u{dwr) (Hdt., VI, 94).
, 492 . .. , .
490 . ..,
,
, . ,

, ( . ). ,
Begtson H. Griechische Geschichte von den Anfngen bis die rmische
Keiserzeit. Mnchen,1960.S.47; Will Ed. Le monde grecque et lOrient. Paris,
1972.T.1. P.96-98; Hignett C. Xerxes Invasion of Greece. Oxford, 1963. P. 87.
.
I 491 . .., ,
(Zahrnt M. Die
Mardinioszug des Jahres 492 v. Chr. und seine historische Einordnung //
Chiron. 1992. Bd. 22. S. 276279).
20
.: Kraft K. Bemerkungen zu den Perserkriegen // Hermes. 1964. Bd. 92.
Ht. 2. S. 144153; Sealey R. The Pit and the Well: The Persian Heralds in 491
B C. // CJ. 1976. Vol. 72, 1. P. 1320; Green P. The Greco-Persian Wars. BerkelyLos Angeles-L., 1996. P. 29.
19

49

491 . ..,
,
21. , ,
491 .
.. , , I (polloi; me;n hjpeirwtevwn)
(pavnte de; nhsiwtai);
(Hdt. VI. 49)22, (Hdt., VI, 133). , :
;

. . . ,
polloi; me;n hjpeirwtevwn
(the expression is vague and perhaps exaggerated);
, ,
,
, 23 .

(, , , , ) 491 . ..24 Zahrnt M. Die Mardinioszug. S. 276277.
. : Leahy D.M. Aegina and the
Peloponnesian League // CPh. 1954. Vol. 49. 4. P. 235238.
23
How W.W., Wells J. A Commentary on Herodotus. Vol.2. ad. loc.
. (Kelly T. Persian Propaganda. P. 182
183).
24
polloi; me;n hjpeirwtevwn, ,
, I.
. : Westlake H. D. 1) The Medism of Thessaly // JHS.
1936. Vol. 56. P. 12-25; 2) Thessaly in the Fourth Century B C. Cambridge,
1935. P. 30; Brunt P. The Hellenic League against Persia // Historia. 1953/4.
Bd. 2. Ht. 1. P. 162-163; Robertson N. The Thessalian Expedition of 480 BC //
JHS. 1976. Vol. 96. P. 102-108; Keaveney A. The Medisers of Thessaly // Eranos.
1995. Vol. 93. 1. P. 3038; Blsel W. Themistokles bei Herodot: Spiegel
Athens im fnften Jahrhundert / Historia. Einzelschriften, 183. Stuttgart, 2004.
S. 108ff.
21
22

..

50

, I, . , , . ,
, , ,
25. ;
.
, , 481 . ..

(Hdt., VII, 145; 148152), ,
I. ,
, , I 491 . .. (Hdt., VI, 31),
(Hdt., III, 140149), (Hdt., VI,31), (Hdt.,VI, 31),
(Hdt., V, 2526), (Hdt., VI, 29; 44, 4648);
, , ,
, , , ,
491 . ..
(Hdt. VI. 96), (Hdt., VI, 97, 118), (Hdt., VI,
99), (Chron. Lind., XXXII, 6574),
(Hippocr. Ep., 9; 27). ,
, pavnte nhsiw~tai, , 491/0 . ..
26. , , -
.. , ,
,
XX ,

, , ( . . 1)
- // . 2001. 3. . 17; 2)

(VII V . ..). ., 2001. . 255256).
26
Kelly T. Persian Propaganda. P. 184.
25

51

490 480 . ..
, , , , , , , , , , , (Aesch. Pers., 880891). , ,
, I , , ,
480 . .. 479 .
.. (:
Hdt., VIII, 111, 121; : Hdt., VIII, 112, 121; :
Plut. Them.,21),

. , I :
, , ,
. ,
, 481 . ..
,
, ( ,
).

III
481 . .. , (VII,
132) : ,
: , , , , ,
, , ,
, .
, 481 . ..

(, , , , ),
-

..

52

( , ,
I, 486 . ..). ,
, ,
( ,
).
, ,
, ) , , -,
, ; b) -,
, ; c) , , -, 27. , ,
.
: , , , . , , , ,
, , ... (Hdt. VIII. 66). , (XI. 3. 2)
: , , , ,
; , , , .
, (VII.
132) (VIII, 66) (IX,
3, 2) ,
,
, 481 .
.. , 28.
, , . , ,
Herodotus has surely antedated the medism of the peoples of central Greece
(Brunt P. The Hellenic League against Persia. P. 142). . : Buck R. 1) A
History of Boeotia. Alberta, 1987. P. 130; 2) Boiotians at Thermopylae // AHB.
1987. Vol. 1. 3. P. 56ff; De Souza Ph. The Greeks and Persian Wars, 499386
BC. L., 2003. P. 48.
27

53

481 .
.. . , (IX, 32) , 479 . ..
50 (Hdt., IX, 32; Plut. Arist. 18. 7; 40 .: Aristodem.
FGrHist. F. 1.2.3 = P.Oxy. XXVII, 2469. s.2); , ,
. , ,
481 . .., , ,
.

IV
, I
29. (VIII, 133),
, ,
(Aesch., III, 132, 5; Plut.
Them.,6; Suid. s.v. Xevrxh) (Theseus FHG. IV. F. 2 = Stob.
Flor., III, 7, 69; Suid. s.v. Xevrxh). , , , : , .
28
, ,
(Hdt., VII, 173).

,
481 . ..
(Hdt., VII, 202, 205, 233; Plut. De Her. malign., 31),
(Hdt., VII, 203; VIII, 1; Diod., XI, 4, 6), (Diod., XI, 4, 7).
, ,
.
29
.. ,
481 . .. , ,
481 . .. ,

(Beloch K.J. Griechische Geschichte. S. 40, Anm. 6; Will Ed. Le
monde grecque et lOrient. P. 96-98; Hignett C. Xerxes Invasion of Greece.
P. 87; : Sealey R. The Pit and the Well. P. 13ff).

..

54

, ,
,
.
(Hdt., VII,
133).
, ej frevar (Hdt., VII, 133) .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
, (Hdt., VII, 134). ,
, (Hdt. VII. 136).
479 .
..30 . , , 486 . ..
. , 480 . .. ,
,
,
31.
, , , , , ., ,
: ..
// . 1996. 4. . 134135.
477 . : Hofstetter J. Zu den griechischen
Gesandschaften nach Persien // Beitrage zur Achmenidengeschichte / Hrsg.
von G. Walser. Historia. Einzelschriften, 18. Wiesbaden, 1972. S. 98.
31
Sealey R. A History of the Greek City-States, 700338 BC. Berkeley, 1976.
P. 201202. : Cartledge P. Sparta and Laconia. P. 173.
. . 480 .
.. (Hegyi D. Die Formen und Auswirkungen der griechisch-persischen
Beziehungen im 5 Jahrhundert v.u. Z. // Kultur und Fortschritt in der Blutezeit
der grichischer Polis. Berlin, 1985. S. 113; Mitchell L.G. Greek bearing gifts.
The public use of private relationship in the Greek World, 435-323 BC.
Cambridge, 1997. P. 76).
30

55

491 . ..,
- . , ,
. , , ,
, 491 .
.. , .
492/
1 . .. . ,

. (Hdt.,VII, 133). (to; bavraqron) , ,
, (., : Harpocr.s.v. bavraqron; Ammon. De adf. voc).
(to; Kannwnou
yhvfisma), ,
,
(Xen. Hell., I, 7, 20; cf. Craterus FHG. F.5a = Schol. Aristoph.
Eccles. v. 1089). ,
kata; Kannwvnou yhfivsma
.
, (eJrmhneuv,
divglwsso), ,
; (yhvfisma) , (Plut. Them.
6). , , . .. , 491 . .. 32
. . , ,
- 493/2 .
.. (Thuc. I, 93, 3; Dion. Hal. AR., VI, 34. 1)33; , Wery L.-M. Le meurtre des hrauts de Darius en 491 et linviolabilit du
hraut // AC. 1966. Vol. 35. P. 476-477.
33
. .. : homo novus . . 351.

(cf. Wade-Gery H.T. Essays in Greek History.
32

56

..

34. ,
- I (Schol.
Aesch. Pers. 15).
,
, . , ,
. .
V
,
, ,
.
, , 35. , , , , (
,
Oxford, 1958. P. 170; Lenardon R.J. The Archonship of Themistocles // Historia.
1956. Bd. 5. Ht.4. S. 401-419; Hornblower S. A Commentary on Thucydides.
Oxford, 1991. Vol. 1. P. 139).
34
Lonis R. Les usages de la guerre entre grecs et barbares. De guerre
mediques au milieu du IV siecle av.J.C. Paris, 1969. P. 64-65; Mosley D.J. Envoys
and Diplomacy in Ancient Greece. Wiesbaden, 1973. P. 85.
35
, , , :
Bauslaugh R. A. The Concept of Neutrality in Classical Greece. Berkeley, 1991.
P. 9398; Bederman D. J. International Law in Antiquity. Cambridge, 2001. P. 215ff;
Viviers D. Hrodote et la neutralit de Crtois en 480 avant notre ere // Hermes.
1995. Bd. 123. S. 257269; Troncoso V. A. Die neutralen Staaten in den
Perserkriegen und das griechische Vlkerrecht // Gab es das Griechische
Wunder? Griechenland zwischen dem Ende des 6. und der Mitte des 5.
Jahrhunderts v. Chr. Tagungsbeitrge des 16. Fachsymposiums der Alexander
von Humboldt-Stiftung veranstaltet vom 5. bis 9. April 1999 in Freiburg im
Breisgau / Hrsg. von D. Papenfu und V. M. Strocka, Mainz: Philipp von
Zabern. 2001. S. 365375; Vanicelly P. Whose Side are you on? // The World
of Herodotus / Ed. by V.Karageorgis and I.Taifacos. Nicosia, 2004. P. 199217.

57

,
). , - ejk tou mevsou kathsqai
(Hdt. IV. 118; VIII. 22, 73) hJsucivh ejcein
/ a[gein (Hdt. VII. 150, 151, 161, 208;
VIII. 14). ,
: , , (VIII, 72 ..), (touvtwn wj~n twn eJpta; eqnevwn aiJ loipai; povlie, pavrex twn
katevlexa, ejk tou mevsou katevato).
(eij de; ejleuqevrw e[xesti eijpein), , (ejk tou mevsou kathvmenoi ejmivdizon) (Hdt.,
VIII, 73). ,
, 480479 . .. (IX, 12)36.
,
(VII, 132) 481 .
.. , , ? . , , ,

, , ,
(Hdt., VII, 145; 148152; Diod., XI,
3.,4). , , ,

(,
, .: Gillis D. Collaboration with the Persians //
Historia. Einzelschriften, 34. Wiesbaden, 1979. P. 6162; Green P. Greco-Persian
Wars. Berkely-Los Angeles-L., 1996. P. 67; Mikalson J. Herodotus and Religion
in the Persian Wars. L., 2003. P. 60; Mattingly H.B. The Athenian Empire
Restored: Epigraphic and Historical Studies. Michigan, 1996. P. 261. .

(Hornblower S. The Greek World, 479423 BC. L.,
1983. P. 81).
36

58

..

).
, ,
.
(VII, 150) (e[sti de; a[llo lovgo legovmeno
ajna; th;n JEllavda, wJ Xevrxh e[pemye khvruka ej [Argo provteron
h] per j oJrmhsai strateuvesqai ejp i; th;n JEllavda), .
: ,
481 . .. ?

. , . ,
, , (Hdt., VII, 157162;
Polyb., XII, 26b; Diod., X, 33). , :
, , (Hdt., VII, 165; Diod., XI, 1,
45; 20, 1; Ephor. FgrHist. 70. F. 186 = Schol. Pind., Pyth., I, 146a
b). C - 480 . ..
, (Pind. Pyth.,I, 7180; Simonides F.141
Bergk).
,
: ;

37. ,
37
.: .. . .,
2004. . 164.

59

( , . I ).

* * *
, , -,
( ) , ,
-, .. ,
.

; ,
, ,
.
Ed. Rung

The diplomatic expression of Persian Imperialism:


the Persian demand for Earth and Water
and the Greeks attitude
The article is devoted to the Persian demand for earth and water
from the Greeks as the expression of their subjugation to the Great
King. It is probably these things were among the customary gifts which
the cities and peoples brought regularly to Darius and Xerxes during
the expansion of the Persian Empire in the late Sixth and early Fifth
Century BC. The Persians who received the earth and water hoped to
avoid the unnecessary military invasions and those who gave its awaited
to save their territory and cities from Persian devastations and burnings.
The earth and water themselves were the symbols of state and might
be used in the rituals of oath-giving.
The earth and the water were demanded by the Persians during the
Athenian embassy to Sardis in 507 BC as well as the missions of heralds
sent to Greece by Darius I and Xerxes. In 507 BC the Athenians seeking
for alliance with the Persians really were not able to give the earth and
water. Meanwhile the various Greek states (besides of Athenians and

60

..

Spartans) agreed to subjugate to the Persians in 491 BC. In 481 BC.


the most of Balkan Greek states gave the earth and the water on the
eve of the great Xerxes invasion of Greece and even provided the
Persians with the auxiliary troops.
But the decisive Greek victories in the Persian Wars changed the
Persian diplomatic practice toward the Greeks. As the result the demand
for earth and water ceased to be significant factor in the Greco-Persian
relations and is not reported by our sources.

..



,
334333 . ..,
(fovro) ( . .
fovroi)
, :
, , , , 1.
,
, ? , : (suvntaxi).

, 334 . .. (
)2. . : . . Aphorologesa
// . . 2. 2007.
. 3.
,
: Jehne M. Koine Eirene. Untersuchungen zu den Befriedungs- und Stabilisierungsbemhungen in der griechischen Poliswelt des 4.
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IV
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, , (
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( ,
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,
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., : Berve H. Das
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(Anab., I, 26, 3): ,
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Bosworth A. B. A Historical Commentary Vol. I. P. 242 ff.; Atkinson J. E.
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. . ( . .
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M.M. Kholod

Syntaxis of the Greek Cities of Asia Minor in the Time of


Alexander the Great
The paper deals with the problem of the syntaxis, a money-payment
made by the Greek cities of Asia Minor to Alexander the Great, as it
can be concluded from the Macedonian kings edict concerning Priene.
The author adduces proofs in favor of the opinion that the syntaxis was
a regular allied contribution levied for the purposes of the Panhellenic
war against Persia. It is very likely that it had the universal character,
though Alexander, it seems, could sometime, extremely rare, commute
the syntaxis into the delivery of troops or ships by the Greeks of Asia
Minor; besides, the Macedonian king was able to release the cities from
this obligation, as the Prienian inscription shows. There is no evidence
for the size of the syntaxis, but, probably, it was not higher than the
31
Hansen M. H. The Autonomous City-State. Ancient Fact or Modern
Fiction // Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis / Ed. by M. H. Hansen, K. Raaflaub
(Historia-Einzelschriften, H. 95). Wiesbaden, 1995. P. 31 ff.

76

..

phoros, a tribute paid by the Greek cities of Asia Minor to the Persians
earlier. In all likelihood, the syntaxis was abolished in 330 B.C., when
Alexander, disbanding the allied Greek troops in Ecbatana, finished the
Panhellenic war. In the end, the author points out that the establishment
of the syntaxis for the Greeks of Asia Minor instead of their phoros by
Alexander was, in fact, a substitution of one money-payment for another
(at least temporarily). But, at the same time, it should be taken into
account that an obligation to pay the syntaxis, in contrast to the phoros,
was compatible with the freedom of a polis by fourth-century B.C.
Greek standards; so, it did not prevent the Greek cities of Asia Minor,
paing the syntaxis, to be represented and represent themselves as free
poleis, even if it was formally.

..


:
*
: .
.. , , , 1. ,
, . ,
..
,
, - , - , ,
2.

, , ,
*
, - IX: (-,
3 2007 .).
- ( ), 06-01-00438.
1
.. //
.. . . 27. . 299-426.
2
.. . . 26. .135.

..

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, , .
.

,
3.
,
,
:
1. ,
, , ,
.
2. ,
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.
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6. , , ,
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,
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.

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7 .


. , , , -8. III ,
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, , (App.
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, , , , , , . , , , ,

. , (Strab.
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Kosmetatou E. Op.cit. P.25-26; Welles Ch.B. Royal Correspondence in
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. 1997
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14
Jones L., Rich M. A New Royal Inscription from Phrygia Paroreios: Eumenes
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, (boulh; n kai; ajr ca;
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- .
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Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts. Athenische
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88

20 .

.
,
,
.
O.Yu. Klimov

Political system of the Hellenistic States:


Political power under the influence of Imperialism
As regards to the influence of Imperialism in the Hellenistic period
there are two main factors under the authors investigation: the Military
factor and the Imperial factor. Both factors played a very important
role in establishing the Hellenistic States and their institutions such as
Kings power, central government and administration on the occupied
countries and territories. The Hellenistic age created a very special
form of society that could be named as a colonial one. One of the most
important challenges for the ruling minority was getting support from a
certain groups of the indigenous inhabitants and incorporating these
groups of the upper classes of the eastern society in the new elite.
Many of the eastern cities and rural settlements were reorganized into
the polies. Hellenization of the eastern popblation also was very important
for this purpose.

.. (IV
. .. III . ..). . 1959. . 46-54, 95-100; ..
. . . 1996. . 248266.
20

..



*

, IV . ..1
. , , .

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3
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A.V.Koptev

Timaeus of Tauromenium and Rome in the context of


globalisation of the antique Mediterranean
In the article, there has been developed a hypothesis, according to
which Timaeus of Tauromenium created the base of the early Roman
chronology, which then in the works of Fabius Pictor and following to
him Polybius and Roman annalists became the tradition accepted by
everybody. Timaeus modelled the Roman history using as the example
the chronology of his motherland, Sicily, and Athens, where he had been
lived during fifty years. Author supposes that Timaeus in the role of an
agent of the ruler of Athens, Demetrios Poliorketes, was able to visit
Latium and Rome in the end of 300s BC. In her struggle against the
Samnites, Rome was looking for the help among Greek cities, among
which Tarentum and perhaps Athens with Delphi had especially profound influence on the Roman political culture.

..


*

(58-50 . ..)
, . , , ,
, ,
.
V .. ,
, . 390 .
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. ,

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,
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IVII
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. 222 . . . , (Polyb., II,22-35)3.
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1
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.
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361-360 .
.
(Liv., VII,9-11) 360 ., 350-349 . ,
, - :
354 . (Liv., VII,19), 351 . 40-
, .
3

(Polib., II,24).
: 30.000 , 2.000 54.000 ,
, .

131


4. 40.000 20.000 5. c, , ,
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. ,
. 200 191 . (Liv. Epit., 32-34).
II
.. 125 . , . , 122 . ,
() , , . ,
. 121 . . ,
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,
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.. 9.
70-60 ., , .
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, ,
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138

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139

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, ,
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, , 17. , , (VI,13-15) (Ibid.). ,
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17
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(VII,64-68).

141

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19

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142

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143

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(I,31). , , , .
(I,3). 57-56 .
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144

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145

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:
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146

..

(IV,1-15), (IV,16-19),
.
, . 54 . ,

,
(V,20-21). , 4- (V,5).
.
, . ,
,
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,
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, 54 .
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.
, 54-53 .
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,

147

(VII,75). , : ,
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, 14.000 , , ,
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148

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149

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. (V,3-4; 6; 56; VI,44;
VII,32-33; VIII,49).
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)
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),
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( III, IV, ).
, , ,
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, .

150

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A.B. Egorov

The strategic concept of Caesars Gallic Wars


The article deals with the causes of quick and brilliant victories of
Caesar. Some causes are purely military: Rome had the best army in
the world, and Caesars army was the best army of Rome. It was led
by the man, who was considered as the most skillful Roman general.
That was only one side of medal. Caesar was a skillful politician,
who managed to oppose the civilized regions of the Gaul to its wild
parts and show the Gauls both the danger of German invasions and the
perspectives of being members of Roman commonwealth. Roman
imperialism was based not only on military force, it also had as its
instruments Roman technique, politics and economics, as well as its
law, culture and life-style.

