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du yodel la physique quantique...

From yodeling to quantum physics


palais de tokyo

prestige prestige

palais de tokyo

du yodel la physique quantique... From yodeling to quantum physics

prestige

Cette publication bnficie du soutien de lAssociation des Amis du Palais de Tokyo et de la Fondation LUMA. / This publication benefits from the support of the Friends of the Palais de Tokyo and of the LUMA Foundation.
Ouvrage collectif sous la direction de

Remerciements aux artistes et aux auteurs, ainsi qu

Marc-Olivier Wahler et Frederic Grossi


Conception graphique re-p.org / binnenland.ch Contributeurs Le Palais de Tokyo remercie lensemble

Art:Concept (Paris), British Museum (Londres), Casey Kaplan Gallery (New York), Fondazione Piero Manzoni (Milan), Galerie Eva Presenhuber (Zurich), Galerie Vedovi (Bruxelles / Brussels), Marion Goodman Gallery (Paris, New York), Walker Art Center (Minneapolis) et galement Anne-Claire Duprat Palais de Tokyo 13 avenue du Prsident Wilson F-75116 Paris T +33 1 4723 5401 www.palaisdetokyo.com

des contributeurs des cinq volumes de la srie Du yodel la physique quantique : mile Soulier, notamment pour lentretien avec Marc-Olivier Wahler, Marie-Hlne Bourcier, Peter Coffin, Daniel Colson, Ronald Creagh, Erik Davis, Jeremy Deller, Stphane Dorin, lie During, Graldine Fabre, Francois Forme, Christophe Galfard, Ed Hall, Claude Hauviller, Matthew Higgs, Steven Holmes, Laurent Jeanpierre, Louis Kaplan, Razmig Keucheyan, Rahma Khazam, Joachim Koester, Paul Laffoley A.I.A., Olivier Lamm, Grard-Georges Lemaire, Bertrand Mheust, Jean-Pierre Merlo, Frdric Migayrou, Lubov Pchelkina, Matt Price, Pascal Rousseau, Andrei Smirnov, Francois Specq, Fabrice Stroun, Pacme Thiellement, Benjamin Thorel, Eyal Weizman, ainsi que Mikaela Assolent, Benjamin Bardinet, Daria de Beauvais, Jean-Baptiste de Beauvais, Thomas Bizien, Bertille Dtrie, Jeanne Dreyfus Daboussy, Julien Fronsacq, Frdric Grossi, Anthony Huberman, Katell Jaffrs, Alexis Jakubowicz, Akiko Miki, Marine Morin, Tanguy Pelletier, Vincent Simon, Claire Staebler, Claire Szulc

Diffusion / Distribution Les Presses du Rel

(Dijon, France) www.lespressesdureel.com ; Art Data (Londres, Royaume-Uni) http://www.artdata.co.uk ; Vice Versa Vertrieb (Berlin, Allemagne) www.vice-versa-vertrieb.de

Prix de vente 39 euros ISBN 978-2-84711-047-0 Dpt lgal 1er trimestre 2012

Achev dimprimer sur les presses de limprimerie Gugler GmbH Melk/Donau (Autriche) en dcembre 2011 2011 ADAGP (Paris) pour les uvres de Ronald Bladen, Ceal Floyer, Pierre Huyghe, Piero Manzoni et Franois Morellet 2011 Succession Marcel Duchamp / ADAGP (Paris)

2011 Palais de Tokyo et les auteurs

Assistante ditoriale Madeleine Compagnon Traductions Caroline Burnett, Judith Hayward, Ellen LeBlond-Schrader, Aude Tincelin Relectures Nolwenn Chauvin

Le chiffre 1 4 prcdent un renvoi indique le volume de la srie Du yodel la physique quantique... dans lequel se trouve lentre correspondant au renvoi. / The numbers 1 to 4 that precede a link indicate the volume in the series From Yodeling to Quantum Physics in which the corresponding entry can be found.

du yodel la physique quantique... From yodeling to quantum physics prestige

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Comment le prestige sest-il impos comme ide centrale pour ce dernier opus de la srie Du yodel la physique quantique ?
mile Soulier

le prestige
Marc-Olivier Wahler sentretient avec mile Soulier

Cette ide rsulte du dveloppement de mon programme au Palais de Tokyo. Sans que je le veuille ncessairement, ce dveloppement possde quelque chose dorganique dans son processus de gnration. Dans le cadre de mes premires expositions au Palais de Tokyo, jai remis en question la notion de point fixe dans le temps et dans lespace. Mon ide principale tait de montrer quon ne peut plus aujourdhui regarder une uvre dart comme une fentre isole de son contexte, un point fixe, et que, de facto, on ne peut galement plus regarder une exposition comme un point fixe dans le temps et dans lespace. Dune certaine manire, on peut dire que toute cette rflexion sest dveloppe partir dun questionnement du visible. Aprs 1 cinq milliards dannes , sorte de prologue dune histoire venir, les expositions de 1 Tatiana Trouv, 1 Michel Blazy, 1 Daniel Dewar & Grgor y Gicquel, 1 Steven Parrino ainsi que celle sur les 1 micronations ont permis de questionner le visible, autrement dit ce qui apparat normalement nos yeux, de manire ordinaire. Avec 2 cellar door , puis 2 superdome , expositions flirtant avec la notion du super spectaculaire, on est all aux limites du visible. Les limites du visible, lexcs du visible, cest le photognique, ce qui est spectaculaire. Que se passe-t-il lorsquon cherche outrepasser le visible ? un moment donn, on sort du spectre du visible, on tombe dun ct ou de lautre du spectre lectromagntique. On sintresse alors linvisible, aux ondes auxquelles lil nest pas sensible. Ces thmes inspirrent logiquement la suite de ma programmation. Il y a eu des expositions sur les ondes radio, llectromagntisme, llectricit, etc. Ce fut 3 gakona , puis 3 spy numbers . Cette rflexion sest poursuivie jusqu ce que se pose la question de savoir ce qui se produirait si on allait au-del du spectre lectromagntique lui-mme. La rponse,
Marc-Olivier Wahler

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videmment, est quon disparat purement et simplement Ce fut le sujet de lexposition 3 chasing napoleon . ce moment, je me suis interrog. Jai parcouru rtrospectivement le dveloppement de mon programme jusqu la disparition. Je me suis dit : quest-ce quon fait maintenant que tout a disparu ? Il se trouve que jtais au mme moment en train de lire un livre de Christopher Priest, intitul Le Prestige, qui traite exactement de ces questions-l. Il explique quun tour de magie comporte invariablement trois tapes fondamentales. La premire sappelle the pledge, o le prestidigitateur prsente lobjet de son tour, par exemple une cage avec un oiseau enferm lintrieur. La deuxime tape sappelle the turn la transformation lors de laquelle on met un drap sur la cage, on tape dessus, on bredouille un mot incomprhensible et puis on enlve le drap et il ny a plus de cage, plus doiseau, plus rien Dune certaine manire, the turn, cest la disparition. L o Christopher Priest ma beaucoup aid, cest quil rappelle que ltape la plus mdiatique, la plus spectaculaire, quelque part, cest la rapparition. Cette tape appele the prestige consiste faire ressurgir des objets disparus, par exemple loiseau sortant dune poche de la veste du prestidigitateur. Je me suis dit : voil, aprs quon a disparu, on rapparat. Lide intressante de Christopher Priest ide essentielle dans son livre , cest que la rapparition se fait ailleurs, autrement dit quelle saccompagne dun glissement, dun saut dans lespace. On disparat gauche de la scne et on rapparat immdiatement droite, ou bien au fond Il y a une sorte de translation en un minimum de temps et dans un maximum despace. Jai dcid de minspirer de ce principe. En dfinitive, jai construit, chapitre aprs chapitre, une histoire de prsentation, de transformation, de disparition, pour en arriver une rapparition. Lide de prestige sous-tend le chapitre final de cette histoire. Cest un chapitre qui sinscrit physiquement dans le lieu dans lequel il a t gnr et qui, en mme temps, implique un ailleurs. Le prestige , finalement, cest une manire de regarder, de voir comment un objet ordi-

naire devient quelque chose quon na jamais vu auparavant : non pas en changeant daspect, mais en recueillant de nouvelles significations, de nouvelles interprtations. Cest un peu aborder ce fameux mystre auquel lart est constamment confront : son ontologie, cette transfiguration dun objet ordinaire en objet dart. Ici, tu fais rfrence au domaine de la prestidigitation. Dune faon gnrale, tu as souvent recours des champs extrieurs la sphre proprement esthtique pour commenter les uvres dart. Pourquoi ?
mile Soulier Marc-Olivier Wahler Je dirais quil y a deux motifs distincts. Le premier est li au fait que certains visiteurs affirment ne pas comprendre ce qui leur est propos. Avec quels moyens peut-on leur fournir une explication satisfaisante ? Traditionnellement, on a videmment recours des historiens de lart ou des critiques dart qui vont mettre au point des thories, vont essayer de montrer que lartiste sintgre dans un circuit, dans une histoire, dans une rflexion. Au Palais de Tokyo, jai tent de suivre un prcepte formul un jour par Umberto Eco daprs une anecdote reste clbre. Un de ses assistants, qui devait enseigner la smiologie des tudiants en premire anne duniversit, est all le voir et lui a dit : Voil, je dois enseigner la smiologie des premire anne, mais quest-ce que je vais bien pouvoir leur raconter ? Car la smiologie, ils ne vont rien y comprendre. Umberto Eco a alors eu ce mot : Parle-leur de tout sauf de smiologie, ils comprendront la smiologie. Ce que jai essay de faire ici au Palais de Tokyo, cest de parler de tout sauf dart contemporain, de sorte que les gens se fassent une ide de ce qui est en jeu. Tous les jeudis, par exemple, on a organis des confrences. On a invit un spcialiste de la science-fiction, un spcialiste du sport, un spcialiste de la physique quantique, un spcialiste des extraterrestres, etc. Le second motif est dordre philosophique. Un penseur comme

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John Searle, qui a beaucoup rflchi sur la signification de linstitution, a tabli avec justesse que toute institution dun point de vue conomique, artistique ou autre se dfinit par le langage. John Searle pose une question essentielle : peut-on parler dune institution en utilisant un langage qui a t dvelopp par cette institution ? La question du langage est ici cruciale. Peut-on parler du muse avec un langage qui a t dfini par ceux qui soccupent du muse ? Dans le champ de la science, ce problme a t rsolu depuis longtemps. Pour parler dune science, il faut dvelopper un langage qui ne soit pas format par son domaine de connaissance. Or, en art, on peut facilement sen rendre compte, le langage quon utilise est totalement format de lintrieur. Pour paraphraser le philosophe John Welchman, au lieu danalyser les uvres en prsupposant le langage, nous ferions mieux danalyser le rle du langage dans la constitution des uvres. Do cette ide de parler de tout sauf de lart contemporain. Jessaie de pointer en dehors du monde de lart, dans divers domaines de connaissance, des faons de faire, des faons de voir, des grilles de lecture, qui permettent dexpliciter ce qui est en jeu. Si cette grille de lecture est satisfaisante, jessaie de la transfrer dans le monde de lart et de voir de quelle manire elle claire les enjeux que les artistes sefforcent de soulever. Lexemple type est celui de la science-fiction. La science-fiction rsout un problme ontologique sur lequel les philosophes se cassent les dents depuis plus dun sicle. Elle utilise des concepts assez obscurs, mais en mme temps trs efficaces. Prenons le cas de Blade Runner. Il y a les fameux rplicants. Ce ne sont pas proprement parler des extraterrestres, mais plutt des robots androdes bnficiant de fonctions biologiques identiques celles des humains. vue dil, il ny a aucune diffrence entre un rplicant et un tre humain. Il y a ensuite les blade runners, dont le rle est de dmasquer ces rplicants. Pour ce faire, ils disposent de ce quon appelle le test de Voight-Kampff, un test dordre psychologique. Ils demandent aux rplicants

de parler de leur enfance, de leur pass et parviennent les dmasquer notamment sur des erreurs de langage. Mme sils ne disposent daucun critre objectif, ils comprennent quils sont en prsence dun rplicant. Je trouve cela intressant. En art, on est embt lorsquil sagit de dfinir de faon prcise le passage dun objet ordinaire un objet esthtique. On a beaucoup de critres, on a beaucoup de conditions, mais on ne parvient pas quelque chose de clair. Dans Blade Runner, celui quon prenait pour un tre humain devient tout coup un androde. Le passage est peru de faon normale. Je pense que si on transfre ce genre de grille de lecture dans le monde de lart pour comprendre comment un objet ordinaire peut se transfigurer en objet esthtique, on obtient des explications plus pertinentes que lorsquon se sert de thories esthtiques traditionnelles. Plutt que de tourner en rond avec un langage prformat, lide, cest de sortir du monde de lart. Vers la science-fiction, selon lexemple prcdent. Ou bien vers la physique quantique, qui dmontre quil peut exister une seule ralit mais plusieurs univers, et que la ralit est une notion lastique . Ou encore vers les jeux vido, qui offrent la possibilit de disposer de plusieurs vies Ta rflexion sur luvre dart a-t-elle des consquences sur la dfinition que tu donnes au concept dexposition ?
mile Soulier

Oui. On me demande souvent : comment peut-on juger une uvre dart ? Autrement dit, comment peut-on savoir si on est en prsence dune bonne uvre ? Il y a une notion totalement pataphysique qui me plat, ce que jappelle la notion de quotient schizophrnique dune uvre dart. Je pense quon peut dvelopper cette notion condition que luvre dart soit une chose autonome, et qui conserve son autonomie quelle que soit linterprtation quon lui assigne. Luvre dart a tout gagner recevoir un maximum dinterMarc-Olivier Wahler

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prtations. Plus elle se prte une multiplicit, une accumulation dinterprtations, plus son quotient schizophrnique est lev, et plus son quotient schizophrnique est lev, plus luvre dart gagne en densit, en efficacit, en cohrence, sans perdre, bien videmment, son autonomie. Le fait dadmettre lide quil soit effectivement possible, et souhaitable, de multiplier les couches dinterprtations relatives une seule et mme uvre dart signifie quon accepte de passer dune logique slective une logique additionnelle. Dans la logique slective, cest ou bien cette interprtation, ou bien celle-ci, ou bien celle-l. Autrement dit, cest blanc ou noir. Or, les sciences nous ont montr depuis longtemps (les mathmatiques en particulier) quil ny a pas ncessairement une seule explication valable un problme explication juste ou fausse mais une pluralit dexplications plus ou moins utiles selon les circonstances. Il y a cette rponse et cette rponse et cette rponse. Le mathmaticien peut dvelopper ses rflexions en fonction de lutilit des rponses. Dans la plupart des sciences, on a depuis longtemps abandonn la logique slective au profit dune logique additionnelle impliquant notamment lacceptation du tiers exclu. Et les artistes aussi, dune certaine manire. Le problme, cest quon est toujours tent, dans le monde de lart, de fonctionner avec les modes de pense quon utilise dans la vie de tous les jours : il faut choisir , on ne peut pas tout avoir Car lducation nous conditionne. Je pense que lart est un bon outil pour nous rapprendre la logique additionnelle. Si on accepte une telle logique, alors on admet quune uvre dart puisse recevoir plusieurs couches dinterprtations diffrentes. Le corrlatif de la logique slective, cest la vision-fentre. On nous a appris, depuis la Renaissance, regarder une uvre dart de manire bien spcifique : depuis un point de vue idal et en faisant compltement abstraction du contexte. On a un beau cadre autour du tableau. On peut se projeter dans le tableau comme si on regardait travers une fentre. Au xix e sicle, on accrochait les tableaux les uns ct des

autres, et les spectateurs passaient dun univers un autre en oprant des cloisonnements tanches. Au xx e sicle, les artistes ont accompli le grand travail de briser cette visionfentre. Cela a commenc avec les dadastes, notamment lors de la fameuse exposition Dada-Vorfrhling la brasserie Winter de Cologne. Les visiteurs entraient par les toilettes, il fallait casser les uvres dart, les toilettes faisaient partie intgrante des uvres, il y avait des performances Quelques dcennies plus tard et pour faire bref , le coup final fut port par lart minimal. Exposer un cube noir dans un white cube par exemple : cest le fameux objet insignifiant. On ne peut que glisser de lobjet au sol, du sol au mur, du mur au plafond, du plafond lclairage et finalement de lclairage au visiteur lui-mme. Et cet objet insignifiant nest finalement quun objet transitif. Il permet de glisser sur dautres choses. Cest prcisment sa fonction transitive qui le rend intressant. La logique additionnelle qui sous-tend son fonctionnement lui permet de multiplier les couches dinterprtations diffrentes et daugmenter ainsi son quotient schizophrnique. Pour en revenir ma question, le concept dexposition se trouve-t-il modifi par les ides que tu dveloppes au niveau de luvre dart ?
mile Soulier

Labandon de la logique slective et de son corollaire la vision-fentre a rendu possible le dveloppement dune nouvelle conception de lexposition : lexposition comme mdium part entire. En effet, que devient une addition duvres dart partir du moment o chaque uvre dart glisse dans son contexte et que toutes les uvres dart sinterrelationnent les unes les autres ? Une composition duvres dart. Aujourdhui, lexposition est bel et bien devenue un mdium part entire. partir de ce moment, il faut appliquer ce mdium la mme logique quaux uvres dart. Il faut notamment se poser la question du mode de relation que les expositions
Marc-Olivier Wahler

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LE PRESTIGE

Marc-Olivier Wahler / mile Soulier

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ont entre elles. Quest-ce quune composition dexpositions ? Cest un programme. Je pense quil est aujourdhui essentiel de considrer le programme comme mdium part entire. On ne le fait pas encore assez. On a lhabitude daligner les expositions les unes derrire les autres comme si ctait des points fixes dans le temps et dans lespace. Au Palais de Tokyo, jai eu la chance davoir un espace assez grand pour pouvoir entreprendre plusieurs expositions simultanes, ce qui a donn lieu de vastes possibilits en terme de programme. Le programme a t structur en diffrentes sessions de trois mois, ellesmmes structures selon trois rythmes diffrents : des expositions qui durent toute la session, des expositions qui durent six semaines, des expositions qui ne durent quun mois. Cela ressemble aux chapitres dun livre se divisant en paragraphes, se divisant leur tour en lignes. Ce qui est trs important, cest quune session en amne une autre. Il faut par exemple que le spectateur qui visite la deuxime session puisse se dire : Je comprends mieux ce qui sest pass dans la premire et je peux en mme temps imaginer ce qui va se passer dans la troisime. Un programme, une exposition, une uvre dart ne sont jamais ferms sur eux-mmes. Ils font toujours rfrence ce qui les prcde et sinscrivent dans un flux temporel. Encore une fois, il ny a pas de point fixe dans le temps et dans lespace Avec lide du prestige , prpares-tu aussi ta propre disparition ?
mile Soulier

est capable de faire Lide, cest quen terminant mon mandat au Palais de Tokyo, cest un peu comme si jachevais une sorte de livre, dont le dernier chapitre serait en mme temps le premier dune histoire venir, ailleurs. Jai t prsent au dbut de mon mandat de manire trs visible. Ensuite, jai, dune certaine manire, disparu derrire les expositions, notamment en donnant des cartes blanches certains artistes. Durant les derniers jours de mon mandat, je serai dans la peau de cet animal. Je participerai aux runions, je me promnerai dans les salles et les couloirs du Palais en plein chantier Aprs cette disparition, il faudra bien que je rapparaisse. un moment donn, je rapparatrai donc effectivement dans un autre endroit, o lhistoire, une autre histoire, pourra dbuter
Propos recueillis en octobre 2011 Paris.

Il faut tre cohrent. On ne peut pas tre simplement comme un chef dorchestre qui se tient distance. En tant quacteur du programme, je vais galement disparatre. Je vais travailler avec un artiste, Christian Jankowski, qui va me faire monter sur scne. La mise en scne de ma disparition prendra une tournure spectaculaire. Christian Jankowski va demander un magicien de me transformer en chien, ou en singe, on ne sait pas encore, cela dpend de ce que le magicien
Marc-Olivier Wahler

Directeur du Palais de Tokyo de 2006 2011, Marc-Olivier Wahler a organis plus de quatre cents expositions depuis quinze ans. En 1994, il cofonde le CAN Neuchtel quil dirige jusquen 2000. De 2000 2006, il prend la direction du SI (Swiss Institute Contemporary Art) New York. Critique dart, il crit rgulirement sur lart contemporain, mais galement sur Mike Tyson, les mutants ou les Hells Angels. mile Soulier a fait des tudes de philosophie, de musique et de cinma. Il a travaill comme critique dart indpendant ainsi que comme assistant la mise en scne. Son premier roman, Incertaine, a t publi en 2011 aux ditions Lo Scheer.

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How did the prestige become the central theme of your last opus in the series From Yodeling to Quantum Physics?
mile Soulier

the prestige
Marc-Olivier Wahler in conversation with mile Soulier

This idea developed as I constructed my program at the Palais de Tokyo. I didnt plan it initially; rather, it came about organically. In the context of my first exhibitions at the Palais de Tokyo, I investigated the notion of a fixed point in time and space. My main goal was to show that today we can no longer examine an artwork as though we were looking through a window, separating it from its context and isolating it as a fixed point in time and space. De facto, neither can we look at the exhibition as a fixed point. In a way, we might say that this thought process developed when I began to question the limits of visibility. FiVe billion years [ 1 cinq milliards dannes ] functioned as a sort of prologue, announcing the story to come. The exhibitions by 1 Tatiana Trouv, 1 Michel Blazy, 1 Daniel Dewar & Grgor y Gicquel, and 1 Steven Parrino as well as sTaTe: groW your oWn (an exhibition on 1 micronations), allowed for a further investigation of visibility, which we can define as what our eyes see under normal circumstances. In the exhibitions 2 cellar door , then 2 superdome , we approached the limits of visibility and flirted with notions of extreme visibility. At these limits is an excess of visibility an extreme visibility of the spectacular. What happens when we attempt to move beyond the visible? At a certain moment, we leave behind the visible spectrum and find ourselves at either side of the electromagnetic spectrum [ spectre lectromagntique ]. We began by investigating invisibility, which we can think of as the wavelengths that the eye doesnt see. This theme naturally influenced the suite of my program. The exhibitions 3 gakona , then 3 spy numbers, dealt with radio waves, electromagnetism, electricity, etc. Following this line of thought, I asked myself what would happen if we went beyond the electromagnetic spectrum itself. The answer is that we would quite simply disappear [ disparition ].
Marc-Olivier Wahler

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This was the subject of the exhibition 3 chasing napoleon . Here, I came to a crossroads. I looked back at the logic that had structured my program, up until the notion of disappearance, and thought about what could happen next, now that everything had disappeared. As fate would have it, I happened to be reading Christopher Priests The Prestige, which deals precisely with this question. Priest explains that a magic trick [ magie ] is always made up of three fundamental steps. The first is the pledge, during which the magician presents the object of his trick to the audience: for example, a bird in a cage. The second step is the turnthe transformationwhere a sheet is draped over the cage and presto!, when the sheet is removed, the cage and the bird have vanished. In a way, the turn is simply the disappearance: the magician says an incomprehensible word, taps the object, and it disappears from sight. This is when I hesitated, and when my dialogue with Christopher Priest proved helpful: he says that the most impressive and the most spectacular step is the reappearance. In magic, this step is called the prestige. It consists of making the object that vanished reappear. In our example, the bird might fly out of the magicians pocket. I told myself: this is it, reappearance follows disappearance. An interesting aspect of this ideaand a central theme in Christopher Priests bookis that the reappearance happens elsewhere. In other words, it is coupled with a shift in space. A magician disappears on stage right, then reappears on stage left or center stage. There is a sort of transfer that occurs in a minimum amount of time, but over a maximum amount of space. I decided to incorporate this idea into my program. Chapter by chapter, I constructed a veritable narrative, a story of presentation, transformation, and disappearance, in order to arrive at the notion of reappearance. The idea of prestige embodies this final chapter. Here, the story is physically linked to the place where it began and, at the same time, it implies that there is an elsewhere. Ultimately, the prestige is a way of seeing, and particularly of seeing how an ordinary object can become more than

what wed initially noticed. This isnt accomplished by changing its physical characteristics, but by endowing it with a new significance and new interpretations. I am also dealing with this famous mystery that art must confront today: its ontology, the transformation of an ordinary object into an artwork. Here you refer to magic. You often incorporate fields outside of the aesthetic sphere in order to discuss art. Why?
mile Soulier

I would say that there are two distinct reasons. The first is that certain visitors have stated that they couldnt understand the art on display. How can we give them a satisfactory explanation? Traditionally, we have turned to art historians and critics, who develop theories and try to show that certain artists share a common logic and belong to the same group or movement. At the Palais de Tokyo, Ive tried to emulate the tenet of Umberto Eco, from a now famous anecdote: one of his assistants, who was preparing to teach semiotics to firstyear college students, asked Umberto Eco for advice: Im teaching semiotics to freshmen, but what should I tell them? They arent going to understand anything about semiotics. To which Umberto Eco responded: Talk to them about everything except semiotics, and they will understand semiotics. This is what I try to do here at the Palais de Tokyo. I speak about everything except contemporary art in order to reveal what is at stake in contemporary art. Every Thursday, for example, we held conferences. We invited a quantum physicist [ physique quantique ], experts on science fiction, sports, UFOs [ extraterrestres ], etc. The second reason for this choice is more philosophical in nature. A philosopher by the name of John Searle, who examined the significance of the institution, came to the conclusion that all institutionseconomic, artistic, or otherdefine themselves through language. John Searle asks an essential question: it is possible to talk about an institution by using language that was developed by that same institution? The question of language
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is crucial here. Can we speak about a museum in a language that was formulated by the museums creators? In the sciences, this problem was resolved long ago. In order to speak about science, we use a vocabulary that wasnt coined by scientists. In the art world, it is clear that the language we use has been completely defined from the inside, by those working within the field. To paraphrase the philosopher John Welchman, instead of using a pre-established vocabulary to analyze works of art, we would be better off analyzing the role of language in art. Hence, this idea of discussing everything except contemporary art. I try to point to various fields outside the world of art, towards different ways of doing, seeing, and reading, that might allow us to see what is at stake. If a way of reading seems productive, I apply it to the world of art to see if it can highlight the issues with which artists are grappling. Science fiction would be a prime example. It solves an ontological problem that has been stumping philosophers for over a century. Science fiction uses pretty obscure concepts in a very efficient manner. Take Blade Runner, for example, and its famous replicants. They arent aliens, but rather androids that are biologically identical to humans. There are no visible differences between a replicant and a human. Then there are the blade runners, whose role is to reveal these replicants. In order to do so, they use something they call the VoightKampff testa psychological test where they ask the replicants to speak about their childhood or their past. The replicants then reveal themselves by making linguistic errors. Even though there are no objective criteria, the blade runners can deduce that they are in the presence of a replicant. I find this interesting. In art, we have trouble defining precisely how and when an ordinary object becomes an aesthetic object. We have many criteria, many conditions, but we never arrive at a clear explanation. In Blade Runner, the person we mistook for a human transforms instantly into an android. This transformation is perceived as normal. I think that we can apply this logic to art in order to understand the transformation of an ordinary object into

an aesthetic object. In doing so, the explanations we obtain are more pertinent than traditional aesthetic theories. Instead of running in circles, using only a preformatted language, we should step outside the sphere of art. Towards science fiction, as in the case of the last example. Or, as the case may be, towards quantum physics, which has shown that one reality may transcend several universes, and that this reality is elastic. Or, we could turn to video games [ jeux vido ], which offer the possibility of having multiple lives. Do your ideas about art influence your definition of the exhibition?
mile Soulier

Yes. Im often asked: how can you judge a work of art? How can you tell if it is any good? There is a pataphysical concept that appeals to me, which I call the schizophrenic quotient [ quotient schizophrnique ] of an artwork. We can talk about this idea only if the artwork is considered autonomous, and if it preserves this autonomy no matter what interpretation we assign to it. An artwork has everything to gain from having multiple interpretations. The more it can be interpreted in different ways, the higher its schizophrenic quotient. The higher the schizophrenic quotient, the denser the artwork, and the more efficient and coherent it becomeswithout, of course, losing its autonomy. If we accept that it is possible, even advantageous, to formulate multiple interpretations of a single artwork, we leave behind selective logic in favor of additional logic. In selective logic, a single interpretation is correct. In other words, the situation is black or white. In the sciences, we have known for a long time (particularly with mathematics) that there isnt necessarily a unique solution to a problem whether it be true or falsebut instead a plurality of explanations that are more or less useful given the circumstances. There is one answer, then another answer, then yet another answer. The mathematician can think in terms of an answers
Marc-Olivier Wahler

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The presTige

Marc-Olivier Wahler / mile Soulier

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usefulness. In most sciences, we abandoned long ago selective logic in favor of additional logic, thus accepting previously excluded answers. In a certain way, artists have too. The problem is that we have always tried to apply the same logic we use to think about everyday life to the world of art: our education conditions us to think that we must choose, and that we cant have our cake and eat it, too. I think that art is a useful tool in helping us relearn additional logic. If I accept this logic, then I admit that a work of art can lend itself to different levels of interpretations. Selective logics correlative is window vision [ vision-fentre ]. Since the Renaissance, we have been taught to look at an artwork in a very specific way. Weve learned that there is an ideal spot from which to view the painting, and that we should completely ignore its context. Indeed, there is a real frame around the painting. We can project ourselves into the painting as if we were looking through a window. In the 19th century, we hung paintings side by side, and the public had to move from one universe to the next, keeping them all separate. In the 20th century, artists managed to shatter this window vision. This process began with the Dada artists, particularly with their famous exhibition Dada-Vorfrhling in the Winter Brasserie in Cologne. Visitors entered through the restrooms (which were part of the show), they had to break artworks, and sit through performances. Several decades laterto be brief the final punch was thrown by Minimalism. For example, displaying a black cube in a white cube: this is the ultimate insignificant object. There is nothing that holds the gaze: our eyes slip from the object to the floor, from the floor to the wall, from the wall to the ceiling, from the ceiling to the lights, and finally from the lights to the visitor himself. This insignificant object is ultimately only a transitive object. It permits our gaze to shift to other things. This transitive function is precisely what makes the artwork interesting. The underlying additional logic enables us to formulate multiple different layers of interpretation, thereby increasing its schizophrenic quotient.

To return to my last question, is your conception of the exhibition influenced by the ideas youve developed about art?
mile Soulier

By abandoning selective logic and its correlative, window vision, I was able to develop a new conception of the exhibition. The exhibition has become a medium in its own right. What happens to a group of artworks once they merge with their context and all the artworks intermingle? Together, they constitute a composition of artworks in other words, an exhibition. Today, the exhibit has truly become a medium in its own right. From now on, we must apply the same logic to exhibits as to artworks. We must examine the relationship that exists between individual exhibitions. What is a composition of exhibitions? Its a program. I think that today it is essential to consider an exhibition program as a separate medium. This isnt done enough. We have a habit of thinking of exhibitions as separate events that take place one after the other, as if they were fixed points in time and space. At the Palais de Tokyo, I was fortunate that the space itself was large enough to allow multiple exhibitions to unfold simultaneously, which opened up new possibilities in term of creating an exhibition program. My program was organized into three-month sessions, which were each built around three different tempos: some shows lasted an entire session, others six weeks or only a month. They resembled chapters in a book, divided into paragraphs, which in turn are divided into sentences. It is very important that the sessions build on each other. We hoped that a visitor, while seeing the second session, might say: Now I better understand what took place in the first exhibition; I can now imagine what will happen in the third. A program, an exhibition and an artwork are never isolated objects. They always refer to what preceded them, and influence what follows. Once again, we see there is a continuum instead just fixed moments isolated in time and space.
Marc-Olivier Wahler

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the prestige

[e ]
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Circling back to the idea of the prestige, are you preparing to disappear yourself?
mile Soulier

I strive to be coherent. Curators, like orchestra conductors, often keep themselves at a distance. As an active component of the program, I will also disappear. Im working with an artist, Christian Jankowski, who will put me onstage. My disappearance will be spectacular. Christian Jankowski will ask a magician to transform me into something, a dog or a monkeywe havent decided yet, as it depends on the magicians abilities. My hope is that my mandate at the Palais de Tokyo will end like a book does, the last chapter becoming the first of a new story that will take place elsewhere. At the beginning of my time at the Palais de Tokyo, I was present in a very visible manner. Then, in a way, I disappeared behind my exhibitions by giving cartes blanches to certain artists. During my last days at the Palais, I will be present in the form of an animal. I will actively attend meetings and survey each room and hallway of the museum during its renovation. After this disappearance, I will reappear again, in a different place, where a new story will begin
Marc-Olivier Wahler The interview took place in October 2011 in Paris. Translated by Ellen LeBlond-Schrader.

TOKYO ART CLUB PAVILLON

SALONS

MODULES CARTES BLANCHES

A 2007

C D

2008
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2011

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DU YODEL PHYSIQUE QUANTIQUE... (VOL 1- 5) NOMIYA

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G H 2009 I

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M, NOUVELLES DU MONDE RENVERS LA MARQUE NOIRE THE THIRD MIND/ CARTE BLANCHE UGO RONDINONE

2007 2008/ D. E. F.
2009/

A 1 , NOUVELLES DU MONDE RENVERS CELLAR DOOR/ LORIS GRAUD SUPERDOME B 1 LA MARQUE NOIRE DUNE RVOLUTION LAUTRE/ CARTE BLANCHE JRMY DELLER c 1 THE THIRD MIND / cARTE BLANcHE UGO RONDINONE D 2 cELLAR DOOR / LORIS GRAUD SPY NUMBER CHASING NAPOLEON E 2 SUPERDOME F 2 DUNE RVOLUTION LAUTRE / cARTE BLANcHE JRMY DELLER G 3 GAKONA BLANCHE ADAM MCEWEN FRESH HELL/ CARTE H 3 SPY NUMBER I LODYSSE DES ESPACES 3 cHASING NAPOLEON J 4 PERGOLA MOMENI/ OLAF BREUNING ROBIN MEIER ET ALI ALL OF THE ABOVE K 4 DYNASTY - CARTE BLANCHE JOHN M ARMLEDER/ OLAF BREUNING/ CHRISTIAN ANDERSSON L 4 FRESH HELL / cARTE BLANcHE ADAM McEWEN LODYSSE DES ESPAcES I. KARSTEN FDINGER / JOAO ONOFRE II. ALEXANDRE SINGH / MARNIE WEBER III. ROBIN MEIER & ALI MOMENI/ OLAF BREUNING IV. ALL OF THE ABOVE cARTE BLANcHE JOHN M ARMLEDER /
KARSTEN FDINGER/ JOAO ONOFRE ALEXANDRE SINGH/ MARNIE WEBER PERGOLA DYNASTY GAKONA

2010/

2008 H. I.
J. K.

G.

Director of the Palais de Tokyo from 2006 to 2011, Marc-Olivier Wahler has organized more than 400 exhibitions over the past fifteen years. In 1994, he cofounded the CAN in Neuchatel which he ran until 2000. From 2000 to 2006, he took over as director of the SI (Swiss InstituteContemporary Art) in New York. As an art critic, he writes regularly about contemporary art, but also about Mike Tyson, mutants or Hells Angels. mile soulier studied philosophy, music and film. He worked as an independant art critic and as an assistant director. His first novel, Incertaine, was published in 2011 by the ditions Lo Scheer.

2009 L. 2011/
I. II.

2010 III. IV. 2011

palais de tokyo a-Z

palais de tokyo

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aBandon de lart

acclration

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abandon de lart

Abandonment of art [ f ] Labandon de lart est un acte paradoxal en ce quil est susceptible de signification artistique, voire de prendre chez certains le sens de geste artistique ultime ; une voie ouverte par Marcel Duchamp qui, au milieu des annes 1920, annonce son retrait de la scne artistique pour se consacrer aux checs. Par ce geste, il opre un dplacement radical de la valeur artistique de lobjet lartiste, dplacement dj signifi avec linvention du ready-made. Dans les annes 1960 et 1970 des artistes abandonnent rellement lart afin de pouvoir sengager pleinement dans des activits en prise avec le social. Une telle attitude reste paradoxale dans la mesure o elle est susceptible de diffrentes interprtations, selon le degr de valeur artistique quon lui attribue. En 4 1968, 4 Charlotte Posenenske abandonne toute production artistique et commence des tudes de sociologie portant sur ltude des processus de travail standardiss. Cette dcision de mettre fin une carrire artistique prometteuse sinscrit dans le contexte du dveloppement des attitudes performatives et conceptuelles dans lart, attitudes porteuses dune critique de la marchandise et qui constituent une tentative de ractiver le projet avant-gardiste didentifier lart et la vie. Elle peut tre comprise comme la conclusion de sa qute dun art objectif et coopratif, dans lequel lartiste renonce volontairement ses privilges ; labandon est une suite organique de la russite du projet artistique. Son abandon de lart peut tre galement peru comme un constat politique : lart est impuissant rsoudre les problmes sociaux, il ne produit que des simulacres de relations libres entre individus et doit donc tre abandonn au profit dune activit vritablement ancre dans le rel. Il signifie alors lchec de lentreprise artistique. Enfin, quitter lart peut tre envisag comme une consquence des recherches de lartiste sur la production et la consommation. Ayant constat que lart ne lui permettait dintervenir quau niveau de la consommation (uvres modulaires, accrochage laiss la disposition du 4 consommateur , vente des uvres prix cotant), elle fait le choix de la sociologie et du syndicalisme pour pouvoir agir au niveau de la production. Dans ce dernier cas, lart nest ni uni ni oppos la vie. Lactivit de lartiste apparat rtrospectivement comme une premire partie dun projet de rforme sociale, qui sest avre non satisfaisante. [ e ] The abandonment of art is a paradoxical act in that it can carry artistic meaning, or even take

on in certain cases the import of the ultimate artistic gesture, an avenue opened up by Marcel Duchamp who, in the mid-1920s, announced his intention of leaving the art world in order to devote himself to chess. With this gesture, he effected a radical shift of artistic value from the object to the artist, a shift already evidenced with the invention of the ready-made. In the Sixties and Seventies, artists began truly abandoning art in order to fully involve themselves in social issues. This attitude remains paradoxical in the sense that it is open to different interpretations, depending on the degree of artistic value attributed to it. In 4 1968, 4 Charlotte Posenenske abandoned all artistic production and turned to Sociology studies, specifically the study of standardized labor processes. The decision to put an end to a promising art career is a reflection of the times, in which performative and conceptual attitudes in art developed, attitudes which carry within them a critique of consumer goods and constitute an attempt to reactivate the vanguardist project of identifying art with life. One can understand it as the conclusion to her search for an objective and cooperative art, in which the artist voluntarily relinquishes his/her own privileges; the act of abandonment is the organic next step toward the success of the artistic project. Her abandonment can also be construed as a political acknowledgement: art is powerless to resolve social problems; it can only produce a simulacrum of free relationships between individuals and should thus be abandoned in order to pursue an activity that is truly grounded in reality. In this case it signifies the failure of the artistic enterprise. Lastly, abandoning art can be seen as the consequence of the artists investigations into production and consumption. Havi ng established that art only enables the artist to participate on a consumerist level (modular [ modulaire ] works, with the installation left to the consumer [ 4 consommateur ], sale of the works at cost price), she turned to Sociology and trade unionism as a means of leverage on production. In this last case, art is neither united nor opposed to life. The activities of the artist seem retrospectively like the first half of a social reform project which was deemed inconclusive.
acclration

Acceleration [ f ] Le skieur Didier Cuche, champion du monde 2007 de descente, peut parcourir les premiers cent mtres dune piste en moins de quatre secondes. Une chute vertigineuse. Marcel

Duchamp, avec le ready-made, fait pourtant mieux : il passe de lobjet ordinaire luvre dart la vitesse de la lumire. Si la production du ready-made ne dpend que dun choix, elle est en effet rapporter au temps dune connexion synaptique, acclration dcisive qui laisse sur place tous ses poursuivants. Touche dans ses fondements son temps dlaboration, de fabrication et de rception , luvre dart est ds lors en redfinition constante : on ne peut dcemment revenir en arrire, mais dans le mme temps, il est impossible daller plus loin. Limportant dans cette acclration est son effet sur le spectateur. De la mme manire que le corps de Didier Cuche, littralement lch dans la descente, se trouve en tat dapesanteur, lesprit du regardeur , sil prend conscience de la brche ouverte par le coup dacclrateur donn par Duchamp, nest plus soumis aux contraintes de lecture et de comprhension habituellement indexes luvre dart. Le moment de linterprtation est suspendu, tir linfini ; vhicule lanc la vitesse de la lumire, le ready-made glisse sur le temps, rvle llasticit du rel et permet de passer librement de lune lautre de ses couches. [ e ] The skier Didier Cuche, downhill World Cup champion in 2007, can cover the first hundred meters of a piste in under four seconds. A vertiginous descent. However Marcel Duchamp does even better with his ready-mades: he goes from an ordinary object to a work of art at the speed of light [ lumire ]. While production of a ready-made depends only on a choice, it should in fact be related to the duration of a synaptic connection, a crucial acceleration which leaves all its followers standing. The work of art is affected at its foundationsthe time taken to work it out, make it and review it, and from then on is in a state of constant redefinition: it is not decently possible to go back, but at the same time it is impossible to go any further. The important thing about this acceleration is its effect on the onlooker. Just as the body of Didier Cuche, literally cast off into the descent, is in a state of weightlessness, the mind of the viewer, if he is aware of the gap opened up by the boost to the accelerator given by Duchamp, is no longer subject to the constraints of reading and understanding usually tied to the work of art. The moment of interpretation is suspended, drawn out ad infinitum; a vehicle launched at the speed of light, the ready-made slides over time, reveals the elasticity [ lasticit ] of reality and makes it possible to pass freely from one layer of reality to another. [ Klammer, Franz ]

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aion a

antenne relais

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aion a [ f ] En 1941, Emma Kunz fit la dcouverte dune

pierre gurisseuse dans les carrires romaines de Wrenlos quelle nomma Aion A. Le potentiel thrapeutique de cette roche tient, selon cette dernire, non seulement son extraordinaire composition minrale, mais surtout lnergie biodynamique quelle renferme. Elle entre, par exemple, dans le traitement des rhumatismes, des blessures lies la pratique du sport et des affections des tissus musculaires, tendineux et conjonctifs. LAion A, classe mdicament de catgorie D depuis 1984, est disponible dans toutes les pharmacies et drogueries de Suisse. [ e ] In 1941, Emma Kunz discovered in the Roman Quarry in Wrenlos the healing rock to which she gave the name Aion A. The powerful healing capacity of the rock derives, according to Kunz, not only from its special mineral composition but especially from its accumulated biodynamic energy. The healing rock has become an indispensable assistance in the treatment of, for example, rheumatological problems, in all sports injuries, and damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Aion A has been approved by the IKS since 1984 and is available in Switzerland in pharmacies and drugstores. [ Spiritisme ]
alatoire

Random 1 Blazy, Michel , 1 Cut-up, 1 SEConDE unE annE (unE), 1 ThirD MinD (ThE)
aMerika [ f ] Premier roman de Franz Kafka, abandonn la

moiti de sa rdaction en 1913 et laiss inachev. Il est publi par Max Brod en 1927, aprs la mort de lauteur. Titr lorigine Le Disparu, il raconte les aventures malheureuses dun jeune homme de dix-sept ans, Karl Rossman, expdi en Amrique par ses pauvres parents parce quune bonne lavait sduit et quelle avait eu un enfant de lui . Antiroman de formation ou pope dsesprante, le roman commence avec larrive du hros dans le port de New York, porte dentre dune Amrique imaginaire et symbole dune socit dans laquelle, selon les mots du Journal de Kafka linnocent et le coupable, [sont] tous deux finalement punis de mort indistinctement, linnocent dune main plus lgre, plutt cart quabattu . Symbole de son cheminement impossible, le labyrinthe dans lequel Karl Rossman se trouve pris ds la premire page du roman : Il sempressa de demander cet ami, qui nen parut pas ravi, de lui rendre le service de surveiller un instant sa valise, puis jeta un coup

dil circulaire pour se reprer son retour, et fila. Une fois en bas, il eut la dception de trouver pour la premire fois ferm un passage qui et t un raccourci notable, sans doute tait-ce d au dbarquement de tous les passagers ; il lui fallut rechercher grand-peine des escaliers qui se succdaient linfini, dbouchaient dans des coursives sinueuses, dans une pice dserte avec une table de travail abandonne, jusquau moment o, effectivement, comme il navait pris ce chemin quune ou deux fois et toujours en groupe, il se trouva compltement perdu. [ e ] Franz Kafkas first novel, abandoned when half written in 1913 and left unfinished. It was published by Max Brod in 1927, after the authors death. Originally entitled The Man Who Disappeared, it relates the unhappy adventures of a 17-year-old youth, Karl Rossman, sent to America by his poor parents because a maid had seduced him and borne his child. An anti-Bildungsroman or an epic of despair, the novel begins with the heros arrival at New York harbor, the gateway to an imaginary America and the symbol of a society in which, in the words of Kafkas Journal, the innocent and the guilty [are] both finally punished by death without distinction, the innocent with a lighter hand, removed rather than mown down. The labyrinth [ labyrinthe ] Karl Rossman finds himself caught in from the first page of the novel is a symbol of the impossible path he has to follow: He hastily asked this friend, who did not seem delighted by the request, to do him the service of keeping an eye on his case for a moment, then looked round to get his bearings for when he came back, and sped off. Once down, he was disappointed to find a passage that would have been a considerable short cut closed for the first time, no doubt due to the disembarkation of all the passengers; he had to look with great difficulty for staircases that followed one after the other for ever, coming out into winding alleyways, into a deserted room with an abandoned desk, until the moment when, as he had followed this route only once or twice and always as part of a group, he was in fact completely lost. [ 4 FrESh hELL ]
antenne relais

antennes relais de tlphonie mobile / Mobile phone masts. Photo : copyright CellularPCS.com

Mobile phone mast [ f ] Aussi appeles sites-relais ou stations de base, les antennes relais sont des metteurs-rcepteurs qui assurent un rle fondamental dans les communications mobiles, en ce quelles servent acheminer dans les deux sens les appels sur le rseau tlphonique auquel elles sont connectes. Dans

architecture vernaculaire Habitat traditionnel / Traditional house, Lesotho. Photo DR

ant
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antiMatire

arcHitectUre VernacUlaire

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un effort de dissimulation des antennes relais, des solutions de camouflage ont t mises au point. Prenant de multiples formes, du mt dguis en palmier au faux rocher gant, ces pylnes sont ainsi camoufls pour se fondre dans le paysage. Une telle tentative de cacher ces antennes dans les bois et dans les rues bordes darbres les rend, en ralit, inquitantes et menaantes. 3 Matt odell relve lexistence de thories du complot relatives ces antennes, selon lesquelles ces dernires causent des troubles physiques (tels que maux de tte, insomnies, nauses, vomissements, autocombustions et cancers), sont lorigine du syndrome deffondrement des colonies dabeilles ou bien servent surveiller lactivit des populations. Une des thories les plus radicales assure que les pylnes GSM constituent en fait un gigantesque rseau darmes de manipulation mentale. Ils feraient partie dun sinistre programme des gouvernements visant assurer un contrle global des populations. Si lon en croit ces affirmations, les maladies causes par les antennes de tlphonie mobile pourraient tre intentionnelles et constituer ainsi un moyen de soumettre les populations et de limiter, terme, leur croissance et leur dveloppement. [ e ] Also called cell sites or base stations, mobile phone masts are transmitter-receivers that play a crucial role in mobile communications, in that they serve to route calls in both directions on the telephone network they are connected to. In an attempt to disguise mobile phone masts, camouflaged masts were developed. The masts are intended to blend in with the surrounding environment, taking many different forms, from artificial palm trees to giant fake boulders. In reality, they become threatening and sinister, attempting to hide within forests and tree-lined streets. 3 Matt odell notes the existence of conspiracy theories surrounding masts including beliefs that they cause illnesses such as headaches, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, spontaneous combustion [ autocombustion ] and cancer, that they are the reason behind beehive colony collapse disorder [ syndrome deffondrement des colonies dabeilles ], and that they are being used to monitor the populations activities. One of the most extreme conspiracy beliefs is that the masts are operating as a giant network of mind control weapons: That they are part of a sinister plan by global governments to control the population. This extends to the concept that the illnesses caused by the masts could be intentional, as a way of subduing the public and ultimately limiting population growth and development. [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]

antiMatire

Antimatter [ f ] La dcouverte de lantimatire fait partie de ces moments extraordinaires de lhistoire des sciences, ces moments o la thorie prcde lexprience, permettant de dcouvrir ce qui navait mme pas t imagin , souligne 1 Christophe Galfard. Cest aux travaux thoriques de Paul Dirac que lon doit la mise en vidence de lantimatire, ds la fin des annes 1930 : sa fameuse quation tablit mathmatiquement lexistence dune sorte de particule proche de llectron, de charge lectrique oppose, baptise positron. Ce nest que dans un second temps que lobservation a permis de confirmer exprimentalement lexistence dantimatire, suite aux recherches sur les rayons cosmiques effectues par Carl Anderson lobservatoire du pic du midi, dans les Pyrnes. Les travaux de Dirac sur llectron et le positron ont depuis t gnraliss et lon a tabli que toute particule a son antiparticule, chaque atome son antiatome et donc chaque molcule son antimolcule. Lantimatire dsigne alors la matire dont toutes les particules seraient remplaces par les antiparticules correspondantes. Le prfixe anti renvoie la proprit principale de ces lments : ils annihilent la matire normale laquelle ils correspondent ds quils se trouvent son contact, leur masse devenant alors nergie suivant la formule de 1 Einstein E = mc2. Cest cette transformation exponentielle qui focalise aujourdhui lintrt des laboratoires : la possibilit de fabriquer et de contrler lantimatire ouvrirait des perspectives indites dans le domaine nergtique. Elle reste cependant ce jour excessivement difficile stocker et tudier, ainsi qu fabriquer. Alors quun gramme dantimatire permettrait de rpondre aux besoins en nergie dune ville entire pendant vingt-quatre heures, la quantit totale dantimatire produite en un an au CERN est si infime quelle ne ferait pas briller une ampoule plus de quelques secondes. Selon Christophe Galfard, lantimatire est bien relle, mais nous nen savons pas encore beaucoup son sujet. Des questions fondamentales ont dailleurs merg avec sa dcouverte : pourquoi le monde que nous voyons est-il fait presque exclusivement de matire et non pas dantimatire ? Existe-t-il des galaxies lointaines o prosprent des mondes entiers faits dantimatire ? [ e ] The discovery of antimatter is among those few extraordinary moments in the history of science, those moments when theory precedes experiment, making it possible to discover what had not even been imagined except theoretically, underlines

1 Christophe Galfard. The revelation of antimatter is due to the theoretical work of Paul Dirac, from the late 1930s on: his famous equation mathematically establishes the existence of a kind of particle close to the electron, but with an opposite electric charge, named the positron. It was while observing cosmic rays [ rayons cosmiques ] that antimatter was discovered experimentally in 1932, at the Pic du Midi Observatory in the Pyrnes, by the physicist Carl Anderson. Diracs work has been generalised, and today we know that every particle has its anti-particle, every atom its anti-atom and therefore every molecule its anti-molecule. So antimatter designates matter [ matire ], all the particles of which seem to be replaced by the corresponding antiparticles. The prefix anti refers to the principal property of these elements: they annihilate the normal matter they correspond to immediately after making contact with it, their mass becoming energy according to 1 Einsteins formula, E = mc2. Today, laboratories focus their research on this exponential transformation: the possibility of creating and controlling antimatter would open unexplored perspectives in the study of energy. However it remains excessively difficult to stock and to study, as well as to create. While a gram of antimatter would be enough to meet the energy needs of a whole city for 24 hours, the total amount of antimatter produced in a year at the CERN antimatter factory in Geneva is so tiny that it is only just enough to light a bulb for a few seconds. According to Christophe Galfard, Antimatter is therefore quite real, but we still know very little about it. Moreover, fundamental questions emerged with its discovery: why is the world we see made almost exclusively from matter, and not from antimatter? Do far-off galaxies exist where entire worlds made from antimatter flourish? [ Dtecteurs de particules ] [ Dirac (quation de) ]
apparition [ f ] voir p. 33 [ e ] see p. 33 [ Prestidigitateur ] arc lectrique

est un arc lectrique de courte dure se produisant dans lair, la foudre est quant elle un exemple darc lectrique de grandes dimensions. [ e ] An electrical discharge accompanied by an intense output of light[ lumire ] and release of heat, the electric arc jumps between two electrodes in free atmosphere or in a low-pressure gas. This phenomenon was discovered and demonstrated in 1800 by the physicist and chemist Sir Humphry Davy. Whereas an electric spark is a short-lived electric arc occurring in air, a thunderbolt is an example of a large-scale electric arc. [ Bobine de Tesla ] [ 3 Terren, Peter ]
architecture vernaculaire

Electric arc [ f ] Dcharge lectrique accompagne dune mission de lumire et dun dgagement de chaleur intenses, larc lectrique jaillit entre deux lectrodes dans lair libre ou dans un gaz basse pression. Ce phnomne a t dcouvert et dmontr en 1800 par le physicien et chimiste Sir Humphry Davy. Alors quune tincelle lectrique

Vernacular architecture [ f ] Larchitecture vernaculaire se dfinit positivement comme traditionnelle et rgionale. Son style et ses techniques reposent principalement sur un savoir dexprience et sont transmis par la tradition. De ce fait, ils connaissent des volutions lentes et progressives, principalement fonction du contexte. Elle se dfinit ngativement par sa distance lgard de larchitecture savante, idalement incarne par larchitecture moderniste ( 4 style international): style et techniques labors partir de connaissances rationnelles ; volution par ruptures ; indpendance lgard du contexte ; marque de larchitecte ( singularit). Architectes et thoriciens de larchitecture se sont intresss larchitecture vernaculaire depuis les annes 1960, la considrant comme modle pour une pratique alternative de lart de btir ( 4 rudofsky, Bernard) ou comme un des rpertoires de formes la disposition des architectes (architecture post moderniste, 4 Venturi, robert, 4 Jencks, Charles). On trouve galement des traces demprunts chez certains modernistes ( 4 Le Corbusier). [ e ] Vernacular architecture is positively defined as traditional and regional. Its style and techniques are based principally on experience-based knowledge passed down through tradition. They thus evolve and progress slowly, mainly as a function of their context. The genre is also defined negatively as remote from academic architecture, ideally embodied by modernist architecture (international style [ 4 style international ] ): style and techniques developed from rational knowledge; evolution through ruptures; freedom from context; mark of the architect (singularity [ singularit ] ). Architects and architectural theorists have been interested in vernacular architecture since the 1960s, considering it as model for an alternative building practice [ 4 rudofsky, Bernard ] or as one

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arcHitectUre VernacUlaire

arcHitectUre VernacUlaire

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Apparition
~~~
lment essentiel du rpertoire des illusionnistes au mme titre que son contraire, la disparition, qui lui est souvent associ. Au xix e sicle, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin met au point des tours spectaculaires bass sur le principe dapparitions en srie comme Le Foulard aux surprises ou La Bouteille inpuisable. Il donne un descriptif de ce dernier dans son livre Confidences et rvlations (1868) : Je me prsente en scne ayant en main une petite bouteille remplie de vin de Bordeaux. Je la vide compltement en versant son contenu dans des verres et je la rince ensuite avec un peu deau, en ayant soin de la bien faire goutter. Ce prambule termin, je mavance au milieu des spectateurs et, tenant toujours la bouteille renverse, je leur offre den faire sortir toute la liqueur quils pourront dsirer. Ma proposition est gnralement accueillie avec une grande faveur. De tous cts des demandes me sont aussitt faites par des gens aussi dsireux de sassurer de la ralit du tour que de la qualit des liqueurs. Ces liqueurs sont aussitt fournies que demandes. Il nen est aucune, spiritueuse ou aromatique, de quelque pays quelle puisse tre, qui ne soit verse avec la plus grande libralit. La distribution ne se termine que lorsque le spectateur, craignant de ne pouvoir consommer tout ce qui sortirait de la bouteille, et trouvant aussi que plus il ferait prolonger lexprience, moins sa raison pourrait lui rendre des comptes, se dtermine enfin cesser ses demandes. Pour terminer ce tour dune manire saisissante, en donnant une preuve de la libralit inpuisable de ma bouteille, je prends un grand verre boire pouvant contenir au moins la moiti du flacon, et je lemplis jusquaux bords avec une liqueur qui mest encore demande. La Bouteille inpuisable a t reprsente pour la premire fois mon thtre le 1er dcembre 1847.
[f] [e]

Apparition
~~~
An essential element in the illusionists repertoire, just like its opposite, disappearance [ disparition ], which is often associated with it. In the 19th century, Jean-Eugne roberthoudin perfected spectacular tricks based on the principle of serial appearances, like Le Foulard aux surprises [ The Scarf with Surprises ] or La Bouteille inpuisable [ The Inexhaustible Bottle ]. He gives a description of the latter in his book Confidences et rvlations (1868): I appear on stage with a little bottle filled with Bordeaux wine in my hand. I empty it completely by pouring its contents into glasses, then I rinse it out with a little water, taking care to let it drain out properly. Once this preamble has been completed, I walk forward amongst the audience; still holding the bottle upside down, I offer to let them have as much as they want of whichever drink they desire. My proposal is generally received very favourably. Requests are immediately made from all sides by people as keen to make sure that the trick is real as to check the quality of the drink. These drinks are supplied as soon as they are requested. There is none, alcoholic or scented, whatever country it may come from, that is not dispensed with extreme liberality. Distribution ends when the onlooker finally makes up his mind to cease his requests, either because he fears that he will not be able to drink everything that comes out of the bottle, or because he thinks that the longer the experiment last, the less his reason will be able to account for it. To end this trick in a striking way, giving proof of the inexhaustibility of my bottle, I take a large drinking glass that can contains at least half of the bottle, and fill it to the brim with another drink I have been asked for. La Bouteille inpuisable was first presented at my theatre on December 1, 1847.

~~~

~~~

apparition Gravures extraites de / Prints from Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin, Confidences et rvlations (1868)

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of the formal repertoires available to architects (postmodernist architecture, Venturi, robert, Jencks, Charles). Borrowed elements are also found in some modernists work ( 4 Le Corbusier). [ PErGoLa ] [ 4 rgionalisme ]
archives [ f ] Les archives sont un ensemble de documents

rassembls et classs. Pour quil y ait archives, il faut quil y ait la fois rassemblement et classement, autrement dit que ces deux oprations distinctes soient coordonnes. Lopration de rassemblement ncessite une procdure de collecte et un espace de stockage. De son ct, lopration de classement ncessite une procdure dorganisation, un systme de reprage, des dispositifs de recherche et daccs aux documents. Larchivistique est la science des archives. Les manuels darchivistique enseignent que tout document passe par trois ges darchives successifs : les archives courantes lorsque le document est actif, les archives intermdiaires lorsquil devient semiactif et les archives dfinitives ds lors quil est inactif. Le type de support joue un rle essentiel dans la ralisation matrielle de larchivage. Les documents en papier ncessitent des tagres et des alles. Les documents numriques ncessitent quant eux des serveurs, des disques durs et des logiciels de navigation. Laccroissement exponentiel du volume des archives dans le monde peut parfois provoquer un sentiment de malaise de type kafkaen. Les archives ne sont pas le seul archtype de rassemblement et de classement coordonns dobjets. Les collections et les bibliothques constituent dautres exemples. Dune certaine manire, la mmoire humaine, avec son architecture de milliards de neurones interconnects, ses synapses, ses influx nerveux et ses courbes de loubli, peut tre compare des archives. [ e ] Archives are a set of documents that have been put together and categorized. For archives to exist, there has to be both assembly and categorization, in other words these two distinct operations must be coordinated. The assembly operation requires a collecting procedure and a space for storage, while the categorization operation requires an organizing procedure, a tracking system, and arrangements making it possible to research and access documents. Archival management is the science of archives. Archival management textbooks tell us that every document passes through three successive archival ages: current archives while the document is active, intermediate archives when it becomes semi-active, and final archives once it is

inactive. The type of medium plays a crucial role in the material implementation of archiving. Paper documents requires shelves and aisles, whereas digital documents require servers, hard disks and navigation software. The exponential growth in the volume of archives throughout the world can sometimes give rise to a feeling of almost Kafkaesque uneasiness. Archives are not the only archetype for the coordinated gathering and categorization of objects. Collections and libraries are further examples. In a way, human memory, with its structure of billions of interconnected neurons, its synapses, its nerve impulses, and its forgetting curves, can be compared to archives. [ Mmoire ]
arMes sonores

Sonic weapons [ f ] Les armes sonores sont des armes de divers types qui utilisent le son ou les ultrasons pour blesser, mettre hors de combat, ou mme tuer son adversaire. Un certain nombre de ces armes sont aujourdhui en accs limit ou uniquement utilises dans la recherche et le dveloppement par les militaires ou les forces de police. Dautres nexistent que dans le domaine de la sciencefiction. Ont ainsi t invents les balles sonores, les grenades sonores, les mines sonores, les canons sonores ou encore les tanks sonores. Quoique beaucoup darmes utilisant le son ou lultrason soient aujourdhui dcrites comme non-ltales, elles peuvent tuer sous certaines conditions. [ e ] Sonic and ultrasonic weapons (USW ) are weapons of various types that use sound to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opponent. Some sonic weapons are currently in limited use or in research and development by military and police forces. Others exist only in the realm of science fiction [ science-fiction ]. Some of these weapons have been described as sonic bullets, sonic grenades, sonic mines, or sonic cannons. Some make a focused beam of sound or ultrasound; some make an area field of sound. Although many real sonic and ultrasonic weapons are described as nonlethal, they can still kill under certain conditions. [ avraamov, arseny ] [ 2 Jeudis de SuPErDoME (Les) ]
atMosphriques

arcs lectriques dans le ciel / Electric arcs in the sky.

