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Miguel Gomez, Jade Franklin, Daniel Hoffman, Libby Johnson, Lauren Kittle & Samantha Palladino

Table Of Contents Introduction Math Instruction within a Three-Tier Model Curriculum Based Measurement Assessing Early Math Skills Instructional Strategies Interventions Tier I Response Cards Peer Guided Pause Errorless Learning Worksheets Pre-Teach, Model, and Use Standard Math Terms Tier II Timed Practice, Practice, Practice Skip-Counting Practice Computation Grid with M & Ms Tier III Cover Copy Compare Incremental Rehearsal Counting Board Game Website Resources Additional Resources References 11 12 14 16 17 19 20 24 30 33 34 36 38 41 47 48 3 4 6 8 9

Introduction When compared to other academic areas, much less research exists on effective math instruction. A review of math instruction research was conducted by the U.S. Research Council in 2001, looking back at existent research from the previous thirty years. The resulting findings were presented in a book which concluded that math proficiency is something all children must develop in the United States and that a specific framework for teaching math was necessary for effectiveness (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh & McGraw, 2009). Five math concepts were identified as being essential for all students to learn. These include: conceptual understanding, which is a basic comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations; procedural fluency, which involved skills in carrying out procedures flexibly accurately, efficiently, and appropriately; strategic competence, or the ability to formulate, represent and solve math problems; adaptive reasoning, which alludes to the capacity for logical thought, reflections, explanation, and justification; and productive disposition, or the inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile coupled with self-efficacy (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). Of key importance is that the above-mentioned components are not independent of one another. Each of these must be integrated into the math curriculum at every grade level. While the order in which these skills should be taught is debated, the framework provides a useful way to organize math instruction that all students need for success. Subsequent to this report, a National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP) was appointed by the U.S. Department of Education in 2006. They published a report in 2008 that identified six steps that must be taken in U.S. schools as a way to improve math learning. A narrower set of the most critical math steps should be streamlined and taught to students prekindergarten through grade 8. 2. What is known about how children learn should be utilized to promote success. 3. Elementary grade teachers must have strong math skills in order to be effective. 4. An integration of both student centered and teacher centered instruction should be utilized when teaching math. 5. The most critical math knowledge and skills should be included in National Assessments. 6. More rigorous research must be done to examine math instruction in order to improve teaching practices. This report also emphasized the importance of early student mastery of basic skills such as computation fluency. Effective math instruction should: focus on basic skills, direct and systematic teaching practices, and gathering regular data through progress monitoring. 1.

Within an RTI framework, math instruction and intervention will occur at varying degrees of intensity. Tier One At the universal level, it is expected that all students will receive research-based core instruction in mathematics. Additionally, all students will be periodically monitored for progress to ensure that they are mastering the necessary skills and are meeting grade-level expectations. Students who are identified as at-risk for academic difficulties may be monitored more closely to determine if a Tier II intervention is necessary. Stein, Kinder, Silbert, & Carnine (2006) identified four basic elements for effective Tier I support. First, initial assessment and progress monitoring to determine students current math skills and potential areas of difficulty. Also, use of presentation techniques that have demonstrated effectiveness such as modeling, guided practice, and independent practice, as well as lessons that are organized and engaging. The third element is effective and immediate error correction procedures. The last is diagnosis and remediation of difficulties in the moment of learning, to ensure students are not learning incorrectly and to make appropriate instructional adjustments. Tier Two For students who are struggling with classroom math curriculum, Tier II interventions may be indicated. These typically involve more intensive instruction in a smaller group (3-5 students) and occur at higher frequency, depending on the level of difficulty. Strategies may

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involve peer tutoring, explicit instruction, or additional review. Students who are involved in Tier II interventions must be monitored closely, either daily or weekly depending on the chosen interventions. Tier Three Students who do not make progress despite Tier supplemental interventions are often provided with even more intensive services in Tier Three. At this phase, Tier II interventions may be implemented with greater frequency and intensity and also may be done in a more individualized setting. Students may also be referred for further evaluation at this point, which would involve a review of the data collected during Tier I and Tier II interventions and additional testing in the areas of academic achievement, memory, emotional and social functioning, and cognitive functioning. At this stage it is important to note that integrity of previous interventions should be evaluated and that current interventions should remain in place.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mathematics Interventions: Curriculum Based Measurement Mathematics curriculum based measures (M-CBM) consist of a set of brief, fluencybased standardized procedures than can be used to measure students math competence and progress toward grade level standards. There are two main types of M-CBM. The first type is a computational probe, consisting of 25 items sampling problems covered in the curriculum. This probe is given 2 minutes and scored in terms of number of correct digits written in 2 minutes. The second type of probe is a concept and application probe, consisting of 18-25 items covering topics such as number concepts, money, and graphs. This probe is given in 5-10 minutes (depending on grade level) and is scored by calculating the number of correct answers (Rathvon, 2008). Materials for Administration: stopwatch, pencils with erasers, equal-interval graph paper or graphing program (optional) Directions: Single-skill Probe: The sheets on your desk have math fact/problems on them. All the problems are [addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division] facts. When I say begin,' turn the sheets over and begin answering the problems. Start with the first problem on the left on the top row [point]. Work across and then go to the next row. If you can't answer the problem, make an 'X' on it and go to the next one. If you finish one side, go to the next. Are there any questions? Begin. Multiple-skill Probe: The sheets on your desk are math facts/math problems. There are several types of problems on the sheets. Look at each problem carefully before you answer it. Some problems may have more than one blank. Try and fill in as many blanks as you can because you will get credit for each blank you answer. When I say begin,' turn the sheets over and begin answering the problems. Start with the first problem on the left on the top row [point]. Work across and then go to the next row. If you can't answer the problem, make an 'X' on it and go to the next one. If you finish one sheet, go on to the next. Are there any questions? Begin. Concept and Application Probe: The sheets on your desk are math problems. There are several types of problems on the sheets. Look at each problem carefully before you answer it. Some problems may have more than one blank. Try and fill in as many blanks as you can because you will get credit for each blank you answer. When I say begin, turn the sheets over and begin answering the problems. Start with the first problem on the left on the top row [point]. Work your way down and then continue to the top of the next column. If you cant answer the problem, make an X on it and go to the next one. If you finish one sheet, go on to the next. Are there any questions? Begin.