..


(.. I . .. . . I . ..)*
, ,
, . , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , .. 1500 . ..,

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. ,
III . .. B. ,
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Powell T.G.E. London, 1958. P. 53.
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1959. P. 170182.
5
Powell T.G.E. The Celts. P. 57; ..
. . . 244245.
6
. . , 1961. . 77.
3
4

153

,
(Caes. B.G., V, 14).
A
. , ,
, , 7.
, , ,
,
. . ,
,
, 8. C
,
, . , , ,
. ,
, , .
, . , . , C,

. , , , ()9.
, .
, ,
, .
.
.
Frere Sh. Britannia. A history of Roman Britain. London, 1967. P. 8.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain and the english settlements.
Oxford, 1937. P. 68.
9
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 24.
7
8

154

..

C .
, ,
, .
: , ,
, C ; ,
( ), , ,
, (
); I . .. , 10.

. , . , , ,
, , .
, ,
11.
( C),
( B),
, ,

C.
, ,
. , , ,
, , , ,
, , 12.
Frere Sh. Ibid. P. 23.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 69.
12
. . . 148149.
10
11

155

C
. . , ,
: , , , 13.
, I . ..
.
, ,
. , , , .
, , ;
, ; , , .
, , ,
. ,
, .
,
, , 14.
, , C ,

I . .., ,
. , ,
,
, (Cic., Att., IV, 16).
,
I . ..:
, , , (Strabo, IV, V, 2).

C . .
13
14

Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 69.


Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 69.

156

..

,

15 .
,
II , II . ..
,
,
(, ). ,
,
. .
, , , ,
, , , ,
. , (the general characteristic ), . ( ,
, , )
, , , ,
, ,
.

. , II, ,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
15

Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 6163.

157

; .

, ,
. , ,
. , ,
, .
, , , ,
, , ,
.
, .
, , . . , ,
; , , ,
,
, , , , , 16.
.
.
. ,
(
), .
I . .. 16

Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 62.

158

..

,
, . , ,
, . ,
,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
, 17.

,
, ,
I . .. I . ..
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IV .
(
) ,
(Caes. B.G., IV, 21).
,
,
.
, , , ,
, -
. (Caes. B.G.,IV, 21). ,
, 17

Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 63.

159

, , (
)
(Caes. B.G., IV, 27)18. , ,
,
(Caes. B.G., IV, 27).
, . 52 .
.. .
, ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
, , (Caes. B.G.,
VII, 76).
, , .
, ,
, , , VIII . 5352 .., , ,
. , , . , (B.G., VIII, 23).


, , .
, , .
,

18

P. 55.

Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 30; Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain.

160

..

. ,

(B.G., VIII, 47, 48).
, 50 . .. 19. , ,
. . 20,
, , , . . 21 , ;
, ,
.
. , , , , 30 .
..22 23. ,
, . , ,
Commi filius ( ).
- . . , .
24, , ,
. ,
, ,
, , 25.
19

Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 40; Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain.

P. 55.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 55.
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 40.
22
Holmes T.R. Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar. Oxford,
1907. P. 365.
23
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 40.
24
Evans J. Coins of the Ancient Britons. London, 1864.
25
Rhys J. Celtic Britain. London, 1882. P. 23; Holmes T.R. Ancient Britain. P.
365366.
20
21

161

. ,
, , . 2520 ..
..
,
, , , ,
, ,
, 26.

. Res Gestae divi Augusti ,
.
Tim Tin (Res Gestae, 32). , 27. , . , ,
,
16 . .. , , ,
, 15 12 .. ..
7 . ..
,
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
.
Rex.

,
, , , .

. , 26
27

Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 42.


Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 73.

162

..

, , , .
, .. , , ,
, ,
, 28.
, , . ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, , . , , , ,
.
, . ,
29. , , . ,
, .
,
:
, .
, , , .
, ,
(Caes. B.G., V, 21), . ,
28
29

Holmes T.R. P. 361.


Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 37.

163


.
, ,
, , . ,
, . ,
. , , , .

,
,
,
(Caes. B.G., V, 22).
.
, , ,
, , , . . ,
, . , E,
,
,
L, , ,
, 30.
, , , .. 31
, . . 32.
20 . .. , ,
,
, 13 .
.. , ,
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 41.
Holmes T.R. Ancient Britain. P. 361.
32
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 57; Frere Sh. Britannia.
P. 43.
30
31

164

..

, ,
510 .. ..33
, . , ,
, ,
. ,
( ; ). ,
, ,

()
. .
, 17 . ..,
, , . 16 . .. .
. , , 34 .
, :
, ,
. Rigonus, , ,
Rex.
,
. Britannorum rex
(Suet. Cal. 44). , , . . ,
, . 33
34

Holmes T.R. Ancient Britain. P. 361; Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 43.


Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 42.

165

,
. Res Gestae,
32. ,
,
35 .
, 9 . ..
,
, . . ,
. ,
.
. ,
,
, , , ,
. . ,
, , ,
36.

, , .
. , , ,
, , , , ,
, 25 . ..
, .
40 41 . .. , ,
. ,
37
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 58.
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 43.
37
Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 45.
35
36

166

..

. .
,
,

:
?. .
, 38.
, ,
. . , , ,
, , .
, ,
, , ,
, , , 39.
. ,
.

:
,
:
,
.
(Hor. Odes, III, 5, 14. . ..).
, 34 . ..

,
(Cass. Dio., XLIX, 38,
2). , 27 . ..
,
. . .V. / . . ... , 1949. . 154.
39
. . .V. . 154.
38

167

, (Cass. Dio., LIII, 22, 5).


(26. ..)
,

(Cass. Dio., LIII, 25, 2).
, 26 . .., ,
, ,
, . ,
. , . . ,
, , ,
40 .
. , .
, . , .
, , , , , .
, , ( ),
,
, ,
. , , ,
,
, ,
41.
. , ,
. , ,
. , 40
41

. . .V. . 154.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 72.

168

..

42,
, .
, ,
, . , , (Strabo, II, V, 8).
, ,
. (Strabo, IV, V, 3).
, ,
(Res Gestae, 32). . ,
, 43 .
. , ,
,
,
, , , , . ,
,
.
Res Gestae, , ,
7 . ..,
.
, ,
, ;
Rex, ,
.
, , 42
43

. . .5. . 155. . 1.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 73.

169

Rex, , ,
, 44.

: . , , , ,
, .
16 . ..,


(Tac. Ann., II, 24).
. ,
, , . ,
. ,
,
, ,
(Strabo, IV, V, 3). , , , , , , (Strabo,
IV, V, 2), : ,
, (Strabo,
IV, V, 3).
, (Tac. Ann., I, 11),
: . ,
, ,
44

Frere Sh. Britannia. P. 44.

170

..

, . ,
. , , ,
; , ,
,
. , ,

.
.
.
, .
. ,
. , 45.
,
; , , , .
, , .
,
,
, , , ,
,
. .,
( , ), , , 45

Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 74.

171

, , ,
46.


. , . ,

, . ,
: , ,
47.
, ,
. . , ,
, ,
. ,
,
(
), .

(Suet. Cal., 44).
, ,
:
, (Suet. Cal., 45).
,
., ()48. : , , , ,
, , , , , (Suet. Cal., 46).

Oman Ch. England before the Norman conquest. London, 1938. P. 57.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 74.
48
Oman Ch. England before the Norman conquest. P. 58.
46
47

172

..

, , (Ibid).

. . .
, 1804 . , , , , ,
. , . , , ,
, 49 . , , , ,
. ,
. . , , :
50.

, .
51. , , .., ,
,
, (Oman Ch. England before the Norman conquest. P. 58.
Collingwood R.G., Myres J.N.L. Roman Britain. P. 75.
51
.. - // , . , 1981. .1. . 139146; ..
//
. . . , 1990. . 8691;
.. : , . , 2003. . 7375, 86.
49
50

173

, , )52.
, , ,
. ., ,
, : ,
, , , .

53. , .
., , , ,
, 54.
. . 55. ., , ,
56. , , ,
, , ,
57.
.. .
, 2005. . 2122. . 1.
53
Badian E. Roman imperialism in the Late Republic. Oxford. 2nd ed., 1968.
P. 1.
54
Carcopino J. Les etapes de limperialisme romaine. Paris, 1961. P. 10.
55
Badian E. Roman imperialism. P. 91.
56
Frank T. Roman imperialism. New York, 1929. P. 341.
57
Frank T. Roman imperialism. P. 341.
52

174

..

, , , ,
, . , ,
, .
, ,
.
,

, . , . ,
,
: .
N.S. Shirokova

Celtic Britain and Rome after Caesars military expeditions


The article deals with the relations between Celtic Britain and Rome
after Caesars military expeditions. Archaeological materials give an
idea of a high enough level of native Celtic culture in Britain in this time.
It was the farming founded on the exploitation of heavy soils in valley
bottoms, the development of metal industry, of the wheelmade pottery
industry, of the coinage. Numismatics gives an idea of an intense political life in the biggest Celtic realms of Southern Britain: Atrebates and
Catuvellauni fighted for the supremacy in this region.
According to the evidences of ancient authors and the data of
archaeological materials, Rome increased more and more its economical and cultural influence in Britain, intervened in the political life of
Celtic tribes. It remained but a last step to conquer the island. So the
romanisation became one of instruments of Roman imperialistic policy.

II.

1.
..

XI-VIII . ..:

- ,
,
. , . ..,
- .
,
.
wa-na-ka a[nax
, qa-si-reu
basileuv,
, 1.
,

.
, , promisque
a[n ax basileuv
: Page D.L. History and the Homeric
Iliad. Berkley and Los Angelos, 1959. P. 188; Barcelo P. Basileia, Monarchia,
Tyrannis. Stuttgart, 1993. S. 55-61.
1

176

..

,
.
, , ,
2.

, . ,
, XII-XI . ..,
. . : 3 .
,

. , . , . ,
,
4 .
. ,
,
, 5.
, , - .
80- .: ..
//
/ . .. . .,
1986. .14-34.
: Barcelo P. Basileia, Monarchia, Tyrannis. Stuttgart, 1993.
3
Thomas C.G. The Roots of Homeric Kingship. Historia. Bd. XV, 1966.
Heft. 4. P. 400-407.
.
4
Barcelo P. Basileia, Monarchia, Tyrannis. S. 50-82.
5
Drews R. Basileus: The Evidence for Kingship in Geometric Greece. L.,
1983. P. 10-29.
2

XI-VII . ..

177

, .

- , . ,
, ,
, .
XX ,
XI-VII . ..:
6.

, , . . . ,

7. . , ,
8.
: Cook
R.M. Ionia and Greece in the Eight and Seventh Centuries B.C. // JHS. Vol. 66.
1946. P. 87.
.. :
( ). ., 2003. . 89-128.
( 70- . XX .).
7
Cook J.M. Greek Settlement in the Eastern Aegean and Asia Minor //
CAH2. Vol. II. 1975. Part. 2. P. 804. : Osborne R. Greece in Making,
1100-479 B.C. L., N.Y., 1996. P. 37.
8
Roebuck C. The Early Ionian League // Cl. Ph. Vol. 50. 1955. P. 34-36; Idem.
Ionian Trade and Colonization. N.Y., 1959. P. 7, 28, 31. :
.. // .
1978. 1. . 29.
6

178

..

,
. . , , . , ,
9.
XI-IX . ..
.
, , . (qa-si-reu) 10 .
11 , . .. , qasi-reu, ,
( ),
, .
qasirewijote , , , ( -) .
, ,
, . , .
( ) 12. , Webster T.B. From Mycenae to Homer. N.Y. , 1959. P. 143.
.. ( . . 118).
10
.. // . 1959. 12. . 66.
11
.. -
( ). ., 1978. . 213-220;
.. . . 69.
12
.. -
. . 237, 242-243. .. . . 66.
9

XI-VII . ..

179

, , ,
13. , , .

. ,
14. , . .. qasirewija rawakesija.
, , . .. ,
15.
XIII . .. . - - 16.
, , - .
,
.
17 . ,
-, .
, -
. , , - : . .
4 ., ., 1977. . 65; Starr Ch. The Decline of the Early Greek Kings // Historia.
Bd. X, 1961. H. 2. P. 129-138; Thomas C.G. The Roots of Homeric Kingship.
P. 387-407.
14
.. . .; ., 1956. . 392, 416.
15
.. . ., ., 1957. . 219.
16
. .. . . 120.
17
.
13

180

..

, XII-XI . ..,
. , , , ,
.
- , .
, , ,
,
(Paus., VII, 2, 6, 9; 3, 5).
, ,
, (Plut. De mul. virt., 253 f 254 a-b; lyaen., VIII, 35). , 18.
- , , .
(Paus., VII, 5, 12-13 ).
,
, ,
(Diod., V, 79, 1;
84, 3; Paus., VII, 3, 7)19.
.
. , , , . , ,

18
.. . ., 1984. .
16, 78.
19
Graff. F. Nordionische Kulte. Religionsgeschichte und epigraphische
Untersuchungen zu den Kulten von Chios, Erythrai, Klazomenae und Phokaia.
Rome, 1985. S. 353.

XI-VII . ..

181

(Her., IX, 97). , , ,



(Strab., XIV, 1, 3, p. 633). , , (Nic. Damasc., FGH 90 F 52).
. ,
, ,
(Ibidem).

,
(Etym. Magn. s. v. Daitiv.). ()
, VI . ..: , , (Diog. Laert.,
IX, 1, 6).
, ,
, (Ibid., IX,
1, 5-6). , , -,
, (Strab., VIII, 7, 2, p. 384).
,
.
(Paus., VII, 4, 9).
(Tzetz. Ad Lykophr., 1385-1387; Chil., XIII, 100-124). , VIII . ..,
, (Hipp. Eryth., Fgr.
Hist. 421 F1).
.

. , -

182

..

, , (Her., I, 146; Paus., VII, 2, 4-6).


, , , . ( ), XI-X
. .., (Plut. De
mul. virt., 253 f 254 a-b; lyaen., VIII, 35). VIII . ..
(Conon,
44)20 .
.
( ) , :
. , (Paus., VII, 2, 8-9).
, , , ,
(VII, 2, 9).
, ,
,
(Paus.,
VII, 4, 2). ,
. , ,
,
(Paus., VII, 4, 9-10).
,

(Paus., VII, 3, 3, 5), (kata; pov l emon
hJgemoniva),
(Pol., III, 9, 7; 10, 1, p. 1285 b). , ( , ), ,
20
.: .. : ,
? // Studia historica. . VI. ., 2006.
. 21-22.

XI-VII . ..

183

, ,
(euj~co) (Il., XII, 310-328). :
, ,
(Conon, 44).

. (Pol., III, 9, 7; 10, 1, p. 1285b). ,
,
(Il., XVIII, 497-508),
, (Od.,
XIX, 109-111), (eujdikiva),
(dikaspovloi)
(Od., XI, 184-187). ,
.
. , , ,
,
: , (Hipp.
Eryth., FGH 421 F1).
, : ,
. .
(Pol., III, 9, 7-8; 10, 1, p. 1285b).
.
, .
.

184

..

, . -
,
,
.
( ) . ,
-
.
, , . , , (ajp edev deikto) (Paus.,
VII, 2, 8).
, -, , . ,
21, , - (basileva ejsthvsanto) , ,
, (I, 147). ,
-
(Paus., VII, 4, 2, 9). , , , , (Strab.,
XIV, 1, 3, p. 633; Paus., VII, 3, 10).
- , .
, ,
21
, , , ,
(Suida. s.v. Panuvasi),
.

XI-VII . ..

185

, (metepev myato
hJgemovna)
(Paus., VII, 3, 8). , , , ,
,
(Paus., VII, 3, 10: tou` gevn ou basileva tou Kodridw` n
lavbwsin). -
(Conon, 44)
(to; koinovn).
, - , ,
. , , , ,
(ejp iv rJhtoi gevrasi) (I, 1213).
, , , ,
, 22.

,
(adaujqavdei kai; monognwvmone), (II, 12).
23 (Pol.,
III, 9; 10, 1-2, p. 1285-1285b). , ,
.:
.. . . 163-193; ..
. ., 1988. . 80-81.
23
:
,
, ,
.
22

186

..

, (Pol., III, 9, 7; 10, 1, p. 1285b).


, ,
, . , , (Pol., III,
10, 2, p. 1285b).
,
: - - .
, , -, ,
.
, ,
(Nic.Dam. FGH 90 F 51), , , , (e[laben thvn ajrchvn) , (Paus., VII, 4, 8-9).
.
, , , , (Paus.,
VII, 4, 9-10). XIX . ..,
24 .
, ,
(I, 147).
25 ,
, 26.
: .. . 15.
.. . . 118.
26
.:
.., .. C. 152-155;
24
25

XI-VII . ..

187

, ,
. . : ,
, 27 . .. :
- , , , ,
XII-X
. ..28 .

,
-.

,
- ,
: (Nic. Damasc., FGH 90 F 52 ), () (Baton Sinop., FGH 268 F3), (Arist. Pol. V, 5, 4, p. 1305b).
,
(, )
, ,
- (Conon, 44).
, , ,

.. ()
- // . ., 1962. .
273-280; .. . ., 1990. .
130-132; Barnett R.D. Mopsos // JHS. Vol. 73. 1953. P. 140143; Finkelberg M.
Greeks and Pre-Greeks. Aegean Prehistory and Greek Heroic Tradition. Oxford, 2005. P. 231-237, 251
27
Webster T.B.L. From Mycenae to Homer. P. 143.
28
.. . . 118.

188

..

. .
, ,
(Od., I, 381-3: ejn Iqavkh// basilha Kronivwn poihvseien, o{
toi geneh/ patrw-vio vn ejstin) 29.
, , . dunasteiva,
(Pol., IV, 5, 1, 8, p.
1292b-1293a)30 . VIII . ..
(Od., I, 380394).
.
. , (Il., XII,
313-314; Od., VII, 149-150; XI, 184-187; cf.: XIV, 200-212). , .
(, , )
31.
XI-IX . ..
,
29
. .. (
. . 110-112).
30

.
.. . . 109-128.
31
: ..
//
. . 2. . 1. , 1997. . 7-8; Murray O. Early Greece. L.,
1993. P. 46.

XI-VII . ..

189

-,

.
, , . ,
IX-VIII . .. , , 32 .
, , -
, , , , , . , ,
, .
.
(II, 15, 1).
VIII . .. , (Arist. Ath. Pol., 3, 1; 8, 2). .
(
), , (Arist.
Ath. Pol., 3, 1-3; Paus., IV, 5, 10)33 .

, .
. : .. . . 163193; .. . ., 1988. . 80-81.
33
: ..
. . 124-125. .: . . .,
2002. . 129-138.
32

190

..


.
, ,
.
,
, , . , , ,
, ,
- (Plut. De
mul. virt., 253 f 254 a-b; lyaen., VIII, 35; Aristaenetus. Ep., I,
15).
, ,
(Conon, 44),
, . ,
, (Nic. Damasc., FGH 90 F
52 ).
(Arist. Pol., V, 4, 5, p. 1305a ).
,
, (Plut. De Mul. Virt., 3). ,
(Hipp. Eryth., FGH
421 F1).
VIII . .., ,
,
.
, . , , (Hipp. Eryth., FGH 421 F1)34 , (Arist. Pol., V, 5, 4, p. 1305b).
,
, XI-VIII . .., ,
: ..
// : -
. ., 1995. . 52-57.
34

XI-VII . ..

191

35 .
qa-si-reu
.
, ,
, , .


, , 36.
,
, ,
.

.
,
,
. , , .
( )
. , ,
.
35
..
, :
.. / . . . .. . .,
1934. C. 140. .
: .. . ., 1996. . 113; Starr Ch. Individual and
Community.The Rise of the Polis 800-500 B.C. N.Y., 1986. P. 17; Barcelo P.
Basileia, Monarchia, Tyrannis. S. 56.
36
(I,
146-147).

192

..


, .

.

.
37, , , - .
- , ,
, .
, , , , (Od., I, 390-391). ,

, .
,
, - . ()


. . :
Whitley J. Style and Society in Dark Age Greece. The changing face of preliterate society 1100-700 B.C. Cambridge, 1991. P. 37-38, 191-192.