Photo DR

aurores borales / Aurora borealis. Photo DR

arcs lectriques symtriques / Symmetrical discharges of electricity. Laboratoire de Nikola Tesla Colorado Springs / Nikola Teslas laboratory in Colorado Springs, 1899. (MNT, VI/II 92 ; Nikola Tesla Museum; Belgrade)

Atmospherics [ f ] Perturbations lectromagntiques ( basse frquence). Ils sont provoqus par les dcharges lectriques orageuses, qui sont les sources naturelles les plus importantes de perturbations dans tout le spectre des ondes hertziennes. Les atmosphriques

arseny avraamov en 1923 / in 1923

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aUrore Borale

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se manifestent sous la forme de claquements brefs (quelques dizaines de millisecondes) ou de crachements lorsque lclair a t complexe. Cest vers les frquences basses et trs basses quon observe les niveaux les plus levs de parasites. Outre les atmosphriques classiques, apparaissent dans la gamme des trs basses frquences des parasites dun genre tout fait diffrent, de plus longue dure et la tonalit musicale. Le premier type appel tweek est un atmosphrique musical relativement court dont la dure est de lordre de 20 millisecondes. Sa forme donde est caractrise par une oscillation amortie qui suit une impulsion brve. Les tweeks sont produits par les divers chos dun atmosphrique forms par rflexions successives sur la terre et la basse ionosphre et sobservent principalement au lever et au coucher du soleil. Le second type datmosphrique appel siffleur consiste, sous sa forme la plus courante, en un sifflement dont la hauteur dcrot depuis des frquences inaudibles, rapidement tout dabord, puis plus lentement. Le parasite balaie ainsi plusieurs octaves en lespace dune ou deux secondes. Les autres types de parasites basse frquence sont plus rares et lis une forte activit magntique : souffle continu, siffleurs ascendants volution rapide, chur de laube ou dawn chorus form de sifflements de hauteurs croissantes sur un fond continu de bruits semblables des gazouillis qui se produisent au lever du soleil, principalement lors dorages magntiques. Lorsque ce dernier type de phnomne apparat loccasion daurores borales, il est appel auroral chorus. [ e ] Low frequency [ basse frquence ] electromagnetic disturbances. They are provoked by stormy electric discharges that are the major natural sources of disturbances throughout the spectrum of Hertzian waves. They show up in the form of brief clicks (a few tenths of milliseconds) or splatters when the originating flash of lightning was complex. It is towards low and very low frequencies that the highest levels of interference can be observed. In addition to classic atmospherics, interference of a completely different kind, longer-lasting and musical in tone, occurs in the very low frequency range. The first, referred to as tweek, is a relatively short musical type or atmospherics with a duration of around 20 milliseconds. The wave shape is characterized by a damped oscillation which follows a short impulse. Tweeks are produced by the various echoes of atmospherics formed by successive reflections on the earth and the low ionosphere, and are mainly observed at sunrise or sunset. The second type of atmospherics, known as whistlers, consists in its

most current form of whistling sounds, the pitch of which decreases from inaudible frequencies, quickly to start, then more slowly. Thus the interference sweeps down several octaves in just one or two seconds. The other kinds of low frequency interference are rarer, and are associated with strong magnetic activity: a continuous murmur, or rising, rapidly developing whistlers, or a dawn chorus formed of whistling of increasing intensity levels against a continuous background of noises resembling the twittering that occurs at sunrise, mainly when magnetic storms [ orage magntique ] occur. When this last type of phenomenon coincides with the aurora borealis [ aurore borale ], it is called an auroral chorus. [ arc lectrique ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ]
aurore borale

Aurora borealis [ f ] Phnomne polaire, dit du clair-obscur , laurore borale (plus exactement appele aurore borale dans lhmisphre nord et aurore australe dans lhmisphre sud) tait dj observe dans la Grce antique. Dchirures du ciel nocturne, derrire lesquelles on voit des flammes selon Aristote, Goethe voyait quant lui en ces turbulences le courant ascendant de la lumire de nuit . Cest au dbut du xxe sicle que les mcanismes lorigine des aurores borales sont mis en vidence par le physicien 3 Kristian Birkeland au moyen dune srie dexpriences ralises avec la Terrella. Grce lexploration spatiale, lexistence des vents solaires, postule par Birkeland, a t prouve. Lastrophysicien 3 Franois Forme prcise sur ce point que, nocives pour les tres humains, les particules qui composent ces vents sont dvies de leur trajectoire par le champ magntique terrestre. Quelques-unes arrivent toutefois traverser ce bouclier pour rester dans lenvironnement lointain de la Terre. Pour des raisons encore en partie inexpliques, elles se trouvent tre projetes vers latmosphre. En entrant dans celle-ci, ces particules excitent les atomes quelques centaines de kilomtres au-dessus de nos ttes. En se dsexcitant, les atomes mettent de la lumire : laurore borale. [ e ] A so-called chiaroscuro polar phenomenon, the aurora borealis (more correctly called the aurora borealis in the northern hemisphere and the aurora australis in the southern hemisphere) had already been observed in ancient Greece. Rents in the night sky behind which flames are seen, in the words of Aristotle, while Goethe described these incidents of turbulence as the rising cur-

rent of nocturnal light [ lumire ]. It was at the beginning of the 20th century that the mechanisms underlying the aurora borealis were revealed by the physicist 3 Kristian Birkeland by means of a series of experiments carried out with the Terrella. We now know, with space exploration, that the Sun constantly emits electrons and protons which sweep across the planets in the solar system like a solar wind [ vent solaire ]. In this connection, the astrophysicist 3 Franois Forme makes it clear that these particles, which would be harmful to human beings, are diverted from their trajectory by the earths magnetic field. A few nonetheless manage to cross this shield to remain in the Earths remote environment. For reasons that are still partly unexplained, these are projected towards the atmosphere. Once these particles penetrate it, they energize the atoms a few hundred kilometres above our heads. As they de-energize, the atoms emit light: the aurora borealis. [ aurore noire ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ]
aurore noire

a source of heat. The reality of the phenomenon is rejected almost unanimously by the scientific community, and until there is proof of the contrary, spontaneous combustion falls into the field of the paranormal. Nevertheless certain theories consider the electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ] emitted by mobile phone masts [ antenne relais ] as a source of physical problems such as auto-combustion. [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ Pollution lectromagntique ]
avatar [ f ] Dans la religion hindoue, le mot avatar (avtara

Black aurora [ f ] Laurore noire est une notion trs rcente en gophysique externe. Il sagit dune sorte dimpression en ngatif dune aurore borale qui a les mmes comportements et morphologie, mais qui nmet aucune lumire. [ e ] The black aurora is a very recent notion of exogeophysics. It is a sort of negative impression of an aurora borealis [ aurore borale ] that has the same behaviour and morphology, but emits no light [ lumire ]. [ 3 Birkeland, Kristian ]
autocoMbustion

Auto-combustion [ f ] Aussi appel combustion humaine ou combustion spontane , ce phnomne se caractrise par la combustion inexplique de parties du corps qui senflamment sans contact avec une source de chaleur. La ralit du phnomne est rejete quasiunanimement par la communaut scientifique, et la combustion spontane relve jusqu preuve du contraire du domaine du paranormal. Cependant certaines thories voient dans les ondes lectromagntiques mises par les antennes relais une source de troubles physiques tels que lautocombustion. [ e ] This phenomenon, also referred to as human combustion or spontaneous combustion, is typified by the unexplained combustion of parts of the body which catch fire without any contact with

en sanskrit) dsigne chacune des dix incarnations de Vishnou : le poisson, la tortue, le sanglier, lhomme-lion, le nain, Parashurama, Rma, Krishna, Bouddha et Kalk. Exprimant par extension les formes diverses dune mme chose et dune mme personne, le terme avatar est par exemple utilis pour dsigner un personnage reprsentant un utilisateur sur Internet et dans des jeux vido. Prolongement de la personne relle dans lespace virtuel, double imaginaire conu suivant les seuls dsirs de son utilisateur, lavatar peut se transformer en vecteur de construction identitaire, jusqu contaminer la personne relle, comme dans le cas des furries auxquels 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita ont consacr un 4 documentaire prsent dans les 3 Modules du Palais de Tokyo en 2009. [ e ] In the Hindu religion, the word avatar (avtara in Sanskrit) describes each of the ten incarnations of Vishnu: the fish, the turtle, the wild boar, the man-lion, the dwarf, Parashurama, Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Kalki. The term avatar is stretched to refer to the different forms of one and the same thing or person, and is used for example to designate a character representing a user on the Internet and in video games. An extension of the real person into virtual space, an imaginary double dreamt up according solely to the wishes of its user, the avatar can be transformed into a vector of the construction of identity, going so far as to contaminate the real individual, as in the case of the furries to which 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita devoted a documentary [ 4 documentaire ] presented in the Palais de Tokyo [ 3 Modules ] in 2009. [ 4 Dezoteux, Bertrand ]
avraaMov, arseny [ f ] 18861944. Compositeur russe et crateur

de la toute premire bande-son artificielle. Il fut un des plus audacieux de son temps, quoique sa

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biographie reste quelque peu nigmatique et que ses propres rcits varient selon les destinataires et les occasions. Avraamov faisait partie de la division cosaque quand il fut arrt en 1912 et emprisonn pour propagande. Aprs stre vad de prison, il sinstalla en Norvge. Il appartenait alors simultanment la direction ditoriale des principaux magazines de musique russes Muzika, Muzikalni Sovremennik, Zaveti et Letopis. Dans une srie darticles publis de 1911 1916, il dveloppa la thorie de la musique microtonale ultrachromatique et inventa les instruments propres son interprtation. Avraamov proposa, peu aprs la rvolution dOctobre, au commissaire lducation Anatole Lunacharsky de brler tous les pianos symboles de loctave divise en douze tons, cette gamme bien tempre quil accusait davoir un effet nfaste sur loreille humaine depuis des sicles. Ds 1916, dans son article La science musicale future et la nouvelle re de lhistoire de la musique , Avraamov annonait et dtaillait diffrentes approches du son synthtis, dont certaines des techniques de modlisation physique les plus rcentes. Durant les annes 1910 et 1920, il travailla avec des pianos prpars , des harmoniums et diverses sources de bruit ainsi quavec un orchestre symphonique, afin dexprimenter des approches nouvelles dorganisation sonore, trs proches des techniques rcentes de musique lectroacoustique et spectrale. En 1925, prdisant lavenir de la technologie musicale, Avraamov insistait sur limportance du dveloppement des instruments de musique radio . Dans le cadre du 2 GiMn , il lana ainsi un projet intitul 2 acoustique topographique . Il proposait de construire des systmes lectro acoustiques, embarqus sur des aroplanes et suffisamment puissants pour pouvoir couvrir de son dimmenses territoires. Certains de ses projets exploraient de nouveaux genres musicaux spcifiquement conus pour les milieux urbains et prsents au sein mme de cet environnement. La 2 Symphonie des sirnes, inspire par la posie 2 dalexe Gastev, tait par exemple lun de ces projets. Comme le soulignent 2 andre Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina, cette grande performance ralise en plein air avec des sifflements dusines, des cornes de brume, des feux dartillerie et dautres bruits de machines, fut interprte pour la premire fois dans la ville portuaire de Baku en 1922, lors des clbrations du cinquime anniversaire de la rvolution. [ e ] 18861944. A Russian composer and creator of the first ever artificial soundtrack. He was one of the most adventurous people of his time. His biography is somewhat enigmaticeven his own

accounts vary depending on their intended goal and audience. In 1912, whilst in the Cossack military division, he was arrested and imprisoned for propaganda. After escaping from prison he moved to Norway. He was also on the editorial boards of the main Russian music magazines Muzika, Muzikalni Sovremennik, Zaveti, and Letopis. In a series of articles from 1911 to 1916 he developed the theory of microtonal Ultrachromatic music and invented special instruments to perform it. Shortly after the October Revolution Avraamov proposed to the Commissar of Education, Anatoly Lunacharsky, a project to burn all pianossymbols of the despised twelve-tone, octave-based welltempered scale, which he believed had adversely affected human hearing for several hundred years. As early as 1916, in the article Upcoming Science of Music and the New Era in the History of Music, Avraamov predicted and explained different approaches to synthesize sound, including some of todays latest techniques of physical modelling. During the 1910s and 1920s he experimented with prepared pianos, harmoniums and various noise sources as well as a symphony orchestra to develop new approaches to organizing sound that are very similar to recent techniques of electroacoustic and spectral music. In 1925, predicting the future of music technology Avraamov emphasized the importance of developing Radio-Musical Instruments. Working on the draft program of 2 GiMn , proposed a project named Topographical Acoustics [ 2 acoustique topographique ]. He suggested building powerful electroacoustic systems that could be installed on aeroplanes, from which vast areas of land could be covered with sound. Some of his projects explored new genres of music devised specifically for urban contexts and presented around the built environment. As 2 andrei Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina point out, one such project by Avraamov (inspired by the poetry of 2 alexei Gastev is the Symphony of Sirens [ 2 Symphonie des sirnes ] a large-scale open-air performance of factory whistles, foghorns, artillery fire and all manner of machinemade noises first staged in the port town of Baku in 1922 in celebration of the fifth anniversary of the revolution. [ 2 Jeudis de DunE rVoLuTion
LauTrE (Les) ] [ 2 Son Z ]

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BackWard MessaGes

BaGUette

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backward MessaGes [ f ] Propos potentiellement subversifs dissimuls

dans les enregistrements qui ne rvlent leur sens quen coutant ceux-ci lenvers, et dont la pratique a partout suscit lgendes, craintes et paniques ; aux tats-Unis, o lhystrie religieuse peut prendre des proportions fabuleuses et presque potiques, elle a de surcrot provoqu les foudres des prtres. Comme le remarque 1 Pacme Thiellement, tout usage de bande diffuse lenvers constitue alors une preuve du satanisme des musiciens de rock ; ce qui est la fois comprhensible et curieux, car cela signifie quen dernire instance, le diable serait Dieu lenvers, conception plus courante dans la symbolique occultiste que dans la thologie ellemme. Le fantasme du backward message repose sur lide selon laquelle une parole prononce lenvers traverse la conscience pour atteindre directement le subconscient et orienter ensuite la perception et les actions du suppt. Un prtre comme Gary Greenwald, par exemple, dfend lide que les messages diffuss lenvers dans des morceaux pop entranent de facto la consommation de drogues et la pratique de la bisexualit. Il existe mme des lois dans lArkansas et en Californie qui demandent que les disques pratiquant le 1 backmasking possdent un label spcial, une indication prvenant que dans cet album, certaines paroles sont diffuses lenvers . En 1985, deux professeurs duniversit en psychologie, John R. Vokey et J. Don Read ont voulu tudier le comportement dauditeurs sujets lcoute de messages diffuss lenvers, utilisant entre autres le psaume 23 de la Bible et Another One Bites the Dust de Queen, morceau rput contenir le backward message Its fun to smoke marijuana : ils conclurent leur absence deffet. Plusieurs affaires ont cependant continu populariser le mythe : en 1985, Judas Priest a t poursuivi dans le cadre dune enqute sur le pacte de suicide de deux coliers du Nevada. Lun des deux garons, ayant survcu au suicide, avait affirm que Stained Glass, un des albums du groupe de heavy metal, contenait des messages cachs ayant entran leur geste, comme les mots Do it (Fais le), perceptibles quand on diffusait le disque lenvers. Judas Priest gagna le procs, aprs une investigation mene sur le contexte sociologique des enfants. En 1988, lors de son procs, le serial killer Richard Ramirez dclara quant lui que la chanson de AC/DC Night Prowler, prsente sur lalbum Highway to Hell, lui avait inspir ses meurtres. Ce quoi Angus Young rpondit simplement : Vous navez pas besoin de passer le disque lenvers parce que ces paroles ne sont

pas caches. On a appel notre disque Highway to Hell, tout cela est en face de vous. [ e ] Potentially subversive messages dissimulated in recordings, which are revealed when the tape is listened to backwards. This practice has led to widespread legends, fear and panic; in the United States, where religious hysteria [ hystrie ] can assume fantastic, almost poetic proportions, it also provoked the wrath of priests. As 1 Pacme Thiellement observes, the virtual presence of backward messages in music is proof of the Satanism of rock musicians. This is both understandable and strange, for it implies that in the final analysis the devil is God backwards, an idea that has often featured in occultist symbolism, but seldom in theology as such, where the devil is a deprivation of God, not his inversion. The general idea was that words spoken backwards passed through the conscious mind to reach the subconscious directly and would then influence the perception and actions of the subject. A priest like Gary Greenwald for example defended the idea that messages broadcast back to front in pop songs led de facto to the taking of drugs and bisexual practices. In Arkansas and California there were even laws requiring records featuring 1 backmasking to have a special sticker, a warning that in this album, some words are recorded backwards. In 1985, two university lecturers in psychology, John R. Vokey and J. Don Read, carried out a study using texts including Psalm 23 from the Bible and Another One Bites the Dust by Queen (backwards the words may possibly produce: Its fun to smoke marijuana) to study peoples behaviour after they had listened to messages played backwards. Their conclusion was that, even when use was made of subliminal messages by means of backmasking, they failed to have any apparent effect on the subjects. Two further examples: in 1985, the Judas Priest group was prosecuted on account of a joint suicide pact by two Nevada schoolboys. One of them survived his attempted suicide and stated that a 1978 Judas Priest album contained hidden messages: the words Do it could be heard when the record was played backwards, and the letters S, U and I could be read on the sleeve, a reference to suicide. Of course Judas Priest won the case after an inquiry into the childrens sociological background. At his trial in 1988, the serial killer Richard Ramirez in turn claimed that the song Night Prowler by AC/ DC on the album Highway to Hell had inspired his murders. David John Oates stated that there were messages concealed within the same record if you listened to it backwards: Im the Law, My name is Lucifer and She belongs in Hell. But Angus

Young simply answered: You dont need to play the record backwards because those words arent hidden. We called our record Highway to Hell, its all there in front of you. [ 1 ajemian, Lucas & Jason ] [ 1 Jeudis de , nouVELLES Du MonDE
rEnVErS (L es) ] [ 1 Led Zeppelin ]

baGuette

Wand [ f ] La baguette est un accessoire emblmatique des prestidigitateurs. Il est rare de voir ces derniers se produire sur scne sans une lgante baguette entre les mains. Il en existe de diffrentes tailles et de diffrentes matires. Gnralement, elles sont en bne avec des bouts en ivoire et mesurent une quarantaine de centimtres environ. En recourant cet accessoire, les prestidigitateurs font ironiquement rfrence aux pratiques des sorciers et des magiciens, dont larsenal comprend quantit dobjets magiques comme le grimoire, le chaudron, le miroir ou le tapis. Au chant X de lOdysse, la magicienne Circ, experte en mtamorphoses, transforme les compagnons dUlysse en pourceaux en les frappant dune baguette aprs leur avoir fait boire un breuvage. Dans certains de ses contes, comme La Belle au bois dormant ou Cendrillon, Charles Perrault confie une baguette ses fes. Chez les sorciers et les fes, la baguette sert frapper, mais aussi brasser des potions ou tracer des formes magiques sur des surfaces comme le sable ou leau. Chez les prestidigitateurs, elle sert parfois masquer un objet cach dans la main qui la tient. Elle donne de la tenue et peut contribuer dtourner lattention. Pour souligner la dimension ironique de lusage de la baguette par les prestidigitateurs, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin affirme dans son livre Confidences et rvlations (1868) : Larbre o se cueille cette baguette magique qui enfantait mes prtendus prodiges nest autre quun travail opinitre, persvrant et longtemps arros de mes sueurs. [ e ] The wand is an emblematic accessory of the magician [ prestidigitateur ] . We seldom see magicians performing on stage without an elegant wand in their hands. They come in different sizes and are made from different materials, usually ebony with ivory tips, and are about 40 centimeters long. In resorting to this accessory, magicians are making an ironic reference to the practices of sorcerers and earlier magicians whose arsenal included a great number of magic props like books of magic spells, cauldrons, mirrors, or carpets. In canto X of The Odyssey, the sorcerress Circe, a master of

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metamorphoses, transforms Ulysses companions into swine by striking them with a wand after making them drink a special brew. In some of his tales, such as Sleeping Beauty or Cinderella, Charles Perrault gives his fairies a wand. In the case of sorcerers and fairies, the wand is used to strike, but also to stir potions or draw magic shapes on surfaces such as sand or water. In the case of magicians and conjurers, it is sometimes used to mask an object concealed in the hand holding it. It adds to the tone and can help distract the audiences attention. To underline the ironic dimension of the use of a wand by magicians and conjurers, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin states in his book Confidences et rvlations (1868) : The tree from which the magic wand that gave rise to my supposed wonders was plucked was nothing other than dogged, persevering work, long watered by my sweat.
baron [ f ] Dans le jargon de lillusionnisme, un baron est un complice du prestidigitateur plac dans le

(or LF) correspond to the part of the radio-electric spectrum lying between 30 kHz and 300 kHz (wavelength 10 km to 1 km). The band extending from 3 kHz to 30 kHz (wavelength 100 km to 10 km) contains very low frequency (or VLF ) waves. [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ Spectre lectromagntique ]
baydan shoes [ f ] Le 14 dcembre 2008 fut un jour heureux pour Ramazan Baydan, fabricant de 4 chaussures

brZina (bataille de)

Berezina (Battle of) [ f ] Du 26 au 29 novembre 1812. Elle opposa les armes de Napolon Ier aux armes russes prs de la rivire Brzina, aux alentours de la ville de Borissov, dans lactuelle Bilorussie. Dans le langage courant, brzina est synonyme de droute. [ e ] November 26 to 29, 1812. The Russian victory over the retreating French army of Napoleon I near the Berezina River, outside the town of Borissov, in what is now Belarus. In French, berezina has become a synonym for disaster. [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ]
bibliothque de unaboMber (la) (une slection)

Cornelius Tacitus, The Histories (1965) Herodotus, The Histories Nora Chadwick, The Celts (1982) Fjodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski, The Brothers Karamazov (1993) Frederick W. Mote, Intellectual Foundations of China (1988) [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ 2 Dora Winter ] [ Kaczynski, Theodore ] [ unabomber ]
bicaMral (cerveau)

public et participant secrtement la ralisation de certains tours. On emploie galement le terme de compre . [ e ] In French conjuring jargon, a baron is a shill or stooge acting as the magicians [ prestidigitateur ] accomplice, planted in the audience and secretly participating in the execution of certain tricks. The term compre [ confederate ] is also used.
barre de fraction

Fraction line [f ] Le rapport a/b est tout entier non pas dans un nombre c tel que a/b = c, mais dans le signe / qui spare a et b , disait Marcel Duchamp. [e ] The result of the fraction a/b is not a whole number in the number c such as a/b = c, but in the sign / separating a and b, said Marcel Duchamp. [ 1 Jeudis de , nouVELLES Du MonDE rEnVErS (L es) ]

basse frquence

Low Frequency [ f ] Le spectre des ondes lectromagntiques est divis en plusieurs plages de frquences. Les basses frquences (ou BF) correspondent la partie du spectre radiolectrique comprise entre 30 kHz et 300 kHz (longueur donde de 10 km 1 km). La bande qui stend de 3 kHz 30 kHz (100 km 10 km de longueur donde) concerne les ondes trs basses frquences (ou TBF ). [ e ] The spectrum of electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ] is divided into several frequency ranges. The low frequencies

Istanbul. Quand il vit le jeune journaliste irakien 4 Muntazer al-Zaidi jeter ses chaussures au visage du prsident amricain 4 George W. Bush en signe de protestation contre loccupation militaire de son pays, il y reconnut un modle fabriqu par son entreprise. Nous produisons ce modle, que jai dessin moi-mme, depuis dix ans, je ne pouvais en aucune faon les manquer , dclarait-il. Bien que la vracit des dclarations de M. Baydan ne puisse tre vrifie et que de nombreux autres fabricants aient revendiqu la paternit du modle, les commandes ont immdiatement afflu, faisant exploser la production de la Ducati Model 271 rebaptise pour loccasion The Bush Shoe . Quinze mille paires auraient t produites destination du march irakien, moins dune semaine aprs lvnement. Cette opportunit commerciale inattendue faisait remarquer au directeur gnral de Baydan Shoes, Serkan Turk : M. Bush a apport du bon lconomie avant son dpart. [ e ] December 14, 2008, was a lucky day for Ramazan Baydan, a shoe manufacturer based in Istanbul. When he saw the young Iraqi journalist 4 Muntazer al-Zaidi throw his shoes [ 4 chaussures ] at the American president 4 George W. Bush in protest against the military occupation of his country, he recognized them as one of his companys models. For ten years, we have been producing this model, which I designed myself. So there was no way I could have missed them, he said. Despite the fact that Mr. Baydans claims cannot be confirmed and that many other manufacturers have claimed paternity for the model, orders have been pouring in and the production rate of the Ducati Model 271, renamed for the occasion The Bush Shoe, has exploded. Fifteen thousand pairs are said to have been manufactured for the Iraqi market, in less than a week after the incident. This unexpected sales opportunity prompted Baydan Shoes general director, Serkan Turk, to comment: Mr. Bush did good things for the economy before his departure.

Unabombers Book Collection (a selection) T. L. Jarman, Short History of 20th Century England 18681962 (1963) Skeptical Inquirer Magazine, vol. 3 #3 (1979), vol. 4 #2 (1979) & vol. 14 #2 (1995) Euell Gibbons, Stalking the Wild Asparagus (1962) Glen R. Johnson, Tracking Dog (1977) Christine Heller, Wild Edible and Poisonous Plants of Alaska (1976) John Womack, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (1970) Zander H. Klawans, Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins (1959) A. T. Vassilyev, The Ochrana, The Russian Secret Police (1930) Beatrice Becker, Napoleon Buonaparte Builder or Wrecker (1967) Livy, Roman History, Books I and II Arthur P. Whitaker, Latin America and the Enlightenment (1961) Galina Stilman, Introductory Russian Grammar I.C.S. Reference Library #1: Mathematics Mechanics Electricity and Magnetism Heat and Steam I.C.S Reference Library Link Mechanisms (1918) Esbozo de una nueva gramatica de la lengua Espanola, Real Academia Espaola (Comisin de Gramtica) (1974) William Lemkin, Graphics Survey of Chemistry (1954) Clemens Niemi, A Finnish Grammar (1945) David Riesman, Abundance for what? (1964) Hugh Davis Graham, History of Violence in America (1970) Arthur J. May, Age of Metternich, 18141848 (1963) Torcuato S. Di Tella, Gino Germani, Jorge Graciarena, Argentina, Sociedad de Masas (1965) Frances Theodora Parsons, How to Know the Wild Flowers (1926)

Bicameral Brain [ f ] Le concept du cerveau bicamral est une thorie dveloppe par Julian Jaynes, aujourdhui encore trs controverse, selon laquelle les fonctions cognitives de lhomme auraient t divises entre une partie du cerveau qui donnait les ordres et une autre partie qui coutait et obissait . Les expriences stockes dans lhmisphre droit taient transmises lhmisphre gauche par des hallucinations auditives. Ce modle mental avait t remplac, il y a 3 000 ans seulement, par un mode conscient de pense fond sur un usage mtaphorique du langage. Selon Julian Jaynes, la conscience humaine serait donc relativement rcente et toujours en train de se dvelopper. [ e ] The concept of the bicameral brain is a theory developed by Julian Jaynes, still very controversial today, according to which human cognitive functions have been divided between one part of the brain which gives orders and another part that listens and obeys. The experiences stored in the right hemisphere are transmitted to the left hemisphere by auditory hallucinations. This model of the mind was replaced just 3,000 years ago by a conscious method of thinking based on a metaphorical use of language. According to Julian Jaynes, human consciousness is therefore relatively recent and still in the process of developing. [ 2 LaST ManoEuVrES in ThE DarK ]
biG crunch clock [ f ] uvre installe sur le fronton du Palais de Tokyo, Big Crunch Clock (1999) de 2 Gianni Motti effectue le dcompte des cinq milliards

dannes qui nous sparent de lexplosion du soleil.


[ e ] Work of art installed at the Palais de

Tokyo entrance, Big Crunch Clock (1999) by 2 Gianni Motti displays the countdown of the 5,000,000,000 years that separate us from the explosion of the sun.

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bobine de tesla

Tesla coil [ f ] Transformateur air invent par nikola Tesla, la bobine de Tesla est compose de bobines primaires et secondaires rgles sur la rsonance. Elle permet de convertir hautes frquences des courants levs de tensions relativement faibles en courant faible de hautes tensions. Ce rsonateur haute frquence sert en tant que dispositif de production de hautes tensions, toujours utilis de nos jours sous une forme ou une autre dans tout rcepteur radio ou poste de tlvision. [ e ] An air-core transformer invented by nikola Tesla, the Tesla coil is constituted of primary and secondary coils tuned to resonate. At high frequencies it allows the conversion of high, relatively weak-tension currents into weak high-tension currents. This high-frequency resonator serves as a device for the production of high tensions, and is still used today in one form or another in all radio receivers or television sets. [ arc lectrique ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ 3 Terren, Peter ] [ Tesla coilers ]
boniMent

or a description. Boniment is simply the fable intended to give every conjuring trick the appearance of truth. ( Jean-Eugne robert-houdin, Confidences et rvlations, 1868)
braGdon, claude fayette [ f ] 1866 1946. Architecte amricain. Selon 3 Paul Laffoley, son pre, adepte du premier New Age ,

Bobines de Tesla / Tesla coils. Photo DR

Bobines de Tesla Nikola Tesla et les arcs lectriques produits par un gigantesque rsonateur haute frquence dans son laboratoire de Colorado Springs / Nikola Tesla and the electric discharges produced by a huge high-frequency coil at his laboratory in Colorado Springs, 1899. (MNT, VI/II, 255 ; Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade)

Claude Fayette Bragdon, A Primer of Higher Space. Copyright Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, University of Rochester Libraries, Rochester

Patter [ f ] En illusionnisme, un boniment est un effet oratoire savamment prpar qui accompagne la ralisation dun tour dans lide de mettre en valeur celui-ci, mais aussi et surtout de manipuler lattention du public. La matrise du boniment implique pour lillusionniste le dveloppement dune virtuosit verbale digne des meilleurs comdiens. Ce mot, tir du vocabulaire des anciens escamoteurs, na pas dquivalent dans la langue franaise. Comment, en effet, exprimer ce que lon dit en excutant un tour ? Ce nest pas un discours, encore moins un sermon, une narration, une description. Le boniment est tout simplement la fable destine donner chaque tour descamotage lapparence de la vrit. ( Jean-Eugne roberthoudin, Confidences et rvlations, 1868) [ e ] In illusionism, boniment is a skilfully prepared patter that is delivered while executing a trick, with the idea of showing it off to best advantage, while also and mainly manipulating the audiences attention. The clever use of patter meant the illusionist had to develop a verbal virtuosity worthy of the finest comedians. This word, taken from the vocabulary of former conjurers, has no equivalent in the French language. Indeed, how can we express what is being said while executing a trick? It is not a speech, still less a sermon, a narrative,

influena son parcours. De son intrt pour les transcendentalistes de Nouvelle-Angleterre, George Chandler Bragdon en vint fonder la Genesee River Lodge de la toute rcente Socit thosophique de Rochester, dans ltat de New York. Claude Bragdon resta dans lombre de son pre et de toutes les grandes stars du New Age quil rencontra au cours de sa vie, vivant une sorte de vie occulte de lombre au profit dindividus comme Krishnamurti. Il travailla pour le clbre architecte de style bardeaux, Bruce Price Tuxedo Park (New York). Il commena crire des textes sur la quatrime dimension, comme A Primer of Higher Space. La vie de Bragdon se poursuivit ainsi jusqu son deuxime mariage. Le 13 juillet 1912, il pousa Eugnie Julier Macauley, mdium spirite et amour de sa vie, dont le guide spirituel sappelait lOracle. Elle mourut la fin de lautomne 1920, mais avant de passer de lautre ct , elle convainquit son poux de devenir littralement une ombre et lui expliqua comment procder. Elle tait souvent en contact avec lesprit 3 dimhotep, larchitecte du pharaon Zoser de la troisime dynastie de lgypte ancienne. Selon Paul Laffoley, les informations quelle recevait dImhotep incitrent Bragdon, tout en le confortant, se lancer dans ce quEugnie nommait The Shadow Project [Le Projet ombre]. Ce projet visait tester lhypothse suivante : sil existe des moyens par lesquels la conscience peut dpasser les limites de la masse inerte du corps physique pour atteindre des dimensions suprieures de lesprit, il doit tre galement possible de pntrer dans des dimensions infrieures , comme la deuxime dimension de la spatialit (un univers dimensionnel trivial) et de devenir une ombre vivante. [ e ] 1866 1946. An American architect. According to 3 Paul Laffoley, Bragdons father had influenced his direction in life by being part of the first New Age. George Chandler Bragdon moved from an interest in the New England Transcendentalists to becoming the founder of the Genesee River Lodge of the then nascent Theosophical Society in Rochester, New York. Claude Bargdon, however, remained in the background of his father and all the big stars of New Age that he met during his life, living a kind of occult shadow life for the

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benefit of people like Krishnamurti. As an architect he worked for the famous shingle style architect, Bruce Price, in Tuxedo Park, New York. He began writing books on the subject of the fourth dimension such as A Primer of Higher Space. Bragdons life went along like this until his second marriage. On July 13, 1912 he married Eugenie Julier Macauley, a trance medium and the love of his life. Her spirit guide was called The Oracle. She died in the late fall of 1920, but before she passed over she convinced her husband to become a literal shadow and explained how to do so. She was often in contact with the spirit of 3 imhotep, the architect of King Zoser of the Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. According to Paul Laffoley, the information she received from Imhotep gave Bragdon the confidence to embark upon what Eugenie called The Shadow Project. This project attempted to test the following hypothesis: if it is possible for consciousness to overcome the limitations of the inertial mass of the physical body and reach higher dimensions than the mind, it must also be possible to enter the lower dimensions, such as the second dimension of spatiality (a dimensional realm obvious to all), and become a living shadow. [ Spiritisme ]

cabane

Cabin [ f ] Construction rudimentaire servant dhabitation, lment rcurent dans limaginaire cologique. Au milieu du xixe sicle, 3 henry David Thoreau sjourna deux ans dans une cabane prs du lac de Walden, dans le Massachusetts. Se coupant dun monde agit, inquiet, affair et superficiel , il devait inspirer les anarchoprimitivistes et le retour ltat de nature. Terr au fond des bois, Theodore Kaczynski sest fortement inspir de lexprience de Thoreau, relate dans Walden, ou, La Vie dans les bois (1854). [ e ] A rudimentary shelter and a reoccurring element in depictions of nature and imaginary ecologies, since the mid-19th century when 3 henry David Thoreau spent two years in a cabin near Walden Pond in rural Massachusetts. His retreat from a nervous, restless, bustling and superficial civilization inspired anarcho-primitivists to return to nature. Secluded deep in the forest Theodore Kaczynski was strongly influenced by Thoreaus writings, Walden; or, Life in the Woods (1854). [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ 3 Primitivisme ]
cabine tlphonique

Phone box [ f ] dicule situ dans lespace public (typiquement, le trottoir), une cabine tlphonique est munie dun tlphone permettant dmettre des communications qui sont rgles avec une carte puce (carte prpaye, carte bancaire) ou des pices de monnaie et de recevoir des appels. [ e ] A kiosk located in a public area (typically on the pavement), a phone box is fitted with a telephone allowing outgoing calls, which are paid for by card (a prepayment card, or a debit/credit card) or coins, and incoming calls.
cable street (bataille de)

Battle of Cable Street [ f ] Le 4 octobre 1936, lorsquOswald Mosley, leader de lUnion fasciste britannique, tenta de manifester dans le quartier juif de lest de Londres, il fut stopp par les anti fascistes, notamment les syndicats et les socialistes, communistes et anarchistes. Leur slogan No Pasaran [Ils ne passeront pas] tait repris de la guerre civile espagnole. En 1996 fut clbre la commmoration de la bataille de Cable Street. [ e ] In 1936, when Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists, attempted to march through a Jewish district of East London, he was stopped by anti-fascists including trade unionists, socialist,

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anarchist, and communist groups. Their slogan was Non Pasaran, [They shall not pass] taken from the Spanish Civil War. In 1996, the anniversary of the Battle of Cable Street was celebrated. [ 2 BanDEroLES ] [ 2 hall, Ed ]
caMouflaGe [ f ] Le camouflage est une opration paradoxale

en ce quil suppose un effacement de la trace. Sil est souvent au cinma le symptme dune relation contrarie la socit, criminelle ou terroriste, il entretient une relation fascine et ambigu avec les pouvoirs de la technique. Le camouflage renvoie aussi une technique militaire ou encore une des formes du mimtisme chez les animaux. [ e ] Camouflage is a paradoxical operation in that it assumes an erasure of tracks. While in the cinema it is often the symptom of a frustrated relationship with society, criminal or terrorist in nature, it has a fascinated and ambiguous relationship with the powers of technique. Camouflage also refers to a military technique, or again one of the forms of mimetism in animals. [ 3 Bullot, Erik ] [ Disparatre (instructions pour) ] [ 3 homme invisible ] [ 3 Jeudis de ChaSinG naPoLEon (Les) ] [ 3 The Shadow ]
cellar door [ f ] Association de mots qui faisait fantasmer

most beautiful phonetic associations in existence for an English-speaking listener. According to Tolkien, if we dissociate it from its meaning, the pronunciation of this combination of words is particularly pleasing to the ear. Supposing you say some quite ordinary words to mecellar door, say. From that, I might think of a name, Selador, and from that a character, a situation begins to grow. (J. R. R. Tolkien, The Monsters and The Critics and Other Essays) [ 2 CELLar Door ] [ 2 Celador ]
cerveaux (contrle des)

le linguiste John R. R. Tolkien. Cellar Door (littralement, porte de cave ) tait considr par cet amoureux des mots et des langues anciennes surtout connues pour tre lauteur du fameux Seigneur des anneaux comme lune des plus belles associations phontiques existantes pour un auditeur anglophone. Selon Tolkien, si on le dissocie de son sens, la prononciation de ce mariage de mots est particulirement agrable loreille. Supposing you say some quite ordinary words to me cellar door, say. From that, I might think of a name, Selador, and from that a character, a situation begins to grow. [ Supposons quon me dise des paroles tout fait ordinaires, cellar door par exemple. Je pourrais alors penser un nom, Selador , partir duquel un personnage, une situation, commenceraient grandir. ] (J. R. R. Tolkien, The Monsters and The Critics and Other Essays) [ e ] An association of words that captured the imagination of the linguist John R. R. Tolkien. Cellar Door was regarded by this lover of words and ancient languagesbest known as the author of the celebrated Lord of the Ringsas one of the

Controlling the brain [ f ] Lionosphre ayant une frquence de rsonance presque identique celle du cerveau humain, elle pourrait donc tre une onde porteuse parfaite pour atteindre le cerveau sans changer de frquence dmission. Cest ce lien entre la sphre lectromagntique de la Terre et les frquences de rsonance du cerveau qui est lorigine des armes stratgiques tl-nergtiques. 3 nick Begich, auteur de Controlling the Human Mind: The Technologies of Political Control or Tools for Peak Performance, explique que limmense potentiel des nouvelles techniques de matrise des cerveaux par lectromagntisme pourrait dstabiliser des populations humaines. Selon le philosophe Peter Sloterdijk (Sphres III, 2005), comme les armes ELF (Extremely Low Frequencies) ou ondes infrasons nagissent pas seulement sur la matire anorganique, mais aussi sur les organismes vivants et tout particulirement sur le cerveau humain, qui travaille dans les zones de frquences basses, le projet h.a.a.r.P. ouvre des perspectives de production dune arme quasiment neurotlpathique qui pourrait dstabiliser les populations humaines par attaques distance contre leurs fonctions crbrales. Le comit de conseil scientifique de lUS Air Force a dclar envisager le dveloppement de sources dnergies lectromagntiques, dont le signal peut tre puls, mis en forme et dirig, qui pourront tre couples avec le corps humain de faon empcher les mouvements musculaires volontaires et contrler les motions (et les actions), endormir, transmettre des suggestions, interfrer avec la mmoire court et long terme, produire lacquisition dexprience ou effacer des expriences acquises . Sloterdijk souligne par ailleurs qu il va de soi quune arme de ce type ne peut tre conue, mme sous forme spculative, que si la diffrence de niveau moral entre les cerveaux qui les mettent au point et ceux qui doivent tre combattus par les ondes ELF parat

Cabane Richard Barnes, Unabomber Cabin, Sacramento, 1998. Courtesy Richard Barnes

Cabane Rplique de la cabane de Henry David Thoreau / Replica of Henry David Thoreaus cabin. Photo DR

Chopper Indian Larry

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parfaitement claire pour le temps prsent et peut tre conserve en tat de stabilit pour lavenir. [] Il nest cependant pas exclu que la participation de telles entreprises de recherche provoque par elle-mme des complications morales dsastreuses pour la constatation dune diffrence de niveau. Si la distinction entre les cerveaux voyous et les cerveaux non-voyous devient problmatique, la production dune arme ondes contre lun des deux termes de cette diffrence pourrait avoir de funestes effets dauto rfrence pour lautre terme ce qui sest dj produit pour les armes atomiques. [ e ] As the ionosphere [ ionosphre ] has a resonance frequency almost identical to that of the human brain, it could therefore be a perfect carrier wave for reaching the brain without any change of transmitting frequency. It is this link between the Earths electromagnetic sphere and the brains resonance frequencies that lies behind remote energy strategic weapons. 3 nick Begichs book, Controlling the Human Mind: The Technologies of Political Control or Tools for Peak Performance highlights the huge potential of these new techniques for controlling brains through electromagnetism, which could destabilize the human populations targeted. According to the philosopher Peter Sloterdijk (Sphres III, 2005), as ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) weapons or infrasonic waves do not act only on inorganic matter, but also on living organisms, and especially on the human brain which works in the low frequency ranges, the h.a.a.r.P. project opens up prospects of producing a virtually neuro-telepathic weapon that could destabilize human populations by remote attacks on the working of their brains. The US Air Forces scientific advisory committee has stated that it envisages the development of sources of electromagnetic energies whose signal can be pulsed, shaped and directed, and which it will be possible to couple with the human body in such a way as to prevent voluntary muscular movements and to control the emotions (and actions), put to sleep, transmit suggestions, interfere with short and long-term memory, and produce the acquisition of experience or erase acquired experience. Sloterdijk emphasizes moreover that: Nevertheless, it is not out of the question that taking part in such research undertakings will of itself lead to catastrophic moral complications in noting any difference at the moral level [between the brains that perfect these weapons and those who are to be fought by means of them]. If this distinction between the brains [] becomes problematic, the production of a wave weapon targeted at one of the

two terms of this difference could have disastrous self-referential effects for the other termwhich already happened in the case of atomic weapons. [ Basse frquence ] [ Chizhevsky, alexander ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ] [ Spectre lectromagntique ]
chantier

Construction site [ f ] Lieu o sont rassembls des outils et des matriaux de construction, et o lon procde des travaux. Par extension, difice ou ouvrage en construction. Les premiers chantiers connus remontent au palolithique (1 800 000 av. J.-C.). Linvention de la roue, suivie cinquante sicles plus tard de la gnralisation de la brouette, contriburent de faon non ngligeable modifier lorganisation des chantiers. [ e ] A place where construction tools and materials are assembled, and work is carried out. By extension, a building or project under construction. The first known chantiers date back to the Paleolithic era (1,800,000 bc). The invention of the wheel, followed 50 centuries later by the widespread use of the wheelbarrow, contributed very considerably to changing the way such yards or sites were organized.
chiZhevsky, alexander leonidovich [ f ] 18971964. Scientifique interdisciplinaire

bilorusse, Alexander Chizhevsky est connu la fois en tant que physiologiste et biophysicien. Tout au long de sa carrire passe dans diverses institutions moscovites, il sest particulirement intress aux phnomnes des perturbations lectriques, magntiques et lectromagntiques ainsi qu linfluence de lionisation de lair sur les tres vivants, ses recherches dans ce domaine ayant abouti linvention du clbre 3 chandelier de Chizhevsky. Il est le premier mettre en vidence un synchronisme entre les cycles dactivit solaire et les phnomnes sociaux (rvolutions, guerres, grves, etc.). Pour en expliquer les causes, il postule linfluence lectromagntique du soleil sur la biosphre (via les temptes solaires ou vents solaires dont on connat aujourdhui limpact sur lionosphre), et plus particulirement sur les tres humains. Il fait publier cette thorie en 1923 dans un ouvrage intitul Physical Factors of the Historical Process [Les Facteurs physiques du processus historique]. Le chercheur est dcri par le rgime stalinien ds le milieu des annes 1930 ; Chizhevsky est condamn et dport en 1942.

Un exil dune quinzaine dannes le conduit jusquen Oural et au Kazakhstan o il met en place des systmes daro-ionisation pour traiter les mineurs des bassins miniers du Karaganda. Rhabilit en 1958, il meurt Moscou le 20 dcembre 1964. On redcouvre ses recherches au dbut des annes 1990, et en 1996, lhypothse formule par Chizhevsky dune possible corrlation entre activit solaire et acte de violence sociale ( violencefrom-below ) est valide par le professeur mrite de psychologie 3 Suitbert Ertel. [ e ] 18971964. Alexander Chizhevsky, a Byelorussian interdisciplinary scientist, was known both as a physiologist and a biophysicist. Throughout his career which he spent at various institutions in Moscow, he was especially interested in the phenomena of electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic disturbances as well as the influence of the ionization of air on human beings; his research in this area would lead to the invention of the famous Chizhevsky chandelier [ 3 chandelier de Chizhevsky ]. He was the first to reveal a synchronicity between the cycles of solar activity and social phenomena (revolutions, wars, strikes, etc.). He postulated the electromagnetic influence of the sun on the biosphere (via solar storms or solar winds [ vent solaire ]we now know of their impact on the ionosphere [ ionosphre ]), and more particularly on human beings, as an explanation for this phenomenon. He published this theory in 1923 in a book entitled Physical Factors of the Historical Process. The researcher was discredited by the Stalinist regime from the mid-1930s; Chizhevsky was sentenced and deported in 1942. A fifteen-year-long internal exile took him to the Urals and Kazakhstan where he set up aeroionization systems to treat the miners from the Karaganda coal fields. He was rehabilitated in 1958, and died in Moscow on December 20, 1964. His research was rediscovered in the early 1990s. In 1996, the hypothesis put forward by Chizhevsky of a possible correlation between solar activity and violence-from-below was validated by 3 Suitbert Ertel, Emeritus Professor of Psychology. [ 3 Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ 3 ChiZhEVSKy LESSonS ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ orage magntique ]
chopper [ f ] Type de moto qui se caractrise par un

assemblage artisanal radical. Dans Conversation avec Steven Parrino, film ralis par Ivo Zanetti, 1 Steven Parrino met en vidence des similitudes entre chopper et 1 art minimal. Cette histoire

au sujet du chopper est intressante. Prenez une grosse Harley, du type de celles quutilise la police en toile de fond il y a aussi lide du flic et du rebelle. Au fond, le chopper, cest une moto de police allge de tous ses gros quipements affreux et rendue aussi lgre que possible. Donc, vous gardez le gros moteur avec le chssis, linsigne de la marque, et vous pouvez ajouter un minuscule rservoir, un minuscule pare-chocs ou une selle minuscule. Et soudain, cest comme si vous fabriquiez un objet minimal dans le but daller plus vite, en retirant du poids. Cest donc une sorte de minimalisme pratique, mais finalement a fait ressortir la beaut cache sous tout ce mtal. Et en mme temps, vous rduisez lobjet son essence, jusqu lesthtique. Cest beau, mais il sagit aussi dune relation de pouvoir, parce que plus vous tes lger, plus vous allez vite. Cest pour cette raison que les voitures de Formule 1 ont cet aspect, comme tout autre engin quon utilise pour des courses de vitesse dailleurs. [] Soudain, il y a un type dans sa cour qui dmonte une moto ou une voiture pour en extraire lessence mme. Il est confront la mme problmatique que les artistes qui doivent traiter du moi, depuis quils ont dcid dtre des individus et de ne pas tre au service, que ce soit au service du pape, au service du roi ou au service de ltat. Comme cest parfois trs difficile, il est alors plus simple de rduire ce moi une sorte dessence. Cest en quelque sorte de l que vient cette vision romantique associe au chopper. Le chopper est un vhicule hors-la-loi. Il est fait pour rouler trs vite, enfreindre la loi est donc sa raison dtre. Vous transgressez la loi, vous faites cela contre le systme, donc cela devient un combat entre le moi et tout le reste. Do lide du rebelle du rebelle moderne. Par le pass, Satan tait le rebelle. Mais maintenant, vous savez, les bikers, les hardrockers et les gens qui disent Va te faire foutre !, les anarchistes, ce sont eux les rebelles. Voil en fait o est le lien ; voil ce que jestime dans ce type de culture. Je pense quils font la mme chose que moi. Je ne les vois pas faire autre chose que ce qui mintresse. Cest juste que je suis assimil aux beaux-arts, quoi que cela puisse signifier, et queux sont associs la culture populaire, quoi que cela signifie. Mais si vous parvenez faire se rencontrer ces deux cultures, alors vous faites quelque chose de vraiment incroyable. [ e ] A type of radically customized motorcycle. In A Conversation with Steven Parrino, a film by Ivo Zanetti, 1 Steven Parrino points out the similarities between chopper and Minimal Art [ 1 art minimal ]. The thing about the chopper is interesting. You have a big Harley, the type the

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police ride, so theres a kind of cops and rebel thing also going on. But basically, the chopper is a police bike stripped of all the big fat ugly parts and made as light as possible. So you keep the big engine in a frame and tag, but you might put a little tiny gas tank on it, little tiny fenders, and a little tiny seat. And all of a sudden its like youre trying to create a minimal object in order to go faster. You remove the weight. So its a practical type of minimalism, but in the end it brings out the beauty that was underneath all the metal. But also you are boiling down the essence of something into an aesthetic. Thats pleasing, but also its a power relationship, because you go faster if you are lighter. Its why Formula 1 cars look the way they do, and everything else that you would race. [] All of a sudden, theres a guy who is in his backyard, he is chopping a bike or a car to expel essence. Hes dealing with the same thinking that artists are dealing with, because artists just basically have to deal with self, since they decided to be self, as oppose to service service to the Pope, service to the king, service to the state. And sometimes that self is very hard to deal with, so its easier to boil it down to some sort of essence. So thats where the sort of romance with the chopper comes from. There is the idea that the chopper is an outlawed vehicle. Its not street riding, and its made to drive very fast, so the mentality for what it exists for is to break the law. Youre breaking the law, and youre doing this against the system, so it becomes a fight between the self and everything else. And thats where you get the birth of this idea of the rebel in a way of the modern rebel. In the past Satan was the rebel. But now bikers and hard rockers, people who say Fuck you!, anarchists, theyre the rebels now. Thats basically what that link is, and what I certainly recognize in that type of culture. I hold them equal to what I am doing. I dont see them doing anything that isnt what I am interested in. Its just that I am associated with fine art, whatever that means, and theyre associated with low art, whatever that means. But if you could bring the high and low together, youre doing something really incredible. [ 1 BEForE (PLuS ou MoinS) ] [ 1 indian Larry ] [ 1 Judd, Donald ] [ 1 STEVEn Parrino rETroSPECTiVE
19812004 ]

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Cine eye [ f ] Dziga Vertov (18961954), cinaste sovitique, directeur des premires actualits cinmatogra-

phiques de la rpublique des Soviets, tournant et montant des films dactualit sur le front de la guerre civile, forge lexpression cin-il pour dsigner son nouvel usage des techniques cinmatographiques, prcurseur du cinma 4 documentaires, privilgiant le montage sur lcriture du scnario : Tout film de cin-il est en montage depuis le moment o lon choisit le sujet jusqu la sortie de la pellicule dfinitive, cest--dire quil est en montage durant tout le processus de fabrication du film. Dans un projet de mmoire en date de 1923, il dfinit ainsi le film cin-il : Cest la premire tentative au monde pour crer une uvre cinmatographique sans la participation dacteurs, de dcorateurs, de metteurs en scne, sans utiliser datelier, de dcors, de costumes. Tous les personnages continuent faire dans la vie ce quils font dordinaire. Le prsent film constitue lassaut que les camras livrent la ralit et prpare le thme du travail crateur sur le fond des contradictions de classe et de la vie quotidienne. En dvoilant lorigine des choses et du pain, la camra offre chaque travailleur la possibilit de se convaincre concrtement que cest lui, ouvrier, qui fabrique toutes ces choses et que cest par consquent lui quelles appartiennent. En dshabillant la petite bourgeoisie flirteuse et le bourgeois confit dans sa graisse et en rendant la nourriture et les choses aux ouvriers et paysans qui les ont fabriques, nous donnons des milliers de travailleurs la possibilit de voir la vrit et de mettre en doute la ncessit de vtir et de nourrir la caste des parasites. Dziga Vertov, Articles, journaux, projets, Union gnrale ddition, Paris, 1972, p. 51. [ e ] Dziga Vertov (18961954), a Soviet filmmaker, the director of the first filmed newsreels in the Soviet Republic, shooting and editing news events on the front during the Civil War, invented the expression Cine Eye to describe his new way of using cinematographic techniques, anticipating documentary [ 4 documentaire ] cinema, giving more weight to editing than to the writing of the script: Any Cine Eye film is being edited from the moment when the subject is chosen until the emergence of the final footage, i.e. it is being edited throughout the entire process of the making of the film. In a draft memorandum dated 1923, he defines Cine Eye film as follows: It is the first attempt in the world to create a cinematographic work without the participation of actors, set designers or directors, without using a studio, sets, or costumes. All the characters carry on doing what they normally do in life. The present film constitutes the assault cameras make on reality and prepares the theme of creative work against

the background of the contradictions of class and everyday life. By revealing the origin of things and of bread, the cine-camera offers every worker the opportunity to convince himself in concrete terms that it is he, the worker, who makes all these things, and consequently it is to him that they belong. By stripping bare the flirtatious petite bourgeoisie and the bourgeois preserved in his own lard and giving food and things back to the workers and peasants who make them, we are giving thousands of workers the opportunity to see the truth and cast doubt on the need to clothe and feed the caste of parasites. Dziga Vertov, Articles, journaux, projets, Union Gnrale ddition, 1972
close-up [ f ] Un close-up est un tour de magie effectu tout

prs du public et en petit comit. Son dcor se limite une table et un tapis. La plupart des closeup consistent faire apparatre et disparatre de petits objets comme les cartes, les muscades ou les pices de monnaie grce lhabilet manuelle du prestidigitateur. [ e ] A close-up is a magic trick carried out at close proximity to the audience and in a small gathering. The decor is restricted to a table and a carpet. Most close-ups consist of making small objects like cards, marbles [ muscades ] or coins appear and disappear thanks to the manual dexterity of the magician [ prestidigitateur ].
cocane

Cocaine
[ f ] Dans les annes 1850, des chimistes allemands

et autrichiens sintressent aux proprits de la feuille de coca, consomme traditionnellement par les Indiens des Andes. Avec lobtention de cristaux par rduction des feuilles de coca et la mise au point de drivs de synthse, ces chimistes inventent la cocane. La nouvelle substance est dabord tudie et utilise pour ses qualits anesthsiques, mais on en dcouvre la mme poque les proprits psychotropes. Sigmund Freud en vante les mrites ; elle prsente ses yeux de nombreuses qualits : vertu aphrodisiaque, traitement des troubles gastriques, du mal de mer, de la neurasthnie ou des addictions aux opiacs et lalcool. Toutefois il la proscrit dans un article datant de 1887, Cocanomanie et cocanophobie , aprs avoir constat son erreur quant linnocuit de la cocane et observ le dveloppement daddictions. Elle connat la mme priode un grand succs commercial. On mlange des extraits de coca dautres produits. En 1863 est lanc en France le vin Mariani, un vin tonifiant base de vin de

Bordeaux et dextraits de coca. La boisson est un succs dans toute lEurope et bnficie mme de lapprobation officielle du pape Lon XIII . En 1916, linterdiction de la cocane motive la premire loi de prohibition en France. Dans le contexte de la premire guerre mondiale, la drogue est dnonce comme larme des Boches . Aprs la guerre, dans le Paris des Annes Folles, sa consommation se dveloppe considrablement, au point quen 1924, on dnombre 80 000 cocanomanes Paris, selon le prfet de police. Elle vhicule une image ngative, populaire, associe aux milieux interlopes et crapuleux, loppos de lopium, drogue aristocratique, prise par les potes. Robert Desnos, alors jeune pote avant-gardiste, crit en 1919 une Ode la Coco : Coco ! La putain ple aux yeux dcomposs / Tabac pour la concierge et coco pour la grue ! Au tournant des annes 1930, la cocane sombre dans loubli. Elle est certes prsente dans le mouvement de la contre-culture des annes 1960 et 1970, mais lesprit du temps, celui des amateurs comme celui des pourfendeurs du psychdlisme, se concentre sur les drogues hallucinognes comme le LSD ou bien sur le haschich, drogue cool qui promet ses usagers de planer. Il faut attendre les annes 1980 pour que les cartels dveloppent la production et le trafic de cocane, qui devient la drogue emblmatique des annes de la rvolution conservatrice . Aux tats-Unis, elle est trs prise des milieux fortuns, vhiculant une image hype dactivit et de russite sociale, comme en tmoigne par exemple le roman de Bret Easton Ellis, American Psycho (1987), dont le hros est un trader cocanomane et psychopathe. la mme poque, la consommation de cocane reste imperceptible en France, le dbat public se concentrant sur lhrone, dont lusage est cause doverdoses et de transmission du virus du SIDA. Les annes 2000 voient toutefois cette consommation se dvelopper, la question de la dangerosit de la drogue restant grandement code par des reprsentations sociales : aux tats-Unis, la cocane, consomme par des riches blancs, est juge sans danger par ses usagers, alors que son driv le crack, consomm par des noirs pauvres, est une drogue rpute extrmement dangereuse. La cocane remplace ainsi progressivement les drogues de synthse comme lecstasy, dont lusage stait dvelopp dans le cadre dvnements festifs comme les rave parties dans les annes 1980 et 1990. [ e ] In the 1850s, German and Austrian chemists became interested in the properties of the coca leaf, which had traditionally been consumed by the Indians living in the Andes. Obtaining crystals

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Cin-il Dziga Vertov, LHomme la camra /Man with a Movie Camera, 1929

alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky

by reducing coca leaves and perfecting synthetic derivatives, these chemists invented cocaine. The new substance was first studied and used for its anesthetic qualities, but its psychotropic properties were discovered at the same period. Sigmund Freud trumpeted its merits; in his eyes it had a great many virtues: as an aphrodisiac, a treatment for gastric problems, seasickness, neurasthenia or addictions to opiates and alcohol. Nonetheless he condemned it in an article dating from 1887 Cocaine addiction and cocaine phobia after realizing his mistake as to the harmlessness of cocaine and observing the development of addictions. At the same period it enjoyed great commercial success. Coca extracts were mixed with other products. In 1863 Mariani wine was launched in France, a tonic wine based on Bordeaux wine and coca extracts. The drink was a success throughout Europe and even received the official approval of Pope Leo XIII . In 1916, the banning of cocaine led to the first prohibition law in France. In the context of World War I, the drug was denounced as a Jerry weapon. After the war, in the Paris of the Roaring Twenties, consumption of cocaine grew considerably so that there were 80,000 cocaine addicts in Paris in 1924, according to the chief of police. It conveyed a negative, plebeian image associated with shady, villainous circles, unlike opium, an aristocratic drug appreciated by poets. Robert Desnos, then a young avant-garde poet, wrote an Ode la Coco in 1919: Coco ! La putain ple aux yeux dcomposs / Tabac pour la concierge et coco pour la grue ! [Coco ! The pale whore with grief-stricken eyes / Tobacco for the concierge and cocaine for the harlot!] As the 1930s began, cocaine fell into oblivion. It was admittedly present in the counter-culture movement of the 1960s and 1970s, but the spirit of the time, that of both lovers and opponents of the psychedelic state, concentrated on hallucinogenic drugs like LSD or else cannabis, a cool drug that promised its users a floating experience. It was not until the 1980s that the cartels developed cocaine production and trafficking so that it became the emblematic drug of the years of the conservative revolution. In the United States, it was very much appreciated by the well-off, conveying a hype image of activity and social success, as is demonstrated for example by Bret Easton Elliss novel, American Psycho (1987), whose hero is a cocaine-addicted, psychopathic trader. At the same period, the consumption of cocaine in France remained negligible, with public debate concentrating on heroin use, which was the cause of overdoses and of transmission of the AIDS virus. However, the decade 20002010 saw

that consumption growing, with the question of the dangerousness of the drug remaining very much influenced by how it was represented socially: in the United States, cocaine, used by rich white people, was regarded by its users as not dangerous, whereas its derivative, crack, used by poor African Americans, was a drug regarded as extremely dangerous. Thus gradually cocaine replaced synthetic drugs like ecstasy, use of which had developed in the context of celebratory events such as 4 rave parties in the 1980s and 1990s.
collectif

Collectives [ f ] Dans le monde de lart, lindividualisme apparat davantage comme la rgle que comme lexception. Les artistes dveloppent des dmarches personnelles afin de cultiver la diffrence et loriginalit de leur style. y regarder de plus prs, il existe cependant de nombreuses configurations de regroupements, de communauts et dassociations plus ou moins organises. Les artistes peuvent se rassembler autour de manifestes ou de dclarations thoriques communes, revendiquer leur appartenance un mme courant, partager des moyens de production, afficher des liens de solidarit ou sortir dune mme cole. Ils peuvent tre reprsents par les mmes galeries ou dfendus par les mmes critiques, subir les mmes influences, frquenter les mmes lieux et les mmes personnes, appartenir une mme gnration ou un mme territoire. Le regroupement de plusieurs artistes peut franchir une tape dcisive mais relativement exceptionnelle lorsque ces derniers dcident de partager jusquau processus de cration lui-mme, autrement dit jusqu la signature de leurs uvres. Ce cas de figure connat un cho important dans les annes 1960 lorsque de jeunes artistes de lart conceptuel remettent en cause les pratiques des peintres de lexpressionnisme abstrait, dont le travail est jug trop subjectif, individualiste et irrationnel. Laspiration davantage dobjectivit, desprit critique et de rationalit favorise lapparition de collectifs dartistes soucieux de mettre en retrait leur nom propre au profit dides anonymes et de rflexions communes. Le collectif anglais Art & Language, dont la dmarche repose essentiellement sur la formulation de discours critiques, est certainement le plus emblmatique de cette tendance. [ e ] In the art world, individualism seems more like the rule than the exception. Artists develop personal strategies in order to cultivate the difference and originality of their style. However, if we look more closely, there are a great many configura-

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tions of groups, communities and associations, organized to a greater or lesser extent. Artists can come together on the basis of manifestos or joint theoretical statements; they can claim that they belong to the same trend, share means of production, display bonds of solidarity, or come from the same school. They can be represented by the same galleries or championed by the same critics, be subject to the same influences, frequent the same places and the same people, belong to the same generation, or come from the same area. The grouping of several artists can cross a crucial, but relatively exceptional threshold when they decide to share the very process of creation itself, in other words to go as far as signing their works jointly. This scenario was especially resonant in the 1960s when young artists involved in Conceptual Art questioned the practices of Abstract Expressionist painters, regarding their work as too subjective, individualistic, and irrational. The aspiration for greater objectivity, a more critical spirit and more rationality was conducive to the appearance of collectives of artists keen to keep their own names in the background in favour of anonymous ideas and communal thinking. The English collective Art & Language, whose approach relied mainly on the formulation of critical discourse, is undoubtedly the most emblematic of that tendency.
coluMbo [ f ] Personnage de srie tlvise policire amri-

caine incarne par Peter Falk. Gnie incompris, visionnaire tourment, pote maudit et oubli le modle de lartiste a longtemps t celui dun tre dexception, aux talents hors du commun et linspiration transcendante. Lartiste du dbut du xxie sicle, lui, na plus ni la fougue des hros romantiques ni leur folie cratrice, et na pas davantage acquis les superpouvoirs de Superman. Son modle serait trouver ailleurs, parmi des aventuriers du banal autrement prosaques, comme le Lieutenant Columbo. Le dtective incarn par Peter Falk ne paie pas de mine. Son imper est vieillot, son chapeau mou et sa voiture sans clat ; il flne, bavarde, boit des verres, un peu comme tout le monde, sans sen faire. A contrario, il ne dgaine pas plus vite que son ombre, ne bnficie pas dune vue rayons X et naccomplit aucune action exceptionnelle pour mener ses enqutes. Pourtant, le coupable finit toujours par tre dbusqu et par avouer ses crimes. Comme Columbo et les nouveaux pirates, les artistes ne mnent plus dactions frontales, larme la main, et se fient autant leur flair quaux circonstances. Comme tout militaire qui se respecte, et comme la femme de Columbo, ils doivent fausser

les rgles de visibilit et se faire discrets, car ils ont affaire une ralit o rien nest cach, o tout finit par se savoir. La femme de Columbo pourrait dailleurs tre pour les artistes un modle encore plus influent : invisible, indtectable, ombre furtive sinfiltrant insidieusement dans les conversations les plus anodines, elle na jamais besoin de se montrer pour donner un autre sens la ralit. [ e ] Character in an American TV police series played by Peter Falk. A misunderstood genius, a tormented visionary, an accursed and overlooked poetthe model of the artist has long been that of an exceptional being, with extraordinary talents and transcendent inspiration. But the artist of the early 21st century no longer has either the ardour of those romantic heroes nor their creative madness, nor has he acquired the superhuman powers of Superman. We would have to look for his model elsewhere, among far more down-to-earth commonplace adventurers, like Lieutenant Columbo. The detective played by Peter Falk puts on no airs. His raincoat is old-fashioned, his hat soft and his car inconspicuous; he hangs about, chats, drinks, like everyone else, without stirring himself. Quite the opposite: he is not quicker than his shadow on the draw, does not have X-ray eyesight, and does nothing at all exceptional in conducting his enquiries. Yet the guilty person always ends up by being tracked down and confessing his crimes. Like Columbo and the new pirates, artists no longer attack frontally, weapon in hand, and rely as much on their flair as on circumstances. Like any self-respecting soldier, and like Columbos wife, they have to distort the rules of visibility and behave discreetly, for they are dealing with a reality where nothing is concealed, where everything ends up by being known. Moreover, Columbos wife could be an even more influential model for artists: invisible, impossible to track down, a furtive shadow insidiously infiltrating herself into the most innocent conversations, she never needs to show herself in order to give a different meaning to reality. [ Furtivit ] [ Pirate ]
coMMent vrifier que vous aveZ bien t enlev par des extraterrestres ?

dans un lieu clos, visiblement pas terrestre, formellement identifi comme un vaisseau spatial extraterrestre par le tmoin. Vous devez y tre : soit soumis des examens, soit contraint communiquer (verbalement ou par tlpathie), soit les deux. Cet pisode doit vous revenir en mmoire : consciemment, ou par des mthodes dhyperconcentration (par exemple lhypnose). [ e ] You must be taken: against your will, from terrestrial surroundings, by non-human beings. The beings must take you: to an enclosed place, not terrestrial in appearance, assumed or known to be an alien spacecraft by the witness. In this place you must either: be subjected to an examination, engage in communication (verbal or telepathic), or both. These experiences may be remembered: consciously or through methods of focused concentration (e.g. hypnosis). [ Enlvements extraterrestres ]
coMMunity reinvestMent act [ f ] 1977. Loi qui sefforce dencadrer laccession

la proprit des foyers modestes en assurant les banques accordant des prts hypothcaires risque (ou subprimes). [ e ] 1977. This law, designed to make it easier for people to become homeowners in modest and low-income communities, encourages and protects banks granting high-risk loans (subprime mortgage). [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ]
cor des alpes

How can you check that you really have been abducted by aliens? [ f ] Il faut tre enlev : contre votre gr, dans votre environnement terrestre, par des tres non-humains. Les tres en question doivent vous emmener :

Alphorn [ f ] Instrument de musique vent utilis initialement comme mode de communication distance dans les rgions montagneuses dEurope (Alpes, Carpates), son origine prcise reste ce jour indtermine. Lapparition du cor des Alpes remonterait au xive ou xve sicle. Le naturaliste suisse Conrad Gessner offre la premire description connue de linstrument dans son trait de botanique De raris et admirandis herbis (1555). Servant

au regroupement des vaches dans les alpages en Suisse et en Haute-Savoie, le cor des Alpes a inspir, au xixe sicle, quelques compositeurs pour ses sonorits atypiques, la fois mlancoliques et champtres. Si Rossini introduit ainsi la clbre mlodie suisse Ranz des Vaches dans son opra Guillaume Tell (1829), cette dernire est toutefois interprte sur des instruments classiques : clarinettes, trombones, fltes, bassons et cors de chasse. Seules deux compositions ont t cette poque crites pour chant et cor des Alpes. Une pice de Johann Kunze, cre en 1851 pour une manifestation politique la fte de larchiduc Jean Ble , et Das Alpenlied auf Rigi-Scheideck [Chant des Alpes sur le mont Rigi], une pice pour un chur dhommes compose en 1835 par Franz Xaver Schnyder. Dans les annes 1970, le cor des Alpes devint un instrument de musique exprimentale folk. On a pu observer des jam sessions entre des groupes de jazz et de musique country. Le quatuor blois Hornroh aborde aujourdhui le cor des Alpes sans prjugs et de faon tout fait originale. la fois compositeurs et interprtes de leurs propres uvres, ils proposent une musique moderne, unique et attrayante, en rupture avec les formes traditionnelles et folkloriques. [ e ] Musical wind instrument originally used as a mode of long-distance communication in the mountainous regions of Europe (the Alps, the Carpathian mountains), its precise origin remains unknown. The appearance of the alphorn seemingly dates back to the 14th or 15th century. The Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner gives the first known description of the instrument in his botanical treaty De raris et admirandis herbis (1555). Used to round up cows in the mountain pastures in Switzerland and Haute-Savoie, the alphorn inspired, in the 19th century, a few composers thanks to its atypical harmonies, at once melancholic and pastoral. Thus Rossini introduces the famous Swiss melody Ranz des Vaches in his opera Guillaume Tell (1829), albeit interpreted with classical instruments: trombones, flutes, bassoons and hunting horns. Only two compositions of the time were written for voice and the alphorn. A piece by Johann Kunze, created in 1851 for a political eventthe celebration of Archduke John in Baseland Das Alpenlied auf Rigi-Scheideck [Song of the Alps on the Rigi-Scheideck], a piece written for a male choir composed in 1835 by Franz Xaver Schnyder. In the 1970s, the alphorn became an experimental folk instrument, played in jam sessions between jazz and country bands. Today, the Basel quartet Hornroh uses the alphorn without any preconceptions and a great deal of originality. They both compose

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and perform their own work, making music that is modern, unique and attractive, departing from traditional and folkloric forms. [ 4 Jeudis de PErGoLa (Les) ] [ yodel ]
corticalart [ f ] Au tout dbut des annes 1970, le chercheur

Roger Lafosse mit au point avec Pierre Henry, le Corticalart, un systme complexe destin traduire les ondes lectriques du cerveau en sons lectroniques. Le nom Corticalart voque lart cr grce au cortex. Des lectrodes captaient trois sortes de signaux lectriques alimentant sept gnrateurs de sons lectroniques et traduisant ainsi lactivit de certaines zones du cortex : ondes alpha (tat de relaxation), ondes bta (tat dveil) et signaux lis lactivit du globe oculaire. Lors des concerts donns au muse dArt moderne de la Ville de Paris du 15 au 21 fvrier 1971, lintervention de Pierre Henry se fit sous forme dimprovisations musicales, grce des variations, manipulations et amplifications diverses de ces signaux. [ e ] In the early 1970s the researcher Roger Lafosse, together with Pierre Henry, developed the Corticalart, a complex system designed to translate the brains electric waves into electronic sounds. The name Corticalart conjures up art created by the cortex. Electrodes pick up three kinds of electric signals feeding into seven electric sound generators which thus translate the activity of certain zones of the cortex. The three kinds are alpha waves (relaxed state), beta waves (waking state) and the signals linked to activity of the eyeball. During the concerts at the muse dArt moderne de la Ville de Paris, which were held from February 15 to 21, 1971, Pierre Henry played a role, improvising musically through a range of variations, manipulations and amplifications of the signals. The nine tracks on the album are taken from the live recordings done at the time. [ 2 Berger, hans ] [ ondes crbrales ]
croatan [ f ] Une petite tribu dIndiens dAmrique qui vivait

dans la zone ctire de Caroline du Nord jusquau xviie sicle. Cette tribu peuplait notamment lle de Roanoke sur laquelle des colons anglais tentrent de sinstaller la fin du xvie sicle. Une seconde colonie sy est effectivement installe en 1587 au sein de laquelle est n le premier enfant anglais sur le sol du Nouveau Monde. Son chef, John White, retourna en Angleterre pour obtenir

un renfort dhommes et de moyens de construction. Tenu loign par le conflit anglo-espagnol, il retrouva le campement dsert son retour en 1590. La lgende dit que ne restait que linscription Croatan grave sur un tronc darbre. Selon certains tmoignages postrieurs la mystrieuse disparition de la colonie perdue , on aurait vu des hommes blancs vivant parmi les Indiens Croatan sur lle au dbut du xviie sicle. Au dbut des annes 1990, Hakim Bey, crivain et pote anarchiste amricain, thoricien des Zones dAutonomie Temporaire ( Z.A.T. ), intitule Partis pour Croatan le cinquime chapitre de son ouvrage T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism. Lauteur fait de cette anecdote la premire Z.A.T. de lhistoire, dfendant lide que les colons ont choisi dtre absorbs par un ordre social peru comme chaotique par la civilisation occidentale afin dchapper ses contraintes. [ e ] A small tribe of Native Americans that lived in the coastal zone of North Carolina until the 17th century. In particular this tribe lived on Roanoke Island where English settlers tried to establish themselves at the end of the 16th century. A second colony did in fact settle there in 1587 and it was in that colony that the first English child was born on the soil of the New World. The groups leader, John White, went back to England to get more men and building materials. Delayed in England by the conflict between England and Spain, on his return in 1590 he found the settlement deserted. According to legend, all that remained was the inscription Croatan carved on to a tree trunk. According to certain accounts that are later than the mysterious disappearance [ disparition ] of the lost colony, white men were seen living on the island among the Croatan Amerindians in the early 17th century. At the beginning of the 1990s, Hakim Bey, an American anarchist writer and poet, the theorist of the Temporary Autonomous Zones ( T.A.Z. ), entitled the fifth chapter of his book T.A.Z. : The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism Gone to Croatan. The author sees this anecdote as the first T. A. Z. in history, advocating the idea that the settlers chose to be absorbed by a social order perceived as chaotic by western civilization in order to escape the constraints of that civilization. [ 4 Boucand, Galle ]
crowley, aleister [ f ] 18751947. Figure minente de loccultisme

du dbut du xxe sicle, Aleister Crowley, peintre et voyageur, alpiniste et crivain, mage et gourou,

est depuis prs dun sicle une des lgendes les plus sombres de la contre-culture anglo-saxonne, incarnation extrme dune recherche de connaissance qui tient autant de luvre dart totale que de la mise en scne paranoaque. Surnomm The Beast ds son enfance, il tudie trs tt lart occulte et na quune vingtaine dannes lorsquil est initi aux rites de lOrdre hermtique de lAube dore. Augmentant son pouvoir par lapprentissage du yoga et de nombreux rites magiques, il sloigne de cette socit secrte au dbut des annes 1900 quand vient, au cours de son voyage de noces en gypte, en 1904, lexprience mystique. Sa femme Rose Kelly entre en transe lors dune visite au muse Boulaq, au Caire, et lui dsigne une stle ddie Horus : invoquant le dieu antique, Crowley se voit rvler le Livre de la Loi ou Liber AL vel Legis, sur lequel il basera dsormais sa magick. En 1920, il fonde une petite communaut, labbaye de Thlme, Cefal, en Sicile, lieu dexpriences sociales et de recherches dans le domaine occulte, qui reprend lutopie hdoniste imagine par Rabelais et sa devise Fay ce que vouldras sur un mode satanique. Crowley y clbre des rites alchimiques et des crmonies thtralises, o les passes magiques sassocient au sexe et la prise de drogues. Ses murs suscitent le scandale public, en Italie comme ailleurs, quand il nest pas pris parti par dautres occultistes lui reprochant de divulguer leurs secrets des non-initis. Ruin suite son troisime divorce, il se retire en Angleterre o il meurt en 1947. Des Beatles aux Red Hot Chili Peppers en passant par 2 David Bowie et 1 Led Zeppelin, de 2 Kenneth anger 1 Joachim Koester, Crowley continue encore aujourdhui de susciter la fascination et de rpandre son influence sur les mondes de lart. [ e ] 18751947. A leading figure in early 20 th-century occultism [ occultisme ], Aleister Crowley, a traveller, painter, mountaineer and writer, a magus and guru, has been one of the darkest legends in the counter-culture of the English-speaking world for nearly a century, the extreme embodiment of a search for knowledge that has overtones of both the total work of art and a paranoiac scenario. Nicknamed The Beast from childhood, he studied the occult arts at a very early age and was only about twenty when he was initiated into the rites of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Increasing his powers by learning yoga and through many magic rites, he distanced himself from that secret society early in the first decade of the 20 th century. In 1904, on his honeymoon on in Egypt, a mystical experience occurred. His wife Rose Kelly went into a trance when visiting the Boulaq museum

in Cairo, and pointed out a stele dedicated to Horus to her husband: after invoking the ancient god, the Book of the Law or Liber AL vel Legis was revealed to him. Crowley based his magick on this text. In 1920 he founded a small community, the Abbey of Thelema, at Cefal in Sicily, the site of social experiments and research into the field of the occult which adopted the hedonist utopia imagined by Rabelais and its motto Fay ce que vouldras [Do what thou wilt] on a satanic mode. Crowley organises alchemical rites and theatrical ceremonies associated with sex and drug-taking. His morals were a source of public scandal, in Italy and elsewhere, when he was not being criticized by other occultists, reproaching him for divulging their secrets to the uninitiated. Ruined after his third divorce, he returned to England where he died in 1947. From the Beatles to the Red Hot Chili Peppers by way of 2 David Bowie and 1 Led Zeppelin, from 2 Kenneth anger to 1 Joachim Koester, Crowley remains a source of fascination and continues to spread his influence over the worlds of art today. [ 1 MaTin DES MaGiCiEnS (LE) ] [ Satanisme ]
croyance

Belief [ f ] voir p. 60 [ e ] see p. 60


cuche, didier [ f ] Skieur suisse [ e ] A Swiss ski racer [ acclration ] cyborG [ f ] Contraction de cybernetic organism , il

dsigne un organisme vivant combin avec une machine. La notion de cyborg suppose donc une relation intime entre lhumain et la machine. Le terme est popularis dans les annes 1960 par Manfred E. Clynes et Nathan S. Kline respectivement spcialistes de neurophysiologie et de psychopharmacologie en rfrence au concept dun humain amlior qui pourrait survivre dans des environnements extraterrestres. En 1983, James Cameron ralise Terminator. proprement parler, les terminators sont des robots androdes et non des hybrides dhumain et de machine. Nanmoins ils sont dsigns et perus comme des cyborgs, desquels ils donnent limage effrayante dune crature asexue et dnue dmotion, qui a lapparence dun homme, mais agit comme une machine. Les terminators sont des simulacres, des chimres