Scoring and Interpretation: Digits-correct (computational problems) 1. Count separate correct digits in an answer. For all problems except division, only digits below answer line are counted. For multiplication, score digits as correct if the addition operations are performed correctly, even if answer is incorrect. 2. Scoring division problems, count digits as incorrect if the incorrect operation is performed or if incorrect place values are used. 3. If student completes worksheets before time is up, divide the number of correctly written digits by the total number of seconds and multiply by 120 to obtain estimate of digits correct score. 4. Count omitted problems as errors. 5. Count reversed digits as correct with the exception of 6s and 9s Examples: 6381 - 2460 3921

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4 correct digits

2 correct digits

Problems-correct (concepts/applications problems and/or computational problems) 1. 2. 3. 4. Give credit for each correct answer. For multiple-answer problems, give 1 point for each correct blank. Score omitted problems as errors. The score is the number of correct problems/blanks by the total number of problems/blanks within the time limit. If desired, divide number correct by the total number of problems/blanks to obtain percent-correct score.

Assessing Early Math Skills Curriculum based measures assessing foundational math skills for identifying young students at-risk for early math failure or monitoring progress in early math skills were not available until more recently. Clark and Shinn (2004) developed a set of four early math measures that measure young childrens informal number sense development, including the ability to understand the meaning of numbers and discriminate relationships among numbers. Variations of three of the measures (excluding oral counting) and an additional measure are available for free download at the Research Institute of Progress Monitoring website: http://www.progressmonitoring.org/probes/earlynumeracy.html. The four measures can also be found at AIMSweb (http://www.aimsweb.com/measures-2/test-of-early-numeracy-cbm/) as the Test of Early Numeracy. AIMSweb also includes the norms and Rate of Improvement (ROI) for fall, winter and spring of kindergarten and first grade (Rathvon, 2008). The five early math measures include: 1. Oral Counting, where the student counts out loud beginning with the number 1. This is scored by the amount of numbers counted correctly in 1 minute. 2. Number Identification, where the student identifies numerals between 0 and 20 randomly presented on a sheet of paper. This measured is scored by counting the number of numerals correctly identified in 1 minute. 3. Quantity Discrimination, where the student identifies the larger of two numbers presented in a grid of boxes on a sheet of paper. Each box contains two randomly sampled numbers from 0 to 20, and the score is the number of correctly identified larger number in 1 minute. 4. Missing Number, where the student is presented with a series of boxes containing a string of three numbers between 0 and 20 in a pattern. The first, middle, or last number of the string is missing and the student has to provide the missing number. The score is obtained by counting the number of missing numbers correctly identified in 1 minute. 5. Quantity Array, where the student identifies the number of dots in a series of boxes presented on a sheet of paper. The score for this measure is the number of correctly counted dots per box in 1 minute.

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Tier One: Instructional Strategies Under tier 1, teachers are responsible for providing high-quality core instruction to all students. During this process the teacher notes any struggling students who may need additional differentiated instruction or support and provides that support in the form of tier 1 classroom interventions (Wright, 2011). The following are effective instruction methods that are commonly used with mathematics instruction. Direct/explicit instruction is a teacher-centered instructional approach that is most effective for teaching basic or isolated skills to students. With direct instruction the teachers follow a sequence of events. They generally state the objective, review skills necessary for new information, present new information, question students, provide group instruction and independent practice, assess performance and give more practice. There are 12 criteria associated with direct instruction, and when any four of these indicators are present, direct instruction is occurring. 1. Breaking down task in small steps 2. Administering probes (Ex: single-skill, multiple-skill, concept and application) 3. Administering feedback repeatedly 4. Providing a pictorial or diagram presentations 5. Allowing independent practice and individually paced instruction 6. Breaking the instruction down into simpler phases 7. Instructing in a small group 8. Teacher modeling a skill 9. Providing set materials at a rapid pace 10. Providing individual child instruction 11. Teacher asking questions (in order to determine if student understands work) 12. Teacher presenting new and novel materials (Swanson, 2001) Strategy/implicit instruction is a student-centered method for learning, where the focus of instruction is on the rules and processes required to learn a concept. Strategy instruction has several components including the use of advanced organizers, organization, elaboration, generative learning, and general study strategies. Also included in strategy instruction is teaching students to evaluate and control their thinking process and to evaluate the effects of a strategy. Often students who are at risk or who have a disability are poor problem solvers. Strategy instruction helps them in this area because it shows them how the internal dialogue works. There are seven criteria for strategy instruction. When any three of the criteria are present within a lesson, strategy instruction is being used. 1. Elaborate explanations (systematic explanations, elaborations, and/or plan to direct task performance) 2. Modeling from teachers (verbal modeling, questioning, and demonstration from teachers) 3. Reminders to use certain strategies or procedures (cues to use taught strategies, tactics, or procedures)

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4. 5. 6. 7.