,
II . . . (
),
,
.
37

XI-VII . ..

193

.
(Baton Sinop., FGH 268 F3), (Strab., XIV, 1, 3, p. 632).

, , , , (Plut., Ait., Gr.,
57, p. 303e-304c).

.
(Hipp. Eryth., FGH 421 F1), (Nic. Damasc., FGH 90
F 52) (Plut. De Mul. Virt., 3; cf.: Hipp. Eryth., FGH 421 F1).
, ,
.
(SGHI, III, 5653).

(Strab., VIII, 7, 2, p. 384; XIV, 1, 3, p. 632).
, , ,
, 38.
M.Yu. Lapteva

Ionian basileia (XIVII cc. BC):


common Greek and Ionian distinctive features
The article deals with the distinctive features of the Ionian basileia
according to data of Homeric epos and the legendary historical tradition. The author takes into consideration the origin, functions and the
. (Osborne R. Greece in Making, 1100-479
B.C. L., N.Y., 1996. P. 37). : Cook J.M. Greek Settlement in the
Eastern Aegean and Asia Minor // CAH2. 1975. Vol. II. Part. 2. P. 804.
38

194

..

features of power status of the basileus in Ionia and compares the Ionian
sources with the Homeric tradition. At the beginning of the Ionian history basileis had military, sacral, judicial charges and were elected by
the Ionian communities. But a short time late this post became the privilege of some genes descendants of the oikistes of the Ionian communities.
The author also investigates the perspective of development of the Ionian
basileia in the archaic period.

..


, ,
. , , .
(Xen.Oec., XIV,4; Dem., XXIV,211; Lucian. De Calumn., 8)
, ,
, , ,
.
. , , ,
.
(Arist. Athen.Pol., 4,1; 5,1; 41,2),
, , . . 39- , .. 624 621 .
.. (Clem.Alex. Strom., I,16; Suid.Lex. s.v. Dravkwn);
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(636 . ..) (594 .
1
, , 624 . .. (Euseb.
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.: Stroud R.S. Drakons Law on Homicide. Berkeley; Los Angeles,
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196

..

..). ,
,
,
.
, , , ,
. , -, , Dravkonto
A
j qhnaivoi qesmoqethvsanto (Paus., IX, 36,8).
2. , , 3. ,
. ,
, (qesmoiv)
4.
, ,
27 , ,
, . : ,
. 409/8
. .. , (IG. I.
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?
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6
: Busolt G. Griechische Geschichte bis zur
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: Busolt G. Griechische Staatskunde. S. 807- 816.
7
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j rgiva grafhv // RE. Bd.II. 1896. Sp. 717; Glotz G. Klop
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Early Greek Law. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London, 1986. P. 63 f.
8
Linforth J.M. Solon the Athenian (Univ. of California Publications in
Classical Philology. Vol. 6). Berkeley, 1919. P. 68 f.; 276; Ruschenbusch E. 1)
PATRIOS POLITEIA. Theseus, Drakon, Solon und Kleisthenes in Publizistik
und Geschichtsschreibung des 5. und 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. // Historia. Bd. 7.
1958. S. 421 ff.; 2) FONOS. Zum Recht DrakonsS. 148 ff.; Sealey R. Regionalism
in archaic Athens // Historia. Bd. 9. Heft 2. 1960. S.157; Day J., Chambers M.
Aristotles History of Athenian Democracy (Univ. of California Publications in
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, ,
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, . , , , , , ,
, , .

, , ,

. , 4-
.
, , ,
. . ,
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,

(Arist. Polit., II, 1274 b), , , . , ,
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., .: .. . ., 1988. . 131;
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, .
, .
,
, ,
: ;
(.. ) ,
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:
, ,
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, VI . .. , , .
, ,
, .
, , ( ), ,
, ,
, . ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
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200

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, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, .
-, , , , 14, . , ,
,
, .., , . , , . ( ),
, , , , ,
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(, , , ), , , .
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, .


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, ,
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201

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, , , . ,
, (Arist. Athen.Polit., 7,1; Dem., XXIII,66; Plut. Sol., 17,1; Aelian.
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,
VII . .. , , . .
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:
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17
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, (Plut. Sol., 8, 1: oiJ
ejn a[stei novmon e[qento). ,
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.

202

..

.
(. 5 / . ..)18

,
. ,
, .
, , 27 , -
, .
, . ,

. ,
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, -, ,
. , , : , , ( Lysias, frg. 10 Scheibe; Diog.
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.
, , ,
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203

- ;
19 .
, , , , . ,
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.
,
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.
, 20.
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(Plut.Sol., 17,1), (Plut.Sol., 22,3), , ,
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.
(Plut. Sol., XXIII, 3-4). ,
(, , ).
.
20
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(Herod., II, 177)
, ,

. . . .:
Stroud R.S. Drakons Law on Homicide. P. 79.
21
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204

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, ( , , .22).

, , 23.
, , .
,
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,
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) (Philodem.Oec.,
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,
, ,
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, ,
. , , ,
, .
, ,
. , , .
, , ,
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. , ,
,
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, , . , .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
,
:
; , . , ,

. , ., 25.
,
. ,
, , ,
, .. (Plut. Sol., 19, 4).
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. ,
, , ,
.
25
26

206

..

26. , ,
,
. -, , , ,
,
27. -, , , , .. .
, , (eijkosavboion). (Pollux., IX, 61), , , .
- 28 ( )
.
; , , - , , , .
.
,
, , ,
, , , . , (Aeschin., I, 6-7)
, . 29, , , (Arist.Athen.Polit.,
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, .
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207

, . 30.

, (Lucian. De Calumn., 8):
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,
, . , , (Schol. Ad Il.,
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.
. VIII-VII . ..
. , (Hesiod.
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,
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. , VII . ..
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, ,
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32
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208

..

, , , 33.
, , .
, , , ,
.
, , , , .
,
,
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, . ,
: ( ),
,
34. , ,
.
.

, -, . ,
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// .
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Stroud R.S. Drakons Law on Homicide. P. 31 ff.; Gagarin M. Early Greek
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,
() VI . ..
, , , .
, -
35. , ..
, ,
, 36. ., 37.
, , ,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,

(Plut. Sol., XV, 2). , , : ,
, , (Plut.
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, ,
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,
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., .: Hammond N.G.L. Land Tenure in Attica and Solons
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Economy. London, 1964. P. 14; Forrest W.G. The Emergence of Greek Democracy:
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. , , ,
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36
Hammond N.G.L. Land Tenure in Attica P. 90; 97.
37
French A. The Growth of the Athenian Economy. P. 14.

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..

?
c
( )38 ?
, .. ( ) ?
, , . ,
, .
, , , , , , (Plut. Sol., XVII, 3).
, ,
, . , ,
, . , .
L.A. Palzeva

The contents of law code of Drakon


The article concerns the scope of Drakon legislation. Among scholars
there is no agreement whether the law code of Drakon contained the law
on homicide only, or Drakon had been the author of a general code of law
of which only the section on homicide survived. An examination of the
remaining evidence for Drakontian laws makes it clear that Drakon issued
a comprehensive code of law, which originally contained a variety of subjects.

38
, , ., .:
Hammond N.G.L. Land Tenure in Attica P. 94; 97.

. . : Day J., Chambers M. Aristotles HistoryP. 168.

..

, ,
, ,
.
, , , , , 1.
,
(VI, 103), ,
.
. ,
, , .

(Her., VI, 103). ,
.
,
, ,
(Her., VI, 39)2.
.: ..
: // : /
. . ... , 2002. .33-42.
2
. ,
, ;
, ,
: Bicknell P.J. Studies in Athenian Politics
1

212

..

, -,
, ,
524/23 . .. (Dion.Hal., VII, 3)3. .4, 524/23 .
( ) , ,
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554/53 . 64
, , , . . , , -,
. , , , , .
,
, ;
60 , 70
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,
, ..-5 . ., , 524/23 . .., ., 6 .
,
, , ,
,
and Genealogy. Wiesbaden, 1972. P.87. , , (
) ,
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3
.: Meritt B.D. Greek Inscriptions: An Early Archon List// Hesperia, vol.8,
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4
Schachermeyr F. Schachermeyr F. Philaidai// RE, Bd.XIX, Hbd.38, 1938.
Sp.2115.
5
Wade-Gery H.T. Wade-Gery H.T. Miltiades// JHS, vol.LXXI, 1951. P.214, 220.
6
. /. ... ., 1910. .104; Cadoux T.J. Cadoux T.J. Athenian archons from
Kreon to Hypsichides// JHS, vol.LXVIII, 1948. .110.

213

, (Her., VI, 39). , , 7. , -


8.
, , , . , , .
, . (Her., VI, 39). , , . 500
, ,
(ibid.). , ,
-9. ,
(Plut.Cim., 4); , , , -, ,
.
, , 10.
516 . ..; 514-512 . 11. ,
, , (Her., IV,
97-98). , ,
,
, , , ,
(Her., IV, 136-137). Lewis D.M. The tyranny of the Pisistratidae// CAH, 2-nd ed., vol.IV, 1988.
P.298.
8
Graham A.J. Graham A.J. The Colonial Expansion of Greece// CAH, 2-nd
ed., vol. III, part 3, 1982. .122.
9
Ure P.N. The Other Greek World in the 6th Century// CAH, vol.IV, 1926.
P.103.
10
Schachermeyr F. Philaidai. Sp.2117.
11
How W., Wells J. A Commentary on Herodotos, vol.1, Oxford, 1912. P.492;
Wade-Gery H.T. Miltiades. P.212, 215-216; Lewis D.M. The tyranny of the
Pisistratidae. P.298.
7

214

..

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
493 .12
( 514 .)
, .
,
,
, , .
, , , ,
(Thuc., VI, 59, 2-3). (IV, 138),
.
,
: ,
(Her., IV, 37-38).
. , .,
, (
) , :
13. ..- .
, ,
, 14.
.
, , ,
.
, -, , ,

. ,
12
Wade-Gery H.T. Miltiades. P.215; Lewis D.M. The tyranny of the
Pisistratidae. P.298.
13
Ure P.N. The Other Greek World ... P.103.
14
Wade-Gery H.T. Miltiades. P. 216.

215


: (Her., IV, 137).
:
, , - , .
, , ;
, , -, .
,
(
).
, 524/23 ., ,
,
- (tivna ... sfw`n ajutw`n)
(Thuc., VI, 54, 6). ,
. .. (, , ), , ,
,
(Her., VI, 41).

,
514 15.
,
,
( ), (, ,
510 .
,
, (Thuc., VI, 59, 4)).
, , ,
, , , ,
.
15

Ibid. P.219.

216

..

, , .
,
. ,
: . , , ., ,
. , .. ,
493 . .
. , , . , ,
(Her., VI, 40). ,
.

.
, (Her., VI, 136-140).


: , , . , :
,
(Her., VI, 139). ,
, ,
. <...> ,
, , ,
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, ,

217

. ,
. - (VI, 140).
, .
, , . (I, 1), , ,
, ,
.
, (ibid., I, 2),
(ibid., I, 3).
493 . ,
, , . , ,

(Her., VI, 41). , , 16 ,
(ibid.).

:
. :
,
(Her., VI, 109-110).
, , , . ,
, ,
, ,
. , , - (Her., VI, 41). ..- , , ,
,
. Wade-Gery H.T. Miltiades// JHS, vol.LXXI,
1951. P.219.
16

218

..

,
,
.
, - . , :
, , . , , ,
.
O.Ju. Vladimirskaja

Miltiades the Young: making of politician


The article is about Miltiades the Young, his growth as a politician.
The two main points, which are told about, are Miltiades life in Athens
under the tyranny of Pisistratides and his activities in Chersonessus
before his retirn to Athens again.

..


411 . ..
.
, , . V . .. 1890 ., ,
..
1.
, . ,
411 . .
411 . (VIII, 54-97),

(29-33). , ,
, , ,
- .

.. 2,
Aristotle. On the Constitution of Athens / Ed. by F.Kenyon. London, 1891.
/ . ..
// , 1891, 5-8 ( ., 1891).
1
2

220

..

.. 3 .
.. 1936 .4
5
, , ,
. 6. 7
.. . . , ,
, .
, , 411 .,
.
,

(VIII, 68,2),

(VIII, 97, 2). , , -, , , 411-410 . (29-33) , 411 . (29,5-31).
, :
(29,5 31,1-33), (30,26). 411 .
3
. / . .. . ., 1895.
4
. .
/ . . .. . .;., 1936.
5
, ., , : .. /
/ .. . ., 1910; .. 411 . // CARISTHRIA: .. . ., 1896; .
30- //
. . II. ., 1898.
6
Rhodes P.J.A. Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia. Oxford,
1981.
7
/ . .
.. , .. . ., 1996. .27-86.

411 . ...

221


,
.

, , .
, .
30 ,
.

.
<1>

. <2> , , , , , , , ,
, , ,
. <3> ,
, . <4>
, . , , .
, : . ,

: 1)
; 2)
; 3) (30,2). ,
, :
, , ,
, (29,5). -

222

..

? ,
? , , , ,
, . ,
(,
). , , , ,
.

? , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ? -, ,
(33,1 2), ,
: , , (33,2). , , ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
(31,2) 10 8.
, , , , -

411 . ...

223

.
(2) touvtwn
, touvtwn. .. : , , , , , , ,
, ,
, , .
touvtwn , ., .. touv uJpevr triavkonta e[th gegenovta, 9 . .
,
,
,
, , touvtwn. .
, , 3 , , .
. , . 10
, ,
, 30,

bouleuvein. , . , , , , , ,
,
. .
, 8
10 . .. ,
, , ,
, .: .
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9
Rhodes P.J.A. Commentary P.390.
10
Harris E.M. The Constitution of the Five thousand // Harvard studies
classical philology. Vol.93. 1990. P.248.

224

..

,

, .
11 ,

,
. . touvtwn ,
, 29 . :

411 ., ,
, (29.2,3,5) 29-31
,
. ,
touvtwn , : 1)
,
; 2)
, , 31
,
(31,2).
(3) (..
)
,
, , .
.. , (aiJrei`sqai dev panta touvtou
ejk prokrivtwn). , .
: ejk tw`n ajeiv bouleuovntwn pleivou prokrivnonta. ,
, .
11
., : Hignett C. A history of the Athenian constitution. Oxford,
1952. P.377-378.

411 . ...

225

-, ,
, . .
,
,
,
( 3- ,
.. 4- ):
, . . ,
. , , , 2 , (
), . , 5-, :
, ,
. . , , -, , ,

12 .

, .
, , .
,
13.
, . -,
, 411 . 100
, 12
13

Rhodes P.J.A. Commentary P. 392.


Ibid.

226

..

. ,
,
, , ,
,
, , . , , - , ..
. , ,
, .
E.V. Nikitjuk

The oligarchic revolution in Athens in 411 BC and


constitution of Five thousand.
In this article examines a question about the working out the constitution after the alteration the state system in Athens as a result of the
oligarchic revolution of 411 BC. Analysed the fragment of Athenian
Politeia of Aristotle (30,2), specifically the question about criteria and
methods of election of collective magistracies (buleutoi, strategoi,
ellenotamiai). Author comes to two conclusions: 1) the constitution of
411 BC for future state system was not elaborated clear and definitely,
besides this constitution was not realy applied; 2) at the end of
Pelloponesic War the Athenian democracy was still weak throuth war
and economic failures that did not prevent and, perhaps, connived at
legal establishment of oligarchic system, that fined expression in restriction the number of citizens enjoying full rights.

..





. , 356 . ..
,
.
.
-
. , , (XX.2): : , () ,
, ; , ;
,

, (.3). , ,
, .
, ,
! , .

, ,
, (.4). -
, ,

228

..

- - ?
, .
,
, , , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
, (Rhetor.
1359 20). : ,
, , . , .


, , .
(L. 4-6)
415 . (Thuc. VI. 33-41). 362 .,
. ,

,
. , : , ;
. ,
,
, . , , .
, -

...

229

, . , ,

, .
, 415 .
. . ,
. , , , . .
,
, ,
.
, , .

,
, - , , , , -,
, , ,
; -, . ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,

, , , ,
, (Thuc.
VI. 38.4). , , ,
, , , -

230

..

, , .
,
, ,
, . , , -, , ,
; -,
.
(XVIII),
,
,
. 337 . ..

. , , , .
330 . ,
,
. , .
(XVIII,
225-226), , ,
, , ,
. ,
, . , , ,
,
(XVIII, 278).
, ,
(ejpvdeivxin poihvsasqai), (XVIII, 280).

...

231

, ,
, ,
, , (XVIII, 226).
: (ijdiwvtai)
: , (politeuovmenoi)1.
. , , 2.
,
, .
, , .

. ,
- , ,
( ), , 3 .
, ,
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232

..

4.
5:
- veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi ,
;
- judicium redditur in invitum in praesumptione legis (.. );
- veritas habenda est in jurator; justitia et judicium in judice ;
.
V . .. , , ,
. , ,
,

. , (, , .), , , , ,
, , .
,
6 , , ,
, , , , .
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MacDowell D.M. The Law in Classical Athens. Ithaca, New-York, 1986.
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/ . .. . ., 1966. .
226, 393-394. . : Wolff H.Y. Roman Law. A Historical Introduction.
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...

233


,
7 .
, . , , - V-IV . ..
, , .
, ,
,

.
,
, .
. ,
. ,

, ,
.
(Dem. III.
21-22; IV. 38, 51; VI. 3; IX. 2-5; XVIII. 225-226, 276; XIX. 217).
8.

,
(Thuc. IV. 27/3; VII. 8.2; cp. Demosth. III. 3.21; IX. 4;
XI. 1). , , ,
, , ,
7
Buxton R.G. A Persuasion in Greck Tragedy. Cambr., 1982. P. 5, 21; Lewis S.
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Lewis S. Op. cit. P. 112.

234

..

,
(Thuc. II. 60-64; 65.8). , (II. 65.10), , , ,
.

428 . ..,
(Thuc. III. 37-48).
, . . ,

, , ,
. , , , (III. 37.1; dhmokrativan ajdunatovn ejstin
eJtevrwn avrcein).
, ,
, , ,
( turannivda evcete th;n avkonta ajrcomevno). , ,
(III. 37.2). , , ,
,
(III. 37.3: aj m aqiv a te; meta; swfrosuv n h wfelimwteron hj
dexiovth meta; ajkolasiva). , ,

,
. ,
, .


.
,
-

...

235

9. ,
. , ,
, , , , (Thuc.
III. 42.1-2)10. , ,
(Thuc. III. 43.3-4).
, ,

. , , , ,
, ,
.
, . . , . ,
, ,
. , .
, , (Thuc. III. 45.3-7). ,
,
: ouj bia,
ajlla; didaskaliva kwluovmeqa pravssein kakivan , , , ,
.

. .
-, , .
Gomme A.W. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides. Vol. III. Oxford,
1969. P. 313.
10
touv te lovgou m;h didavskalou tw`n pragmavtwn
givgnesqai (Thuc. II. 40.2).
9

236

..

, , V .,
, , . , ,
, .

..


.
. ,
1.
1896 .,
2; , ,
, , - .
, , ,
, 3.
: s.v.
pavnta ojktwv:... jAlhvth kata; crhsmo;n tou; Korinqivou sunoikivzwn
ojktw; fula; ejpoivhse tou; polivta kai; ojktw; mevrh th;n povlin
, .
. .

Jones N.F. The Civic Organization of Corinth // TAPhA. 1980. Vol.110. P. 161.
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3
Jones N.F. The Civic Organization P. 165ff; Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth. A history of the city to 338 BC. Oxford, 1984. P. 414.
1
2

238

..