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Croyance
~~~
Fait de tenir pour vrai ou rel quelque chose. Cet assentiment peut connatre diffrents degrs. Les plus faibles incluent une part de doute et sapparentent lopinion et au prjug. Les plus forts incluent une conviction intime et sapparentent la foi. En philosophie, lexamen du concept de croyance remonte la doxa grecque qui est critique par Platon au ive sicle av. J.-C. en raison de son caractre fondamentalement variable. Au iie sicle, lcrivain chrtien Tertullien nonce la clbre formule Credo quia absurdum qui signifie Je crois, parce que cest absurde . Souvent mis en relation avec le concept voisin de connaissance, le concept de croyance est discut dans la plupart des grandes doctrines mtaphysiques comme celles dAristote, de Descartes, de Hume ou de Kant. Au xviiie sicle, le mouvement des Lumires slve contre les croyances irrationnelles de la religion et de la magie. Il dfend la connaissance scientifique base sur la stricte observation du rel. Dans son ouvrage Biographia Literaria (1817), le pote romantique anglais Samuel Taylor Coleridge dveloppe une rflexion sur la suspension volontaire de lincrdulit du lecteur de fiction ( that willing suspension of disbelief for a moment, which constitutes poetic faith ). En 1896, lors dune projection du film LArrive dun train en gare de La Ciotat des frres Lumire, de nombreux spectateurs se prcipitent hors de la salle croyant que le train quils voient sapprocher limage risque de les craser.
[f] [e]

Belief
~~~
The fact of considering something as true or real. This assent can come in different degrees. The weakest levels include a quotient of doubt, and are akin to opinion and prejudice. The strongest include a deep-held conviction and are akin to faith. The philosophical examination of examining the concept of belief goes back to the Greek notion of doxa, which was criticized by Plato in the 4th century bc because of its essentially variable character. In the 2nd century, the Christian writer Tertullian came out with the famous formula credo quia absurdum, meaning I believe because it is absurd. Often associated with the closely allied concept of knowledge, the concept of belief is discussed in most of major metaphysical doctrines, such as those of Aristotle, Descartes, Hume or Kant. In the 18th century, the Enlightenment movement rejected the irrational beliefs of religion and magic. It championed scientific knowledge based on the strict observation of reality. In his book Biographia Literaria (1817), the English Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge speculated about the reader of fictions willing suspension of disbelief for a moment, which constitutes poetic faith. In 1896, on the occasion of a projection of the film LArrive dun train en gare de La Ciotat [Arrival of a Train in the La Ciotat Station] by the Lumire brothers, a great many spectators rushed out of the room, believing that the train they saw approaching on the picture might well run them over.

~~~

~~~

programmes pour tromper les humains et les dtruire. Contre eux, lhumanit en la personne de John Connor, hros masculin athltique et brave se dresse et lutte pour la dfense de ses valeurs authentiques, une hirarchie entre lhomme, lanimal et la machine qui garantit lordre du monde. En 1985, dans son essai Manifeste Cyborg , Donna Haraway, historienne des sciences fministe et socialiste, fait du cyborg lacteur dun nouveau mythe politique ironique [] fidle au fminisme, au socialisme et au matrialisme . Elle le dfinit comme un organisme cyberntique, hybride de machine et de vivant, crature de la ralit sociale comme personnage de roman . Grce lui, elle met en cause la frontire entre science-fiction et ralit sociale, observant : La science-fiction contemporaine est peuple de cratures cyborgs, la fois animales et machines qui habitent des univers ambigus la fois naturels et fabriqus. La mdecine moderne, elle aussi, fait appel des cyborgs, issus daccouplements entre organisme et machine, tous conus comme des systmes cods, et dont lintimit et lnergie ne proviennent pas de lvolution de la sexualit telle que nous la connaissons. Elle entrevoit dans le sexe cyborgien quelque chose comme la renaissance de la ravissante libert rplicative des fougres et des invertbrs . Affirmant que le cyborg est une crature qui vit dans un monde post genre , elle prcise quil na aucun rapport avec une suppose unit originelle (bisexualit originelle chre Freud ou travail non alin dans la socit communiste primitive selon Marx). Le cyborg est le pur produit, partial et pervers, de notre monde : le rejeton illgitime du militarisme et du capitalisme patriarcal, sans oublier le socialisme dtat . Loin dtre le nouvel acteur dun projet dmancipation, le cyborg chez Donna Haraway est bien une crature mythique et monstrueuse, hybride n des rencontres entre la science-fiction et le complexe militaro-industriel, laquelle la philosophe dit vouloir sidentifier ( Je prfre tre cyborg plutt que desse ) afin de djouer et combattre les mythes dominateurs du monde contemporain. [ e ] A shortened form of cybernetic organism, cyborg refers to a living organism combined with a machine. So the notion of a cyborg assumes a close relationship between the human being and the machine. The term was popularized in the 1960s by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Klineone a specialist in neurophysiology, the other in psychopharmacologyin connection with the concept of an improved human being who would be able to survive in extraterrestrial environments. In 1983, James Cameron made

Terminator. Strictly speaking, terminators are android robots, not hybrids of a human being and a machine. Nonetheless they were referred to and perceived as cyborgs, giving a frightening image of themselves as sexless creatures devoid of feelings that look like men or women, but act like machines. Terminators are simulations, chimera programmed to deceive human beings and destroy them. Faced with them, humankindin the person of John Connor, an athletic, courageous and manly herorises up and struggles to defend its genuine values, a hierarchy between human being, animal and machine that guarantees world order. In 1985, in her essay A Cyborg Manifesto. Donna Haraway, a feminist and socialist science historian, makes the cyborg the player in a new ironic political myth faithful to feminism, socialism, and materialism. She defines it as a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction. Thanks to it, she challenges the frontier between science-fiction and social reality, observing: Contemporary science fiction is full of cyborgs creatures simultaneously animal and machine, who populate worlds ambiguously natural and crafted. Modern medicine is also full of cyborgs, of couplings between organism and machine, each conceived as coded devices, in an intimacy and with a power that was not generated in the history of sexuality. In cyborg sex she sees the possibility of something like the restoration of some of the lovely replicative baroque of ferns and invertebrates. Stating that the cyborg is a creature [living] in a post-gender world, she makes clear that it has no connection with a supposed original oneness (an original bisexuality dear to Freuds heart, or unalienated work in the primitive communist society, according to Marx). The cyborg is the pure, partisan and perverse product of our world: the illegitimate offspring of militarism and patriarchal capitalism, not to mention state socialism. Far from being the new player in a project for emancipation, in Donna Haraway the cyborg is in fact a mythical and monstrous creature, a hybrid born of meetings between science fiction and the military-industrial complex, which the philosopher claims to want to identify with (I would rather be a cyborg than a goddess) in order to outwit and combat the dominating myths of the contemporary world. [ 4 Meier, robin & Momeni, ali ] [ Monstre ] [ Mutants ]

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Blabbing [ f ] Le dbinage est la divulgation du secret dun tour de magie au public. La prservation du secret des tours est indispensable lexercice de la profession de prestidigitateur. Ainsi, ceux qui dsirent rejoindre lAssociation franaise des artistes prestidigitateurs (cre en 1903) doivent tre parrains et passer un examen. En cas de succs, ils prtent un serment du secret appel serment Mente et Manu . Dans son livre Les Propos dun escamoteur (1894), le prestidigitateur douard Raynaly critique avec virulence le dbinage : Quant aux divulgateurs outrance, laissons-les exercer leur mauvaise et coupable industrie, cest eux surtout quelle fait du tort. Les malheureux ne semblent pas comprendre quils tirent sur leurs propres troupes, quils se tuent eux-mmes en dvoilant publiquement les secrets dun art qui vit prcisment du mystre dont il doit toujours tre entour, si lon veut quil donne, au point de vue de leffet, son maximum dintensit. Ces gens-l ne nous paraissent pas dous dune saine logique, il leur manque un sens, le bon ; il y a chez eux quelque chose de malade, la cervelle, et leur cas relve plutt de la pathologie. [ e ] Blabbing entails divulging the secret of a magic trick to the public. Keeping this secret is essential to the exercise of the magicians [ prestidigitateur ] craft. Consequently, those wishing to join the Association franaise des artistes prestidigitateurs [ French Association of Practising Magicians ] (created in 1903) must to be sponsored and are required to sit an exam. If they are successful, they take an oath of secrecy called the Mente et Manu oath. In his book Les Propos dun escamoteur (1894), the magician douard Raynaly fiercely criticized those who blab: As for the out-and-out blabbers, let them continue with their evil, culpable activities. It is primarily themselves that they wrong. The wretches do not seem to understand that they are firing on their own troops, killing one another, by publicly disclosing the secrets of an art that survives precisely on the mystery which must always surround it, if we want its effect to have a maximum of intensity. To us, those people do not seem to be endowed with sound logic, they lack sensecommon sense; there is something sick about them, their brain, and their case comes more under pathology.
dj-vu

Dj vu [ f ] Dcrite par de nombreux psychiatres, psychologues ou neurologues, mais aussi par des crivains depuis le milieu du xixe sicle, limpression de dj-vu a port plusieurs noms ( paramnsie ,

sentiment de pr-existence , tat de rve , sensation de dj-vcu ), avant dapparatre sous la plume dmile Boirac dans une correspondance adresse lditeur de la Revue philosophique de la France et de ltranger en 1876. Boirac voque alors une illusion de la mmoire . La dfinition, lorigine aussi imprcise que son nom, a vari au fil du temps ; la plus rpandue aujourdhui a t donne par le docteur Vernon Neppe en 1983 : Impression subjective et inapproprie de familiarit lors dun vnement prsent, non associe un souvenir prcis. Depuis plus dun sicle, limpression de dj-vu a t tudie essentiellement au moyen de questionnaires rtrospectifs soumis des chantillons de sujets dits sains ou prsentant une pathologie crbrale identifie. Le but de ces questionnaires tait dobtenir des informations sur les sensations produites, leurs conditions dapparition et les personnes concernes. De nombreux auteurs ont conclu que le dj-vu est une exprience trop commune pour pouvoir tre considre comme un phnomne paranormal. En effet, en moyenne, 70 % dentre nous ont, une ou plusieurs fois, ressenti cette sensation trange. Sil ne semble pas y avoir de diffrence significative entre les hommes et les femmes, il existe des variations en fonction de lge. Plusieurs tudes mettent en vidence une diminution de la frquence du phnomne aprs 25 ans. Graldine Fabre observe que diverses interprtations ont t proposes pour expliquer le dj-vu, mais que les mystres de ce phnomne troublant nont pas encore t compltement lucids. La subjectivit du phnomne rend plutt dlicate son tude base en partie sur des questionnaires et des tmoignages. Notre comprhension du dj-vu sest cependant amliore grce aux progrs de la neurologie. On sait aujourdhui que le lobe temporal est impliqu dans son dclenchement. La dernire hypothse neurologique, taye par des observations exprimentales, explique le phnomne par une panne momentane, due la fatigue ou au stress, de la zone nous permettant de reprer le caractre nouveau dune situation : le cortex prirhinal. Inactiv brivement, il pourrait gnrer un sentiment de familiarit qui nous donnerait limpression que nous avons dj vcu le mme vnement dans les mmes conditions. Limpression de dj-vu ne serait donc finalement quune illusion perceptive due un dysfonctionnement temporaire de notre cerveau. [e ] Described by many psychiatrists, psychologists or neurologists as well as writers since the mid-19th century, the dj vu experience, had been given several names (paramnesia, sentiment of pre-existence, dream state, sensation

of already experienced), before cropping up in the writing of mile Boirac in a letter addressed to the editor of the Revue philosophique de la France et de ltranger in 1876. Boirac talks of an illusion of memory [ mmoire ]. The definition, initially as imprecise as the name, has varied over the course of time; the one most widely accepted today was given by Dr Vernon Neppe in 1983: Any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of a present experience with an undefined past. For more than a century the dj vu experience has been studied mainly by means of retrospective questionnaires given to samples of so-called healthy subjects or ones presenting an identified cerebral pathology. The aim of these questionnaires has been to obtain information about the sensations produced, the conditions under which they appear and the individuals affected. Many authors have concluded that dj vu is too common an experience for it to be able to be regarded as a paranormal phenomenon. Indeed 70% of us on average have experienced this strange sensation one or several times. While there does not seem to be a significant difference between men and women, there are variations related to age. Several studies show up a fall-off in the incidence of the phenomenon after the age of 25. Graldine Fabre observes that various interpretations have been suggested to explain dj vu, but that the mysteries of this disturbing phenomenon have not yet been completely elucidated. The subjective nature of the phenomenon makes it quite tricky to study partly on the basis of questionnaires and testimony. However, our understanding of dj vu has improved thanks to progress in neurology. We now know that the temporal lobe is involved in triggering it. The latest neurological hypothesis based on experimental observations explains the phenomenon by a momentary breakdown, due to fatigue or stress, of the zone enabling us to spot the new nature of a situation: the perirhinal cortex. Briefly put out of action, it could generate a feeling of familiarity which would give us the impression that we have already experienced the same event in the same conditions. The dj vu experience would then ultimately be no more than a perceptual illusion due to a temporary dysfunction of our brain. [ 2 CELLar Door ] [ 2 Plateau (Bulle) ]
dtecteurs de particules

Particle detectors [ f ] Physique. Pour explorer les constituants de la matire et les forces qui assurent sa cohsion, les scientifiques ont recours aux acclrateurs pour

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porter les particules (lectrons ou protons) jusqu la vitesse de la lumire, et aux dtecteurs pour observer les lments gnrs par les collisions de ces particules. Comme le prcise 1 Jean-Pierre Merlo, les avances des mathmatiques puis de linformatique ont constitu des apports dterminants pour la physique thorique ; en ce qui concerne la reprsentation et la comprhension de la matire, ce sont davantage les progrs techniques raliss dans le domaine des dtecteurs de particules qui ont ainsi permis de susciter, valider ou abandonner de nouvelles hypothses. Au fur et mesure du perfectionnement des technologies de dtection des particules, depuis le compteur Geiger-Mller jusquaux grands collisionneurs actuellement en cours de ralisation, le principe est cependant rest le mme : tirer parti du processus dionisation, soit larrachement dlectrons des atomes dun milieu lorsque celui-ci est travers par une particule charge. Il sagit donc dobserver la trace laisse par le passage de particules charges lectriquement dans un gaz ou dans un liquide donn. On peut considrer le compteur Geiger-Mller, imagin par Hans Geiger en 1913 et mis au point avec le concours de Walther Mller en 1928, comme le premier dtecteur de particules. Il sagit dun simple tube conducteur rempli de gaz avec un fil isol au centre ; une tension de 1 000 volts est applique de faon acclrer la production dlectrons, tandis que le signal lectrique peut tre dtect sur le fil et mesur. Puis furent utiliss au cours des dcennies les dtecteurs de particules suivants : la chambre brouillard (dtecteur imagin par Charles Thomson Wilson ds 1912 et grce au recours duquel le physicien amricain Carl David Anderson dcouvrit dans les rayons cosmiques le positron prdit par Paul Dirac ), la chambre bulles (invente par Donald Glaser en 1953), la chambre tincelles (utilise partir des annes 1960) et enfin les chambres proportionnelles ou drive, utilises aujourdhui en association avec les dernires gnrations dacclrateurs de particules, comme le LhC . On compte parmi ces chambres les dtecteurs de particules ATLAS et CMS. [ e ] Physics. To explore the constituents of matter [ matire ] and the forces that ensure its cohesion, scientists use accelerators to carry particles (electrons or protons) up to the speed of light [ lumire ], and detectors to observe the elements generated by the collisions of these particles. As 1 Jean-Pierre Merlo explained, advances in mathematics and then in information technology have constituted decisive gains for theoretical physics; as regards the representation and understanding of matter, it is more the technical progress

achieved in the field of particle detectors that has made it possible to come up with new hypotheses, and validate or abandon them. However, as technologies for the detection of particles have been perfected, from the Geiger-Mller counter to the great colliders currently being built, the principle has remained the same: taking advantage of the ionization process, or the extraction of electrons from atoms in an environment traversed by a charged particle. So it is a question of observing the trace left by the passage of electrically charged particles in a given gas or liquid. The GeigerMller counter, devised by Hans Geiger in 1913 and perfected with the assistance of Walther Mller in 1928, can be regarded as the first particle detector. It is a simple conductive gas-filled tube with an insulated wire in the centre; a tension of 1000 volts is applied so as to accelerate the production of electrons, while the electric signal can be detected on the wire and measured. Then over the decades the following particle detectors were used: the Wilson cloud chamber (a detector thought up by Charles Thomson Wilson in 1912, by means of which the American physicist Carl David Anderson discovered the positron in cosmic rays [ rayons cosmiques ] predicted by Paul Dirac), the bubble chamber (invented by Donald Glaser in 1953), the spark chamber (used from the 1960s) and finally proportional or drift chambers, used today in association with the latest generations of particle accelerators, like the LhC. The ATLAS and CMS particle detectors are among those chambers. [ Dirac (quation de) ]
dhrupad [ f ] Le dhrupad ou dhruvapada signifie chant

Dtecteur de particules CMS / CMS particle detector

Disparition Harry Houdini faisant disparaitre un lphant


(1918) / Harry Houdini performing his Vanishing Elephant illusion (1918) Dtecteur de particules ATLAS / ATLAS particle detector

vritable ou chant de la vrit . Cest la plus ancienne forme encore vivante de musique classique indienne dont les racines remontent aux Vdas, source intellectuelle de lInde ancienne. Une grande partie de la sagesse vdique, qui sefforait de mener les hommes sur le chemin dune spiritualit suprieure, se transmettait par des chants. travers les ges, ces chants dvotionnels se dvelopprent esthtiquement et devinrent populaires ; le dhrupad en est la version la plus ancienne et la plus clatante. Ceci explique lessence dvotionnelle du dhrupad, dans lequel la musique qui sort de la bouche du chanteur constitue un don spirituel au Tout-Puissant. Mais les motions sculires comme lamour, la douleur, la peine, la souffrance et la joie peut-tre davantage ressenties pour nos semblables que pour Dieu peuvent aussi se mler dans le dhrupad lmotion divine et atteindre Le dynamistographe / The dynamistograph

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ainsi une certaine compltude. Dans le dhrupad, le corporel nest pas ni, mais il se mle au contraire au spirituel participant de son essence. Le dhrupad, qui souvre sur une premire partie appele alaap, distille une atmosphre dextrme srnit mesure quil progresse de faon sinueuse, embrassant amoureusement chacune des notes, explorant toutes ses potentialits. Le tempo de la musique sacclre peu peu jusqu atteindre un point de rupture. Suit alors une composition lyrique, ou bandish, base sur lun des nombreux cycles rythmiques, ou talas, jous sur le sonore pakhawaj. [ e ] Dhrupad or dhruvapada meaning the true song or the song of truth is the oldest surviving form of classical music in India whose roots can be traced back to the Vedasthe intellectual reservoir of ancient India. Much of the Vedic wisdom, which sought to lead human beings to attain a spiritual high ground, was expressed in the form of songs. These sung devotional pieces were, through the ages, made more aesthetically developed and more popularized; and its earliest and most brilliant offspring was dhrupad. This explains the devotional core of dhrupad, where music issues from the mouth of the singer as his or her spiritual offering to the Almighty. However, such secular emotions like love, pain, sorrow, suffering and joy, felt not perhaps for God but for a fellow human being, too can and does mingle in dhrupad with divine emotion and can gain completeness. In dhrupad the corporeal is not negated but rather it melts into the spiritualpartaking its essence. Dhrupad, beginning with the section called alaap, gradually commences spreading a mood of utmost serenity, as it meanderingly progress, touching lovingly on each one of the notes, exploring its full potentialities. The music gradually takes on a faster tempo till it reaches a point of rapture and is then followed by a lyrical composition or bandish set to anyone of the numerous rhythmic cycles or talas played on the sonorous pakhawaj. [ 4 Meier, robin & Momeni, ali ] [ Moustiques]
dieu

dirac (quation de)

God 1 anger, Kenneth , antimatire, 1 Coleman, Joe, 1 Crowley, aleister, 1 Devotio moderna, Duchamp, Marcel, 1 vanglistes, Fonction Etc., 1 Gesualdo, Carlo, 1 Gnose, 1 Leary, Timothy, 1 Manson, Charles, 1 Michel-ange, 1 ncromancie, occultisme, Satanisme, Spiritisme, 1 Zinzendorf, nicolaus Ludwig
(Comte)

Diracs Equation [ f ] Physique. En 1928, en essayant de comprendre les lois qui rgissent la dynamique dun lectron se dplaant une vitesse proche de celle de la lumire, un jeune physicien nomm Paul Dirac a trouv une quation que lon appelle depuis lquation de Dirac . Llectron qui se dplace trs vite y devient un objet mathmatique qui doit rsoudre cette quation, cest--dire quil doit en tre une solution. Une fois lquation de Dirac connue, il fut possible den tudier les solutions, de voir si elles correspondaient bien une quelconque ralit. Dirac avait trouv juste : son quation possde deux solutions et lune dentre elle correspond bien un lectron. Le physicien avait russi reprsenter mathmatiquement un lectron relativiste en combinant la mcanique quantique la 1 relativit (restreinte) 1 dEinstein. Mais son quation avait deux solutions. Quen est-il de lautre solution ? quoi correspond-elle ? Est-elle relle ou simplement un rebut dune thorie finalement imprcise, juste invente ? Admettons que cette autre solution soit relle et examinons-la. Ainsi que le remarque 1 Christophe Galfard, elle ressemble fortement une sorte dlectron, qui a exactement la mme masse et la mme forme quun lectron normal, mais dont toutes les charges sont opposes. Par exemple, llectron a une charge lectrique ngative, tandis que cette autre solution a une charge lectrique positive. cause de sa charge positive, cet trange lectron fut appel positron . La profonde justesse de lquation de Dirac fut confirme en 1932 par lexprimentation. Son quation a permis aux humains de dcouvrir le premier lment dune matire jusqualors inconnue. Cette matire, cest lantimatire. [ e ] Physics. In 1928, while trying to understand the laws that govern the dynamics of an electron travelling close to the speed of light [ lumire ], a young physicist by the name of Paul Dirac came up with an equation that has been referred to ever since as Diracs equation. In Diracs equation, the fast-travelling electron becomes a mathematical object that has to solve the equation, i.e. it has to be a solution. Once Diracs equation became known, it was possible to study its solutions and see whether they actually corresponded to any kind of reality. Dirac had got it right: there are two solutions to his equation and one of them does correspond to an electron. The physicist had succeeded in representing a relativistic electron mathematically by combining quantum mechanics with 1 Einsteins (special) relativity [ 1 relativit ]. But his equation had two solutions. What about the

other one? What does it correspond to? Is it real, or simply a by-product of a newly invented theory that would ultimately turn out to be imprecise? Let us accept that this other solution is real, and examine it. As 1 Christophe Galfard noticed, it very closely resembles a kind of electron that has exactly the same mass and the same form as a normal electron, but all its charges are opposite. For example, the electron has a negative electric charge, whereas this other solution has a positive electric charge. Because of its positive charge, this strange electron was called a positron. The exactitude of Diracs equation was confirmed by experiment in 1932. His equation allowed human beings to discover the first element of a hitherto unknown matter [ matire ]: the antimatter [ antimatire ]. [ Dtecteur de particules ]
disparatre (instructions pour)

Class 9. Burn in stove, then dispose of remains Class 10. Dump in trash far from home [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ 3 Einarsson, Gardar Eide ]
disparition

Disappearance [ f ] voir p. 68 [ e ] see p. 68 [ apparition ]


double contrainte

Disappear (how-to manual) [ f ] Dix notes rdiges par Theodore Kaczynski. Ces instructions devaient permettre aux citoyens de fuir lemprise des socits techno-industrielles, de survivre aux cataclysmes naturels et de fuir en toutes circonstances sans laisser de trace. Catgorie 1. Cacher soigneusement, loin de chez soi; Catgorie 2. Cacher soigneusement, loin de chez soi, mais peut la rigueur tre dtruit; Catgorie 3. Cacher soigneusement, loin de chez soi, mais peut la rigueur tre brl; Catgorie 4. Brler hors de chez soi; Catgorie 5. Brler finalement dans un pole; Catgorie 6. Brler avec des bocaux; Catgorie 7. Dtruire; Catgorie 8 Traiter pour scuriser; Catgorie 9. Brler dans un pole, puis jeter les restes; Catgorie 10. Jeter dans une poubelle loin de chez soi. [ e ] 10 commandments by Theodore Kaczynski. These instructions enable citizens to free themselves from modern technology, to survive natural disasters on their own, and to live off the grid. Class 1. Hide carefully far from home Class 2. Hide carefully far from home, but can be destroyed at a pinch Class 3. Hide carefully far from home, but can be burned in a pinch Class 4. Burn away from home Class 5. Burn in stove, eventually Class 6. Burn with glass jars Class 7. Destroy Class 8. Treat to make safe

Double bind [ f ] Lexpression double contrainte (double bind) dcoule de notions dveloppes par lcole de Palo Alto dans le domaine des sciences de linformation et de la communication et de la cyberntique. Elle est mise en vidence en 1956 par une quipe dirige par Gregory Bateson dans larticle Vers une thorie de la schizophrnie publi dans Behavioural Science, vol. 1, no. 4, 1956 qui, suite lobservation du comportement des schizophrnes, dcrit une situation toute particulire dans laquelle lindividu ne peut pas tre gagnant . Selon Bateson, les lments indispensables pour constituer une situation de double contrainte sont les suivants : (1) prsence de deux personnes ou plus dont la victime ; (2) une exprience traumatique rpte qui revient avec rgularit dans la vie de la victime ; (3) une injonction ngative primaire fonde plutt sur lvitement de la punition que sur la recherche de la rcompense (par exemple Ne fais pas ceci ou je te punirai , Si tu ne fais pas ceci, je te punirai ) ; (4) une injonction secondaire, qui contredit la premire un niveau plus abstrait tout en tant, comme elle, renforce par la punition ou par certains signaux menaant la survie (attitudes, gestes, ton de la voix, actions significatives, implications caches dans les commentaires verbaux) tous ces moyens pouvant tre utiliss pour vhiculer le message plus abstrait ; (5) une injonction ngative tertiaire qui interdit la victime dchapper la situation et de fuir cette dernire. Quand un individu est pris dans une situation de double contrainte, il ragit comme le schizophrne, dune manire dfensive, puisquil se trouve dans une situation qui, tout en lui imposant des messages contradictoires, exige quil y rponde, et quil est donc incapable de commenter les contradictions du message reu. Cette thorie a provoqu un bouleversement majeur des conceptions psychiatriques traditionnelles et notamment contribu au dveloppement de la thrapie familiale et systmique. Plus de cinquante ans aprs la parution de larticle de

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Disparition
~~~
[f]

Au dbut du xixe sicle, le terme de prestidigitateur se substitue progressivement celui

descamoteur, issu du verbe escamoter qui signifie faire disparatre . en croire lhistoire des mots, les disparitions constituent en quelque sorte lacte inaugural de lart des prestidigitateurs. Les premiers escamotages sappliquent de petits objets comme les muscades, les cartes ou les pices de monnaie. Au fil du temps, les prestidigitateurs sefforcent de faire disparatre des objets de plus en plus volumineux, repoussant toujours davantage les limites du possible. Buatier de Kolta (18471903) marque lhistoire de lillusionnisme en faisant disparatre une femme assise sur une chaise. Quelques dcennies pus tard, Harry Blackstone (18851965) excute la disparition dun cheval, dune voiture ou dun dromadaire.

~~~

Disappearance
~~~
[ e ] In early 19 th century France, the term prestidigitateur [ magician ] gradually took the place of the word escamoteur [ conjurer ], derived from

the verb escamoter, meaning to make disappear. If we go by the history of words, disappearance in a way constitutes the inaugural act of the magicians art. The first disappearing acts related to small objects like marbles [ muscades ], cards or coins. Over time, magicians endeavoured to make ever bulkier objects disappear, pushing the boundaries of the possible ever further. Buatier de Kolta (18471903) made his mark on the history of illusionism by causing a woman sitting on a chair to disappear. A few decades later, Harry Blackstone (1885 1965) effected the disappearance of a horse, a car, or a dromedary.

Gregory Bateson, la notion de double contrainte a largement dpass le domaine dapplication des psychothrapies. [ e ] The expression double bind comes from ideas developed by the Palo Alto school in the field of information, communication sciences and cybernetics. It was demonstrated in 1956 by a team directed by Gregory Bateson, in the article Toward a Theory of Schizophrenia, published in Behavioural Science, Vol. 1, no. 4, 1956, that from observations of schizophrenic patients a peculiar situation emerges in which no matter what a person does, he/she cant win. According to Bateson, the necessary ingredients for a double bind situation are the following: (1) the presence of two or more persons including the victim; (2) a repeated trauma experience that is a recurrent theme in the life of the victim; (3) a primary negative injunction based on avoidance of punishment rather than a context of reward-seeking (for instance Do not do so and so, or I will punish you, If you do not do so and so, I will punish you.); (4) a secondary injunction conflicting with the first at a more abstract level and, like the first, enforced by punishments or signals which threaten survival (posture, gesture, tone of voice, meaningful action, and the implications concealed in verbal comment) all of which may be used to convey this more abstract message; (5) a tertiary negative injunction prohibiting the victim from escaping from the field. When a person is caught in a double bind situation, he will respond defensively in a manner similar to the schizophrenic. An individual will take a metaphorical statement literally when he is in a situation where he must respond, where he is faced with contradictory messages, and when he is unable to comment on the contradictions. This theory led to a major overturning of traditional psychiatric conceptions, and contributed in particular to the development of family and systemic therapy. More than fifty years after the publication of Gregory Batesons article, the notion of a double bind has gone well beyond the application domain of psychotherapies. [ 1 DouBLE BinD ] [ Quotient schizophrnique ]
duchaMp, Marcel abandon de lart, acclration, aion a, alatoire, amerika, antenne relais, antimatire, apparition, arc lectrique, architecture vernaculaire, archives, armes sonores, atmosphriques, aurore borale, aurore noire, autocombustion, avatar, avraamov, arseny, Backward messages, Baguette, Baron,

Barre de fraction, Basse frquence, Baydan Shoes, Brzina (Bataille de), Bibliothque de unabomber (La) (une slection), Bicamral (cerveau), Big Crunch Clock, Bobine de Tesla, Boniment, Bragdon, Claude Fayette, Cabane, Cabine tlphonique, Cable Street (Bataille de), Camouflage, Cellar Door , Cerveaux (contrle des), Chantier, Chizhevsky, alexander Leonidovich, Chopper, Cin-il, Close-up, Cocane, Collectif, Columbo, Comment vrifier que vous avez bien t enlev par des extraterrestres ?, Community reinvestment act, Cor des alpes, Corticalart, Croatan, Crowley, aleister, Croyance, Cuche, Didier, Cyborg, Dbinage, Dj-vu, Dtecteurs de particules, Dhrupad, Dieu, Dirac (quation de), Disparatre (instructions pour), Disparition, Double Contrainte, Dynamistographe, Eco, umberto, lasticit, EMi (Exprience de mort imminente), Empalmage, Enigma, Enlvements extraterrestres, Ennui, Ersatz, Escapologie, Espace-temps, Essaimage, tincelles du cerveau, Evrugo (tat mental d), Exposition nationale Suisse (Genve, 1896), Extraterrestre, Exurbanisation, Fake, Fantmas, Fioriture, Fonction Etc. , Furtivit, Gakona (village), Geek, Godsique, Gomtrie inverse, Ghost rider, Gimmick, Glissement, Gobelet, Gorens, Grizzly Man, Guerriers de larc-en-ciel (Les), h.a.a.r.P. , hallucinations tlpathiques, hashima, hells angels, htrotopie, hitchcock, alfred, homes of Tomorrow, horde Sauvage (La), hot rod, houdini, harry, human Statue of Liberty, hypertexte, hystrie, iconoclasme, immatriaux (Les), informe, inframince, inS
(international necronautical Society, ou Socit ncronautique internationale), institut Benway, ionosphre, isochronisme des pendules, Jeu vido, Journal de Thoreau (Le), Juda (rois de), Kaczynski, Theodore John, Kant, Emmanuel, Klammer, Franz, Kodiak (le de), Konec, Krays (frres Jumeaux), Kunz, Emma, Labyrinthe, Lvitation, LhC (Grand Collisionneur de Protons), Lone ranger (The), Loup Blanc, Lwenzorn, Lumire, Lumire noire, Lynchage, Maciste, Magie, Mani Pulite, Manipulation du climat, Maquette, Marillenkndel de Mami Wahler (Les), Masque jetable, Matire, Mauvaise herbe, Mlis, Georges, Mmoire, Mentalisme, Merzbow, Mescaline, Microgrammes, Miroir noir, Mnmosyne (atlas), Modulaire, Momification, Monstre, Morceaux dhomme (Des), Motos, Moustique, Muscade, Musique enregistre, Mutants,

naufrage du Prestige, occultisme, ondes crbrales, ondes lectromagntiques, ondes lectromagntiques (effets), ontologie, operational Theory research , orage magntique, organisation scientifique du travail, orgone, ouroboros, Paradoxe des Jumeaux, Pplum, Pergola, Physique quantique, Pinetti, Giuseppe, Pirate, Playboy, Pledge, Pollution lectromagntique, Porcia (Bataille de), Positron, Postcolonial , Prestidigitateur, Prestige, Priest, Christopher, Production industrielle, Profonde, Protocinma, Puits artsien, Quotient Schizophrnique, radioactive Boy Scout, radiogoniomtrie, radiomtre de Crookes, ral, rayons Cosmiques, reboot, relativit, resignification, rhombicuboctadre, rhombodre, robert-houdin, JeanEugne, Saint Florian, Sargam, Satanisme, Science-fiction, Scot, reginald, Secret Decoder rings, Sensibilit lectromagntique, Srendipit, Servante, Shadow (The), Singularit, Skate-Board, Sockandawe.com, Son optique, Sous-marins (Films de), Spectre lectromagntique, Spiritisme, Sport, Stations de nombres, Strudel, Strudel de Mami Wahler (Le), Systme gnratif, Syndrome deffondrement des colonies dabeilles, Table rase, Taxidermie, Terrella, Terreur, Tesla Coilers, Tesla, nikola, Thorme de calvitie, Theremin, Lon, Thrmine, Transfert, Transmetteur amplificateur, Tuning, Turn, ultraviolet (rayonnement), unabomber, used Space, utopies amricaines, Vampires (Les), Vent solaire, Vritables prludes flasques (pour un chien), Vernaculaire, Vie artificielle, Vision-fentre, Visite des Monuments de Passaic, Vonu (Voluntary non Vulnerable Society), Wardenclyffe (Tour de transmission), yodel, Zombie, 18 (khz), 80 (km), 271 (Ducati Model), 380 (nM), 750 (nM), 1977, 100 000 000 000
dynaMistoGraphe

~~~

Dynamistograph [ f ] Au passage du xixe sicle, quelques encablures de la dcouverte des rayons X par Rntgen (dcembre 1895), deux curieux inventeurs hollandais libres penseurs , MM . Matla et Zaalberg Van Zelst, souhaitant porter ltude de lme sur le terrain physique , affirment avoir lucid le mystre de la mort . Au moyen dun instrument baptis le dynamistographe , ils affirment pouvoir donner une reprsentation tangible et matrielle des formes invisibles qui peuplent lau-del, notamment la forme indite de lhomme dans sa

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seconde vie . Aprs avoir livr leurs premires conclusions, ils attendent la mort de lun deux, M. Zaalberg, en juillet 1903, pour pouvoir affiner la mthode. Les rsultats de ce dialogue posthume et mdiumnique, obtenu grce un mcanisme enregistreur, sont publis en novembre 1912 dans un ouvrage intitul Le Mystre de la mort. Dynamistographie. [ e ] At the turn of the century, not long after Roentgens discovery of X -rays (December 1895), two curious Dutch inventors and free thinkers, Messrs. Matla and Zaalberg van Zelst, wishing to bring the study of the soul into the physical field, claimed to have elucidated the mystery of death. With an instrument dubbed the dynamistograph, they claimed to be able to give a tangible, material representation to the invisible forms peopling the hereafter, notably the novel form of man in his second life. After delivering their initial conclusions, they began to wait for the death of one of them (in this case, Mr. Zaalberg, in July of 1903) in order to refine their methods. The results of this posthumous mediumesque dialogue, which was obtained with a mechanical recording device, were published in November 1912 in a work titled Le Mystre de la mort. Dynamistographie.

eco, uMberto [ f ] Auteur italien de nombreux essais universitaires

sur la smiotique, lesthtique mdivale, la communication de masse, la linguistique et la philosophie. [ e ] An Italian author of several essays about semiotics, Middle Ages aesthetics, mass communication, linguistics and philosophy. [ Columbo ] [ Fonction Etc. ]
lasticit

Elasticity [ f ] Physique. Qualit dun objet tre dformable tout en reprenant sa forme dorigine lorsque la contrainte quon lui applique disparat. On peut tirer le rel, il ne se dchire pas ; on peut lui greffer autant de couches que lon veut, il ne seffondre pas ; on peut le froisser, le comprimer, le plisser ou lenrouler sur lui-mme, la dformation ne sinscrit pas dans son tissu. Corps indchirable, extensible et pliable volont, les perspectives que la manipulation de la ralit ouvre lartiste sont tout aussi complexes. force de tordre le rel, peut-il se ddoubler ? Si lon se glisse dans ses plis, peut-on se faire momentanment invisible ? En acclrant certains de ses lments, serait-il possible de le traverser ? Ou faut-il plutt, comme un surfeur prend le tube, sessayer glisser sur ses surfaces pour pouser la souplesse de ses formes et sinfiltrer subrepticement entre ses strates ? Encore faut-il savoir se perdre dans ses replis. Car le corollaire de linpuisable capacit du rel se mtamorphoser sans se dliter, muter pour mieux se recombiner, cest sa rsistance. [e ] Physics. Quality enabling an object to return to its original shape after being deformed, once the force being applied to it disappears. Reality can be stretched, it cannot be torn; we can graft as many layers as we like on to it, and it will not collapse; it can be creased, compressed, folded or rolled up on itself, but the misshaping is not inscribed into its fabric. The prospects that the manipulation of realityas a body that is tear-proof, stretchable and foldable at willopens up to the artist are just as complex. By dint of twisting reality, can it be split it in two? If we slip into its folds, can we make ourselves momentarily invisible? By speeding up some of its elements, would it be possible to go through it? Or rather, as a surfer rides the wave, do we have to try and slide over its surfaces, espousing the suppleness of its forms and infiltrating ourselves surreptitiously between its layers? We have to know how to get lost in its coils. For the corollary of the inexhaustible capacity of reality to

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be transformed without splitting, to change in order to recombine better, is its toughness. [ acclration ] [ Furtivit ] [ Mutants ]
eMi (exprience de Mort iMMinente)

NDE (Near Death Experience) [ f ] Ensemble de sensations vcues par certains individus pendant un coma avanc ou une mort clinique avant quils soient ranims, dont ils tmoignent souvent comme de la possible survivance de la conscience aprs la mort. Les premires expriences ont t rpertories et dcrites par le psychiatre amricain Raymond Moody en 1975 qui empruntait le terme louvrage du psychologue franais Victor Egger, Le Moi des mourants (1895). Les rcits des patients prsentent de nombreuses similitudes : dcorporation, conscience dtre mort tout en tant conscient, vision dune lumire intense, etc. Nombre de mdecins ont tent de produire une explication rationnelle du phnomne, quils distinguent sur le plan physiologique des tats modifis de conscience, du rve, des hallucinations. Ils cherchent rendre compte des conditions de possibilit biologiques des EMI en se gardant de prendre partie sur leur porte mtaphysique. [ e ] A set of sensations experienced by some individuals during an advanced coma or clinical death before they are resuscitated, which they often describe as the possible survival of consciousness after death. The first experiences were listed and described in 1975 by the American psychiatrist Raymond Moody who borrowed the term from the book Le Moi des mourants (1895) by the French psychologist Victor Egger. Accounts by patients have a great many similarities: an out-of-body sensation, awareness of being dead while at the same time being conscious, seeing a powerful light [ lumire ], etc. Quite a few doctors have tried to come up with a rational explanation for the phenomenon which they distinguish at the physiological level from altered states of consciousness, dreams, and hallucinations. They set out to report on the biological conditions in which NDE s can happen while taking care not to adopt any position regarding their metaphysical implications. [ 4 Chapuis, Denis ] [ 4 Della negra, alain & Kinoshita, Kaori ] [ 4 Fischer, Fred ]
eMpalMaGe

de les faire disparatre et rapparatre volont. La matrise de lempalmage requiert de nombreuses heures dentranement. Son principe consiste bouger doucement les muscles de la loge thnar et de lhypothnar de manire pincer un objet. Le prestidigitateur doit pouvoir marcher, parler et accomplir toute sorte daction avec aisance sans que lobjet ne tombe. Cette opration descamotage exige un long travail ; car il faut, tout en ayant la main droite ouverte et renverse, arriver y retenir invisiblement des boules, des bouchons de lige, des morceaux de sucre, des pices de monnaie, etc., sans que les doigts soient ferms ou ne perdent rien de leur libert , note JeanEugne robert-houdin dans Confidences et rvlations (1868). Lempalmage, dit litalienne , consiste pincer lobjet entre la base du pouce et le prolongement de la base de lindex perpendiculairement la paume de la main. [ e ] Palming involves the concealment of small objects in the hollow of the hand. It allows the magician [ prestidigitateur ] to make them disappear and reappear at will. Mastery of palming requires a great many hours of training. Its principle is based on gently moving the thenar and hypothenar muscles so as to pinch an object. Magicians must be able to walk, talk, and carry out all sorts of actions easily without dropping the object. This conjuring operation has to be worked on for a long time; for you have to succeed, while having your right hand open and turned over, in invisibly holding balls, corks, pieces of sugar, coins, etc., without closing your fingers or losing any freedom of movement, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin observes in Confidences et rvlations (1868). So-called Italian palming, or thumb palming, consists of pinching the object between the base of the thumb and the extension of the base of the index finger, at a right angle with the palm of the hand.
eniGMa [ f ] Association britannique ddie ltude des stations de nombres, le groupe ENIGMA (Euro-

enlveMents extraterrestres

Empalmage Extraits dun livre de tours de magie russe /


Excerpts from a Russian book of magic tricks, 1877

Palming [ f ] Lempalmage est la dissimulation de petits objets au creux de la main. Il permet au prestidigitateur

pean Numbers Information Gathering and Monitoring Association), tire son nom de la fameuse machine cryptographique allemande rotors utilise lors de la seconde guerre mondiale. [ e ] A British association dedicated to studying numbers stations [ stations de nombres ], the ENIGMA group (European Numbers Information Gathering and Monitoring Association), takes its name from the famous German rotor-operated ciphering machine used during World War II.

Alien abductions [ f ] Laffaire Betty et Barney Hill, qui eut lieu aux tats-Unis en 1961, fut le premier cas allgu denlvement par des extraterrestres. Les centaines denlvements extraterrestres reports depuis semblent suivre plus ou moins le mme scnario : enlvement dans un vaisseau spatial, examen mdical ou expriences scientifiques sur la victime de lenlvement, message transmis la victime par les extraterrestres, retour sur terre et amnsie partielle. Dans Passport to the Cosmos: Human Transformation and Alien Encounters, ouvrage qui est le fruit dune tude de plus de dix ans auprs de deux cents hommes et femmes affirmant avoir t enlevs par des extraterrestres, le psychiatre et chercheur John Mack souligne que ces rcits sont une source dinformation considrable sur le futur de la race humaine. Les interviews ralises mettent en avant des proccupations la fois dordre cologique (les extraterrestres avertissant les terriens des consquences cologiques de leurs actes) , mais aussi dordre mystique (les extraterrestres mus par une force suprme gouvernant lunivers). La partie la plus surprenante des tmoignages recueillis porte sur les relations sexuelles entre extraterrestres et humains, dans le but de crer une race hybride. Les artistes 2 Fabien Giraud et 2 raphal Siboni ont choisi de travailler sur les enlvements et viols extraterrestres pour luvre (The Abduction) quils ont prsente la biennale de 2 Santa Fe en 2008. Comme le remarquent les deux artistes, les enlvements et les viols extraterrestres sont une croyance locale srieuse aux tats-Unis, mme si pour nous, en France, a nous apparat comme une plaisanterie de mauvais got. Aux tats-Unis, les extraterrestres sont une ralit quotidienne et les victimes de ces viols constituent une minorit qui a droit la parole [ e ] The Betty and Barney Hill affair which occurred in the United States in 1961 was the first alleged case of abduction by aliens. The hundreds of alien [ extraterrestre ]abductions reported since seem to follow more or less the same pattern: abduction in a space ship, a medical examination of, or scientific experiments on, the victim of the abduction, a message transmitted to the victim by the aliens, return to earth and partial amnesia. In Passport to the Cosmos: Human Transformation and Alien Encounters, a work based on a study of 200 declarations by men and women alleging they had been abducted by aliens over ten years, the psychiatrist and researcher John Mack emphasizes that these stories are a considerable source of information

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about the future of the human race. The interviews conducted highlight concerns that are both ecological (the aliens warning the earth-dwellers of the ecological consequences of their actions) and mystical (the aliens motivated by a supreme force governing the universe). The most surprising part of the testimonies collected has to do with sexual relations between aliens and humans, with the aim of creating a hybrid race. The artists 2 Fabien Giraud and 2 raphal Siboni chose to work on alien abductions and rapes for the work (The Abduction) they presented at the 2 Santa Fe biennial in 2008. As the two artists point out, Abductions and rapes by extraterrestrials are a serious local belief [ croyance ]in the United States, even if for us, in France, it seems like a joke in bad taste. In the United States extraterrestrials are an everyday reality and the victims of these rapes form a minority thats entitled to be heard. [ Comment vrifier que vous avez bien t
enlev par des extraterrestres ?] [ 2 ral ] [ 2 Chalet de Tokyo roswell ]

[ e ] If certain forms [of boredom] have been docu-

ennui

Boredom [ f ] Sil en est signal quelques-unes [formes de lennui], il en reste un plus grand nombre encore quil est impossible de recenser. Lennui nous submerge et surabonde ; il intervient plus ou moins dans tous nos actes, mais souvent sans se nommer et sans constituer tout leur tre. Cest le rle du psychologue de le dceler dans les phnomnes qui le manifestent ou qui le masquent, disoler en toutes circonstances la part qui lui revient. Cette part est norme, prleve sur notre existence, et on en conviendra si lon prend en considration les deux propositions qui sont la philosophie de cette tude, savoir : 1 que la vie na ni fond ni but et quelle poursuit en vain un tat dquilibre et de bonheur ; 2 que tout organisme naissant prissable se fatigue, spuise et partant souffre continuellement. Lennui est le sentiment qui rsulte de notre impuissance et qui accuse labsurdit du sort qui nous est fait dans un monde o nous sommes jets sans recevoir de suffisantes explications. Considrer toutes choses sous laspect de lennui, cest voir dans lhomme un pantin dcidment creux et qui nest pas matre de ses fils ; cest relever ce quil y a de tragique et de comique la fois dans le fait dexister. Notre tude dsespre de la vie qui se ramne au nant, mais se rjouit des occasions de rire qui nous sont laisses. Avant-propos de LEnnui, tude psychologique dmile Tardieu, Librairie Flix Alcan, Paris, 1903

mented, a greater number still remain impossible to account for. Boredom submerges us in its overabundance; it enters more or less into each of our deeds, albeit without being identified as such nor forming their entirety. It is the psychologists task to detect its presence within the phenomena that manifest or mask it, and to constantly delineate the role it plays. This role is substantial, lifted from our existence, as one will recognize when considering the following two propositions which are the philosophy of this study. First, that life has neither foundation nor finality and pursues in vain a state of stability and happiness. Second, that all organisms born perishable will tire, wear out and hence suffer continually. Boredom is a feeling borne of our impotence; it accuses the absurdity of the fate handed us in a world into which we have been cast without receiving sufficient explanations. To consider all things through the prism of boredom is to identify man as a decidedly hollow puppet who is not master of his strings; it is to recognize all that is at once tragic and comic in the fact of existence. Our study despairs of this life which leads to nothingness yet rejoices in the opportunities for laughter with which we are left. Foreword of LEnnui, tude psychologique [Boredom, A Psychological Study] by mile Tardieu (Librairie Flix Alcan, Paris, 1903) [ 4 FrESh hELL ]
ersatZ [ f ] Mot allemand qui signifie produit de substi-

Originally, the term did not contain the negative connotation one hears in it today. The use of a German term is richly significant. The production of some of these substitute products by German industry was high during the first and second world wars, due to the countrys relative isolation from the world market. Its use in English and French became widespread as a result of soldiers experience as prisoners of the German army, having been fed Ersatzbrot (bread made from flour of poor quality and other substitutes) and given Ersatzkaffee (fake coffee made from roasted cereal grain). The history of the two conflicts and the subsequent German defeat has negatively determined the associations around this term, making it a synonym of bad quality.
escapoloGie

when he was thrown from a bridge into the river Allier. Because there was not much water in it, he struck its bottom. From 1912, Harry Linardini presented his tricks dressed as a convict. But the greatest escapologist in history is still indisputably the American harry houdini. After the death of that genius, escapology had no further resounding successes. The last great escapologist is certainly the Englishman Alan-Alan.
espace-teMps

tution , utilis pour dsigner les matriaux ou produits finis conus et fabriqus par lindustrie pour pallier la pnurie. Le terme, lorigine, na pas la connotation pjorative quon lui entend aujourdhui. Lutilisation dun mot allemand est riche de significations. La production de certains de ces produits de substitution par lindustrie allemande a t importante au cours des premire et seconde guerres mondiales, du fait de la position relativement isole du pays lgard du march mondial. Son usage dans les langues anglaise et franaise sest rpandu partir de lexprience des soldats faits prisonniers par larme allemande, nourris dErsatzbrot (pain de farine de mauvaise qualit et autres substituts) et abreuvs dErsatzkaffee (faux caf fait partir de graines de crales grilles). Lhistoire des deux conflits et la dfaite allemande ont dtermin ngativement limaginaire du mot devenu synonyme de moindre qualit. [ e ] A German word meaning substitute used to designate materials or finished products industrially conceived and produced to mitigate a shortage.

Escapology [ f ] Lescapologie est lart, dvelopp par certains illusionnistes, de svader dentraves ou de rcipients verrouills. Les accessoires les plus employs sont les chanes, les cordes, les menottes, les camisoles de force, les malles, les sacs, les tonneaux, les bidons, les cercueils, les botes et les cages. la fin du xixe sicle, on voit apparatre aux tats-Unis les premiers numros dvasion comme ceux de Tom Jack surnomm le roi des menottes ou de Smith qui schappait dun cercueil scell. En France, Charles-Louis Fernand Brisbarre, dit Steens, se consacre lart de lvasion. Il schappe dune guillotine, dun bidon ou dune cuve deau. Il est gravement bless en 1912 lorsquon le jette enchan du haut dun pont dans lAllier, car le fleuve manque deau et il heurte le fond. partir de 1912, Harry Linardini prsente quant lui ses tours habill en bagnard. Mais le plus grand escapologue de lhistoire demeure sans conteste lAmricain harry houdini. Aprs la mort de ce gnie, lescapologie ne connat plus de succs retentissants. Le dernier grand escapologue est sans doute lAnglais Alan-Alan. [ e ] Escapology is the art, developed by some illusionists, of escaping from constraints or locked containers. The most frequently used accessories are chains, ropes, handcuffs, straitjackets, trunks, sacks, barrels, churns, coffins, boxes, and cages. At the end of the 19th century, the first escape acts made their appearance in the United States, like those of Tom Jack, nicknamed the king of handcuffs, or Smith, who escaped from a sealed coffin. In France, Charles-Louis Fernand Brisbarre, known as Steens, devoted himself to the art of escape. He could escape from a guillotine, a churn, or a vat of water. He was seriously injured in 1912

Space-time [ f ] Lide que lespace et le temps ne sont pas ncessairement deux notions indpendantes se fait pressentir ds le xixe sicle. En 1916, Albert 1 Einstein conoit la thorie de la relativit gnrale qui postule un espace-temps quatre dimensions, dont les points, appels vnements , sont reprsents par trois coordonnes despace et une coordonne de temps. Cherchant accorder la loi de la gravitation la thorie de la relativit, il imagine que lespace-temps est courbe, et que ce sont les distributions dnergie qui courbent cet espace-temps. Il prvoit que la trajectoire dun rayon lumineux doit sincurver au voisinage dune masse gravitationnelle importante. Toutes les observations astronomiques corroborent jusqu aujourdhui les hypothses imagines par Einstein pour expliquer lunivers. [ e ] The idea that space and time are not necessarily two independent concepts was first discussed during the 19th century. In 1916, Albert 1 Einstein devised the theory of general relativity which postulates a four-dimensional space-time whose points, called events, are represented by three space coordinates and one time coordinate. By trying to make the law of gravitation agree with the theory of relativity, he imagined that space-time might be curved, and that it was distributions of energy that curved space-time. He foresaw that the trajectory of a light ray would have to curve in the vicinity of a major gravitational mass. So far, all astronomical observations have corroborated the hypotheses thought up by Einstein to explain the universe. [ Lumire ] [ Physique quantique ] [ relativit ]
essaiMaGe

Swarming [ f ] Stratgie. Lobservation scientifique du comportement dessaims dabeilles ou de colonies de fourmis a mis en vidence, dans ces socits o les insectes sont, pris isolment, peu singulariss

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Escapologie Harry Houdini

Escapologie Tom Jack

Escapologie Harry Houdini en 1912 / in 1912

et impuissants, lexistence dune intelligence de groupe base sur une communication dune efficacit dautant plus redoutable quelle fait lconomie de tout fonctionnement hirarchique. Tout dabord modlis par les chercheurs travaillant sur lintelligence artificielle, lessaimage est devenu, sous limpulsion dun think tank noconservateur comme la RAND Corporation, un des termes privilgis pour caractriser aussi bien la mobilisation de militants pacifistes que le mode opratoire de groupes terroristes internationaux. Discrtion, rapidit de dplacement et daction, capacit communiquer, interchangeabilit des rles : les atouts de ces rseaux sont particulirement difficiles contrer pour les armes conventionnelles. moins quelles ne tentent de les imiter, comme nont de cesse de le prconiser les thoriciens de cette nouvelle forme de guerre antisubversive. Cest en particulier, comme lvoque 1 Eyal Weizman, le cas de larme isralienne. Selon le gnral Kochavi : Une arme dtat qui affronte un ennemi dissmin, des bandes en rseau, sans organisation rigide [] doit se dprendre des vieilles conceptions de lignes droites, dalignement des units, des rgiments et des bataillons, [] et devenir elle-mme beaucoup plus diffuse et dissmine, flexible comme un essaim. [] En fait, elle doit se rgler sur laptitude la furtivit de lennemi. [] Lessaimage, tel que je le comprends, correspond larrive simultane vers une cible dun grand nombre de nuds si possible de 360 degrs [] qui alors se rassemblent et se dispersent nouveau. [ e ] Strategy. Scientific observation of the behaviour of swarms of bees or colonies of ants has revealed in those societies where the insects, taken singly, are rather nondescript and powerless, the existence of a group intelligence based on communication of an effectiveness that is all the more formidable because it dispenses with any hierarchical operating system. Initially modelled by researchers working on artificial intelligence, swarming, under the impetus of a Neo-Conservative think tank such as the RAND Corporation, has become one of the favourite terms used to characterize both the mobilization of pacifist militants and the modus operandi of international terrorist groups. Discretion, speed of movement and action, capacity to communicate, interchangeability of roles: the trump cards of the networks are particularly hard for conventional armies to counter. Unless they try to imitate them, as the theoreticians of this new form of anti-subversive warfare never cease recommending. This is particularly true, as 1 Eyal Weizman, of the Israeli army, points out. According to General Aviv Kochavi: A state military whose enemy is

scattered like a network of loosely-organized gangs


[] must liberate itself from the old concept of

straight lines, units in linear formation, regiments and battalions, [] and become itself much more diffuse and scattered, flexible and swarm-like In fact, it must adjust itself to the stealthy capability [ furtivit] of the enemy [] Swarming, to my understanding, is simultaneous arrival at a target of a large number of nodeif possible from 360 degrees[] which then dissever and re-disperse. (Eyal Weizman, Walking Through Walls, in Multitudes no. 28, January 2007, pp. 37 38. Extract from an interview Eyal Weizman and Nadav Harel held with Aviv Kochavi, 24 September 2004, at an Israeli military base in the Tel Aviv area [text in Hebrew]; video documentation by Nadav Harel and Zohar Kaniel.) [ Gomtrie inverse ] [ operational Theory resarch institute (oTri) ]
tincelles du cerveau

Brain Sparks [ f ] Organe le plus complexe de lhistoire de lvolution, le cerveau humain moyen mesure environ 1 400 centimtres cubes, pse peu prs 1,5 kg et contient quelques cent milliards de neurones. Selon le chercheur Gary McDarby, bien que les ordinateurs les plus rapides au monde puissent dsormais traiter davantage dinstructions par seconde que le cerveau humain, rien nest mme de se mesurer sa capacit de traitement parallle. Malgr ces performances ingales, le cerveau nutilise quune puissance de 25 watts pendant les phases dveil juste assez pour allumer une ampoule de faible puissance. [ e ] The average human brain is about 1,400 cubic centimetres in volume, weighs about 1.5 kg and contains around 100 billion neurons. As far as science is aware it is the most complex evolutionary organ ever to exist. According to Gary McDarby, although the fastest computers in the world today can now process more instructions per second than the human brain, nothing comes close to its parallel computational capability. In spite of this unparalleled capability, when a person is fully awake the brain barely uses 25 watts of powerjust enough to power a dim light bulb. [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ 3 Jeudis de GaKona (Les) ] [ ondes crbrales ]
evruGo (tat Mental d)

Evrugo Mental State [ f ] Micronation. Fond en septembre 4 1968 par Zush, artiste et philosophe autoproclam. Ltat

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eXposition nationale sUisse

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mental dEvrugo est avant tout un concept. Il existe en dehors de tout territoire physique, dans ltendue mentale que les citoyens dEvrugo peroivent comme un espace commun. Son origine est linspiration. Il sagit dun tat imaginaire et contradictoire, mais autocratique et universel. Sa constitution est alatoire. Tout est possible, le concret comme limmatriel. Il utilise les symboles communs tous les tats : une langue, son propre alphabet, un drapeau, un hymne, une monnaie et un passeport. Son territoire est mental, physique, artistique, scientifique et mystique. Sa principale industrie est la cration darmes ironiques qui tuent par le plaisir et le rire. Les ides constituent son patrimoine. Sa stratgie est lautogurison crative. Son idal consiste atteindre le bonheur. Cest un endroit de sduction et dexpression. Les conflits y sont permanents. Il est usage individuel. Il est la bulle ou le halo commun tous les tres. Il a pour but dveiller la notion dexistence personnelle quont tous les tres humains afin de rsoudre les problmes dinsertion dans la socit. [ e ] A micronation. Founded in September 4 1968 by Zush, an artist and self-proclaimed philosopher. The Evrugo Mental State is first and foremost a concept. It exists without a physical territory and instead in the mental expanse which Evrugo citizens believe is a shared communal space. According to its mission statement, Its origin is inspiration. It is a contradictory, imaginary yet real autocratic and universal state. Its constitution is random. Everything is possible, the concrete and the immaterial. It uses symbols common to all states: language, its own alphabet, flag, anthem, currency and passport. Its territory is mental, physical, artistic, scientific and mystic. Its main industry is the creation of ironic weapons that kill through pleasure and laughter. Its heritage is ideas. Its strategy is creative self-healing. Its ideal is to attain happiness. It is a place for seduction and expression. Its conflicts are permanent. It is for individual use. It is the bubble or common halo of all beings. It intends to awaken the sense of personal beings that all we human beings have as a solution to social maladjustment. [ 1 TaTS (FaiTES-LE VouS-MME) ]
exposition nationale suisse (Genve, 1896)

Swiss National Exposition (Geneva, 1896) [ f ] En 1896 la ville de Genve accueille la seconde Exposition nationale suisse. Cet vnement prend la suite des foires commerciales organises dans le pays depuis le dbut du xixe sicle et sinscrit dans le vaste mouvement de promotion des arts,

des techniques et de lindustrie lorigine de la premire Exposition universelle Londres en 1851. Emporte par londe de choc conscutive la rvolution de 1789, la Suisse renforce son unit nationale. En 1848, la nouvelle constitution met en place un tat fdral qui affirme sa puissance lgard des cantons. Dans ce cadre, les expositions nationales sont un vecteur daffirmation idologique et identitaire de la nation bourgeoise en construction. LExposition de 1896 a pour ambition de promouvoir les ralisations de lconomie suisse, de son systme ducatif et aussi de son arme. Elle propose au public la visite dun Drfli, un village suisse traditionnel rassemblant en son sein les habitats, paysages, activits, rites et coutumes propres aux diffrents cantons. Cette cration artificielle dune Suisse traditionnelle, qui appartenait dj en partie lhistoire, permettait, par la fabrication dun folklore, daffirmer lidentit dune Suisse ternelle au travers de son patrimoine. Deux contre-modles laccompagnent dans lexposition : le village ngre , reprsentant de lAfrique colonise dans la diffrence de laquelle se construit, dans lEurope coloniale, lidentit blanche ; les pavillons consacrs aux ralisations des sciences et de lindustrie, tmoignant dune Suisse cosmopolite engage dans la marche mondiale vers le progrs. Les expositions de 1914 et de 1939 proposent galement un village suisse traditionnel. Cette animation est abandonne par la foire suivante, la premire de laprs seconde guerre mondiale, qui fait le choix de se tourner dfinitivement vers lavenir. mi-chemin entre lexposition ethnographique et le parc dattraction, le village suisse comme le village ngre doit satisfaire deux missions, instruire et divertir, et assume pour cela pleinement sa fabrique de lauthenticit. Le catalogue de lExposition nationale de 1896 voque le village suisse en ces termes : [] partout, et sans aucun effort, vous avez lillusion absolue de la vrit. [ e ] In 1896, the city of Geneva hosted the second National Swiss Exposition. This event continues in the vein of the trade fairs organized in the country since the beginning of the 19 th century and is part of the vast movement dedicated to promoting the arts, techniques, and industry that led to the first World Fair in London in 1851. Swept up by the shockwaves of the French Revolution in 1789, Switzerland sought to reinforce its national unity. In 1848, the new constitution institutes a federal State which asserts its predominance over the cantons. In this context, the national expositions are a vector of ideological affirmation and identity for the budding bourgeois nation. The ambition of

Exposition nationale suisse (Genve, 1856) Photos : Fred Boissonnas

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the Exposition of 1896 was to promote the achievements of the Swiss economy, educational system, and army. It included a visit to a Drfli, a traditional Swiss village presenting the habitats, landscapes, activities, rites, and customs typical to each canton. This artificial creation of a traditional Switzerland which was already a thing of the past, promoted the idea of an eternal Swiss identity through its heritage by fabricating folklore. Two other counter models are presented in the exposition: the Negro village, representing a colonized Africa, in opposition with which white identity defines itself in colonial Europe; the pavilions devoted to the achievements of science and industry attest to a cosmopolitan facet of Switzerland caught up in the general movement toward progress. The expositions of 1914 and 1939 also featured traditional Swiss villages. This element is abandoned for the next fair, the first one after the Second World War, as the focus is now decidedly directed toward the future. Somewhere between an ethnographical exhibition and a theme park, the Swiss village similarly to the Negro villagemust satisfy two purposes, instruction and entertainment, thus endorsing its fabricated authenticity. The catalogue of the National Exposition of 1896 refers to the Swiss village in these terms: [] everywhere, and effortlessly, you have the absolute illusion of truth.
extraterrestre

Extraterrestrial [ f ] Un extraterrestre est un tre originaire dune autre plante, dun autre systme plantaire, voire dune autre galaxie. Au xixe sicle, suite certaines tudes scientifiques, lhypothse de lexistence sur Mars docans et de continents semblables ceux de la Terre commence simposer. En 1877, lastronome italien Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (oncle de la clbre couturire) observe au tlescope des formations rectilignes quil interprte comme des canaux construits par des tres civiliss. En 1882, lastronome franais Camille Flammarion publie La Plante Mars et ses conditions dhabitabilit o il soutient lexistence dune race martienne. En 1895, lastronome amricain Percival Lowell suggre quant lui que ces canaux sont luvre dune civilisation disparue. En 1898, le romancier britannique Herbert George Wells imagine dans La Guerre des Mondes une invasion de la Terre par des Martiens embarqus dans des tripodes et arms de rayons laser. Le thme de linvasion extraterrestre devient le sujet de nombreux livres et films populaires, et de nombreuses bandes dessines. Souvent dcrit comme dapparence

humanode et verdtre, le Martien simpose parmi les strotypes de la science-fiction. En 1938, Orson Welles dirige une interprtation radiophonique du roman de Wells sur le rseau CBS . Selon la lgende, prs dun million dauditeurs crdules tentent de senfuir, provoquant au passage un chaos sans prcdent. De nouvelles observations mettent un terme la croyance en lexistence des Martiens. En 1965, le survol de la plante rouge par la sonde Mariner 4 rvle avec prcision que les conditions de temprature et de pression y sont hostiles au dveloppement de toute vie biologique autre quune ventuelle vie bactrienne. Victime des progrs de la science, le mythe martien sefface donc devant celui de cratures ou de civilisations originaires de contres beaucoup plus lointaines et susceptibles dapparatre de faon beaucoup plus nigmatique. Lheure est aux tres furtifs. Ovnis et aliens simposent dans la science-fiction et la culture populaire. Le succs de la srie initie par le film Alien (1979) de Ridley Scott en est le symbole. Le dveloppement de la radioastronomie permet dexplorer au-del du systme solaire par lanalyse du spectre lectromagntique venu de lespace. Initi dans les annes 1960 aux tats-Unis, le programme de recherche SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) entretient lespoir de capter un jour dventuels messages dorigine extraterrestre. [ e ] An extraterrestrial is a creature originating from another planet, another planetary system, or even another galaxy. In the 19th century, following certain scientific studies, the hypothesis of the existence on Mars of oceans and continents similar to those on Earth started to take root. In 1877, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (the uncle of the famous fashion designer) observed rectilinear formations on his telescope that he interpreted as channels constructed by civilized beings. In 1882, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion published La Plante Mars et ses conditions dhabitabilit in which he supported the existence of a Martian race, while in 1895 the American astronomer Percival Lowell suggested that these channels were the work of a vanished civilization. In 1898, the British novelist H.G. Wells wrote The War of the Worlds, imagining Earth being invaded by Martians travelling in tripods and armed with laser beams. The theme of extraterrestrial invasion became the subject of numerous books, comic strips and popular films. Often described as humanoid and greenish in appearance, Martians established themselves as one of the stereotypes of science fiction. In 1938, Orson Welles directed a radio version of Wellss novel on the CBS network. Legend has it that nearly a

million credulous listeners attempted to flee, giving rise to unprecedented chaos in the process. New observations put an end to belief in the existence of Martians. In 1965, the spacecraft Mariner 4 flew over the red planet, accurately revealing that the temperature and pressure conditions there are hostile to the development of any biological life other than possible bacterial life. Falling victim to the progress of science, the Martian myth therefore gave way to that of creatures or civilizations originating from far further off, and liable to appear in a much more enigmatic way. Stealthy beings were now the order of the day. UFOs and aliens became a staple ingredient of science fiction and popular culture. The success of the series initiated by Ridley Scotts film Alien (1979) is a symbol of this. The development of radio astronomy made it possible to explore beyond the solar system through analysis of the electromagnetic spectrum [ spectre lectromagntique ] coming from space. The SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) research program initiated in the United States in the 1960s holds out the hope that messages of extraterrestrial origin may one day be intercepted. [ Comment vrifier que vous avez bien t enlev
par des extraterrestres ? ] [ Enlvements extraterrestres ] [ ral ]

exurbanisation

Exurbanization [ f ] Lexurbanisation est un phnomne relativement rcent qui consiste en un transfert le plus souvent permanent des activits normalement dvolues au centre-ville vers la priphrie et lagglomration dune ville. Le phnomne dexurbanisation est particulirement rpandu dans les grandes mtropoles des pays industrialiss, mais le phnomne accompagne galement la croissance des villes dans les pays mergents. Il ne faut pas faire lamalgame entre exurbanisation (transfert dactivits) et priurbanisation (extension spatiale de la ville et mergence des banlieues). [ e ] Exurbanization is a relatively recent phenomenon that consists in the largely permanent relocation [ transfert ] of activities normally reserved for downtown towards the periphery and the suburbs of a city. The phenomenon of exurbanization is particularly widespread in the big metropolises of industrialized countries, but the phenomenon equally accompanies the growth of cities in developing countries. One should not confuse exurbanization (relocation of activities) and urban sprawl (spatial extension of the city and emergence of suburbs). [ 4 Pinson, Daniel ]

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FioritUre

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fake [ f ] Dans le jargon de lillusionnisme, un fake est un

objet truqu que le public peut voir, mais dont il ignore le truquage. Cest le cas des objets doublefond par exemple, ou encore des fausses munitions. [ e ] In the jargon of illusionism a fake is an object that has been rigged that the audience can see, but they do not know it has been rigged. These include double-bottomed objects, for example, and false ammunition. [ Prestidigitateur ]
fantMas [ f ] Imagin par Pierre Souvestre et Marcel Allain,

ce personnage de fiction apparu pour la premire fois dans un roman de 1911 est devenu clbre lorsque Louis Feuillade lui donne vie lcran en 1913. Sorte de monte-en-lair politique, il parcourt les toits de Paris la nuit, tel un anti hros classique en guerre contre la socit bourgeoise, chef dune arme d Apaches , ces criminels parisiens capables dune horreur sublime. 3 Paul Laffoley souligne que, hritier du mouvement symboliste, du 3 thtre du Grand Guignol et du cabaret du Chat noir, Fantmas devint la coqueluche de lavant-garde moderne europenne. De nombreuses adaptations se sont succd aussi bien au thtre, au cinma, la radio quen bandes dessinnes ou la tlvision. [ e ] Dreamt up by Pierre Souvestre and Marcel Allain, this fictional character first appeared in a novel published in 1911. He became famous when brought to life on the screen by Louis Feuillade in 1913. A kind of political cat burglar, he roamed the rooftops of Paris at night as the classic anti-hero waging war against bourgeois society, as the leader of a vast army of Apaches (Parisian criminals) capable of sublime horror. 3 Paul Laffoley stresses that his origin goes back to the Symbolist Movement, Grand Guignol [ 3 thtre du Grand Guignol ], and Le Chat noir cabaret. Fantmas became the darling of the European modern avant-garde. There have been many successive adaptations, in the theatre, the cinema and on radio, as well as in the form of a comic strip or on television.
fioriture

Furtivit Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk ; Photo : Jim Gordon

Flourish [ f ] Mot issu de litalien fioritura, lui-mme issu de la racine fiore qui signifie fleur . En musique, une fioriture est un ornement ajout la phrase musicale. En prestidigitation, cest un mouvement qui nest pas strictement ncessaire au tour, mais permet de lembellir. Il fut notamment thoris par Jean-Eugne robert-houdin. Bien quintimid

Furtivit U.S. Navy Sea Shadow (IX-529)

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par un spectateur aussi clairvoyant, par un juge dont ladresse mavait tant merveill, je marmai de courage et je commenai par un de ces effets auxquels javais donn le nom de fioritures. Prlude brillant des tours de cartes, il navait pour but que dblouir les yeux, en montrant lextrme agilit des doigts. Torrini me regarda faire dun air indiffrent, et japerus mme un sourire effleurer ses lvres ; jen fus, je lavoue, un peu dsappoint, mais il se hta de me consoler : Jadmire sincrement votre adresse, me dit-il, mais je dois ajouter que je fais peu de cas de ces fioritures, comme vous les appelez ; je les trouve brillantes, il est vrai, mais fort inutiles. Du reste, je serais curieux de savoir si vous les placeriez au commencement ou la fin de vos tours de cartes. Il me semble assez logique, rpondis-je, de placer au commencement dune sance un exercice dont le but est de semparer de limagination des spectateurs , raconte le clbre auteur de Confidences et rvlations (1868). [ e ] The French form comes from the Italian fioritura, itself derived from the root fiore, meaning flower. In music a fioritura is an ornament added to a musical phrase. In magic, it is a movement that is not strictly necessary to the trick, but can embellish it. The theory of flourishes was commented on specifically by Jean-Eugne roberthoudin. Although intimidated by so perceptive a spectator, by a judge whose skill had so filled me with wonder, I took my courage in both hands and started with one of those effects I had described as fioritures. A brilliant prelude to card tricks, its only purpose was to dazzle peoples eyes by showing the extreme agility of my fingers. Torrini watched what I was doing with an air of indifference, and I even noticed a smile flit across his lips; I must admit I was a little disappointed, but he hastened to console me: I sincerely admire your skill, he told me, but I have to add that I dont think much of these fioritures, as you call them; I think they are brilliant, to be sure, but extremely pointless. Whats more, Id be curious to know whether youd put them at the beginning or the end of your card tricks. It seems quite logical to me, I answered, to put an exercise that at capturing the onlookers imagination at the beginning of a performance. The famous author of Confidences et rvlations (1868) includes this anecdote in his book. [ Prestidigitateur ]
fonction etc.