Step-by-step prompts or multi-process instructions Dialogue (teacher and student talk back and forth) Teacher asks questions Teacher provides only necessary assistance (Swanson, 2001)

Using a combination of direct instruction and strategy instruction has a greater positive effect than either method alone. Teachers should consider ways to use both direct and strategy instruction in each lesson to gain the maximum benefit from each approach. Using explicit instruction to teach the basic skills and then teaching strategies to store and retrieve the information helps to ensure a successful educational experience for students. For students with disabilities and students who are at-risk, these instructional approaches are crucial for the retention of new skills (Hauser, 2004).

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Tier One Interventions Four basic elements are necessary for effective core interventions: initial assessment and progress monitoring; presentation techniques; error-correction procedures, and diagnosis and remediation (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). By determining where students skills currently are, you are better able to decide which skills to teach next. Progress monitoring is important to ensure success of instruction. Modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and review are the most effective presentation techniques. Also important is keeping students interested in the lessons and pacing instruction to their needs. Error correction ensures that students are learning the correct way and also that they are not practicing the incorrect way to do something. Diagnosis and remediation refer to reteaching some skills multiple times for the benefit of all students; diagnosing in the moment of learning rather than correcting later.

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Response Cards Target Skills: Given that students must attend to math instruction in order to learn and internalize the skills being taught, this class wide intervention is intended to increases student engagement to promote skill acquisition (Armendariz & Umbreit, 1999). Also, considering that students may dislike and/or struggle with mathematics instruction, this approach may be helpful in reducing disruptive behaviors (Lambert, Cartledge, Heward & Lo, 2006). This is also useful in monitoring the effectiveness of instruction, as a greater number of students with incorrect response cards may be evidence that instructional modifications are necessary (Christie & Schuster, 2003). Location: This is a classroom-based, Tier I intervention that is intended for use during math instruction. It may also be used during smaller group instruction. Materials: 1) White or Chalk Boards and appropriate writing utensils 2) Colored or True/False Response Papers (Variation) Frequency: Daily, during math instruction, or review. Directions: 1) Prior to beginning math instruction, students are provided with white boards or chalk boards 2) Instruction is conducted at a brisk pace during which the teacher poses questions to the class. 3) Students are given specified period of time to respond before being asked to show their answers; If majority of students are correct, the group is praised; if more than 25% are incorrect, the teacher uses guided questions to direct them to the correct response *It is recommended that students be provided with scratch paper to complete work. This makes it easier for teachers to see correct/incorrect answers and also allows for follow up with struggling students. Progress Monitoring: Occurs as part of the intervention. Teachers are able to monitor which students are successfully acquiring the skills being taught as well as those who are struggling and need more focused teaching. As a result of the on-going assessment function built into the response cards instructional delivery, the teacher can make adjustments to the lesson presentation to address student deficiencies. For a more formal method to monitor students progress, the teacher is able

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to administer a CBM probe (single-skill, multiple-skill, concept and application) to the entire class. Afterwards, the teacher can record and chart the classrooms performance for progress monitoring purposes. Variations: (a) Peer tutoring (Respond in Pairs): In larger classes, teachers may pair students and provide peer tutoring opportunities. This also reduces the number of response cards needed for the class, if resources are limited. The procedure is the same, except that students are allotted more time and work in pairs. *One disadvantage is that if student skills are different, you may not be certain whether the less capable student is learning. To ameliorate this risk, periodic single tests can be conducted in which only one student of each pair responds at a time. (b)True/false responding: For some items, especially conceptual problems, a true-false response mode can be used. You can present the items in a true/false manner by giving each student two pieces of construction paper with each color representing True or False or by having students make True/False response cards. The benefit of using two colors for the student response cards will allow the teacher to scan many students and determine quickly who is responding correctly, the disadvantage would be students seeing each other's responses Sources: Armendariz, F. & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education class. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 1, 152-158. Cavanugh, R.A., Heward, W. I., & Donelson, F. (1996). Effects of response cards during lesson closure on the academic performance of secondary students in an earth science class. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 403-405. Christie, C.A. & Schuster, J.W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education. 12, 147-165. Lambert, M.C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W.L., Lo, Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 8, 88-99.

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Peer Guided Pause Target Skills: The target of this intervention is retention of math facts, concepts, and procedures; the purpose is to consolidate student learning during lecture instruction by allowing review and collaborative learning through peer interaction (Hawkins & Brady, 1994). While improvement and acquisition of skills can be targeted depending on the level of class/instruction, research conducted by Hawkins & Brady (1994) has demonstrated improvement in both accuracy and fluency. Location: This intervention is intended for use in the classroom during lecture format instruction. It is a useful strategy to allow time to review and consolidate new instruction while learning new facts and concepts. Materials: 1) Practice sheets with modeled examples 2) Index cards 3) Timer Frequency: During lecture format of new math material. Directions: 1) Prior to use of this intervention, students should be taught to work in pairs. Training consists of steps that include modeling, role-playing, and using 3" x 5" cue cards to prompt discussion about and practice in the content of the lesson Steps of the pause procedure are introduced and outlined: -Make sure you and your partner understand the problem; -Talk about the problem on the sheet and follow the steps in the example; -Work the problems on the sheet together and take turns writing the answer; -Check the number of problems you got correct; -Divide the number you got correct by four to find your rate correct; -Thank your partner for the help. 2) During lecture students are directed to work together for periods of up to four minute (at appropriate review points). One suggested format (Hawkins & Brady, 1994) is:

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1) 2 minutes review of previous instruction 2) 4 minutes of teacher instruction 3) 4 minutes instructional pause 4) 1 minute answer check 5) 4 minutes of renewed teacher instruction 6) 4 minutes for the second instructional pause 7) 1 minute answer check 3) Students are given a worksheet with one or more correctly completed problems based on the lecture. The sheet also contains several additional, similar problems that pairs of students work cooperatively to complete, along with an answer key. 4) As the teacher circulates the room, student pairs are reminded to (a) monitor their understanding of the lesson concepts; (b) review the correctly math model problem; (c) work cooperatively on the additional problems, and (d) check their answers. Progress Monitoring: Ongoing progress monitoring is incorporated into this intervention during answer check periods. Teachers may modify instruction based on student responses of their scores. Additionally, teachers may collect pairs' practice sheets to progress monitor individual work. Teachers may also administer a single probe (M-CBM) at the end of each week to determine if the skills are being generalized. Sources: Hawkins, J., & Brady, M. P. (1994). The effects of independent and peer guided practice during instructional pauses on the academic performance of students with mild handicaps. Education & Treatment of Children, 17 (1), 1-28.

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Errorless Learning Worksheets Target Skills: This intervention is intended to increase computational fluency by allowing students to work on math sheets that include an answer key. Using a speed drill approach improves fluency without the tedious procedure of rote rehearsal (Caron, 2007). This may also be useful for reluctant or struggling math students because providing answers encourages automatic learning easily without the pressure of testing. Location: This intervention can be done in the classroom as part of group practice but may also be used for additional practice in smaller groups or with individuals. Materials: 1) Worksheets with answer keys included 2) Timer (if using speed drills) Directions: Students are provided with worksheets and instructed to complete math facts as quickly as possible; when they do not know an answer they are instructed to use the answer key at the top of the worksheet and write it in; may be done as a drill within a specified period of time. Progress Monitoring: Students can calculate the number of problems they were able to correctly answer independently and chart them on a time series graph. This may also improve motivation when students are encouraged to beat their scores. As another method of progress monitoring, teachers may administer a single M-CBM probe (single-skill, multiple-skill) at the end of each week to determine if the skills are being generalized. Variation: a) Speed Drills: Using the same worksheets, students are provided with a timer or timed within a limit (two minutes, for example). Students are instructed to complete as many problems as possible before the timer rings. Progress monitoring may again be a graphed measure of daily progress for how many problems the student was able to complete within the given time frame. Sources: Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278-282.

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Pre-Teach, Model, and Use Standard Math Terms Target Skills: Much like an English teacher would introduce new vocabulary before asking a student to read a passage, it is important for students to learn the mathematics vocabulary they will be encountering in a given lesson. Students should know how to describe the steps they are using in problem solving. The teacher should pre-teach the vocabulary, model the use of that vocabulary, and then have students practice in a variety of ways. This is a Tier 1 intervention. The goal is to increase student understanding of the language of mathematics. Students often struggle to understand the definitions of various mathematics terms, and this leads to a disjoint between understanding the concept and performing. For example, students might know how to do a reciprocal, but not know what a reciprocal is. Thus, it is important to teach students the appropriate terms and the definitions of those terms BEFORE actually teaching them the concept. Location: In the classroom, before teaching a new lesson. Materials: Student will need: 1) Pencil/Pen 2) Paper Teacher will need: 1) Black board/ dry erase board/ overhead projector 2) chalk/markers Directions: 1) Have students take out a pencil and paper 2) Write out vocabulary list on board (about 3-5 words) 3) Discuss the definitions - first ask students if they know the definitions. Write them on board and discuss until correct definition is given and recorded 4) Demonstrate the concept on the board 5) Model use of vocabulary while teaching the concept 6) Have students complete practice problem on their own

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7) Ask them to describe how they solved the problem, using the new vocabulary in an appropriate way. This can be written down or spoken aloud to teacher. Frequency: Best used with every new math lesson/unit so that students are always exposed to the appropriate vocabulary. Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring can involve weekly quizzes asking students to complete a math problem or series of math problems and then asking them to explain how they completed the problem using the mathematical terms they learned for that lesson unit. The number of terms used correctly in their explanations would indicate a solid grasp of the definitions of the words, as well as how to complete the mathematics problems. As another method of progress monitoring, the teacher may create a CBA probe focusing on the teachers target skills (math concepts; vocabulary terms) at the end of each week to determine if the skills are being learned. Sources: Chard, D. (nd). Vocabulary strategies for the mathematics classroom. Retrieved April 9th, 2012, from http://www.eduplace.com/state/pdf/author/chard_hmm05.pdf.

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Tier Two Interventions Most children who struggle with learning in a classroom share similar characteristics such as being passive learners, attributing their successes and failures to external and uncontrollable factors, having attention problems, focusing on irrelevant details, and having memory and vocabulary difficulties (Learning Mathematics in Elementary and Middle Schools: A Learner-Centered Approach). Although there are general ways in which the teacher can structure the classroom to support the learning of all children within the classroom, regardless of learning ability or needs, there are some children who will require additional support. Interventions at Tier 2 focus on those children who struggle with learning at curriculum pace. The goal is to provide extra support for students who have difficulty mastering certain skill areas (ie addition, subtraction, etc). Tier 2 interventions are generally done with small groups of 3-5 students, a few times a week (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). There are three areas that Tier 2 interventions should focus on, regardless of curriculum: peer-assisted learning, explicit instruction, and utilizing performance data and instructional recommendations (BrownChidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). Peer assisted learning allows for repeated practice and immediate corrective feedback, explicit instruction denotes the step-by-step sequence of solving a problem, and performance data allows students to track their progress in terms of both fluency and accuracy. These approaches are very similar to Tier 1 curriculum instruction, but they provide more intensive and specific practice for those students who require it.