, (Plut. Thes., 24),


(Harpocrat., s.v. tetrarciva).
: 1074-1036 . (Diod., VII, 9), 11011066 . (Euseb: Hier. II, p.66 Helm), 1099-1064 . .. (Euseb: Vers.
arm. II, p.174 Karst).
, 4. , X-IX . ..
5.
, ,
.
1915 ,
6. , . IV . ..
7. .
, .
,
, (
): SI-P, LE-E, LE-P, KU- ( 6, 15, 20, 26).
, .
8
( 1934, 1960 1965)9.
4
..
// : .
65- . .. . ., 1998. . 167.
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, .
.
9
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239

V . ..10 : LEP, SIP, SU . . , , ,


. 1932 ,
. , ,
KU Kunovfaloi, 11. , . , , .
12. , ,
, , 13,
. (IG., I, 897-901) (IG., I, 885). . , ,
(KU, LE, SI, SU) . , (E, I, ), . .
. . ,
, , , E P. KU-
KU-E, , 14:
15.
, , E (ejvtov,
ejntovteroi) P (periv)16. . , ,
(SEG, 25, 332) , ,
Stroud R.S. Tribal Boundary Markers P. 233 ff; . Salmon J.B. Wealthy
Corinth P. 413.
11
Hiller von Gaertringen F. Inschriften von Sikion // Philologische
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Dow S. Corinthiaca P. 90 ff.; Stroud R.S. Tribal Boundary Markers
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13
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 164.
14
Dow S. Corinthiaca P. 91.
15
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 164.
16
Dow S. Corinthiaca P. 103.
10

240

..

. .
: E, P, R. ,

, , , (avstu)
jE(ntov tou` jIsqmou`) P(evran
tou` jIsqmou`)17. ,
, , , , . , , (mevrh) : (
24), , . KU-, , ( ) 18.
,
, ,
.
1908 , 1909 .19
( 1948 .)
20 .
IV III . ..
, . , 21 :
Qeov
[ jEp] i; grammatista` Eujqea: vv
[G] amilivou: e[doxe tai` ejkklhsiv[a] i: ejpeide; Xenoklh` kai; Pausiv5 maco jAqhnai`oi ejm panti;
kairw`i diatelou`nti eu[nooi o[nte tai` povlei kai; toi` paragenomevnoi tw`n polita`n eij jAqhvna: e[doxe tai` ejkklhsiv17
.
. ; .: Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth P. 417.
18
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 164f .
19
Holleaux M. Comptes rendus de lAcadmie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres. Paris, 1909. P. 416
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21
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 165.


10 ai: Xenoklh` JAgnoqevou kai;
Pausivmacon Dhmoklevou jAqhnaivou proxevnou ei\men
kai; eujeryevta ta` povlio
aujtou; kai; ejkgovnou: ei\men de;
15 aujtoi` kai; politeivan kai; ga`
kai; oijkiva e[gkthsin kai; ajsulivan kai; polevmou kai; eijravna
kai; ta; loipa; tivmia o{sa kai; to[i`]
loipoi` proxevvoi kai; eujer20 gevtai ta` povlio: ta;n de;
boula;n diaklarw`sai eij
hJmiovgdoon kai; triakavda
kai; fula;n kai; favtran: Dieklarwvqhn: hJmiogdovou vv AS vv
25 [aj]rcaiva vv fula` vv jAorevwn
[f]avtra vv Omakciavda.
!
: [ ]
:
:
; :


;


,
;
[ ]

;
vv AS vv

241

242

..

vv vv
vv .
, . ,
, , , . A
j orevwn. .

(Aoris)22, (II, 12, 5).
. . 23. ,
. ,
. . ,
,
: e[doxe tai` ejkklhsivai (. 3-4, 9-10)24 .
, 500 . ..
, , , ,

j orovn25,
A
j orevwn (. 25). ,
26 O
j makciavda26.
Maccivdai (IG., IX, 1, 695) Maciavdai
27. ,
,
, , 28. , .
hJmiogdovon, Robert L. Un Dcret dorien trouv Dlos // Hellenica. 1948. Vol. 5. P. 13ff.
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24
Robert L. Un Dcret dorien P. 8.
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28
. .
; .: Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 169.
22
23

243

(. 22 24), . ,
. (.
22), , ,
triakadavrcoi (IG., XIV, 209, 211, 212).
, Gamilivo 29,
30. . ,
.
: , , .
,
() . 24 AS . ,
, 31. .
32. , , ,
.

.
, AS-
(.24)
, , 33.

: , . ,
, ,
. , ,
29
Robert L. Un Dcret dorien trouv Dlos // Hellenica. 1948. Vol. 5. P. 8ff;
1960. Vol. 12. P. 568, n.3.
30
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 167.
31
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 174; Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth P. 415.
32
Robert L. Un Dcret dorien trouv Dlos // Hellenica. 1948. Vol. 5. P. 12.
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Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth P. 414ff.

244

..

. ,
,
34. . : ,
, ..
. , ,
.
,
, . ,
, kaiv ,
:
, 35.
.
, -,

: , 36.
,

- .
: A
j ristomevnh jAristolaivda [ JUl]leuv (CIG. II. 1845,
2-3), Yuvlla A
j lkivmou U
J ll[euv] (ibid., 5).
: JUllaiko; limhvn (Thuc., III,
73.81).
, (Ditt. Syll.
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, , Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 178.
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36
Dunbabin T.J. The Western Greeks. The history of Sicily and South Italy
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34
35

245

. , , . , , , ,
37. -
38. ,
- ,
, , ajrcaiva fula`
A
j orevwn,
.
, 733 . ..
. ,
-,
, ,
(. 24-25).
,
, . , ,
. -

.
39.
,
(FgrHist 90 F 60)40.
.:
Thuc., IV, 42, 2; Str., VIII, 1, 2. ,

. .: ..
. ., 1983. . 41.
38
Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth P. 416.
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Andrewes A. The Greek tyrants. London, 1956. P. 56; Oliva P. Rana ecka
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246

..

, , , ,
. . ,
, , .
, :
;

, , 41 .
; : (H)omakchiadai Oligaithidai (Ol., 13, 97). , , .
, , , . , , ,
. , , -, , .
, , :
, , , (Hdt., V, 92).
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.
.
. .: Busolt G. Griechische Geschichte. 2 Aufl. Bd I. Gotha, 1893. S.
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.: Dunbabin T.J. The Western Greeks. P. 55; Will Ed. Korinthiaka. P. 612
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( ), , : , ,
16 . ,
, , -. , ,
: AS, KU,
LE, SI, SU. . ,
: jAsaiv, Kunovfaloi, Levcaion, Sidou Sukousiva42. ,
, , , , , .
,
, ..
, . ,
, 43. , , E, F.
, , , ,
. :
E
j (navta), P(rw`ta) F(evkta), , 44.
: E
j (pivlektoi), P(eltastaiv) ( i`lai)
= , 45. ,
, ,
, 46. - .
. -, 47. -, ,
- ,
Jones N.F. Civic Organization P. 179.
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42
43

248

..

, . , (Hdt., I, 65).
,
, , , , .
,
, ,
, , , , 48, . , ,
, , - , , , , ,
.
S.M. Zhestokanov

The Social Organization of Corinthian polis


This article deals with some problems of the structure of the civic
organization in Ancient Corinth. Greek civic units may be classed as
either hereditary or territorial, that is, membership might be determined
by kinship or place of habitation. The author attempt to make the determination for each of four subdivisions of Corinthian civic organization:
phyle, phratry, triakas and hemiogdoon. Special attention is given to the
analysis of Delian decree and inscribed markers discovered in the territory of Ancient Corinth. The author also uses the data of ancient
literary tradition.

48
Lutz H. The Corinthian Constitution P. 418f; Westlake H.D. Corinth and the
Argive coalition // AJPh., 1940. Vol. 61. 4. P. 415ff; Hopper R.J. Ancient Corinth //
Greece and Rome. 1955. Vol. 2. 1. P. 11; Salmon J.B. Wealthy Corinth P. 231ff.

..



VIV . ..
V . ..
,
.
,
prevsbei (), a[ggeloi (, ), khvruke
(), , , 1. , , . ,
, , . (1973), , ,

2. ,
, , -
, .
, , , aiJ spondaiv,
, 30- (f. Thuc.
IV. 98; V. 60, 1 et II. 2, 1). , 1
Cf. Kienast D. Presbeia (Presbeiva), griechisches Gesandtschaftswesen //
RE. Supplbd 13 (zum 22 Bd.), 1973. Sp. 507512.
2
Mosley D.J. Envoys and Diplomacy in Ancient Greece. Wiesbaden, 1973.
P. 21.

250

..

3.
, (f.: Xen. Anab.
II. 3, 13. Plut. Mor. 225e 15; 221d).
, ,
, -
prevsbei, a[ggeloi4. ( ,
a[ggelo , presbeuthv, )5.
, a[ggeloi6 ; 2
Hdt. III. 58, 1 et V. 93, 1:
a[ggeloi, prevsbee (Hdt. III.
58, 1 et 3).
a[ggeloi ( )7. , ,
( , , ), , , , .
3
Hdt. IX. 80, 88 et 60: . Plut. Arist. 18,3; 19,2 et 17,2:
; Plut. Ages. 34,4: ; 15,2 et 7: ; Plut. Nic.19:
. :
Hdt. VI. 105-106; VIII. 27,1; 29,1 et 3; IX. 12; 21,1; 54,2 sqq.; 60; 62.
4
Mosley. Envoys and Diplomacy P. 92
5
Adcock F., Mosley D. J. Diplomacy in Ancient Greece. L., 1975. P. 152.
6
Cf. Powell J. E. A Lexicon to Herodotus. 2-nd ed. Hildesheim, 1966. P. 2;
315. , ajggelivh, , , khrukivh. . , prevsbu
,
, 467 458 . (Kienast.
Presbeia S. 508).
7
: Thuc. IV. 15,1; 30,4; V. 17,2; 43,3; 64,1; VII. 8; VIII. 11,2; 40,1;
Xen. Hell. II. 1,30 et IV. 5,7: , , .

...

251

, - (
, )
,
(Thuc. IV. 78, 1).
, 396 .
, (Xen. Hell. III. 4,
3; Paus. III. 9, 1: a[ggeloi). ,
, ,
(Paus. III. 9, 3: presbeuthv). a[ggeloi (= )
, , (Xen.
Hell. III. 1, 1), a[ggeloi (= ) ,
, (Thuc. VI. 44, 4).

423 394 . (f. Thuc. IV.132, 3: , , Plut. Ages. 17, 1 et Mor. 212a: ). ,
(prevsbei), a[ggeloi.
prevsbei , -,
, IV ( , )
8, ,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
V . , ,
. , , , . ,
:
, , .
8

Kienast. Presbeia S. 509.

252

..

,
oiJ prevsbei9. prevsbei,
, . ,
,
10.
30-,
; 21 33- . 418 .
28- (,
420 ., :
ajnh;r hJlikiva/ mevn e[ti tovte w]n nevo (Thuc. V.
43, 2)). , (478
., , ) , 50-; ,
355/4 ., 70- 11.
, . , , 30- ,
(toi` ge mh;n th;n hJbhtikh;n hJlikivan paperakovsin)
(Xen. Lac. 4, 7). (Plut. Per. 22,
1), , ,
446 . 25 12, (nevon o[nta)
- (dia; th;n hJlikivan).

430/29 ., , , . , ,
. -, , (f. Hdt. VII. 137, 3 et
Thuc. II. 67, 1). -, , ,
Kienast. Presbeia S. 509.
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11
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9

10

...

253

, ,
, ,
2
1 . , , : 50 (f.
Hdt. VII. 134, 2 et 205). ,
, .
60- (?) , (464 .), 13, . 526 .
(421 .), , 59 ( 69).
II (. . 443 .),
(Xen. Ages. II. 25: oujk w[knei metievnai
oujdV hJscuvneto presbeuth; ejkporeuovmeno), 73-
(Xen. Hell. VI. 5, 4: presbeuth;),
, (
) 84- .
. , , 370/69 .,
7014.
prevsbei (Aristoph. Lis. 10731074: e{lkonte uJphvna. cf.
Plut. Mor. 232e).
, 2- . V . ( ,
, ) , a[ggeloi;
(prevsbei), . - VIV .
,
. , , . ,
, , . , 13
14

Holladay A.J. Spartan Austerity // CQ. Vol. 27,1 (1977) P. 119.


Mosley. Pharax and the spartan embassy to Athens P. 250.

254

..

. - 15.
, ,
prevsbei aujtokravtore, .
16,
, -, - , ,
(f. Andok. III.
33). aujtokravtwr, , (cf. Dion.Hal.
Ant. Rom. II. 14, 2), -
.
,
-. , . . (
.)
- ,
, .
: 419, 391 369 ., ,
- .
(Thuc. V. 44, 346, 1; Plut. Alcib. 14 et Nic. 10).
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419 . , .. -
oc // 1978, 6 (108) 105.
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...

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, ,
.
2- (Andok. III. 39). . : ,
, .
392/1 . ,
. , , 391 . , ,
:
, (Andok. III. 22).

, (Xen. Hell. VII. 1, 113; Diod. XV. 67, 1).
,
370/69 . (
, (cf.: Xen. Hell. VI. 5, 33).
, , , ,
;
, :
( ), , .
, , .
. ,
.
.

256

..

parapresbeiva,
, , , ,
, 17; .

,
. , .
, , .

, .

, . , , . , ( II, II, )
(.: ,
: Nep. Them. 7, ,
, , ). ( : Hdt. VII.
230). , , , .
18.
. , , ( ,
), , ,
, . ,

17
18

Mosley. Envoys and Diplomacy P. 4041.


Mosley. Envoys and Diplomacy P. 52.

...

257

. ,
, : ( ) [] (Plut. Mor. 216b 16; 233f 30). ,

,
- . , , .
, 488 367 .
,
30-
(
, , ).
( 431, 423, 429, 420, 419, 407, 398, 396
376 .). (f. Plut.
Lyc. 30, 2: e{na pevmyasa presbeuthvn) ( 488, 428,
427, 418, 401, 396, 392, 388, 371, 370, 369 . 367 .).
, (490, 420 387 .).
370/69 . ( 481, 429, 394, 370 369 .). , ,
( 431, 412, 411, 409, 407, 394, 369 .).
( )
, ,

.
, .
,
, , .
,
, ( , ,
, f.: Diod. XIII. 52, 2; Xen. Hell. I. 4, 2).

258

..

. , ,
. -, , ,
( , , , , , ).
-, ,
19. , 20,
, - .
, , . , 3 . ,
- 420/19 ., :
:
, , 423 . (Thuc. IV. 119, 2), (huc. V. 19, 2) [421]
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( 408/7 .), 419 ., ,
(Androt. FGH 324 F. 44).
( ; cf.: P. Poralla, 1913, S. 8384),
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- (Xen. Hell. II. 3, 10; ,

). , 411 .
11- ,
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...

259

, , () (Thuc. VIII.
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1 et 10). , 410 407 .
.
.

. , -,
. , , . , 423, 419 407 . ,
, . . , , 21.
17- ,
22,
Eu[dio, E
[ ndio. . (1913),
(297). , ,
2- 16- Eu[diko [Parisinus 1738]
[Ekdiko [Venetus Marcianus 368], , 3- [Parisinus 1642],
Provdiko. , . , , . Hellenica , , E
[ ndio (Xenophontis
Historia Graeca / Rec. et cum annot. L. Dindorfii. Ed. sec. auctor et emend. Oxf.,
1853. . 87).
21
Mosley D. Pharax and the spartan embassy to Athens in 370/69 // Historia.
Bd. XII (1963) 248.
22

( : 2 , 10 , , ), , , . (Kienast.
Presbeia (1973) Sp. 622).

260

..

( 13) ( 14) - (f. Thuc. V. 19, 2 et 24, 1).


421 . ( 10) ( 16)
: ,
(Thuc. V. 21, 1).
C , ,
378 369 .,
(f. Xen.
Hell. V. 4, 22 et VI. 5, 33).
, , .
. , , .
, , , , . 23.
, : ,
, . , -, ;
, (Xen. Lac. 13, 10; Xen. Hell. III. 2, 20; Xen. Ages. I. 10).

,
(Hdt. IX. 7, 1; 11, 1. Xen. Hell.
II. 2, 13). , ,
, . , ( , )
.
Ehrenberg V. From Solon to Socrates. Greek History and Civilization during
the sixth and fifth centuries BC. L., 1973. P. 48.
23

...

261

, , 383 . ,
(Xen. Hell. V. 2, 9). , VIV ., . ,
24.
,
, ,
(Thuc. I. 72, 2). 383 371 .,

(Xen. Hell. V. 2, 1124; VI. 3, 318).
, , . ,
, .
,
,
25. , , .
, . 2 -
.
. , -
, . (, ) ,
. , ,
, , ,
(Tommen L. Lakedaimonion Politeia. Die
Entstehung der spartanischen Verfassung (Historia, Einzelschriften, 103). Stuttg.,
1996. Kap. V).
25
Andrewes A. The Government of Classical Sparta // Ancient Society and
Institutions. N.Y., 1967. P. 13.
24

262

..


, . ,
, , (Hdt.
VII. 149, 2) (. , ).
, ,
, ,
,
.
1. -, , a[ggeloi,
prevsbei, prevsbei aujtokravtore.
a[ggelo,
, ,

. , , prevsbei,
, -, .
V . , .
, -
a[ggeloi prevsbei, a[ggeloi ( ,
-, ),
prevsbei, , , , ,
, 26.
2. - ,
,
, , ,
. 26
, .. ,
c VII .

...

263

.
, : -, , -,
, , , .
3. , , : , , ,
, ,
(, ).
: , , .
4. , ,
,
.
, , . , ,
. , ,
;
, , , , .
- . ( ),
, .

264

..
M. Ed. Kurilov

Usual and plenipotentiary ambassadors in the Spartan


diplomatic practice of 5th4th centuries b.c.
The ancient authors designate Spartan ambassadors differently. Such
words as aggeloi, presbeis, and presbeis autokratores are the
most frequent. The widest by spectrum of meanings is the word aggeloi,
which can mean any herald or messenger, carrying out even insignificant
diplomatic tasks. The most adequate, as it seems, term for the designation of usual ambassadors is the word presbeis bearing apparently the
semantic indication of age. The ambassadors-autokratores had slightly
wider opportunities than usual ambassadors, since they used the right to a
final decision when concluding interstate agreements. But they also should
strictly follow instructions received in their polis.
The data of Spartan prosopography of the Classical period allow
to come to the conclusion that the candidatures of such envoys were
carefully selected in accordance with several basic criteria:
firstly, the professional suitability and experience,
secondly, the high social status caused not in the last instance by
belonging to the political elite of Sparta, and
at last the opportunity of xenic protections was taken into account.
In the organization of reception and sending of ambassadors by the
beginning of the 2nd Peloponnesian War the key role belonged to the
ephorate. The kings put under its vigilant control had an opportunity to
be engaged in such activity during campaigns. As to the Assembly, it is
necessary to consider it as an important factor limiting the competence
of Ephors. Nevertheless, we do not have weighty reasons for the
conclusion that the Ecclesia had significant independence in the decisions on sending ambassadors from the polis.
The role of the Gerousia in the formation of practical diplomacy is
insufficiently clear and is not actually traced. However it is possible to
assume that the basic directions of foreign policy were determined at
joint sessions of the ephorate and the Council. The elders could exert
only indirect, but at the same time effective enough influence on foreign
policy, including sphere of practical diplomacy.

..

,

,
,
.
? . ,
,
. , ,
,
. ,

.
. , , .

,

, .
. , V . .., . 1,
, Wankel H. Bemerkungen zu dem athenischen Mnzgesetz von 375/4 //
ZPE. Bd. 52. 1983. S. 73-74.
1

266

..

2. ,

( ) ,
, . , ,
, ,


.
. (Hdt., II, 182; III, 39;
139), :
(Hdt. III, 39), , (Hdt., IV, 138; VI,
13; 14; 22; 25). ,
, , , , , ,
, , (Hdt., III, 39). (I, 23, 2). Pantagnw`to (III, 39),
Pantavgnwsto (I, 23, 2).
, . , , ,
.
, .
, , .
(XVI, 30, 7, 2),
Moss Cl. Die politische Prozesse und die Krise der athenischen
Demokratie // Hellenische Poleis. Krise-Wandlung-Wirkung. Hrsg. von
E.Ch.Welskopf. Bd. 1. Berlin, 1974. S. 160-161.
2

267


. , ,
-
.
, (Hdt., II, 182; III, 39; 139).