Function of Etc. [ f ] Et le reste, ainsi de suite, on pourrait continuer : linfini que la locution latine se contente dindiquer en une abrviation, la Fonction Etc. lrige en

facteur et en principe de cration et de programmation. Mathmatique schizophrne, une telle fonction ne serait pas tant une mise en relation de deux ensembles, lment par lment, quune exploitation de chaque entit dans toute ltendue de ses potentiels. Les donnes se transfrent dune zone lautre, transmutent ; une identit en devient une autre, puis une autre, puis une autre ; chaque image sen ajoute une nouvelle, sur chaque couche du rel viennent sen greffer plusieurs ; un seul univers correspond une infinit dautres. Avec la Fonction Etc. se dsagrge la logique traditionnelle du ou bien ou bien au profit de celle, plus polysmique et fertile, accumulation vertigineuse, du et et Cest la science-fiction qui a la premire applique cette mcanique : plutt que de sen tenir un corps, une plante, un univers, il sagit de les multiplier, de les additionner, de les empiler. Par lintermdiaire de ses mutants, la science-fiction embraye la Fonction Etc. : elle active les doubles, partage les identits, dcuple le nombre de vies possibles. Ceci plus ceci et encore cela pour mieux prouver les capacits lastiques de la ralit. La Fonction Etc. implique un enchanement continu de perceptions et une absence totale de point fixe : la vue chancelle, entrane dans un mouvement en pleine acclration, qui laisse sur place les cadres de perception et dobservation habituels. Les uvres sabordent dsormais en tant que liaisons et passages, non plus comme des lieux et des positions. Lart devient un trajet sans fin, non pas au-del du rel, mais dans lpaisseur de ses rptitions et de ses correspondances, dans la densit et la complexit de ses plis. [ e ] And all the rest, and so on, and so forth: the infinitude that the Latin wording is content to indicate by an abbreviation, the function played by etc., raises it into a creative and programming factor and principle. Schizophrenic mathematics: such a function would not be so much a linking of two groups, element by element, as an exploitation of each entity to the full extent of its potential. The data are transferred from one zone to another, transmuted; one identity becomes another, then another, then another; to each image a new one is added, on to each layer of reality several more are grafted, to a single universe an infinity of other ones corresponds. With the Function of Etc. the traditional logic of or else or else disintegrates in favour of the more polysemic and fertile logic, the vertiginous accumulation, of and and. Science-fiction was the first to apply this mechanism: rather than confining itself to one body, one planet, one universe, it became a question of multiplying them, adding them up,

piling them on. Through the agency of its mutants, science fiction puts the Function of Etc. into gear: it activates doubles, shares identities, increases the number of possible lives tenfold. This plus this and that too so as better to test the elastic capabilities of reality. The Function of Etc. implies a continuous linked sequence of perceptions and a total absence of any fixed point: our sight sways, carried away in a movement accelerating at full speed, which leaves the usual frameworks of perception and observation standing. Works are now approached as links and passages, no longer as places and positions. Art becomes a journey without an end, not beyond reality, but into the depths of its repetitions and correspondences, into the density and complexity of its folds. [ Eco, umberto ] [ lasticit ] [ 1 Multivers ] [ Mutants ] [ Quotient schizophrnique ] [ Vision-fentre ]
furtivit

Furtivity [ f ] Caractristique dun engin militaire conu pour avoir une signature rduite ou banale et donc pour tre moins dtectable, classifiable ou identifiable. Au contraire du camouflage, technique ancestrale de dissimulation et dinvisibilit dont le principe est de se fondre dans le paysage, la furtivit repose sur une paradoxale capacit mettre en dfaut les moyens de reconnaissance habituels tout en restant de fait visible. Un objet camoufl se travestit, se cache, simmobilise pour passer inaperu ; lobjet furtif esquive et se drobe, ne donne pas prise, et dvie, fractionne ou leurre les signaux de dtection. Invisible au radar, un bombardier furtif fait comme sil ntait pas l ; pourtant, il suffirait de lever les yeux pour le dcouvrir, machine de guerre aux allures de science-fiction. En un clair, le dfaut de visible se transforme alors en son excs : la furtivit est la fois invisible et hyperspectaculaire, discrtion optimale et photognie ultime. Dans leur dmarche comme dans leurs uvres, notamment dans le rapport quelles entretiennent avec le rel, nombre dartistes sapproprient les caractristiques inoues de lobjet furtif. Ils naffirment pas leur prsence et savancent, peine masqus, avant de rvler subitement la vraie nature de leur intervention et dimposer leur impact. Ils dveloppent des stratgies dinfiltration en se djouant des habitudes de perception, sintroduisant subrepticement dans tous les territoires du rel pour soudainement en bouleverser lapprhen-

sion. Dans luvre dart furtive , un simple dtail du rel, dordinaire invisible, prend une nouvelle dimension, devient photognie ; sans crier gare, les artistes pntrent et simmiscent dans notre systme interprtatif. [ e ] The characteristic of a military weapon designed to have a reduced or commonplace signature which is therefore harder to detect, categorize or identify. Unlike camouflage, an age-old technique for concealment and invisibility based on the principle of merging into the landscape, furtivity relies on a paradoxical capacity to baffle the usual means of recognition at the same time as in fact remaining visible. A camouflaged object is disguised, hidden, immobilized so that it can pass undetected; the furtive object dodges and circumvents, gives no hold, and sidetracks, breaks up or tricks detection signals. Invisible to radar, a furtive or stealth bomber is as if it was not there; yet people would only have to look up to find it, a war machine that looks like something out of science-fiction. In a flash, the defect of visibility is transformed into its excess: furtivity is simultaneously invisible and hyper-spectacular, optimum discretion and ultimate photogenicity. In their approach and their works alike, in particular in their relationship to reality, quite a few artists take on the unprecedented characteristics of the furtive object. They do not declare their presence and move forward, barely concealed, before suddenly revealing the true nature of their intervention and imposing their impact. They develop strategies of infiltration by outsmarting habits of perception, introducing themselves surreptitiously into every territory of reality in order suddenly to overturn apprehension. In the furtive work of art, a simple detail of reality, of invisible ordinariness, takes on a new dimension, and becomes photogenic; without shouting beware, artists penetrate into and interfere with our interpretative system. [ Essaimage ] [ Mutants ] [ 1 5.000.000.000 DannES ]

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Gakona (villaGe) [ f ] Village situ au centre sud de lAlaska, au

nord-est dAnchorage, la bourgade compte entre deux cents et six cents habitants selon la saison. h.a.a.r.P. , base du programme amricain la fois scientifique et militaire de recherche sur lionosphre est installe dans ses environs. [ e ] A village located in the central southern part of Alaska, north east of Anchorage, it has between 200 and 600 inhabitants, according to the season. h.a.a.r.P. , the base for the American scientific and military research program into the ionosphere [ ionosphre ], is sited nearby.
Geek [ f ] Issu de lallemand ancien geck, fou du village, et

driv de langlais freak, qui dsigne un monstre de foire, le terme geek a peu peu t utilis pour dcrire une personne dont la passion pour lunivers des jeux de rle et de lheroic fantasy entravait la vie sociale. Il qualifie dsormais dune manire plus large un individu obnubil par linformatique et les nouvelles technologies. [ e ] The word geek comes from the Old German term geck, meaning village idiot, and is also derived from the English word freak, used to describe an abnormal spectacle at a fair. It gradually came to be used to describe an individual whose passion for the world of role play and heroic fantasy interfered with his or her social life. It is now used more widely to refer to anyone obsessed with IT and new technologies. [ 3 hacking ] [ 3 Jeudis de GaKona (Les) ] [ Tesla coilers ]
Godsique

il va pouvoir crer une surface couvrante qui, en dpit de sa lgret et de sa discrtion, sera dune solidit sans gale. Infra-mince, les structures godsiques sont proches de linvisibilit. [ e ] A sphere formed from triangles, a geometric shape dear to the heart of 2 richard Buckminster Fuller, the designer of the principle of the geodesic dome. The triangle is the only inter-self-stabilizing complex. The triangle is structure and structure is the triangle. So when I want to build something and make it really work, Ive got to use all triangles, the brilliant American inventor emphasizes in An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario. These domes have the special feature of being the self-supporting structural system that enables the largest possible surface to be covered. One of the major issues in Buckminster Fullers wide-ranging research was to make the most with the least. The dome answers that desire very specifically. Starting from a simple structural shapethe trianglethat he repeated and arranged in a particular way, he was able to create a covering surface that in spite of its lightness and unobtrusiveness was of unparalleled robustness. Geodesic structures are infra-thin, hence almost invisible. [ 2 CELLar Door ] [ 2 Bucky (Bulle) ]
GoMtrie inverse

Geodesic [ f ] Sphre constitue de triangles, forme gomtrique chre 2 richard Buckminster Fuller, le concepteur du principe des dmes godsiques. Le triangle est le seul ensemble complexe qui soit autostable. Le triangle, cest la structure et la structure, cest le triangle. Donc, si je veux construire quelque chose et que a tienne, je dois nemployer que des triangles , souligne le gnial inventeur amricain dans Scnario pour une autobiographie. Ces dmes ont pour particularit dtre le systme structurel autoportant permettant de couvrir la plus grande surface qui soit. Lun des enjeux majeurs des multiples recherches de Buckminster Fuller tait de faire le plus avec le moins. Les dmes rpondent trs prcisment ce souhait. partir dune forme structurelle simple le triangle quil va rpter et agencer dune certaine manire,

Inverse geometry [ f ] Stratgie. Les volutions rcentes de la gopolitique moyen-orientale offensives de Tsahal en Cisjordanie et au Sud-Liban, abandon de certaines colonies, construction par Isral dun mur de sparation avec la Palestine ont conduit les stratges israliens modifier radicalement leur manire dlaborer, de mener et mme de penser leurs oprations militaires en dehors de leurs frontires. Ainsi, la tactique de la gomtrie inverse prconise dviter les portes, les fentres et les rues et de creuser, travers murs et plafonds, des tunnels de surface la manire dun Gordon Matta-Clark pour dmolir de lintrieur les refuges des combattants adverses. Lide est alors de tirer parti dquipements aussi perfectionns que des viseurs thermiques ou des munitions perforantes pour aborder autrement le dplacement, le dploiement et lorganisation des troupes travers la ville, et surtout pour rinterprter larchitecture son propre avantage. Cette notion de gomtrie inverse, propose par le gnral Aviv Kochavi, responsable de lattaque contre Naplouse en avril 2002, nest pas quune tactique visant contester lennemi lavantage du terrain. Ainsi, le gnral Shimon Naveh, un des principaux thori-

ciens de ce nouvel art de la guerre, se revendique de la pense de Gilles Deleuze et Flix Guattari : reprenant la distinction propose dans Mille Plateaux entre espace stri, systme hirarchis o lignes et trajectoires tendent tre subordonnes aux points : on se dplace dun point lautre , et espace lisse, plan multidimensionnel dans lequel la continuit de la trajectoire prime, il enjoint ses troupes lisser lespace , imposer leur mouvement aux zones palestiniennes stries de murs, de barbels et de tranches. Les notions de fluidit ou de drive prises par des penseurs foncirement critiques sont ainsi retournes au profit dune pratique bien relle de dsorganisation de lespace, dont la finalit nest plus loccupation statique, mais le contrle des frontires. [ e ] Strategy. Recent developments in the geopolitics of the Middle Eastattacks by Tzahal on the West Bank and in southern Lebanon, the abandonment of some settlements, the building by Israel of a wall separating it from Palestinehave led Israeli strategists to make radical changes in their way of preparing, conducting and even thinking about their military operations outside their own frontiers. Inverse geometry tactics advocate avoiding doors, windows and streets and digging surface tunnels through walls and ceilings, in the manner of someone like Gordon Matta-Clark, to demolish the shelters of the enemy combatants from inside. Then the idea is to take advantage of such hi-tech equipment as thermal sights or wall-penetrating ammunition to approach the movement, deployment and organization of troops through the town in a different way, and above all to reinterpret architecture to their own advantage. This notion of inverse geometry, put forward by General Aviv Kochavi, in charge of the attack on Nablus in April 2002, is more than just a tactic aimed at contesting the advantage enjoyed by the enemy of being on their own ground. Thus General Shimon Naveh, one of the main theorists behind this new art of warfare, claims to be influenced by the thinking of Gilles Deleuze and Flix Guattari: taking up the distinction proposed in A Thousand Plateaus between striated space, a hierarchical system in which lines and trajectories tend to be subordinate to points: we move from one point to another, and smooth space, a multidimensional level in which the continuity of the trajectory takes precedence, he enjoins his troops to smooth out space, to impose their movement on the striated Palestinian zones of walls, barbed-wire fences and trenches. The notions of fluidity or drift valued by fundamentally critical thinkers are thus diverted for the benefit of a very real practice of disorganiz-

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ing space, the end purpose of which is no longer static occupation, but the control of frontiers. [ Essaimage ] [ 1 Jeudis de , nouVELLES Du MonDE rEnVErS (L es) ] [ operational Theory resarch institute (oTri) ] [ 1 Weizman, Eyal ]

Ghost rider [ f ] Motard sudois anonyme, Ghost Rider roule

plus de 300 km/h sur les autoroutes et filme ses performances. Il est devenu un personnage culte sur Internet. [ e ] An anonymous Swedish motorcyclist, Ghost Rider films himself as he drives on Scandinavian highways at almost 200 mph. Now a cult figure on the Internet, Ghost Rider has transformed his flirtations with death into a hypnotic experience. [ Motos ]
GiMMick [ f ] Dans le jargon de lillusionnisme, les gimmicks

sont de petits accessoires spciaux ignors du public. Le faux doigt, par exemple, est un doigt supplmentaire que le prestidigitateur glisse entre lindex et lannulaire. Le faux pouce est un morceau de plastique qui vient coiffer le bout du pouce et qui permet de faire disparatre des petits objets. Les prestidigitateurs utilisent parfois des fils de crin trs fin, .et quasi invisibles. La tte de hareng est un gimmick classique, compos dun fil lastique et dun embout en forme de tte de poisson attach dans une manche de lhabit du prestidigitateur, servant faire disparatre de petits objets. [ e ] In the jargon of illusionism, gimmicks are special small accessories. The public is typically unaware of their existence. A false finger, for example, is an extra finger that the magician [ prestidigitateur ] slips between his index finger and his ring finger. A false thumb is a piece of plastic that goes over the end of the thumb, allowing the performer to make small objects disappear. Magicians sometimes use very fine, almost invisible horsehair yarn. The tte de hareng (vanishing tube) is a classic gimmick. It consists of a piece of plastic, tied to a nozzle shaped like a fishs head and fixed inside the sleeve of the magicians coat, that enables the magician to make small objects disappear. [ Fake ]
GlisseMent

Slippage [ f ] Immergs dans un temps mondial, nous assistons une compression du pass, prsent et

futur et sommes embarqus dans limmdiatet, linstantanit. Le prsent glisse la surface du temps, rendant impossible lapprhension dun rel constitu de repres temporels clairement dlimits. Domin par la notion de temps rel , le prsent ne peut que passer, dans un mouvement de transit continu, de glissement perptuel. Certains philosophes tels que Paul Virilio, par exemple, sinquitent dune telle situation, marque par lclatement des repres temporels traditionnels, o lhomme ne peut plus (et ne veut plus) freiner ce transfert permanent et perd tout espoir de retrouver des gestes susceptibles de fonder sa condition dtre-au-monde. Comment vivre dans un univers dpourvu de limites, alors que la recherche mme de ces limites dtermine un acte constitutif de notre quilibre ? Gnralement considre comme un obstacle surmonter, cette mise en glisse du monde constitue pour lart un fantastique dfi. Loin de sen loigner, lart actuel sy associe et adopte la mme dynamique. Abandonnant au pass toute vellit de construire de nouvelles plates formes, ne croyant plus aux vertus des espaces entre-deux qui ont parsem lart des annes 1990, les artistes daujourdhui sengagent dans une activit qui peut sembler laborieuse, voire dangereuse. Un combat perdu davance ! , se lamenteront leurs parents, en secouant la tte. On rtorquera en citant la fameuse formule de Ben : Lart est un sale boulot, mais il faut bien que quelquun le fasse. Les artistes poussent lextrme cette propension se laisser aller, ne plus rsister lavance du dsert, aux limites de la ralit qui seffacent, se laisser happer par cette vague dferlante qui brouille toute piste. Plutt que de subir cet tat de fait et de se rvolter chaque nouvel an en se disant Cette anne, je change ! , ils plongent au cur de cette mise en glisse, tels des parasites adoptant le mode de fonctionnement de leurs htes. [ e ] Immersed in worldly time, we witness a compression of past, present and future and are embarked on immediacy, instantaneity. The present slips over the surface of time, making it impossible to apprehend a reality constituted from clearly delimited temporal reference points. Dominated by the notion of real time, the present can do no more than elapse, in a movement of continuous transit, perpetual slippage. Some philosophers like Paul Virilio, for example, are worried about such a situation, marked by the break-up of traditional temporal reference points, in which human beings can no longer (and no longer want to) put a brake on this permanent transfer[ transfert ], and lose all hope of rediscovering gestures

Gobelet Jrme Bosch, LEscamoteur, ca. 1475-1480 / Hieronymus Bosch, The Conjurer, ca. 1475-1480

Guerriers de larc-en-ciel (Les) Photo Della Negra & Kinoshita

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capable of founding their condition as beings-inthe-world. How can we live in a universe that has no boundaries, when the very search for those boundaries determines an act that constitutes our equilibrium? Generally regarded as an obstacle to be overcome, this slippage of the world represents a fantastic challenge for art. Far from moving away from it, current art associates itself with it and adopts the same dynamics. Todays artists, consigning all wishful thinking about building new platforms to the past, no longer believe in the virtues of the in-between spaces that were a feature of the art of the 1990s. They are involved in an activity that may seem laborious, or even dangerous. A battle lost before it begins! their parents will lament, shaking their heads. They will retort by quoting the famous words of Ben, Arts dirty work, but someone has to do it. Artists push to the extreme this propensity to go with the flow, to stop resisting the advance of the desert, the disappearing boundaries of reality, to let themselves be caught by this unfurling wave that blurs every trail. Rather than enduring this de facto state and rebelling every New Years Day, saying This year, Ill be different!, they plunge to the heart of this slippage movement, like parasites adopting the operating mode of their hosts. [ Elasticit ]
Gobelet

Cup [ f ] Le gobelet est un accessoire emblmatique de lart des prestidigitateurs. Les tours de gobelets sont pratiqus depuis lAntiquit et constituent la base des attractions proposes par les escamoteurs au Moyen ge et la Renaissance. Un gobelet figure notamment sur la table du bateleur reprsent sur la premire carte du tarot de Marseille. Le principe de ces tours est dutiliser deux ou trois petits gobelets en mtal pour faire apparatre et disparatre de faon mystrieuse des muscades ou dautres objets. Dans son livre Confidences et rvlations (1868), Jean-Eugne robert-houdin raconte avoir t marqu de faon dterminante dans sa jeunesse par un escamoteur manipulant des gobelets avec dextrit : Lartiste, aprs avoir rgularis le cercle de ses auditeurs, dresse devant lui une table X , sur laquelle il dposa trois gobelets de fer-blanc, si bien polis quon les et pris pour de largent ; puis il se ceignit dune gibecire en velours dUtrecht rouge, dans laquelle il plongea ses mains pendant quelques instants, sans doute pour prparer les prestiges quil allait prsenter ; et la sance commena. Dans une longue srie de tours, les muscades, dabord invisibles, parurent au

bout des doigts de lescamoteur, passrent successivement dun gobelet sous un autre, travers la table, mme jusque dans la poche dun spectateur, pour sortir ensuite, la grande joie du public, du nez dun jeune badaud. Celui-ci prit le fait au srieux, et il se tua se moucher pour sassurer quil ne lui restait plus de ces petites boules dans le cerveau. [ e ] The cup is an accessory emblematic of the magicians [ prestidigitateur ] art. Tricks with cups have been practised since Antiquity and were one of the main attractions offered by conjurers in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period. In particular, a cup is featured on the table of the tumbler depicted on the first card of the Tarot of Marseilles deck. The principle underlying these tricks is to use two or three small metal cups to make little marbles [ muscade ] or other objects appear and disappear mysteriously. In his book Confidences et rvlations (1868), Jean-Eugne robert-houdin recounts how he was crucially influenced in his youth by a conjurer handling cups with great skill: The artist, after straightening out the circle of his audience, erected a folding table in front of him, on which he placed three tin-plate cups, so highly polished that they could have been taken for silver. Then he fastened a satchel made of red Utrecht velvet round his waist, and plunged his hands into it for a few instants, no doubt to prepare the wonders he was about to present; and the session began. In a long series of tricks, the marbles, initially invisible, appeared at the end of the conjurers fingers, passed in succession from one cup to another, across the table, and even right into the pocket of a spectator, then to the great delight of the public emerged from the nose of a young onlooker. He took the matter seriously, and went to great lengths blowing his nose to make sure no more of these marbles were left in his brain.
Gorens

et devant se tenir genoux ; si des femmes libres sont tolres, le port du voile leur est impos. Ds lors, les Gorens de Second Life sapparentent de sulfureuses confrries BDSM (pour bondage et discipline, domination et soumission, sadisme et masochisme) alors mme que, pour nombre de ses membres, le respect de telles rgles relve du seul jeu de rle. Cette communaut fonctionne ainsi sur le principe de la confiance et la solidarit entre ses membres, et volue dans des espaces qui recrent leur univers de rfrence. On peut noter que les Gorens prouvent une animosit certaine envers les autres communauts prsentes sur Second Life, particulirement les 1 Furries. [ e ] Community in 1 Second Life. Goreans are one of the best organized and most controversial Second Life communities. Its members rules of life are based on the universe dreamt up by the American John Norman in a heroic fantasy saga he embarked on in 1966, the Gor cycle: in Gor, a hidden planet in the solar system and a twin planet to Earth, a macho and very hierarchical society based on a caste system evolves, combining barbarism and technology. It is headed by Masters, primarily men. At the bottom are women destined to be slaves, the Kajirae who wear leather collars and have to kneel rather than stand; while free women are tolerated, they have to wear a veil. This means that the Second Life Goreans are linked to BDSM (bondage, discipline, domination and submission, sadism and masochism) fraternities, even though for some of members respecting such rules amounts to no more than playing a role. Thus this community operates on the principle of trust and solidarity between its members, and evolves in spaces that recreate their benchmark universe. Moreover, it can be observed that Goreans feel some animosity towards the other communities present on Second Life, in particular the 1 Furries. [ 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita) ]
GriZZly Man [ f ] 4 Documentaire de Werner Herzog (2005)

Cvennes. Leurs habitations sont monochromes jusquau moindre dtail, et chaque couleur du spectre est reprsente. Ils shabillent de la tte aux pieds dune de ces couleurs pour la vivre compltement, pendant un temps, puis en changent. En attendant de cultiver leur propre potager, ils proposent leur aide aux agriculteurs et commerants des alentours et se nourrissent des fruits et lgumes qui leur sont donns en remerciement. La communaut vit en autonomie, en fixant ses rgles au jour le jour. De fvrier mai 2007, ils ont initi une marche des Pyrnes Paris, qui a rassembl au total plus dun millier de personnes. Circulant volontairement sur les grands axes routiers pour provoquer les rencontres, la marche du vivant se situait entre lassaut et le plerinage (daprs The Coming Race, 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita). [ e ] Although from different walks of life, the Rainbow Warriors came together and built a village in the heart of the Cvennes. Their homes are monochrome even in the smallest detail, and each colour of the spectrum is represented. They clothe themselves from head to toe in one of these colours to experience it wholly for a time, and then they change. Before having their own vegetable garden, they offer their time to the surrounding farms and stores and live off the fruits and vegetables given to them in exchange for their services. The community is autonomous, establishing its rules day to day. From February to May 2007, they marched from the Pyrnes to Paris, gathering a group of more than a thousand people. Taking major crossroads in hopes of eliciting interactions, the walk of the living was a cross between an assault and a pilgrimage (after The Coming Race, 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita).

Goreans [ f ] Communaut dans 1 Second Life. Les Gorens constituent une des communauts les plus organises et les plus controverses de Second Life. Les rgles de vie de ses membres sont bases sur lunivers imagin par lAmricain John Norman dans une saga heroic fantasy entame en 1966, le cycle de Gor : y est dcrite une plante cache du systme solaire, Gor, jumelle de la Terre, o volue, entre barbarie et technologie, une socit de castes, machiste et trs hirarchise. son sommet, on trouve des Matres, essentiellement des hommes, et sa base, des femmes voues tre esclaves, les Kajirae , portant un collier de cuir

retraant la vie et la mort de Tim Treadwell, cologiste controvers tu par des grizzlis. [ e ] A documentary [ 4 documentaire ] by Werner Herzog (2005) retracing the life and death of Tim Treadwell, a controversial ecologist killed by grizzly bears. [ 1 Jeudis de CinQ MiLLiarDS DannES (Les) ]
Guerriers de larc-en-ciel (les)

The Rainbow Warriors [ f ] Venus de diffrents horizons, les Guerriers de lArc-en-ciel ont construit un village au cur des

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h.a.a.r.p. [ f ] Install en Alaska, H.A.A.R.P. (recherches dans

le domaine des hautes frquences appliques aux aurores borales) est un programme amricain scientifique et militaire de recherche sur lionosphre, haute couche de latmosphre qui a la particularit de se modifier en fonction du cycle solaire et la capacit dabsorber ou de rflchir les ondes lectromagntiques. H.A.A.R.P. se fonde sur les recherches de Bernard Eastlund, qui sest lui-mme inspir des travaux de nikola Tesla en matire dlectromagntisme. On peut rsumer la technologie utilise dans le projet H.A.A.R.P. un faisceau dondes (comme le ferait un metteur radio) hautes frquences point vers lionosphre. Le bombardement dune zone donne de lionosphre avec ces hautes frquences a pour effet de crer un norme miroir virtuel qui agit comme une antenne capable par la suite dmettre des frquences extrmement basses vers la Terre. Ce programme controvers au fonctionnement opaque provoque de nombreuses interprtations : contrle du climat et des tlcommunications mondiales, influence des comportements humains, voire dautres pratiques peu avouables. Selon 3 nick Begich mdecin et cologiste de renomme internationale et Jeane Manning , journaliste indpendante spcialise dans les recherches sur les nergies non conventionnelles le projet amricain H.A.A.R.P. aurait la capacit de couper les rseaux de communication des grandes villes du monde, de manipuler et de modifier le climat lchelle plantaire et de pousser les cerveaux humains disjoncter tout en portant atteinte la sant et aux cosystmes. [ e ] H.A.A.R.P. (High-frequency Active Auroral [ aurores borales ] Research Program) is an Alaska-based scientific and military research program into the ionosphere [ ionosphre ], a high layer of the atmosphere that has the special feature of changing as the solar cycle develops and the capacity to absorb or reflect electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ]. H.A.A.R.P. is based on the research work of Bernard Eastlund who was in turn inspired by the work of nikola Tesla relating to electromagnetism. The technology used in the H.A.A.R.P. project can be summed up as a beam of high-frequency waves (such as a radio transmitter might use) pointed towards the ionosphere. The bombardment of a given zone of the ionosphere with these high frequencies has the effect of creating an enormous virtual mirror that acts as an antenna which then becomes capable of transmitting extremely low frequencies towards the Earth. This controversial American program

with its opaque modus operandi can be interpreted in many ways, involving control of the climate and global telecommunications, influence over human behaviour, or indeed other far from acceptable practices. According 3 nick Begichan internationally renowned doctor and ecologistand Jeane Manninga freelance journalist specializing in research into non-conventional energy sources the American H.A.A.R.P. project would have the capacity to cut the communication networks of the worlds major cities, manipulate and modify the climate at planetary level and push the circuits of human brains to breaking point at the same time as attacking health and ecosystems. [ 3 GaKona ] [ Basse frquence ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ] [ Gakona ]
hallucinations tlpathiques

Telepathic hallucinations [ f ] En 1886, Myers, Gurney et Podmore publient ltude monumentale Fantasms of the Living, prsentant plus de sept cents cas dapparitions recueillis, enquts et vrifis avec minutie. Pour eux, ces apparitions de fantmes sexpliquent par des hallucinations tlpathiques . Ils inventent, ce faisant, le terme de 2 tlpathie (transmission de pense entre deux individus). [ e ] In 1886 Myers, Gurney and Podmore published the monumental study Fantasms of the Living, presenting over 700 cases of apparitions painstakingly collected, investigated and verified. They believed these apparitions of ghosts could be explained as telepathic hallucinations. In doing so they invented the term telepathy [ 2 tlpathie ] (the transfer of thought between two individuals). [ 2 CELLar Door ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]
hashiMa [ f ] Situe sur la cte occidentale du Japon, Hashima

h.a.a.r.P. Vues de la base H.A.A.R.P., Alaska / Views of the H.A.A.R.P.. site, Alaska. Photo DR

est lune des cinq cent cinq les inhabites de la prfecture de Nagasaki. Suite lachat de lle par Mitsubishi en 1890 pour exploiter le charbon qui y fut dcouvert, la densit de la population insulaire attegnit des records. Suite au dclin de lindustrie charbonnire, lle est totalement dserte depuis 1973. Le surnom Gunkanjima qui lui est donn littralement le navire de guerre fait rfrence un pisode de la seconde guerre mondiale. Larme amricaine avait en effet lanc une torpille sur lle, pensant quil sagissait dun navire de guerre.

hashima, Japon / Japan. Photo DR

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[ e ] Lying off the west coast of Japan, Hashima is

one of 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki prefecture. Following the purchase of Hashima by Mitsubishi in 1890 to exploit the coal discovered on the island, the islands population density reached record levels. With the decline of the coal industry, the island has been totally deserted since 1973. Its nickname Gunkanjimaliterally, warship islandrefers to an episode in World War II. The American army actually launched a torpedo on the island, thinking it was a warship. [ 3 Jeudis de ChaSinG naPoLEon (Les) ]
hells anGels [ f ] Motoclub. En 1957, Ralph Sonny Barger fonde

In the Second World War there were some groups called Hells Angels, like the 358th squadron of American Air Force bombers stationed in England. During the psychedelic 1960s, the term Hells Angels became a name that was widely used. [ Chopper ] [ 1 Parrino, Steven ] [ 1 indian Larry ] [ 1 1969 ]
htrotopie

up ad infinitum as in libraries and museums). The heterotopia opens or closes according to certain criteria, and this simultaneously isolates it (as with asylums, prisons or retirement homes) or makes it accessible and penetrable.
hitchcock, alfred [ f ] 18991980. Ralisateur et scnariste de cinma

son premier club de bikers Oakland, prs de San Francisco, club qui deviendra dix ans plus tard le quartier gnral international des Hells Angels. Dans son autobiographie, Hells Angel. La vie et lhistoire de Sonny Barger et du Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (Flammarion, 2004), Ralph Barger revient sur les origines du club : Je ressentais le besoin dun club dhommes plus souds, capables de sauter sur leurs bcanes, de traverser le pays sils le souhaitaient, sans se plier des rgles ou des horaires [...]. Nous avons form le club dans les annes 1950 pour faire la bringue et se balader. Le terme de Hells Angels revenait dans les cercles militaires depuis la premire guerre mondiale. Dans les annes 1920 Detroit, un club affili lAmerican Motorcyclist Association stait donn pour nom Hells Angels. La seconde guerre mondiale a connu quelques groupes appels Hells Angels, comme la 358e escadrille de bombardiers de lAmerican Air Force stationne en Angleterre. Au cours des annes 1960 psychdliques, le terme Hells Angels est devenu un nom dusage courant. [ e ] Motorcycle club. In 1957, Ralph Sonny Barger founded his first bikers club in Oakland, near San Francisco. Ten years later, it was the wildest in California and the international headquarters of Hells Angels. In his autobiography Hells Angel. The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (Harper Collins Publishers, 2001), Ralph Barger describes the clubs origins: I felt the need for a more close-knit club for men who could jump on their bikes, ride across the country if they wanted to, without bothering about rules or timetables [...]. We formed the club in the 1950s to go on the spree and ride around places. The term Hells Angels had been around in military circles since the First World War. In the 1920s in Detroit, a club affiliated to the American Motorcyclist Association had been called Hells Angels.

Heterotopia [ f ] lment central dans la pense foucaldienne, il dsigne un espace autre , un contre-emplacement qui conteste tous les autres lieux du monde o nous vivons, les efface, les compense, les neutralise ou les purifie. En contrepoint de lutopie qui se dploie par dfinition dans un non-lieu de lespace ou lieu de limaginaire , lhtrotopie sassocie quant elle une catgorie part despaces-temps, de lieux concrets qui abritent des sortes dutopies ralises. Envisageant la cration dune htrotopologie , discipline danalyse et dtude des htrotopies, Michel Foucault en nonce les principes fondateurs. Prsente dans toute culture, une mme htrotopie peut en effet voir sa fonction se modifier dans le temps (comme le cimetire). Elle peut juxtaposer en un seul lieu plusieurs espaces eux-mmes incompatibles dans lespace rel (par exemple la scne de thtre ou de cinma) et faire exister en son sein une htrochronie (o le temps saccumule linfini comme dans les bibliothques et muses). Lhtrotopie souvre ou se ferme selon certains critres, ce qui la fois lisole (comme les asiles, les prisons ou les maisons de retraite) ou la rend accessible et pntrable. [ e ] A central element in Foucaults thinking, it designates a space of otherness, a counter-location that contests all other places in the world we live in, erases them, offsets them, neutralizes them or purifies them. In counterpoint to a utopia, which by definition develops in a non-place of spaceor a place in the imagination, the heterotopia is associated to a category aside from space-time, from concrete places that harbour types of achieved utopias. Envisaging the creation of heterotopology, a discipline analyzing and studying heterotopias, Michel Foucault spells out its founding principles. Present in all cultures, a heterotopias function can change over time (like a cemetery). In one and the same place it can juxtapose several spaces that are themselves incompatible in real space (for example the theatrical or cinematic scene) and cause a heterochronia to exist within it (where time piles

anglais naturalis amricain, considr comme le matre du suspense. On a oubli pourquoi Joan Fontaine se penche au bord de la falaise et ce que Joel McCrea sen allait faire en Hollande. On a oubli propos de quoi Montgomery Clift garde un silence ternel et pourquoi Janet Leigh sarrte au Bates Motel, et pourquoi Teresa Wright est encore amoureuse doncle Charlie. On a oubli de quoi Henry Fonda nest pas entirement coupable et pourquoi exactement le gouvernement amricain engage Ingrid Bergman. Mais on se souvient dun sac main. Mais on se souvient dun autocar dans le dsert. Mais on se souvient dun verre de lait, des ailes dun moulin, dune brosse cheveux. Mais on se souvient dune range de bouteilles, dune paire de lunettes, dune partition de musique, dun trousseau de clefs, parce que, avec eux et travers eux, Alfred Hitchcock russit l o chourent Alexandre, Jules Csar, Napolon : prendre le contrle de lunivers. (Jean-Luc Godard) [ e ] 18991980. British film director and script writer who became a naturalized American, regarded as the master of suspense. Weve forgotten why Joan Fontaine leans over the edge of the cliff and what Joel McCrea was going to do in Holland. We dont remember why Montgomery Clift was maintaining eternal silence or why Janet Leigh stopped at the Bates Motel or why Teresa Wright still loves Uncle Charlie. Weve forgotten what Henry Fonda wasnt entirely guilty of and why exactly the American government had hired Ingrid Bergman. But we remember a handbag. But we remember a bus in the desert. But we remember a glass of milk, the sails of a windmill, a hairbrush. But we remember a row of bottles, a pair of spectacles, a sheet of music, a bunch of keys. Because through them Alfred Hitchcock succeeded where Alexander, Julius Cesar and Napoleon had all failed: by taking control of the universe. (Jean-Luc Godard)
hoMes of toMorrow [ f ] Cette partie de lExposition internationale de

impersonnelles qui les refltent le mieux. La prsentation de maisons pilotes, sous le nom de Design au quotidien, comprenait des maisons en agglomr, en Rostone, en inox, en acier galvanis. Le caractre foncirement traditionnel de lunique maison de bois tait vaguement masqu par son appellation de cration de lindustrie du bois. Mme si elle fut loin dtre une russite artistique, la Century of Progress Fair rpandit trois innovations importantes dans larchitecture domestique : le garage devenait partie intgrante de la faade de la maison ; la chemine, totalement dissocie des fonctions de cuisine et de chauffage, devenait le symbole de la dtente domestique, dans la pice de sjour ; et la cave disparaissait au profit de la plaque de ciment, renforant par l lhorizontalit de la disposition gnrale. 4 John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Style artisanal et Style industriel , in la dcouverte du paysage vernaculaire, Actes Sud, Arles, 2003 [ e ] This part of the 1933 Chicago Worlds Fair presented the latest innovations in architecture, design and building materials. Colour, in fact, was to be the keynote of the Chicago Century of Progress FairColour and the flat, impersonal textures which best reflect them. The display of model homes, called Design for Living, included houses built of Masonite, Rostone, Ferro-enamel, and Stran-Steel. The essentially traditional nature of the one house built of wood was somewhat disguised by its designation as a creation of the lumber industry. Though far from having been an artistic event of note, the Century of Progress Fair did publicize three significant innovations in domestic architecture: the garage became an integral part of the faade of the dwelling; the chimney, totally divorced from cooking and heating, became the symbol of domestic leisure in the living room; and the cellar was eliminated in favour of the concrete slab, thereby increasing the horizontality of the dwellings layout. 4 John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Craftsman Style and Technostyle in Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, Yale University Press, 1984
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Chicago de 1933 prsentait les dernires innovations en matire darchitecture, de design et de matriaux de construction. La couleur allait tre la vedette de la Century of Progress Fair de Chicago les couleurs et les textures neutres,

The Wild Bunch [ f ] Film ralis par Sam Peckinpah en 1969. Ce western marque un tournant dans lhistoire du genre. Alors que le film de cow-boys avait pour mission traditionnelle de mettre en scne les valeurs de lAmrique, le ralisateur ralise un film dans lequel tous les personnages, y compris les enfants, apparaissent avides de gain, de vengeance et de sang. Le dernier tiers du film est marqu par

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lomniprsence de la violence et son esthtisation, notamment par les ralentis sur les claboussures de sang. Interdit sa sortie aux moins de dix-huit ans, ce film peut tre vu comme marquant la fin dun certain rve amricain et/ou lentre du cinma daction dans une surenchre de violence. [ e ] A film directed by Sam Peckinpah in 1969. This western marks a turning point in the history of the genre. Whereas the traditional mission of cowboy films had been to display American values, the director made a film in which all the characters, including the children, seem to be greedy for profit, vengeance and blood. The last third of the film is characterized by the omnipresence and estheticization of violence, in particular by the slow shots lingering on blood splatters. When it came out in France, this film was prohibited for under-18s. It can be seen as marking the end of a certain American dream and/or the start of action films an attempt to outdo one another in violence. [ 4 Samson, Bettina ]
hot rod [ f ] Le phnomne des hot rods [bagnoles trafiques] est apparu aux tats-Unis vers la fin de la

weight ratio. Often, the vehicle was painted black after all emblems were removed to make ID difficult for Police (this is an outlawed activity). Later paint jobs mocked the danger involved with drag racing (i.e. flames, death symbols, etc.) Minimalism was born. Like other forms of art at the time, this kind of no frills basicness continues through the 1950s, 1960s (the rise of Minimalism [ 1 art minimal ], Pop Art in painting, sculpture, film, literature, music), 1970s (Concept Art, theory, Punk Rock), 1980s, 1990s and will continue to inform American art in the future, because this basicness is American culture. ( 1 Steven Parrino) [ Chopper ]
houdini, harry [ f ] 18741926. Originaire de Budapest, le jeune

seconde guerre mondiale. Sans doute une trouvaille des soldats amricains qui avaient besoin dmotions fortes pour lutter contre lennui aprs la guerre. La course la mort tait ne. Un hot rod, cest une voiture ou une moto allge de tous ses accessoires superflus. Pour un meilleur rapport puissance/poids, on augmentait la cylindre du moteur, qui chauffait davantage. Souvent, on peignait la carrosserie en noir aprs avoir enlev tous les insignes et emblmes pour chapper la police (ctait une activit illgale). Puis on a commenc peindre des motifs parodiant les dangers de la course de dragsters : flammes, symboles de mort, etc. Le minimalisme tait n. Comme dautres formes dart lpoque, cette espce de rductivisme sans fioritures sest perptue dans les annes 1950, 1960 (rgne de l 1 art minimal et du Pop Art dans la peinture, la sculpture, le cinma, la littrature, la musique), 1970 (art conceptuel, thorie rock, punk), 1980, 1990 Elle continuera imprgner lart amricain lavenir, parce que ce rductivisme, cest la culture amricaine. ( 1 Steven Parrino) [ e ] The idea of the Hot Rod started around the end of World War II. Probably the pursuit of U.S. service men who were bored with life after the war and needed excitement. The Death Race was born. A Hot Rod is a car or motorcycle that has been stripped of all excess weight and parts. The engine made hotter (more powerful) for maximum power/

Ehrich Weiss migre aux tats-Unis avec sa famille en 1878. Adolescent, il commence sa carrire comme manipulateur de cartes. Tout en exerant plusieurs mtiers dont celui de serrurier, il se produit dans des side-shows et des cirques sous le nom dErich the Great. Devenu clbre en reprenant le fameux tour de La Malle des Indes, invent quelques annes auparavant Paris, il change de pseudonyme et adopte celui dHarry Houdini en hommage au matre franais robert-houdin. En 1893, il rencontre Wilhelmina Beatrice Rahner, dite Bess, qui devient la fois sa femme et son assistante. Il se spcialise dans les tours dvasion. Au cours de mises en scne spectaculaires, souvent suspendu au bout dune corde, il svade de menottes, de cordes et de camisoles de force. Il schappe galement de cellules de prison, de coffres-forts, de bidons de lait ou de malles jetes dans des rivires. En 1900, il effectue une tourne en Europe. De retour aux tats-Unis, il connat un immense succs. En 1918, il ralise New York la premire disparition dun lphant vivant. Lune de ses dernires et plus clbres vasions est celle de La Pagode de torture, cuve de verre remplie deau o il est immerg le corps lenvers. Le couvercle cadenass est une cangue (instrument de supplice chinois) qui lui emprisonne les pieds. Il meurt dune pritonite dans des circonstances assez obscures, aprs avoir reu des coups de poing labdomen par un tudiant qui voulait le dfier. Le ralisateur George Marshall lui consacre un film, Houdini, le grand magicien (1953) avec Tony Curtis dans le rle-titre. Il est lauteur de plusieurs livres dont Handcuff Secrets (1907) et The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin (1908). [ e ] 18741926. Ehrich Weiss originated from Budapest, but immigrated to the United States with his family as a child in 1878. He started his career

harry houdini ca. 1899 ; Library of Congress ; McManus-

Young Collection

hystrie Chronophotographies prises par Albert Londe / Chronophotographies taken by Albert Londe, ca. 1885

harry houdini prsentant son tour La Cellule deau des tortures chinoises / performing the Chinese Water Tower Cell

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in his teens as a card manipulator. While doing several jobs, including working as a locksmith, he appeared in side-shows and circuses under the name Erich the Great. After becoming famous for repeating the well-known Indian Trunk trick, invented a few years earlier in Paris, he changed his pseudonym, adopting the name Harry Houdini in homage to the French master, robert-houdin. In 1893 he met Wilhelmina Beatrice Rahner, known as Bess, who became both his wife and his assistant. He specialized in escape tricks. In the course of spectacularly staged acts, often suspended at the end of a rope, he escaped from handcuffs, ropes and straitjackets. He likewise escaped from prison cells, safes, milk churns, or trunks thrown into rivers. In 1900, he embarked on a tour of Europe. Back in the United States, he enjoyed huge success. In 1918 he enacted the first disappearance of a life elephant in New York. One of his last and most famous escapes was from the Chinese Water Torture Cell, a glass vessel filled with water where he was immersed upside down. The padlocked cover was a cangue (a Chinese instrument of torture) that held his feet captive. He died of peritonitis in rather obscure circumstances after being punched in the abdomen by a student who wanted to challenge him. The director George Marshall devoted the film Houdini (1953) to him, with Tony Curtis in the title role. He wrote several books including Handcuff Secrets (1907) and The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin (1908). [ Prestidigitateur ] [ Escapologie ]
huMan statue of liberty [ f ] Clbre photographie de 3 Mole & Thomas qui

Cette photographie est dsormais prsente au muse de la statue de la Libert Ellis Island. [ e ] A famous photograph by 3 Mole & Thomas who assembled 18,000 officers and men at Camp Dodge in Des Moines, Iowa. In representing the public 4 monument whose history bridges the noble political aspirations of France and the United States, they faced their biggest technical challenges. From the top of the torch to the base, Mole and Thomass Statue of Liberty measures 1,235 feet and, in consequence, the image is extremely top heavy in personnel. 3 Louis Kaplan observes that the Statue of Liberty would be especially highly charged as a patriotic symbol for an immigrant like Mole at this juncture in American history. Moles image was taken only five years before the passage of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. At this time, the terms of naturalization and citizenship were hotly contested issues in the American public sphere. Incidentally, the image is now on permanent display at the Statue of Liberty Museum on Ellis Island. [ 3 Photographies vivantes ]
hypertexte

Genette to characterize a series of literary works related to one another and stemming from a common model. While in computer science, the links between different documents are external, the hypertextual network in literature is achieved through internal links such as distortion, transformation, rewriting. [ Geek ]
hystrie

rassemblrent pour sa ralisation dix-huit mille hommes et officiers Camp Dodge, Des Moines dans lIowa. En reprsentant ce 4 monument public, fruit des nobles aspirations politiques qui unirent la France et les tats-Unis, Mole & Thomas furent confronts leurs plus grands dfis techniques. Leur statue de la Libert mesurant 380 mtres, depuis le haut de la torche jusqu la base, sa ralisation ncessita un nombre considrable de figurants. 3 Louis Kaplan souligne que, pour un immigrant comme Mole, et ce moment prcis de lhistoire amricaine, la statue de la Libert, en tant que symbole patriotique, prenait une signification toute particulire. La photographie fut ralise par Mole en 1919, cinq ans seulement avant lImmigration Restriction Act [loi sur le contrle de limmigration] et une poque o les conditions de naturalisation et de citoyennet faisaient lobjet de vifs dbats dans la sphre publique amricaine.

Hypertext [ f ] Dans le domaine informatique, il dsigne un systme de mise en rseau multiple, souple et mallable dun certain nombre de documents (texte, image, son). Cette mise en rseau sarticule par un ensemble de nuds lis entre eux par des hyperliens qui permettent de passer automatiquement dun nud un autre. Le systme hypertexte le plus vaste et le plus utilis est le World Wide Web conu par Tim Berners en 1989 et consultable par lintermdiaire du rseau Internet. En littrature, le terme est employ par Grard Genette pour qualifier une srie duvres littraires relies entre elles par des liens de parent ou de filiation et rattaches un modle commun, dont elles drivent toutes. Alors quen informatique les liens qui relient les diffrents documents sont externes, en littrature le rseau hypertextuel se fait par des connexions internes telles que le travestissement, la transformation, la rcriture. [ e ] In the field of computer science, the term designates a multiple, flexible, and malleable networking system between a number of documents (text, image, sound). This network is articulated around nodes linked together by hypertext links that enable the user to go from one node to the next. The largest and most used hypertext system is the World Wide Web conceived by Tim Berners in 1989 and accessible through the Internet. In literature, the term has been employed by Grard

Hysteria [ f ] En 1928, Andr Breton et Louis Aragon clbrent dans La Rvolution surraliste le cinquantenaire de lhystrie : Nous, surralistes, tenons clbrer ici le cinquantenaire de lhystrie, la plus grande dcouverte potique de la fin du xixe sicle, et cela au moment mme o le dmembrement du concept de lhystrie parat chose consomme. Nous qui naimons rien tant que ces jeunes hystriques, dont le type parfait nous est fourni par lobservation relative la dlicieuse X. L. (Augustine) entre la Salptrire dans le service du Dr Charcot le 21 octobre 1875, lge de 15 ans et demi, comment serions-nous attachs par la laborieuse rfutation des troubles organiques, dont le procs ne sera jamais quaux yeux des seuls mdecins celui de lhystrie ? Quelle piti ! M. Babinski, lhomme le plus intelligent qui se soit attaqu cette question, osait publier en 1913 : Quand une motion est sincre, profonde, secoue lme humaine, il ny a plus de place pour lhystrie. Et voil encore ce quon nous a donn apprendre de mieux. Freud, qui doit tant Charcot, se souvient-il du temps o, au tmoignage des survivants, les internes de la Salptrire confondaient leur devoir professionnel et leur got de lamour, o, la nuit tombante, les malades les rejoignaient au dehors ou les recevaient dans leur lit ? Ils numraient ensuite patiemment, pour les besoins de la cause mdicale qui ne se dfend pas, les attitudes passionnelles soi-disant pathologiques qui leur taient, et nous sont encore humainement, si prcieuses. [ e ] In 1928, Andr Breton and Louis Aragon celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of hysteria in La Rvolution surraliste: We as Surrealists are keen here to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of hysteria, the greatest poetic discovery of the late 19th century, and at the very moment when the dismembering of the concept of hysteria seems to be a completed affair. How would we who love nothing as much as those young hysterics, perfectly exemplified by the observations relating to the delightful X.L. (Augustine) who went to the Salptrire in the service of Dr Charcot on 21 October 1875 at the

age of 15, be gripped by the painstaking refutation of organic disturbances, the process of which will never be that of hysteria solely in the eyes of doctors alone? What a sad state of affairs! M. Babinski, the most intelligent man to have tackled this question, dared to publish the following statement in 1913: When an emotion is sincere, profound and shakes the human soul there is no longer any room for hysteria. And here again is the best thing we have been to given to understand. Does Freud, who owes so much to Charcot, remember the time when, according to the testimony of survivors, the doctors at the Salptrire confused their professional duty and their amorous tendencies, when at nightfall the patients joined them outside or received them in their beds? They then patiently listed, for the requirements of the medical cause which is unchallenged, the supposedly pathological attitudes relating to the passions which were so precious to them, and in human terms still are to us. [ 4 Beaut convulsive ] [ 4 Digne, rebecca ]

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[ f ] On parle diconoclasme quand une image ou

une reprsentation est dtruite, mise en pices. Un tel acte peut avoir diffrentes raisons. Il peut sagir de se dbarrasser de ce qui est une offense ses valeurs, douvrir la voie une image suprieure ou meilleure, ou encore de se passer totalement de toute forme de reprsentation. Pour beaucoup, liconoclasme est un flau, ce que la plupart considre comme le fait de vandales, dhrtiques, de fous ou de barbares. Mais pour dautres, tre iconoclaste est une vertu, la preuve de sa capacit rsister lautorit, faire preuve de sagacit critique, rompre radicalement avec le pass. cette premire dfinition, Bruno Latour, philosophe, historien et anthropologue des sciences et techniques, adjoint celle dune autre notion, l icono-clash . Par cette dernire, il entend dsigner le moment o surgit une incertitude profonde et perturbante quant au rle, au pouvoir, au statut, au danger et la violence dune image ou une reprsentation donne ; quand on ne sait pas si une image doit tre dtruite ou restaure ; quand on ne sait plus si le briseur dicne est un novateur courageux ou un vandale, si ladorateur des icnes est un pieux bigot ou un dvot respectable ; ou si le faiseur dimages est un charlatan sournois ou bien un homme intelligent qui tablit des faits et recherche la vrit. [ e ] Iconoclasm is when an image or a representation is smashed to pieces. There might be many reasons for such an act. It might be to get rid of something that is an offence to ones values, to give way to some other greater and better image, or perhaps to dispense entirely with any form of representation. For many people iconoclasm is a curse, what people usually assume that vandals, heretics, madmen or barbarians do. But for others to be an iconoclast is a virtue, the proof of his or her ability to resist authority, to show critical acumen, to break radically with the past. Bruno Latour, a philosopher, historian and scientific and technological anthropologist, adds another concept to this first definition, that of the icono-clash. By this he means to refer to the point when there is a deep and disturbing uncertainty about the role, power, status, danger, violence of an image or a given representation; when one does not know whether an image should be broken or restored; when one no longer knows if the image-breaker is a courageous innovator or a vandal, if the image-worshipper is a pious bigot or a respectable devout, or if the image-maker is a devious faker or a clever fact-maker and truth-seeker.

iconoclasme Marcus Gheeraerts lancien / Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder, Allgorie des iconoclastes / Allegory of Iconoclasm (dtails / details), ca.15601570

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[ 4 Guillier, alexis ] [ Juda (rois de) ] [ Table rase ] [ Terreur ]


iMMatriaux (les) [ f ] Exposition de 2 Jean-Franois Lyotard prsen-

[ e ] In the dictionary of the journal Documents,

te en 1985 au Centre Pompidou. Elle a marqu lhistoire des expositions pour plusieurs raisons. Non seulement en raison de sa scnographie innovante et de son caractre pluridisciplinaire, mlant art et science, multimdia, nouvelles technologies et audioguides pour la premire fois, mais aussi cause de son sujet : limmatriel et sa reprsentation, possible ou impossible. On retrouve un certain nombre de traces de ce travail chez des artistes contemporains, comme 2 Loris Graud. [ e ] Exhibition presented by 2 Jean-Franois Lyotard at the Pompidou Centre in 1985. It left its mark on the history of exhibitions for several reasons, not only because of its innovative staging and its multidisciplinary approach, mixing art and science, multimedia, new technologies and audioguides for the first time, but also because of its subject: the immaterial and its representation, possible or impossible? Some traces of that work can be found in contemporary artists, like 2 Loris Graud. [ 2 CELLar Door ] [ 2 Jeudis de CELLar Door (Les) ] [ 2 Klonaris, Maria & Thomadaki, Katerina ]
inforMe [ f ] Dans le dictionnaire de la revue Documents,

Georges Bataille along with some authors like Michel Leiris or Marcel Griaule suggested critical redefinitions of certain terms. In the December 1929 issue, he published an entry on the notion of informe (shapeless, unformed) that has become famous: A dictionary would start from the moment when it would no longer give the meaning of words, but their task. Thus informe is not only an adjective with a certain meaning but a term serving to downgrade, demanding in general that each thing should have its own form. What it describes in no way has any rights and is crushed on all sides like a spider or an earthworm. For academics to be happy, it would in fact be necessary for the universe to take shape. The whole of philosophy has no other objective: it is a question of a frock suit to what is, a mathematical frock coat. On the other hand, declaring that the universe does not resemble anything and is just informe amounts to saying that the universe is something like a spider or a gobbet of spittle. [ 4 Dubuisson, Julien ]
infraMince

ins (international necronautical society, ou socit ncronautique internationale) [ f ] Fonde en 1999 par lartiste et crivain 1 Tom McCarthy, la Socit ncronautique internationale

Georges Bataille proposait, avec quelques auteurs comme Michel Leiris ou Marcel Griaule, des redfinitions critiques de certains termes. Dans ldition de dcembre 1929, il fit paratre une notice devenue clbre de la notion dinforme : Un dictionnaire commencerait partir du moment o il ne donnerait plus le sens mais la besogne des mots. Ainsi informe nest pas seulement un adjectif ayant tel sens mais un terme servant dclasser, exigeant gnralement que chaque chose ait sa forme. Ce quil dsigne na ses droits dans aucun sens et se fait craser partout comme une araigne ou un ver de terre. Il faudrait en effet, pour que les hommes acadmiques soient contents, que lunivers prenne forme. La philosophie entire na pas dautre but : il sagit de donner une redingote ce qui est, une redingote mathmatique. Par contre affirmer que lunivers ne ressemble rien et nest quinforme revient dire que lunivers est quelque chose comme une araigne ou un crachat.

Infra-thin [ f ] Concept esthtique dvelopp par Marcel Duchamp au milieu des annes 1930, linframince caractrise une paisseur, une sparation, une diffrence, un intervalle entre deux choses, ncessairement infime. Linframince qualifie une distance qui ne peut se percevoir, mais seulement tre imagine. Rendant compte de la fascination exerce sur Duchamp par la quatrime dimension il dit lui-mme de certaines de ses uvres quelles sont inframinces , cette notion induit un rapport au temps, la lenteur et au non-faire. Linvention de linframince ouvre la voie toute une phnomnologie de limperceptible. [ e ] An aesthetic concept developed by Marcel Duchamp in the mid-1930s, infra-thin refers to a thickness, a separation, a difference, an interval between two things that has to be infinitesimal. Infra-thin describes a distance that cannot be perceived, only imagined. This notion that takes account of the fascination the fourth dimension held for Duchamphe himself said of some of his works that they were infra-thinleads to a relationship to time, slowness and not-doing. The invention of the infra-thin opens up the way to a whole phenomenology of the imperceptible. [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ 3 GaKona ] [ 3 SPy nuMBErS ]

(International Necronautical Society, ou INS ) tient la fois du mouvement davant-garde, du vrai-faux think tank et de la socit secrte. Ainsi que son nom le suggre, cette organisation sest donn pour objet dexplorer la mort comme sil sagissait dun territoire, et den rpertorier les manifestations et les tats actuels : son premier manifeste, rendu public loccasion de lArticultural Fair organise par lartiste Gavin Turk, pose explicitement ds son premier article que la mort est un type despace que nous avons lintention de cartographier, de parcourir, de coloniser et, en fin de compte, dhabiter . Si un tel projet peut sembler excentrique, sinon loufoque, lINS le mne avec autant de minutie que dassurance, mimant lorganisation dun parti ou dun groupe de rflexion. Agents et enquteurs sont responsables de programmes de recherches dont les rsultats sont rgulirement rendus publics sous la forme de rapports numrots et de confrences, tandis quun premier comit organise rgulirement des cycles de dbats et d auditions en collaboration avec artistes, chercheurs et institutions diverses. En sappropriant et en dformant les modes de fonctionnement, danalyse et de communication en vigueur dans le monde de lart comme dans ceux de la politique et des affaires, lINS thtralise la construction du savoir et parodie ses effets dautorit. Cependant, cette mise en scne sert de support une vritable entreprise artistique et littraire : au fur et mesure des publications et des manifestations quelle a organises, lINS a mis en place un vocabulaire et des formes qui lui sont propres, sinspirant tant de Georges Bataille et de Jean Cocteau que de Chris Marker ou dAndre Tarkovski. Aprs une premire rsidence du Bureau de lantimatire au Centre culturel autrichien de Londres en 2001, Tom McCarthy est invit en 2002 la DasArts Foundation dAmsterdam, o il labore un Projet dhistoire des fusillades , tentant de reconstituer, avec laide de chorgraphes, dexperts en armes feu et en informatique, le droulement dun rglement de comptes entre maffieux locaux. Entre 2002 et 2004, lINS concentre ses activits sur les rapports entre transmission, mort et technologie, piratant le site de la BBC pour y incorporer sa propre propagande ; en 2004, elle organise lICA de Londres la manifestation Calling All Agents et cre une Unit de transmission charge de

diffuser des programmes radiophoniques crypts. Les travaux prparatoires cet vnement, dont le titre tait repris dune formule ftiche de 1 William S. Burroughs, ont donn lieu une publication, Calling All Agent General Secretarys Report to the International Necronautical Society (Vargas, Londres, 2003). LINS a par la suite men un certain nombre de missions dinspection Berlin, comportant plusieurs travaux de reconnaissance arienne de larchitecture de la capitale allemande ; ses rsultats ont t exploits par le Bureau dinterprtation temporaire mis en place Bratislava en 2006, dans le cadre de lexposition Pantheon : Heroes and Anti-Monuments. Lessentiel des archives de la Socit ncronautique internationale sont disponibles sur le site Internet de lorganisation www.necronauts.org. [ e ] Founded in 1999 by the artist and writer 1 Tom McCarthy, the International Necronautical Society (or INS ) simultaneously manifests aspects of an avant-garde movement, a true-false think tank and a secret society. As its name suggests, this organization has set itself the objective of exploring death as if it were a territory, and listing its manifestations and current states: its First Manifesto, launched at the Articultural Fair organized by the artist Gavin Turk, explicitly posits in its first article that death is a type of space, which we intend to map, enter, colonise and, eventually, inhabit. While such a project may seem eccentric, even crazy, the INS carries it out both meticulously and with assurance, echoing the organization of a political party or a think tank. Agents and Scouts are responsible for research programs, the results of which are regularly made public in the form of numbered Reports and lectures, while a First Committee regularly organizes series of debates and Hearings in collaboration with artists, researchers and various institutions. By appropriating and twisting the operational, analytical and communication methods in place in the world of art as well as the worlds of politics and business, the INS turns the building of knowledge into theatre and parodies its authoritative effects. Nevertheless, this scenario serves as a base for a genuine artistic and literary enterprise: over time, in the course of the publications and events it has organized, the INS has established a vocabulary and forms that are peculiar to it, drawing inspiration as much from Georges Bataille and Jean Cocteau as from Chris Marker or Andre Tarkovski. After a first residency at the Office of Antimatter at the Austrian Cultural Institute in London in 2001, in 2002 Tom McCarthy was invited to the DasArts Foundation in Amsterdam, where he

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prepared a Shooting History Project, working with choreographers, firearms and IT experts, to attempt to reconstruct the course of a settling of accounts between local mafias. Between 2002 and 2004, the INS concentrated its activities on the relationship between transmission, death and technology, infiltrating the BBC website to insert its own propaganda there; in 2004, it organized the Calling All Agents event at the ICA in London and created a Broadcasting Unit responsible for broadcasting encrypted radio programs. The preparatory work for this eventthe title was taken from a catch-phrase used by 1 William S. Burroughswas encapsulated in a publication, Calling All AgentsGeneral Secretarys Report to the International Necronautical Society (Vargas, London, 2003). The INS subsequently conducted several Inspection missions in Berlin, involving several aerial reconnaissance surveys of the architecture of the German capital; its results were exploited by the Temporary Office of Interpretation set up in Bratislava in 2006, in the context of the Pantheon: Heroes and Anti-Monuments exhibition. Most of the International Necronautical Societys archives are available on the organizations website, www.necronauts.org. [ occultisme ]
institut benway

ionosphre

Ionosphere [ f ] Terme de gophysique dsignant la couche suprieure de latmosphre, entre 80 et 1 000 km daltitude, o les gaz sont fortement ioniss par le rayonnement cosmique et solaire. Lionosphre est la rgion de latmosphre o les aurores borales se produisent. [ e ] A term in geophysics designating the upper layer of the atmosphere, at an altitude of between 80 and 1,000 km, where gases are strongly ionized by cosmic and solar radiation. The ionosphere is the region in the atmosphere where the aurora borealis [ aurore borale ] occurs. [ atmosphriques ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ orage magntique ] [ Tesla, nikola ] [ Wardenclyffe, (Tour de transmission) ]
isochronisMe des pendules

hundreds of oscillations back and forth performed by the balls clearly proved to me that between the period of the heavy mass and that of the lighter mass, the concurrence is such that whether after a hundred oscillations or a thousand, the first does not overtake the second, not even minimally; rather, both movements are rigorously identical. I have also observed the action of the environing substance which, by hampering their movement, slows the oscillations of the cork pendulum, much more so than the lead pendulum, without however changing their frequency; even if the arcs described by the cork bob are only five or six degreescompared to fifty or sixty for the lead bobthey are indeed accomplished in the same amount of time. Later works established the scholars mistake; namely, that the desynchronization of the pendulums was not solely due to air friction. [ 4 (a LiST oF oF WhiCh i CouLD TEDiouSLy
EXTEnD aD inFiniTuM ) ]

[ 4 Zarka, raphal ]

Benway Institute [ f ] Depuis 1950, lInstitut Benway est le leader incontest des solutions organiques de confort corporel : glande salivaire aromatise, barrette de mmoire, testicule hallucinogne Il fournit des clients institutionnels et privs, dans les secteurs civil et militaire. loccasion de son jubil de diamant, ce pionnier mondial des biotechnologies a commandit lartiste Mael Le Me pour faire revivre cette incroyable aventure technologique et commerciale travers une confrence qui parcourt soixante ans darchives indites. [ e ] Since 1950, the Benway Institute is the undisputed leader of organic solutions to bodily comfort: flavoured salivary glands, memory sticks, hallucinogenic testicles The Institute serves institutional and private clients, in the civilian and military sectors. For its Diamond Jubilee, this world pioneer in biotechnology has commissioned the artist Mael Le Me to revisit this amazing technological and commercial adventure through a conference which looks back over 60 years of unpublished archives. [ 4 F*CK My Brain ]

Isochronism of pendulums [ f ] On appelle isochrone ce qui se produit intervalles de temps gaux. Dans son Dialogue sur les deux grands systmes du monde (1632), Galile tablit que les oscillations du pendule sont isochrones, autrement dit quelles ont toujours mme dure, quelle que soit leur amplitude et quelle que soit la masse de lobjet en mouvement : [] une bonne centaine dalles et venues, accomplies par les boules elles-mmes, mont clairement montr quentre la priode du corps pesant et celle du corps lger, la concidence est telle que sur mille vibrations comme sur cent, le premier nacquiert sur le second aucune avance, ft-ce la plus minime, mais que tous deux ont un rythme de mouvement rigoureusement identique. On observe galement laction du milieu qui, en gnant le mouvement, ralentit bien davantage les vibrations du lige que celles du plomb, sans toutefois modifier leur frquence ; mme si les arcs dcrits par le lige nont plus que cinq ou six degrs, contre cinquante ou soixante pour le plomb, ils sont en effet traverss en des temps gaux. Des travaux ultrieurs ont tabli lerreur du savant, savoir que les mouvements des deux pendules ne se dsynchronisent pas uniquement en raison de la rsistance de lair. [ e ] Events which occur at regular intervals of time are termed isochronal. In Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), Galileo established that the oscillations of the pendulum are isochronal, meaning they always have the same duration without regard to their amplitude or to the mass of the swinging object: [] observing

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Video game [ f ] Le jeu vido est un logiciel ludique qui met en relation de manire interactive un ou plusieurs joueurs avec un environnement virtuel de type audiovisuel. Selon les ditions proposes par les fabricants, on peut jouer aux jeux vido avec un ordinateur personnel, une console de jeux ou une borne darcade. Les premiers balbutiements de lhistoire du jeu vido apparaissent aux tats-Unis dans les annes 1950. Il faut cependant attendre 1962 pour que ce que lon considre gnralement comme le premier vritable jeu vido de lhistoire voie le jour avec Spacewar. Programm par des tudiants du Massachusetts Institute of Technology sur lun des tout premiers micro-ordinateurs disponibles, Spacewar se prsente comme un jeu de combat spatial. En 1972, Pong, dont le concept sinspire du tennis de table, est le premier jeu vido connatre un large succs public. dit par la firme californienne Atari, il inaugure lessor dune industrie dsormais capable de sduire un public de masse. Au dbut des annes 1980, cette industrie subit un krach dvastateur aux tatsUnis. Cest au Japon quelle renat avec le succs de firmes telles que Nintendo, crateur des icnes Mario, Donkey Kong, Metroid ou The Legend of Zelda. Les annes qui suivent voient une progression spectaculaire des graphismes (3D , couleurs, fluidit, hyperralisme). La concurrence sexacerbe avec lentre en lice de gants industriels tels que Sony (PlayStation), puis Microsoft (Xbox). Le dveloppement de lInternet favorise le succs de jeux en lignes multijoueurs tels que 1 Second Life (2003) ou World of Warcraft (2004). Lindustrie du jeu vido gnre des mtiers nouveaux comme le dveloppeur, le game designer, le level designer ou le programmeur. Elle invente des genres spcifiques, du Beat them all au First person shooter en passant par le Sandbox, le Real Time Strategy, le GTA -like ou le MMORPG . Elle fdre des communauts et marque les gnrations. Elle produit des esthtiques, invente des dispositifs dimmersion et des scnarios interactifs de plus en plus complexes, cre des images et des sons dun type radicalement nouveau. Le jeu vido est lobjet de dbats et de controverses. Certains militent pour sa promotion au rang duvre dart et dfendent la ncessit de valoriser son patrimoine. Dautres sinquitent de linfluence nfaste quil pourrait exercer sur la psychologie et le comportement des joueurs, notamment parmi les plus jeunes. [ e ] The video game is a software program that interactively connects one or several players to a virtual environment of an audiovisual nature. Depending

on the variations offered by manufacturers, it is possible to play a video game on a PC, a games console, or an arcade terminal. The first faltering footsteps in the history of video games were taken in the United States in the 1950s. But it was not until 1962 that what is generally regarded as the first true video game in history saw the light of day, with Spacewar. Programmed by students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on one of the very first microcomputers to become available, Spacewar took the form of a game involving space combat. In 1972, Pong, its concept inspired by table tennis, was the first video game to experience widespread public success. Produced by the Californian firm Atari, it ushered in the expansion of an industry henceforth capable of appealing to a mass public. In the early 1980s, the industry suffered a devastating crash in the United States. It was in Japan that it experienced a revival with the success of firms such as Nintendo, the creator of the iconic games Mario, Donkey Kong, Metroid or The Legend of Zelda. The years that followed witnessed a spectacular advance in graphics (3D , colours, fluidity, hyperrealism). Competition increased with the participation of industrial giants like Sony (PlayStation), then Microsoft (Xbox). The development of the Internet favoured the success of on-line games involving many players such as 1 Second Life (2003) or World of Warcraft (2004). The video game industry generated new careers such as game developer, game designer, level designer or programmer. It invented specific genres, from Beat them all to First person shooter by way of Sandbox, Real Time Strategy, GTA -like or MMORPG . It united communities and distinguished generations. It produced aesthetic values, invented immersion devices and ever more complex interactive scenarios, and created images and sounds of a radically new type. Video games are the subject of debate and controversy. Some people campaign to have them promoted to the rank of works of art, and maintain the need to upgrade their heritage. Others are worried about the baleful influence they could have on the players psychology and behaviour, particularly amongst younger players. [ avatar ] [ Geek ] [ Systme gnratif ]
journal de thoreau (le)

Thoreaus Journal [ f ] Tenu avec une nergie et une constance admirables durant les vingt-cinq annes de la vie adulte de lauteur de Walden, le Journal de 3 henry