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Timed Practice, Practice, Practice Target Skills: Timed Practice, Practice, Practice is a math fluency intervention designed to improve skill areas in which a student is performing at the independent level, but performing slowly (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). Fluency is a skill needed at every level of mathematics learning, and therefore it is vital that students master not only accuracy, but also fluency, so that they can master multi-step problems in the future. Location: In a classroom with a select group of students or in a separate room. Materials: 1) stop watch 2) math computation worksheets (created on interventioncentral.com or superkids.com) 3) pencils 4) overhead projector (optional) Directions: 1) Tell students they will be practicing X computational area (addition, subtraction, etc). Ask them to do the problems as accurately and quickly as they can. Tell them they will have two minutes to finish the worksheet. 2) Hand out worksheet and tell them not to start until you say begin 3) When all students have worksheet, say begin 4) Begin timer and allow 2 minutes for students to complete worksheet 5) Tell students to stop and pass their papers to a peer. 6) Either read aloud the correct answers or write them on the overhead or on the board 7) Have students mark the correct and incorrect answers and write the number of correct answers on the top of the page 8) Have students re-collect their own paper and fill in the number correct for the day on their math graph (writing the date on the bottom) 9) Instruct students to fix the answers they got wrong 10) Collect all worksheets and graphs

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Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring is completed by each individual student. Each student keeps a graph and every day that they complete the worksheets, they record their number correct on the graph. This allows students to see their own performance and keep a record for the teacher/interventionist to see as well. As another method of progress monitoring, teachers/interventionists may administer a single M-CBM probe (single-skill, multiple-skill) at the end of each week to determine if the skills are being generalized. Frequency: This intervention should be completed 2-3 times per week. Sources: Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York: Guilford.

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Skip-Counting Practice Target Skills: This intervention is intended to help students master the intervals between whole numbers and help students become more skilled with number differences. Location: This intervention can be used with small groups (e.g., 3 to 5 students) in the classroom. Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. Overhead projector Laminated Skip-Counting Practice Grid templates for each student Transparency of the Skip-Counting Practice Grid Highlighters for each student

Frequency: Can vary from 2 to 5 days a week, depending on the students needs. It takes approximately 5 minutes to prepare materials and 10 minutes to implement. Progress Monitoring: To progress monitor, students will be asked by their teacher to count by the number being practiced (2s, 3s, 4s etc.) up to 100 while looking at a Skip-Counting Practice Grid. The teacher will record the amount of numbers the child got correct and create a time series graph. Each time a new number is practiced, a new time series graph should be created (i.e. have a time series graph for counting by 2s and a different graph when counting by 3s). A variation to this method is to create a modified Skip-Counting Practice Grid where the teacher can white-out the targeted numbers being practiced. The student will then be required to count by the number being practiced, up to 100. The teacher can record the number correct over the total number of empty boxes, obtaining a percentage of accuracy. Directions: Prior to implementing the intervention: 1. Write in the number by which to count for each grid. 2. Make enough copies of the Skip-Counting Practice Grid template for each student. 3. Make a transparency of the handout to use on an overhead projector. Procedure for implementation: 1. Give each student a Skip-Counting Practice Grid template and a highlighter. 2. Say to students: Today we are going to practice skip counting. On the sheet I just gave you, there are eight boxes with numbers in them. At the top of each box is the number by

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3.

4.

5.

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which to count. You are going to use your highlighter to highlight the next number when counting by the number for that box. Lets do the first one together. Look at the overhead projector. Use an overhead marker and say to students: Watch as I highlight the numbers when I count by 3s. First I highlight 3, then 6, then 9. Raise your hand to tell me what number comes next. Call on a student who raised a hand and highlight 12 if correct. If the student says a number other than 12, say: That is not the correct number. Twelve is the next number when counting by 3s. Lets try another one. Raise your hand to tell me what number comes next. Continue this process with the students until the grid is complete. Say to students: Now you are going to do the rest of the worksheet on your own. Use your highlighter to mark the correct number sequence for each number at the top of the grid boxes. If you need help, raise your hand and I will come to help you. Give students about 10-15 minutes to highlight numbers. Walk around the room and check on progress and ensure all students are engaged. At the end of the work time, say to students: Put your highlighters down and look at the overhead. We are going to review the answers together. Place completed overhead of worksheet on projector and say to students: Raise your hand to tell me what number comes next. Call on a student who raised a hand and highlight the number on the overhead, if correct. If the student says an incorrect number, say: That is not the correct number. ____ is the next number when counting by ____s. Lets try another one. Raise your hand to tell me what number comes next. Continue this question and response with students until the worksheet is complete. Collect students worksheets to review and record their answers.

Sources: Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York: Guilford.