.
(III, 12, 6).
(Aijakov) , , Aijavkh,
, IV-I .3
II .4
, . ,
, , 1905 .
, ,
. ,
. .. , : .
5 , . 6 .. 7 ,
, . ,
8, . .
9. 3
Fraser P.M., Matthews E.A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, Vol. I, Oxford, 1987, s.v. Aijakv h.
4
Ibid., Vol. II, s.v. Aijakv h.
5
Curtius L. Samiaca. I. // Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen
Instituts (Athenische Abteilung), 1906, Bd. XXXI, S. 152.
6
Ure P.N. The Origin of Tyranny. Cambridge, 1922, . 82.
7
Johnson F.P. The Hearst Hedria: An Attic Footnote to Corinthian History // Classical Philology, XLI, 1946, p. 189.
8
Jeffery L. H. The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece. Oxford. Clarendon Press,
1961, p.330.
9
Meiggs R., Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the
end of the fifth century B.C. Oxford. Clarendon Press, 1969, p. 30 f.

268

..

.
, , 1906 .10,
, .
, .. ,
. , , :
Aejavkh ajnevqhken | oJ Bruvswno o{ th`i | {Hrhi th;n suvlhn
e[|prhsen kata; th;n | ejpivstasin. (Syll.3 nr. 10)
, /
/ .
,
, ,
. , . VI . (
VI ., )11, .
. , 500-490 .12 ,

, .
,
( ,
), . XX . ,
. . .
XX . , , . , .
,
XX . ,
,
, .
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 151-165.
Ibid., S. 153, 157.
12
Pomtow W. SIG3 20; Schede M. no.3, 22.
10
11

269

VI .13 , 540 .14 , , ,


.
, , ,
, .
, . (Ditt. Syll.3 20) ,
, , V ., , ,
, .
. ,
VI .,
V ., , , , ,
, , ,
15 .
. 16 . .. ,
. 533 ., IV . , , , 17 .
, . ,
, . Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 153, 157; Ure P.N. The Origin of Tyranny, p.
81 f.; Huxley G. The Early Ionians. L., 1966, . 125 Not. 22.
14
Tod M.N. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions Ed. II, Oxford, 1951,
p. 7, 10 258; Homann-Wedeking E. Syloson der ltere // jArcailogikh;
E
j fhmeriv, 1953, i-ii, p. 187-189; Schwyzer E. Dialectorum Graecarum Exempla
Epigraphica Potiora. Georg Olms Verlagsbuchnandlung. Hildesheim, 1960, 14;
Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. Hildesheim, 1982, Vol. I,
10; Shipley G. A History of Samos 800-188 B.C. Oxford, 1987, . 71, 214,
not. 4, 218-219; .. //
- .
, 1975, . 13.
15
White M. The Duration of the Samian Tyranny // JHS, 1954, Vol.74, p. 38.
16
Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, Vol. I, 10.
17
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos // CQ. 1964, Vol.58, p. 218.
13

270

..

, ,
18 . .. 19 : , , , , ,
- , . ,
, , ,
, .

Bruvcwno Bruvswno. . , . Bruvcwno
Bruvswno20, . . ,
Bruvcwno21.
, .
. , 22 , .
. , . 23, , , 24. 1963 .
,
, , .
. -
VII .25
, Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften und Dokumente der Pentekotaetie aus
Samos (Tafeln 45-62, Beilage 4) // Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen
Instituts (Athenische Abteilung), Bd. 87, 1972, S. 121; Shipley G. A History of
Samos, p. 70 f.
19
Johnson F.P. The Hearst Hedria: An Attic Footnote to Corinthian History
// Classical Philology, XLI, 1946, p. 189.
20
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 116.
21
Meiggs R., Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions..., . 30.
22
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 157.
23
Shipley G. A History of Samos..., p. 71.
24
Schmidt G. Heraion von Samos: Eine Brychon-Weihung und ihre
Fundlage // Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen Instituts (Athenische
Abteilung), Bd. 87, 1972, S. 166.
25
Homann-Wedeking E. Samos 1963 // Archologischer Anzeiger, Bd. 79,
1964. Hf. 2, S. 227.
18

271

26. VI .: . , 560 .,
660 .,27 . VI .28
.
, , , , ,
29. , ,
.
, , . . ,
,
494 .30, ,
,
VI .31 ,
, , 525-520 . , , ..
, ,
,
, .
. ,
, , , ,
32. ,
, pater familias , , , , Homann-Wedeking E. Neuefunde im Heraion von Samos. Mit 6
Abbildungen // Archologischer Anzeiger, Bd. 84, 1969, Hf. 4, S. 554 f.
27
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften, S. 137.
28
Schmidt G. Heraion von Samos: Eine Brychon-Weihung und ihre
Fundlage // Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen Instituts (Athenische
Abteilung), Bd. 87, 1972, S. 166.
29
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften und Dokumente der Pentekotaetie aus
Samos (Tafeln 45-62, Beilage 4) // Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen
Instituts (Athenische Abteilung), 1972, Bd. 87, S. 138
30
Jeffery L. H. The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece. Oxford. Clarendon
Press, 1961, p. 330, 335.
31
Ibid., p. 330 f..
32
Ibid.
26

272

..

. ,
, , , ,
33.

, , , , , , 540 .
,
, ,
. , , ,
540 . ..34 , .. , VI . 35 .
, ,
, ,
, .. , .
, , .. , , .
IV-I .36
II .37,
.
.. 38 .. 39,
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 157.
Johnson F.P. The Hearst Hedria..., p. 189.
35
.. (
) // Mnh`ma ( ,
). .
, 2002, . 152.
36
Fraser P.M., Matthews E. A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names..., Vol. I, s.v.
Aijakv h.
37
Ibid., Vol. II, s.v. Aijakv h.
38
Johnson F.P. The Hearst Hedria..., p. 189.
39
.. , .155
33
34

273

.
.. ..
,

, , . , . . , , . (Syll.3 nr. 20) 540 .
q a , 500 ., 40.
, ,
( , ,
) .
, , , , , ..
Aijavkh (IV, 138; VI, 13; 14; 22; 25).
, ,
, , .
, .
.. 41, . 42 .. 43 .
, , , ,
,
. o{ th`i {Hrhi th;n suvlhn e[prhsen kata; th;n
ejp ivstasin.
40
Meiggs R., Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions...,
p. 30-31.
41
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos..., p. 212.
42
Shipley G. A History of Samos..., p. 71.
43
..
// . 2- . .,
2004, . 253.

274

..

suvlh,
44. - ;
, , . ,
. . ,
, (II, 16),
uvlh , suvlh.
, s , (
.45) , ,
. . , , ,
46.
(FgrHist 544 F 3), , ,
suvlh
. , . suvlh
.

suvlh,
, ,
, 47. . ,
Sulosw`n ( , , suvlh swvzw)
48.
49. ,
Liddell H.G., Scott R. A Greek-English Lexicon, 9th ed., vol. II, Oxford, 1948,
s.v. suvlh.
45
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 120.
46
Jacoby F. FgrHist, p. 463.
47
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 160; Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum
Graecarum, I, 10; White M. The Duration of the Samian Tyranny..., p. 38;
..
.., c.253.
48
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 161.
49
Ure P.N. The Origin of Tyranny, p. 81 f.; Dittenberger W. Sylloge
Inscriptionum Graecarum, I, 10.
44

275

, , , ..
, , , , VI .
(Polyaen., VI, 45).
, , , , , 50. ,
(Hdt., I,
39; 139; Polyaen., VI, 45). , , .
- e[prhsen ,
.
pivmprhmi () prhvssw (
). . 51,
. , , , e[prhsen pivmprhmi,

;

(Hdt., VI, 101; VIII, 33). , . , e[prhsen
pevrnhmi (), .., ,
ejpevrasa, , , 52.
. , , . ,
53.
pivmprhmi . , . .
, , - pravttw pevrnhmi54, ..
pevrnhmi,
, 55 .
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 160; Ure P.N. The Origin of Tyranny, p. 69.
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 158.
52
Ibid.
53
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 119.
54
Meiggs R., Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions, p. 31.
55
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos, p. 218.
50
51

276

..

, .. , , ,
, (I, 70, 3)56 . e[p rhsen piv m prhmi 57 . ,
, e[prhsen
prhvssw,
: , .
, , ,
.58 . . ,
, (secure) 59 ,
. 60 . . , . .. 61.
, , . , ,
. .
, . , , ( ) (Hdt., I, 70; III, 47; . Thuc., I, 4-5; 7; Liv.,
V, 28; Tod, vol. I, no. 34; Meiggs 42 , line 1-11).
, , 62.

. kata; th;n ejpivstasin
(, , Meiggs R., Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions, p. 31.
Bannier, Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, Vol. XXXVI, 1916, S. 646;
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 119.
58
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 159.
59
White M. The Duration of the Samian Tyranny, p. 38.
60
Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, vol. I, 10.
61
Bilabel F. Polykrates von Samos und Amasis von gypten // Neue
Heidelb. Jahrbcher, 1934, S. 133; Ehrenberg V. When did the polis rise? // JHS,
Vol. LVII, n.7, 1937, p. 149, n. 4; ..
, . 252.
62
, White M. The Duration of the Samian Tyranny, p. 38.
56
57

277

, ), ,
, (. ) , ,
. ,
, - 63 . ..
, , , 64 .
.. ,
, , 65 . kata; th;n ejpivstasin .. . .
. . , ,
ejpivstasi 66 ,
ejpivstasi, -67 .
,
. ,
, , , 68 . ,
, , , , (Hdt., II,
178). . , ,
, ,
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos, p. 218; Meiggs R.,
Lewis D. A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions..., p. 31.
64
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos, p. 214, 219.
65
..
, . 252.
66
Robert J., L. Bulletin pigraphique // Revue des tudes Grecques, 1961,
74, p. 232-233.
67
Liddell H.G., Scott R. A Greek-English Lexicon, 9th ed., vol. II, Oxford, 1948,
s.v. ejpivstasi.
68
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 160; White M. The Duration of the Samian
Tyranny, . 38; Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, vol. I,
10.
63

278

..

69 . ,
, 6 (Hdt., IV, 152).
, , .
, , 70 .
, , .. 71 . .. ,
, ,
72.
, . ,
. . , 1906 . ,
, . ,
, .. , 73. ., ,

,
74,

.
. , . , ejpivstasi
, ..
ejpistateiva, kata; th;n ejpivstasin Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 159-160.
Bilabel F. Polykrates von Samos und Amasis von gypten // Neue
Heidelb. Jahrbcher, 1934, S. 133; Ehrenberg V. When did the polis rise? // JHS,
Vol. LVII, n.7, 1937, p. 149, n. 4; ..
, . 252.
71
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 161.
72
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos, p. 214.
73
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 158.
74
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 116.
69

70

279

75. e[prhsen
pivmprhmi. , ., , suvlh
. suvlh
, . . . 76 . ,
, ,
, , ,
77. , .
, ,
,
,
.
. , . , 78, , , . ,
: Aejavkh ajnevqhken oJ Bruvswno, o{ thi {Hrhi th;n suvlhn e[prhsen kata; th;n ejpivstasin
,
. ,
, . , , , , , 79 .
. , 80.
, , ,
. , , ,
Ibid.
Barron J.P. The Sixth-century Tyranny at Samos, p. 214, not. 4.
77
Dunst G. Archaische Inschriften..., S. 119.
78
Curtius L. Samiaca. I, S. 158.
79
Ibid., S. 121.
80
Dunst G. Op.cit., S. 121.
75
76

280

..

, ..
. , ,
. , , .
-
.
, , ,
, . , , ,
, ,
, , VI
V .
Shergina N.A.

Dedicatory inscription of Aeakes the Brychons son


The analysis of the dedicatory inscription of Aeakes the Brychons
son carved on the left side of the throne of a marble headless seated
statue that was found during excavations in 1905 on the acropolis of
antique city Samos, and nowadays is in a museum in Vathi, is carried
out in this article. The scholars conduct boisterous discussion on the
occasion of dating both statue, and inscription, cut out on it, since this
problem is directly connected to a question, whether was this Aeakes
the father of Polycrates or not. It is quite probable, that Aeakes the
Brychons son, could be the father of Polycrates, or, at least, be in
certain relationship with him.

.. , ..


:
*
1, .
, ,
, - .
, .
. , ,
2.
, 3. ( * , 040680279
: -

1
., :
Tausend K. Amphiktyonie und Symmachie: Formen zwischenstaatlicher Beziehungen
im archaischen Griechenland (Historia: Einzelschriften; 73). Stuttgart, 1992.
2
Barber R.L.N. The Cyclades in the Bronze Age. London, 1987. P. 1.
3

(Diod., V, 1, 1). , : , ,
,
, , ,

282

.. , ..

)
(
), . ? ,
, , -,
, (, , ) .
-
, 4.
ajmfiktuoniva ,
, oiJ ajmfiktivone (
oiJ ajmfiktuvone)
(Paus., X, 8, 12). ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
. , , .
- , , ,
:
. :
...
(VII, 200, . .. ). , : , , , ,
(Diod., V, 2, 1, . .. ).
4
.:
Tausend K. Amphiktyonie... S. 3447; Lefvre F. LAmphictionie pylodelphique: histoire et institutions. P., 1998. P. 159176; Snchez P.
LAmphictionie des Pyles et de Delphes: recherches sur son rle historique,
des origines au IIe sicle de notre re. Stuttgart, 2001.

283

(Theopomp., FgrHist 115 F 63; Marm. Par.,


FgrHist 239 A 5 = CIG II, N 2374 = IG XII, V, 1, 444, 1.9; Dion. Hal., IV,
25, 3). , ,
(Androt.
FgrHist 324 F 58 = Paus., X, 8, 1).
, , , , .
IV . .. , ,

(Aeschin., II, 116).
IV . .. , , (Theopomp., FgrHist 115 F 63;
Aeschin., II, 116, . : Paus., X, 8, 12 = Androt., FgrHist 324 F
58), (

IV . .., III . .., II
. .., , , - )5. , ,
: , , , , ,
, , , , ,
6.
, , , (Herod., VII, 132).
, , , .
,
,
Lefvre F. LAmphictionie pylo-delphique... . 21 ss.
. : .. . . 1.
. ., 1998. . 290292; Zeilhofer G.
Sparta, Delphoi und die Amphiktyonen im 5. Jahrhundert vor Christus. Diss.
Erlangen, 1959. S. 3438; Jeffery L.H. Archaic Greece. The City-States c. 700
500 B.C. L., 1978. P. 7479; Forrest W.G.G. Delphi 750500 B. C. // CAH. Vol. III2.
Pt. 3. 1982. P. 312313; Tausend K. Amphiktyonie... S. 35-36; Lefvre F.
LAmphictionie pylo-delphique... P. 21139.
5
6

284

.. , ..

: (pulagovrai), (pulaiva). .
, 330 . .. (, III C ,
), . (, , ),

, ,
. ,
7. , , , .
, , , ,
, ,
, .
,
(
, , , )
. , , , . ,

, -?
Guide de Delphes: Le sit / Ed. par J.-F. Bommelaer, D. Laroche. P., 1991. .
37. , , ,
, 410 .
..
, , ,
( , , . 2756).
7

285


, . , ,
8. .
, -, , VI .9 , VII .
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
, .
-, , VII-VI .,
.
. , , , , ,
,
.
, , , ,
.: Jacquemin A. Rpercussion de lentre de Delphes
dans lAmphictionie sur la construction lpoque archaque // Les grands
ateliers darchitecture dans le monde gen du VIe sicle avant J.-C. / J. des
Courtils, J.-Ch. Moretti. Istambul, 1991 (1993). P. 217-225.
9
Busolt G., Swoboda H. Griechische Staatskunde. 3. Aufl. Bd. II. Mnchen,
1926. S. 1292 ff.; Wilamowitz-Mllendorff U. v. Der Glaube der Hellenen. Bd. II.
Berlin, 1932. S. 29; Parke H.W., Wormell D.E.W. The Delphic Oracle. Vol. I.
Oxford, 1956. P.102-103. : (
, ,
); . ,
, .: CAH. Vol. III. 1925. P. 604.
8

286

.. , ..

, .
, ,


10. , . . ,
, , (, , , ), 11.
( ). , , , 477 . .. , (ATL, III, 225),
. ,
: , , . -
: .
454 . ,
, :
, . . , ,
, . ( ?)
,
.
, ,
?
(kai; kavtide ta;
nhvsai aJpavsa ejn kuvklw/ . 170), ,
Meiggs R. The Athenian Empire. Oxford, 1972. P. 43.
Snodgrass A.M. The Archaic Greece. The Age of Experiment. London,
1980. P. 5556.
10
11

287

, (. 169 .)12.
, . , ,
,
( ) , ,
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(rod.,
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, . , : ,
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288

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representations of geographical and political centre
The article deals with the problem of the correlation of the political
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particular, of Delphic amphityony and Delian symmachy). The authors
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unions was formed first of all under the influence of the geographical
factor (the temple of Demeter in Anthela for the Amphityony and Delos
for the Symmachy). However afterwards the center was removed from
the real geographical center to the center more peripheral in the
geographical sense, but more significant in the political-economical
(Athens) or religious-political (Delphi) sense.

..


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Yuri N. Kuzmin

On the history of the archaeological research at Vergina


The article gives an outline of the archaeological research at Vergina
since L. Heuzeys time (1861) till now. The basic part of this article
deals with the problem of identifying the burials under the Great Tumulus
in Vergina excavated in 19771978 by M. Andronikos, who believed
Kottaridi A. The Lady of Aigai // Alexander the Great: Treasures from an
Epic Era of Hellenism. N.Y., 2004. P. 139148.
72

. : http://people.clemson.edu/~elizab/
aegae.htm.
73
. . ( ,
), .. ( ),
.. ( ) .. (,
-) ,
, ,
, , .
71

308

..

that Tomb II belonged to the famous Macedonian king Philip II.


After a new research of the skull in Tomb II by the Greek
anthropologist A. Bartsiokas there appeared serious arguments to believe that this burial belonged to Philip III Arrhidaeus (Ph. Lehmann, E.
Borza, E.D. Carney, O. Palagia et al.).
This article also examines archaeological base of the theory by E.
Borza concerning the paraphernalia of Arrhidaeus half-brother
Alexander the Great in Tomb II. The analysis shows that the arguments
of American scholar can be recognized rather doubtful. For example,
the helmet from Tomb II belongs to modification of so-called Attic
type, which is different from the helmet worn by Alexander on the socalled Elephant or Porus medallions (helmet of so-called Phrygian
type), though Borza thought them to be of the same type. Other arguments
by Borza (concerning iron collar, so-called scepter, cuirass etc.) also
cannot be called convincing.
It is possible to accept the following opinion on burials under the
Great Tumulus at Vergina: Tomb I might have belonged to Philip II,
his last wife Cleopatra and their infant; Tomb II to Philip III
Arrhidaeus and Eurydice; and Tomb III probably gave the final rest
to Alexander IV, son of Alexander the Great.

2.

..


80-70 .
, , .
,
, .
, .
.
, , . , , ,
. , . .
,
. ,

. . ,
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, , .
, . .

310

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. ,
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,
. ,
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, , , ,
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. ,
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, , (Plut. Pomp. 22). uJpV ejmautw`/ aujtokravtori. aujtokravtwr imperator.
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,
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. (Pomp. 12) , , . . . , , , ,
, . .
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, . , , 25-30
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,
. (Plin. N. h. V, 22).
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. ,
,
.
4

312

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. , .
, , ,
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. , ,
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, , , 5, .
, .
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,
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. .
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, , ,
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. ,
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,
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79 ., ,
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,
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19. , , , .
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. (ajsfavleian)
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319

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, ,
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.
, . ,

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:
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I.
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.
, , , (Zos. IV, 54,1),
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. : (Serapio) , , , ,
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334

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...

335

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IV-VI . , , , , .
, .
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336

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,
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. ,
, , .

, .
O.V. Przhigodzkaja

Barbarians in the Roman Empire:


The process of Romanisation (IV-V centuries)
This article is about the process of romanisation. This process took
place in IV-V centuries AD and concerned the barbarians who lived in
the Roman Empire. Barbarian noble learnt Greek and Latin and joined
ancient culture and became the part of the Roman society. Romanisation
shows creation of new ideology of late antiquity.