David Thoreau stend du 22 octobre 1837 au 3 novembre 1861 et sest donn pour unique objet, semble-t-il, dexplorer la nature des environs de 3 Concord, dans le Massachusetts. 3 Franois Specq observe que ce Journal possde une dimension hors du commun, qui excde largement ses limites gographiques et thmatiques. Linterrogation dun mme lieu patiemment reprise au fil des jours, la densit qui en rsulte, le creusement mthodique du rel manifestent clairement que lobjet du travail thoreauvien nest pas la connaissance de la nature en tant que telle, mais un affrontement au monde de porte ontologique et existentielle. Il est vident que la ligne de force du Journal de Thoreau nest pas le documentaire, que chacun de ses lments est lirrpressible soulvement de quelque chose dont il tient lieu, dune force native. Cette force, quil sagisse des descriptions botaniques ou ornithologiques , comme des paysages ou mme des rflexions politiques, est le lieu gomtrique de tout ce qui, repoussant les dterminations prconues et les liens conventionnels de lhomme avec le monde luttant, bataillant contre les invitables retours de flamme visant montrer ce quil ne faut pas dire, porte lentier destin de lhomme libre. Le Journal tmoigne dune dmarche hautement mtaphysique donc, non par ce quelle nonce qui nest en aucun cas un au-del des choses , mais par la nature mme de son engagement. Le caractre mtaphysique du Journal nest pas une intention mais un fait. Le lecteur press ne verra peut-tre dans le Journal quune interminable litanie de noms de plantes ou de descriptions . Cest confondre, entre autres simplifications, le geste et le sens du geste. Le mot ou la phrase, dans le Journal, ne dsignent pas ne constituent pas le rel en signes. Mais sils montrent, ce nest pas seulement ce que lon croit reconnatre. La parole est ici dabord un formidable corps corps avec les choses, avec le temps de leur appropriation ce temps si superbement enfoui dans la matire parfois aride du texte , avec leur mystrieuse familiarit. Ce nest pas Concord que dcrit Thoreau. Il explore la complexit des liens et des processus par lesquels, dans et travers lhomme, slabore le visible. En dautres termes le lieu ne fait que tenir lieu dun insituable affrontement au monde. [ e ] Kept with admirable energy and constancy throughout twenty-five years of the adult life of the author of Walden,from October 22, 1837 to November 3, 1861the sole object 3 henry David Thoreaus Journal set itself, apparently, was to explore nature in the vicinity of 3 Concord, Massachusetts. 3 Franois Specq observes that

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Juda (rois de) Franois Giscard dEstaing, directeur gnral de la BFCE, lorigine de la redcouverte des ttes des rois de Juda en 1977/Franois Giscard dEstaing, general manager of the BFCE bank, who initiated the find of the 21 heads of the Kings of Judah. Photo : Serge Foucault

this Journal has an extraordinary dimension going well beyond its geographical and thematic confines. The questioning of one and the same place patiently taken up again day after day, the density that results from it, the methodical excavation of reality, clearly demonstrate that the object of Thoreaus work is not knowledge of nature as such, but a confrontation with the world that is ontological and existential in scope. It is obvious that the line of force in Thoreaus Journal is not only its documentary aspect. In each of its elements, we find the irrepressible upthrust of something it stands in for: a native force. That forcewhether it is a question of botanical or ornithological descriptions, landscapes or even political reflectionsis the locus of everything that, spurning preconceived determinations and the conventional links of man to the world (fighting, battling against the inevitable backfire) and aiming to show what must not be said, carries the whole destiny of free man. Thus the Journal shows evidence of an extremely metaphysical approach, not by what it enounceswhich does not in any case go beyond thingsbut by the very nature of its involvement. The metaphysical nature of the Journal is not an

intention but a fact. The reader in a hurry will perhaps see only an interminable litany of names of plants or descriptions in the Journal. Among other simplifications, this is to confuse the gesture with the meaning of the gesture. Words or phrases in the Journal do not designatedo not constitute reality in signs. But if they do show something, it is not only what we think we recognize. The word here is firstly a tremendous tussle with things, with the time of their appropriationthat time so superbly buried in the sometimes dry matter of the text, with their mysterious familiarity. It is not Concord that Thoreau describes. He explores the complexity of the links and processes whereby, in and through man, the visible is worked out. In other words the place only takes the place of an unlocatable confrontation with the world. [ Cabane ] [ Kaczynski, Theodore ]
juda (rois de)

Kings of Judah
[ f ] En 931 av. J.-C., la mort du roi

Salomon, fils de David, un schisme spare les tribus dIsral. Les dix tribus restes fidles

Jroboam forment le royaume dIsral au nord. Les deux tribus de Juda et de Benjamin fondent quant elles le royaume de Juda au sud. La tribu de Juda, gouverne par Roboam, successeur lgitime de la dynastie du roi David, donne au royaume ses souverains. Dans la gnalogie biblique, ces rois sont considrs comme les anctres du Christ. Aux xiie et xiiie sicles, la faade ouest de la cathdrale Notre-Dame de Paris est orne de vingt-huit statues monumentales figurant les vingt-huit gnrations des rois de Juda. En 1793, en pleine Terreur, le conseil gnral de la Commune ordonne de dtruire ce qui reste des monuments qui tmoignent du fanatisme et de la royaut . Les vingt-huit statues de Notre-Dame, prises tort pour les effigies des rois de France, sont mises bas. En 1977, lors de travaux de construction rue de la Chausse-dAntin, vingt et une ttes de ces statues sont redcouvertes. Elles avaient t enfouies en 1796 dans le plus grand secret par lavocat royaliste Jean-Baptiste Lacanal qui avait russi se procurer les vestiges, prcdemment abandonns sur la chausse trois annes durant. Les statues mesuraient 3,50 m et leurs ttes, dont trois taient prsentes dans lexposition 4 FrESh hELL , ont elles-mmes des dimensions colossales, de 60 70 cm de hauteur. Malgr lusure de ces visages en pierre calcaire, quelques dtails rsistent aux effets du temps. On peroit ainsi le dessin dlicat des bouches entrouvertes, les traces de polychromie, ou encore la minutie des chevelures ondulantes et des couronnes dcores. [ e ] In 931 BC, following the death of King Solomon, son of David, a schism divided the tribes of Israel. The ten tribes who remained loyal to Jeroboam formed the kingdom of Israel in the north, while the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin founded the kingdom of Judah in the south. The tribe of Judah, ruled by Rehoboam, the legitimate successor from the dynasty of King David, provided the kingdom with its sovereigns. In biblical genealogy, the kings of Judah are considered as the ancestors of Christ. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the western faade of Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris was adorned by 28 monumental statues representing the 28 generations of the kings of Judah. In 1793, at the height of the Reign of Terror [ Terreur ], the General Council of the Commune ordered the destruction of any remaining monuments attesting to fanaticism and royalty. The 28 statues of the cathedral Notre-Dame, mistakenly believed to be images of the kings of France, were struck down. In 1977, during construction work on the rue de la Chausse dAntin, 21 heads of these statues were rediscovered. They had been carefully and very

secretly buried in 1796. The statues were 3.5 m high and their heads3 of them were presented in 4 FrESh hELL were also of colossal dimensions: 60 to 70 cm high. Despite the wear and tear undergone by these faces carved in limestone, some details have survived the effects of time. One can just make out the contours of slightly opened mouths, traces of colour or even the minutiae of strands of hair or the decorated crowns. [ iconoclasme ] [ 4 Monuments] [ Table rase ]

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kacZynski, theodore john [ f ] *1942. Mathmaticien et terroriste amricain (connu sous le nom dunabomber), Theodore

John Kaczynski dlaisse trs tt les sciences et sengage dans une campagne radicale contre la socit industrielle. Il entend prserver le genre humain de ce quil considre comme une source de dchance afin de lui garantir liberts individuelles et prennit dans lordre naturel. En 1969, il dmissionne de ses fonctions de professeur de luniversit de Berkeley, Californie. Deux ans plus tard, il choisit de vivre en autarcie, sans eau courante ni lectricit et se terre dans une cabane en bois au fond du Montana. Construite par Kaczynski lui-mme, cette cabane semble inspire par celle de 3 henry David Thoreau. Sensible au mythe anarcho-primitiviste, Kaczynski se fait chasseur-cueilleur dans le pays le plus industrialis du monde. partir de 1978, il bascule dans le terrorisme et ralise une srie dattentats avec des colis pigs. Unabomber inscrit son manifeste, publi dans le New York Times contre la promesse de renoncer au terrorisme, dans la ligne de penseurs tels quIvan Illich, George Orwell ou Jacques Ellul. Prenant la socit technologique contre-pied, le manifeste dUnabomber prne un dchanement de violence lencontre de lemprisonnement que celle-ci reprsente pour lhomme, et rfute ainsi les principes de modration et de consensus valoriss par ce systme dit dvelopp . Sous la forme dun pamphlet anarchiste, ce texte intitul La Socit industrielle et son avenir fait table rase des fondements mmes de ce mode dorganisation socital et incite la rflexion sur le parti pris ultratechnologique de nos socits. Si ses fondements trouvent une filiation dans le luddisme, mouvement anti-industriel du dbut du xixe sicle, sa thorie nen est pas moins innovante et originale quant au rle moteur dans les transformations sociales quil accorde la technologie. Kaczynski met galement lhypothse indite que le comportement hypersocialis reprsenterait lidologie nouvelle de la socit technologique. Inquitant par les moyens employs par son auteur pour mettre en uvre ses ides, le texte dUnabomber drange aussi par la vision extrmement pessimiste quil tmoigne lgard du monde contemporain. Arrt en 1996 par le FBI aprs dix-huit ans de cavale, Theodore est condamn en 1998 la rclusion criminelle perptuit pour ses actes et attentats terroristes. [ e ] *1942. An American mathematician and terrorist (known by the name unabomber). Theodore John Kaczynski very soon abandoned science and embarked on a radical campaign against industrial

society. He set out to preserve humankind from what he considered as a source of decadence in order to guarantee it individual liberties and a lasting future in the natural order. In 1969, he resigned from his post as professor at University of California, Berkeley. Two years later, he chose a life of total autonomy, off the grid, without running water or electricity, when he sequestered himself in the wilds of Montana. His cabin [ cabane ], built by Kaczynski himself, seemed to be inspired by 3 henry David Thoreaus cabin. Influenced by the anarcho-primitivist myth of man living harmoniously in nature, Kaczynski lived as a hunter-gatherer in one of the most industrialized countries in the world. From 1978, he tipped over into terrorism, perpetrating a series of parcel bomb attacks. Unabomber placed his manifestothat was published in the New York Times a year earlier in return for a promise to renounce terrorismin the line of descent of thinkers such as Ivan Illich, George Orwell or Jacques Ellul. Catching technological society on the wrong foot, Unabombers manifesto advocates an unleashing of violence against the imprisonment it represents for human beings, so refuting the principles of moderation and consensus promoted by this supposedly developed system. In the form of an anarchist pamphlet, this text entitled Industrial Society and Its Future makes a clean sweep [ table rase ] of the very foundations of this method of organizing society and encourages reflection about the ultra-technological bias of our societies. While its foundations can be traced back to Luddism, an early 19th century anti-industrial movement, its theory is nonetheless innovative and original as regards the key role in social transformations it attributes to technology. Kaczynski likewise comes up with the novel hypothesis that hypersocialized behaviour might represent the new ideology of technological society. Worrying because of the means used by its author to implement his ideas, Unabombers text is also disturbing because of the extremely pessimistic vision he evinces with regard to the contemporary world. Arrested by the FBI in 1996 after 18 years on the run, in 1998 Theodore Kaczynski received a life sentence for his terrorist acts and attacks. [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ Disparatre (instructions pour) ] [ 3 Primitivisme ] [ 3 Zerzan, John ]
kant, eMManuel

[e ] 17241804. A German philosopher who gave

his name to a car tuning club.


[ 2 raphal Siboni ]
katrina (ouraGan)

Hurricane Katrina [ f ] Un des ouragans les plus puissants avoir frapp les tats-Unis avec des vents de 280 km/h. Il sabattit sur la Louisiane et plus particulirement sur 2 La nouvelle-orlans le 29 aot 2005, faisant officiellement mille huit cent trente-six morts et sept cent cinq disparus. Prs de trente mille personnes sans abris trouvrent refuge pendant plusieurs jours dans le 2 Louisiana Superdome, en attendant leur vacuation. Dans son rcent ouvrage relatif au capitalisme du dsastre , 2 La Stratgie du choc, 2 naomi Klein souligne : Lorsque louragan Katrina sabattit sur La Nouvelle-Orlans et que les politiciens, les groupes de rflexion et les promoteurs immobiliers rpublicains se mirent parler de page blanche et doccasions en or, il apparut clairement que telle tait dsormais la mthode privilgie pour aider lentreprise prive raliser ses objectifs : profiter des traumatismes collectifs pour oprer de grandes rformes conomiques et sociales. [ e ] One of the most powerful hurricanes ever to have struck the United States, with winds of 280 km/h. It hit Louisiana and more particularly New Orleans [ 2 La nouvelle-orlans] on 29 August 2005, officially causing 1,836 deaths and leaving another 705 missing. Nearly 30,000 homeless people took refuge for several days in the 2 Louisiana Superdome, waiting to be evacuated. In her recent book on disaster capitalism, The Shock Doctrine [ 2 La Stratgie du choc ], 2 naomi Klein makes the point that: By the time Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, and the nexus of Republican politicians, think tanks and land developers started talking about clean sheets and exciting opportunities, it was clear that this was now the preferred method of advancing corporate goals: using moments of collective trauma to engage in radical social and economic engineering.
klaMMer, franZ [ f ] *1953. Skieur alpin autrichien. Champion de

descente.
[ e ] *1953. An Austrian alpine ski racer. Downhill

champion. [ acclration ] [ Cuche, Didier ]

Immanuel Kant [ f ] 17241804. Philosophe allemand qui a donn son nom un club de tuning.

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kodiak (le de)

Kodiak island [ f ] Grande le ctire du sud de lAlaska et terre ancestrale des Indiens Koniaga, elle est la seconde plus grande le amricaine aprs Hawa. Les premiers Europens dbarquer Kodiak sont des Russes : en 1763, le marchand de fourrure Stepan Glotov explore lle ; en 1784, lexplorateur Grigori Chelikhov y fonde une premire colonie russe. Lle devient par la suite le centre du commerce de la fourrure pour lAmrique russe. Elle fait partie du territoire amricain depuis la vente de lAlaska aux tats-Unis par les Russes en 1867. [ e ] A large island off the southern coast of Alaska and the ancestral home of the Koniaga Indians, it is the second biggest American island after Hawaii. The first Europeans to land on Kodiak were Russian: in 1763, the fur trader Stepan Glotov explored the island, and in 1784, the explorer Grigori Chelikhov founded a first Russian colony there. Subsequently the island became the centre of the fur trade for Russian America. It became part of American territory when Alaska was sold to the United States by the Russians in 1867. [ 4 Tuazon, oscar ]
konec [ f ] Signifiant fin en tchque, konec est le mot utilis pour clore une mission de stations de nombres en tchque. [ e ] The word konec [end in Czech] indicates

End nightclub owners, they mixed with well-known names such as Diana Dors, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, as well as various politicians. This gave them a perceived respectability in the 1960s. They were eventually arrested on May 9, 4 1968 and convicted in 1969. Both were sentenced to life imprisonment. [ 2 FoLK arChiVE ]
kunZ, eMMa [ f ] 1892 1963. Gurisseuse, chercheuse, artiste,

the end of a broadcast for numbers stations


[ stations de nombres ] in Czech.
krays (frres juMeaux)

Krays Twins [ f ] Frres jumeaux anglais qui avaient mis en place dans les annes 1960 un des plus grands rseaux de crime organis dans la banlieue est de Londres. Les Krays furent impliqus dans des vols main arme, des incendies, des rackets, des agressions violentes, et dans les meurtres de Jack The Hat McVitie et George Cornell. Propritaires dune bote de nuit dans le West End, ils frquentaient des clbrits comme Diana Dors, Frank Sinatra ou Judy Garland, ainsi que des hommes politiques, ce qui leur a donn respectabilit et notorit dans les annes 1960. Ils furent finalement arrts le 9 mai 4 1968 et condamns perptuit en 1969. [ e ] Twin British brothers who operated an organised crime network dominating the East End of London in the 1960s. The Krays were involved in armed robberies, arson, protection rackets, violent assaults including torture and the murders of Jack The Hat McVitie and George Cornell. As West

Emma Kunz occupe une place trs particulire dans lhistoire de lart. Elle-mme dfinissait son travail atypique comme stylisation et forme en tant que mesure, rythme, symbole et mtamorphose du nombre et du principe . On lui doit la dcouverte de laion a (signifiant en grec sans limite , en rfrence ses prtendues proprits curatives), roche gurisseuse originaire de Wrenlos en Suisse, dont elle se servit sa vie durant pour soigner divers maux. Ses uvres sont le rsultat de ses recherches, sans titre ni date, de grands dessins gomtriques raliss la mine de plomb, aux crayons de couleur ou la craie sur papier millimtr autant de champs magntiques lis sa pratique hors norme de la mdecine et de lart, via des forces nergtiques et spirituelles. [ e ] 1892 1963. A healer, researcher and artist, Emma Kunz occupies a very special place in art history. She herself defined her atypical work as stylisation and form as the measure, rhythm, symbol and metamorphosis of number and principle. She discovered aion a (which in Greek means with no limit, a reference to the its purported healing properties), a healing rock originating from Wrenlos in Switzerland, which she used throughout her life to cure various illnesses. Her works are the result of her researches and have no titles or dateslarge geometric drawings done with lead pencil, coloured pencils or chalk on graph paper, all or them magnetic fields linked to her non-standard practice of medicine and art, using energetic and spiritual forces. [ 1 ThE ThirD MinD ] [ Spiritisme ]

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labyrinthe

Labyrinth [ f ] Trac sinueux qui relie une porte dentre une porte de sortie et qui autorise donc le passage dun espace un autre, un labyrinthe rend celui qui sy aventure incapable de se reprsenter le chemin parcourir, par la complexit de son trac, ses nombreuses chausse-trapes et impasses. Utilise comme mtaphore de la condition humaine, limage du labyrinthe souligne le risque dgarement li toute qute, que ce soit celle de la vrit ou celle du pouvoir, risque qui ne dpend pas tant de la complexit du chemin que lhomme doit parcourir que de la finitude de ses moyens. [ e ] A winding track that links an entrance to an exit, so permitting a movement from one space to another. A labyrinth makes those who venture into it incapable of visualizing the path to follow because of the complexity of its route, its many traps and dead ends. Used as a metaphor for the human condition, the image of the labyrinth stresses the risk of going astray associated with all quests, whether the quest for truth or the quest for power, a risk that depends not so much on the complexity of the path we have to follow as on the finite nature of our resources. [ amerika ] [ 4 herold, Georg ]
lvitation

Levitation [ f ] voir p. 117 [ e ] see p. 117 [ 4 FrESh hELL ]


lhc (Grand collisionneur de protons)

LHC (Large Hadron Collider) [ f ] Le grand collisionneur de protons (Large Hadron Collider, LHC ) est linstrument le plus puissant jamais construit ce jour pour explorer les proprits de la matire. Install dans les laboratoires du CERN (Conseil europen pour la recherche nuclaire), cet acclrateur de particules a t conu pour permettre de lancer la vitesse de la lumire, dans des tubes de vide, des faisceaux de protons, afin dobtenir leurs collisions une nergie de 14 tralectronvolts. Le maintien en orbite des faisceaux requiert des champs magntiques dune trs haute intensit (7 Tesla), cre grce au recours la supraconductivit soit la capacit de certains matriaux conduire llectricit sans aucune rsistance ou perte dnergie, gnralement trs basse temprature. Les cbles supraconducteurs, ici des fils de niobium-titane noys dans une matrice de cuivre, sont ainsi placs dans de

lhlium superfluide la temprature de 1,9 K , temprature encore plus basse que celle de lespace intersidral. Quant aux faisceaux de protons, ils sont prpars par une chane dacclrateurs avant dtre injects dans le LHC , cette manire dinterconnecter les acclrateurs permettant au CERN dtre une usine de faisceaux de particules particulirement flexible. partir de 2008, les milliards de collisions par seconde seront ainsi pranalyses dans les gigantesques dtecteurs du LHC , et les donnes collectes ensuite transmises de nombreux laboratoires internationaux. Le LHC a t construit dans le tunnel quoccupait auparavant le grand collisionneur lectron-positon (Large Electron Positron Collider, LEP ) du CERN . Installer lacclrateur du LHC , cest transporter, mettre en place et connecter dans un troit tunnel de 27 kilomtres de long plus de cent mille tonnes de matriel ; ce qui ne reprsente pas moins de quatorze fois le poids de la tour Eiffel. On a successivement mis en place : les quipements pour les services gnraux que lon pourrait rsumer par leau, le gaz et llectricit auxquels on a ajout des milliers de kilomtres de cbles pour les signaux optiques et lectriques ; la ligne de distribution dhlium temprature cryognique constitue dun ensemble de tuyauteries de haute qualit ; la machine proprement dite, cest--dire principalement les dix mille aimants et autres quipements comme les tubes sous vide o circuleront les particules et les cavits radiofrquence servant acclrer ces mmes particules. , souligne 1 Claude hauville. [ e ] The Large Hadron Collider (LHC ) is the most powerful instrument for exploring the properties of matter [ matire ] ever constructed. Installed in the laboratories of CERN (Conseil europen pour la recherche nuclaire [European Organization for Nuclear Research]), this particle accelerator has been designed to make it possible to project proton beams into vacuum tubes at the speed of light [ lumire ], in order to achieve collisions at an energy of 14 teraelectronvolts. Keeping the beams in orbit requires very high intensity magnetic fields (7 Tesla), created by means of recourse to superconductivityi.e. the capacity of certain materials to conduct electricity without any resistance or energy loss, generally at very low temperatures. Thus superconducting cables, here niobium-titanium wires in a copper matrix, are placed into the superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 kelvin, a temperature even lower than that of intersidereal space. As for the proton beams, they are prepared by a chain of accelerators before being injected into the LHC : this way of interconnecting the accelerators enables CERN to be a particularly flexible

Labyrinthe Francesco Segala, Libro de laberinti, XVI e

sicle/16 th century

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Lvitation
~~~
La lvitation consiste, pour un corps ou un objet, tre soulev et rester en suspension au-dessus du sol sans appui apparent. On distingue la lvitation physique, qui peut sexpliquer par laction de forces connues, de la lvitation paranormale, dpourvue quant elle dexplication rationnelle. De leur ct, les prestidigitateurs dveloppent lillusion dune lvitation paranormale par le truchement dartifices. En 1847, le grand prestidigitateur robert-houdin met au point un tour appel La Suspension threnne au cours duquel il fait senvoler son fils. Hamilton, beau-frre de Robert-Houdin, prsente en 1860 un numro semblable appel LEnfant soulev par un cheveu. la fin du xixe sicle, le spirite anglais Daniel Dunglas Home devient la coqueluche des salons avec ses lvitations. Des tmoins racontent lavoir vu senvoler par une fentre et revenir par une autre. Rapport par des voyageurs du xixe sicle, le mythe de la Corde hindoue est la source dinspiration de nombreux tours de lvitation. Le fakir allume un feu, puis jette une corde qui reste fige dans la fume. Il invite un disciple grimper cette corde. Celui-ci sexcute. La fume le drobe la vue des tmoins. Le fakir sarme dun couteau, grimpe son tour et disparat aussi dans la fume. Une lutte se fait entendre. Aprs quelques instants, le corps dmembr du disciple tombe en morceaux sur le sol. Le fakir redescend et runit les morceaux dans un panier, dont le disciple ressurgit recompos et vivant. Parmi les lvitations orchestres par les illusionnistes, on peut distinguer les lvitations totales (sans aucun support apparent) des lvitations partielles (avec un support apparent mais drisoire). Les lvitations sur balai et sur sabre comptent parmi les plus courantes des lvitations partielles. La lvitation physique, de son ct, connat des progrs considrables au cours du xxe sicle. La lvitation quantique en constitue sans doute le principal exemple. Elle fonctionne au moyen dun aimant et dun matriau supraconducteur qui perd sa rsistance lectrique trs basse temprature. Lobjet slve comme par magie, car il cre un champ magntique qui soppose celui de laimant (situ au-dessous). Lexpulsion dun champ magntique par un matriau supraconducteur est appele effet Meissner .
[f] [e]

Levitation
~~~
Levitation entails raising a body or an object above the round, where it remains suspended with no apparent support. A distinction is made between physical levitation, which can be explained by the action of known forces, and paranormal levitation, which has no rational explanation. Magicians [ prestidigitateurs ] develop the illusion of paranormal levitation with the aid of clever tricks. In 1847, the great magician robert-houdin perfected a trick called La Suspension threnne [ The Ethereal Suspension ] during which he made his son fly. RobertHoudins brother-in-law Hamilton presented a similar act in 1860 called LEnfant soulev par un cheveu [ The child raised by a hair ]. At the end of the 19th century, the Scottish spiritualist Daniel Dunglas Home became the darling of the drawing-rooms with his levitations. Witnesses recount having seen him fly out through one window and come back through another. Brought back by 19th-century travellers, the myth of the Hindu rope is the source of inspiration for many levitation tricks. The fakir lights a fire, then throws a rope that remains fixed in the smoke. He invites a pupil to climb the rope, which he does. The smoke hides him from the view of the onlookers. The fakir takes a knife, then climbs up in his turn, and he too disappears into the smoke. Sounds of a fight can be heard. A few instants later the dismembered body of the pupil falls to the ground in pieces. The fakir comes back down, and collects up the pieces in a basket. The pupil then arises from the basket, reassembled and alive. Among the levitations orchestrated by illusionists, a distinction can be made between total levitations (with no apparent support) and partial levitations (with a support that is apparent but ludicrous). Levitations on a broomstick and on a sabre are among the most common partial levitations. Physical levitation for its part has made considerable advances in the course of the 20th century. Quantum levitation is undoubtedly the prime example. It operates by means of a magnet and a superconductive material that loses its electric resistance at very low temperatures. The object rises as if by magic because it creates a magnetic field that opposes that of the magnet (located underneath). The expulsion of a magnetic field by a superconductive material is called the Meissner effect.

Lvitation Stefano di Giovanni, dit / known as Sassetta, Le bienheureux Ranieri dlivre les pauvres dune prison de Florence / The blessed Ranieri frees the poors from a Florentine jail, 1437-1444. Muse du Louvre (Paris). Photo : Stphane Magnenat

Lvitation Extrait dun livre de tours de magie russe / Excerpt from a Russian book of magic tricks, 1877

Lvitation Affiche publicitaire pour le prestidigitateur amri-

~~~

cain Harry Kellar/Advertising poster depicting the american magician Harry Kellar

~~~

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particle beam factory. Thus from 2008, billions of collisions per second will be pre-analyzed in the LHC s giant detectors, and the data collected will then be passed on to a large number of international laboratories. The LHC has been built in the tunnel which used to house CERN s Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP ). Installing the LHC accelerator entails transporting, positioning and connecting over 100,000 tonnes of material in a narrow tunnel 27 kilometers in length; that represents no less than fourteen times the weight of the Eiffel Tower. We have successively installed: facilities for general services which could be summed up as water, gas and electricity, to which we have added thousands of kilometres of cables for visual and electrical signalling; the distribution line for helium at a cryogenic temperature, made up of a set of high-quality pipes; the actual machine, i.e. mainly the 10,000 magnets and other hardware such as the vacuum tubes where the particles will circulate and the radio-frequency cavities that are used to accelerate those same particles., 1 Claude hauville points out. [ Dtecteurs de particules ] [ 1 Jeudis de CinQ MiLLiarDS DannES (Les)] [ 2 Motti, Gianni]
lone ranGer (the) [ f ] Personnage de fiction amricain, et plus prcis-

ses chaussures, il est considr par certains comme une rfrence du chamanisme actuel. (daprs The Coming Race, 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita) [ e ] *1951, lives in France. Loup Blanc [White Wolf] felt endowed, by the time he was 7 years old, with psychic and spiritual powers. He later undertook a path that led him across the world in search of spiritual masters. But it was only in the middle of the night, in 1980, that the Blue Wise Man appeared to him in a dream and gave him the name Original Medicine Man. Because he is capable of out-of-body experiences, influencing meteorological phenomena, and directing the path of the people who wear his shoes, he is considered by some as a leader in present-day shamanism. (after The Coming Race, 4 alain Della negra & Kaori Kinoshita) [ Spiritisme ]
lwenZorn [ f ] Brasserie bloise fonde en 1874, installe dans

where the regulars have their stammtische, rooms with a very representative style and small parlours whose frescos display scenes from carnival. It also benefits from its proximity to the picturesque Old Town. The range of regional specialties superbly completes the palette of services of this typical Basel guesthouse. [ 4 Carron, Valentin ] [ 4 MonSiEur ] [ 4 rgionalisme ]
luMire

ment de western. Il est apparu pour la premire fois dans un feuilleton radio crit par Fran Striker en 1933. Il est une icne de la culture pop amricaine. Le cavalier masqu des plaines tait toujours accompagn de son fidle compagnon Tonto. Le personnage de Tonto tait jou par un vieil acteur shakespearien britannique du nom de John Todd. [ e ] A fictional American character, more specifically in Westerns. He first appeared in a radio serial written by Fran Striker in 1933. He is an icon of American popular culture. The masked rider of the plains was always accompanied by his faithful companion Tonto. Tonto was played by an elderly British Shakespearian actor named John Todd.
loup blanc [ f ] *1951, vit en France. Ds lge de sept ans, Loup

Blanc se sent investi de facults psychiques et spirituelles particulires. Il entreprend par la suite un parcours initiatique travers le monde la recherche de matres spirituels, et cest finalement durant la nuit, en 1980, que le Sage Bleu lui apparat en songe pour lui donner le nom d homme mdecine de lorigine . Capable en outre de sortir de son corps, dinfluencer les phnomnes mtorologiques, ou de diriger le pas de celui qui porte

un btiment ancien et rcemment rcompense par le prix ICOMOS pour la qualit de la prservation de ses salles historiques. Le site de loffice du tourisme suisse la prsente en ces termes : Cet ensemble unique caractris par des espaces diffrencis sduit par son mlange de cultures et de coutumes. La salle du restaurant, au dcor historiciste avec des lments de heimatstil, abrite les tables rserves aux habitus, aux associations estudiantines et aux cliques de carnaval. La cour est le centre des activits du complexe architectural. Le restaurant Lwenzorn offre donc un grand choix despaces diffrents au client : part la cour romantique, une salle de restaurant confortable o les habitus se retrouvent aux stammtische, des pices de style trs reprsentatives et de petits salons dont les fresques reprsentent des sujets de carnaval. Il jouit de sa situation proximit de la vieille ville pittoresque. Lventail des spcialits rgionales complte superbement la palette des services de cette auberge typiquement bloise. [ e ] Basel brasserie established in 1874 in a centuries-old building, recently awarded the ICOMOS prize for the quality of preservation of its historic rooms. The Swiss tourist offices website presents it in these terms: The unique building, characterized by diverse rooms, entices with its mixture of cultures and traditions. The dining room, in a historicist dcor with elements of heimatstil, provides tables for regulars, student associations, and carnival coteries. The courtyard is the centre of the architectural complexs activities. The restaurant Lwenzorn offers its customers a wide range of areas: a romantic courtyard, a cozy dining room

Light [ f ] Au xviie sicle, Christiaan Huygens propose une thorie ondulatoire selon laquelle la lumire est une vibration qui se propage dans un milieu invisible appelle lther . la mme poque, Ole Christensen Rmer parvient, pour la premire fois, mesurer approximativement la vitesse de la lumire : environ 300 000 km/s. Pour tablir sa mesure, il se sert dobservations astronomiques sur les lunes de Jupiter. Au xviiie sicle, Isaac Newton rejette la thorie ondulatoire de Huygens et propose une thorie corpusculaire qui affirme cette fois que la lumire est un agrgat de corpuscules se dplaant trs grande vitesse dans le vide. Au xixe sicle, Hippolyte Fizeau affine la mesure de la vitesse de la lumire en pigeant celle-ci au moyen dun dispositif exprimental compos de miroirs et dune roue crante. Quelques dcennies plus tard, James Clerk Maxwell propose une nouvelle thorie, dite lectromagntique . Il affirme que la lumire est assimilable la vibration dun champ magntique. Ds lors, la lumire est considre comme la portion visible dun vaste spectre dondes lectromagntiques (ou spectre lectromagntique), lesquelles comprennent aussi les infrarouges, les ultraviolets ou les rayons X . Au xxe sicle, Albert 1 Einstein fait jouer la vitesse de la lumire un rle fondamental dans sa thorie de la relativit. la mme poque, les physiciens dveloppent une thorie quantique de la lumire base sur le concept de photon. Selon cette thorie, la lumire se comporte tantt comme une onde, tantt comme un corpuscule selon lchelle laquelle on lobserve. [ e ] In the 17th century, Christiaan Huygens put forward a wave theory, according to which light is a vibration that spreads in an invisible environment called ether. At the same period, Ole Christensen Rmer first succeeded in measuring the speed of light approximately, estimating it at around 300,000 kilometers per second. To establish his measurement, he used astronomical observations based on Jupiters moons. In the 18th century, Isaac Newton rejected Huygenss wave theory, and put

forward a corpuscular theory, this time asserting that light is an aggregate of corpuscles moving at very great speed in a vacuum. During the 19th century, Hippolyte Fizeau refined the measurement of the speed of light, trapping light by means of an experimental device made from mirrors and a notched wheel. A few decades later, James Clerk Maxwell put forward a new so-called electromagnetic theory. He stated that light can be assimilated to the vibration of a magnetic field. From then on light was regarded as the visible portion of a vast spectrum of electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ] (or electromagnetic spectrum [ spectre lectromagntique ] ), which also comprises infra-red, ultraviolet or X rays. In the 20th century, Albert 1 Einstein accorded the speed of light a crucial role in his theory of relativity [ relativit ]. At the same time physicists were developing a quantum theory of light based on the concept of the photon. According to that theory, light behaves sometimes like a wave, sometimes like a corpuscle, depending on the scale at which it is observed. [ Espace-temps ] [ Physique quantique ] [ Transfert ]
luMire noire

Black light [ f ] La lumire noire ou lumire de Wood du nom de son inventeur 3 robert William Wood est une lumire compose de violet (peu clairant, dune longueur donde de 405 nm) et principalement dultraviolet proche (longueur donde situe autour de 375 nanomtres). Cette lumire est absorbe et rmise sous forme de lumire visible par les substances fluorescentes, quelles soient naturelles ou artificielles. [ e ] Black lightor Wood light from the name of its inventor 3 robert William Woodis a light [ lumire ] composed of violet (emitting very little light, with a 405 nm wavelength) and mainly near ultraviolet (wavelength around 375 nm). That light is absorbed and re-emitted in the form of visible light by fluorescent substances, whether they are natural or artificial. [ Spectre lectromagntique ]
lynchaGe

Lynching [ f ] Substantif issu de lexpression loi de Lynch , expression en rfrence William Lynch (1736 1796) qui mit en place des procs expditifs et des excutions sommaires lors de la guerre dIndpendance aux tats-Unis. La loi de Lynch devait se dvelopper rapidement dans lOuest amricain.

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Lynchage Cartes postales de lynchage / Lynching postcards

Le terme lynchage vit le jour en 1887 pour dsigner un dferlement de haine raciale, tel que ce fut notamment le cas lencontre des Latino-Amricains, Africains-Amricains, Natifs Amricains et Asiatiques jusqu la fin des annes 1930 aux tats-Unis. Il consiste en lexcution sommaire dun accus, sans jugement rgulier et par une dcision collective, au nom de lautojustice. Ces lynchages pouvaient aller jusqu se transformer en vritables pogroms. Lhistorien Howard Zinn prcise qu entre 1889 et 1903, deux Noirs, en moyenne, taient assassins chaque semaine (pendus, brls vifs ou mutils) (Howard Zinn, Une histoire populaire des tats-Unis. De 1492 nos jours, Agone, Marseille, 2002, p. 361). Les coupables de telles exactions se sentaient ce point labri de toute poursuite judiciaire quils prenaient souvent des photographies de leurs victimes et en faisaient des cartes postales des fins de propagande et dintimidation. Dans son ouvrage Lynching in the West (Duke University Press, Durham, 2006). Lartiste 3 Ken Gonzales-Day sattache particulirement la spectacularisation des scnes de lynchage, o la foule voyeuriste est facilement assimilable un meurtrier anonyme. [ e ] A noun derived from the term Lynchs law, referring to William Lynch (17361796) who instituted fast-track trials and summary executions at the time of the War of Independence in the USA. Lynchs law spread rapidly in the American West. The term lynching was first coined in 1887 in connection with an outbreak of racial hatred, directed in particular at Latino-Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans and people of Asian origin, which continued in the United States until the end of the 1930s. It consisted of the summary execution of an accused person, with no regular trial and verdict, but by collective decision in the name of self-administered justice. These lynchings could go so far as to turn into real pogroms. The historian Howard Zinn says that In the years between 1889 and 1903, on the average, every week, two Negroes were lynched by the mobhanged, burned, mutilated) (Howard Zinn, A peoples history of the United States: 1492-present, Pearson, England, 2003, p. 315). Those guilty of such offences felt so secure from any legal proceedings in this regard that they often took photographs of their victims, and made postcards of them for propaganda and intimidation purposes. In his book Lynching in the West (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006) the artist 3 Ken Gonzales-Day dwells particularly on the way the lynching scenes were turned into a spectacle, where the voyeuristic crowd could easily be assimilated to anonymous murderers.

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Maciste

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Maciste [ f ] Le personnage de Maciste nat sous la plume de

Gabriele dAnnunzio dans Cabiria (1913), premire superproduction de lhistoire du cinma. Mais lacteur Bartolomeo Pagano reprendra le rle dans les contextes les plus divers, une bande tourne en pleine premire guerre mondiale lui faisant mme endosser luniforme dun chasseur alpin combattant les troupes autrichiennes ! Et quand les ralisateurs ressuscitent le personnage au dbut des annes 1960, il voyage galement dans lespace (de lgypte pharaonique la Mongolie, en passant par des contres imaginaires) et le temps (de la prhistoire au Moyen ge, voire trs loin dans la Renaissance). Une merveilleuse synthse du mythe est dailleurs propose par le Maciste en enfer de Riccardo Freda, faux remake du film muet homonyme, dbutant dans lcosse du xviie sicle avant de descendre dans des limbes, dont liconographie rappelle plutt lAntiquit. En outre, il ny a pas jusqu ltat civil du protagoniste qui ne subisse certaines mutations : Maciste contre les hommes de pierre (titre original Maciste e la regina di Samar) sortira aux tats-Unis sous le titre Hercules Against the Moon Men, tandis que Maciste vengeur du dieu maya (titre original Ercole contro il gigante Golia) restera clbre par une VF o la premire phrase prononce par le hros est Je mappelle Hercule (sic). [ e ] The character of Maciste came into being in Gabriele dAnnunzios script for Cabiria (1913), the first blockbuster in the history of cinema. The actor Bartolomeo Pagano would repeat the role in the widest variety of contexts. A film made during in World War I even had him donning the uniform of an alpine chasseur fighting against Austrian troops! And when directors resuscitated the character in the early 1960s, he also travelled in space (from pharaonic Egypt to Mongolia, by way of imaginary countries) and time (from the prehistoric era to the Middle Ages, or even Renaissance). Moreover, a marvellous synthesis of myth is offered by Riccardo Fredas Maciste in Hell [Maciste all inferno], a specious remake of the silent film of the same name, starting in 17 th-century Scotland before descending into limbo, which is rather reminiscent of Antiquity in its iconography. Whats more, even the protagonists civil status undergoes some mutations: Maciste e la regina di Samar was released in the United States under the title Hercules Against the Moon Men, while Ercole contro il gigante Golia would remain famous for a French version, Maciste vengeur du dieu maya, where the first sentence the hero utters is Je mappelle Hercule [My name is Hercules] (sic).

[ 4 hercule ] [ 4 herv, Louise & Maillet, Chlo ] [ Pplum ]


MaGie

Manipulation du cliMat

Magic [ f ] voir p. 124 [ e ] see p. 124 [ Miroir noir ] [ Prestidigitateur ]


Mani pulite [ f ] Titre dune uvre de lartiste 2 Gianni Motti qui

avait beaucoup fait parler delle lors de sa premire prsentation la foire Art Basel en 2005. Luvre, une savonnette, a t fabrique partir de la graisse provenant dune liposuccion effectue sur le Premier ministre italien Silvio Berlusconi dans une clinique suisse. Le titre Mani Pulite, qui en italien signifie mains propres , fait explicitement rfrence la gigantesque opration anticorruption qui avait secou lItalie dans les annes 1990. Cette srie denqutes judiciaires, durant laquelle Berlusconi fut plusieurs reprises mis en cause, mit au jour les liens entre le crime organis et le monde politique. Cette uvre parle aussi de la politique du corps et de la communication biopolitique de Berlusconi, de son corps exhib comme ayant une extraordinaire longvit. Le clan Berlusconi et ses adeptes avaient ni avec virulance la provenance de la matire. La polmique sarrta lorsque Gianni Motti proposa de mettre disposition un chantillon du savon pour procder un test ADN . [ e ] The title of a work by the artist 2 Gianni Motti which caused quite a stir when it was first shown at the Basel Art Fair in 2005. The work, a small cake of soap, was made from fat obtained during a liposuction procedure carried out on the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi at a Swiss clinic. The title Mani Pulite, which means clean hands in Italian, makes explicit reference to the huge anticorruption operation that had shaken Italy in the 1990s. That series of judicial investigations, in which Berlusconi was implicated on several occasions, uncovered the links between organized crime and the world of politics. This work also speaks of Berlusconis policy regarding his body and biopolitical communication, of his body exhibited as being extraordinarily long-lived. The Berlusconi clique and its supporters had virulently denied the provenance of the material. The polemics ceased when Gianni Motti offered to make a sample of the soap available so that a DNA test could be carried out.

Climate manipulation [ f ] Entreprise prsentant un risque lev, la manipulation du climat relve dun dilemme analogue celui de la scission de latome. Le ministre amricain de la Dfense estime que les possibilits militaires immenses qui pourraient apparatre dans ce domaine risquent dtre ignores, cause dun refus de la socit douvrir un dbat autour de ces questions. Dj envisage prs dun sicle plus tt par nikola Tesla, le thme de la manipulation climatique prenait alors une autre dimension. En 1919, dans Mes inventions. Le rcit autobiographique de Nikola Tesla (18561943), il dclarait que lnergie lectrique implique dans la prcipitation de leau tait ngligeable, lclair ayant une fonction ressemblant celle dun dclencheur sensible. Voil un domaine qui offrait dnormes possibilits de dveloppement. Si on arrivait produire des effets lectriques de la qualit voulue, on pourrait transformer toute la plante et nos conditions de vie. Le soleil fait svaporer leau des ocans et le vent lemporte vers des rgions lointaines, o elle reste dans un tat dquilibre prcaire. Si nous avions le pouvoir de perturber cet quilibre o et quand bon nous semble, nous pourrions manipuler volont cet norme fleuve qui entretient la vie. Nous pourrions irriguer les dserts arides, crer des lacs et des rivires et obtenir une force motrice de puissance illimite. Ce serait le moyen le plus efficace de mettre lnergie solaire au service de lhumanit. [ e ] Climate manipulation is a high-risk undertaking, raising a dilemma similar to that of splitting the atom. The American Department of Defence considers that the huge military opportunities that could arise in this field are in danger of being ignored, because of societys refusal to open up a debate focusing on these questions. When it was envisaged nearly a century ago by nikola Tesla, the theme of climate manipulation had a different dimension. In 1919, in Mes inventions. Le Rcit autobiographique de Nikola Tesla [My inventions. The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla], he stated that the electric energy involved in the precipitation of water was negligible, lightning having a function resembling that of a perceptible trigger. This was a field that afforded huge opportunities for development. If electrical effects of the desired quality could be successfully produced, it would be possible to transform the whole planet and our living conditions. The sun causes the water of the oceans to evaporate and the wind carries it off to far-away regions where it remains in a precarious state of balance. If we had the power to upset that

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Magie
~~~
Ltymologie du mot magie renvoie aux pratiques sotriques des mages, caste sacerdotale des Mdes, peuple nomade indo-europen install au ix e sicle av. J.-C. sur le plateau iranien. Le mot a pris un sens trs large. Il dsigne de nombreuses croyances et pratiques chappant aux dogmes des religions et supposant lexistence de forces surnaturelles. Ces croyances et ces pratiques varient beaucoup selon les civilisations. En occident, la priode du Moyen ge joue un rle primordial dans llaboration de modles et darchtypes qui seront repris plus tard avec humour dans la culture populaire et les spectacles des prestidigitateurs. On distingue gnralement la magie blanche, dont les intentions sont moralement bonnes, de la magie noire, galement appele sorcellerie, dont les intentions sont moralement mauvaises. Dans les canons des conciles antrieurs au ix e sicle, lars magica est oppos la divinatio. Si la divination sintresse aux augures, aux sorts et aux songes, la magie, de son ct, sintresse aux incantations, aux malfices et aux prestiges. Les sorciers agissent sur la matrise du temps, la sant, lamour et la procration. partir du xii e sicle, une magie savante se dveloppe ct de la magie populaire. Les magiciens savants associent aux pratiques traditionnelles les sciences divinatoires et en particulier lastrologie. Ils sont davantage tolrs par le clerg et leur influence pntre dans les classes suprieures. Cest au xiii e sicle quapparat le plus clbre trait de magie sous le nom de Trait de Picatrix, traduit de larabe en latin par Aegidius de Tebaldis. partir du xiv e sicle, la magie est assimile une hrsie. Magiciens et sorcires sont poursuivis par les inquisiteurs et brls en place publique. Conserve la Bibliothque nationale de France, Paris, la confession du magicien Jean de Bar tmoigne de nombreuses pratiques comme la conservation de poils, cheveux et rognures dongles, lutilisation du sang danimaux ou la conscration danneaux et de miroirs. Les accusations de pacte avec le diable, de secte organise et de complot contre la chrtient se multiplient.
[f]

Magic
~~~
[ e ] The etymology of the word magic goes back

to the esoteric practices of the Magi, a priestly caste of the Medes, a nomadic Indo-European race living on the Iranian plateau in the 9th century bc. The word has taken on a very wide meaning. It refers to many beliefs and practices outside the dogmas of religions that presuppose the existence of supernatural forces. These beliefs and practices vary greatly according to the civilization in question. In the West, the mediaeval period played a crucial role in the elaboration of models and archetypes that would be picked up with humour much later, in popular culture and during magicians shows. A distinction is generally made between white magic, which is morally good in intention, and black magic, also referred to as witchcraft, whose intentions are morally bad. In the canons of the Councils prior to the 9th century, ars magica was opposed to divinatio. While divination was interested in auguries, destinies and dreams, magic for its part was interested in incantations, evil spells, and marvels [ prestige ]. Sorcerers could control time, health, love, and procreation. During the 12 th century, a learned strand of magic developed alongside popular magic. Scholarly magicians associated the science of divination, and in particular astrology, with traditional practices. They were better tolerated by the clergy and their influence penetrated into the upper classes. It was in the 13th century that the most famous treatise on magic appeared under the title Trait de Picatrix, translated into Latin from Arabic by Aegidius de Tebaldis. After the 14 th century, magic was assimilated with heresy. Magicians and witches were pursued by inquisitors and burnt on public squares. Preserved at the Bibliothque nationale of France in Paris, the confession of the magician Jean de Bar testifies to many practices like the keeping of body hair, head hair and nail clippings, the use of animal blood, or the consecration of rings and mirrors. Accusations relating to pacts with the devil, organized sects, and plots against Christianity increased in number.

Magie Extraits dun livre de tours de magie russe / Excerpts

from a Russian book of magic tricks, 1877

~~~

~~~

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MaQUette

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balance where and when we saw fit, we would be able to manipulate that huge watercourse that maintains life at will. We would be able to irrigate the arid deserts, create lakes and rivers, and obtain a driving force of unlimited power. It would be the most effective means of making solar energy serve humanity. [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ 3 Jeudis de GaKona (Les) ]
Maquette [ f ] De manire gnrale, une maquette est une

reproduction une certaine chelle dun systme, dune construction ou dun objet. la diffrence dune reprsentation, une maquette imite son objet non pas depuis un angle ou un point de vue, mais de faon exhaustive en respectant toutes ses dimensions et proportions spatiales. Lhumanit utilise des maquettes depuis lAntiquit, notamment dans les domaines de larchitecture, de la construction navale et de la stratgie militaire. La finalit des maquettes est multiple. Il peut sagir de tester, dexprimenter ou dprouver, mais aussi de communiquer, dinstruire, de contempler ou de jouer. Autrement dit, sa finalit peut tre la fois utilitaire, cognitive, esthtique ou ludique. Lintrt des maquettes rside la plupart du temps dans leur haut degr de ralisme. Elles sont en grande majorit des modles rduits impliquant un processus de miniaturisation qui peut avoir quelque chose de fascinant. Le got des maquettes est lorigine de nombreuses activits de loisir dont le modlisme ferroviaire est sans doute lune des plus codifies. La pratique du modlisme ferroviaire remonte au xxe sicle. Ses adeptes sadonnent la cration de rseaux sur lesquels circulent des trains lectriques miniatures. Ces rseaux sont lobjet de dcorations spectaculaires articules autour de thmatiques gographiques, saisonnires ou historiques. LAmricain John Whitby Allen est lorigine du concept de modlisme datmosphre . Il conoit partir des annes 1950 un rseau gigantesque de plus de 100 m2 appel Gorre & Daphetid. Le modlisme ferroviaire bnficie de lexistence de clubs, de fdrations, dexpositions et de revues spcialises dans le monde entier. [ e ] Generally speaking, a maquette is a reproduction of a system, building or object at a specified scale. Unlike a pictorial representation, a maquette imitates the object not from one angle or point of view, but exhaustively, respecting all its dimensions and spatial proportions. Human beings have been using maquettes since Antiquity, particularly in the fields of architecture, shipbuilding, and

military strategy. The purposes of the maquette are multiple. It can be a question of trying out, experimenting or testing, but also of communicating, instructing, looking, or playing. In other words, its purpose can be simultaneously utilitarian, cognitive, aesthetic, or ludic. As a rule the interest of maquettes lies in their high degree of realism. Most of them are reduced models involving a process of miniaturization that can be fascinating. The enjoyment of maquettes underlies many leisure activities, with model railroading undoubtedly being one of the best catalogued. The practice of model railroading goes back to the 20th century. Its proponents devote themselves to creating track networks with miniature electric trains running on them. These networks are the object of spectacular decorations centred on geographical, seasonal or historical themes. The American John Whitby Allen was the originator of the concept of atmospheric model railroading. Starting in the 1950s he designed a giant network that covered more than 100 Sq. M. called Gorre & Daphetid. Model railroading is helped along by the existence of clubs, federations, exhibitions and specialist magazines throughout the world.
Marillenkndel de MaMi wahler (les) [ d ] Zutaten: (Fr 4 Personen)

angewrmten Butter vermengen. Einen ziemlich festen Teig herstellen, ausrollen und in etwa handtellergroe Stcke teilen. Je mit einer entkernten und mit Zucker gefllten Marille belegen. Kndel formen, so da der Teig etwa cm dick die Frchte umschliet. In schwach gesalzenem, kochendem Wasser 58 Minuten kochen. Brsel in reichlich Fett rsten, die Kndel darin wenden und mit Zucker bestreut anrichten. Statt Kartoffelteig kan auch Brand- oder Topfenteig genommen werden. Topfenteig: Die Butter schaumig rhren, die Eier, den Zucker und das Salz zurhren. Mit dem gesiebten Mehl, dem durchpassierten Topfen und der Milch zu einem geschmeidigen Teig verarbeiten. Brandteig: Die milch oder das Wasser mit der Butter und dem Salz aufkochen, das Mehl zugeben und zu einem Kndel abrhren. Vom feuer nehmen und die Eier unter Rhren einzeln zugeben Den erkalteten Teig auf ein bemehltes Backbrett schtten und ausrollen.
Masque jetable

counter-spy has no information to base his decryption on. The two major drawbacks of this system are the size of the keys and the need to have a random generator. It therefore cannot be used in the context of encoding a sizeable flow of data. [ Stations de nombres ]
Matire

1 kg Marillen 1 1/2 kg Kartoffeln 550 g Mehl 4 El. Zucker 4 El. Butter 2 Eier Brsel Butter oder Schmalz Topfenteig: 5 El. Butter 120g Topfen 2 Eier 1 El. Zucker 6 El. Mehl 1 /2 Tasse Milch Salz Brandteig: 3 Tassen Milch oder Wasser 7 El. Butter 5 tassen Mehl 34 Eier Salz Zubereitung: Die tags zuvor gekochten Kartoffeln schlen und reiben oder durch eine Kartoffelpresse drcken. Auf einem Nudelbrett mit dem Mehl, dem Zucker, den Eiern, dem Salz und der leicht

One-time pad [ f ] Invent en 1917, et appel galement chiffre de Vernam, le masque jetable est un algorithme de chiffrement rput infaillible. Dans ce systme de codage, la clef a exactement la mme taille que le texte chiffrer auquel elle est combine pour obtenir le texte chiffr. Elle est dite jetable , car une clef ne peut servir quune seule fois. Cette mthode repose sur une gnration totalement alatoire des clefs ; tout masque est en effet quiprobable, si bien quun contre-espion ne dispose daucune information pour baser sa cryptanalyse. Les deux inconvnients majeurs de ce systme sont la taille des clefs et la ncessit de possder un gnrateur alatoire. Il est donc inutilisable dans le cadre du chiffrement dun flux important de donnes. [ e ] Invented in 1917 and also referred to as the Vernam cipher, the one-time pad is a reputedly infallible encryption algorithm. In this system of encoding, the key is exactly the same size as the text to be encoded, with which it is combined to obtain the encrypted text. It is said to be one-time because a key can be used only once. This method relies on a totally random generation of keys. Any code is equally probable, so that a

Matter [ f ] Physique. Lide qui guide la recherche de particules de plus en plus prcises, au cur mme de la matire, trouve son origine dans les thories des philosophes matrialistes de lAntiquit, Leucippe, Dmocrite (420 av. J.-C.), picure (300 av. J.-C.) et plus tard Lucrce (70 av. J.-C.), selon lesquelles la matire est discontinue, forme de grains inscables, les atomes. Cette hypothse soppose alors la pense dEmpdocle dAgrigente (ve sicle av. J.-C.), adopte par Aristote, posant que tous les matriaux se composent de quatre lments, terre (solide), eau (liquide), air (gazeux), feu (plasma) auxquels la tradition sotrique ajoutera un cinquime lment, lther ou esprit. Cest nanmoins en suivant cette physique des lments que se dveloppera, dans le monde arabe puis dans lOccident mdival, lalchimie, dont certains principes, comme celui de transmutation, prfigurent, mi-chemin de loccultisme et de lintuition exprimentale, la physique nuclaire. Cest le xviiie sicle qui marque les dbuts de la chimie moderne : la figure du Franais AntoineLaurent Lavoisier symbolise un tournant tant dans les mthodes que dans les modes de pense scientifiques, combinant exprimentation et modlisation thorique. Aprs avoir fait lanalyse de lair et, la suite du Britannique Henry Cavendish, celle de leau, battant ainsi en brche la thorie des lments, il est lun des instigateurs dune nouvelle nomenclature chimique, rigoureuse, base sur la distinction entre corps simples et composs. Au fil du xixe sicle, les analyses des proprits des corps saccumulent, et le chimiste russe Dimitri Mendeleev peut proposer en 1869 une premire Classification priodique des lments alors mme que la thorie atomique nest pas encore constitue. Son tableau compte alors trente lments, classs selon le nombre de protons et le nombre total de nuclons de leurs atomes, contre cent quatorze en 2006. Lunification de llectricit et du magntisme, dmontre par lcossais James Clerk Maxwell en 1865, sera renforce par les recherches ralises au xxe sicle sur le photon : ainsi, ce sont bien des photons de longueurs donde diffrentes qui constituent la lumire visible et les ondes radio comme les rayons X ou les rayons gamma.

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Paralllement lanalyse de plus en plus fine de la structure de la matire, la physique des particules travaille donc dsormais dcrire et unifier les interactions macro et microscopiques qui dterminent ses comportements : les recherches sur les composantes de la matire vont de pair avec lanalyse des dterminants des quatre forces fondamentales de la physique la force de gravitation, la force lectromagntique, linteraction faible et linteraction forte. Ainsi, les bosons lourds, dcouverts par les quipes du CERN en 1982, avaient t prdits par la thorie lectrofaible de Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam et Steven Weinberg, qui unifie linteraction lectromagntique et linteraction faible, responsable de la radioactivit lectronique et de la dsintgration de certaines particules. Les recherches se concentrent actuellement sur le boson de Higgs, particule baptise ainsi daprs le nom dun des physiciens ayant propos son existence, quun dtecteur comme le LhC sera capable de mettre en vidence. En parallle, les recherches sur linteraction forte, qui lie quant elle les protons et les neutrons dans les noyaux datomes, ont men la modlisation de la structure des protons en quarks. On connat aujourdhui six types de quarks : le quark up (u), le quark down (d), le quark trange (s), le charme (c), le bottom (b) et enfin le top (t). Et ce, sans compter les antiquarks. Mais les observations des astrophysiciens rvlent que toute la matire visible que nous connaissons ne reprsente que 4 % de ce que contient lunivers. Ces 96 % de matire cache de lunivers sont constitus de matire noire, nergie noire, de neutrinos sils ont une masse ou peut-tre de limperfection de la loi de Newton ou des estimations thoriques Cest un domaine ouvert. , observe 1 Jean-Pierre Merlo. [ e ] Physics. The idea that guides the search for ever more precise particles at the very heart of matter has its origin in the theories of the materialist philosophers of Antiquity, Leucippus, Democritus (420 BC), Epicurus (300 BC) and at a later date Lucretius (70 BC), according to which matter is discontinuous, formed of indivisible grains, or atoms. This hypothesis was then in opposition to the ideas of Empedocles of Agrigentum (5th C. BC), adopted by Aristotle, positing that all materials are composed of four elements, earth (solid), water (liquid), air (gaseous), fire (plasma). The esoteric tradition added a fifth element to these, ether or spirit. Nevertheless, it was by following this physics of the elements that alchemy would develop, first in the Arab world, then in the medieval west, and certain of its principles, such as that of transmutation, prefigured nuclear

physics, halfway between occultism [ occultisme ] and experimental intuition. It was the 18th century that marked the beginning of modern chemistry: the figure of the French scientist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier symbolizes a turning point in scientific methods and ways of thinking alike, combining experimentation and theoretical modelling. After analyzing air andfollowing in the footsteps of the British scientist Henry Cavendishwater, so demolishing the theory of the elements, he became one of the instigators of a new rigorous chemical nomenclature, based on the distinction between simple and composite bodies. In the course of the 19th century, analyses of the properties of bodies accumulated, and in 1869 the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev was able to come up with a first Periodic classification of the elements at a time when atomic theory had not yet been constituted. His table then included 30 elements, classified according to the number of protons and the total number of nucleons in their atoms; there were 114 elements in 2006. The unification of electricity and magnetism, demonstrated by the Scotsman James Clerk Maxwell in 1865, would be reinforced by research into the photon carried out in the 20th century: thus it is in fact photons of different wave lengths that constitute visible light [ lumire ] and radio waves like X-rays or gamma rays. In parallel with the ever more refined analysis of the structure of matter, particle physics henceforth worked on describing and unifying the macroscopic and microscopic interactions that determine its behaviour: research into the components of matter went hand in hand with analysis of the determinants of the four fundamental forces of physics gravitational force, electromagnetic force, weak interaction and strong interaction. Thus the heavy bosons discovered by the CERN teams in 1982 had been predicted by the electroweak theory of Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg, which unifies electromagnetic interaction and weak interaction, responsible for electronic radioactivity and the disintegration of certain particles. Research is currently concentrating on the Higgs boson, a particle thus named after one of the physicists who posited its existence, which a detector like the LhC will be capable of revealing. In parallel, research into strong interaction, which for its part binds protons and neutrons into the nuclei of atoms, has led to the modelling of the structure of protons in terms of quarks. Six types of quark are known today: the up (u) quark, the down (d) quark, the strange (s) quark, the charm (c) quark, the bottom (b) quark and finally the top (t) quark. And that is not counting the antiquarks.

But the observations of astrophysicists reveal that all the visible matter we know represents only 4% of what the universe contains. That 96% of hidden matter in the Universe is made up of black matter, black energy, neutrinos if they have mass. Or perhaps of the imperfection of Newtons law or of theoretical estimates Its an open field, comments 1 Jean-Pierre Merlo. [ antimatire ] [ Dtecteurs de particules ] [ 1 Jeudis de CinQ MiLLiarDS DannES (Les) ] [ 2 Mendeleev, Dimitri ] [ rayons cosmiques ]
Mauvaise herbe

Weeds [ f ] Il ny a pas de mauvaises herbes au sens botanique, ce sont simplement des adventices ou encore des herbes folles, des plantes qui se dveloppent dans un endroit non dsir. Les principales mauvaises herbes prsentes dans les cultures en France mtropolitaine sont classes ci-aprs par famille botanique. Amaranthaces : amarante ascendante (Amarantus ascendens Lois.) ; amarante rflchie (Amarantus retroflexus L.) Apiacies : bifora radi (Bifora radians Bieb.) Astraces : bleuet des champs (Centaurea cyanus L.) ; laiteron des marachers (Sonchus oleraceus L.) ; laiteron rude (Sonchus asper Hill) ; lampsane commune (Lampsana comunis L.) ; achille mille-feuilles (Achillea millefolium L.) ; ambroisie feuilles darmoise (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L.) ; armoise commune (Artemisa vulgaris L.) ; camomille (Anthemis sp.) ; chanvre deau (Bidens frondosus L.) ; chardon des champs (Cirsium arvense Scop.) ; chrysanthme des moissons ou marguerite dore (Chrysanthemum segetum L.) ; galinsoga (Galinsoga aristulata Bicknell) ; matricaire ou fausse camomille (Matricaria sp.) ; sneon commun (Senecio vulgaris L.) ; souci des champs (Calendula arvensis L.) ; tussilage (Tussilago farfara L.) Borraginaces : bourrache officinale (Borago officinalis L.) ; buglosse dItalie ou fausse bourrache (Anchusa azurea Mill.) ; gremil des champs (Lithospermum arvense L.) ; myosotis des champs (Myosotis arvensis Hill) ; petite buglosse (Lycopsis arvensis L.) Brassicaces : bourse pasteur (Capsella bursapastoris Moench.) Caryophyllaces : compagnon blanc (Lychnis dioica L.) ; mouron des oiseaux (Stellaria media Cyrill) ; spergule des champs (Spergua arvensis L.) Chnopodiaces : arroche haste (Atriplex

hastatus L.) ; arroche tale (Atriplex patulus L.) ; chnopode nombreuses graines ( Chenopodium polyspermum L.) ; chnopode blanc (Chenopodium album L.) ; chnopode hybride (Chenopodium hybridum L.) Convolvulaces : liseron des champs (Convolvulus arvensis L.) Crucifres : moutarde des champs (Sinapis arvensis L.) ; neslie panicule (Neslia paniculata Desv.) ; ravenelle (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) quistaces : prle (Equisetum sp.) Euphorbiaces : euphorbe rveille-matin (Euphorbia helioscopia L.) ; mercuriale annuelle (Mercurialis annua L.) Fabaces : lentille hrisse (Ervum hirsutum L.) Fumariaces : fumeterre officinale (Fumaria officinalis L.) Graniaces : rodium feuiles de cigu (Erodium cicutarium L.) ; granium tiges grles (Geranium pusillum L.) Gramines : agrostide ou jouet du vent (Agrostis spica-venti L.) ; avoine chapelet (Arrhenatherum bulbosum Presl) ; digitaire sanguine (Digitaria sanguinalis Scop.) ; folle avoine (Avena fatua L.) ; panic ou panice ou pied de coq (Panicum crus-galli P.B.) ; pturin annuel (Poa annua L.) ; pturin commun (Poa trivialis L.) ; ray-grass ou ivraie (Lolium multiflorum Lame.) ; vulpin des champs (Alopecurus agrestis L.) ; staire (Setaria sp.) Lamiaces : lamier amplixicaule (Lamium amplexicaule L.) ; lamier pourpre (Lamium purpureum var purpureum L.) ; ortie royale (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) Malvaces : abutilon de Thophraste (Abutilon theophrasti) Ombellifres : carotte sauvage (Daucus carota L.) ; peigne de Vnus (Scandix pecten-veneris L.) Papavraces : coquelicot (Papaver rhoeas L.) ; pavot argemone (Papaver argemone L.) Papilionaces : vesce commune (Vicia sativa L.) Plantaginaces : plantain lev ou grand plantain (Plantago major L.) ; plantain lancol (Plantago lanceolata L.) Poaces : chiendent officinal (Elytrigia repens L. ou Agropyron repens L.) Polygonaces : patience crpue ou parelle (Rumex crispus L.) ; petite oseille ou oxalis (Rumex acetosella L. ou Oxalis acetosella L.) ; renoue des oiseaux (Polygonum aviculare) ; renoue liseron (Polygonum convolvulus L.) ; renoue persicaire (Polygonum persicaria L.) Portulacaces : pourpier (Portulaca oleracea) Primulaces : mouron des champs ou morgeline (Anagallis arvensis L.) Renonculaces : renoncule des champs

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Mauvaise herbe Alopecurus agrestis

Mauvaise herbe Daucus carota

Mauvaise herbe Avena fatua

Mauvaise herbe Viola tricolor

(Ranunculus arvensis L.) ; renoncule des marais (Ranunculus philonotis Retz.) ; adonis dt ou goutte de sang (Adonis aestivalis L.) Rsdaces : rsda jaune (Reseda lutea L.) Rubiaces : gaillet gratteron (Galium aparine L.) Scrophulariaces : linaire latine ou velvote (Kickxia elatine L. Dumort.) ; vronique feuilles de lierre (Veronica hederaefolia L.) ; vronique de Perse (Veronica persica Poir.) Solanaces : datura stramoine ou pomme pineuse (Datura stramonium L.) ; morelle noire (Solanum nigrum L.) Urticaces : ortie brlante ou petite ortie (Urtica urens L.) Valrianaces : mche ou doucette (Valerianella auricula D.C.) Violaces : pense des champs (Viola tricolor L.) [ e ] There are no weeds in the botanical sense, they are simply self-propagating or wild plants, ones that develop in places where they are not wanted. The main weeds found in crops in mainland France are classified below according to their botanical families Amaranthaceae: climbing amaranth (Amarantus ascendens Lois.); common amaranth (Amarantus retroflexus L.) Apiaceae: wild bishop (Bifora radians Bieb.) Asteraceae: cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.); smooth sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.); prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper Hill); nipplewort (Lapsana comunis L.); yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.); ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L.); mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.); chamomile (Anthemis sp.); beggar ticks (Bidens frondosus L.); creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense Scop.); corn marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum L.); shaggy soldier (Galinsoga aristulata Bicknell); feverfew (Matricaria sp.); groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.); marigold (Calendula arvensis L.); coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.) Borraginaceae: borage (Borago officinalis L.); large blue alkanet (Anchusa azurea Mill.); common gromwell (Lithospermum arvense L.); field forgetme-not (Myosotis arvensis Hill); field bugloss (Lycopsis arvensis L.) Brassicaceae: shepherds purse (Capsella bursapastoris Moench.) Caryophyllaceae: white campion (Lychnis dioica L.); common chickweed (Stellaria media Cyrill); corn spurrey (Spergua arvensis L.) Chenopodiaceae: spear-leaved orache (Atriplex hastatus L.); common orache (Atriplex patulus L.); many-seeded goosefoot ( Chenopodium polyspermum L.); fat hen (Chenopodium album L.); mapleleaved goosefoot (Chenopodium hybridum L.)

Convolvulaceae: field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) Cruciferae: charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.); ball mustard (Neslia paniculata Desv.); wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) Equisetaceae: horsetail (Equisetum sp.) Euphorbiaceae: sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia L.); annual mercury (Mercurialis annua L.) Fabaceae: hairy tare (Ervum hirsutum L.) Fumariaceae: common fumitoy (Fumaria officinalis L.) Geraniaceae: common storksbill (Erodium cicutarium L.); small-flowered cranesbill (Geranium pusillum L.) Gramineae: wind grass (Agrostis spicaventi L.); tall oatgrass (Arrhenatherum bulbosum Presl); hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis Scop.); wild oat (Avena fatua L.); barnyard grass (Panicum crus-galli P.B.); annual meadow grass (Poa annua L.); rough meadow grass (Poa trivialis L.); Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum Lame.); black-grass (Alopecurus agrestis L.); foxtail (Setaria sp.) Lamiaceae: henbit dead-nettle (Lamium amplexicaule L.); red dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum var purpureum L.); common help-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) Malvaceae: velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Papaveraceae: common poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.); prickly poppy (Papaver argemone L.) Papilionaceae: common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) Plantaginaceae: greater plantain (Plantago major L.); ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Poaceae: common couch (Elytrigia repens L. or Agropyron repens L.) Polygonaceae: curled dock (Rumex crispus L.); common sorrel (Rumex acetosella L. or Oxalis acetosella L.); knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare); wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L.); redshank (Polygonum persicaria L.) Portulacaceae: common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Primulaceae: scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis L.) Renonculaceae: corn buttercup (Ranunculus arvensis L.); marsh buttercup (Ranunculus philonotis Retz.); summer pheasants eye (Adonis aestivalis L.) Resedaceae: wild mignonette (Reseda lutea L.) Rubiaceae: common cleavers (Galium aparine L.) Scrophulariaceae: sharp-leaved fluellen (Kickxia elatine L. Dumort.); lilac ivy-leaved speedwell (Veronica hederaefolia L.); common field speedwell (Veronica persica Poir.) Solanaceae: thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.); black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.)