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Skip-Counting Practice

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(This should be given to the student to look at but with no writing instrument) After Count by: write in the number being practiced

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Example: Count by 2s up to 100 Day One: Amount of numbers correctly reported: ______ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: Day Two: Amount of numbers correctly reported: ______ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: Day Three: Amount of numbers correctly reported: _____ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: 50 50 50

Example: Count by 3s up to 100 Day One: Amount of numbers correctly reported: ____ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: Day Two: Amount of numbers correctly reported: ____ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: Day Three: Amount of numbers correctly reported: ____ Total amount of numbers possible to be correct: 33 33 33

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Sample Graph

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Computation Grid with M & Ms Target Skills: This intervention is an effective way for students to practice how quantities are grouped for different mathematical operations. Location: This intervention can be used with small groups (e.g., 3 to 5 students) in the classroom. Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Overhead projector Blank Computation Grids for each student Transparency of the Computational Grid 100 M & Ms candies (or other small countable object) for each student Food service sanitary gloves Paper cups or small zip-top bags Paper plates or other sanitary surface on which students can count out sets of candies Pencils

Frequency: Can vary from 2 to 5 days a week, depending on the students needs. It takes approximately 30 minutes to prepare materials and 30 minutes to implement. Progress Monitoring: To progress monitor, a M-CBM can be used. The M-CBM that should be used with this intervention is a computational single-skill probe, depending on the operation being practiced (i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division). Directions: Prior to implementing the intervention: 1. Make enough copies of the Computational Grid for each student. 2. Make an overhead transparency of the Computational Grid. 3. Using sanitary food-service gloves, teacher counts out sets of 100 M & Ms or other candy or counting objects into cups or small zip-top bags. 4. Have students (and teacher) wash and dry their hands with warm soap and water before starting this activity. 5. Check to verify that no students in the group have an allergy to any foods being used for that activity. Substitute candies or counting objects can be used as needed. 6. Identify what operation students will complete for the grid (e.g. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division).

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Procedure for Implementation: 1. Distribute Computational Grids, sets of 100 candies/objects, and pencils to each student. 2. Say to students: We are going to fill out this grid with (choose one) [addition, subtraction, multiplication, division] answers. You will use M & Ms to help you with this. You will be able to eat the candy at the end of the activity, but if you eat it now you will not have enough to finish your work. Some students may figure out that if they start with the 10 X 10 column and row and work backward they can eat as they go, and if they discover this, its okay to complete the grid that way. 3. Say to students: Look at the overhead. I will show you how to do the first row. One [plus, minus, multiplied by, divided by] one is [1 or 0]. Set out candies on overhead to show answer. Say: I know this because when I [add, subtract, multiply, divide] one and one candies, I get [1 or 0]. Now you are going to do the rest of the worksheet on your own using the candies I gave you. Remember, dont eat the candy until the end, or you wont have enough to finish. 4. Watch students as they group items and fill in the grid; provide corrective feedback as needed and have students correct errors as they go along. 5. Set a predetermined stop time (e.g., 30 minutes) and remind students how much time they have left at intervals during the activity. At the end of the work time, check each students work and have them correct and remaining errors. If students are not done with the grid, it can be completed at another time. 6. When activity is completed, allow students to eat the candy. Sources: Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York: Guilford.

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Sample Computation Grid Name: __________________________________ Computation Grid Circle Operation: 1 1 2 Addition 3 4 Subtraction 5 6 Multiplication 7 8 9 Division 10

10

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Tier 3 Interventions Some children do not progress as expected, even though they participated in high-quality curriculum and received small and large group support. These children may need intensive, individualized approaches. At Tier 3 (tertiary prevention), an additional layer of intensive supports is available to address the needs of a smaller percentage of students who are experiencing problems and are at risk of developing more severe problems. At Tier 3, the goal is remediation of existing problems and prevention of more severe problems or the development of secondary concerns as a result of persistent problems. The groups of students at Tier 3 are of much smaller sizes, ranging from 2 to 5 children, with many models using one-to-one instruction. In such models where one-to-one instruction is used, Tier 3 is usually considered special education; however, in many models it is viewed as a tier that includes children who are not identified as being in need of special education but whose needs are at the intensive level. For several students, tier 3 interventions are provided while undergoing a comprehensive evaluation. At present time, tier 3 interventions often include more intensive versions of methods used at tier 2 (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). The principles of tier 3 interventions usually involve a form of repeated exposure, practice or corrective feedback. For students who still struggle at the tier 2 instructional level, evaluation at tier 3 can be a way to identify the specific nature of their math difficulties (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009).

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Cover-Copy-Compare

Target skills: This intervention is designed to build math computational accuracy for students who need extra drill and practice with math computational problems (it can also be used for spelling and vocabulary purposes). This intervention can be used for addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division problems. Location: In small groups in the classroom or individually outside of the classroom. Materials: 1) Paper with math problems (or cover-copy-compare worksheets found on interventioncentral.org) 2) Pencil 3) An index card or something to cover the math problem with the solution (or fold the paper). Frequency: 3-5 times per week. Directions: 1) Get out materials 2) Write name and date on math sheet. 3) Write math problem with answer on one side of the sheet. 4) Have student review math problem. 5) Cover math problem with index card or fold over paper. 6) Have student write the problem with answer on the other side of the sheet. 7) Compare both math problems. 8) Repeat steps until time is over (determined by the implementer). 9) Prepare progress-monitoring materials. 10) Set timer for 2 minutes. 11) Have student work on the progress monitoring tool.