..

, ,
.
,
, . ,
, - .

.
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1) ; 2)
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338

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.
Ant., Jud., XV, 344: .
, , , , . ,
20 . . .
Ant. Jud., XV, 354. Bel. Jud., I,
398-401 15- .
, ,
, 22-20. . .
3
Fl. Jos., Ant. Jud., XV, 344-360=Bel. Jud., I, 398-400; Ant. Jud., XVI, 271;
XVII, 319; Bel. Jud., II, 95.
2

... 339
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. . , .
4.
,
- . ,
, , . .
, , .
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, .
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(R. Dussaud. Les arabes en Syrie avant lIslam. Paris,
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, .
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7
Fl. Jos., Ant. Jud., XV, 352-353.
5
6

... 341
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Fl. Jos., Ant. Jud., XVI, 271.
8

342

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Fl. Jos., Ant. Jud., XVI, 275, 279-281.
12
Fl. Jos., Ant. Jud., XVI, 278.
10

... 343
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.
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[e[tou].....
Cavrhto e[p a[rco] speivrh Auj[gouvsth kai; strathg]o;
nomavdwn ....h
kai; Cal..........
[ ] ..[ ].
[ ] []
.
, , , , I . . . ,
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16
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.
15

... 345

o nomavdwn,
strathgo; nomavdwn [ ]
, , .
,
, .
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. ,
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346

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jAdrianou` tou` kai; Soaivdou Malevcou eqnavrcou, strathgou`


nomavdwn - , , , 19.
: . , , , , 20,
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VASD,
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:
..strat[hg]o; par[em]bolw`n [n]omavdw[n] ejtw`n kz v. [Awre,
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.
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(117-138 .)
19
(
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20
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21
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22
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Nilus Ancyranus Narratio, III, 4 (p. 13:15); IV, 5 (p. 26:15); V, 3 (p.27: 4); V,
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, .
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,
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.
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, , ,
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, .
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,
.
, ,
.
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...pres]b(euth;n) Seb(astou`) antistrav(thgon) oiJ ajpo; e[qnou
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Fu(lh;) Mozaiedhnw`n Aujr. jAntovnion Sabeinon ouetrano;n
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31 , , , , 109 .32
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- ,
. , .
- , .

,
. , ,
.
, ,
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350

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, (dia; de; tw`n Skhnitw`n)34.
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35 , . ,

. ,
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, (
) , . ,


. , , ,
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36. Strab., XVI, 1, 27=C748.
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36
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34

... 351
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, ,

,
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IV-VII . ,
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38
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..
IV-VI . -., 1964.
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, , ,
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(, , ). ,
, ,
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352

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,

.
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41.
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43: Fla(ouvio) Kaqelgouo, kovme kai; fuvlarco
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.. Parker S. Th. Romans and Saracens: a history of the
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46.
fulavrcou. , , , ,
, fulavrcou. ,
, - .
, .
, , . . , , . .
: Fl. Kaqelgo() uiJo; fulavrcou oJrikov .
, . ,
, , - ,
, .
, , . . ,
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Proc. Bell. Pers, I, 17, 46-47.
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. : ..
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Alt A. Die Griechischen Inschriften der
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52. ,
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. ,
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(PPAES, 20; IGLS, XIII, 9046), (W., 1906a).

356

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, . , , .
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, V-VI ., , 473 55.
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53
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.. .50-54; Letsios D.G. The Case of
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tou` Nokalivou gevn ou. Nokalivou - , .

... 357
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, , ,
, . , 57.
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
. , , .

. ,
, ,
. . ,
. , 58. , , , ,
, 59.
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
, .
Shahd I. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century. Washigton,
1989. P. 74-75.
, ,
, .
58
,
.
59
,
.
57

358

..

.
, , .
, , ,
,
, . , ,
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
. .
25 . 497 . ,
. ,
.
,
, 60.

.
,

, , .

, IV . , , , ,
, ,
61.
, IV-VI . 60
Theophanis Chronographia ex recensione I. Classeni. Bonnae, 1839. P.
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Amm. Marc., XIV, 4, 1.

... 359
, . , ,
, , ,
.
- , ,
, ,
.
:
. ,
.
, , , ,
62.
, , , - .
, , ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,

,
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360

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63.
-
:
, 64;
,
.
,
, ,

,
.
. .
, (, , ), ( ).

. :
,
;
, - ;
,
.
II-III . ,
Caes. De bell. Gall., I, 1,3.
,
,
.
: CIL, VIII,8813=8814. ( II. . .).
,
, , .
63
64

... 361
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, .65

.
.
IV-VI .

, - ,
.
, IV-VI .
, , . ,

.
- .
.
, , , .
, , ,
, VI.66
.
.
66
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362

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,
, , , 68.
,
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, ,
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, ,
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70, , , , , , ,
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561.
I. Kawar. The Arabs in the peace treaty
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.
68
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,
, VI , ,
. ,
,
,
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69
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70
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... 363
[] 71.

, , .
: ,
, , ,
.
, . ,
, ,
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,
. , ,

,
.

, , , , []74. , , ,
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71
Dexippi Bonnae, 1829.
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72
.
73
,
, ,
.
74

ajllodaphv, , , .
( , - GEL
: GEL, p.69). ,
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.

. , ajllodaphv
,

364

..

-, , , 75 , , ()
76.
.
-,

. -,
,
,
. , , , , .
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, .
.. ( ..
IV-VI . . 111), . (Dexipii,
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, . ..
.
75
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.
.. (. . . 343)
, .. (. . . 110)
, - (GEL., p.958) smuggle (=
).
76
(eujquvnh), ,
.

. .. (. . .110) ,
.. (. . . 343) .

... 365
- . , ,

, .
561 . ,
. ,
.
,
, VI.
,
.
,
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:
, - , 77, ;
-, -
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, .
- . ,
, - , .

77
,
.

366

..
A. G. Grouchevoy

Les principes des relations de Rome et de Byzance


avec les tribus nomades arabes
Les principes des relations du pouvoir romain et proto-byzantin avec
les tribus arabes nomades taient emprunts par eux de la part dynastes
juifs (Hrode et ces hritiers) et peut-tre aussi de monarques nabatens.
Ces principes se composaient de rglementations dans trois domaines:
les finances, le problme du territoire et du statut juridique.
Ladministration byzantine prferait dacheter la loyaut des
nomades qui taient dans leur sphre dinfluence. Les noamdes
recevaient un salaire rgulier et taient utiliss pour la dfense de la
frontire en qualit des troupes auxiliaires. Quant lpoque romaine,
nous avons en notre dispostion des inscriptions qui prouvent lutilisation
des nomades en qualit des forces auxiliaires, mais nous navons pas
de preuves de payements de la part des autorits romaines aux tribus
arabes nomades.
Les rglementations des relations avec les tribus nomades arabes
devaient resoudre aux temps romains et byzantins encore deux
problmes:
- la dlimitation du territoire o les nomades pouvaient vivre pendant
leur sjour sur le territoire de lEmpire.
- les autorits romaines et byzantines tchaient aussi toujours
prciser le statut juridique des tribus arabes nomades se trouvant sur le
territoire de lEmpire. Cest justement pour cela que les nomades taient
considrs et traits le plus souvent comme les allis pris au services
de lEmpire.
Ces thses sont illustrs dans le texte par les inscriptions de lpoque
romaine et byzantine, par certains passages de Flavius Josphe, ainsi
que par certains passages des auteurs de lpoque proto-byzantine.

3.
..

-
*
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( ), . ,
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.
.


(IV, 57-58) (II, 8, 2-4), , , , .
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(Diod. IV, 57, 2-4; Apollod. II, 8, 1; .
Hekateios FGrH I.30.; Paus. I, 32, 6). ,
. , , ,
*

-
(06-06-80195).

368

..

(Diod. IV, 57, 4-6; Apollod. II, 8, 1; cp. Herod. IX, 27, 2;
Thuc. I, 9, 2; Strab. VIII, 6, 19; Paus. I, 32, 6; I, 44, 10).
,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, 100 ( 50, ).
, (Apollod. II, 8,
2; Diod. IV, 58, 1-4; . Herod. IX, 26, 2-5; Paus. I, 32, 6; I, 44, 10;
VIII, 5, 1; VIII, 45, 3; VIII, 53, 10).
, , , . , , ,
(Diod. IV, 58, 4-6; . Strab. IX, 4, 10).
. , . ,
(Diod. IV, 37, 3-4; Apollod. II, 7, 7).
.
,
(Apollod. II, 8, 2). , (Paus. X, 38, 10). ,
. , , (Diod. VII, 9, 1; Apollod. II, 8, 4;
Isor. Arhid. 16-21; Paus. II, 18, 6-7; IV, 3, 3-6).
, , ,
.
VII (Eunomia, fr.2 Diehl),
, -, . , -

369

, , , . : ,
.
(498 ..) ,
,
(Pyth X 1 ff). , . ,
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, . ,
(fr. 19 West) , ,
, .
, , , . ,
(poluplavnhton).
( - ), ,
, ,
. .
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(VIII,
31), (I, 107, 2).
, , 80 .

, (Archid. 16-25). ,
,
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:
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,
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370

..

). , , . , .
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, .
.
.
(339 .) ,
: (Panathenaicus 177).
. ,
(- - ,
, )1. ,

(Legg. III). ,
, ,
, .
, IV
. , -, , . ,
(Strabo VIII, 5,4).
, (
) .
- . , , . ,
, , ,
1
. : Tigerstedt E.N. The legend of Sparta in classical antiquity. Stockholm, 1964. Vol. I. P. 32.

371

, , - .
, .

. : ?
,
2. ,
, ,

. 3.
, . . ,
, , (Strab.
VIII, 3, 30; Paus. V, 3). , (Diod. VII, 9, 2; Paus. II, 4, 3). .
, .
4.
, , , ,
2
.: .. . . ., 1976. . 13 14. .. .
. ., 2005. . 49-54.
3
.. . . ., 2005. . 54.
4
Hall J. Ethnic identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge, 1997. P. 59-62. .
Hall J. Hellenicity. Between Ethnicity and culture. Chicago, 2002. P. 80-82. Malkin
I. Myth and territory in the Spartan Mediterranean. Cambridge, 1994. P. 38-43.
Koiv M. Ancient Trradition and Early Greek History. The Origins of States in
Early-Archaic Sparta, Argos and Corinth. Tallinn, 2003. P. 35-44.

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. , , , ,
, .
, ,
- , .
,
: , . ,
,
,
(Strab. IX, 4, 10; Apollod. II, 8, 3)5. , , , 6. ,
VII , , .
,
, , 7. , ,
- .
, . . ,
.
,
VII , . -,
, ,
.
(Diod. IV, 33, 5; Isocr.
5
, .
I
, , , (Herod.
V, 72). , .
6
Tigerstedt E.N. The legend of Sparta in classical antiquity. Stockholm,
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, , ,
, : Hall J. Ethnic identity... P. 61-62;
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373

Archid. 18-19)8. -, , , . .
, , , 9. , , , ,
.
. , , . ,

, ,
. ,
, , .
, , ,
( ).
, ,
10. , ,
- .
, ,
, .
, , . ,
, , , -, ,
11.
Tigerstedt E.N. The legend... P. 31; Malkin I. Myth... P. 23.
Tigerstedt E.N. The legend... P. 34.
10
Hall J. Ethnic identity... P. 62.
11
. Tigerstedt E.N. The legend of Sparta in classical antiquity. Stockholm,
1964. Vol. I. P. 34.
8
9

374

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12. , , . ,
, , , 13.

( ,
). , .
.
(XI , )
. .. , , , XI-X .., 14.
, ,
,
,
.
:
, (Apollod.
II 8, 4; Paus. IV, 3, 4-5).
.
13
,
.
: ?
, , ,
. (
) ,
.
, ,
.

(479 ..).
. ,
, :
, ;
, , . . .
. , 2003. . 102-105
14
.. . , 1998.
.7.
12

375

, , . . , ,
- .
, .
, ,
,
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.. .
. , ,
,
(, ),
15 . ,
, . .
, , 16.
, , , 17.

. , , Tigerstedt E.N. The legend P. 34-35.
Tiferstedt E.N. The legend P. 35.
17
. Hammond N.G.L. 1) Hammond N.G.L. Desborough V.R. dA. The end
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18.
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,
,
.. , ,
The end... P.48-50.
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)22, .
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,
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., , Vansina J. Oral tradition as history. Wisconsin, 1985.
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Cartledge P. Sparta and Lakonia. A Regional History 1300-362 BC. London,
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..

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). -,
.
.
, . ,
, , .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.
, -.
I.V. Makarov

The tradition about the return of the Heraclids


The legend about the return of the Heraclids was a starting point of
Spartan historiography. The story itself was a rather old one (widespread
in the VII century BC already). The core of the legend consisted of
two traditions: the return of the Heraclids (apparently born in Argos)
and the coming of the Dorians (further developed in Sparta). While
traveling throughout Peloponnese the legend assimilated the local myths
of origin (like in Corinth or Elis) and acted as an ideological basis during
the formation of the city-states in Peloponnese. Though it is impossible
to believe the details of the traditions (which could be distorted by oral
transition and used for political reasons) it looks like the legend was
based on the living memory of the real historical event - migration of the
Dorians from the central Greece into Peloponnese.

..



, , , .
, , , , , , ,
. , , , , .
, , , , ,
(Hes. Theog. 567590; Op. 50105).
, .
,

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, . , ,
.
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(Apollod. Epit. II.1011). -

380

..

1. , , .
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(Apollod. Epit. III.15.1).
.
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(Paus. III.19.13).
.
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(Apollod. Epit. III.6.2). , .

(Apollod. Epit. III.7.25).
, (
!)
. , . .
3. , ( )
. . // . . 1. . 146.
,
(Hyg. Fab. 255).
3
. //
. ., 2005. . 1. . 378379.
1
2

381

. ,
, ,
, (Hyg. Fab. 187; Paus.
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, . (), , , ,
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, (Hom.
Il. VI.160 ..; Apollod. Epit. II.12)
4.
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III.13.13). ,
.
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. 5.
(Paus. VI.20.7). , (Hyg. Fab. 243).
.
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5

. . . , 1992. . 31.
. . // . . 1. . 598

382

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( Ovid. Met. IV.1 .)8. , . :
// . 1991. 2. . 3132.
7
. . // . . 1. . 32.
8
. . // . . 2. . 152.
6

383

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IX.34; Strabo VIII.3.8; Apollod. Epit. I.9.12). ,
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(Ovid. Met. IV.494
541).
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(Paus. I.32.6).
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930 .)11 .
,
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. . // . . 1. . 125.
. . ... . 51.
11
. . // . . 1. . 368.
9

10

384

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, (Apollod. Epit. I.8.13)12. ( Hom. Il. IX.567 c.)


( Hyg. Fab. 239)13.
, ,
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, 14.

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(Apollod. Epit. III.14.8;
Ovid. Met. VI.424674)15.
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. (Apollod. Epit. I.9.24)
(Paus. VIII.11.2; Ovid. Met. VII.297), , .
: ,
,
- (.: . .
// . ., 2005. . 207).
13
. // .
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14
. . // . . 1. . 63.
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12

385

(Hyg. Fab. 25), (Diod. IV.54;


Paus. II.3.67; Apollod. Epit. I.9.28). ,
, ,
(Apollod.
Epit. I.9.28). (,
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E.A. Zakharova

Female crimes in Greek mythology


In ancient Greek mythology such female crimes, as adultery, treachery, slander (purpose of which is the death), incest, murder are described. All of them are punished depending on weight of acts: sufferings, violent transformations, and mostly death (such as murder and
suicide). One of most criminal women is Clytemnestra, entered in intimacy with the cousin of her husband Agamemnon, and then killed her
husband and his mistress Cassandra. The image of the heroine has
undergone transformation: in early sources Clytemnestra is only the
accomplice of murderer Aegisf, but later she is the initiator, and sometimes the executor of a crime.

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A. A. Sinitsyn

The Dionysian plays of Sophocles


The well-established opinion in the modern studies of classics about
Sophocles antidionysism does not find any confirmation in the sources.
The Dionysian themes permeate Sophocles tragedies throughout all
the period of his writing career, starting from Trackers (Ichneutai)
to his last play Oedipus at Colonus. The dramaturgical innovation in
Tereus was that Sophocles included the Dionysian feast to enhance
the tragic context of the tragedy and for the first time turned to advantage
the spectacular elements of the ritual sacrifice, disguise and
. .
., 1978. . 165 .; Bowra C. M. Sophokles ber seine eigene Entwicklung /
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: //
: . . . 60- . . .
/ . . . . . , 2007. . 910. . 233.
65
, (Pap. Oxy. 1952. Vol. 20.
2256, Frag. 3), 460- . . .
. . ,
(.
). .
,

(?),
.

408

..

reincarnation. At the early stages of his writing career, Sophocles could


resort to the Dionysian myths to form the basis of both his tragedies
(Bacchae, Hydrophoroi and the corresponding trilogies?) and satyr
plays (Dionysiscus). The adduced facts convince that Sophocles was
well-aware and familiar with the Bacchic theme; Dionysus was no
less akin to the poet than to such tragedians as Aeschylus and Euripides.

..


,
, .
. , , ,
.
: , , , .
. , , I-II ...
1.
,
. , , ,
. , , ,
Demsky A. Proto-Canaanite Abecedary Dating from the Period of Judges
and its Implications for the Alphabet // Tel-Aviv. Vol.4. 1977. P.14-27; Lemaire A.
Abcdaire et exercices dcolier en pigraphie nord-ouest smitique// Journal
Asiatique. Vol.266. 1978. P.221-235 ; Hestrin R., Dayagi-Mendels M. Inscribed
Seals. First Temple Period Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite, Phoenician and Aramaic,
from the Collections of the Israel Museum and the Israel Department of
Antiquities and Museums. Jerusalem, 1979. No 127, 129.
1

410

.
. ,
, 2.
, , , , .
, , XII-X . .., , , ,
.
, ,
- .


,

.
,
, 3.
, , XII-X . .., ,
2
Hachlili R. The Goliath Family near Jericho: Funerary Inscriptions from a
1st cent. AD Jewish Monumental Tomb // Bulletin of American Schools of
Oriental Research. Vol.235. 1979. P.47-48; Kloner A. Abecedary Inscription from
Hirbet Eitun. Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Jewish Studies.
Jerusalem, 1986. P.128-129 (Hebrew); de Vaate A. Alphabet Inscriptions on
Ancient Jewish Graves // Van Henten J.W. (ed.) Studies in Early Jewish
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3
XIV. ..,
. .: Dussaud R. LAbecedaire
dUgarit // Syria. Vol. 27. 1950. P.376; Cross F.M.Jr., Freedman T.O. An Ugaritic
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, . ,
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,
, 5.
, , 22 , , , , .
: , ,
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, , . , . :

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,
IX VIII . .., , ,
Finkelstein I. Izbet Sartah. Oxford, 1986.
Demsky A. A Proto-Canaanite Abecedary P.14-27; Lemaire A.
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6
Tappy R. et al. An Abecedary of Mid-Tenth Century BCE from Judean
Shephela // Bulletin of American Schools of Oriental Research. Vol.344. P.5-46.
4
5

412

7.
. ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, .
, .
, , , , .
, , 8. VIII
. .. 9. , , 10.

. , , VII-VIII . ..11 , ,
. , 12.
13 ,
7
Meshel Z. Kuntillet Ajrud. Jerusalem, 1978; Saas B. Script and Inscriptions
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8
Tufnell O. Lachish III. The Iron Age. Oxford, 1953. P.118, fig.10; P.357-358
9
Ussishkin D. et al. The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish
(1973-1994). Tel-Aviv, 2004. Vol. IV. P.2116-2117. No XXIII, fig. 29.1.
10
Lemaire A. A Schoolboy Exercise on an Ostracon at Lachish // Tel Aviv.
Vol. 3. 1976. P.109-110.
11
Hestrin R., Dayagi-Mendels M. Inscribed seals P.161, 166.
12
Ibid., No 129.
13
Ibid., No 127.