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Umbelliferae: wild carrot (Daucus carota L.); shepherds needle (Scandix pecten-veneris L.) Urticaceae: annual nettle (Urtica urens L.) Valerianaceae: broad-fruited corn salad (Valerianella auricula D.C.) Violaceae: wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.)
Mlis, GeorGes [ f ] 18611938. Illusionniste, cinaste, dcorateur et

entrepreneur, Georges Mlis est considr comme lun des grands pionniers du septime art. Il nat et grandit Paris. Alors quil effectue un stage dans un grand magasin de Londres, il frquente lEgyptian Hall dirig par lillusionniste John Nevil Maskelyne et devient prestidigitateur amateur. De retour Paris, il donne ses premires sances dillusionnisme au muse Grvin et la galerie Vivienne. En 1888, grce la fortune de son pre, il loue le Thtre Robert-Houdin o il cre sa premire saynte magique , La Stroubaka persane. Les sayntes magiques sont des tours de magie mis en scne grand renfort de costumes et de dcors. Georges Mlis rdige lui-mme la publicit du tour descapologie que constitue La Stroubaka persane : Vous prsentez une planche garnie de ferrures, vous attachez le patient par les mains et par les pieds, et pour complter lillusion, vous faites sceller les cordes par le public. Vous suspendez cette planche par quatre cordes, aprs avoir couvert votre sujet. Il joue du tambour de basque, sonnettes, etc., et, au coup de pistolet, il se trouve parmi le public sans avoir bris les liens, ni les scells. Une trentaine de sayntes magiques seront montes sur le mme modle. En 1891, il fonde lAcadmie de prestidigitation. Aprs avoir eu connaissance du cinmatographe des frres Lumire en 1895, il commence tourner des films et cre sa propre socit de production qui prendra le nom de Star Film. Influenc par ses connaissances en prestidigitation, il dcouvre les premiers trucages et effets spciaux de lhistoire du cinma quil met en pratique dans des films tels que Escamotage dune dame chez RobertHoudin (1896) ou Un homme de ttes (1898). Il fait construire des studios de tournage Montreuil. En 1902, son film Le Voyage dans la Lune est pirat aux tats-Unis o il remporte un succs considrable. Il ouvre une succursale New York. partir de 1909, il fait distribuer ses films par Gaumont. En 1910, il entreprend une tourne en Europe avec un spectacle de magie intitul Les Fantmes du Nil. Victime de la concurrence des magnats du cinma, sa carrire commence dcliner, tandis quil ralise ses derniers films au lendemain de la premire guerre mondiale. Le Thtre Robert-

Houdin est ferm en 1923. Ruin, il vend lintgralit de son catalogue qui comporte plusieurs centaines de films. Profitant dune concession appartenant sa seconde pouse, il ouvre une boutique de confiseries et de jouets dans le hall de la gare Montparnasse. [ e ] 18611938. An illusionist, film-maker, decorator and entrepreneur, Georges Mlis is regarded as one of the great pioneers of the seventh art. He was born and grew up in Paris. While working in a department store in London, he visited the Egyptian Hall, run by the illusionist John Nevil Maskelyne and became an amateur magician [ prestidigitateur ]. Upon his return to Paris, he gave his first performances as an illusionist at the Muse Grvin and the Galerie Vivienne. In 1888, thanks to his fathers fortune, he hired the Thtre Robert-Houdin where he created his first saynte magique (magic playlet), La Stroubaka persane. These playlets were composed of magic tricks, staged with a lavish use of costumes and sets. Mlis himself wrote the publicity for the escapology [ escapologie ] trick that is the basis of La Stroubaka persane: You present a plank fitted out with ironwork, you tie the victim to it by his hands and feet, and to complete the illusion, you get the audience to seal the ropes. You suspend the plank by four ropes, after covering your captive. A tambourine plays, bells ring, etc., and at the firing of a pistol, he is seated among the audience without having broken the ties or the seals. Around thirty sayntes magiques based on the same model were staged. In 1891, he founded the Acadmie de prestidigitation. After getting to know the Lumire brothers cinematograph in 1895, he started to make films and created his own production company under the name Star Film. Influenced by his knowledge of magic, he discovered the first ways of faking and using special effects in the history of cinema, putting them into practice in films such as Escamotage dune dame chez Robert-Houdin (1896) or Un homme de ttes (1898). He had film studios built at Montreuil. His film Le Voyage dans la Lune was pirated in the United States in 1902 where it achieved considerable success. He opened a branch office in New York. After 1909, his films were distributed by Gaumont. In 1910, he embarked on a tour of Europe with a magic show entitled Les Fantmes du Nil. He fell victim to competition from the film magnates; his career started to go into decline and he made his last films immediately after World War I. The Thtre Robert-Houdin was closed in 1923. Mlis was ruined, and sold his entire catalogue comprising several hundred films. Taking advan-

tage of a concession belonging to his second wife, he opened a sweet and toy shop in the concourse of the Montparnasse station. [ robert-houdin ]
MMoire

Memory [ f ] Dans le langage des neurosciences la mmoire dsigne une facult de lesprit commune aux animaux et aux hommes qui leur permet de se rappeler des expriences passes et des informations. Elle joue donc un rle central dans les processus dapprentissage. En informatique, elle dsigne un dispositif physique qui permet de stocker et darchiver des donnes. Si on se rfre lhistoire des socits humaines, la notion de conservation qui se rapporte larchive et celle dapprentissage qui se rapporte la connaissance par lindividu de linscription de son existence dans celle dune communaut qui la prcd dans le temps sest ajoute au xxe sicle, aprs le traumatisme conscutif au nazisme et linitiative danciens dports, la notion de devoir de mmoire qui dsigne lobligation morale et politique de se souvenir des crimes passs afin de prvenir lavenir leur rptition. [ e ] In the language of neuroscience, memory refers to a mental faculty common to animals and human beings enabling them to recall past experiences and information. Thus it plays a central role in the process of learning. In computer technology, it refers to a physical contrivance making it possible to store and archive data. If we look at the history of human societies, in the 20th century another notion has been added to the notions of preservation (which relates to archives) and learning (which relates to an individuals awareness that his or her existence is inscribed in that of a community which came before in time). After the trauma resulting from Nazism, the notion of a duty of memory was initiated by those who had been deported to describe the moral and political obligation to remember past crimes in order their repetition in the future. [ 4 Badaut-haussmann, Latitia ]
MentalisMe

Mentalism [ f ] Branche de lart de la prestidigitation qui consiste, pour les prestidigitateurs, imiter les pouvoirs paranormaux des mdiums, en particulier la transmission de pense. Elle est fonde au milieu du xixe sicle par le prestidigitateur JeanEugne robert-houdin loccasion de la cration de lun de ses tours les plus clbres intitul La

Seconde Vue. Pour attirer le public, le tour est annonc sur les affiches de ses Soires fantastiques : Dans cette sance, le fils de M. RobertHoudin, dou dune seconde vue merveilleuse, aprs que ses yeux auront t couverts dun pais bandeau, dsignera tous les objets qui lui seront prsents par les spectateurs. Dans ses Mmoires intituls Une vie dartiste, Jean-Eugne RobertHoudin rvle les circonstances hasardeuses de linvention de ce tour : Mes deux enfants tant un jour dans le salon, samusaient un jeu cr par leur imagination enfantine. Le plus jeune avait band les yeux de son frre et lui faisait deviner les objets quil touchait, et, quand celui-ci, guid par des suppositions, venait nommer juste, le jeune prenait sa place. Ce jeu si simple, si naf, fit cependant germer en moi une des ides les plus compliques qui me soient jamais venues lesprit. Poursuivi par cette ide, je courus menfermer dans mon cabinet ; jtais heureusement dans une de ces dispositions o lintelligence suit avec docilit, avec plaisir mme, les combinaisons que la fantaisie lui trace. Je mappuyai la tte dans mes deux mains, et, sous linfluence dune surexcitation que je provoquais, je posai les premiers principes de La Seconde Vue. [ e ] Branch of the art of magic and conjuring that involves magicians [ prestidigitateurs ] imitating the paranormal powers of mediums, in particular thought transfer. It was founded in the mid-19th century by the magician JeanEugne robert-houdin when he created one of his most famous tricks, entitled La Seconde Vue [ Second Sight ]. To attract the public, the trick was announced on the posters advertising his Soires Fantastiques : In this performance, the son of M. Robert-Houdin, endowed with the marvellous gift of second sight, his eyes covered with a thick blindfold, will name all the objects that are presented by the audience. In his memoirs entitled Une vie dartiste, Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin revealed the chance circumstances leading to the invention of this trick: My two children were in the sitting-room one day, amusing themselves with a game created by their childish imaginations. The younger one had blindfolded his brother and was getting him to guess the identity of the objects he was touching, and when he had managed to name them correctly, guided by making assumptions, the younger one took his place. This very simple, very naive game nonetheless gave rise to one of the most complex ideas that ever came to my mind. Gripped by this idea, I ran and shut myself in my study; fortunately I was in one of those frames of mind when intelligence obediently and pleasurably

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follows the combinations the imagination outlines for it. I rested my head on my two hands, and under the influence of a self-induced exaltation, I laid down the first principles of Second Sight.
MerZbow [ f ] Projet du Tokyote Masami Akita cr en 1978,

Merzbow est lun des plus illustres reprsentants dune noise music radicale et extrme. En cho lart Merz et au Merzbau invent par Kurt Schwitters, avec pour principe de construction la rcupration de matriaux et de rebuts divers, la musique de Merzbow est compose partir de bruits, de dchets sonores et dlments obtenus par la manipulation dinstruments sommaires, de bandes magntiques ou dordinateurs. Jouant avec les frquences, les saturations et les distorsions sonores au fil de morceaux pouvant excder les vingt minutes, Merzbow remet plat les distinctions entre bruit et musique, matire et forme, hasard et composition pour proposer ses auditeurs une exprience esthtique limite. Dans une discographie qui compte plus de trois cents titres, parmi lesquels des collaborations avec Genesis P. Orridge ou Pan Sonic, on peut retenir lemblmatique Pulse Demon (Release, 1996) et surtout la Merzbox (Extreme, 2003) qui regroupe sur cinquante CD les archives de lartiste autour dun mot dordre : Welcome to the Pleasuredome of Noise . Masami Akita est par ailleurs lauteur de plusieurs livres, certains portant sur sa musique, dautres sur larchitecture nippone davant-guerre ou sur le bondage ; il a aussi ralis quelques films rotico-gore, comme Lost Paradise (1990), qui relve du genre trs cod du film de seppuku fminin. [ e ] Merzbow, the project created by Tokyo based Masami Akita in 1978, is one of the most praised representatives of radical and extreme noise music. Echoing Kurt Schwitters Merz art and Merzbau, whose principle of construction was the retrieval of found material and rubbish, Merzbow composes his music with noise, sound waste or elements obtained by the use of rough instruments, tape loops and computers. Working on frequencies, saturations, and sound distortions all along titles that can last more 20 minutes, Merzbow plays fast and loose with the distinctions between noise and music, matter and form, chance, and composition, to offer his listeners an extreme aesthetic experience. His discography includes over 300 cassettes and albums, including collaborations with Genesis P. Orridge or Pan Sonic. The emblematic Pulse Demon (Release, 1995) is worth noting, and above all the Merzbox (Extreme, 2003), which gathers

previous releases and archives on 50 CDs with the motto: Welcome to the Pleasuredome of Noise . Masami Akita is also the author of several books, some about his music, others about Japanese pre-war architecture or about bondage; he has also made some erotic-gore films, like Lost Paradise (1990), which have overtones of the very coded film genre of the female seppuku. [ 1 harsh noise ] [ 1 Jeudis de La MarQuE noirE (L es) ]
Mescaline [ f ] Au plus fort de son action la Mescaline apporte

des images aveuglantes ou cernes par la foudre, des tranches de feu, ainsi que des hommes lointains ou liliputiennement petits, anims dun mouvement rapide, plus proche de celui des pistons dun moteur que daucun geste dhomme. normment de cristaux et tout finit tt ou tard en cristaux. [] Plus faible encore, la Mescaline fait trembler toute chose de tout petits tremblements incessants, doscillations, dembotements-dbotements. Un infime permanent sisme y rgne, qui fait songer un processus ruiniforme, sans que rien, malgr les lzardes incessantes ne tombe en ruine. [] Saffaiblissant encore, la Mescaline distribuera jusqu puisement des tissus moirs, des satins douteux, des objets nickels dont le nickel a souffert et des revtements aux tons aguicheurs. Par moments de trs intenses et pures couleurs, mais tt ou tard le bazar revient, rduisant nant leffet des beauts prcdentes. Quelle que soit la couleur, la nuance doucetre, vritable pelotage par la vision, est la plus courante. [] La Mescaline provoque un tat vibratoire. Vibrations multiples, au dbut presque foudroyantes. amplitudes anormales, avec beaucoup de pointes. [] Lallongement fantastique des images dans la vision mescalinienne pourrait avoir un rapport avec les pointes. [] Limage visuelle est (ou saccompagne dun phnomne qui est) du mme ordre de grandeur peut-tre que ces vibrations agrandies, ce qui expliquerait aussi linterfrence onde-image et aussi onde-pense (cette dernire gne jusqu la folie) []. La Mescaline diminue limagination. Elle chtre limage, la dsensualise. Elle fait des images cent pour cent pures. Elle fait du laboratoire. [] Elle (la Mesc.) fait des images si exactement dpouilles de la bonne fourrure de la sensation, et si uniquement visuelles quelles sont le marchepied du mental pur, de labstrait et de la dmonstration. Aussi est-elle lennemie de la posie, de la mditation, et surtout du mystre. [] Dans la Mescaline, les images sont lpiphnomne (abondant et gnant), mais cest labstrait qui compte. On est

Georges Mlis, Un homme de ttes, 1898

Georges Mlis, Escamotage dune dame au thtre Robert-Houdin,1896

Mentalisme Gravure extraite de / Print from Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin, Confidences et rvlations, 1868

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inond de clarts. La rflexion la plus terre terre, car on est trs matter of fact, va aprs quelques ricochets la mtaphysique. Bondissant et rebondissant sur dautres ides qui toutes lui sont tremplins, saisissant des rapports la vole, elle ne cesse davancer vertigineusement, dclairer, de dcouvrir, filant avec un dvorant apptit de dtection qui fait promptement ngliger la foire optique qui laccompagne ou les balbutiements de la langue surclasse. [] Au lieu dun travail de construction, lintelligence par la Mescaline fait surtout des parcours. [] La traverseuse despaces dailleurs critique de lautre intelligence manque de sens critique, et suit son chemin, fonant sans regarder les environs. 4 henri Michaux, Misrable Miracle. La Mescaline, 1972 (chapitre iii., Caractres de la mescaline ) [ e ] When the action of mescaline is at its height, it produces blinding images, or images ringed with lightning, trenches of fire, as well as, in the distance, lilliputian men whose motions are more like those of the pistons of an engine than human gestures. Any amount of crystals, and sooner or later everything turns into crystals. [] Still weaker, mescaline makes everything tremble with constant little tremblings, oscillations, junctions -disjunctions. There is a permanent miniature seism which makes one think of a ruiniform process, presenting the aspect of ruins. Yet in spite of all the fissures nothing ever collapses. [] Growing still weaker, mescaline will distribute, to the point of surfeit, watered silks, dubious satins, nickled objects with the nickle chipped, and linings in flashy tones. At moments, very intense pure colours, but sooner or later the mess returns, nullifying the effect of the former beauty. Whatever the colour, the sweetish tone, a regular cajoling through the eyes, is the most common. [ ] Mescaline provokes a vibratory state. Multiple vibrations, almost overwhelming at first, of abnormal amplitude and with a great many points. [ ] The fantastic elongations of the images in mescalinian vision might be related to the points. [ ] The visual image is (or is accompanied by a phenomenon that is) in the same size-category as these enlarged vibrations. This would also explain the wave-image interference as well as the wave-thought interference (though disturbed to the point of madness) [ ]. Mescaline diminishes the imagination. It castrates, desensualizes the image. It makes images that are a hundred percent pure. Laboratory experiments. [ ] But Mescaline makes images so completely stripped of the pleasant fur of sensation, and so wholly visual that they are the vehicles of the purely mental, of the abstract, of demonstration. It is also the enemy

of poetry, of meditation, and above all of mystery.


[] In mescaline, the images are epiphenominal

(abundant and encumbering), but it is the abstract that counts. One is inundated with light. The most commmonplace thought, for one is very matter-offact, becomes metaphysical after a few rebounds. Bounding and rebounding on other ideas which serve as springboards, grasping connections instantaneously, it never stops advancing at a dizzy pace, never stops illuminating, discovering, flying along with an all devouring appetite for detection, so that the optical carnival accompanying it, or the idiotic stammerings of language it has superseded, are promptly forgotten. [] Through mescaline, the intelligence, instead of being constructive, is above all interested in covering ground. [] This traverser of space lacks a critical sense (but is critical of the other intelligence), pursues its course and plunges ahead without ever looking at anything around it. 4 henri Michaux, Miserable Miracle. The Mescaline, 1972 (chapitre III . Characteristics of Mescaline) [Trans. Louise Varese] [ 4 FrESh hELL ] [ 4 Jeudis de FrESh hELL (Les) ]
MicroGraMMes

Micrograms [ f ] Manuscrits miniatures crits par Robert Walser entre 1924 et 1933 constitus de cinq cent vingtsix feuillets disparates (papiers de rcupration, enveloppes, pages de journaux, correspondances prives ou professionnelles, etc.), les microgrammes ont t dcouverts la mort de lcrivain et publis en 2000, au terme dun travail de dchiffrage dune vingtaine dannes. Vritable terrain personnel et intime dexprimentation et de cration invent par Robert Walser en rponse une angoisse de lcriture, les microgrammes constituaient des brouillons en attente dune copie destine la publication. Comme le souligne Marion Graf, traductrice de Robert Walser, dans son article Les Microgrammes comme paysages (Habiter potiquement, LaM, Villeneuve dAscq, 2010) : Dans les annes 1920, le procd de lcriture micrographie devient le secret de la crativit de Walser. [] la suite dune crise ou dune crampe qui avait reprsent une faillite de sa main [] il sest habitu esquisser ses textes au crayon ; libre de batifoler sur le papier comme un enfant. Cest dans un deuxime temps que lcrivain [] choisit et copie la plume, avec quelques retouches, les textes quil destine aux journaux. Dune part, donc, latelier priv de lartiste, le terrain de jeu et dexprimentation soigneusement protg des regards

par la micrographie ; de lautre, le domaine public du copiste, astreint un systme de copie comme bureaucratique. [ e ] Miniature manuscripts written by Robert Walser between 1924 and 1933 made up of five hundred twenty-six loose pages (scrap paper, envelopes, newspaper, private or professional correspondence, etc.), the micrograms were discovered after the authors death and published in 2000, after twenty years of deciphering. A personal and intimate field of experimentation and creation invented by Robert Walser as a response to his anxiety towards writing, the micrograms were so many rough drafts in preparation for a work destined for publication. As Marion Graf, Robert Walsers translator has pointed out in her article The micrograms as landscapes (Habiter potiquement, LaM, 2010): In the 1920s, the micrographic writing process became the secret to Walsers creativity. [] Following a seizure or a cramp which represented a failure of the hand [] he became used to writing his texts in pencil; free to frolic about on the paper like a child. Only later does the writer [] select and copy out in ink, with a few alterations, the texts that he then sends to journals. On one hand, the artists private studio, a space for play and experimentation carefully hidden from view thanks to excessively small handwriting; on the other hand, the copyists public domain, compelled to an office-like copying system. [ 4 Jeudis de FrESh hELL (Les) ]
Miroir noir

Black mirror [ f ] voir p. 138 [ e ] see p. 138 [ Bragdon, Claude Fayette ] [ 1 Matin des magiciens (Le) ] [ occultisme ]
MnMosyne (atlas)

lobjet de lentreprise warburgienne oprent un rtrcissement de lespace et une acclration du temps, la manire du montage cinmatographique. Elle vise identifier sous la surface dune volution progressive des formes de la cration artistique la survivance de formes archaques, ce quil appelait descendre dans les profondeurs de la nature instinctuelle, o lesprit humain pouse la matire sdimente hors de toute sduction temporelle . La fonction mnmonique des images doit sentendre selon Aby Warburg comme leur pouvoir de transmettre et faire prouver ceux qui les contemplent les motions anciennes dans leur survivance. [ e ] Uncompleted project led by German art historian 4 aby Warburg. Beginning in 1923, the Renaissance specialist devoted the six last years of his life to writing the Atlas Mnemosyne, which initiated an innovative method of writing and interpretation in art history. The historian proceeds by assembling and arranging iconographical documents pinned to large wood panels. The focus of his research is the surviving traces of Antiquity in Renaissance art and revealing the constants in the expression of human emotion, what he terms the forms of pathos. The method and the focus of Warburgs enterprise create a sense of space contracting and time accelerating, much in the way of a film montage. The project seeksunderneath the surface of the progressive evolution of the forms of artistic creationto identify the vestiges of archaic forms, what he described as descending into the depths of instinctual nature, where the human mind adapts itself to the contours of deposited matter away from any temporal seduction. The mnemonic function of these images, according to Aby Warburg, refers to their ability to transmit and stir in the beholder bygone emotions in their vestigial forms.
Modulaire

Mnemosyne (Atlas) [ f ] Projet inachev de lhistorien de lart allemand 4 aby Warburg. partir de 1923, ce spcialiste de la Renaissance consacre les six dernires annes de sa vie la constitution de lAtlas Mnmosyne qui initie une mthode novatrice dcriture et dinterprtation en histoire de lart. Lhistorien opre par assemblages et arrangements de documents iconographiques quil fixe sur des grands panneaux de bois. Lobjet de sa recherche est la survivance de lAntiquit dans lart de la Renaissance et la mise en vidence des constantes de lexpression des sentiments humains, ce quil appelle les formes du pathos . La mthode et

Modular [ f ] Dont les possibilits peuvent crotre par ladjonction dlments autonomes et interconnects. Ainsi, une structure modulaire peut se dvelopper de manire additive. La conception de structures modulaires permet doptimiser les cots de fabrication par la production en srie dlments de mme forme. Elle participe ainsi de la rationalisation de la production industrielle grce une standardisation des mthodes de travail et des produits. Lusage des formes modulaires dans lart, dont lexploration systmatique des possibilits du cube par Sol LeWitt constitue un exemple paradigmatique, revient importer dans un domaine dactivit

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Miroir noir
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Au xvi sicle, le Dr. John Dee (15271608), mdecin, mathmaticien et astrologue proche de la cour dAngleterre, utilise un petit miroir noir dans le cadre de ses recherches occultes. Ce miroir est un fragment poli dobsidienne, roche volcanique vitreuse riche en silice et de couleur sombre. Il sagit dun objet sacr aztque introduit en Europe aprs les conqutes de Corts en Amrique centrale (15271530). Dune manire gnrale, les alchimistes de la Renaissance attribuent des pouvoirs magiques aux miroirs et aux objets rflchissants. partir du xviie sicle, de nombreux peintres utilisent des miroirs noirs comme instruments doptique. galement appels miroirs de Claude en rfrence au peintre Claude Gele, dit le Lorrain (1600 1682), les miroirs noirs sont des miroirs convexes teints, dont il existe de nombreux modles, les variations portant sur la forme, la taille, la teinte ou le degr de convexit. La fonction de cet instrument est notamment daider la rsolution des problmes de perspective. Il facilite la reprsentation, les peintres copiant la nature reflte et concentre dans le miroir comme ils copieraient un tableau. Au lieu dimiter une perception en trois dimensions, ils imitent une perception en deux dimensions.
e

Black mirror
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In the 16 century, Dr. John Dee (1527 1608), a mathematician, astrologist and doctor of medicine, closely linked to the English court, used a little black mirror in the context of his occult research. That mirror was a polished fragment of obsidian, a dark-coloured vitreous volcanic rock rich in silica. It was in fact a sacred Aztec object introduced into Europe after Cortss conquests in Central America (15271530). Renaissance alchemists generally attributed magic powers to mirrors and reflective objects. Starting in the 17th century, many painters used black mirrors as optical instruments. Also called miroirs de Claude in reference to the painter Claude Gele, nicknamed le Lorrain (16001682), black mirrors are convex tinted mirrors; there are many models, varying in shape, size, hue, and degree of convexity. This instrument facilitates the solving of problems of perspective. It makes it easier for the painter to depict nature, reflected and concentrated in the mirror, which they can copy as they would another picture. Instead of imitating three-dimensional perception, they can imitate two-dimensional perception.
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Modulaire Charlotte Posenenske, Vierkantrohre, Serie D,

Combinaison de quatre lments/Combination of four elements, 1967. Estate Charlotte Posenenske (Francfort/ Frankfurt). Courtesy Burkhard Brunn

~~~

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Monstre Images extraites de/Images from

Conrad Lycosthenes, Prodigiorum ac Ostentorum Chronicon, 1557

Modulaire Charlotte Posenenske, Diagramme des lments

pour / Diagram of elements for Vierkantrohre, Serie D, 1967. Estate Charlotte Posenenske (Francfort/Frankfurt). Courtesy Burkhard Brunn

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autrefois index sur le modle artisanal (connaissance par exprience, transmission du matre llve, unit de la conception et de la fabrication, excellence) un modle industriel (rationalisation, standardisation, division du travail, anonymat, banalit). Ces caractres propres la production industrielle, une fois intgrs dans une dmarche artistique tmoignant de la capacit dinvention dun individu et de sa vertu rflexive, deviennent linstrument et lexpression dun artiste confront au devenir de la socit moderne. [ e ] Whose possibilities increase by adding autonomous and interconnected elements. A modular structure can thus develop in an additive manner. Designing modular structures is a way to optimize production costs by serially manufacturing elements of the same shape, thus rationalizing industrial production [ production industrielle ] thanks to the standardization of work methods and products. The use of modular forms in artof which the systematic exploration of the possibilities of the cube by Sol LeWitt is a paradigmatic examplemeans importing into an activity once founded on craft (learning through experience, transmission from master to pupil, unity in the conception and production, excellence), the industrial model (rationalization, standardization, division of labour, anonymity, banality). These characteristics inherent to industrial production, once they are integrated into the artistic statement as a manifestation of an individuals inventive capacity and his reflexive virtues, become the instrument and the expression of an artist confronted with the future of todays society. [ Singularit ]
MoMification

Mummification [ f ] Voici comment ils procdent lembaumement le plus prcieux. Dabord, laide dun fer recourb, ils extraient le cerveau par les narines, parties, par lopration de ce fer, partie grce des drogues quils versent dans la tte. Ensuite, avec une pierre dthiopie tranchante, ils font une incision le long du flanc et retirent tous les intestins, quils nettoient et purifient avec du vin de datte, et purifient une seconde fois avec des aromates broys. Puis ils remplissent le ventre de myrrhe pure broye, de cannelle et de tous autres aromates, lexception de lencens, et le recousent. Cela fait, ils salent le corps en le recouvrant de natron pendant soixante-dix jours ; ils ne doivent pas le laisser dans le sel plus longtemps. Quand les soixante-dix jours sont couls, ils lavent le mort, enveloppent tout son corps de bandes tailles dans

un tissu de byssus, avec une couche de gomme (que les gyptiens emploient ordinairement au lieu de colle). Les parents en prennent alors livraison ; ils font faire un tui en bois de figure humaine ; dans cet tui, ils enferment le mort et, inclus de la sorte, le gardent prcieusement lintrieur dune chambre funraire, o ils le placent debout contre le mur. Avec ceux qui veulent le traitement moyen et dsirent viter de grandes dpenses, voici comment ils sy prennent. Ils emplissent des seringues du liquide gras qui provient du genvrier cade, et ils en emplissent le ventre du mort sans louvrir ni retirer les entrailles, faisant linjection par le fondement et empchant le lavement de revenir par o il est entr ; et ils mettent dans le sel pendant le nombre de jours prescrits. Le dernier jour, ils font sortir du ventre lhuile de cade quils y avaient introduite ; telle est sa force quelle entrane avec elle les intestins et les viscres, dissous ; quant aux chairs, elles sont dissoutes par le natron ; et il ne reste du mort que la peau et les os. Cela fait, les embaumeurs rendent le corps sans prendre plus de peine. Et voici le troisime genre dembaumement, appliqu aux plus pauvres : on purifie les intestins avec de la syrmaia ; on met dans le sel pendant les soixante-dix jours ; et le corps est rendu pour tre remport. Hrodote, Histoires, Livre ii, lxxxvi, lxxxvii & lxxxviii, Coutumes gyptiennes et animaux sacrs [ e ] The most perfect process of embalment is the following: as much as possible of the brain is extracted through the nostrils with an iron hook, and what the hook cannot reach is rinsed out with drugs. Next, the flank is laid open with a flint knife and the whole contents of the abdomen removed; the cavity is then thoroughly cleansed and washed out, first with palm wine and again with an infusion of pounded spices. It is then filled with pure bruised myrrh, cassia, and every other aromatic substance with the exception of frankincense, and sewn up again, after which the body is placed in natrum, covered entirely over, for seventy days never longer. When this period, which must not be exceeded, is over, the body is washed and then wrapped from head to foot in linen cut into strips and smeared on the under side with gum, which is commonly used by the Egyptians instead of glue. In this condition the body is given back to the family, who have a wooden case made, shaped like the human figure, into which it is put. The case is then sealed up and stored in a sepulchral chamber, upright against the wall. When, for reasons of expense, the second quality is called for, the treatment is different: No incision is made and the intestines are not removed, but oil of cedar is

injected with a syringe into the body through the anus which is afterwards stopped up to prevent the liquid from escaping. The body is then pickled in natrum for the prescribed number of days, on the last of which the oil is drained off. The effect of it is so powerful that as it leaves the body it brings with it the stomach and intestines in a liquid state, and as the flesh, too, is dissolved by the natrum, nothing of the body is left but the bones and skin. After this treatment it is returned to the family without further fuss. The third method, used for embalming the bodies of the poor, is simply to clear out the intestines with a purge and keep the body seventy days in natrum. It is then given back to the family to be taken away. Herodotus, Histories, 2nd Book, LXXXVI , LXXXVII & LXXXVIII : Egyptian customs and animals [ 4 Boucand, raphalle ] [ 4 Milh, nicolas ] [ Taxidermie ]
Monstre

Monster [ f ] Du latin mostrum (avertissement des dieux, prsage, prodige) qui vient du verbe mostrare (dsigner, indiquer, montrer). Depuis lAntiquit jusqu lpoque moderne, les monstres taient considrs comme une dmonstration de la volont divine. En tant que prsages, ils taient la manifestation la plus importante dune varit de phnomnes naturels tonnants quon appelait aussi miracles, prodiges ou merveilles. Comme autant de signes miraculeux, les comtes, les tremblements de terre, les veaux six pattes, les porcs il unique et les monstres humains confirmaient, contredisaient ou modifiaient ce que lhumanit simaginait tre lordre des choses. Dans son ouvrage Des monstres & des prodiges (1573), le chirurgien franais Ambroise Par runit une collection tonnante de monstres et merveilles, mettant sur le mme plan le prodige et lerreur, le merveilleux et le discours mdical sur le corps anormal. Au fil de sa longue cohabitation avec les interprtations religieuses, laquelle il met fin au dbut du xxe sicle, le discours humaniste et scientifique opre le passage de la notion de monstre en tant que prodige celle derreur de la nature et de monstre naturel . Les monstres deviennent alors des signes de la fantaisie de la nature. En 1832, un autre mdecin franais, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, fonde la tratologie et retire ainsi au monstre son caractre dextravagance corporelle pour en faire un simple spcimen pathologique. Avec lui, le fantaisiste, ltrange, le curieux deviennent lanormal, lintolrable. La scularisation et la rationalisation du dis-

cours scientifique saccompagnent au xixe sicle, sur fond dexpansion imprialiste et de conqutes coloniales, de lessor dun nouveau march qui institutionnalise lexhibition des monstres sous la forme dun spectacle de foire. Sappuyant sur une tradition ancienne dexhibition dindividus fantastiques nains ou bossus ou danimaux savants, le nouveau spectacle se double dun discours pseudo-scientifique, qui promet linstruction en plus de lexcitation, comme par exemple au clbre Barnums American Museum de New York, cr par lentrepreneur de spectacles Phineas Taylor Barnum en 1841 et en activit jusquen 1865. On fait ainsi dfiler des femmes obses ou barbe, des jumeaux siamois ou des infirmes, des hermaphrodites, des sauvages de Borno et des cannibales. Une multitude de corps dapparence singulire font lobjet dune mise en scne qui renforce et hyperbolise leur tranget dans un spectacle dont les spectateurs ressortent avec le sentiment rconfortant de leur propre banalit. Objet de mises en scnes orchestres par lentrepreneur de spectacle, le monstre naturel se rvle tre en ralit un monstre culturel , la marge bigarre qui sert dlimiter la normalit. Au dbut du xxe sicle, la respectabilit bourgeoise considre le spectacle de monstres comme trop populaire et vulgaire, et son sentimentalisme transforme ladmiration craintive en piti. Le monstrueux est dornavant plaindre, soigner, voire liminer. [ e ] Derived from the Latin mostrum (a warning from the gods, a portent, a wonder) that comes from the verb mostrare (to designate, point to, show). From Antiquity to the modern era, monsters were regarded as a demonstration of divine will. As portents, they were the most important manifestation of a variety of amazing natural phenomena that were also called miracles, wonders or marvels. Like a succession of miraculous signs, comets, earthquakes, calves with six legs, pigs with only one eye and human monsters confirmed, contradicted or altered what humankind imagined was the order of things. In his book Des monstres & des prodiges (1573), the French surgeon Ambroise Par brought together an astonishing collection of monsters and marvels, putting the wonder and the mistake, the marvellous and the medical debate on the abnormal body, on the same level. Over the course of its long coexistence with religious interpretations which it brought to an end in the early 20th century, the humanist and scientific discourse has effected the gradual change of the notion of the monster as a wonder to that of a mistake by nature and a natural monster. Monsters then became indications of the whimsicality of nature. In 1832,

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another French doctor, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, founded teratology, removing from the monster its character as a bodily extravagance and turning it into a simple pathological specimen. The fanciful, the strange, the odd became the abnormal, the intolerable. Against a background of imperialist expansion and colonial conquests, the secularization and rationalization of the scientific discourse in the 19th century were accompanied by the expansion of a new market that institutionalized the exhibiting of monsters in the form of shows at fairs. Resting on an old tradition of exhibiting outlandish individualsdwarves or hunchbacks or performing animals, the new shows went hand in hand with a pseudo-scientific discourse, that promised to be instructive as well as offering excitement. For example, the famous Barnums American Museum in New York was created by the impresario Phineas Taylor Barnum in 1841 and carried on until 1865. So there was a procession of obese or bearded women, Siamese twins or cripples, hermaphrodites, savages from Borneo and cannibals. A multitude of strange-looking bodies were used to make a scenario that reinforced and hyperbolized their bizarre nature in a show which the audience left with the reassuring feeling of their own ordinariness. As the subject of scenarios orchestrated by impresarios, the natural monster turned out in reality to be a cultural monster, the variegated margin that serves to delimit normality. At the beginning of the 20th century, bourgeois respectability regarded shows parading monsters as too working-class and vulgar, and their sentimentality transformed fearful admiration into pity. Henceforth, the monstrous was to be pitied, cared for, or even eliminated. [ Cyborg ] [ 4 inquitante tranget ] [ 4 Mercier, Tho ] [ Mutants ]
Morceaux dhoMMe (des)

Pieces of human being [ f ] Consquence paradoxale de la globalisation, la fragmentation interne lhumain est un processus stalant tout au long des temps modernes. Ce phnomne est couramment rapproch par les spcialistes de lInde et penseurs de la Tradition de lre de la desse Kali (Kali Yuga). Ils peuvent y voir se manifester une forme dautoanthropophagie passant galement par la dcoupe de soi-mme en objets-ftiches. Les symptmes sont nombreux : dveloppement pandmique des personnalits multiples, projets de tabula rasa psychologiques du Dr Cameron, apparition chaotique et simultane

des serial killers et des chanes de restauration rapide, ou encore lubiquit mtastatique des stars qui ne savent plus trs bien o leur tre se trouve lorsque les plus brillantes dentre elles se posent la question (dans des affiches, des tlviseurs, des cerveaux humains ou des disques durs). Dans le monde contemporain, un homme napparat jamais que par morceaux . Le 3 Dispositif produit un courant lectrique qui se propose de ragencer les morceaux les moins recomposables des hommes dans lobjectif de faire natre en eux des zones de bifurcation psychique. Le projet dun homme reconstitu a maintes fois t voqu dans lhistoire : il serait le fait de la voix divine bicamrale et celle-ci spiphaniserait sous la forme des Hommes-Oiseaux, lointains reprsentants dune humanit de souche aux origines mal tablies : Fravartis mazdens ? Anges ? Extraterrestres ? [ e ] A paradoxical consequence of globalization, the fragmentation internal to human beings is a process extending throughout modern times. This phenomenon is routinely paralleled by experts on India and thinkers to the Tradition of the era of the goddess Kali (Kali Yuga). In it they see a form of auto-anthropophagy, also involving cutting oneself up into fetish objects. There are many symptoms of this happening: the pandemic development of multiple personalities, Dr. Camerons psychological tabula rasa projects, the chaotic and simultaneous appearance of serial killers and fast-food restaurant chains, or again the cancer-like ubiquity of stars who no longer really know where their being is centered when the most brilliant of them ask themselves that question (in posters, television sets, human brains or hard disks). In the contemporary world, the human being only ever appears in pieces. Le 3 Dispositif produces an electric current that sets out to rearrange the least recomposable pieces of human beings with the objective of engendering within them zones of psychological bifurcation. The project of a reconstituted human being has been evoked many times in the course of history: it would seem to be the doing of the bicameral divine voice, which would be epiphanized in the form of Bird-men, remote representatives of an ancestral human species with hazily established origins: Mazdean Fravartis? Angels? Extraterrestrials [ extraterrestre ]?
Motos Chopper, 1 indian Larry, 2 Giraud, Fabien, 1 Parrino, Steven, Ghost rider, hells angels, 1 handforth, Mark, hot rod, 1 Mosset, olivier, 1 Judd, Donald, Tuning

Moustique

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Mosquito [ f ] Dans leur article sminal Flying in Tune : Sexual Recognition in Mosquitoes [ Voler en chur : la reconnaissance sexuelle chez les moustiques ] publi en 2006, Gabriella Gibson et Ian Russell, chercheurs luniversit de Greenwich, ont relev un phnomne inspirant : pour trouver un partenaire de la bonne espce les moustiques mle et femelle comptent sur leur capacit accorder leur chant . Les moustiques peuvent varier le bourdonnement mis par leur vol en variant la frquence de leurs battements dailes. Ce phnomne, qui synchronise les battements dailes du mle et de la femelle la milliseconde prs, leur autorise un bourdonnement synchrone et la copulation en plein vol. [ e ] In their seminal paper Flying in Tune: Sexual recognition in mosquitoes, published in 2006, University of Greenwich researchers Gabriella Gibson and Ian Russell note an inspiring phenomenon: to find a partner of the right species type, male and female mosquitoes rely on their ability to sing in tune. Mosquitoes vary the buzzing sounds they produce by changing the frequency of their wing beats in flight. This phenomenon synchronizes the male and female wing beats to within a millisecond or less, allowing a harmonized buzz and mid-flight copulation. [ 4 Meier, robin & Momeni, ali ]
Muscade [ f ] Nom donn une petite boule utilise par les escamoteurs et les prestidigitateurs dans leurs tours de magie, notamment les tours de gobelets. Les muscades sont gnralement en lige,

matriau connu pour sa lgret. La similitude des petites boules avec les noix de muscade est lorigine de leur nom. Parfois, le lige est envelopp dun tissu de couleur. Lexpression passez muscade , adopte par le langage courant, se dit propos dune chose qui passe rapidement ou que lon fait disparatre avec adresse. [ e ] The name given to a small marble used by conjurers and magicians [ prestidigitateur ] in their magic tricks, in particular tricks with cups [ gobelet ]. Muscades are generally made of cork, a material known for its lightness. The little balls similarity to nutmegs (noix de muscade) lies behind their name. Sometimes the cork is wrapped in a coloured fabric. The expression passez muscade [hey presto!], adopted into everyday language, is used with regard to something that goes by quickly, or is skilfully made to disappear.

Recorded music [ f ] Lapparition des premires techniques denregistrement et de rediffusion du son la fin du xixe sicle marque le dbut dune avalanche de bouleversements dans lhistoire de la musique. Edison dpose le brevet du premier phonographe en 1877. la mme poque, Berliner dveloppe le gramophone. Marconi dpose un premier brevet de radiolectricit en 1896. Ds les premires annes du xxe sicle, lindustrie du disque prend son essor. Le jukebox apparat dans les bars amricains. Il devient possible dorganiser des soires dansantes et dcouter de la musique en ne recourant qu des machines. Il devient galement possible de sonoriser les projections cinmatographiques. Pendant lentre-deux-guerres, la radiodiffusion pntre dans les foyers et jusque dans les automobiles. La musique sindustrialise et se dmocratise. Elle devient un produit de consommation de masse. Le mode dcoute des objets musicaux est dmultipli. Au lendemain de la seconde guerre mondiale, Columbia met au point le disque vinyle. Dans les annes 1950, les vedettes de la pop music pulvrisent les records de vente. Plus puissante que jamais, lindustrie, qui dispose bientt galement de la tlvision pour promouvoir les uvres, dicte ses exigences aux artistes. La dure des morceaux, leur nombre, leur style et leur agencement rpondent aux contraintes de la standardisation. Certains artistes semparent cependant de ces contraintes pour inventer de nouvelles esthtiques. Dans les studios EMI dAbbey Road, les Beatles inventent avec Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967) la notion dalbum concept. partir des annes 1960, les discothques et les clubs prennent une place de plus en plus importante dans la culture urbaine. Ils donnent naissance des genres musicaux spcifiques comme le disco ou la house. La firme Philips met au point la minicassette audio qui amplifie le processus de dmocratisation et ouvre la voie de nouvelles pratiques du ct du public, comme le copiage et le piratage. Certains artistes, dont de nombreux DJ, sapproprient les machines et les supports mis au point par lindustrie. Ils les dtournent de leur utilisation courante ou bien les poussent jusquaux limites de leurs possibilits. la fin du xxe sicle, le dveloppement de linformatique provoque la rvolution du numrique. Le CD commence simposer partir des annes 1980. Lordinateur sinvite dans les foyers. La musique enregistre se dmatrialise et continue se dmocratiser. Elle devient un objet dchange, de stockage et de mixage illimits. La diffusion des fichiers MP 3, la multiplication des home studios

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et le tlchargement sur lInternet provoquent une crise sans prcdent de lindustrie du disque un sicle seulement aprs sa naissance. [ e ] The appearance of the first sound recording and broadcasting techniques at the end of the 19th century initiated an avalanche of upheavals in the history of music. Edison lodged the patent of the first phonograph in 1877. At the same period, Berliner was developing the gramophone. Marconi lodged a first patent for radio electricity in 1896. At the start of the 20th century, the record industry took off. The jukebox made its appearance in American bars. It became possible to organize evening dances and listen to music, relying solely on machines. It likewise became possible to add sound to cinematographic projections. In the inter-war period, broadcasting made its way into private homes, and even into cars. Music was industrialized and democratized. It became a product of mass consumption. The means of listening to music increased in number. Just after World War II, Columbia perfected the vinyl disc. In the 1950s pop music stars smashed all sales records. The industry was more powerful than ever, and once it could avail itself of television to promote the works, it could dictate its terms to artists. The duration of the pieces, their quantity, their style and their presentation complied with the constraints of standardization. However, these restrictions inspired some artists to invent new aesthetic values. In EMIs Abbey Road studios, the Beatles invented the idea of the concept album with Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967). From the 1960s discos and clubs occupied an increasingly important place in urban culture. They gave rise to specific musical genres like disco or house. The Philips company perfected the audio mini-cassette that furthered the democratization process and opened the way to new practices on the part of the public, like copying and pirating. Some artists, many of them DJs, appropriated the machines and supports perfected by the industry. They diverted them from their accepted use, or else pushed them to the very limits of their potential. At the end of the 20th century, the development of information technology triggered the digital revolution. CDs became popular during the 1980s. Computers made their way into private homes. Recorded music was dematerialized, and continued to become more democratic. It became an object of unlimited exchange, storage and mixing. The dissemination of MP3 files, the proliferation of home studios, and downloading on the Internet have caused an unprecedented crisis in the record industry, a mere century after its birth. [ Backward messages ] [ Merzbow ]

Mutants [ f ] Comme les mutants, les artistes ont dvelopp

une libert de se mouvoir dans des sphres parallles et comme les mutants, lart fonde sa survie sur la furtivit : notre radar ne permet pas notre systme interprtatif de dceler les indices alarmants. Visuellement, rien (ou presque) ne permet de distinguer un mutant dun tre humain, rien (ou presque) ne permet de distinguer une uvre dart dun objet ordinaire. La diffrence est ailleurs. Mais ds quun mutant est identifi comme tel, il rintgre nos yeux son statut dorigine (un extraterrestre). Ds quune uvre dart est identifie, elle abandonne son statut dobjet pour se transfigurer et rejoindre le monde de lart. Ce qui compte, ce nest pas la colonisation de nouveaux mondes. Les petits martiens verts aux rayons lasers tout comme les artistes visionnaires aux pinceaux fous sen sont dj chargs. Non, lexpansion continue de notre univers implique un mouvement de mise en glisse perptuel, un cumul de lidentique activant une schizophrnie chronique, et lart daujourdhui travaille ce dveloppement. En gntique, une mutation est une modification irrversible de linformation gntique et hrditaire contenue dans un gnome. Cest un phnomne spontan, d des erreurs dans le processus de rplication de lADN . Les mutations les moins favorables la survie de lindividu sont limines par le jeu de la slection naturelle. Les autres, favorables ou neutres, sont la principale source de diversit gntique, moteur de lvolution. Dans certaines circonstances, le taux de mutation peut tre augment par des facteurs physiques ou chimiques extrieurs, appels agents mutagnes ( ondes lectromagntiques, substances chimiques qui interagissent avec lADN tel que des pesticides). Limaginaire contemporain qui sest dvelopp, dans la littrature et le cinma de science-fiction, autour de lide de cratures ou dindividus mutants semble donc avoir un rapport trs lointain avec les dangers rels du phnomne de mutation gntique. Hybride dhomme et de mouche comme dans le film La Mouche (Kurt Naumann, 1958 ; David Cronenberg, 1986), super hros de la firme Marvel Comics, piranhas gants ou moustiques tueurs des films de srie Z Ces cratures imaginaires semblent venir prendre la place auparavant occupe dans les croyances populaires par les monstres et autres cratures fantastiques pour assumer, dans la ligne de la crature du docteur Frankenstein de Mary Shelley, une fonction de rflexion sur les pouvoirs dont lhumanit sest dote grce aux techno-sciences, sur les risques que celles-ci lui font encourir en

gnral et sur sa responsabilit collective. Le fleurissement dun cinma peupl de mutants tels les clbres hommes-champignons du film dIshiro Honda (Matango ou Attack of the Mushroom People, 1963) dans le Japon post-Hiroshima semble en tre un indice. [ e ] Like mutants, artists operate in parallel spheres and, like a mutant, art survives by being furtive [ furtivit ] and by compromising our ability to establish clear interpretive sign-posts. Visually, nothing (or almost nothing) allows one to distinguish a mutant from a human being, and nothing (or almost nothing) allows one to distinguish a work of art from an ordinary object. The difference lies elsewhere. But as soon as a mutant is identified as such, he returns we see it happen to his original status of being an extraterrestrial [ extraterrestre ]. As soon as a work of art is identified as such, it loses its status as an object only to be transfigured and returned to the world of art. This chronic schizophrenia is a defining characteristic of art-making today. What counts is not the colonization of new worlds but an accumulation of the identical. Art doesnt invade or abandon one territory at the expense or in favour of another, but it constantly slides in and out of territories and across different spheres and personalities. In genetics, a mutation is an irreversible modification of the genetic and hereditary information contained in a genome. It is a spontaneous phenomenon caused by mistakes in the DNA s replication process. Mutations that are not conducive to the survival of the individual are eliminated by the intervention of natural selection. The other favourable or neutral ones are the main source of genetic diversity, the driving force of evolution. In some circumstances, the mutation rate can be increased by external physical or chemical factors called mutagenic agents (electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ], chemical substances such as pesticides that interact with DNA ). Therefore the scenario in the contemporary imagination that has developed in science-fiction literature and films focusing on the idea of mutant creatures or individuals seems to have a very remote relationship to the real dangers of the phenomenon of genetic mutation. A hybrid of a human being and a fly as in the film The Fly (Kurt Naumann, 1958; David Cronenberg, 1986), superheroes from the Marvel Comics company, giant piranhas or killer mosquitoes [ moustique ] in the Z series films: these imaginary creatures seem to have come and taken the place previously occupied in popular beliefs [ croyance ] by monsters [ monstre] and other fantastic creatures, and to have taken on, following

the creature created by Mary Shelleys Dr Frankenstein, the role of thinking about the powers that humankind has given itself thanks to technology and science, the risks those powers cause it to run, and its collective responsibility. The flourishing of a cinema populated by mutants such as the famous mushroom people in Ishiro Hondas film (Matango or Attack of the Mushroom People, 1963) in postHiroshima Japan seems to be a sign of this. [ 4 Della negra, alain & Kinoshita, Kaori ] [ 4 Mercier, Tho ]

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Wreck of the Prestige [ f ] En 2002, lors dun transit entre la Lettonie et Singapour, le ptrolier le Prestige est pris dans une tempte dans locan Atlantique, au large de la Galice. Pour une raison demeure mystrieuse, une brche est ouverte dans la coque du navire. Le fioul commence se rpandre dans la mer. Lquipage est vacu. Inquites, les autorits espagnoles ordonnent le remorquage du Prestige vers le large. Le navire se brise et coule avec une partie de sa cargaison. Une immense mare noire souille les ctes de la Galice, de lAquitaine, de la Vende et de la Bretagne. [ e ] In 2002, in transit between Lithuania and Singapore, the oil tanker Prestige was caught in a storm on the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Galicia. For a still unexplained reason, the hull of the ship was breached. The fuel oil started to spread into the sea. The crew abandoned the ship. The concerned Spanish authorities ordered that the Prestige be towed out to sea. The ship broke in half and sunk with part of its cargo. A huge tide of black oil polluted the coasts of Galicia, Aquitaine, Vende, and Brittany.


naufrage du Prestige / Wreck of the Prestige

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Occultism [ f ] Ensemble de courants spirituels et mystiques qui se dvelopprent principalement au xixe sicle. Parmi les grandes figures historiques de loccultisme, on peut citer Alphonse Louis Constant (18101875), socialiste et kabbaliste franais mieux connu sous le nom dliphas Lvi, qui, dans son Histoire de la magie (1859), met en relation divers courants de la pense sotrique . Cet ouvrage, qui invente de fait loccultisme, influena des artistes comme Arthur Rimbaud, J. K. Huysmans, Andr Breton et Erik Satie. Une autre source vrifiable est lOrdre Hermtique de lAube Dore, socit sotrique fonde Londres au dbut du xxe sicle, dont aleister Crowley (18751947) fut membre, puis apostat. Un portrait de Crowley figure sur la couverture dun album des Beatles, Sergeant Pepper. Son imaginaire a inspir, entre autres, certaines chansons de John Lennon et de David Bowie, preuve que lsotrisme a occup une place importante au sein de la contre-culture et que Crowley y apparaissait comme le fondateur et lincarnation mme de locculte. [ e ] A series of movements that mainly developed in the 19th century. Among the historical figures of occultism one can mention the French Socialist and Kabbalist, Alphonse Louis Constant (1810 1857) better known as liphas Lvi, who brought together in his book The History of Magic (1859), several different strands of esoteric thoughtin effect, inventing occultism and influenced artists like Arthur Rimbaud, J. K. Huysmans, Andr Breton and Erik Satie. Another is The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, an early 20th century esoteric society in London, and its renegade member, aleister Crowley (1875 1947). Crowleys portrait was included on the cover of The Beatless Sergeant Pepper album, and his imagery finds its way into the songs of John Lennon and David Bowie among others, revealing Crowleys position as a progenitor and avatar of the occults thriving within the counter-culture. [ 1 Koester, Joachim ] [ 1 MaTin DES MaGiCiEnS (L E) ] [ Spiritisme ]
ondes crbrales

des frquences comprises entre 8,5 et 12 Hz. Elles caractrisent un tat de conscience apais et sont principalement mises lorsque le sujet a les yeux ferms. Les ondes Bta (frquences comprises entre 12 Hz et 45 Hz) apparaissent en priode dactivit intense, de concentration ou danxit. Les frquences suprieures 24 Hz, gnralement denviron 40 Hz, sont parfois dnommes Gamma. Elles ont t rcemment impliques dans les processus de liage perceptif. Les ondes Delta (frquences jusqu 4 Hz), normales chez le trs jeune enfant, peuvent ensuite caractriser certaines lsions crbrales. Les ondes Thta (frquences entre 4,5 et 8 Hz), observes principalement chez lenfant, ladolescent et le jeune adulte, caractrisent galement certains tats de somnolence ou dhypnose ainsi que lors de la mmorisation dinformations. [ e ] Electromagnetic oscillation resulting from the electrical activity of brain, such as can be observed in electroencephalography (EEG ). These waves are very weak, somewhere in the microvolt range in human beings. Several types of waves cam be distinguished. Alpha waves have frequencies lying between 8.5 and 12 Hz. They are characteristic of a calm state of consciousness, and are emitted mainly when the subjects eyes are closed. Beta waves (frequencies lying between 12 Hz and 45 Hz) appear at periods of intense activity, concentration or anxiety. Frequencies higher than 24 Hz, generally around 40 Hz, are sometimes called Gamma waves. They have recently been implicated in the processes of perceptual binding. Delta waves (frequencies up to 4 Hz), normal among very young children, can later characterize certain types of brain damage. Theta waves (frequencies between 4.5 and 8 Hz), observed mainly in children, adolescents and young adults, are also characteristic of some states of somnolence or hypnosis, and are also observed when information is being memorized. [ Basse frquence ] [ 2 Berger, hans ] [ Corticalart ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ tincelles du cerveau ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]
ondes lectroMaGntiques

onde lectromagntique se dplaant la vitesse de la lumire, dans une direction perpendiculaire celle des lignes de champs lectriques et magntiques. Ces champs varient sinusodalement en fonction du temps. [ e ] Model representing types of electromagnetic radiation. The presence of an electrical field and a magnetic field that are perpendicular to one another and vary in time produces an electromagnetic wave that moves at the speed of light [ lumire ] in a direction perpendicular to that of the electrical and magnetic field lines. These fields vary sinusoidally according to time. [ atmosphriques ] [ Basse frquence ] [ Bobines de Tesla ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ Pollution lectromagntique ] [ Tesla, nikola ]
ondes lectroMaGntiques (effets)

Brainwaves [ f ] Oscillation lectromagntique rsultant de lactivit lectrique du cerveau telle quon peut lobserver en lectroencphalographie (EEG ). Ces ondes sont de trs faible amplitude, elles sont de lordre du microvolt chez ltre humain. On distingue plusieurs types dondes. Les ondes Alpha ont

Electromagnetic waves [ f ] Modle de reprsentation des rayonnements lectromagntiques. La prsence dun champ lectrique et dun champ magntique, perpendiculaires lun lautre et variant dans le temps, produit une

Electromagnetic waves (effects) [ f ] On prte aux champs et rayonnements lectromagntiques de nombreux effets (physiques, psychiques et physiologiques), mme si leur causalit nest pas dmontre. Effets physiques : panne de courant, panne dallumage moteur, perturbation voire explosion dquipements lectriques ou lectroniques, ou mise en marche spontane , perturbation des frquences radio et tl, dcharge acclre de piles ou de batteries, boussole affole, got mtallique dans la bouche, fausse dtection radar, anomalies photographiques, phnomnes de poltergeist (coups frapps, explosion dampoule, dplacement dobjet, condensation de lhumidit ambiante, objet senflammant). Effets psychiques : hallucinations, voire accs un autre niveau de ralit ou sorte d univers parallle les hallucinations peuvent tre visuelles ( apparitions, magntophosphnes, flashs lumineux, baisse de la luminosit), sonores (voix, son suraigu, bourdonnements, craquements), olfactives, gustatives ou tactiles (baisse de la temprature, sensation de courant dair) , perturbation du fonctionnement des zones du langage (difficult dlocution, expression incomprhensible en langues , voix intrieure), perception dun silence anormal, impression de flottement ou de dcorporation, impression subjective du retrait du cerveau de la tte, sensation de la prsence de quelquun, de harclement ou dtre suivi, impression de dj-vu , dpression, angoisse, agitation, peur panique, euphorie, soulagement de la douleur, amnsie temporaire, effets radiesthsiques, apparitions de dons . Effets

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physiologiques : sensation de fatigue, endormissement, sommeil profond, rveil brusque, paralysie temporaire (akinsie) ou au contraire contractions musculaires spontanes (fasciculation), pousse de fivre, nauses, hrissement des poils, tachycardie, avortement spontan, acclration de la rgnration osseuse aprs une fracture ou tissulaire aprs une blessure, gurison miraculeuse , marques rouges (production dhistamine), lvation de la temprature pouvant entraner lchauffement des tissus jusqu leur carbonisation, irradiation, mort du sujet. [ e ] Many effectsphysical, psychological and physiologicalare attributed to electromagnetic fields and radiation, even it their causality has not been demonstrated. Physical effects: power failure, ignition failure, disruption or even explosion of electrical or electronic equipment, or spontaneous start-up, disturbance of radio and TV frequencies, accelerated discharge of batteries, wildly fluctuating compasses, a metallic taste in the mouth, wrong radar detection, photographic anomalies, poltergeist phenomena (knocking noises, explosion of light bulbs, displacement of objects, condensation of ambient humidity, objects bursting into flames). Psychological effects: hallucinations, or even access to a different level of reality or sort of parallel universethe hallucinations can be visual ( apparitions, magnetophosphenes, flashes of light, drop in light level), auditory (voices, very high-pitched sound, buzzing noises, creaking noises), olfactory, gustatory or tactile (drop in temperature, feeling of a draught), disturbance in the functioning of the language zones (difficulty in speaking, speaking incomprehensibly in tongues, inner voice), perception of an abnormal silence, impression of floating or out-of-body experience, subjective impression of brain withdrawing from the head, sensation of someone being present, of harassment or of being followed, dj-vu impressions, depression, anxiety, agitation, panic fear, euphoria, relief from pain, amnesia during a short period of time due to effects of radiesthesia, appearance of gifts. Physiological effects: feeling of tiredness, drowsiness, deep sleep, sudden awakening, temporary paralysis (akinesia) or on the contrary spontaneous muscular contractions (fasciculation), spiking fever, nausea, hair standing on end, tachycardia, spontaneous abortion, speeding up of bone regeneration after a fracture or of tissue regeneration after a wound, miracle cures, red blotches (production of histamine), rise in temperature that may lead to the warming-up of the tissues to the point where they are carbonized, irradiation, death of the subject.

[ antenne relais ] [ autocombustion ] [ 3 Begich, nick ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ hallucinations tlpathiques ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ Sensibilit lectromagntique ] [ Syndrome deffondrement des colonies dabeilles ] [ Tesla, nikola ]
ontoloGie

Ontology [ f ] En philosophie, lontologie se dfinit comme la science de ltre. Elle est une branche de la mtaphysique. Applique au champ de la philosophie esthtique, lontologie sintresse la dfinition de luvre dart. Elle interroge son essence et ses caractristiques propres : en quoi luvre dart est-elle diffrente des autres objets ? Quest-ce qui la distingue ? Selon quel critre la reconnat-on ? Existe-t-il une frontire entre le monde des uvres dart et celui des autres objets ? Cette frontire estelle dfinissable ? Est-elle franchissable ? Le dbat sur lontologie de luvre dart connat vraisemblablement lpisode le plus tonnant de son histoire au dbut du xxe sicle lorsque sont exposs les ready-mades de Marcel Duchamp : Roue de bicyclette (1913), Porte-bouteilles (1914), Fontaine (1915). Les ready-mades se prsentent de faon paradoxale. Ils dsacralisent violemment luvre dart en ravalant celle-ci au rang des objets ordinaires. En mme temps, ils la lgitiment de faon exemplaire en dmontrant son extraordinaire pouvoir de mtamorphose des objets ordinaires. Autrement dit, les ready-mades signent lacte de dcs de luvre dart en mme temps quils en garantissent limmortalit. Ils prouvent que lintervention de lartiste peut se rduire de faon exponentielle sans que luvre dart ne perde un seul instant de son pouvoir, et que ce dernier dpend pour beaucoup de lintelligence du contexte. Ils montrent galement que la question de lontologie de luvre dart est certainement plus complexe et plus insaisissable quon ne pouvait le souponner. [ e ] In philosophy, ontology is defined as the science of being. It is a branch of metaphysics. Applied to the field of aesthetic philosophy, ontology is interested in the definition of the work of art. It questions its essence and its special characteristics: In what respect does the work of art differ from other objects? What makes it distinct? What criterion do we use to recognize it? Is there a frontier between the world of works of art and that of other objects? Can that frontier be defined? Can

it be crossed? The debate about the ontology of the work of art experienced what is probably the most amazing episode in its history at the beginning of the 20th century when Marcel Duchamps readymades were exhibited: Bicycle Wheel (1913), Bottle Rack (1914), and Fountain (1915). Readymades are paradoxical in the way they present themselves. They violently divest the work of art of its sacred aura by lowering it to the rank of an ordinary object. At the same time, they legitimize it in an exemplary way by demonstrating its extraordinary power to metamorphose ordinary objects. In other words, readymades sign the death certificate of the work of art at the same time as they guarantee its immortality. They prove that the artists intervention can be exponentially reduced without the work of art losing its power for a single instant, and that that power depends a great deal on understanding its context. They likewise show that the question of the ontology of the work of art is certainly more complex and elusive than we might suspect. [ abandon de lart ] [ inframince ] [ Journal de Thoreau (Le) ]
operational theory research institute (otri) [ f ] Think tank cr par larme isralienne en 1996

in the context of low intensity fighting in the Middle East. With General (res.) Shimon Naveh at its head, the OTRI was thus able to call upon the officers of Tzahal to read the essays of Georges Bataille, Gregory Bateson, Gilles Deleuze or indeed Bernard Tschumi. While internal struggles for influence within the Israeli general staff led to its closure in spring 2006, the failure of the operations launched against Gaza and Lebanon that summer, led by Aviv Kochavi and Gal Hirsch respectively, both graduates of the Institute, seemed to confirm the superfluous intellectualism and lack of practical effectiveness of its set of doctrines. Nonetheless, Shimon Naveh is currently working as an adviser on Expeditionary Warrior operational experimentation for the US Marine Corps Development Command. [ Essaimage ] [ Gomtrie inverse ] [ 1 Weizman, Eyal ]
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afin que militaires, universitaires civils et experts en technologie travaillent repenser ensemble, sur un plan tant thorique que pratique, les possibilits daction tactiques et stratgiques de Tsahal dans le cadre du conflit de basse intensit moyen-oriental. Sous la direction du gnral de rserve Shimon Naveh, lOTRI a ainsi pu enjoindre les officiers de Tsahal lire les essais de Georges Bataille, Gregory Bateson, Gilles Deleuze ou encore Bernard Tschumi. Si des luttes dinfluence internes ltat-major isralien ont amen sa fermeture au printemps 2006, lchec des oprations lances contre Gaza et le Liban lt suivant, menes respectivement par Aviv Kochavi et Gal Hirsch, tous deux diplms de lInstitut, a sembl sanctionner lintellectualisme superflu et le manque defficacit pratique de son corps de doctrines. Shimon Naveh travaille nanmoins aujourdhui comme conseiller lexprimentation oprationnelle Expeditionary Warrior (corps expditionnaire) pour lUS Marine Corps Development Command. [ e ] A think tank established by the Israeli army in 1996 so that the military, civilian university staff and technological experts could work together to rethink, at both a theoretical and practical level, Tzahals tactical and strategic options for action

Magnetic storm [ f ] Appel galement tempte magntique, lorage magntique est une perturbation du magntisme terrestre lie aux variations de lactivit solaire. Les orages magntiques ont pour principaux effets des perturbations importantes de la propagation des ondes radiolectriques dans lionosphre ainsi que lapparition des aurores borales. [ e ] Magnetic storms, also referred to as geomagnetic storms, are a disturbance of the earths magnetism associated with variations in solar activity. Their main effects are major disturbances in the spread of radio-electric waves into the ionosphere [ ionosphre ] and the appearance of the aurora borealis [ aurore borale ].
orGanisation scientifique du travail

Scientific management [ f ] Inspire lorigine par la dcision dintroduire lefficacit propre la machine et un rendement accru dans lusine amricaine, une nouvelle conception du travail, en grande partie issue des principes dorganisation scientifique formuls en 1911 par Frederick Winslow Taylor, mettait en avant la standardisation des mthodes de travail, des outils et des pices, les techniques de chanes de montage, la division du travail en tches minutieuses, hautement spcialises, et le plus grand degr possible de prcision mcanique dans le processus de fabrication. Les tudes de cadences, les nouvelles mthodes de formation, le contrle et la planification de la production finirent par transformer non seulement le rle de louvrier, mais encore

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lenvironnement de lusine. Les rsultats remarquables de lorganisation scientifique du travail ne furent pas longs tre salus. Les principes furent mis en pratique dans les bureaux, les organismes dtat et dans toutes sortes dentreprises. La caftria, qui fit sa premire apparition Chicago en 1907, fut un clatant exemple du nouveau rendement scientifique, et de fait le dclin de la pension de famille, partir du tournant du sicle, a t expliqu, entre autres, par lessor de lorganisation scientifique du travail, avec ses critres dune plus grande propret et dune plus grande efficacit dans les restaurants. Dans La Mcanisation au pouvoir, Siegfried Giedion a dcrit la faon dont les principes de Taylor entranrent la transformation de la cuisine et de la salle de bains amricaines. La discipline nouvelle dconomie du foyer, ou de science domestique, avait un mme point de dpart, et au cours des premires dcennies du xxe sicle lopinion gnrale voulait que le foyer amricain ft bientt entirement repens, en accord avec les principes de lorganisation scientifique du travail, pour devenir (selon un partisan de la nouvelle conception du travail) une usine dirige par la mnagre afin de produire de jeunes citoyens. 4 John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Style artisanal et style industriel , in la dcouverte du paysage vernaculaire, Actes Sud, Arles, 2003 [ e ] Originally inspired by a determination to introduce mechanical efficiency and greater production into the American factory, a new philosophy of work derived in large part from the principles of scientific management formulated in 1911 by Frederick Winslow Taylor emphasized standardization of work methods, tools, and parts, assembly-line techniques, division of labour into small, highly specialized tasks, and the greatest possible degree of mechanical precision in the manufacturing process. Time-and-motion studies, new methods of training, supervision, and production planning eventually transformed not only the role of the worker but the environment of the factory as well. The remarkable achievements of scientific management were not long in being recognized. The principles were applied in offices, government agencies, and many types of business enterprise. The cafeteria, which made its first appearance in Chicago in 1907, was a conspicuous example of the new scientific efficiency, and in fact the decline of the boarding house beginning at the turn of the century has been partly ascribed to the advent of scientific management with its higher standards of cleanliness and efficiency in restaurants. In Mechanization Takes Command, Siegfried Giedion has described how Taylors

principles led to the transformation of the American kitchen and bathroom. The new discipline of home economics or domestic science derived from the same source, and during the first decades of the 20th century it was widely assumed that the American home would soon be radically redesigned in accord with the principles of scientific management to become (according to one proponent of the new work philosophy) a factory under the management of the housewife for the production of young citizen. 4 John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Craftsman Style and Technostyle in Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, Yale University Press, 1984 [ Production industrielle ]
orGone [ f ] Terme cr par le psychanalyste Wilhelm Reich

(18971957) pour dsigner le support physique et chimique quil prtait lnergie libidinale. 1 William S. Burroughs possdait une cabine orgone cense augmenter lnergie sexuelle et les capacits crbrales. [ e ] Term coined by the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich (18971957) to designate the physical and chemical basis he attributed to libidinal energy. 1 William S. Burroughs owned an orgone accumulator, thought to increase sexual energy and brain power. [ 1 Leary, Timothy ]
ouroboros

qui procde du conflit des opposs, et par consquent constitue le secret du matriau premier qui [] sans aucun doute provient de linconscient de lhomme. Carl Gustav Jung, uvres compltes, Vol. xiv [ e ] A Greek word referring to the figure of a serpent or a dragon that bites its own tail. The oldest occurrences of this symbol are found in Egyptian inscriptions dating from the 16th century BC . Marking the boundary between the nounthe primordial oceanand the ordered world, for the Ancient Egyptians it symbolized the cycle of time. In his interpretation of humankinds age-old symbols the psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung was interested in the figure of the uroboros and its relationship to alchemy. In the age-old image of the uroboros lies the thought of devouring oneself and turning oneself into a circulatory process, for it was clear to the more astute alchemists that the prima materia of the art was man himself. The uroboros is a dramatic symbol for the integration and assimilation of the opposite, i.e. of the shadow. This feed-back process is at the same time a symbol of immortality, since it is said of the uroboros that he slays himself and brings himself to life, fertilises himself and gives birth to himself. He symbolises the One, who proceeds from the clash of opposites, and he therefore constitutes the secret of the prima materia which [] unquestionably stems from mans unconscious. Carl Jung, Collected Works, Vol. 14 [ 4 Dorotte, antoine ]

Uroboros [ f ] Nom grec dsignant la figure dun serpent ou dun dragon qui se mord la queue. On retrouve les plus anciennes occurrences de ce symbole dans des inscriptions gyptiennes datant du xvie sicle avant notre re. Marquant la limite entre le noun locan primordial et le monde ordonn, il symbolisait pour les anciens gyptiens le cycle du temps. Le psychanalyste Carl Gustav Jung, dans son interprtation des symboles ancestraux de lhumanit, sest intress la figure de louroboros dans son rapport avec lalchimie. Dans limage ancestrale de louroboros rsident la pense de la dvoration de soi et celle de la transformation de soi en un processus circulaire, tant il tait clair aux plus astucieux des alchimistes que la matire premire de lart est lhomme lui-mme. Louroboros est le symbole dramatique de lintgration et de lassimilation loppos, cest--dire lombre. Ce processus en retour est dans le mme temps symbole dimmortalit, puisquil est dit que de lui-mme louroboros soccit, se ramne la vie, se fertilise et se donne naissance. Il symbolise lUn,

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Twin paradox [ f ] Exprience fictive imagine par Albert 1 Einstein pour illustrer la dilatation du temps prvu par sa thorie de la relativit. Si un homme ayant un frre jumeau partait pour un voyage dans lespace en se dplaant une vitesse proche de celle de la lumire, il trouverait, son retour sur Terre, son frre jumeau plus vieux que lui. [ e ] A fictitious experiment dreamt up by Albert 1 Einstein to illustrate the time dilation foreseen by his theory of relativity [ relativit ]. If a man with a twin brother set out on a journey in space, moving at a speed close to that of light [ lumire ], on his return to Earth he would find his twin brother older than himself. [ Espace-temps ] [ Physique quantique ]
ppluM [ f ] Genre cinmatographique qui nat en Italie

dans les annes 1910, le pplum ne porte toutefois son appellation que depuis 1963. Cest la bande de cinphiles franais du Mac-Mahon, emmene par Bertrand Tavernier, qui apprcie ce genre de films daventures en costume qui le baptise ainsi. Il sagit sans doute dune version latinise du terme grec peplos, dsignant un vtement fminin, mais peut-tre aussi une tunique. Ce serait alors une rfrence au film de Henry Koster, La Tunique (1953), premire dmonstration du procd Cinmascope. Une fois lanc en France en 1963, le terme est repris internationalement pour dsigner des films daventures dont le contexte est lAntiquit, la Rome antique, une Grce plus ou moins lgendaire, lgypte ancienne. Dans certains films, les hros antiques voyagent dans le temps, voire dans lespace. Aprs son printemps italien davant la premire guerre mondiale, le genre disparat dans les annes 1920 pour refleurir dans les annes 1950 et 1960, principalement grce aux industries cinmatographiques italienne et amricaine. Il est alors un cocktail des meilleurs ingrdients pour un spectacle populaire russi : des hros virils incarns par des comdiens au physique de culturiste, des femmes impratrices ou esclaves dont la plastique est souligne par des tuniques satines, de laction, de la passion, le tout en technicolor. Le genre sessoufflant dans les annes 1970 trouve dans le pplum rotique un nouvel lan, notamment avec Messaline, impratrice et putain de Sergio Corbucci en 1977 et le Caligula de Tinto Brass en 1979. [ e ] A cinematic genre which first saw the light of day in Italy between 1910 and 1920, the pplum sword-and-sandals epichas only been known as

such since 1963. It was the group of French film enthusiasts from the Mac-Mahon cinema, led by Bertrand Tavernier, that enjoyed this type of costume adventure film and gave the genre its name. No doubt it is a Latinate version of the Greek word peplos, designating a female garment, but perhaps also a tunic. In that case it would be a reference to Henry Kosters film, The Robe (1953), the first demonstration of the Cinemascope process. After being launched in France in 1963, the term was adopted internationally to describe adventure films set in Antiquity, Ancient Rome, a more or less legendary Greece, or Ancient Egypt. In some films the antique heroes travel in time, or indeed in space. After thriving in Italy before the First World War, the genre disappeared in the 1920s to flourish again in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly thanks to the Italian and American film industries. It was then a cocktail of the best ingredients for producing a successful popular spectacle: manly heroes embodied by actors with body-builders physiques, womenempresses or slaveswhose curves are emphasized by satin-finish tunics, action, passion, the whole thing in Technicolor. The genre ran out of steam in the 1970s but found new impetus with the erotic pplum, in particular Sergio Corbuccis Messalina Venere Imperatrice in 1977 and Tinto Brasss Caligula in 1979. [ 4 hercule ] [ 4 herv, Louise & Maillet, Chlo ] [ Maciste ]
perGola [ f ] De lpoque romaine aujourdhui, de la treille

physique quantique

mdivale aux vastes tonnelles du xviie sicle, jusquau mouvement Arts & Crafts et aux rinterprtations les plus contemporaines, la pergola est une forme bien ancre dans la tradition en matire dorganisation de lespace. la frontire entre intrieur et extrieur, utilise pour prserver du soleil, tayer la vgtation et crer un espace de dtente, la pergola demeure un lment architectural quasi irremplaable. [ e ] From the Romans to the present day, from the medieval arbour to the huge bowers of the 17th century, the Arts & Crafts movement and its most contemporary reinterpretations, the pergola is a form deeply anchored in tradition as regards the organization of space. At the borderline between inside and outside, used to shield from the sun, prop up vegetation and create a space to relax, the pergola remains an almost irreplaceable architectural element. [ architecture vernaculaire ] [ Vernaculaire ]

Quantum physics [ f ] labore dans les premires dcennies du xxe sicle pour dcrire et expliquer le comportement de la matire lchelle atomique, dont la physique classique savrait incapable de rendre compte, la physique quantique nous donne concevoir un univers trange, fort loign de nos repres quotidiens. La ralit dont cette science se proccupe est pourtant bien la ntre, lespace, la matire et le temps quelle explore sont ceux qui nous environnent. Ds lors, les outils conceptuels quelle met en place ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives sur le monde. Avant tout, la physique quantique tablit lexistence dunivers parallles, partir de lanalyse thorique de ce qui nous chappe lchelle microscopique. Cette part invisible de la ralit, bien plus vaste et plus complexe que ce que nous percevons, se comporte peu prs de la mme manire que la partie visible, si ce nest quelle sorganise en une infinit de regroupements comme autant de copies du monde visible . Ainsi, selon le physicien David Deutsch, la ralit se comporte comme un multivers, une entit norme qui, grande chelle, possde une structure correspondante plusieurs copies de lunivers tel quil est dcrit par la physique classique, mais qui, plus petite chelle, est un systme unique et unifi. Sil peut y avoir plusieurs univers, et autant de copies dtres et dobjets, il ny a par contre quune ralit qui les comprend tous. Lart pourrait tre lun de ces univers parallles : il partage des objets et des points communs avec notre univers quotidien, se manifeste ses intersections, y est parfois invisible, parfois spectaculaire. Il nest pas soumis exactement aux mmes lois, mais, de mme que les interactions dterminant la structure de la matire ont un impact toutes les chelles, ses effets se rpercutent et heurtent les autres couches du rel. Entre la chose de lautre monde, le quotidien et luvre dart, tout est affaire de densit, dinteractions, de forces et defforts, plus souvent crbraux, il est vrai, qu proprement parler physiques. [ e ] Quantum physics was elaborated in the first decades of the 20th century to describe and explain the behaviour of matter at the atomic scale, which traditional physics proved incapable of accounting for. It asks us to conceive of a strange universe, very far removed from our everyday points of reference. The reality with which this science is concerned is nonetheless our reality; the space, matter and time it explores are those that surround us. This means that the conceptual tools it creates open up new views of the world. Above all, quantum

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physics establishes the existence of parallel universes, based on the theoretical analysis of what escapes us at the microscopic scale. This invisible portion of reality, far huger and more complex than what we perceive, behaves in much the same way as the visible part, except that it is organized in an infinity of regroupings, like so many copies of the visible world. Thus, according to the physicist David Deutsch, reality behaves as a multi-verse, a huge entity which, on a large scale, has a structure corresponding to several copies of the universe as it is described by traditional physics, but which, on a smaller scale, is a single, unified system. If there can be several universes, and the same number of copies of beings and objects, on the other hand there is only one reality which comprises them all. Art could be one of those parallel universes: it shares objects and points in common with our everyday universe, shows up at its intersections, is sometimes invisible in it, and sometimes spectacular. It is not subject to exactly the same laws, but, just as the interactions determining the structure of matter have an impact at every scale, its effects have repercussions and bump into other layers of reality. Between the thing from the other world, the everyday world, and the work of art, everything is a question of density, interactions, forces and efforts, as often as not cerebral efforts, it is true, more than ones that are properly speaking physical. [ 1 Deutsch, David ] [ Matire ] [ 2 Mendeleev, Dimitri ]
pinetti, Giuseppe [ f ] 17501800. Clbre prestidigitateur n en Tos-

Pplum Affiches de film / Movie posters

Pergola

cane, il obtient ses premiers succs en Italie avant de se produire Paris sous le rgne de Louis XVI au thtre des Menus Plaisirs du Roi. Il se fait alors appeler chevalier Joseph Pinetti . Il est lauteur dun des tout premiers traits de prestidigitation intitul Amusements physiques (1784) o lon peut apprendre la manire de faire meugler, comme si elle tait en vie, une tte de veau cuite et servie sur une table , le moyen dteindre deux bougies et den allumer deux autres, loignes des premires denviron trois pieds, par un coup de pistolet charg poudre comme lordinaire ou encore la manire denlever la chemise quelquun sans le dshabiller et sans avoir besoin de compre . Sintressant autant lexprimentation scientifique qu la mise en scne, il apparat de nos jours comme lun des pionniers de la prestidigitation moderne. Dans Une vie dartiste, Mmoires entremls de fiction, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin met en scne une rivalit haineuse entre Giuseppe

Pinetti et le comte Edmond de Grisy, dit Torroni. Jaloux et inquiet du succs grandissant du jeune comte, Pinetti lui tend un pige en sabotant une importante reprsentation Naples. Humili, Torroni cherche se venger. Il devance Pinetti dans ses tournes et prsente, avec davantage dadresse, les mmes tours que ce dernier. Pinetti senfuit jusquen Russie o il meurt ruin et malade. [ e ] 17501800. A famous magician born in Tuscany who had his first successes in Italy before performing in Paris at the Menus Plaisirs du Roi theatre, during the reign of Louis XVI . He then described himself as chevalier Joseph Pinetti. He was the author of one of the very first treatises on magic and conjuring, entitled Amusements physiques (1784). In it we can learn how to make a calfs head, cooked and served on a table, moo as if it were alive, the means of extinguishing two candles and lighting two others, about three feet apart, by a shot from a pistol normally loaded with powder, or again how to remove someones shirt without undressing him and without needing a confederate. He was interested in scientific experimentation and in staging, and is nowadays considered as one of the pioneers of modern magic and conjuring. In Une vie dartiste, memoirs interspersed with fiction, Jean-Eugne roberthoudin describes a hostile rivalry between Giuseppe Pinetti and the Comte Edmond de Grisy, known as Torroni. Jealous, and worried by the young counts growing success, Pinetti set a trap for him by sabotaging a major performance in Naples. Torroni was humiliated, and sought to avenge himself. He went ahead of Pinetti on his tours and presented the same tricks as he did, but with greater skill. Pinetti fled to Russia where he died, ruined and ill. [ Prestidigitateur ]
pirate 1 Bellamy, Samuel, 1 Capitaine Misson, 1 Kidd, William, 1 Teach, Edward playboy [ f ] Magazine masculin amricain cr par

Hugh Hefner. Son premier numro, paru en dcembre 1953, porte une photographie de Marilyn Monroe en couverture. Le magazine devient vite clbre et populaire pour ses photographies de femmes nues, ses articles de life style et sa ligne politique libertarienne qui allie laffirmation de la libert de lindividu face aux pressions de la socit (notamment au rigorisme moral du protestantisme amricain) et une philosophie de la russite individuelle conforme au modle social

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dominant. Pour son deuxime numro, Art Paul, directeur artistique du magazine pendant trente ans, dessine la silhouette du lapin portant un nud papillon. Celui-ci est immdiatement adopt comme logo et mascotte, voquant avec humour un idal de performance sexuelle. En 1970, la bibliothque du Congrs des tats-Unis lance une dition en braille du magazine masculin, ne contenant ni image ni publicit, qui devient le premier magazine de charme intgrer ce programme spcial lattention des malvoyants. [ e ] An American mens magazine created by Hugh Hefner. The first issue, published in December 1953, had a photograph of Marilyn Monroe on the cover. The magazine rapidly became famous and popular for its photographs of naked women, its lifestyle articles, and its libertarian political stance that combined the assertion of the individuals freedom in the face of societys pressures (specifically the moral strictness of American Protestantism) and a philosophy of individual success in line with the dominant social model. For the second issue, Art Paul, the magazines artistic director for thirty years, drew the silhouette of a rabbit wearing a bow tie. It was immediately adopted as a logo and mascot, a humorous evocation of an ideal of sexual prowess. In 1970, the library of the United States Congress launched a Braille edition of the mens magazine, containing neither pictures nor advertising, that became the first popularappeal magazine to be included in this special program intended for the partially sighted. [ 4 FrESh hELL ] [ 4 Bloom, Barbara ]
pledGe [ f ] voir p. 160 [ e ] see p. 160 [ Prestige ] [ Turn ] pollution lectroMaGntique

atmosphrique). Ce phnomne dpend essentiellement de la puissance, de la frquence et de la dure dexposition. Un rayonnement lectromagntique est dit ionisant partir du moment o il possde suffisamment dnergie pour arracher des lectrons aux atomes exposs. Bien quelles fassent lobjet de controverses, de nombreuses tudes ont mis en vidence quune exposition prolonge des rayonnements de forte intensit pouvait augmenter le risque de tumeurs du cerveau, de leucmie et de troubles du sommeil notamment. [ e ] A physical phenomenon describing the exposure of living creatures or equipment to an electromagnetic field emitted by electrical equipment (medical imaging; industrial devices for measuring, sterilizing or producing electricity; relay masts [ antennes relais ] ; IT , radio and audiovisual networks; high-voltage lines; radar systems; electrical household equipment and consumer electronics such as microwave ovens, television sets and computers) or occurring naturally (electric charges present in the atmosphere, magnetic fields arising from solar and atmospheric activity). This phenomenon basically depends on the power, frequency and length of exposure. Electromagnetic radiation is said to be ionizing as soon as it has enough energy to snatch electrons from the atoms exposed. Numerous studies, albeit disputed, have shown that prolonged exposure to high-intensity radiation could increase the risk of brain tumours, leukaemia and sleeping problems in particular. [ 3 Begich, nick ] [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ h.a.a.r.P. ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]
porcia (bataille de)

Pirates Stede Bonnet

Pirates Edward England

Electrosmog [ f ] Phnomne physique dcrivant lexposition dtres vivants ou dappareils un champ lectromagntique mis par des appareils lectriques (imagerie mdicale ; dispositifs industriels de mesure, de strilisation ou de production dlectricit ; antennes relais ; rseaux informatiques, radiophoniques, audiovisuels ; lignes haute tension ; radars ; appareils lectromnagers et lectroniques grand public tels que fours micro-ondes, tlviseurs et ordinateurs) ou dorigine naturelle (charges lectriques prsentes dans latmosphre ; champs magntiques issus de lactivit solaire et

Porcia (Battle of) [ f ] Du 1er au 3 mai 1809, les troupes franaises et italiennes affrontent les troupes autrichiennes sur la commune de Porcia en Frioul-VntieJulienne. Le 16 avril 1809, en dpit de linfriorit numrique de ses troupes et contre lavis de son tat-major, Eugne de Beauharnais, fils adoptif de lEmpereur Napolon et vice-roi dItalie, avait lanc, Sacile, loffensive contre les troupes de lArchiduc dAutriche Jean. Aprs avoir subi de lourdes pertes (trois mille morts et trois mille cinq-cents blesss), les troupes franco-italiennes durent se replier en dsordre derrire le fleuve Tagliamento, puis derrire la Livenza. Eugne de Beauharnais lana une contre-attaque depuis ses positions de repli le 28 avril 1809. Bnficiant de lappui de larme allemande, les armes

Pirates Howell Davis

Pirates Bartholomew Roberts

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Pledge
~~~
Mot anglais que lon peut traduire par engagement ou promesse . The pledge, ou la prsentation , est le nom de la premire tape dun tour de magie selon la thorie du prestidigitateur Alfred Borden dans le roman The Prestige de Christopher Priest.
[f]

~~~
[ e ] A commitment or promise. The pledge is the name given to the first stage of a magic trick according to the theory of the magician [ prestidigitateur ] Alfred Borden in the novel The Prestige by Christopher Priest.