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12) When timer reaches 2 minutes, stop working. 13) Score progress monitoring measure with answering key. Progress Monitoring: Through 2-minute CBMs and math probes, the number of digits correct within the two minutes allotted will be recorded and graphed to determine the students progress (Fernstrom & Powell, 2007). Sources: Fernstrom, P. & Powell, S. (2007). Introduction for using curriculum-based measurement for progress monitoring in math. Summer Institute on Student Progress Monitoring. Presentation found on http://www.studentprogress.org/summer_institute/2007/math/StudentProgressMonitoring -Math_2007.pdf McLaughlin, T. F., & Skinner, C. H. (1996). Improving academic performance through selfmanagement: Cover, Copy, and Compare. Intervention In School & Clinic, 32(2), 113. Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F. & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, Copy, and Compare: A selfmanaged academic intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral education, 7, 295-506

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Incremental Rehearsal

Target Skills: Incremental Rehearsal is designed to improve fluency of single-digit math facts through the use of flash cards. Incremental rehearsal involves a gradually increasing ratio of known to unknown flashcard items, reaching at the final stage of implementation, a 90% to 10% ratio. Location: Individually with a student, inside or outside of the classroom. Materials: 1) 100 flashcards with single-digit multiplication facts 2) Probe for progress monitoring Frequency: Sessions may take 10-15 minutes and be scheduled twice in a week. Directions: 1) Establish baseline using math probes. 2) Create single-digit multiplication fact flash cards (write facts horizontally without including the answer ex: 4 X 7 = ?) There are 100 single-digit multiplication facts. 3) Establish known and unknown facts. (students must answer an item within 2 seconds for it to count as a known fact.) 4) Select 10 flashcards (1 should be unknown and 9 should be known) Various sets of 10 can be rehearsed at each session. 5) Present the first unknown fact flashcard and verbally provide the appropriate answer. 6) Have the student orally restate the fact and provide the correct answer. 7) After the student has provided the correct answer, prompt the student to answer the first problem again. 8) After answering this prompt, proceed to the next flashcard. Once student answers the following flashcard, start from the first flashcard all over again. 9) Repeat this process with each time adding a flashcard.

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10) Once all 10 flashcards were administered, discard the last flashcard and introduce a new unknown flashcard by making it the first card of the set of 10. 11) Start over by presenting the unknown flashcard and verbally providing the appropriate answer. Continue by having the student restate the math fact, provide the correct answer, and continue with the set. Progress Monitoring: On a consistent day of the week, the student will complete a timed multiplication fact sheet (CBM) for 2 minutes. Weekly progress monitoring data will be computed from the scores from this fact sheet. The digits correct within the two minutes allotted will be converted into digits correct/minute (dc/m) by dividing that number by two. The data is to be recorded and graphed. Probes can be generated using interventioncentral.com or mathfactscafe.com Sources: Burns, M. K. (2005). Using Incremental Rehearsal to Increase Fluency of Single-Digit Multiplication Facts with Children Identified as Learning Disabled in Mathematics Computation. Education & Treatment Of Children (ETC), 28(3), 237-249. Burns, M. K. (2004). Empirical Analysis of Drill Ratio Research. Remedial & Special Education, 25(3), 167-173. Cooke, N. L., & Guzaukas, R. (1993). Effects of using a ratio of new items to review items during drill and practice: Three experiments. Education & Treatment Of Children (ETC), 16(3), 213. Cooke, N. L., & Reichard, S. M. (1996). The effects of different interspersal drill ratios on acquisition and generalization of.. Education & Treatment Of Children (ETC), 19(2), 124.

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Counting Board Game Target Skills: This intervention is designed to build basic numeracy skills, such as number identification, counting, estimation skills, and the ability to visualize and access specific number values using an internal number-line. Location: Should be administered with 1 or 2 students inside or outside of the classroom. Materials: 1) The Great Number Line Race! form 2) A spinner divided into two equal regions or several equal regions marked with the numbers 1 and 2 (a block with 3 sides labeled 1 and 3 sides labeled 2 may also be used in place of a spinner). Frequency: Requires approximately 12-15 minutes per session. Directions: 1) Prepare materials. 2) Inform student(s) that he/she will attempt to beat another player (either student or interventionist). 3) Student is given a game piece (penny) and informed about the taking turns on the spinner (or block). 4) Student spins the spinner and advances while calling out the number of each numbered box. 5) The player who reaches the 10 box first is the winner. 6) Players will continue playing games until a total of 12-15 minutes per session. 7) Prepare progress-monitoring materials. 8) Set timer for 1 minute. 9) Have student work on the progress-monitoring tool. 10) When timer reaches 1 minute, stop working. 11) Score progress-monitoring measure with answering key.

! !

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Progress Monitoring: Through the use of 1-minute timed alternate Number Sense probes (Quantity Discrimination, Missing Number, or Number Identification), progress monitoring can be conducted for each session of the counting-board game (Fernstrom & Powell, 2007). The Number Sense probes may also be used at the beginning and end of the intervention; although this will result in a pre- and post-test assessment. The data is then recorded and graphed. Sources: Fernstrom, P. & Powell, S. (2007). Introduction for using curriculum-based measurement for progress monitoring in math. Summer Institute on Student Progress Monitoring. Presentation found on http://www.studentprogress.org/summer_institute/2007/math/StudentProgressMonitoring -Math_2007.pdf Siegler, R. S. (2009). Improving the numerical understanding of children from low-income families. Child Development Perspectives, 3(2), 118-124.

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Website Resources Listed below are five internet-based resources available for educators that provide math interventions and strategies for the classroom. This is only a very small sample of website resources that are available, so a few additional website resources are listed following the first five. These online resources can be very helpful and offer great intervention ideas for educators, however its important to be cautious because not all interventions provided on the websites are evidence-based.

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The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/math.asp#contentareas The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 is a website that was established by the American Institutes for Research. This site is designed to connect states and districts with research-based practices, tools, and materials that can help students with disabilities access the general education curriculum. This is a great resource for teachers, where helpful math resources relating to math instruction and working with students with disabilities can be found. The math resources provided are organized into information briefs, links to other helpful websites, presentations, and webinars. The information briefs provide a wealth of information on specific instruction strategies and how they would look in the classroom. Pros: Cons Research-based practices For teachers Free Informative!