413

ABGD, L,
ABGD. , ,
. , : <> .
, 14.
, XII VII . ..
,
, , 15. ,
. , , , , . ,
.
VII . ,
.
, . , , ,
. ,
,
.
,
: , , , .
14
Rahmani L.Y. Two Syrian Seals // Israel Exploration Journal. Vol.14. 1964.
Pl. 41 E.
15
:
(.6,
24-26). , VII . ..,
. .: Barkay G. Excavations
at Ketef Hinnom in Jerusalem // Geva H. (ed.) Ancient Jerusalem Revealed.
Jerusalem, 1994. P.85 ff.

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,
.
. ,
37 . .. 70 . .., . , , ,
.
, 16. , , ,
. ,
.
,
,
.
1980- .
, , 68 . ..17
. , , 18.
, (.27, 8; .1,
19) . 1990- .
, I . ..19 Kloner A., Zissu B. The Necropolis of Jerusalem in the Second Temple
Period. Jerusalem, 2003 (Hebrew); Hachlili R. Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices
and Rites in the Second Temple Period. Leiden, 2005.
17
Hachlili R. et al. Jericho, The Jewish Cemetery of the Second Temple
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18
Idem. Jewish Funerary Practices P.508-511.
19
Avni G., Greenhut Z. The Akeldama Tombs: Three Burial Caves in the
Kidron Valley, Jerusalem. Jerusalem, 1996.
16

415

, . , ,
20.
- . -
, , III-IV . ..

21 .
, III-IV .
..
, , 22 . ,
: ,
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, ,
: . , , ,
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22
Mazar B. Beth-Shearim I-III. Jerusalem, 1973.
23
Dornseiff F. Das Alphabet in Mystic und Magie. Leipzig, 1922. P.158-168,
163, No.14; 165, No.28; 166, No. 1; 168, No.9.
20

21

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, ,
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, , , . - II . ..24,
25
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, . , ,
27. I . .. 28, 29.
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30.

, , , VIII . ..

, 24
Cumont F. Fouilles de Doura Europos. Paris, 1926. P.119-120; Supplementum
Epigraphicum Graecum VII. Nos. 773, 799.
25
Dupont-Sommer A. Une inscription aramen indite de louadi
Hammamat // Revue dAssyriologie. Vol. XLI. 1947. P.105-110.
26
Caquot A. Novelles inscriptions aramennes de Hatra // Syria. Vol. 29.
1952. P.97.
27
Macalister R.A.S. The Excavations of Gezer II. London, 1912. P.276-277,
fig.425. , ,
.
28
de Vaux R. Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran // Revue Biblique. Vol.20. P.229.
29
Testa E. Herodion IV: I Graffiti e gli ostraca. Jerusalem, 1972. P.77-80, 95;
Netzer E. et al. Greater Herodium. Jerusalem, 1981. P.71, ill.98.
30
Benoit P., Milik J.T., de Vaux R. Les grottes de Murabbaat // Discoveries
in the Judean Desert II. Oxford, 1961. Inscr. Nos. 10B, 11, 73, 78-80.

417

31. , 132-135 . -.

. , .
, :
, .
, ,
.
, , .

, .
, ,
. , .

,
32. , ,
.
, : . , , , ,
. , 33.

, .
, ,
Patrich J. Refuges juif dans les gorges du Wadi Mukhmas // Revue
Biblique. Vol. 96. 1989. P.235-239, pl. XV
32
, , ,
, , .. O .: . . , 1993; Alexander P.S. Incantations and Books of
Magic // Schurer E. (ed.) The History of Jewish People in the Age of Jesus
Christ (175 BC AD 135). Edinburgh, 1986. Vol.III. Part I. P.341-379
33
.: Friedman I. (ed.) Book of Creation II, 2. New
York, 1977.
31

418

, , , , .
IV-VII . ,
34 ,
35 , 36 .

(, , , ) , charakteres.
, , :
.

. ,
(. 13, 5-12; 19, 13-16; Joseph.,
Ant. XX, 7, 2; VIII, 2, 5; Pl., Hist.Nat. XXX, 11; Orig., C. Cels. I, 26
..). , , .
; , , . , , , : ,
,
( ,
: , , )37 .

,
Naveh J., Shaked S. Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of
Late Antiquity. Jerusalem, Leiden, 1985; McCullough W.S. Jewishand Mandean
Incantation Bowls in the Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto, 1967.
35
Schiffman L.H., Schwartz M.D. Hebrew and Aramaic Incantation Texts
from the Cairo Genisah. Sheffield, 1992.
36
Naveh J., Shaked S. Amulets; Id. Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic
Incantations of Late Antiquity. Jerusalem, 1993.
37
Hull J. Hellenistic Magic and Synoptic Tradition. London, 1974. P.30-35;
Luck G. Arcana Mundi. Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds.
Baltimore, London, 1985. P.24-28.
34

419

38 .
, .
, ,
, .

, , 39 . ,
,
, . ,
.
, . ,

. , ! , , ,
.
, , ,
.
.
? ,
, . . ,
.
,
. , , , . , ,
,
, , .
MacGregor L. (ed.). The Key of Solomon the King. York, 1974. Pl.XV.
.. .
. ., 1998.
38
39

420

, ,
.
Y.Tchekhanovets

Palestinian Abecedaria
Abecedaria Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions, consisting
of letters written in alphabetic order are relatively usual among the
epigraphic finds of Palestinian archaeology. The first examples are dated
to early periods, almost up to the invention of alphabetic script, but the
majority is belonged to the 1st-2nd cc. AD. Abecedaria inscriptions were
discovered in very different archaeological contexts: on ostraca and
scrolls, on the walls of residential houses and tombs, on ossuary lids and
tombstones.
Wrongly interpreted as scribal exercises, these inscriptions have to
be regarded as a part of sacral tradition, connected to the mystique of
letters. Sacral attitude to a written text consisted of letters approach
typical for oriental cultures, gave a birth to a large number of philosophic
tendencies and had enriched the ancient mysticism.

..



.
, . III . . .
1,
IV ,
, 2. ,
3.
313
, IV . , III ,
,
; -.
2
Shaw B. D. Latin Funerary Epigraphy and Family Life in the Later Roman
Empire // Historia. 1984. Vol. 33. P. 467.
3
,

, :
Monceaux P. Histoire littraire de lAfrique crtienne depuis les origines jusqu
linvasion arabe. Paris, 19011923. 7 vols.
. ,
,
, , XIX : Harnack A.
Geschichte der altchristliche Literatur bis Eusebius. T. II. Die Chronologie der
altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius. Bd. 12. Leipzig, 1897.
1

422

..

, 4.
.
5. 6. , Braun R. Deus Christianorum. Recherches sur le vocabulaire doctrinal
de Tertullien. Paris, 1962. P. 547 ff.
5
Frend W. H. C. The Donatist Church. A Movement of Protest in Roman North
Africa. Oxford, 1952. P. 87; Telfer W. The Origins of Christianity in Africa //
Studia Patristica. Vol. IV. Berlin, 1961. P. 512; Brown P. Augustine of Hippo: A
Biography. Berkeley, 1969. 2nd ed. P. 12; Barnes T. D. Tertullian. A Historical
and Literary Study. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1985. P. 60; Labriolle P. The History and
Literature of Christianity. From Tertullian to Boetius / Transl. H. Wilson.
London, NewYork, 1996. P. 55.
6
Passio Sanctorum Scillitanorum // The Acts of the Christian Martyrs /
Introd., texts and Engl. transl. by H. Musurillo. Oxford, 1972. P. 8689.
, ,
, , .
II
III . .
, ,
,
. Monceaux P. Op. cit. Vol. 1. P. 6170; Bardenhewer
O. Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur. Freiburg, 1902. Bd. 2. S. 675678;
Alfonsi L. Sugli Atti dei martiri scillitani // Convivium. 1957. Vol. 25. P.
732741; Karpp H. Die Zahl der Scilitanishen Mrtyrer // Vigiliae Christianae.
1961. Vol. 15. S. 165172; Hanslik R. Secretarium und Tribunal in den Acta
Martyrum Scillitanorum // Mlanges offerts Mlle Chr. Mohrmann. Utrecht,
1963. P. 163167; Barnes T. D. PreDecian Acta Martyrum // Journal of
Theological Studies. 1968. N.S. Vol. XIX. P. 519520; Idem. Tertullian. P. 60
63, 262263; Musurillo H. Op. cit. P. XXIIXXIII. ,

. , ,
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Acta Martyrum Scilitanorum // . i. 1903. . I. .
882894; . II. . 6076.
, , ,

: . .
. . .. .
. . , 1998. . 7475.
4

423

, 17 180 :
, , , [ ] ,
, , , , 7.
, ; , ,
.
8 .
9; ,
(proconsul Africae) 180/181 . . . 10
, . , , , , , (Tert. Ad Scap. 3)11 . ,

, . ,

(Aug. Ep. XVI, 2), , ,
()12 .
7
. (.
. 6).
8
. ,
, . ,
- ,
(Scilli Scillium)
. Musurillo H. Op. cit. P. XXII; Barnes T. D. Tertullian. P. 63.
9
Prosopographia Imperii Romani saec. I, II, III / Aufl. E. Klebs, H. Dessau,
P. von Roden. Berlin, 18971898. T. III. S. 434.
10
Musurillo H. Op. cit. P. 87, note 2.
11
Vigellius Saturninus, qui primus hic gladium in nos egit, lumina amisit.
12
. . . . 2.
. ., 1994. . . 1907 . .
280; Frend W. H. C. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study
of a Conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus. Oxford: Blackwell, 1965. P. 313.
4 . ,
. 5 :
Monceaux P. Op. cit. Vol. I. P. 43, note 1.

424

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,
, (Apul. Metam. IX. 14)13 . . IX 169176 14 ,
70- 80- . II .
. , ,
15, , -,
.
.
(
), (Acta
Mart. Scillit. 1), et ceteri (14); ,
(per preconem) (16)16. . ,
: . Schmidt V. Reaktionen
auf das Christentum in den Metamorphosen des Apuleius // Vigiliae
Christianae. 1997. Vol. 51. S. 5171.
14
Barnes T. D. Tertullian. P. 272.
15
, . , . , , , , .
-, , .
16
.

,
: Karpp H. Op. cit.; Frend W. H. C. Martyrdom and Persecution
P. 339, note 87; Musurillo H. Op. cit. P. XXII.
17
Frend W. H. C. The Donatist Church. P. 88.
13

425

, 17.
?
, ,
, .
(Januaria, Generosa, Donata, Secunda, Vestia)
;
,
. .
Nartzalus Cittinus -, 18 . : ,
(4 ) , , . , (Namphamo),
19 , Miggin, Lucitas,
Sanae , Miggin 20 . ,

.
.
.
Speratus. , . 21 .
(Veturius, Felix, Aquilinus, Laetantius) (, ) 22
Barnes T. D. Tertullian. P. 63 Thesaurus Linguae Latinae.
(Cittinus) Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Nartialus).
19
. . . 280.
20
Frend W. H. C. Martyrdom and Persecution P. 339, note 86. .
Lassre J. M. Ubique populus: peuplement et mouvements de population
dans lAfrique romaine. Paris, 1977. P. 341.
21
,
Quodvultdeus (V ).
22

(Kleine Pauly. Stuttgart, 1972. Bd. 4. Sp. 12401242)
18

426

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, .
, .
, , , -
. , gladio animadverti,
.
, Passio Sanctorum
Scillitanorum
,
-
: ,
, .
, (, ), , ( , ),
.
?

: . ecclesia
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. , IV
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, ,
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23
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Frend W. H. C. The Donatist Church. P. 87; Quasten J. Patrology. Utrecht,
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Labriolle P. Op. cit. P. 55.

427

,
(Tert. Praescr. Haer. 3137). : , ; ,
- - .
, :
, , ,
, , . ?
. , , . ,
, , ,
(Tert. Praescr. Haer. 36. 1)26 . ,
, . ?
, ,
,
.
. ?
.
189 , (Euseb. Hist. eccl. V, 22). (Hist. eccl. V, 2325),
,
Age iam, qui uoles curiositatem melius exercere in negotio salutis tuae,
percurre ecclesias apostolicas apud quas ipsae adhuc cathedrae apostolorum
suis locis praesident, apud quas ipsae authenticae litterae eorum recitantur
sonantes uocem et repraesentantes faciem uniuscuiusque . [2] Proxima est tibi
Achaia, habes Corinthum. Si non longe es a Macedonia, habes Philippos; si
potes in Asiam tendere, habes Ephesum; si autem Italiae adiaces , habes
Romam unde nobis quoque auctoritas praesto est .
26

428

..

(Hipp. Philos. IX. 1213), ,



.
27.
? , .
, , . , , ,
. ,
28 : ,
,
, , . ,
,
,
, ,
29 . , , : III ..
. , ,
,
.
, ,
,
, , . 30, ?
27
La Piana G. The Roman Church at the End of the Second Century //
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28
Telfer W. Op. cit. P. 515516.
29
Bowersock G. Les glises de Lyon et de Vienne: relations avec lAsie //
Les martyrs de Lyon (177). Lyon 20-23 septembre 1977. Actes du Colloques
internationaux. Paris, 1978. P. 249256.
30
,
. : Telfer
W. Op. cit. P. 513 ff.

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31 . ,
32,
.
, , II . .. ,
, . ,
33 .
,

34 .
, , , II
, .
. ,
II
, . ,
, ,
( II III ) (. III
.) , . , (SHA. Severus. 17, 1), ,
,
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Barnes T. D. Tertullian. P. 273275.
33
Carcopino J. Rome et les immolation denfants // Aspects mystiques de
la Rome paenne. P., 1942. P. 3948.
34
Trevett C. Montanism // The Early Christian World / Ed. Ph. F. Esler.
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31
32

430

..

35 . ,


.

. , , ? ,
,
36 . . ,
,
, , , 37 .
, , 38 .
:
, , ,
(Acta Scill. Mart. 12)39 , :
, 40 . ,
, 41 .
-.
. , , , ,
. . . . . 7787.
Passio Sanctarum
Perpetuae et Felicitatis (203 .).
36
.

: Telfer W. Op. cit. 513 ff.
37
. . . V.
. ., 1995. . 470.
38
Kotula T. Utraque lingua eruditi: une page relative lhistoire de
leducation dans lAfrique romaine // Hommages Marcel Renard. 3 vols.
Collection Latomus. 101103. Brussels, 1969. Vol. 2. P. 386392.
39
Quae sunt res in capsa vestra?
40
Libri et epistulae Pauli viri iusti.
41
. ,

. . H. Musurillo. Op. cit. P. XXII.
35

431

,
. 42 .
, ,
.
-,
,
? .
? .
,
, : 43.

. :
,
, 44.
, , ,
?
,
? , , ,

.

. . . . 480.
,
.

.
44
Telfer W. Op. cit. P. 513.
42
43

432

..
E. Sergejeva

The first Christian communities in North Africa


This paper discusses some issues of the making of Christianity in
Roman Africa. The paper is based on materials of the Acts of Scillitan
martyrs and Tertullians treatise Ad Scapulam. The author considers
the social status of the first converts and proves that Christianity spread
in Africa through middle class and involved the native (may be Punic)
and romanized groups as well. She also makes an attempt to re-examine
the issue of the origins of African Christianity. All possible ways of
Christianization of Africa that argued by specialists (through Rome, by
means of Jewish community or with Greek-speaking migrants from
the East) dont need to choose, to the authors mind, the only alternative.

..



( )*

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(06-06-80195).
*

434

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, IIIII . .
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435
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, . II .
.. : , , , , ? , , ,
. , (Met. XI, 23), .
. , , .
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, -,
.

,
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436

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(Ad Aut. III, 7).
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II . . , . ,
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( , .), , (Apol. I, 54). I
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, , - (Apol. I, 24). ,
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437
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438

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.
(. 160 . 240 .)
: , ,
. , . , ,
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(197 .)
(. 200 .). ,
, . ( 30).
;
,
(Antiquitates rerum
divinarum), . ,
() () . , , . :
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439
, . , ,
,
. , : , , , .
(ab effatu), (a
loquendo).
. ! ,
!
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, (adeundi), (ab abeundo). , ,
(Ad nat. II, 11).
, , (, )
( ).
. , . , .
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. IIIIV .
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440

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,
, ,
.

IIIVII . ,
, .
. ,
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- (IV, 1317), ,
(V), , , .
,
, , , , . ,
.
A.D. Panteleev

Ancient Religion in the Christian Apologies


This article deals with problems of narration and interpretation of
the Greek and Roman religion in Christian Apologists works. Tractates
of Justin Philosopher, Clemens, Tertullian (esp. Ad nationes) and
Arnobius are important sources for study of Classical religion and
mythology.

III.

..

:
-
.. ,
(XVIII,
29, 1 30, 4) (Tact. V, 1 2),
(Tact. XIV, 1 6) (Tact. XII, 6 10)
1. . . ,
, , , . , ,
-
, , , 2.
, , , (Polyb. X, 20, 4),
3.
.: Devine A. M. Aelian s Manual of Hellenistic Military Tactics: A New
Translation from Greek with an Introduction // AncW. Vol. 19. 1989. P. 31 64;
idem. Arrians Tactica // ANRW. Bd. II. Berlin, 1993, P. 312 337.
2
. : idem. Polybius Lost Tactica: The Ultimate Source for
the Tactical Manuals of Asclepiodotus, Aelian, and Arrian? // AHB. Vol. 9.
1995. fasc.1. P. 40 44.
3

IX X
,
. . :
. . // ,
1

442

..


, -
(Aelian. Tact. I, 2; Arr. Tact. I, 1), ,
, ,
(XVIII, 29, 1
30, 4). (Tact. XIV, 1 6), (Tact. XII, 6 10) (Tact. V, 1 2)4.

, , (Tact. I, 3 4), (Tact. I, 2; III, 4;
XIX, 10)
, , - . . .
, -,
-
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, .
Elena Sosnina

Lattivita scientifica dei professori


Ivan Pomjalovskij e Ivan Cvetaev in Italia (18701890)
Gli studi scientifici di Ivan Pomjalovskij e di Ivan Cvetaev, pubblicati
negli anni Settanta dellOttocento, e il loro epistolario, a tuttoggi inedito,
svelano unepoca ancora ignota alla storia della scienza russa.
Per oltre un trentennio Cvetaev e Pomjalovskij ebbero una fitta
corrispondenza, nella quale i fatti della Storia si fondo con i loro rispettivi
microcosmi. Al contesto storico in cui si intrecciano il destino della Russia
e i destini dei due protagonisti di unavventura culturale fa da sfondo
lItalia.
LItalia e quindi, per i due russi illustri, una sorta di refugium studiorum,
una dimensione ideale ove resuscitare un mondo altro, nel tempo e nello
spazio.