~~~

napoloniennes menrent partir de l une srie de batailles jusqu la victoire finale Wagram le 6 juillet 1809. En 2009, sous lgide de la commune de Porcia, de lAssociazione Studi Napoleonici et de lassociation Pro Porcia, les habitants se sont livrs une reconstitution en costume dpoque, loccasion du deux centime anniversaire de cette bataille napolonienne. [ e ] From May 1 to 3, 1809, French and Italian troops confronted Austrian troops at the commune of Porcia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. On April 16, 1809, despite the numerical inferiority of his troops and against the judgement of his general staff, Eugne de Beauharnais, Emperor Napoleons adopted son and Viceroy of Italy, had launched an attack at Sacile against the troops of Archduke John of Austria. After suffering heavy losses (3,000 dead and 3,500 wounded) the Franco-Italian troops had to withdraw in disarray behind the Tagliamento River, then behind the Livenza. Eugne de Beauharnais launched a counter-attack from his fallback positions on April 28, 1809. Benefiting from the support of the German army, the Napoleonic armies conducted a series of battles culminating in final victory at Wagram on July 6, 1809. In 2009, under the aegis of the commune of Porcia, the Associazione Studi Napoleonici and the Pro Porcia association, the inhabitants of the commune enacted a reconstruction in period costume, to coincide with the 200th anniversary of that Napoleonic battle. [ 4 Pugnaire, Florian & raffini, David ]
positron [ f ] Physique. Le positron est, par dfinition, un

antilectron. Leurs charges lectriques valent toutes deux 1, mais, alors que celle de llectron est ngative, celle du positron est positive do son nom. Les deux particules ont cependant la mme masse et la mme forme. Sil y a des lectrons dans chaque atome de la matire qui nous environne, il ny a en revanche aucun positron : lorsquil en apparat un, il sannihile immdiatement avec un lectron voisin, produisant un flash de radiation trs nergtique, les photons gamma . En effet, lors de la rencontre dun lectron et dun positron, la combinaison de leurs charges lectriques est de zro, mais leurs masses deviennent nergie. Suivant la fameuse quation 1 dEinstein E = mc2 o E est lnergie, m la masse et c la vitesse de la lumire, la masse tant ici multiplie par deux puisquil y a deux masses identiques, celles de llectron et du positron lnergie disponible correspond lnergie de deux fois la masse dun lectron. Cette quantit parat a priori ngligeable, llectron et le positron tant minuscules,

mais le taux de change , soit la vitesse de la lumire leve au carr, est considrable. partir de lnergie ainsi produite, dautres particules peuvent se crer ainsi que de la lumire. Le phnomne du rayonnement gamma se produit naturellement, bien que rarement, lors de certaines dsintgrations radioactives. Il a trouv un usage particulier en mdecine, avec le dveloppement de la tomographie mission de positrons (TEP ) : il sagit dinjecter une substance radioactive dans lorganisme dun patient, substance dont la dsintgration gnre un positron qui sannihile avec un lectron. Lobservation des rayons gamma qui en rsultent permet de tracer le fluide inject et ainsi de cartographier de manire non-invasive une zone comme le cerveau. [ e ] Physics. The positron is, by definition, an antielectron. Their electric charges are both equivalent to 1, but the electron charge is negative whereas the positron has a positive onehence its name. Both particles have the same mass and the same shape. There are electrons in every atom of the matter around us. On the other hand, there are no positrons: when one appears, it is immediately annihilated with a nearby electron in a very energetic flash of radiation which is called a gamma photon. When an electron is put in contact with a positron, the electric charge becomes zero, but their masses become energy. In accordance with 1 Einsteins famous equation E = mc2where E stands for energy, m for mass and c for the speed of light [ lumire ] , the mass being here multiplied by 2 since there are two identical masses, those of the electron and the positron this available energy corresponds to the energy of two times the mass of an electron. That may not seem to be much at first sight, for the electron and the positron are minute, but the rate of change, the speed of light squared, is huge. Other particles and light can be created from that energy. The phenomenon of the gamma photon occurs naturally, although seldom, in certain radioactive disintegrations. It is used in a peculiar way in medicine, as a technique called Positron Emission Tomography (PET ) which consists in injecting a radioactive substance into a patients body. The radioactive disintegration of that substance generates a positron that is annihilated with a nearby electron: observation of the resulting gamma photons reveals the fluids trajectory and helps map a sensitive area such as the brain in an non-invasive way. [ antimatire ] [ Dirac (quation de) ] [ 1 Galfard, Christophe ] [ Matire ]

[ 1 Jeudis de , nouVELLES Du MonDE rEnVErS (Les) ] [ 1 neuropsychanalyse ]


postcolonial [ f ] Dans le contexte de la dcolonisation, diverses

voix et thories critiques se font entendre (Franz Fanon, Claude Lvi-Strauss) qui mettent en cause leuropocentrisme de la pense hrite des Lumires. Deux dcennies plus tard, des chercheurs indiens en sciences sociales (Homi Bhabha, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak) prennent leur exprience vcue, le partage entre une culture domestique indienne et une ducation acadmique britannique, pour point de dpart dune rflexion originale. Cette rflexion sur leur propre identit les conduit forger la notion didentit hybride et volatile et entreprendre une rfutation du paradigme colonial. Cette dernire passe par la contestation de lide de progrs historique et linstauration dun rapport critique au temps et lhistoire qui revalorise la distance spatiale comme distance critique. Leur vise nest pas une inversion des rapports de domination sociaux, politiques, pistmologiques , mais un changement radical des formes de relations entre les diffrentes parties du monde. La thorie postcoloniale sattache dconstruire les impenss de la modernit et dbarrasser la culture des effets rsiduels de la colonisation. [ e ] In the context of decolonization, various voices and critical theories made themselves heard (Franz Fanon, Claude Lvi-Strauss) that challenged the Eurocentrism of thought inherited from the Enlightenment. Two decades later, Indian researchers in the social sciences (Homi Bhabha, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak) used their personal experiencebetween domestic Indian culture and a British academic educationas the starting point for a new current of thought. This reflection on their own identity led them to forge the notion of a hybrid and volatile identity and undertake a refutation of the colonial paradigm. The latter involves a challenge to the idea of historical progress and the establishment of a critical relationship to time and history that revaluates spatial distance as critical distance. Their aim is not to overturn the balance of powersocially, politically, epistemologicallybut to incur a radical change in the forms of relations between different parts of the world. Postcolonial theory strives to deconstruct the non-thoughts of modernity and rid culture of the residual effects of colonization.

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Prestidigitateur
~~~
Un prestidigitateur (galement appel illusionniste) est un artiste qui, par ladresse de ses mains et lusage dartifices, produit des illusions en faisant disparatre, apparatre, changer de position ou dapparence des objets ou des corps. Le mot prestidigitateur napparat quau xix e sicle avec le dveloppement de cette pratique. Jusqualors, on parle descamoteur ou de physicien. Au dpart, les escamoteurs ne pratiquent que des tours simples comme les tours de gobelets. Ils se produisent dans les foires et voyagent la faon des saltimbanques. partir du xviiie sicle, certains artistes tels que Giuseppe Pinetti ou Henri Decremps enrichissent le rpertoire des escamoteurs au point de transformer leur profession. Les escamoteurs deviennent des clbrits. Ils se produisent sur les scnes des thtres et dans les salons de laristocratie. Au cours du xixe sicle, la prestidigitation devient un art part entire et senrichit de diffrentes spcialits comme lescapologie, le mentalisme ou la lvitation. Dans son livre Confidences et rvlations (1868), Jean-Eugne robert-houdin voque les circonstances exactes de lapparition du terme de prestidigitateur : Jules de Rovre tait fils de parents nobles, ainsi que lindique la particule qui prcde son nom. En montant sur la scne, le physicien aristocrate voulut un titre la hauteur de sa naissance. Le nom vulgaire descamoteur avait t repouss bien loin par lui comme une triviale dnomination ; celui de physicien tait gnralement port par ses confrres et ne pouvait par cela mme lui convenir ; force lui fut den crer un pour se faire une place part. On vit donc, un jour, sur une immense affiche de spectacle, staler pour la premire fois, le titre pompeux de prestidigitateur ; laffiche donnait en mme temps ltymologie de ce mot : presto digiti (agilit des doigts). Venaient ensuite les dtails de la sance, entremls de citations latines, qui devaient frapper lesprit du public en rappelant lrudition de lescamoteur ; pardon, du prestidigitateur. Ce mot, ainsi que celui de prestidigitation du mme auteur, fut promptement adopt par les confrres de Jules de Rovre, tant ils furent sduits par daussi beaux noms. LAcadmie elle-mme suivit cet exemple ; elle sanctionna la cration du physicien et la fit passer la postrit.
[f] [e]

Magician
~~~
A magician (also called an illusionist) is an artist who produces illusions through the skill of his hands and the use of ingenious tricks, making objects or bodies vanish, materialize, change position or appearance. The French word prestidigitateur only came into the language in the 19th century with the development of this skill. Until then people spoke of escamoteurs [conjurers] or physiciens. Initially, conjurers only carried out simple tricks like those with cups and marbles [ gobelet]. They performed at fairs and travelled around in the same way as strolling players. Starting in the 18th century some artists like Giuseppe Pinetti or Henri Decremps enriched the conjurers repertory to the point of transforming the profession. Conjurers became celebrities. They performed on stage at theaters and in the drawing-rooms of the aristocracy. During the 19th century, magic became an art in its own right, with different specialities like escapology [ escapologie ], mentalism [mentalisme] or levitation [ lvitation ]. In his book Confidences et rvlations (1868), Jean-Eugne roberthoudin describes the precise circumstances in which the word prestidigitateur came into being: Jules de Rovre was the son of noble parents, as is indicated by the de in front of his family name. When he went on the stage, the aristocratic physicien wanted a title on a par with his birth. He rejected the vulgar name escamoteur [conjurer] as a trivial description of his profession; the term physicien was generally used by his fellow practitioners and for that very reason could not do for him; he was obliged to create a name to give himself a special place. So one day on a huge show poster we saw the pompous title prestidigitateur displayed for the first time; the poster also gave the words etymology: presto digiti (agility of the fingers). Then followed details of the performance, interspersed with Latin quotations which were intended to strike the mind of the public by reminding them of the erudition of the conjurersorry, of the prestidigitateur. This word, along with the expression prestidigitation coined by the same man, was promptly adopted by Jules de Rovres fellow practitioners, so delighted were they with such fine names. The French Academy itself followed suit; it approved de Rovres creation and caused it to pass down to posterity.

Prestidigitateur Georges Mlis, Escamotage dune dame au

thtre Robert- Houdin,1896

Prestidigitateur J.N. Maskelyne et son automate, Psycho /

J.N. Maskelyne and Psycho, his automaton

Prestidigitateur Extraits dun livre de tours de magie russe /

Excerpts from a Russian book of magic tricks, 1877

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mode de vie, dune esthtique et dune morale.


[ e ] Mode of production characterized by the mecha-

Magician [ f ] voir p. 162 [ e ] see p. 162


prestiGe [ f ] voir p. 165 [ e ] see p. 165 [ naufrage du Prestige ] priest, christopher [ f ] *1943. crivain de science-fiction n en Angle-

terre. Ses principaux romans sont The Inverted World (1974), The Space Machine (1976) et The Prestige (1995). Les thmes du double et du simulacre occupent une place privilgie dans son uvre, laquelle est souvent compare celle de Philip K. Dick. [ e ] *1943. A science-fiction writer born in England. His best known novels are The Inverted World (1974), The Space Machine (1976) and The Prestige (1995). The themes of the double and the simulacrum take pride of place in his work, which is often compared to that of Philip K. Dick. [ Pledge ] [ Prestige ] [ Turn ]
production industrielle

nization of production, its large-scale development, and the standardization of its products. It results in the submission of working conditions to the imperatives of mechanized and standardized production in order to reduce the quantity of energy dispensed proportionately for the manufacture of identical products and to accelerate the rhythm of production. This method of labour organization, developed empirically in capitalist industry before being rationally perfected by Fordism and Taylorism in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by the division and the specialisation of labour, the separation of intellectual work and manual labour, and the reduction of production operations to solely their physical and mechanical aspect. Industrial production calls for the industrial worker to develop the psychological and behavioural tendencies necessary to adapt to this form of work, such as mechanical and automatic attitudes. Thus industrial production produces not only standardized, functional, and inexpensive products, but also, insofar as it denotes a certain social organization, a lifestyle, an aesthetic, and a morality. [ Modulaire ] [ organisation scientifique de travail ] [ 4 Valeur du travail ]
profonde [ f ] Dans le jargon des prestidigitateurs, une

Prestige
~~~
Vient du latin praestigium qui signifie artifice ou illusion . la Renaissance, il dsigne une illusion dont les causes sont surnaturelles, puis, au xviiie sicle, un artifice sducteur comme ceux qui sont invents par les prestidigitateurs et que lon dsigne aujourdhui couramment par lexpression tour de magie . Cette signification premire du mot prestige se perd au cours du xxe sicle. Elle inspire cependant lcrivain Christopher Priest le titre de son roman The Prestige [ Le Prestige ] paru en 1995. Le livre raconte le duel entre deux prestidigitateurs fictifs, Alfred Borden et Rupert Angier, dans le contexte de lAngleterre industrielle de la fin du xixe sicle. Ce duel nest pas sans rappeler celui de deux autres prestidigitateurs, cette fois rels, Giuseppe Pinetti et Edmond de Grisy, dit Torrini, dont lhistoire est raconte en dtail par Jean-Eugne robert-houdin dans ses Mmoires. Dans The Prestige, Christopher Priest nonce, par la voix de lun de ses protagonistes, ce qui apparat comme un principe fondamental de lart de la prestidigitation, savoir que les tours de magie se divisent toujours en trois tapes. La premire sappelle the pledge . Il sagit de la prparation, sorte de prlude au cours duquel le prestidigitateur expose les accessoires de son tour et fixe lattention du public. La seconde tape sappelle the turn . Il sagit de lexcution. Le prestidigitateur se met alors en action en jouant secrtement de son adresse. Pour le public, le suspens commence. La troisime tape sappelle the prestige . Il sagit de la rvlation de leffet magique proprement parler, au cours de laquelle le public manifeste sa surprise, voire sa stupfaction. Le Prestige est galement un ptrolier qui fit naufrage en 2002. La Prestige est une bire blonde hatienne.
[f] [e]

Prestige
~~~
The word comes from the Latin praestigium meaning artifice or illusion. During the Renaissance, it referred to an illusion that had supernatural causes; in the 18th century, to an appealing trick like those invented by magicians [ prestidigitateur], commonly known today as magic tricks. That first meaning of the word prestige was lost during the 20th century. Nonetheless, it inspired the title of the writer Christopher Priests novel The Prestige, published in 1995. The book tells the story of a duel between two fictional magicians, Alfred Borden and Rupert Angier, set in the context of late 19th-century industrial England. That duel has some reminiscences of the rivalry between two real magicians, Giuseppe Pinetti and Edmond de Grisy, known as Torrini; their story is told in detail by JeanEugne robert-houdin in his memoirs. In The Prestige, Christopher Priest states, through the voice of one of his protagonists, what seems to be a fundamental principle of the art of magic and conjuring, namely that magic tricks are always divided into three stages. The first is called the pledge. This has to do with the preparation, a sort of prelude during which the magician exhibits the accessories of his tricks and secures the audiences attention. The second stage is called the turn . This is about the execution of the trick. The magician then goes into action, making secret play with his skill. For the audience, the suspense begins. The third stage is called the prestige. This concerns the revelation of what may properly be called the magic effect, during which the audience manifests its surprise, or even its stupefaction. The Prestige was also an oil tanker that was wrecked in 2002. It is also the name of a Haitian pale ale.

Industrial production [ f ] Mode de production caractris par la mcanisation de la production, son dveloppement grande chelle et la standardisation de ses produits. Elle a pour corollaire la soumission de lorganisation du travail aux impratifs dune production mcanise et standardise afin de rduire la quantit dnergie dpense proportionnellement pour la fabrication dun mme produit et dacclrer le rythme de production. Cette organisation du travail, dveloppe de faon empirique dans lindustrie capitaliste avant dtre rationnellement perfectionne par le fordisme et le taylorisme au dbut du XX e sicle, se caractrise par la division et la spcialisation des tches, la sparation du travail intellectuel et du travail manuel, la rduction des oprations de production leur seul aspect physique et machinal. La production industrielle demande que soient dveloppes chez le travailleur industriel les dispositions psychologiques et comportementales ncessaires pour quil sadapte cette forme de travail, des attitudes machinales et automatiques. Ainsi la production industrielle est productrice non seulement de produits standardiss, fonctionnels et peu coteux, mais aussi, dans la mesure o elle dsigne un certain type dorganisation sociale, dun

profonde est une poche spciale dissimule dans lhabit du prestidigitateur. Ces poches, prcise Jean-Eugne robert-houdin dans Comment on devient sorcier (1868), ne servent qu dposer des objets pour sen dbarrasser ; mais on ne peut rien y prendre attendu que, comme lindique leur nom, elles sont trop profondes pour que la main puisse en atteindre le fond. [ e ] In the jargon of magicians, a profonde is a special deep pocket concealed in the coat of the magician [ prestidigitateur ] ; they are also known as pochettes. We put items into these pockets, Jean-Eugne robert-houdin explains in Comment on devient sorcier (1868), in order to get rid of them; but nothing can be taken out of them, given that, as their name indicates, they are too deep for the hand to be able to reach their bottom. [ Fake ] [ Gimmick ]
protocinMa

~~~

~~~

Proto-cinema [ f ] Dit aussi prcinma . Le terme dsigne les diverses techniques mises au point pour animer

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pUits artsien

pUits artsien

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Production industrielle

et/ou projeter des images et stant considrablement dveloppes au xixe sicle , en jouant du phnomne de la persistance rtinienne (capacit de lil conserver une image vue superpose celle quon est en train de voir), ce qui permet de donner limpression de mouvement dans une succession dimages fixes. Lensemble de ces techniques ont t rendues obsoltes suite lapparition du cinmatographe, dont les frres Lumires dposent le brevet en 1895. Parmi ces inventions servant montrer, projeter ou capter des images en mouvement, on compte la lanterne magique, le thaumatrope, la roue de Faraday, le phnakistiscope, le zootrope, le praxinoscope, le praxinoscope projection, le zoopraxiscope, le kintoscope et le kintographe. [ e ] Also called pre-cinema. The term is used to describe the various techniques perfected to animate and/or project images, which were considerably developed in the 19th century, making use of the phenomenon of persistence of vision (the eyes capacity to preserve a seen image superimposed on the one we are in the act of seeing), which makes it possible to give the impression of movement from a succession of fixed images. All of these techniques were made obsolete following the appearance of the cinematograph, patented by the Lumire brothers in 1895. Among the inventions used to show, project or capture moving images are the magic lantern, the thaumatrope, the Faraday wheel, the phenakistiscope, the zootrope, the praxinoscope, the projection praxinoscope, the zoopraxiscope, the kinetoscope, and the kinetograph. [ 4 herv, Louise & Maillet, Chlo ]
puits artsien

Protocinma Salon de kintoscope San Francisco/Kine-

toscope parlor in San Francisco, ca. 1895

Artesian well [ f ] Puits duquel leau jaillit spontanment, la manire dun geyser. Ce phnomne a t mis en vidence en 1126 par les moines de labbaye de Lillers, en Artois, do son nom. Le premier puits artsien parisien a t for entre 1833 et 1841 par lingnieur Louis-Georges Moulot linstigation de 4 Franois arago, alors maire de la capitale. [ e ] A well from which the water wells up spontaneously, as with a geyser. This phenomenon was revealed in 1126 by the monks of the Abbaye de Lillers in Artois, the place name after which it is called. The first artesian well in Paris was drilled between 1833 and 1841 by the engineer LouisGeorges Moulot at the instigation of 4 Franois arago, at that time mayor of the capital. [ 4 Verde, Cyril & Collins, Mathis ]

Protocinma Kintoscope/Kinetoscope

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QUotient scHiZopHrniQUe

QUotient scHiZopHrniQUe

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quotient schiZophrnique

Schizophrenic quotient [ f ] Lart contemporain pourrait tre apparent un film dalfred hitchcock qui sarrterait au milieu de la projection. Au moment o le film est suspendu, on ne connat pas la solution de lnigme ; on peut certes accumuler les hypothses, imaginer une multitude dinterprtations possibles, mais la reprsentation reste casse, irrsolue. Alors que notre cerveau doit sans cesse se rfrer des critres de choix clairs et des solutions tranches, lart contemporain prend justement le parti inverse. En guise dhygine de lesprit, il nous force abandonner nos systmes de croyance au profit de processus de connaissance multiples, laisser fonctionner nos connexions neuronales ltat brut, bref, accepter une forme de schizophrnie. Lesprit fractur en deux, lexposition devient un systme dactivation directe des synapses, o ni lil ni le cerveau ne peuvent plus se fixer sur un point prcis, accumulant, sans pouvoir sarrter, sensations et interprtations. Ainsi, on poserait que toute uvre dart est dote dun quotient schizophrnique : son intrt , sa valeur ont en effet bien peu voir avec son esthtique, pas plus quavec la fixit et la permanence de sens quelle propose. Mais plus luvre est capable de 2 glissements et de renversements, plus son quotient schizophrnique est lev, plus elle soulve alors de possibles, suscite de scnarios et gagne en densit. Une uvre dart pertinente est celle qui parvient tre une chose et une autre la fois, relevant de plusieurs systmes en mme temps et dveloppant cette capacit glisser dune interprtation une autre, dune sphre une autre, pour tester sans cesse les capacits lastiques de la ralit. [ e ] Contemporary art could be likened to an alfred hitchcock film which had stopped in the middle of being projected. At the point where the film is left hanging, we do not know the solution to the enigma; we can of course come up with many conjectures, imagine a multitude of possible interpretations, but the screening remains broken, unresolved. While our brain constantly has to refer to clear criteria of choice and cut-and-dried solutions, contemporary art takes the very opposite path. As a way of cleansing our minds, it forces us to abandon our belief [ croyance ] systems in favour of multiple processes of knowledge, to let our neuronal connections function in their raw state, in short to accept a form of schizophrenia. With the mind broken in two, an exhibition becomes a system of direct activation of the synapses, where neither the eye nor the brain

can hone in on a precise point, but accumulate sensations and interpretations, without being able to stop. Thus we would suggest that every work of art is endowed with a schizophrenic quotient: its interest, its value actually has very little to do with its aesthetic, any more than with the fixity and permanence of meaning it offers. But the more the work is capable of slides [ 2 glissement ] and reversals, the higher its schizophrenic quotient, the more possibilities it then raises, the more scenarios it prompts, the more it gains in density. A relevant work of art is one that succeeds in being one thing and another simultaneously: it comes under several systems at the same time, and develops that capacity to slide from one interpretation to another, from one sphere to another, in order constantly to test the elastic capacities of reality. [ lasticit ] [ Fonction Etc. ] [ Vision-fentre ]

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radioactiVe Boy scoUt

rayons cosMiQUes

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radioactive boy scout [ f ] En franais, Scout radioactif . Adolescent de

17 ans qui, dans les annes 1990, avait construit une centrale nuclaire dans sa chambre, en grattant des centaines de montres pour rcuprer le peu de radium quil y avait sur chaque montre. Sans aucun but terroriste ni politique, il avait tout de mme russi faire vacuer tout son quartier cause dun taux de radioactivit trs lev. [ e ] A 17-year-old in the 1990s who built a nuclear power station in his bedroom by scraping off hundreds of watches to recover the small amount of radium there was on each watch. He had no terrorist or political aim. All the same, he did manage to have his whole district evacuated because of a very high level of radioactivity. [ 2 hahn, David ] [ 2 Giraud, Fabien] [ Positron ] [ 2 Siboni, raphal ]
radioGonioMtrie

mica vanes can revolve, each with one of its sides blackened by smoke and the other silvery. Exhibited to light [ lumire ], these vanes start to turn, going faster as the light becomes stronger. It was invented by William Crookes to measure magnetic radiation, but why the device starts to rotate has been the subject of several scientific debates. In fact the radiometer does not start to rotate solely under the effects of light, for it can be observed that the heat of the hand is enough to set the device turning, albeit slowly. [ 4 Cassire, Pierre-Laurent ] [ Son optique ]
ral [ f ] Ex-chanteur et journaliste sportif, Ral, de

Radiogoniometry [ f ] Technique visant dterminer la position dun metteur dondes lectromagntiques, soit en employant plusieurs rcepteurs en des positions diffrentes, soit par calcul en fonction de la cinmatique propre du rcepteur. [ e ] Technique aiming to determine the position of a transmitter of electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ], either by using several receivers in different positions, or by a calculation based on the receivers own kinematics.
radioMtre de crookes

Crookes radiometer [ f ] Le radiomtre de Crookes consiste en une ampoule sous vide partiel contenant un systme rotatif constitu dun axe de mtal sur lequel peut tourner un ensemble de quatre palettes de mica dont chacune a une de ses faces noircie au noir de fume et lautre argente. Exposes la lumire, ces palettes se mettent tourner, et dautant plus vite que la lumire est forte. Il a t invent par William Crookes pour mesurer les radiations magntiques, mais les causes de la mise en rotation du dispositif ont t le sujet de plusieurs dbats scientifiques. De fait, le radiomtre nentre pas en rotation uniquement sous les effets de la lumire, car on constate que la chaleur de la main est suffisante pour que tourne, mme lentement, le dispositif. [ e ] The Crookes radiometer consists of bulb containing a partial vacuum; inside is a rotating system consisting of a metal axis on which a set of four

son vrai nom Claude Vorilhon, fonde en 1974 le mouvement ralien. La doctrine du mouvement se base sur le contact quaurait eu Ral avec des extraterrestres technologiquement avancs, les Elohim , qui auraient cr la vie sur Terre. Les croyances des adeptes sont fondes sur limportance des avances scientifiques et technologiques et en particulier sur le fait que le 2 clonage et le transfert de conscience permettraient datteindre limmortalit. Le mouvement promeut les recherches sur le clonage humain, travers les activits de la socit Clonaid, prside depuis 2003 par Brigitte Boisselier. [ e ] In 1974 Ral, a former singer and sports journalist whose real name is Claude Vorilhon, founded the Raelian movement. The movements doctrine is based on the contact Ral claims to have had with technologically advanced aliens[ extraterrestre ], the elohim, who purportedly created life on Earth. The beliefs [ croyance ] of its followers are based on the importance of scientific and technological advances, and in particular on the fact that cloning [ 2 clonage ] and the transfer [ transfert ] of consciousness would make it possible to achieve immortality. The movement promotes research into human cloning through the activities of Clonaid, a company presided over by Brigitte Boisselier since 2003. [ 2 Motti, Gianni ] [ Enlvements extraterrestres ]
rayons cosMiques

Cosmic Rays [ f ] Physique. Toute la surface de la Terre est en permanence frappe par des rayons cosmiques, raison dune moyenne de 1 rayon cosmique / m2/min. (flux de rfrence au niveau de la mer). Dcouverts par le physicien Victor Franz Hess en 1912, qui reut avec Carl Anderson en 1936 le

prix Nobel de physique, ces rayons se composent essentiellement de muons (), particules interagissant peu avec la matire mais particulirement nergtiques. Ils sont le produit de limpact provoqu par la rentre dans latmosphre terrestre du rayonnement cosmique primaire constitu de protons provenant du Soleil et de lespace intergalactique. Leur rencontre avec les atomes doxygne et dazote de lair provoque une cascade dinteractions, appele gerbe atmosphrique ; dans ces chocs sont produits des protons et des neutrons secondaires, des pions et des kaons qui interagissent leur tour fortement ou se dsintgrent en muons, lectrons et neutrinos. Les muons interagissent trs peu avec lair et se dsintgrent leur tour en lectrons, neutrinos et antineutrinos. Cest la dilatation relativiste du temps selon la relativit restreinte formule par 1 Einstein en 1905 qui nous permet de dtecter au niveau du sol beaucoup des muons produits dans les gerbes cosmiques par limpact des protons primaires dans latmosphre terrestre. Les muons et les neutrinos cosmiques peuvent tre dtects grce des expriences au sol ou souterraines : avant les annes 1950 et la construction dacclrateurs de particules puissants, lobservation des rayons cosmiques a ainsi t la source des premires dcouvertes de particules et dantiparticules non-atomiques comme le positron, le muon, le pion et des particules tranges parmi lesquelles le lambda, dont les traces en V ne sont prcdes daucune trace dans les plaques photographiques. 1 JeanPierre Merlo prcise : Savoir que nous vivons traverss en permanence par toutes ces particules cosmiques peut faire reculer la crainte de la radioactivit ne juste raison des ravages des premires bombes nuclaires et plus rcemment de laccident de Tchernobyl. Un faible niveau de radioactivit comme celui des rayons cosmiques peut ainsi tre apprci comme inoffensif. [ e ] Physics. The whole surface of the Earth is permanently being hit by cosmic rays, at an average of 1 cosmic ray / cm2 / min. (reference flux at sea level). These rays, discovered in 1912 by the physicist Victor Franz Hess, who along with Carl Anderson was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1936, are mainly composed of muons (), particularly energetic particles that interact very little with matter [ matire]. They are the product of the impact provoked by the entry into the earths atmosphere of the primary cosmic radiation constituted by protons coming from the Sun and intergalactic space. Their encounter with the airs oxygen and nitrogen atoms provokes

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a cascade of interactions, called an atmospheric shower; in these impacts secondary protons and neutrons are produced, pions and kaons which in their turn interact powerfully, or disintegrate into muons, electrons and neutrinos. The muons interact very little with air and in their turn disintegrate into electrons, neutrinos and antineutrinos. It is the relativist dilation of time in accordance with the restricted relativity [ relativit ] formulated by 1 Einstein in 1905 that enables us to detect at ground level a lot of the muons produced in the cosmic showers by the impact of the primary protons on the earths atmosphere. Cosmic muons and neutrinos can be detected thanks to experiments on or under the ground: prior to the 1950s and the construction of powerful particle accelerators, observation of cosmic rays thus lay behind the first discoveries of non-atomic particles and antiparticles such as the positron, muon and pion, and strange particles, including the lambda particle: its traces in V shape are preceded by no trace on the photographic plates. 1 Jean-Pierre Merlo says: Knowing that we are living permanently penetrated by all these cosmic particles can help lessen our fear of radioactivity, justifiably inspired by the ravages caused by the first nuclear bombs and more recently the accident at Chernobyl. Thus a low level of radioactivity such as that from cosmic rays can be understood to be harmless. [ antimatire ] [ Dtecteur de particules ] [ LhC ] [ 1 Jeudis de , nouVELLES Du MonDE rEnVErS (L es) ]

relativit

reboot [ f ] En informatique, le verbe anglais reboot signifie

redmarrer . Dans les domaines du cinma, de la srie tlvise et du jeu vido, un reboot est une nouvelle version dune histoire dans laquelle le scnariste adopte le mme point de dpart que dans cette histoire, mais prend ensuite une direction diffrente. En ce sens, la notion de reboot est voisine dautres notions scnaristiques comme le remake ou le spin-off. [ e ] In computer technology reboot means starting up again. In the fields of cinema, TV series and video games, a reboot is a new version of a story in which the scriptwriter adopts the same starting point as in the original story, but then takes a different direction. In this meaning, the notion of a reboot is close to other scriptwriting concepts like a remake or a spin-off.

Relativity [ f ] Ide selon laquelle tout phnomne doit tre considr comme relatif un systme de rfrence dans lequel il est observ. Au xviie sicle, Galile formule un principe de relativit qui structure lensemble de la physique classique. Selon ce principe, le temps est rigoureusement absolu : la simultanit de deux vnements est vraie quel que soit le systme de rfrence adopt. Toujours selon ce principe, lespace, li la fixit des toiles, est homogne et continu. Au xxe sicle, Albert 1 Einstein provoque une vritable rvolution dans le champ de la physique classique en remettant en cause le principe de relativit de Galile. Il conteste le caractre absolu du temps ainsi que la fixit des toiles et lhomognit de lespace. Selon lui, lUnivers est en mouvement et il nexiste pas de point fixe dans le temps et dans lespace. Il postule que la vitesse de la lumire dans le vide demeure la seule constante valable quel que soit le rfrentiel envisag, et quaucun signal ni aucun corps dans lunivers ne peuvent la dpasser. La vitesse de la lumire devient le nouvel absolu sur lequel schafaude lensemble du systme et des mesures. Le temps et lespace deviennent relatifs au mouvement et lnergie. Ils peuvent se dilater ou se contracter. [ e ] Idea according to which every phenomenon must be regarded as relative to the reference system in which it is observed. In the 17th century, Galileo formulated a principle of relativity that structured all aspects of traditional physics [ physique classique ]. According to that principle, time is strictly absolute: the simultaneity of two events is true, regardless of the reference system adopted. This principle also dictates that space, linked to the fixed nature of the stars, is homogeneous and continuous. In the 20th century, Albert 1 Einstein triggered a real revolution in the field of traditional physics by challenging Galileos principle of relativity. He disputed the absolute character of time as well as the fixed nature of the stars and the homogeneity of space. According to Einstein, the Universe is moving, and there are no fixed points in time and space. He postulated that the only valid constant, in every frame of reference, is the speed of light [ lumire ] in a vacuum, which cannot be surpassed by any signal or body in the universe. The speed of light became the new absolute, around which the entire system and all measurements are constructed. Time and space become relative to movement and energy. They can dilate or contract. [ Espace-temps ] [ Vision-fentre ]

ral Ral & Brigitte Boisselier, Prsidente de la

socit Clonaid / CEO of the Clonaid company

rhombicuboctadre Dessin par Lonard de Vinci reproduit

dans La Divine Proportion de Luca Pacioli / Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci repdroduced in Luca Paciolis About the divine proportions, 1509

rhombicuboctadre Jacopo de Barbari, Portrait de Luca

Jean-Eugne robert-houdin Gravures extraites de / Prints

Pacioli/Portrait of Luca Pacioli, ca. 1496

from Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin, Confidences et rvlations (1868)

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resiGnification [ f ] Terme courant dans le discours des sciences

humaines qui hrite de la smiotique de Roland Barthes le fait denvisager le monde social comme un systme de signes et de la pense poststructuraliste, notamment celle de Jacques Derrida, une attention aux implications de toute traduction. La dmarche de Barthes repose sur lapplication des structures, des mthodes et des instruments thoriques de la linguistique de Ferdinand de Saussure dans le champ plus large de la vie sociale, de ses reprsentations et de ses modes de communication. Le monde social sy donne lire comme texte. Luvre de Jacques Derrida, influence par celle de Martin Heidegger, affirme lautonomie du langage et la ncessit dy mettre jour des principes internes dintelligibilit, plutt que les chercher en vain dans un rel suppos le prcder. Le terme resignification dsigne des 4 usages par lesquels des individus ou des groupes sapproprient des objets sociaux et les dtournent de leur signification premire pour y insuffler un sens nouveau. [ e ] A common term in social sciences discourse which inherited from the semiotics of Roland Barthes a perception of the world as a system of signs, and from post-structuralismnotably that of Jacques Derridaan attention to the implications of translation. Barthes approach is based on applying the structures, methods and theoretical instruments of Ferdinand de Saussures linguistics within the larger frame of society, and its representations and modes of communication. The social world can thus be deciphered like a text. Jacques Derridas body of work, influenced by Martin Heidegger, affirms the autonomy of language and the need to discern within it internal principles of intelligibility, rather than to search vainly within a reality which supposedly precedes language. The term resignification designates practices [ 4 usage ] through which individuals or groups appropriate social objects and divert them from their original meaning in order to infuse them with new meaning. [ 4 Zarka, raphal ]
rhoMbicuboctadre

de Barbari reprsente un rhombicuboctadre en verre dans le portrait quil ralise de lhomme de science. En 2001, 4 raphal Zarka dcouvre des 4 brise-lames en forme de rhombicuboctadre abandonns le long dune route entre Ste et Narbonne. Il les photographie et dbute ainsi sa srie des Formes du repos qui inventorie des objets de forme gomtrique crs et abandonns par lhomme. Cette rencontre inattendue marque aussi le dbut dune enqute de lartiste propos des diffrentes occurrences de cette forme, fort utile en beaucoup doccasions pour qui sait bien en disposer selon Luca Pacioli. [ e ] A semiregular polyhedron with 26 facets18 squares and eight triangles. Archimedes [ 4 archimde ] is credited with its discovery and is thought to be the first person to describe it, along with 12 other semiregular polyhedrons. During the Renaissance, Luca Pacioli, a mathematician and author of About the divine proportions, rediscovers it. In 1495, the painter Jacopo de Barbari figures a glass rhombicuboctahedron in his portrait of the Italian scientist. In 2001, 4 raphal Zarka discovers breakwaters [ 4 brise-lames] shaped like rhombicuboctahedrons, abandoned along the road between Ste and Narbonne. He photographs them, and thus begins the series Formes du repos [Shapes of rest], an inventory of geometrically shaped objects created and abandoned by man. This unexpected incident also marks the beginning of the artists investigation into the different occurrences of this shape that can prove quite useful on many occasions for he who uses it well, according to Luca Pacioli.
rhoMbodre

Rhombohedron [ f ] Figure gomtrique, le rhombodre est un polydre dont les faces sont en forme de losanges. Cas particulier dun paralllpipde o toutes les artes ont la mme longueur, le rhombodre est par ailleurs le rsultat de la dformation du cube. [ e ] A geometric figure, the rhombohedron is a polyhedron the faces of which are lozenge-shaped. It is a special case: a parallelepiped where all the edges are the same length. It also results from the distortion of a cube.
robert-houdin, jean-euGne [ f ] 1805-1871. Gnralement considr comme

Rhombicuboctahedron [ f ] Polydre semi-rgulier vingt-six surfaces, dont dix-huit carrs et huit triangles. Sa dcouverte est attribue 4 archimde qui aurait t le premier le dcrire aux cts de douze autres polydres semi-rguliers. la Renaissance, Luca Pacioli, mathmaticien et auteur du Trait de la divine proportion, le redcouvre. En 1495, le peintre Jacopo

le plus grand prestidigitateur de lhistoire, Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin apparat comme celui qui rvolutionna les codes de la profession en modernisant la mise en scne et en largissant le rpertoire. Il abandonne les robes de magicien,

les chapeaux pointus et les formules pontifiantes au profit dun habit sobre et dun langage lgant. Fils dun horloger de Blois, il fait des tudes pour devenir notaire, mais, davantage intress par la mcanique que par le droit, il se roriente vers lhorlogerie. Il dcouvre par hasard lart de lescamotage qui devient sa passion. En 1830, il sinstalle comme horloger Paris et consacre son temps libre mettre au point des automates comme La Leon de chant (un oiseau qui apprend siffler) ou Lcrivain-Dessinateur qui impressionne le roi Louis-Philippe lors de lExposition universelle de 1844. Il conoit un rveil briquet : Le soir, on le mettait prs de soi, et lheure dsire, un carillon rveillait le dormeur, en mme temps quune bougie sortait tout allume dune petite bote o elle se trouvait enferme. En 1845, il inaugure son thtre des Soires fantastiques au Palais-Royal, o, pendant plusieurs annes, le public afflue de toute lEurope. Il perfectionne son style et invente de nombreux tours comme La Bouteille inpuisable, LOranger fantastique, La Pche merveilleuse ou La Pendule arienne. Avec La Seconde Vue et La Suspension threnne, il cre les premiers tours de mentalisme et de lvitation de lhistoire. la requte de larme franaise, il est envoy en Algrie pour contribuer la lutte contre linfluence des marabouts sur les populations arabes. la fin de sa vie, il se retire dans sa proprit de Blois dont il truque le jardin avec des commandes lectromagntiques et continue concevoir des automates. Tout en rdigeant ses Mmoires, il dpose des brevets sur des appareils doptique et sintresse lutilisation de llectricit pour la vie quotidienne. Il est lauteur de plusieurs ouvrages dont Une vie dartiste (1858), Comment on devient sorcier (1868) et Confidences et rvlations (1868). [ e ] 18051871. Generally considered the greatest magician in history, Jean-Eugne Robert-Houdin revolutionized the codes of the profession by modernizing the staging of magic and widening the repertoire. He abandoned magicians robes, pointed hats and pontificating formulas in favour of a modest coat and elegant language. He was the son of a watchmaker from Blois, and studied to become a notary. As he was more interested in mechanics than in law, he changed course and went in for watchmaking. He discovered the art of conjuring by accident, and it became his passion. In 1830 he set up as a watchmaker in Paris, devoting his free time to perfecting automata like La Leon de chant (The singing lessona bird that learns to whistle) or Lcrivain-Dessinateur [ The writer and graphic artist ], which impressed

King Louis-Philippe at the 1844 Exposition universelle. He designed an alarm clock cum lighter: At night you placed it near you, and at the desired time a carillon awakened the sleeper, at the same time as a candle emerged ready lit from a little box in which it was enclosed. In 1845, he officially opened his Thtre des Soires Fantastiques at the Palais Royal, and for several years audiences flooded in from all over Europe. He perfected his style and invented a great many tricks such as La Bouteille inpuisable [ The inexhaustible bottle ], LOranger fantastique [ The fantastical orange tree ], La Pche merveilleuse [ The marvelous peach ] or La Pendule arienne [ The aerial clock ]. With La Seconde Vue [ Second sight ] and La Suspension threnne [ The ethereal suspension ] he created the first mentalism [ mentalisme ] and levitation tricks in history. At the French Armys request, he was sent to Algeria to contribute to combating the influence of maraboutsholy men on the Arab population. At the end of his life, he withdrew to his property in Blois, filling the garden there with electromagnetic switches and continuing to design automata. While writing his memoirs, he lodged patents on optical instruments, and took an interest in the uses of electricity for everyday living. He wrote several books, including Une vie dartiste (1858), Comment on devient sorcier (1868) and Confidences et rvlations (1868). [ Prestidigitateur ]

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saint florian [ f ] Dit aussi Florian de Lorch. Mort en 304, Florian

est un saint chrtien, patron de la Pologne et de la ville de Linz (Autriche), des ramoneurs, des pompiers et des brasseurs (en Bavire et en Autriche). Commandeur de larme impriale dans la province de Norique (correspondant actuellement la Styrie, la Carinthie, une partie de la Bavire et aux rgions de Vienne et de Salzbourg) sous le rgne de Diocltien et de Maximien Hercule, alors que lEmpire romain tait en lutte contre lexpansion du christianisme, et adepte de la foi chrtienne, Florian fut tortur, puis jet dans le fleuve Enns avec une pierre autour du cou, pour avoir refus deffectuer un sacrifice une divinit romaine. Il serait apparu une femme aprs sa mort, lui demandant de lui offrir une spulture, ce qui aurait t fait Cracovie. La lgende raconte aussi quil aurait un jour teint un grand feu avec un simple seau deau, ce qui lui vaut son statut de saint patron des pompiers. [ e ] Also known as Florian of Lorch. A Christian saint who died en 304, Florian is the patron saint of Poland and the town of Linz (Austria), chimney sweeps, firefighters and brewers (in Bavaria and Austria). He was the commander of the imperial army in the province of Noricum (corresponding today to Styria, Carinthia, and part of Bavaria, and the Vienna and Salzburg regions) during the reign of Diocletian and Maximian Hercules, at the time when the Roman Empire was combating the expansion of Christianity. He himself embraced the Christian faith. He was tortured, then thrown into the River Enns with a stone round his neck, for refusing to make a sacrifice to a Roman divinity. He is reported to have appeared to a woman after his death, asking her to give him a burial, which was done in Krakow. Legend also recounts that he one day extinguished a major fire with just a bucket of water, which is why is the patron saint of firefighters. [ 4 FrESh hELL ]
sarGaM [ f ] Les svara sont les sept notes de la gamme musi-

sil nexiste que sept notes, elles se rptent loctave suprieure et loctave infrieure. Ainsi, quand on monte la gamme et que lon atteint Ni, la gamme reprend sur Sa, Re, Ga, etc. Il sagit du registre suprieur. De mme, lorsque lon descend la gamme, elle ne sarrte pas Sa, mais continue avec Ni, Dha, etc. ; cest l le registre infrieur. [ e ] Swar are the seven notes of the Indian musical scale. At a fundamental level they are similar to the sol-fa of Western music. Two of these swar are noteworthy in that they are immutably fixed. These two notes are shadj (Sa) and pancham (Pa) and are referred to as achala swar. These two swar form the tonal foundation for all the Indian classical music. The other notes have alternate forms and are called chala swar. The swar (notes) are assembled to make the scales. These scales are called saptak. The swar have special relationships with each other. Although there are only seven notes they repeat in the upper and lower directions. Therefore, when ascending the scale when one reaches Ni, then the scales starts over with Sa, Re, Ga, etc. This is the upper register. By the same token when one is descending the scale, it does not stop at Sa but continues down. [ 4 Druphad ] [ 4 Meier, robin & Momeni, ali ] [ Moustique ]
satanisMe

Satanism 1 ajemian, Jason & Lucas, 1 anger, Kenneth, 1 Backmasking, Backward messages, 1 Backward tapes, Crowley, aleister, 1 Decrauzat, Philippe, 1 Kirpikistan, occultisme, 1 Violette, Banks
science-fiction

cale indienne. Elles sont fondamentalement similaires au solfge de la musique occidentale. Deux des svara sont distinguer, car toujours fixes. Ce sont les notes shadj (Sa) et pancham (Pa) et que lon nomme achala svara. Ces deux svara forment le fondement tonal de toute la musique classique indienne. Les autres notes ont des formes alternes et sont dites chala svara . Les svara (notes) forment des gammes, appeles saptak. Les svara ont des relations spcifiques entre elles.Mme

Science fiction [ f ] La science-fiction na pas attendu des philosophes comme Baudrillard pour mettre en exergue cette fantastique puissance dvocation, cette machine schizophrnique que constitue notre dsir de cumul de lidentique, et par extension le 2 clonage et la simulation. Le grand sujet de la science-fiction na pas t de forger un au-del du rel . La physique quantique a brillamment montr que, sil peut y avoir plusieurs univers (des multivers ), il ny a en revanche quune seule ralit. Les petits hommes verts en soucoupes volantes ne signifient rien. Les vrais acteurs de la science-fiction sont les mutants. Rien visuellement ne les distingue des tres humains ( la limite un petit doigt raide pour les envahisseurs de bas tages ou un gros accent autrichien pour

un Terminator). Ils peuvent intgrer nimporte quelle identit et muter facilement dun corps lautre. Le mutant, cest mon voisin, mon frre, mon fils. Quelle importance ? Ce qui compte, cest de partager la mme identit et que sur cette terre et dautres plantes, mon double existe, multipliant linfini le nombre de mes vies possibles. Par lintermdiaire de ses mutants, la science-fiction a dsagrg la traditionnelle logique du ou ou au profit de celle, plus polysmique et fconde, du et et . Fort de cette logique du et , la science-fiction na eu de cesse dactiver ce quumberto Eco dfinit de manire si succincte et si pertinente par la Fonction Etc. et de tester ainsi les capacits lastiques de la ralit, de lui greffer des couches additionnelles, de ltirer au maximum et de rvler par l mme un corps indchirable, extensible et pliable volont. Elle sest constamment efforce de transfrer, de transmuter des donnes dune zone une autre, dprouver cette formidable lasticit, et dlaborer ainsi une vritable schizophrnie du rel. La capacit de la science-fiction activer des mouvements doscillations constantes entre plusieurs zones du rel est mettre en parallle avec la faon de travailler des artistes daujourdhui. La science-fiction comme clef de lecture de lart contemporain, la schizophrnie comme moteur. [ e ] Science fiction did not wait for philosophers like Baudrillard to underline the fantastic power of evocation, the schizophrenic machine constituted by our desire for the accumulation of the identical, and by extension for cloning [ 2 clonage] and simulation. The major subject of science fiction has not been the forging of somewhere beyond reality. Quantum physics [ physique quantique] has brilliantly demonstrated that there may be several universes (multiverses), but on the other hand there is only one single reality. Little green men in flying saucers mean nothing. The real players in science fiction are mutants. Visually nothing distinguishes them from human beings (at most a rigid little finger for the invaders of lower levels or a strong Austrian accent for a Terminator). They can assume any identity and easily mutate from one body to another. The mutant is my neighbour, my brother, my son. What does it matter? The important thing is sharing the same identity, and that my double exists on this earth and other planets, multiplying the number of my potential lives ad infinitum. Through the agency of its mutants, science fiction has broken up the traditional logic of either or in favour of the more polysemic and fruitful logic of and and. Empowered by this and logic, science

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fiction has unceasingly activated what umberto Eco defines so succinctly and pertinently as the Function of Etc., [ Fonction Etc. ] so testing the elastic capacities of reality, grafting extra layers on to it, stretching it to the maximum and by that very means revealing a body that is as tearproof, stretchable and flexible as wished. It has constantly endeavoured to transfer, transmute data from one zone to another, to try out that tremendous elasticity [ lasticit], and so elaborate a true schizophrenia of the real. Science fictions capacity to activate constantly oscillating movements between several zones of reality can be paralleled with the working methods of todays artists. Science fiction as a key to interpreting contemporary art, with schizophrenia as the moving force. [ 2 Clonage ] [ Physique quantique ] [ Quotient schizophrnique ]
scot, reGinald [ f ] Vers 15381599. Gentilhomme autodidacte, cri-

to have supernatural powers. Book XIII of The Discovery of Witchcraft is akin to a meticulously detailed inventory of conjuring tricks and other illusionistic procedures: how to transform cards, guess thoughts, make coins disappear, stick a blade into ones body, etc. Looking back, it appears as the first conjuring treatise in history. [ Croyance ] [ Magie ] [ Mentalisme ] [ Prestidigitateur ]
secret decoder rinGs [ f ] Jouets offerts pour lachat de crales, biscuits

vain, trsorier, juriste et parlementaire anglais. En 1574, il publie un ouvrage prconisant la culture du houblon dans le Kent, puis en 1584, un important trait rationaliste qui dmystifie la sorcellerie : The Discovery of Witchcraft. Au xviie sicle, le livre, jug athe, sera lobjet dun autodaf ordonn par le roi Jacques Ier. Reginald Scot critique la fabrication du mythe de la sorcire, une femme pauvre, vieille et sans religion, qui devient progressivement suspecte et effraie son entourage jusqu la psychose collective. Il analyse les pratiques de tous ceux qui prtendent dtenir des pouvoirs surnaturels. Le Livre XIII de The Discovery of Witchcraft sapparente un inventaire minutieusement dtaill des tours de passe-passe et autres procds illusionnistes : comment transformer des cartes, deviner une pense, faire disparatre les pices de monnaie, senfoncer une lame dans le corps, etc. Il apparat rebours comme le premier trait de prestidigitation de lhistoire. [ e ] Ca. 15381599. A self-taught English gentleman, writer, Treasury official, legal expert, and parliamentarian. In 1574 he published a book advocating the growing of hops in Kent. In 1584 he published The Discovery of Witchcraft, an important rationalist treatise demystifying witchcraft. In the 17th century the book was judged to be atheist, and burnt during an auto-da-f on the orders of King James I. Reginald Scot criticized the making of the myth of the witch, a poor old woman with no religion, who little by little became suspect, and scared those around her to the point of collective psychosis. He analyzed the practices of all those who claimed

et boissons chocolates ds les annes 1940. Ovomaltine tait la principale marque fournir ces dcodeurs, indispensables pour dchiffrer les messages cods diffuss lors des missions quelle parrainait comme Little Orphan Annie ou Captain Midnight. [ e ] Toys given free when people bought cereals, biscuits and chocolate-flavoured drinks since 1940s. Ovaltine was the main brand to supply these decoders, essential for deciphering the coded messages broadcast during programs it sponsored, like Little Orphan Annie or Captain Midnight.
sensibilit lectroMaGntique

gies of the mobile telephony type, what is known as the TTM group, specifically including UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), WIFI , WIMAX and BLUETOOTH . The exposure to the electromagnetic fields of fluo-compact bulbs, very high-voltage lines or microwave ovens can also be a source of discomfort. Recognized by the World Health Organization, electrosensitivity is apparently a problem where physical or psychological symptoms are caused or aggravated by electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ]. Although this causal links is not officially accepted, electrosensitivity is regarded as a disability in Sweden and an illness in Germany. However it continues to be ignored by quite a few other governments. While many independent and undisputed studies have demonstrated both its reality and the physiological link with exposure to electromagnetic fields, nonetheless none of the symptoms observed is part of a recognized syndrome. [ antenne relais ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]
srendipit

Electromagnetic sensitivity [ f ] La sensibilit lectromagntique ou lectrosensibilit est une pathologie au dveloppement rapide dont lorigine se concentre autour des technologies sans fil du type tlphonie mobile, groupe dit TTM , dont font notamment partie lUMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), le WIFI , le WIMAX et le BLUETOOTH . Lexposition aux champs lectromagntiques dampoules fluocompactes, de lignes trs haute tension ou de fours micro-ondes peut galement tre une source de gne. Reconnue par lOMS , llectrosensibilit serait un trouble physique ou psychologique caus ou aggrav par des ondes lectromagntiques. Bien que ce lien de causalit ne soit pas officiellement admis, llectrosensibilit est considre comme un handicap en Sude ou une maladie en Allemagne. Elle reste cependant ignore de nombre dautres gouvernements. Si de nombreuses tudes indpendantes et non contestes en ont dmontr la fois la ralit et le lien physiologique avec lexposition aux champs lectromagntiques, aucun des symptmes observs ne fait cependant partie dun syndrome avr. [ e ] Electromagnetic sensitivity or electrosensitivity is a rapidly developing pathological condition the origin of which is centered on wireless technolo-

Serendipity [ f ] De langlais serendipity, mot invent en 1754 par lhomme de lettres anglais Sir Horace Walpole pour qualifier une dcouverte que lon fait alors quon est engag dans une recherche initiale ayant un autre objet. La fortune du terme dans le domaine de la recherche scientifique est lie lintrt port aux vertus du hasard, de lerreur, de la fausse route et de leurs capacits cratrices versus le modle dominant dune raison infaillible dans sa mthode et ses rsultats. Ce mode de recherche, dont le nom hrite du vieux nom persan du Sri Lanka, na en effet quun dfaut, il est imprvisible. [ e ] The English word serendipity was coined in 1754 by the English man of letters Sir Horace Walpole to describe a discovery that is made when someone is initially engaged in research that has a different purpose. The fate of the term in the field of scientific research is bound up with the interest taken in the merits of chance, error, the wrong path and their creative capacities as against the dominant model of infallible reason in ones method and results. This method of research, its name based on the old Persian name for Sri Lanka, has just one defect: it is unpredictable. [ 4 DynaSTy ] [ 4 Samson, Bettina ]
servante [ f ] Jean-Eugne robert-houdin donne une dfi-

on devient sorcier (1868) : La gibecire, appele plus gnralement servante, est une tablette place derrire la table du ct oppos aux spectateurs, hauteur de fond du tiroir dont elle prend la place ; elle sert dposer des objets qui semblent svanouir et recler ceux qui doivent apparatre mystrieusement. Cette tablette est garnie dun rebord pour que les objets qui y sont dposs ne tombent pas, et dun tapis pour viter le bruit. Quelques prestidigitateurs rembourrent ce tapis avec de la sciure de bois pour viter le rebondissement des objets quon y laisse tomber. [ e ] Jean-Eugne robert-houdin gave a definition of this device in his book Comment on devient sorcier (1868): The pouch compartment, more usually referred to as a servante, is a shelf placed behind the table on the opposite side from the onlookers, at the height of the drawer bottom it replaces; it is used to deposit objects that seem to disappear, and conceal those that have to appear mysteriously. This shelf is equipped with an edge so that the objects deposited there do not fall out, and with a cloth bottom to prevent any noise. Some magicians [ prestidigitateur ] pad this cloth with wood shavings to make sure objects dropped into it do not bounce back out. [ Fake ] [ Gimmick ] [ Profonde ]
shadow (the) [ f ] mission radio prfre de 3 Paul Laffoley

nition de cet artifice dans son ouvrage Comment

alors quil tait enfant, et diffuse partir de 1931 sur les ondes de la station de radio WEEI, comme partie de The Blue Coal Radio Review. Le personnage de The Shadow [LOmbre] tait le parfait alter ego du riche tudiant en sciences, Lamont Cranston. Alors quil voyageait jadis en Orient, il avait dcouvert le pouvoir de brouiller la vision (et lesprit) des hommes de sorte quils ne puissent plus le voir. LHomme invisible de H. G. Wells servit de modle The Shadow, hros qui navait pas se soucier dabsorber des produits chimiques pour devenir le plus grand combattant du monde ADN humain. Sa vritable identit ntait connue que de son amie et compagne de toujours Margot Lane. Mme lorsquil incarnait The Shadow, Lamont restait un tre physique, sa prsence pouvant tre, selon ses propres dires, dtecte par un faisceau photolectrique et son corps dtruit par ce mme faisceau. la radio, Orson Welles incarna Lamont Cranston jusqu ce quil sen lasse. Enfin, les voix de Brett Morrison pour Lamont et de Gertrude Warner pour Margot furent celles quallait retenir le public. En 1954, lmission prit brutalement fin.