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Intervention Central http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions Intervention Central provides a large variety of research-based interventions (both academic and behavioral). In regards to mathematics, this site provides interventions for several topics including those on math computation, applied math problems, and problem-solving. It provides a curriulum-based assessment math computation probe generator to help teachers construct academic-related CBMs. This way teachers are able to efficiently monitor students progress. It also has an early math fluency generator called numberfly which creates probes for the more basic and beginning math skills such as number identification. ChartDog graphmaker is also provided on this website which allows teachers to make computerized graphs of their students progress if necessary. This site is very useful because it is easy to use and offers resources, interventions, and other tools for teachers to use. Pros: Cons: Great for teachers Evidence-based resources Easy to use and navigate CBM generator Provides RTI information

The products link provides good RTI resources but cost money!

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Interventions for Students Experiencing Math Difficulties https://www.msu.edu/course/cep/886/Math/pg6.htm This site is a branch of a larger site that focuses on different math interventions for several topics, including math fluency, word problems, and fractional concepts. Teachers may find this site useful because the interventions are downloaded through Microsoft Word Document files and provide a brief description, list of materials, and explicit instructions on administering the intervention. Some interventions also cite the articles and journals used to establish the intervention as research-based. Pros: Interventions are explicitly-defined Some of the interventions are research-based Can download interventions as a Microsoft Word document Cons: Some of the interventions cost money Some of the links do not open

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Ideas to Boost Basic Academic Skills http://www.gosbr.net/ This site focuses on interventions on various different topics including academic and behavioral interventions, as well as progress monitoring. Focusing on math, the interventions cover topics on math fluency, basic computational skills, and word problems. It includes math interventions that can be used class-wide and some that can be individually administered. Teachers may find this site useful because the interventions are downloaded through PDF files, and provide a brief description, list of materials, and more importantly, coach cards and charts for progress monitoring. However, some of the interventions do leave out a few materials and procedures that are noticeable once reading the instructions; for example, the use of a Things I would like to Earn worksheet, which is simply a list of possible rewards that the student can obtain. So, in order to conduct these interventions, a list of possible rewards that are accessible and permissible for the student must be attained. Pros: Cons: Interventions submitted to this site require a scientific basis Great for teachers Conveniently downloaded as PDF files Provides progress monitoring charts

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Math Is Fun http://www.mathsisfun.com/ Math Is Fun is a good website because it is informative, interactive, and easy to use. This site is directed towards kids and uses pictures to describe concepts in a student-friendly way. For example, the fractions section uses images of pizza. This website is very organized and easy to navigate. Various math concepts are divided into distinct categories (i.e. geometry, measurement, algebra, etc.). This site allows students to obtain more information on a particular math concept. It also may provide students with an alternative way to understand the information or possibly act as a supplement to class lessons. It incorporates interactive questions, as well as games and worksheets students can utilize. Pros: Cons: Great for students Easy to navigate Very informative Interactive questions

The games are not very aligned with the math concepts

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Additional Resources http://www.amathsdictionaryforkids.com/ This site provides mathematics vocabulary words in language that is easy for students to understand. http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionista/interventionista_intv_list.php?prob_type= mathematics Provides a list of interventions and instruction options for teachers to use. The website has resources listed, but its descriptions of the interventions are very general. Therefore, a teacher or interventionist would need to rely on other resources to actually develop an intervention plan. But, the ideas there are good. http://www.kentuckymathematics.org/ This site provides math instruction ideas and suggestions for teachers. The website is very informative and everything can easily be downloaded as Microsoft Word Documents. http://www.coolmath.com/ This website is colorful and kid-friendly. It is easily navigated and provides short lessons, as well as practice questions and games for kids. http://www.aplusmath.com/ This site is also designed for kids and could be used by teachers as well. It provides games to help students improve their math skills interactively. It also has a homework helper and worksheets for students to use. For teachers this site provides a flashcard generator, where teachers can develop flashcards for use.

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References Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152-158. Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York: Guilford. Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278282.Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88-99. Cavanugh, R.A., Heward, W. I., & Donelson, F. (1996). Effects of response cards during lesson closure on the academic performance of secondary students in an earth science class. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 403-405. Chard, D. (nd). Vocabulary strategies for the mathematics classroom. Retrieved April 9th, 2012, from http://www.eduplace.com/state/pdf/author/chard_hmm05.pdf. Christie, C.A. & Schuster, J.W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education. 12, 147-165. Hauser, J. (2004). Direct/explicit instruction and mathematics. The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for all Students K-8. Retrieved from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/math.asp#contentareas

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Hauser, J. (2004). Strategy/implicit instruction and mathematics. The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for all Students K-8. Retrieved from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/math.asp#contentareas Hawkins, J., & Brady, M. P. (1994). The effects of independent and peer guided practice during instructional pauses on the academic performance of students with mild handicaps. Education & Treatment of Children, 17 (1), 1-28. Kilpatrick, J., Swafford, J., Findell, B. (2001). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9822&page=1 Lambert, M.C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W.L., Lo, Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 8, 88-99 Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective school interventions: Evidence-based strategies for improving student outcomes (2nd ed). New York: Guilford Press. Stein, M., Kinder, Silbert, & Carnine, (2006). Designing mathematics instruction: A direct instruction approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Swanson, H. L. (2001). Searching for the best model for instructing students with learning disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 34(2), 1-15. Wright, J. (2011). Frequently asked questions about response to intervention. How RTI works series. Retrieved from interventioncentral.com

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