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A. Tischov

Alexandri Josephi filii Zaicev elogium


Ante diem XII Kalendas Iunias h. a. Alexander J.f.Zaicev Universitatis
Petropolitanae ordinis philologorum professor emeritissimus inter
propinquos amicosque discipulorumque turba circumdatus studiis
antiquitatis multis ac variis, ut solebat, prorsus obrutus diem natalem
octogesimum primum egisset, vir de quo iam multa a multis cum dicta
tum etiam dicenda sunt. Et me magistri dilectissimi desiderium compulit,
ut memoriam eius pie diligenterque, ut par est, recolerem.
Praemonendus est lector, omnia, quae infra leguntur, anno praeterito
ad diem natalem magistri octogesimum conscripta esse. Quae
promulgandi facultatem nec fors tunc mihi obtulit neque ipse rem
accelerandam putabam; nempe quidquid statim de sartagine, ut ita dicam,
ad imprimendum datur, notae deterioris necesse esse quis est, qui nesciat.
Nunc autem, ne diutius morer, tempus idoneum in medium proferendi
mihi visum est, occasione edendi peropportuna ab Ed. Frolov, professore
viro praeter ceteros doctissimo, qui multos per annos cum A.Z.
familiaritate coniunctum est, benignissime mihi oblata.
Abhinc annos decem septuagesimo die natali magistri dilectissimi
coram omnibus copiam fandi habui, cum omnes discipuli eius laeto animo
ingenii eius vigorem contemplantes blanda spe duceremur multos per
annos continuos nobiscum fore ipseque, qui tunc in summo virium suarum
fastigio fuit, praeclaris iam operibus absolutis, multo maiora moliebatur,
quae si ei efficere contigisset, emolumento ditissimo antiquitatis studia
donasset. At fata acerba implacabilia sunt.
Nunc restat, ut memoriam eius grato animo colentes, quae cuique
reminisci praecipue cordi est, revocemus ac in medium conferamus.
In primis posthuma eius quamvis breviter dicenda sunt. Multa enim
opera magistri post cinerem eius per tres proximos annos diligentissime
a discipulis A.Z. conlecta tribusque voluminibus complexa ac in unum

512

A. Tischov

corpus congesta prelio data sunt, reliquaque aliquot volumina iamiam


apparitura nimio desiderio exspectantur; Luciani Samosatensis versionem
Rossicam, quae abhinc prope septuaginta annos condita ac schedis
exarata erat, ab A.Z. retractatam multisque locis prope denuo confectam
retineri non possum, quin commerorem. Quae adeo diligenter ab eo, ut
omnino mos eius erat, facta est, ut singulis paginis, me teste, viceni et
plures emendationes eaeque gravissimae invenirentur. Quod opus
Herculeum A.Z., adflicta iam valetudine, subiit, ac ut ei par fuit, humeris
multis aliis muneribus operosis onustis usque ad finem tulit. Qua in re
neque operae mercede, quae plusquam modica fuit, neque gloriae futurae
fructibus, quibus homines, cum magna quaecumque incipiunt, delectari
sperant, pellectus, onus, paucorum solum viribus par suscepit, cum omnes
laboris fructus fatis malignis sibi denegatos esse novisset.
Commentationes singulae, quae in Hyperborei paginis discipulorum
eius manibus Alexandri Gavrilov ductu atque auspiciis, ad schedas
praeparatae in lucem datae sunt, praetermittendas non puto. Quae tamen
omnia sermonem uberiorem poscunt, at ne singula quidem enumerare
possim neque nobis opusculum scribere instituentibus hoc propositi fuit,
quippe de magistri operibus, quibus de antiquitatis studiis optime meruit,
iam ab aliis abunde dictum est, nos autem aliam viam ingredientes de
virtutibus eius utpote de patientia eius ac animi liberalitate dicemus, quia
omnes eius virtutes vix a multis nedum ab uno enarrari possint. Nam
viri scientia ampla ac spectabili ingenii indole donati quamvis non saepe
inveniuntur; animi virtutes omnibus temporibus rariores eoque pretiosiores
sunt; qui autem utriusque generis bonis praeditus est, mihi quidem deorum
Olympiacorum conviva videtur. At quotus quisque est, qui talis haberi
possit! A.Z. vir fuit, qui humanitatis specimen iure omnibus videretur. Is
enim ubique par sibi idemque fuit; tanta liberalitate ac patientia
incomparabili, doctrina autem tam profumdissima, ut vix credere posses. Nam hominum, qui auxilio egentes ab eo adiuti sunt, cum ipse otio
ad animi vires reficiendas semper careret, numerus iniri non potest.
Si talis in eos solum fuisset, qui rebus gravissimis occupati litterarum
studiis operam dabant, summa laude sine dubio dignus esset. Immo vero
etiam iis tempus suum benigne impertiebat, qui ab antiqitatis studiis procul
erant. Cuius rei causae minime latent: tanti enim dignitatem humanam
semper aestimavit, ut ad cuiusque sententiam licet parum consideratam
audiendam attento animo esset.
Quid multa? Uno altero exemplo rem inchoatam absolvere satius
esse videtur. Nam A.Z. multos per annos diei Mercurii horis vespertinis
omnes, qui auxilio eius egentes adveniebant, consilio adiuvisse quis

Alexandri Josephi filii Zaicev elogium

513

est, qui nesciat. Abhinc triginta ferme annos litterarum ac doctrinae


classicae studiosus saepenumero magistri sedem, prout res postulabat,
frequentavi. Haud pauci tunc in faucibus secundi tabulati philologorum
ordinis semper manserunt, dum in cathedrae conclave, quod A.Z.
sacrarium nuncupare solebat, asservato ordine alius post alium intrarent.
Quamquam eo die forte fortuna solus, quod rarissime usu venit, diu
praestolatus sum, dum praeceptor meus cum homine quodam prorsus
mihi ignoto colloquebatur. Brevi postea intellexi hunc virum sibi
persuasisse se linguam Tuscam enucliavisse eaque fiducia fretum
multarum paginum opusculum - hoc enim in mensa propositum erat a se coscriptum ad magistri iudicium attulisse. Quod opusculum prorsus
nugatorium variisque ineptiis refertum ne minima quidem attentione
dignum esse luce clarius apparebat. Sunt, qui eius generis scripta una
cum eorum auctoribus, qui tanquam fungi post pluviam proveniunt, a
limine, suo quidem iure, tempori proprio parcentes reiciant. Talis autem
animi magnitudo magistri fuit, ut plus quam duas horas continuas
audiendo ac in scripturam inquirendo cosumeret, ita tamen, ut errores,
quibus liber satis superque abundabat, monstraret, hominique molliter
persuaderet rem aliter diiudicari non posse, nisi via, qua progredi
oporteret, recta doctrina munita esset. At homo parum cordatum se
praebuit minimeque persuasus abiit. Tunc magnopere miratus sum,
cur tantum temporis in re inani consumptum esset, volventibus tamen
annis res mihi patuit; licet vana de causa hic vir ad magistrum
consulendum venerit, ille tamen humanitate ductus aliter sibi agere
opportere non censuit, nisi et temporis et attentionis quantum par est
ei largitus esset. Cuius generis exempla ab iis, quibus A.J. Zaicev
bene notus erat, multiplicari possunt.
Praecipue autem animi eius liberalitas ac patientia in docendo
apparuit. Quam gravis praeceptorum labor quamque saepe infructuosum
sit, hoc neminem, qui aliquantulum in hac re versatus est, fugere posse
credo. Nam omnia difficiliora, quae supra vires eorum sunt, discipulorum
bona pars minimi facit, detrectat ac laeto animo respuit, eis solum rebus
operam dare parata, quae linguae Britannicae instar ad huius temporis
vitae utilitates spectant. Saepe accidit, ut doctrinae classicae studiosi,
ne de aliis dicam, utraque lingua despecta, quas ille sacras appellare
solebat, dolore eum haud parvo afficerent. Quae omnia moleste ferebat,
qui sibi persuasum haberet depravati ac corrupti animi solum homines
linguae Graecae et Latinae ediscendae repugnare posse, et quamquam
in discipulorum nequissimorum offensionem saepenumero incidit nunquam in docendi officio suo non mansit.

514

A. Tischov

Sed haec hactenus. Ad ea nunc transeamus, quae semper cordi eius


fuere, in quibus praeter propria eius studia seminarium illud, quod per
quadraginta ferme annos rexit, numerandum est, ubi in Platonis,
Aristotelis, Pindari operibus legendis explicandisque ingenii eius indoles
eximia ac doctrina copiosissima splendide effulsit. Quo ex seminario
multa ingenia praeclara, propriis et tunc temporis et postea studiis spectata,
provenere, quorum in numero V.Andreev, V.Gutorov, S.Tachtadjan, D.
Pancenko, L. Jniud, A.Verlinskii imprimis nominandi sunt multique alii,
quorum hic locus non capit recensionem.
Moris eius fuit omnia, quae ferenda sibi susceperat onera, ad finem
ferre, quamquam currentibus annis eorum numerus adeo crevit, ut
nequaquam hic percenseri posset. Neque id silentio praetermittendum
esse puto eum omnibus suis rebus discipulorum commoda saepenumero
antetulisse. Is enim studiis propriis postpositis, in operibus eorum
corrigendis omnibusque modis adiuvandis, prout res postulabat, operam
suam liberalissime collocabat.
Multos post annos, ingravescente iam valetudine, par sibi mansit
cumque schola Graeco-latina Sergii Zavialov auspiciis condita esset,
una cum Alexandro Gavrilov ludi magistris auxilium semper tulit. Quam
magni momenti hoc omnibus, qui tunc elementa discipulos docuimus,
fuerit, non est, quod dicam. Quippe ipsa praesentia eius vires dabat. Is
enim quamvis magnis variisque curis distentus semper utilitati communi
consulendum sibi putavit; ei philologorum et historicorum ordo et gymnasium classicum scholaque Graeco-latina plurima debent. Quibus rebus
ultro operam dabat, cum universitatis munia gravissima obeunda semper haberet.
Permulti sunt, qui persuasum sibi habeant proprias cuique non alienas
res curae esse oportere; equidem Alexandrum J. Zaicev saepenumero
audivi dicentem curas aliorum diluendas atque levandos curae sibi esse;
quod onus haud leve ultro humeris suis impositum usque ad diem
supremum tulit. Quo in viro hominis virtutes dignis laudibus extollere
non minoris momenti esse censeo quam perfecti omnibusque numeris
absoluti philologi imaginem ad vivum exprimere.
mense Maio a. D. M M VII

IV.


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. . , ,
- , , .
, 19 .
. , , .
20 .
. Swain S. Hellenic Culture and the Roman Heroes of Plutarch // The Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. 110. 1990. S. 126 - 145.
19
Lintott A. Imperium Romanum. Politics and Administration. London; New
York, 1993. S. 129 ff.
20
,
. ( ,
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, .
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honestiores humiliores23 .
.
, 21
. : -,
.
.
.
, , . . :
Nrr D. Origo // RE. Suppbd. X. 1965. Sp. 433-473. Sp. 449 ff.
22
Holtheide B. Rmische Brgerrechtspolitik und rmische Neubrger in
der Provinz Asia. Heidelberg, 1978. S. 115ff.
23
Rilinger R. Humiliores - Honestiores. Zu einer sozialen Dichotomie im
Strafrecht der rmischen Kaiserzeit. Mnchen, 1988.; Krause J.-U. Honestiores /
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556

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.
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24
,
, .
25
Millar F. Taking the Measure of the Ancient World // Proceedings of the
Classical Association. Bd. 90. 1993. S. 11 - 33. S. 20 f.
26
MacMullen R. Provincial Languages in the Roman Empire // American
Journal of Philology. 87. 1966. S. 1 - 17.; Millar F. Local Cultures in the Roman
Empire: Libyan, Punic and Latin in Roman Africa // The Journal of Roman
Studies. 58. 1968. S. 126 - 134.; Untermann J. Die Sprache in den Provinzen //
Was ist eigentlich Provinz ? Zur Beschreibung eines Bewutseins. Schriften
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27
Millar F. Local Cultures
28
Fideicommissa quocumque sermone relinqui possunt, non solum Latina
vel Graeca, sed etiam Punica vel Gallicana vel alterius cuiusque gentis
( ,
, ,
)

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. . ., 1972.
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) , ,

ATL
Bengtson SVA

CAH
CIA
CID
CIG
DA
Ditt. Syll.3
FAS
F(ontenrose)

FgrHist

. .., 1965
Meritt B.D., Wade-Gery H.T., McGregor M.F.
The Athenian Tribute Lists. Vol.IIV. Cambridge (Mass.)Princeton (N.Y.), 19391953
Bengtson H. Die Staatsvertraege des
Altertums. Bd.II. Die Vertraege der griechischroemischen Welt von 700 bis 338 v.Chr.
MunchenBerlin, 1962 (2.Aufl. 1975).
The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol.IXII.
Cambridge, (1923) 19241939 (2nd ed., 1970)
Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. Vol.IIII.
Berlin, 1873-1897
Corpus des Inscriptiones de Delphes
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. Vol.IIV.
Berlin, 1828-1877
Daremberg Ch. et Saglio E. Dictionnaire des
antiquites grecques et romaines. T.IV. Paris,
18771919
Dittenberger W. Sylloge Inscriptionum
Graecarum. Editio III. Vol.IIV. Leipzig,
19151919
Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei
Fontenrose J. Catalogue of Delphic Responses // Fontenrose J. The Delphic Oracle: its
Responses and Operations with a Catalogue of
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1978, p.240-416 (H Historical Responses;
Q Quasi-Historical Responses; L Legendary Responses; F Fictional Responses)
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FHG
IG
IG2
IOSPE

LSJ
Kleine Pauly
Ch.Michel
ML
Nauck TGF2
OGIS
P-W
RE
M.N.Tod

Muelleri K. et Th. Fragmenta Historicorum


Graecorum. Vol.IV. Paris, 18411872
Inscriptiones Graecae. Vol.I. Berlin,
1873
Inscriptiones Graecae. Editio minor. Vol.I-II/
III. Berlin, 1913-1924
Latyschev B. Inscriptiones antiquae Orae
Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini Graecae et Latinae.
Vol.I-II, IV. Petropoli, 1885-1890, 1901 (Vol.I2:
1916)
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Der Kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike. Bd.I
V. Munchen, 19641975
Michel Ch. Recueil dinscriptions grecques.
Paris, 1900. Supplement: Paris, 1912
Meiggs R. and Lewis D. A Selection of Greek
Historical Inscriptions to the End of the Fifth
Century B.C. Oxford, (1969) 1971
Nauck A. Tragicorum Graecorum
Fragmenta. Editio II. Leipzig, 1889
Dittenberger W. Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones
Selectae. Vol.III. Leipzig, 19031905
Parke H.W., Wormell D.E.W. The Delphic
Oracle. Vol.III. Oxford, 1956 (I The History; II The Oracular Responses)
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1948

569
)

Abh.Akad.Mainz
ABSA
ACl
AJA
AJPh
AJTh
AM
APF
ASAW
BCH
BJRL
ClPh
ClQu
CM

. .


. VI




. .;.


Abhandlungen der Akademie der
Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz.
Geistes- und sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse
The Annual of the British School at Athens
LAntiquite classique
American Journal of Archaeology
American Journal of Philology
American Journal of Theology
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen
Instituts. Athenische Abteilung
Archiv fr Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete
Abhandlungen der Sachsischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften
Bulletin de correspondance hellenique
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Classical Philology
Classical Quarterly
Classica et mediaevalia

570
CR
CRAI
GR
HTR
HSClPh
HZ
JclPh
JHS
JJP
JNG
JNES
JOAI
MAL
NGG
PP
RA
REA
REG
RF
RhM
RPh
SB Berlin
SB Leipzig
SB Munchen

Classical Review
Comptes-rendus des seances de lAcademie
des inscriptions et belles-lettres
Greece and Rome
Harvard Theological Review
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology
Historische Zeitschrift
Jahrbucher fur classische Philologie
The Journal of Hellenic Studies
Journal of Juristic Papyrology
Jahrbucher fur Numismatik und
Geldgeschichte
Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Jahreshefte des Oesterreichischen
Archaeologischen Institutes in Wien
Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei.
Memorie. Classe di scienze morali, storiche e
filologiche
Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der
Wissenschaften zu Goettingen
La parola del passato. Rivista di studi antichi
Revue archeologique
Revue des Etudes Anciennes
Revue des Etudes Grecques
Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica
Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie
Revue philosophique
Sitzungsberichte der (Preussischen)
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.
Philosophisch-historische Klasse
Sitzungsberichte der Saechsischen Akademie
der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologischhistorische Klasse
Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie
der Wissenschaften zu Munchen. Philosophischphilologische und historische Klasse

571
SB Wien
TAPhA
WS
ZN
ZPE

Sitzungsberichte der Oesterreichischen


Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophischhistorische Klasse
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association
Wiener Studien
Zeitschrift fur Numismatik
Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik

572
CONTENTS
E.D. Frolov. Instead of Preface. To the 140th Anniversary of
academician S.A. Zhebelev...............................................................................8

I. Actual Problems of Ancient History


The Politics of Imperialism and process of globalization
in the Ancient World
E.D. Frolov. The Imperialism of the Ancient World: concept,
phases, ideology, significance............................................................15
T.V. Kudrjavceva. Heliaia in the context of the Athenian
imperial policy...............................................................................................23
E.V. Rung (Kazan). The diplomatic expression of Persian
Imperialism: the Persian demand for Earth and Water
and the Greeks attitude...............................................................................41
M.M. Kholod. Syntaxis of the Greek Cities of Asia Minor
in the Time of Alexander the Great......................................................61
O. Ju. Klimov. Political system of the Hellenistic States:
Political power under the influence of Imperialism.....................................77
A.V. Koptev (Helsinki). Timaeus of Tauromenium and Rome
in the context of globalization of the antique Mediterranean....................89
A.B. Egorov. The strategic concept of Caesars Gallic Wars..........................129
N.S. Shirokova. Celtic Britain after Caesars Campaign......................151

II. Historical Studies


1. Ancient Greece
M.Yu. Lapteva (Tobolsk). Ionian basileia (XIVIIth cc. BC):
common Greek and Ionian distinctive features..............................175
L.A. Palzeva. The contents of law code of Drakon............................195
O.Ju. Vladimirskaja. Miltiades the Young: making of politician...................211
E.V. Nikitjuk. The oligarchic revolution in Athens in 411 B.C.
and the constitution of Five thousand....................................219
V.M. Strogezkij (Nizhnij Novgorod). The Nature of discussions in the classical ecclesia..........................................................227
S.M. Zhestokanov. The Social Organization of
Corinthian polis............................................................................237
M.Ed. Kurilov. (Astrakhan). Usual and plenipotentiary
ambassadors in the Spartan diplomatic practice of VthIVth
centuries B.C.....................................................................................249

573
N.A. Shergina. Dedicatory inscription of Aeakes the Brychons son.................................................................................265
S.G. Karpjuk (Moscow), O.V. Kulishova. The unions in
Archaic and Classical Greece: representations of geographical and political centre.............................................................281
Ju.N. Kuzmin (Samara). On the history of the archaeological
research at Vergina.................................................................................289
2. Rome
Ju.B. Cirkin (St.-Petersburg Vel. Novgorod). Pompeius in
the political Struggle of the 8070th B.C..................................................309
O.V. Przhigodzkaja. Barbarians in the Roman Empire:
The process of Romanization (IVVth centuries)................................329
A. G. Grouchevoy. Les principes des relations de Rome et
de Byzance avec les tribus nomades arabes......................................337
3. Religion and Culture
I.V. Makarov. The tradition about the return of the Heraclides.................367
E.A. Zakharova (Nizhnij Novgorod). Female crimes in Greek
mythology....................................................................................379
A.A. Sinitsyn (Saratov). The Dionysian plays of Sophocles...................389
Ya.M. Tchekhanovets (Jerusalem). The Palestinian
Abecedaria.............................................................................409
E.V. Sergejeva (Vel. Novgorod). The first Christian communities in North Africa..........................................................................421
A.D. Panteleev. Ancient Myths in the Christian Apologies.........................433

III. Study of Sources and Historiography


G.S. Samokhina. Tactics of Polybius: its Character and
Place in the Greek-Roman Warcraft............................................................441
E.B. Sosnina (Ivanovo). Lattivita scientifica dei professori Ivan
Pomjalovskij e Ivan Cvetaev in Italia (18701890).....................................465
V.V. Selivanov. V.V. Ivanov and N.Ja. Marr in the Life and
Work of X.M. Kolobova.....................................................................473
Andreas Tischov. Alexandri Josephi filii Zaicev elogium...........................511

IV. Publications
Epictiteti Encheridion. Translated byA.Ja. Tischov......................................515

574
V. Critical Notes and Bibliography
N.N. Bolgov (Belgorod). New Books on the history of late
ancient Bosporus (19962006)...............................................................533
S.G. Serdjukova. The Problem of Globalization in the
Ancient World in the Work of J. Malitz............................................548
VI. Chronicle of the Scientific life
O.V. Kulishova, A. Vasiljev. The Ancient City (Student
Scientific Conference at the SPbSU Faculty of History).......................559
E.D. Frolov. In Memoriam A.A. Neikhardt and
V.G. Boruchovich.............................................................563
List of Abbreviations...................................................................567

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.-
199034, .-, ., . 7/9
. (812) 328-96-17; (812) 32844-22
E-mail: editor@unipress.ru
www.unipress.ru
:
.-, 6- .., . 11/21,.21
: 328-77-63; 325-31-76
E-mail: post@unipress.ru

199061, .-, ., . 41