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[ e ] 3 Paul Lafolleys favourite radio programme when

he was a child. The radio drama was broadcasted on station WEEI from 1931, as part of a radio show called The Blue Coal Radio Review. The character of The Shadow was the alter ego of the wealthy student of science, Lamont Cranston, who long ago while travelling in the Orient discovered the power to cloud mens minds so that they could not see him. H.G. Wellss Invisible Man was the model for The Shadow, without the bother of imbibing chemicals, thereby becoming the worlds greatest fighter possessed of human DNA . His true identity was known only to his constant friend and companion Margot Lane. The fact that Lamont, even in his incarnation as The Shadow, remained a physical being was revealed when he admitted to Margot that his presence could be detected by a photoelectric beam and perhaps destroyed by it. Orson Welles became Lamont Cranston on the radio until he could not take it any longer. Finally the voices of Brett Morrison as Lamont and Gertrude Warner as Margot took over, and are the voices most people are familiar with. In 1954 the show ended abruptly and was never heard from again. [ Disparatre (instructions pour) ] [ 3 homme invisible ]
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Singularity [ f ] Suite la Rvolution franaise, la suppression des anciennes corporations puis de lAcadmie laisse les artistes sans structures collectives dorganisation et avec lobligation de redfinir leur identit et dadopter de nouveaux critres dvaluation. Avec la gnration romantique se met en place un rgime de singularit, selon lequel la qualit dune uvre dart ne dpend plus de sa conformit une tradition et son excellence de la satisfaction de critres esthtiques et moraux. Lancien curriculum est remplac par limpratif doriginalit de luvre, cest--dire sa nouveaut, son unicit, son mancipation de la morale tablie et sa capacit constituer une rupture. partir de l, ce qui tait auparavant lexception et permettait de dfinir les grands artistes devient la norme et lattente normale adresse tout artiste. la fin du xixe sicle, au sein des avant-gardes artistiques, la contestation devient la rgle de fonctionnement. Cet impratif est paradoxal dans la mesure o la singularit ne peut pas tre prise comme modle sans tre, de ce fait, dmentie. Le rgime de singularit qui caractrise lart moderne oblige les artistes inventer constamment des faons renouveles de se singulariser. Dans un tel cadre, une stratgie paradoxale, commune aux uvres pop

et minimales ( 1 art minimal), a consist adopter des formes impersonnelles pour se tenir distance dune singularit devenue banale. La logique qui sous-tend cette critique du caractre normatif et contradictoire de la singularit moderniste obit nanmoins toujours son rquisit de diffrenciation. [ e ] After the French Revolution, the dissolution of the old guilds followed by that of the Acadmie left artists with no collective organisational structures: they had to redefine their identity and adopt new evaluation criteria. The Romantics introduced a regime of singularity which posits that the quality of an artwork no longer depends on its conformity to a tradition or its excellence in satisfying aesthetic and moral criteria. The old curriculum is replaced by the imperative for originality in works, i.e. their novelty, uniqueness, their emancipation from established morality and their ability to break with the past. From that point, what was once the exception and served to define great artists becomes the norm and is a normal expectation addressed to all artists. At the end of the 19th century, among the artistic vanguard, dissent became the rule. This imperative is paradoxical in the sense that singularity cannot be used as a model without, in the same instant, belying itself. The regime of singularity which characterizes modern art requires artists to constantly invent new ways of being singular. In this context, a paradoxical strategycommon to Pop Art and Minimalism [ 1 art minimal]consisted in employing impersonal forms in order to maintain distance from singularity turned banal. The logic underlying this critique of the normative and contradictory character of modernist singularity still obeys its imperative of differentiation.
skate-board [ f ] Dans les annes 1930, les patins roulettes et

les trottinettes sont en vogue aux tats-Unis. Les enfants des familles pauvres bricolent des sortes de trottinettes quils appellent scooter skate. Dbarrasss de leur guidon, ceux-ci deviennent les premiers skate-boards. LAmrique prospre de laprs-guerre, qui sadonne aux loisirs de masse et invente la culture jeune , voit se dvelopper le skate-board comme une nouvelle pratique sportive urbaine. la fin des annes 1950, des surfeurs californiens commencent sintresser ces planches roulettes quon appelle alors sidewalk surfboard. La pratique se dveloppe dans les annes 1960. En 1963, des skateurs commencent skater des piscines vides Los Angeles. En 1965, la pratique du skate-board est interdite dans

une vingtaine de villes amricaines. En 1969, des skateurs se mettent utiliser comme rampes les plans inclins que leur offre lespace urbain. La mme anne, linvention du kicktail, linclinaison de larrire de la planche, permet la naissance du kick turn, premire figure de skate qui ne soit pas directement emprunte au surf. Dans les dcennies qui suivent, le skate-board se dveloppe comme une culture part entire, avec ses stars (Tony Alva, Jay Adams, Stacy Peralta, Tony Hawk, Steve Caballero), ses entreprises, ses magazines, ses championnats, ses espaces ddis, ses priodes fleurissantes, ses crises et ses rcessions. Comme le fait remarquer Iain Borden dans Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body (Berg, Oxford, 2001), le street-skating, premier sport de glisse spcifiquement urbain, opre une vritable resignification de la ville et de son espace en transformant piscines, plans inclins, rampes descalier, en autant de spots, les dtournant de leur 4 usage original pour en dfinir de nouveaux usages. Selon 4 raphal Zarka, dans une architecture conue non plus pour le citoyen mais pour le 4 consommateur, le skateur pose la question de lusage que nous faisons de la ville. [ e ] In the 1930s, roller skates and scooters were all the rage in the United States. The kids of poor families cobbled together a type of scooter they called the scooter skate. Freed from handlebars, these became the first skateboards. Prosperous post-war America, which devoted itself to mass leisure and invented youth culture, saw the skateboard develop as a new urban sport. Toward the end of the 1950s, California surfers were interested in the skateboards that were then called sidewalk surfboards. The custom developed in the 1960s. In 1963, skaters started skating drained swimming pools in Los Angeles. In 1965, skateboarding was prohibited in around twenty American cities. In 1969, skaters took to using inclined planes in public urban spaces as ramps. The same year, the invention of the kicktail, the upward slope at the back of the board, saw the birth of the kick turn, the first skating move not directly borrowed from surfing. In the decades that followed, the skateboard developed as a full-fledged culture with its own stars (Tony Alva, Jay Adams, Stacy Peralta, Tony Hawk, Steve Caballero), businesses, magazines, championships, parks, thriving phases, crises and recessions. As Iain Borden remarks in Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body (Berg, 2001), street-skating, the first specifically urban board sport, brings about a true resignification of the city and its spaces by transforming pools, inclined planes and hand-

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rails into so many centres, diverting them away from their original 4 usage to define new ones. According to 4 raphal Zarka, in an architecture conceived not for the citizen but for the consumer [ 4 consommateur], skaters question the way in which we inhabit our cities.
sockandawe.coM [ f ] Jeu en ligne qui propose aux internautes denvoyer sa 4 chaussure au visage de 4 George W. Bush. chaque lancer de chaussure est diffuse la voix de 4 Muntazar al-Zaidi criant lattention

[ e ] When in the late 1920s research was being

du prsident des tats-Unis : Ceci est ton baiser dadieu, chien ! [ e ] Online game in which the player throws a shoe [ 4 chaussure ] in the face of 4 George W. Bush. Each throw is accompanied by the voice of 4 Muntazar al-Zaidi who yelled to the president of the United States: This is a farewell kiss from the Iraqi people, you dog!
son optique

Graphical sound [ f ] Lorsque la fin des annes 1920 en Union Sovitique des recherches furent menes sur le son qui accompagnait les films et les films danimation, Mikhail Tsekhanovski exprima tout haut lide : Et si nous prenions une de ces frises de la Grce antique ou de lgypte ancienne comme bandeson ? Peut-tre entendrions-nous quelque musique archaque inconnue ? 2 andrei Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina expliquent quil faisait rfrence aux formes et aux silhouettes des vases et leur possible utilisation comme ondes capables de gnrer du son. Cest ce moment prcis que naquirent les techniques de cration optique de sons, sans doute les premires bandes-son lectroniques jamais cres. En 1936, on distinguait ainsi en Union Sovitique quatre grandes catgories de son optique : le son ornemental dessin la main ( arseny avraamov et Boris Yankovsky, ses dbuts), le son papier fait main (Nikola Voinov, 1900 1958), le variophone ou son papier automatis (Evgeny Sholpo, Georgy Rimsky-Korsakov) et lanalyse spectrale, la dcomposition et la technique de resynthtisation (Boris Yankovsky). Les chercheurs travaillant sur le son optique durent, au cours de ces quelques annes, faire face dnormes difficults techniques et thoriques (ainsi que pratiques). Les rsultats de leurs recherches furent aussi surprenants quinattendus, et en avance de plusieurs dcennies sur leur poque. Mais leur conflit avec ltat sest avr fatal pour eux : en moins de dix ans, tous leurs travaux furent interrompus et presque immdiatement oublis.

developed to accompany films and animations in Russia, Mikhail Tsekhanovsky voiced the idea: What if we take some Egyptian or ancient Greek ornaments as a sound track? Perhaps we will hear some unknown archaic music? 2 andrei Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina explain that he was referring to the shapes and outlines of vases and how these could be used as if wave forms to generate sound. It was at this precise moment that Graphical Sound techniques were inventedpossibly the first electronic soundtracks ever created. In 1936 there were four main trends of Graphical Sound in Soviet Russia: hand-drawn Ornamental Sound ( arseny avraamov, early Boris Yankovsky); handmade Paper Sound (Nikolai Voino); Variophone or automated Paper Sound (Evgeny Sholpo, Georgy Rimsky-Korsakov); and the spectral analysis, decomposition and resynthesis technique (Boris Yankovsky). Researchers involved in Graphical Sound had to overcome enormous technical and theoretical (as well as more mundane) difficulties during its short existence. The results of their work were surprising and unexpected, and ahead of the groups time by decades. However, their clash with the state proved fatal: in fewer than ten years, all of their work had ended and was almost instantly forgotten. [ 4 Cassire, Pierre-Laurent ]
sous-Marins (filMs de)

Sous-marin / Submarine. Photo DR

Son optique Evgeni Sholpo et son variophone /Evgeni

Sholpo working with the variophone, 1934. State Film Archive, Krasnogorsk

Submarines (Films of) [ f ] Le sous-marin est sans doute le navire de combat le plus ambivalent qui soit, la fois tout-puissant lorsquun ennemi est observ dans le priscope, et extrmement vulnrable lorsquil se trouve encercl de grenades sous-marines et que la coque se met craquer et les boulons sauter sous leffet de la pression de leau. De nombreux films ont transpos lcran les aventures des sous-mariniers tels que The Bedford Incident (1965) de James B. Harris, dans lequel un reporter est affect sur le destroyer USS Bedford lorsque celui-ci repre un sous-marin sovitique. LOdysse du sous-marin Nerka (1958) de Robert Wise raconte lhistoire du commandant dun sous-marin coul dans le dtroit de Bango par un destroyer japonais, Akikaze, bien dcid y retourner une fois affect sur le sous-marin Nerka. Dans la poursuite dOctobre Rouge (1990) de John McTiernan, lun des meilleurs officiers russes tente de passer lOuest et de livrer le fleuron de la marine sovitique aux Amricains. U-571 (2000) de Jonathan Mostow met en scne le U-571 immobilis la suite du grenadage dun destroyer anglais. Le S33 se rend sur place pour tenter de semparer

Son optique Disques dcoups formant les ondes sonores

du variophone dEvgeni Sholpo/Evgeni Sholpos Variophone disks with cut wave shapes, 1934. State Film Archive, Krasnogorsk

Spectre lectromagntique / Electromagnetic spectrum

Spiritisme Sance de spiritisme / Spiritualism session (Fritz Lang, Doktor Mabuse der Spieler, 1922)

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de la machine Enigma et simultanment un sousmarin allemand quitte Lorient pour rparer le sousmarin endommag. [ e ] The submarine is undoubtedly the most ambivalent fighting ship in existence, simultaneously all-powerful when an enemy is spotted in the periscope, yet extremely vulnerable: when it is encircled by depth charges, the hull starts to crack and the bolts to give way under the impact of water pressure. Many films have transposed the adventures of submariners to the screen, such as The Bedford Incident (1965) by James B. Harris, where a reporter is posted on to the destroyer USS Bedford when it locates a Soviet submarine. Run Silent, Run Deep (1958) by Robert Wise, tells the story of the commander of a submarine sunk in the Bungo Strait by the Japanese destroyer Akikaze, quite determined to go back there once he is posted to the submarine Nerka. In The Hunt for Red October (1990) by John McTiernan, one of the ace Russian officers tries to go over to the West and hand over the pride of the Soviet navy to the Americans. U571 (2000) by Jonathan Mostow features the U-571, immobilized after being depth-charged by a British destroyer. The S33 goes to the spot to try and get hold of the U-571s Enigma machine, while at the same time a German submarine is leaving Lorient to repair the damaged submarine. [ 3 Jeudis de SPy nuMBErS (Les) ]
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ton energy or wavelength. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the naked eye is tiny in relation to its total extent. Electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ] measured in Hertz are categorized into bands or frequencies: ELF [Extremely Low Frequencies], VLF [Very Low Frequencies] (GO radio), LF [Low Frequencies] (GO radio), MF [Medium Frequencies] (MW radio), HF [High Frequencies] (SW radio, radiotelephone, CB), VHF [Very High Frequencies ] (TV, FM), UHF [Ultra High Frequencies] (TV, radar & microwavesL, S bands), SHF [Super High Frequencies] (radar & microwavesC, X, K bands), EHF [Extremely High Frequencies] (radar & microwaves), and, beyond 300 GHz, infrared, visible light [ lumire ], ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. [ Basse frquence ] [ Lumire noire ] [ ultraviolet (rayonnement) ]
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Electromagnetic spectrum [ f ] Le spectre lectromagntique est la dcomposition du rayonnement lectromagntique selon ses diffrentes composantes en termes de frquence (ou priode), dnergie des photons ou encore de longueur donde. La portion du spectre lectromagntique visible par lil est infime par rapport son tendue totale. Mesures en hertz, les ondes lectromagntiques sont dcoupes en bandes ou frquences : ELF [Extremely Low Frequencies], VLF [Very Low Frequencies] (radio GO), LF [Low Frequencies] (radio GO), MF [Medium Frequencies] (radio OM), HF [High Frequencies] (radio OC, radiotlphone, CB), VHF [Very High Frequencies] (TV, FM), UHF [Ultra High Frequencies] (TV, radar et micro-ondes bandes L, S), SHF [Super High Frequencies] (radar et micro-ondes bandes C, X, K ), EHF [Extremely High Frequencies] (radar et micro-ondes) et, au-del de 300 GHz, infrarouge, lumire visible, ultraviolet, rayons X et rayons gamma. [ e ] The electromagnetic spectrum is the breakdown of electromagnetic radiation following its various components in terms of frequency (or period), pho-

Spiritualism [ f ] Science occulte [ occultisme ] dont le principe est de provoquer, par lintermdiaire dun mdium, individu aux capacits parapsychiques particulires, la manifestation des esprits et de dialoguer avec eux des fins souvent divinatoires, le spiritisme connat son plein essor au milieu du xixe sicle. Le terme est forg par Allan Kardec, qui publie en 1857 Le Livre des esprits contenant les principes de la doctrine spirite sur limmortalit de lme, la nature des esprits et leurs rapports avec les hommes, les lois morales, la vie prsente, la vie future et lavenir de lhumanit, qui tablit tout un corps de pense spiritualiste, affirmant limmortalit de lesprit et sa rincarnation, lexistence dune cause premire tout et dune intelligence suprme, et la prsence de la vie sur dautres plantes que la Terre. Le spiritisme trouve son origine aux tats-Unis, la fin des annes 1840, avec lextraordinaire engouement public suscit par deux jeunes mdiums, les surs Margaret et Kate Fox, entres en communication par un systme de coups frapps avec les esprits dune ferme hante de ltat de New York. Une quasi-religion spiritualiste prend son essor, travers revues, runions publiques et rvlations de talents mdiumniques. Lenthousiasme pour les tables tournantes traverse bientt lAtlantique et trouvera dans Victor Hugo, alors en exil Guernesey, un de ses plus fervents adeptes. Initi lart spirite par Delphine de Girardin, il est boulevers par une sance au cours de laquelle semble se manifester sa dfunte fille Lopoldine, le 11 septembre 1853 ; pendant plus dun an, Hugo invoquera, avec le cercle de ses proches,

les esprits de Chateaubriand, Napolon ou Dante, et composera sous leur dicte plusieurs dessins ainsi que le pome Ce que dit la bouche dombre. Religion laque paradoxale dans un sicle de rvolutions, pense irrationnelle marque par le romantisme noir et les anciens mythes ractualiss par la littrature gothique et fantastique, le spiritisme tient aussi de doctrines scientifiques de la fin du xviiie sicle mettant laccent sur limportance des fluides et des nergies censs lier le corps et lesprit humain : le magntisme de Franz Anton Mesmer, les thories de llectricit animale de Luigi Galvani. Se heurtant lessor du positivisme et de la rationalit scientifique, le spiritisme ne perd pas de sa popularit avec lesprit fin de sicle, et ce dautant quil suscite dsormais la curiosit des cliniciens, psychiatres et psychologues : Jean-Martin Charcot sintresse aux dmoniaques , tudie le somnambulisme et la catalepsie, rhabilite lhypnose laquelle Sigmund Freud a bientt recours. [ e ] An occult [ occultisme] science based on the principle of conjuring up spirits through the agency of a medium, a person with special parapsychic powers, and carrying on a dialogue with them, often for divinatory purposes. Spiritualism was at its height in the mid-19th century. The term was forged by Allan Kardec, who in 1857 published Le Livre des espritscontenant les principes de la doctrine spirite sur limmortalit de lme, la nature des esprits et leurs rapports avec les hommes, les lois morales, la vie prsente, la vie future et lavenir de lhumanit, which established a whole body of spiritualist thought, asserting the immortality and reincarnation of the spirit, the existence of a primary cause of everything and of a supreme intelligence, and the presence of life on planets other than Earth. Spiritualism originated in the United States in the late 1840s, with the extraordinary public infatuation aroused by two young mediums, the sisters Margaret and Kate Fox, who entered into communication with the spirits on a haunted farm in New York state through a system of knocking. A spiritualist quasi-religion took off, through magazines, public meetings and revelations of mediumistic talents. The craze for table-turning soon crossed the Atlantic, and found one of its most fervent supporters in Victor Hugo, in exile in Guernsey at the time. Initiated to spiritualism by Delphine de Girardin, he was overwhelmed by a sance in the course of which his dead daughter Lopoldine seemed to make contact, on 11 September 1853; for more than a year Hugo together with his close friends and family would invoke the spirits of Chateaubriand, Napoleon or Dante, and he composed several drawings following their instructions, as well as the

poem Ce que dit la bouche dombre. A paradoxical secular religion in a century of revolutions, irrational thought marked by the black romanticism and ancient myths given new actuality by Gothic or fantastic literature, spiritualism was also influenced by late 18th-century scientific doctrines, which stressed the importance of the fluids and energies thought to bind the human body and spirit: Franz Anton Mesmers magnetism, Luigi Galvanis theories of animal electricity. Spiritualism came up against the rise of positivism and scientific rationality, but did not lose its popularity with the fin de sicle attitude, especially as it then aroused the curiosity of clinicians, psychiatrists and psychologists: Jean-Martin Charcot was interested in people possessed by the devil, studied somnambulism and catalepsy, and rehabilitated hypnosis, which was soon afterwards taken up by Sigmund Freud. [ 1 indes la plante Mars (Des) ] [ Kunz, Emma ] [ 1 Lournoy, Thodore ] [ 1 Mller, Catherine-lise ] [ 1 ncromancie ]
sport [ f ] Lun des faits les plus notables de lhistoire du

sport moderne est sans doute sa mdiatisation croissante. Cette mdiatisation est corrlative au dveloppement des mass mdias qui ont trouv dans le sport lun de leurs contenus de prdilection. En lespace de quelques dcennies, la presse crite, la radio et la tlvision ont mtamorphos le sport en exploitant ses qualits spectaculaires et son potentiel dramaturgique. Le public a dcupl. Les sportifs se sont professionnaliss. Les champions sont devenus des idoles dont laura gale celle des artistes ou des responsables politiques, et dont les revenus rivalisent avec ceux des entrepreneurs les plus prospres. Certaines comptitions comme les Jeux olympiques ou la Coupe du monde de football sont devenus des vnements plantaires sans quivalent dans le champ culturel. De nombreuses villes ont entrepris des projets pharaoniques pour accueillir les foules dans leur stade. Cette mdiatisation du sport saccompagne de nombreuses critiques. Certaines voix lui reprochent dexacerber la comptition au risque de mettre en pril la sant des joueurs, dattiser la violence parmi les spectateurs et de trahir lesprit original du sport. Dautres lui reprochent des enjeux financiers excessifs encourageant la corruption ou la fraude et faussant la libre concurrence entre sportifs. Dautres encore soulignent les risques dune manipulation dordre idologique consistant divertir les masses pour mieux les contrler.

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[ e ] One of the most noteworthy phenomena in

Station de nombres, derrire lhtel The Dorchester, Londres / Numbers station, behind The Dorchester Hotel, London. Photo : Akin O. Fernandez

the history of modern sport is undoubtedly its increasing mediatization. This mediatization goes hand in hand with the development of the mass media which have made sport one of their favourite contents. In the space of a few decades, the printed press, radio and television have transformed sport by exploiting its spectacular qualities and its dramatic potential. The audience has increased tenfold. Sportsmen have turned professional. Champions have become idols whose aura is equal to that of artists or political figures, while their income rivals that of the most prosperous businessmen. Some competitions such as the Olympic Games or the Football World Cup have become global events that have no equivalent in the cultural field. Many cities have undertaken huge-scale projects to accommodate the crowds in their stadiums. This mediatization of sport has not failed to attract a great deal of criticism. Some people reproach it with heightening competition at the risk of putting the players health in danger, fanning violence among the spectators, and betraying the original spirit of sport. Others criticize the excessive financial sums at stake, encouraging corruption or fraud, and skewing free competition between athletes. Yet others draw attention to the risks of manipulation of an ideological nature, consisting of entertaining the masses as a means of better controlling them.
stations de noMbres

Station de nombres, Ambassade de Hongrie, Londres / Numbers station, Hungarian Embassy, London. Photo : Akin O. Fernandez

Station de nombres Ambassade de Chine / Chinese

Embassy, Londres / London

Numbers Stations [ f ] Les stations de nombres mettent sur les hautes frquences des messages crypts en morse, en phonie, en RTTY (radiotltype) ou dans des modes spcifiques. Il sagit le plus souvent de squences de nombres ou de lettres. Les ides les plus diverses ont circul au sujet du contenu de ces messages crypts dont il est impossible de dterminer la provenance : prvisions mtorologiques, cours de la bourse, communications codes entre narcotrafiquants, transmissions de services de renseignements ou bien simples tentatives dintoxication par lenvoi de messages incohrents Recenses en une classification, les stations de nombres sont rpertories par le groupe EniGMa. Le code identifiant chaque station est compos dune lettre suivie de deux chiffres. La lettre fait rfrence la langue dmission : E pour les missions en anglais, G pour les missions en allemand (ces missions tant devenues beaucoup plus rares depuis la chute du mur de Berlin). S dsigne une pluralit de langues slaves et V des stations mettant en phonie, notamment

partir dEurope centrale. M renvoie au mode de transmission en morse et X tous les autres modes (signaux ressemblant des chants de baleine, suites de bips, etc.). Enfin, de faon les diffrencier, certaines stations sont affubles de surnoms qui proviennent soit dune particularit de la transmission, soit de leur origine suppose. [ e ] Numbers stations broadcast High Frequencies coded messages in Morse, speech, RTTY (radioteletype) or special modes. As often as not they are sequences of numbers or letters. The widest range of ideas have circulated regarding the contents of these coded messages whose source it has not been possible to determine: weather forecasts, stock prices, coded communications between drug traffickers, transmissions by information services, or indeed simple attempts to disseminate disinformation by sending incoherent messages Identified under one classification, numbers stations are catalogued by the EniGMa group. The identification code of each station is composed of a letter followed by two digits. The letter refers to the language of the broadcast: E for broadcasts in English, G for broadcasts in German, (these have become much less frequent since the Berlin Wall came down). S designates a number of Slav languages, and V stations using voice transmission, from Central Europe in particular. M refers to the transmission mode, namely Morse, and X to all other modes (signals resembling the singing of whales, sequences of beeps, etc.). Finally, so as to differentiate them, some stations are given nicknames that come either from some peculiarity in the transmission, or from their presumed origin. [ 3 SPy nuMBErS ] [ 3 odell, Matt ]
strudel [ f ] Ptisserie invente lpoque de lempire des

150 gr. Zucker 1 Essl. Zimt 100 gr. geschmolzene Butter 100 gr. Semmelbrsel Margarine zum Ausfetten Puderzucker Zubereitung: Mehl mit dem Salz vermischen. In die Mitte, eine Mulde drcken. Wasser mit l, Essig und Ei verquirlen und hineingeben. Daraus einen geschmeidigen Teig kneten. 30 Minuten an einem warmen Platz ruhen lassen. In der Zwischenzeit, die Fllung bereiten: pfel schlen, vierteln, entkernen und in feine Scheibchen schneiden. Mit Rosinen, Haselnssen oder Mandeln, Zucker und Zimt vermischen. Dann den Teig in zwei Teile teilen. Den 1. Teil auf einem Kchentuch ausrollen. Rnder vorsichtig anheben und ber dem Handrcken dnn ausziehen. Mit etwas geschmolzener Butter bestreichen und der Hlfte der Semmelbrsel bestreuen. Auf einer Seite mit der Hlfte der Fllung belegen. An den Enden einschlagen. Den Strudel durch Anheben des Tuches von einem Rand her aufrollen. Andrcken. Genauso den 2. Strudel bereiten. Dann eine grosse rechteckige feuerfeste Form (oder Blech) gut einfetten. Beide Strudel nebeneinander hineinlegen mit der restlicher geschmolzener Butter bestreichen. In der vorgeheizten Backrhre bei guter Hitze 3545 Minuten backen. Mit Puderzucker bestreuen.
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Habsbourg et prsente sous formes diverses dans le monde entier. [ e ] A pastry originated in the Habsburg Empire and present under various forms worldwide.
strudel de MaMi wahler (le) [d] Zutaten : (Fr 2 kleine Strudel)

Teig : 300 gr. Mehl 1 Prise Salz 8 Essl. lauwarmes Wasser 2 Essl. Essig 5 Essl. l 1 Ei Fllung: 2 kg pfel 100 gr. Rosinen 100 gr. gehackte Haselnsse oder Mandeln

Generative system [ f ] Le terme de systme gnratif rfre des systmes qui utilisent un ensemble restreint de rgles basiques pour produire des combinaisons extrmement varies et imprvisibles. Les automates cellulaires, notamment le clbre Game of Life [Jeu de la vie] invent par le mathmaticien britannique John Horton Conway aux dbuts des annes 1970, constituent un des exemples les plus connus de systmes gnratifs. Un automate cellulaire consiste en une grille rgulire de cellules contenant chacune un tat choisi parmi un ensemble fini et qui peut voluer au cours du temps. Ltat dune cellule au temps t+1 est fonction de ltat au temps t dun nombre fini de cellules appel son voisinage . chaque nouvelle unit de temps, les mmes rgles sont appliques simultanment toutes les cellules de la grille, produisant

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une nouvelle gnration de cellules dpendant entirement de la gnration prcdente. Le modle des automates cellulaires est remarquable par lcart entre la simplicit de sa dfinition et la complexit que peuvent atteindre certains comportements gnrs. Les systmes gnratifs peuvent galement tre utiliss en art (art numrique gnratif), dans les jeux vido (par exemple le trs rcent Spore, jeu dans lequel le joueur cre la vie et la fait voluer partir dune cellule) ou encore en musique (musique gnrative cre par un systme ou utilisant des algorithmes numriques). Dans le domaine de la musique pop, musiciens et ingnieurs informatiques ont dvelopp des systmes gnratifs visant automatiser la composition de mlodies et de paroles afin de crer des tubes . Pour 2 LaST ManoEuVrES in ThE DarK , 2 Fabien Giraud et 2 raphal Siboni avaient ainsi demand Robin Meier et Frdric Voisin de raliser un systme dintelligence artificielle capable dapprendre et dimiter un catalogue musical choisi. Ces deux musiciens chercheurs exprimentent des systmes gnratifs de leur conception qui sinspirent de systmes biologiques, tels que les interactions entre lucioles (lesquelles parviennent synchroniser leurs scintillements), les rseaux de neurones ou les cellules cardiaques Leur programme est capable, par exemple, dapprendre tout un ensemble de transcriptions musicales et de paramtres de mixage, mais aussi de limiter, de lanalyser sans supervision et dextraire les rgles implicites prsentes dans les morceaux de musique pour crer une nouvelle musique. [ e ] The term generative system refers to systems that use a restricted number of basic rules to produce extremely varied and unpredictable combinations. Cellular automata, in particular the famous Game of Life invented by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in the early 1970s, are among the best-known examples of generative systems. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells each containing a state chosen from among a finite number that can develop over time. The state of a cell at the time t+1 is a function of the state at the time t of a finite number of cells called its neighbours. At each new unit of time, the same rules are applied simultaneously to all the cells in the grid, producing a new generation of cells entirely dependent on the previous generation. The cellular automaton model is remarkable for the disparity between the simplicity of its definition and the complexity some of the behaviours generated can achieve. Generative systems can also be used in art (generative digital art), in video games (for example the very recent Spore, a game where

the player creates life and makes it evolve from a cell), or in music (generative music created by a system or using digital algorithms). In the field of pop music, musicians and computer engineers have developed generative systems that aim to automate the composition of melodies and words in order to create hits. For 2 LaST ManoEuVrES in ThE DarK , 2 Fabien Giraud and 2 raphal Siboni asked Robin Meier and Frdric Voisin to create a system of artificial intelligence capable of learning and imitating a selected catalogue of music. These two musicians-cum-researchers experimented with systems that would generate their conception, inspired by biological systems such as the interactions between fireflies (which manage to synchronize their glowing moments), neuronal networks or cardiac cells. For example, their program is capable of learning a whole set of musical transcripts and mixing parameters, but also of imitating them, analyzing them unsupervised, and extracting the implicit rules present in the pieces of music to create new music.
syndroMe deffondreMent des colonies dabeilles

Beehive Colony Collapse Disorder [ f ] Caractris par la dsertion de leur ruche par les abeilles en dehors de la priode hivernale ainsi que par labsence de cadavres des apids proximit, ce syndrome deffondrement ou CCD (pour lexpression anglaise Colony Collapse Disorder) est le nom donn un phnomne dabord appel syndrome de disparition des abeilles ou galement FallDwindle Disease (maladie du dclin automnal des abeilles). Ce phnomne dont lampleur devient pidmique reste inexpliqu. Les tudes en cours ne permettent ce jour que de supposer une synergie entre plusieurs causes. Cependant, certaines thories voient dans les ondes mises par les antennes relais des causes de leffondrement des colonies dabeilles. [ e ] Characterized by bees desertion of their hives outside the winter period and by the absence of any apian corpses nearby, CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder) is the name given to a phenomenon initially called the honey bee depopulation [ disparition ] syndrome or fall dwindle disease. This phenomenon which is becoming epidemic in scale is still unexplained. The studies under way so far only allow us to surmise a synergy between several causes. However, certain theories see the waves emitted by mobile phone masts [ antenne relais ] as a source of disturbances which lead to the collapse of bee colonies. [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]

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table rase [ f ] La formule latine tabula rasa signifie littrale-

ment page blanche ou crit effac . Elle se rfre la tabula, une planche recouverte de cire sur laquelle on crivait, et dont les inscriptions pouvaient tre effaces afin dy inscrire un nouveau texte. Cette pratique deffacement des textes et de recyclage des surfaces dinscription se retrouve jusqu lpoque mdivale quand des parchemins taient lavs de leur texte pour tre rutiliss, ce qui a occasionn la perte totale ou partielle de nombreux textes anciens. En philosophie, la formule dsigne la thorie empiriste selon laquelle lintellect humain serait une surface vierge sur laquelle la sensation vient imprimer toute ide. Esquisse par Aristote dans son trait De lme qui considre que les ides sont dans lintellect en entlchie, cest-dire seulement en puissance, et actualises par lexprience sensible, cette thorie est radicalise par les empiristes anglais au xviie sicle, comme John Locke qui considre que toute notion est drive de la sensation. On trouve une autre figure moderne de la table rase chez Ren Descartes : constatant lissue de ses tudes que tout le savoir quon lui a enseign tait incertain, il systmatise le doute prouv en une mthode qui le conduit rvoquer toute notion lexception du Je pense. , entreprise de destruction pralable la refondation neuf de ldifice du savoir sur la base des mathmatiques. On peut considrer que le geste intellectuel de Descartes trouve dans le mouvement rvolutionnaire moderne, dont 1789 est le moment fondateur, une traduction politique. Le texte de LInternationale, chant crit par Eugne Pottier durant la rpression de la Commune de Paris en 1871 et adopt comme hymne par la iie Internationale en 1904, lnonce clairement en appelant faire table rase du pass, nonant que le monde doit changer de base, et la foule esclave qui nest rien est appele devenir tout. [ e ] The Latin expression tabula rasa literally means blank page or writing erased. It refers to the tabula, a tablet covered with wax used for writing; what was written on it could be erased so that a new text could be inscribed there. The practice of the erasure of texts and the recycling of writing surfaces continued until the medieval period when parchments were washed clean of their texts and reused, which led to the total or partial loss of a great many ancient texts. In philosophy the term refers to the empiricist theory according to which the human intellect is supposedly a blank sheet on which sensation imprints all ideas. It was outlined by Aristotle in his treatise De anima which takes the view that ideas are in the intellect in entelechy,

i.e. only as potential, and are converted into reality by tangible experience. This theory was made more radical by 17th-century English empiricists, such as John Locke who thought that all notions were derived from sensation. Another modern take on the tabula rasa can be found in Ren Descartes: observing at the conclusion that all the knowledge he had been taught was uncertain, he systematized the doubt felt into a method that led him to call all ideas into question, except for I think, a destructive undertaking preliminary to the refounding from scratch of the structure of knowledge on the basis of mathematics. It may be thought that Descartess intellectual gesture is translated into politics in the modern revolutionary movement, with 1789 as its starting point. The words of The Internationale, a song written by Eugne Pottier during the repression of the Paris Commune in 1871 and adopted as an anthem by the Second International in 1904, spell this out clearly by calling for a clean sweep of the past, declaring that the world must change fundamentally, and the enslaved masses that are nothing are destined to become everything. [ 4 FrESh hELL ]
taxiderMie

tury. It is in fact found in Louis Dufresnes Nouveau dictionnaire dhistoire naturelle published in 18031804. Louis Dufresne was a French ornithologist who worked out a preservation technique using arsenic, to whom the Muse dHistoire Naturelle is indebted for its major bird collection. The principle of taxidermy is to reconstruct a skeleton of the animal from metal or wood and stretch the skin over it, after it has been tanned and protected from deterioration by a treatment based on chemical agents. Organs that cannot be preserved, like the eyes or the tongue, are replaced by artifacts. In French the term empaillement is also used because for a long time the animals skeleton was made from straw. [ 4 Boucand, Galle ] [ 4 Milh, nicolas ]
terrella [ f ] Mot latin pour petite Terre , la terrella dsigne

Taxidermy [ f ] Dsigne lart de donner des animaux morts lallure du vivant. Si la pratique est ancienne et remonte lAntiquit, avec les diffrentes techniques de momification mises au point par les gyptiens, le terme apparat dans la langue franaise au tournant du xviiie et du xixe sicle. On le trouve en effet dans le Nouveau dictionnaire dhistoire naturelle de Louis Dufresne paru en 1803 1804. Lornithologue franais labora une technique de conservation larsenic laquelle le Musum dhistoire naturelle doit sa grande collection doiseaux. Le principe de la taxidermie consiste reconstituer un squelette de lanimal, en mtal ou en bois, sur lequel on tend sa peau aprs lavoir tanne et protge de la dgradation par un traitement base dagents chimiques. Les organes qui ne peuvent pas tre conservs, comme les yeux ou la langue, sont remplacs par des artefacts. On utilise aussi le terme empaillement car le squelette de lanimal a longtemps t confectionn en paille. [ e ] Name given to the art of preserving dead animals for exhibition in a lifelike state. While the practice is old, going back to Antiquity, with the various embalming [ momification ] techniques perfected by the Egyptians, the word first appeared in the French language at the turn of the 18th/19th cen-

une sphre magntique reprsentant la terre en modle rduit. Elle est utilise laube du xxe sicle par 3 Kristian Birkeland pour expliquer les mcanismes lorigine des aurores borales. Le scientifique norvgien avait fait de son outil dexprimentation lobjet dun vritable spectacle grand public. Dcrite dans son livre, The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 19021903, la terrella se compose dune sphre mtallique plonge dans le vide et munie dun aimant qui simule le magntisme terrestre. Un circuit lectrique est tabli entre la terrella (lanode) et une cathode situe en priphrie du caisson assurant le vide. Les lectrons portant le courant lectrique cherchent passer de la cathode vers la terrella, en suivant les lignes de champ magntique et convergeant ainsi en une couronne centre autour des ples de laimant. Dans latmosphre rarfie du caisson, les lectrons interagissent alors pour crer une lueur diffuse simulant les lueurs aurorales. Avec sa terrella, Birkeland invente le concept de vent solaire. Le chercheur franais 3 Franois Forme remarque que nous commenons seulement mesurer toute la porte de cette exprience que Birkeland avait ralise avec des moyens de fortune. [ e ] A Latin word meaning little earth, the Terrella designates a magnetic sphere representing the Earth on a reduced scale. At the dawn of the 20th century it was used by 3 Kristian Birkleland to explain the mechanisms underlying the aurora borealis [ aurores borales ]. The Norwegian scientist had turned his tool for experiments into a showpiece for the public at large. Described in his book, The Norwegian Aurora Polaris

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Expedition 19021903, the Terrella consists of a metallic sphere immersed in a vacuum and provided with a magnet that simulates terrestrial magnetism. An electric circuit is established between the Terrella (the anode) and a cathode positioned at the periphery of the casing ensuring the vacuum. The electrons bearing the electric current try to pass from the cathode towards the Terrella, following the magnetic field lines and so converging in a crown centered round the poles of the magnet. In the rarified atmosphere of the casing, the electrons then interact to create a diffuse glow, simulating the northern lights. With his Terrella, Birkeland invented the concept of the solar wind [ vent solaire ]. The French researcher 3 Franois Forme comments that we are only beginning to appreciate the full implications of the experiment Birkeland carried out with makeshift resources. [ 3 allouche, Dove & richer, variste ] [ ondes lectromagntiques ] [ orage magntique ]
terreur [ f ] Dans la Phnomnologie de lEsprit (1807),

people, the suppression of defence, the creation of independent police bodies, mass executions) established by the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre between the summer of 1793 and the summer of 1794, in order to save the threatened Republic. In this chapter Hegel writes: Universal freedom, therefore, can produce neither a positive work nor a deed; there is left for it only negative action; it is merely the fury of destruction. [] The sole work and deed of universal freedom is therefore death, a death too which has no inner significance or filling, for what is negated is the empty point of the absolutely free self. It is thus the coldest and meanest of all deaths, with no more significance than cutting off a head of cabbage or swallowing a mouthful of water. [ iconoclasme ] [ Juda (rois de) ] [ Table rase ]
tesla coilers [ f ] Communaut mondiale des amateurs dexpriences sous haute tension avec des bobines de Tesla, les tesla coilers crent dans leur garage des 3 arcs lectriques aux dimensions spectaculaires, sinspirant des travaux raliss par nikola Tesla

Terrella Kristian Birkeland durant une exprience avec la Terrella / Kristian Birkeland during an experiment with the Terella. Copyright Observatoire de Paris

ouvrage dont la finalit est de dcrire en totalit lessence intgrale de lhomme, Hegel consacre le dernier chapitre de la section Lesprit devenu tranger soi-mme, la culture La libert absolue et la terreur . Il sy rfre de faon explicite la priode dintense rpression (simplification des procdures de mise en accusation, suppression de la dfense, cration dorganes de polices indpendants, excutions de masse) mise en place par le Comit de salut public, dirig par Robespierre, entre lt 1793 et lt 1794, pour sauver la Rpublique menace. Dans ce chapitre Hegel crit : La libert universelle ne peut donc produire ni une uvre positive ni une opration positive ; il ne lui reste que lopration ngative ; elle est seulement la furie de la destruction. [] Lunique uvre et opration de la libert universelle est donc la mort, et, plus exactement, une mort qui na aucune porte intrieure, qui naccomplit rien, car ce qui est ni cest le point vide de contenu, le point du Soi absolument libre. Cest ainsi la mort la plus froide et la plus plate, sans plus de signification que de trancher une tte de chou ou dengloutir une gorge deau. [ e ] In Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), a book whose ultimate purpose is to describe mans integral essence in its totality, Hegel devotes the final chapter of the section Self-alienated Spirit. Culture to Absolute Freedom and Terror. He refers explicitly to the period of intense repression (the simplification of the procedures for accusing

la fin du xixe sicle.


[ e ] A worldwide community of fans of high-tension experiments with Tesla coils [ bobines de Tesla ],

the Tesla coilers create spectacularly large electric arcs [ 3 arcs lectriques ] in their garages, inspired by the work done by nikola Tesla at the end of the 19th century. [ Geek ] [ 3 Terren, Peter ] [ 3 Jeudis de GaKona (Les) ]
tesla, nikola [ f ] 18561943. Inventeur et ingnieur serbe dans

le domaine de llectricit, il est considr comme lun des plus grands scientifiques de lhistoire de la technologie. Destin devenir prtre, il russit obtenir lautorisation de son pre pour faire des tudes dingnieur. Il se consacre alors exclusivement la science, vivant par et pour ses inventions. Il a eu le souci constant de mettre son exceptionnelle puissance mentale au service de lhumanit et de lamlioration des conditions de vie de ses semblables. Auteur de plus de sept cents brevets, il est notamment linventeur du gnrateur de courant alternatif pour lequel il a dcouvert le principe du champ magntique rotatif ainsi que de la bobine de Tesla avec laquelle il a ouvert la voie la 3 transmission sans fil dnergie et dinformations. Ses recherches sur lionosphre

Tesla coilers Peter Terren, www.tesladownunder.com

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et les ondes lectromagntiques sont aujourdhui la base du centre de recherche amricain h.a.a.r.P. [ e ] 18561943. A Serb inventor and engineer in the field of electricity, he is regarded as one of the greatest scientists in the history of technology. Intended for the priesthood, he managed to get his fathers permission to study engineering. He then devoted himself exclusively to science, living through and for his inventions. He was constantly concerned with putting his exceptional mental powers at the service of humanity and the improvement of the living conditions of his fellow human beings. He registered more than 700 patents, and in particular is the inventor of the alternating current generator for which he discovered the principle of the rotating magnetic field as well as of the Tesla coil [ bobine de Tesla ], with which he made possible the wireless transmission of energy [ 3 transmission sans fil dnergie ] and information. His research into the ionosphere [ ionosphre ] and electromagnetic waves [ ondes lectromagntiques ] is fundamental to the American research centre h.a.a.r.P. today.
thorMe de calvitie

thereMin, lon [ f ] 18961993. Connu pour son invention ponyme, le thrmine, premier instrument de musique

Baldness Theorem [ f ] Le thorme de calvitie stipule quun trou noir est entirement dcrit par trois paramtres : sa masse, sa charge lectrique et son moment cintique, et ce quels que soient son mode de formation et la nature de la matire qui a servi le former. Le physicien amricain John Archibald Wheeler a rsum le phnomne par la formule reste clbre : Black holes have no hairs [Un trou noir na pas de poils] . Une des consquences de ce thorme est quil nexiste pas de possibilit de distinguer un trou noir fait de matire ordinaire dun trou noir fait dantimatire. [ e ] The baldness theorem lays down that a black hole is completely defined by three parameters: its mass, its electric charge and its kinetic momentum, and this is so however it was formed and whatever the nature of the matter that served to form it. The American physicist John Archibald Wheeler summed this phenomenon up in a formula that has remained famous: Black holes have no hairs. One of the consequences of this theorem is that there is no possibility of distinguishing a black hole made of ordinary matter from a black hole made of antimatter [ antimatire ]. [ 1 tats gnraux du poil ] [ 1 Galfard, Christophe ] [ 1 Trous noirs ]

lectronique produit industriellement annonant les prmices de la musique lectronique et augurant une volution artistique nouvelle et plus technologique, Lon Theremin est une des figures les plus charismatiques de lhistoire des technologies lectroniques et audio. Physicien, musicien et ingnieur, il a travaill au dveloppement dinnombrables projets, essayant souvent de combiner la musique la couleur, au geste, lodorat ou au toucher, dont le 2 terpsitone plate-forme musicale permettant aux danseurs de contrler le son par le mouvement de leur corps. Il a galement conu la premire machine rythmique, le 2 rythmicon, bas sur les dcouvertes de son ami, thoricien de la musique et compositeur russe, Joseph Schillinger (18951943). Comme le soulignent 2 andre Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina, lhistoire de la vie de Theremin est fascinante et bien connue, ne serait-ce que par les annes o il travailla pour le NKVD (KGB ) entre 1939 et 1962. En plus de lui avoir offert un statut de figure culte de la musique lectronique en Occident, son invention musicale rvolutionnaire a abouti des applications technologiques multiples dans les domaines civil et militaire, pour la surveillance et lespionnage. Il est presque impossible aujourdhui dimaginer le moindre synthtiseur, la moindre alarme antivol ou la moindre porte automatique sans son travail prcurseur. Theremin dveloppa la plupart de ses inventions en Russie et aux tats-Unis entre 1920 et 1938. Il rentra en Russie dbut 1939, o il fut bientt arrt et condamn huit ans de goulag. Par bonheur, il fut transfr, aprs un an en Sibrie, dans la rgion extrmement rude de Kolyma, Shagara, la prison du KGB rserve aux scientifiques Moscou. Aprs sa libration en 1947 et jusqu sa retraite en 1962, il poursuivit son travail pour le KGB. Il sinstalla ensuite au laboratoire acoustique du Conservatoire national de Moscou, o il essaya de faire revivre ses inventions et recherches amricaines. Lon Theremin mourut le 4 novembre 1993. Il avait rv dtre enterr dans le permafrost et ressuscit le jour o les avances de la science le permettraient, mais il fut inhum au cimetire de Kuntsevo, Moscou. [ e ] 18961993. Well-known for his eponymous invention, the Theremin [ thrmine ], the first commercially produced electronic musical that heralded the dawn of electronic music and a new, technologically based trend in the arts. Leon Theremin is one of the most charismatic figures in the history of electronic and audio technology was

Leon Theremin. As a physicist, musician and engineer he worked on the development of innumerable projects and ideasoften trying to combine music with colour, with gesture, scent and touch including the 2 Terpsitonea musical platform for dancers to control sound through the motion of their bodies. He also created the first rhythm machinethe 2 rhythmiconbased on the ideas of his friend, the Russian musical theorist and composer Joseph Schillinger (18951943). As 2 andrei Smirnov & Lubov Pchelkina emphasise, Theremins life story is a fascinating and welldocumented one, not least for his years working for NKVD (the KGB ) between 1939 and 1962. His groundbreaking musical invention led to the application of the technology for a variety of civilian, military, surveillance and espionage purposes, adding to his status as a cult figure in electronic music in the West. It is hardly possible today to imagine any synthesizers, burglar alarms or automatic doors without his pioneering research. He developed most of his inventions in Russia and the US between 1920 and 1938. In early 1939 he returned to Soviet Russia where he was soon arrested and condemned for 8 years of GULAG camps. Fortunately, after one year in Kolima (a brutal area in Siberia) he was moved to Moscow Sharagaa special NKVD prison for scientists. After his release in 1947 he continued working for the KGB until his retirement in 1962 when he moved to the Acoustical Laboratory at Moscow State Conservatory, where he tried to revive his American inventions and research. Leon Theremin died on November 4, 1993. He had dreamed of being buried in permafrost, to be recovered when science reached an appropriate level, but instead was buried in Kuntsevo cemetery, Moscow. [ 2 Son Z ] [ 2 Jeudis de DunE rVoLuTion LauTrE
(Les) ]

nikola Tesla Transmission sans fil dnergie lectrique.

Projet de Nikola Tesla pour la tour de transmission Wardenclyffe Shoreham, Long Island / Wireless transmission of electrical energy. Nikola Teslas project for the Wardenclyffe transmission tower in Shoreham, Long Island (NTp7, Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade)

thrMine

Theremin [ f ] Invent par Lon Theremin en 1919. Premier instrument de musique lectronique jamais produit en srie. Theremin dcouvrit la possibilit de produire un son frquence variable, alors quil installait une station radio en Russie durant la guerre civile. Il fut embauch peu aprs par lInstitut de physique et de technologie Ptrograd. Afin de mesurer la rsistance dilectrique des gaz, il dveloppa un instrument permettant de produire des sons dont la frquence pouvait tre contrle par le corps humain. Daprs les tmoins, le jour suivant, Theremin jouait du

Thrmine Thereminvox de Lon Theremin (fin des annes


1950) / Leon Theremins Thereminvox (late 1950s)

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transFert

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Transfert
~~~
Figure essentielle du rpertoire des prestidigitateurs . Elle associe disparition et apparition dans un seul et mme tour. Un transfert consiste faire disparatre un objet ou un corps un endroit de lespace pour le faire rapparatre, de faon apparemment magique, un autre endroit de lespace. Les tours de gobelets comportent de nombreux transferts appliqus des muscades. la fin du xix e sicle, harry houdini remporte un grand succs avec un tour intitul La Malle des Indes bas sur un transfert de personnes. Dans le roman de science-fiction The Prestige, lcrivain Christopher Priest imagine une rencontre entre un prestidigitateur (fictif) nomm Rupert Angier et le clbre ingnieur spcialiste dlectricit nikola Tesla (1856 1943). Les deux personnages, dont lun incarne lart et lautre la science, parviennent repousser les limites physiques dun tour de transfert traditionnel en fabriquant une machine tlporter, autrement dit transporter un corps par un processus de dcomposition et de recomposition instantan. De nombreuses uvres de sciencefiction, comme la clbre srie tlvise Star Trek cre dans les annes 1960 par exemple, comportent aussi des procds de tlportation. En effet, depuis que le caractre indpassable de la vitesse de la lumire a t thoris par Albert Einstein au dbut du xxe sicle, les auteurs qui dsirent faire voyager leurs personnages dans lunivers sont contraints dimaginer des moyens de dplacement radicalement diffrents du mouvement continu.
[f] [e]

Transfer
~~~
A crucial feature in the repertoire of magicians [ prestidigitateurs ]. It associates disappearance [ disparition ] and apparition in one and the same trick. A transfer consists of making an object or body disappear from one place and making it reappear, seemingly by magic, in another. Tricks with cups [ gobelet ] entail numerous transfers involving marbles [ muscade ] . At the end of the 19th century harry houdini had great success with a trick entitled The Indian Trunk based on a transfer of individuals. In the science-fiction novel The Prestige, the writer Christopher Priest imagines a meeting between a (fictitious) magician called Rupert Angier and nikola Tesla (18561943), a famous engineer specializing in electricity. The two characters, one embodying art and the other science, succeed in pushing back the physical limits of a traditional transfer trick by manufacturing a teleporting machine, that will transport a body by an instantaneous process of decomposition and recomposition. A great many science-fiction works, for example the famous TV series Star Trek created in the 1960s, also include teleportation procedures. In fact, since the theory that the speed of light [ lumire ] cannot be exceeded was formulated by Albert Einstein at the beginning of the 20th century, authors who wish to have their characters travel in the universe have been forced to think up means of displacement that are radically different from continuous movement.

voltmtre . En 1921, Lon Theremin jouait devant un Lnine fascin, qui linvitait pour une tourne en Russie au service de la promotion de l lectrification du pays. En 1927, arseny avraamov soulignait que linvention du thrmine est la fois la premire vritable bombe sous les fondations du vieux monde musical, et une des pierres de touche de celles du futur ! En 1929, la RCA commenait fabriquer des thrmines aux tatsUnis. Lanc aprs le crack boursier de 1929, le thrmine, dfaut dtre un succs commercial, fascina le public, aux tats-Unis comme ailleurs. Robert Moog dbuta sa carrire dans les annes 1950 en faisant fabriquer des thrmines. La Moog Music Company a depuis vendu des milliers de thrmines dans le monde entier. [ e ] Invented by Lon Theremin in 1919. The first commercial electronic musical instrument ever produced. Theremin realized the possibility of producing pitched sound whilst fixing a radio station in Russia during the Civil War. Soon after he was hired by the Institute for Physics and Technology in Petrograd. To measure the dielectric resistance of gases he developed a tool that could produce controllable pitched sounds relative to the human body. According to witnesses, the next day Theremin was playing a voltmeter. In 1921 Leon Theremin performed for a fascinated Lenin, who invited him to tour Russia, promoting the idea of electrification of the country. In 1927, arseny avraamov underlined The Theremin invention is the first real mine under the foundations of the old musical world and simultaneously one of the cornerstones of the future! In 1929 Americas RCA started to manufacture Theremins. Released after the Stock Market Crash of 1929, although it was not a commercial success, it fascinated audiences in America and abroad. Robert Moog started his career building Theremins in the 1950s. His Moog Music Company has since sold thousands of Theremins across the World. [ 2 Jeudis de DunE rVoLuTion LauTrE
(Les) ] [ 2 Son Z ]

Turn
~~~
[ f ] Mot anglais que lon peut traduire par tour .

The turn, ou la transformation , est le nom de la deuxime tape dun tour de magie selon la thorie du prestidigitateur Alfred Borden dans le roman The Prestige de Christopher Priest.

~~~
[ e ] An English word more or less synonymous with trick. The turn is the name given to the second stage of a magic trick, according to the theory of the magician [ prestidigitateur ] Alfred Borden in the novel The Prestige by Christopher Priest.

~~~

~~~

~~~

transfert

Transfer [ f ] voir p. 196 [ e ] see p. 196 [ Espace-Temps ] [ Prestige ] [ Physique quantique ]

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UnaBoMBer

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transMetteur aMplificateur

Magnifying Transmitter [ f ] Invention majeure de nikola Tesla, le transmetteur amplificateur utilise la terre par excitation pour la 3 transmission sans fil dnergie. Nikola Tesla avait ainsi russi, lors dune dmonstration, produire des dcharges lectriques dune intensit suffisante pour allumer deux cents ampoules incandescence situes 42 km de sa station mettrice. La tour de transmission Wardenclyffe abritait le cur du transmetteur amplificateur, de manire diffuser de lnergie en tout point de la plante. [ e ] The magnifying transmitter, a major invention by nikola Tesla, uses the earth to transmit wireless energy [ 3 transmission sans fil dnergie ] via excitation. Thus during a demonstration Nikola Tesla succeeded in producing electrical discharges powerful enough to light two hundred incandescent bulbs located at a distance of 42 km from his transmitting station. The core of the magnifying transmitter was located at the Wardenclyffe transmission tower in such a way as to relay energy to any point on the planet.
tuninG Chopper, 1 Dewar, Daniel & Gicquel, Grgory, 2 Siboni, raphal, 1 Vigny, Stphane turn [ f ] voir p. 197 [ e ] see p. 197 [ Pledge ] [ Prestige ]

ultraviolet (rayonneMent)

Ultraviolet (radiation) [ f ] Le rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) est un rayonnement lectromagntique dune longueur donde intermdiaire entre celle de la lumire visible et celle des rayons X, situ au-del du violet sur le spectre lectromagntique. Le violet est en effet la couleur de longueur donde la plus courte de la lumire visible. Les ultraviolets ont t dcouverts en 1801 par le physicien allemand Johann Wilhelm Ritter daprs leur action chimique sur le chlorure dargent. Les ultraviolets peuvent tre subdiviss en UV proches (380-200 nm de longueur donde) et UV extrmes (200-10 nm). Quand on considre les effets du rayonnement UV sur le corps humain, ils sont souvent classs en UV-A (400-315 nm), UV-B (315-280 nm) et UV-C (280-10 nm). [ e ] Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength lying between that of visible light [ lumire ] and that of X-rays, lying beyond violet on the electromagnetic spectrum [ spectre lectromagntique ]. For violet is actually the colour of the shortest wavelength of visible light. Ultraviolets were discovered in 1801 by the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter as a result of their chemical action on silver chloride. Ultraviolets can be subdivided into near UV rays (380-200 nm) and extreme ultraviolets (200-10 nm). When the effects of UV radiation on the human body are under consideration, they are often categorized as UV-A (400-315 nm), UV-B (315-280 nm) and UV-C (280-10 nm). [ ondes lectromagntiques ]
unaboMber [ f ] *1942. Libertaire amricain. Brillant mathmati-

cien, ancien professeur luniversit de Berkeley mais aussi terroriste, Theodore Kaczynski, dit Unabomber, a fait lobjet de la chasse lhomme la plus coteuse du FBI . Emprisonn depuis son arrestation le 3 avril 1996, il est accus davoir adress durant dix-huit ans (entre mai 1978 et avril 1995) seize colis pigs des professeurs duniversits et des informaticiens en particulier, faisant trois morts et vingt-trois blesss chez ces personnes quil jugeait responsables dune volution technologique destructrice pour lhumanit et la nature. Il confectionnait ses colis pigs dans sa cabane du Montana o il vivait depuis vingt-cinq ans. Unabomber a tenu un journal intime o il dtaillait ses activits courantes, allant jusqu dcrire ses frustrations lorsquune bombe nexplosait pas selon ses attentes. Le journal tait rdig dans un langage chiffr que les policiers taient

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unabomber Manifeste dUnabomber / Unabombers manifesto ; Collection Newsmuseum, Washington D.C. Photo : James P. Blair

incapables de dcoder. En novembre 2006, suite la dcouverte dun annuaire cryptographique parmi les papiers de Kaczynsky, la CIA parvint enfin le dcrypter. [ e ] *1942. An American libertarian. A brilliant mathematician, a former professor at the University of Berkeley, but also a terrorist, Theodore Kaczynski, known as Unabomber, was the object of the FBIs most expensive manhunt. Held in prison since his arrest on 3 April 1996, he is accused of having sent sixteen booby-trapped parcels over the course of eighteen years (between May 1978 and April 1995) to university professors and computer experts in particular, causing three deaths and twenty-three injuries among those individuals he regarded as responsible for a technological development destructive for humankind and nature. He prepared these booby-trapped parcels in the hut in Montana he had lived in for 25 years. Unabomber kept a private diary where he listed his current activities, going so far as to describe his feelings of frustration when a bomb failed to explode according to his expectations. The diary was written in a code the police were unable to decipher. In November 2006, following the discovery of a cryptographic directory among Kaczynskys papers, the CIA finally succeeded in decrypting it. An exhibit in the case, his book collection was reconstituted by the artists collective for. It could be consulted in order to evaluate how dangerous it was. An original way of travelling in the mental universe of this criminal who spent eighteen years combating technological progress. [ 2 ChTEau DE ToKyo/PaLaiS DE
FonTainEBLEau ] [ Disparatre (instructions pour) ] [ 2 Bibliothque dunabomber (La) ] [ 2 Winter, Dora ]

Creagh, de tentatives de lutte contre un systme

omnipotent, ouvrant une autre voie, originale et non-exclusive, vers lmancipation sociale. Du voyage du socialiste anglais Robert Owen en 1825 aux premires communauts fouriristes, et des mouvements contestataires des annes 1960 lcologie ( 3 Twin oaks, Virginie) et aux groupes punks ( 3 Collectif a Go-Go, Massachusetts) ou lesbiens ( 3 WomanShare, Oregon) daujourdhui, les tats-Unis ont abrit nombre de communauts utopiques. Souvent installs dans des paysages magnifiques et isols, mais aussi dans un htel en pleine ville ou exploitant une mine de charbon sur leur territoire, ces groupes mettent lpreuve une volont de vivre en dehors de la logique de la socit dominante. [ e ] For nearly two centuries community experiments in the United States have been a misunderstood, yet always topical phenomenon, attesting, as 3 ronald Creagh notes, to attempts to fight against an all-powerful system, opening up another original and non-exclusive path towards social emancipation. From the journey by the Welsh socialist Robert Owen in 1825 to the first Fourierist communities, from the protest movements of the 1960s to ecology ( 3 Twin oaks, Virginia) and the punk ( 3 Collective a Go-Go, Massachusetts) or Lesbian ( 3 WomanShare, Oregon) groups of today, the United States has sheltered a good many Utopian communities. These groups, often living in superb, isolated landscapes, but also in a hotel in the middle of a town, or running a coal mine on their land, test out a desire to live outside the logic of the dominant society. [ 3 Jeudis de ChaSinG naPoLEon (Les) ]

used space [ f ] Terme utilis par George Lucas qui introduit

lide dun futur us et poussireux, un espace peupl dhommes-chiens portant des arbaltes, comme dans La Guerre des toiles [ e ] Expression used by George Lucas and that introduces the idea of a worn-out, dusty future, a space populated by dog-men carrying crossbows, as in Star Wars [ 2 Darth Vador ]
unabomber Gardar Eide Einarsson, Sans titre (por-

trait) / Untitled (portrait), 2005 (dtail /detail) ; Collection PPP/HL ; Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist & galerie Loevenbruck, Paris

utopies aMricaines [ f ] Les expriences communautaires aux tats-

utopies amricaines Twin Oaks dans les annes 1970 /

Twin Oaks in the 1970s. Photo : Ray Jesse Blatt

Unis constituent depuis prs de deux sicles un phnomne la fois mconnu et toujours actuel qui tmoigne, comme lobserve 3 ronald

vaM
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VaMpires

Vision-Fentre

vis
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vaMpires (les) [ f ] Srie en dix pisodes de Louis Feuillade (1915

1916). Profitant de la mode des sries policires importes des tats-Unis et soucieuse de contrer ladaptation prochaine des Mystres de New York daprs le roman The Exploits of Elaine dArthur B. Reeve par la socit Path, la Gaumont et Louis Feuillade sempressent de lancer cette nouvelle srie policire, en plein milieu de la premire guerre mondiale. En dpit dune campagne dfavorable mene par la critique, qui juge le spectacle vulgaire, et par les autorits, soucieuses de morale publique, la srie connat un honorable succs populaire. Elle raconte la lutte dun journaliste enquteur, Philippe Gurande, contre une association de puissants et ingnieux malfaiteurs qui commettent nombre de crimes rests impunis. Cette bande, qui sest donn le nom de Vampires , est dirige par deux redoutables et mystrieux individus, Le Grand Vampire et Irma Vep anagramme de vampire. Cette dernire, vtue dune cagoule et de vtements moulants noirs qui lui confrent une silhouette furtive, est reste dans limaginaire une ombre qui hante les salles du Louvre. Le personnage immortalis par lactrice ftiche Musidora devient du mme coup la premire vamp et femme fatale du cinma, et installe la mythologie des Vampires aux lisires du fantastique. Outre ce personnage, la prcipitation dans laquelle la srie est crite et tourne certains de ses acteurs masculins disparaissant au front installe dans la srie un climat de posie brute et simple qui sduisit quelques annes plus tard les surralistes, principaux artisans de sa rhabilitation artistique. [ e ] A series in ten episodes by Louis Feuillade (19151916). Taking advantage of the fashion for detective serials imported from the United States, and keen to counter the Path companys forthcoming adaptation of the Mystres de New York based on Arthur B. Reeves novel The Exploits of Elaine, the Gaumont and Louis Feuillade rushed to launch this new detective series right in the middle of World War I. Despite a disapproving reaction from the critics who regarded it as vulgar, and from the authorities who were concerned about public morals, the series enjoyed reasonable popular success. It tells of the struggle by an investigative journalist Philippe Gurande to combat an association of powerful and ingenious wrongdoers who are committing quite a few crimes that are going unpunished. This gang that has named itself the Vampires is run by two redoubtable and mysterious individuals, Le Grand Vampire and Irma Vepan anagram of vampire. Wearing a hood and black figure-hugging clothes that give her a

stealthy outline, in the popular imagination Irma Vep has remained a shadow that haunts the rooms of the Louvre. The character immortalized by the inspirational actress Musidora at the same time became the first cinema vamp and femme fatale, placing the Vampires mythology on the borderline of fantasy. Apart from this character, the haste with which the series was written and filmedcertain of its male actors going off to the frontendows it with a climate of crude, simple poetry that a few years later attracted the Surrealists, the main proponents of its artistic rehabilitation. [ 4 Moriceau, Benot-Marie ]
vent solaire

vie artificielle

Artificial life [ f ] Formes de vie gnres par des algorithmes. Le concept remonte Alan Turing et aux premiers ordinateurs. [ e ] Forms of life generated by algorithms. The concept goes back to Alan Turing and the first calculators. [ 1 Lattaud, Claude ]
vision-fentre

Solar wind [ f ] Flux dlectrons et protons ject continuellement par le Soleil. Cette soupe de particules libres peut provoquer des aurores borales lorsquelle pntre dans latmosphre terrestre proximit des ples. [ e ] Flux of electrons and protons continually ejected by the Sun. This soup of free particles can cause the occurrence of the aurora borealis [ aurore borale ] when it penetrates the earths atmosphere near the poles. [ 3 Birkeland, Kristian ] [ orage magntique ] [ Terrella ]
vritables prludes flasques (pour un chien)

Truly Flabby Preludes (for a dog) [ f ] uvre musicale compose par Erik Satie en 1912, ironiquement ddie aux chiens. [ e ] Musical work composed by Erik Satie in 1912, ironically dedicated to dogs. [ 3 ChaSinG naPoLEon ] [ 3 allen, Dave ]
vernaculaire

Vernacular [ f ] Du latin vernaculum, qui dsignait tout ce qui tait dress (esclaves compris), lev, tiss, cultiv, confectionn la maison, par opposition ce que lon se procurait par lchange. Le terme sert dsigner ce qui est propre une rgion, un pays ou ses habitants. [ e ] From the Latin vernaculum, which designates all that is trained (including slaves), raised, woven, cultivated, and prepared at home, in contrast to what is procured through exchange. The term designates what is particular to a region, a country, or its inhabitants. [ architecture vernaculaire ]

Window vision [ f ] Pendant plusieurs sicles, lapprhension dune uvre dart, quelle quelle soit, tait fonction dun ensemble de conditions spcifiques : composition, cadre, puis accrochage taient autant de paramtres clturant lexprience de luvre et lui assignant un lieu prcis. Cette vision-fentre imposait au spectateur de se concentrer sur des images considres pour elles-mmes, mais demeurant isoles les unes des autres ; manire de dlimiter et de justifier rciproquement la place et l autonomie de lun et de lautre. Le xxe sicle a multipli les coups de boutoir contre ce systme de contraintes et de restrictions. Dcisif en la matire, 1 lart minimal, en proposant des objets volontairement insignifiants, les posait comme autant dlments transitifs permettant la perception de glisser dans lespace. Alors que laccrochage ptersbourgeois demandait au visiteur de se concentrer tour tour sur une srie de cadres, lart minimal fait draper la vision-fentre ; lartefact, le lieu, la lumire et le visiteur lui-mme sont dsormais comme une globalit, fondant les uns avec les autres autant de relations, voire de conditions concomitantes. Lexprience de lexposition devient une dynamique du regard et de lesprit, dans un espace traverser et activer sur un plan physique aussi bien quintellectuel et mental, voire pataphysique. La mise en glisse ne sarrte pas l : les artistes dcomposent leurs gestes et dcadrent leurs pratiques, dsormais mutantes et furtives,, et la relation linaire sur laquelle restait bloque la vision-fentre est dpasse par lclatement des interprtations et linfinit des univers possibles auxquels elles renvoient. [ e ] For several centuries the apprehension of a work of art, whatever it was, depended on a set of specific conditions: composition, frame, then hanging were all parameters enclosing the experience of the work and assigning it a particular place. That window vision forced the viewer to concentrate on images considered for themselves, but remaining isolated from one another; a way of defining the boundaries of the place and the autonomy

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Visite des MonUMents de passaic

VonU

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Vampires (Les) Musidora dans/in Les Vampires de/by

Louis Feuillade, 19151916

of work and viewer, and justifying them towards one another. The 20th century has increased the number of assaults on this system of constraints and restrictions. Minimal art [ 1 art minimal] is crucial in this regard. It offered intentionally insignificant objects, and placed them like so many transitive elements allowing perception to slide into space. While the close Petersburg hanging required visitors to concentrate on a series of pictures in turn, minimal art sends the window vision into a skid; the artifact, the place, the light[ lumire ] and the visitor now resemble a total entity, founding with one another an equal number of relationships, or even concomitant conditions. The experience of the exhibition becomes a dynamics of the gaze and the mind, in a space to be crossed and activated on a physical as well as an intellectual and mental level, a pataphysical one even. The slippage does not stop there: the artists decompose their gestures and unframe their practices, which are now mutating and furtive, and the linear relationship on which window vision remained locked is overtaken by the explosion of interpretations and the infinity of possible universes they may refer to. [ Furtivit ] [ Mutants ]
visite des MonuMents de passaic

Waerdenclyffe (Tour de transmission) en construction

Shoreham, Long Island, ca. 1903 / Wardenclyffe transmission tower (partial stage of completion) in Shoreham, Long Island, ca. 1903. (MNT, VI/IV, 30, Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade)

A tour of the monuments of Passaic [ f ] En dcembre 1967 parat dans Artforum, A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic , le rcit par Robert Smithson dun voyage effectu en autobus un samedi de 1967 dans cette petite ville du New Jersey, proche des lieux de son enfance. La ville apparat dserte. Dans les chantiers abandonns par leurs ouvriers, les tuyaux crachant leau de ltang dans le fleuve paraissent une fontaine monumentale , les machines au repos ressemblent des cratures prhistoriques enlises dans la boue . Au fil de son rcit, qui rappelle lexercice surraliste de dambulation dans les rues de Paris, lartiste dcrit les chantiers de construction ( les murs de cule en bton portant les deux bras de la nouvelle autoroute quon tait en train de construire ), les lments de mobilier urbain ( [] un bac sable, ou plutt un dsert miniature ), comme des 4 monuments. Apparaissant comme ltat de photographies, plus comme des images que comme des objets fonctionnels, ces monuments rappellent Smithson sa visite de Rome qui fut comme une rencontre avec le cauchemar de lhistoire europenne . Celle des monuments de Passaic, qualifis par lartiste de ruines lenvers , rvle lhistoire du futur. Ces ruines sont

celles de tous les btiments neufs qui finiraient par y tre construits , des difices qui slvent en ruine avant dtre construits . Cette visite dun vritable non-lieu, typique dun environnement pavillonnaire dnu de tout hritage historique, est loccasion pour lartiste dune rflexion sur son rapport au temps et lhistoire. Au terme de ce retour sur les lieux de son enfance, Robert Smithson fait le constat paradoxal que ces lieux ne portent les traces daucun pass, mais celles dun avenir standardis, celui des banlieues qui ont introduit dans lart une nouvelle conscience du terne et de linsipide . [ e ] In December 1967, A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic was published in Artforum, a story by Robert Smithson of a journey made by bus one Saturday in 1967 to the small New Jersey town, close to where he grew up. The town seemed deserted. In the construction sites abandoned by their workers, pipes sputtering water from the pond into the river seemed like a monumental fountain, the machines at rest resembled prehistoric creatures trapped in the mud. In the course of his story, which recalls the Surrealist exercise of wandering the streets of Paris, the artist described the construction sites (concrete abutments that supported the shoulders of a new highway in the process of being built), the elements of urban furnishings ([] a sand box, or rather a model desert), like 4 monuments. Appearing photographically, more like images than functional objects, these monuments remind Smithson of his visit to Rome, which was sort of an encounter with European history as a nightmare. Visiting the monuments of Passaic, described by the artist as ruins in reverse, revealed the history of the future. These ruins were those of all the new construction that would eventually be built, of buildings that rise into ruin before they are built. This visit to a non-place, typical of a residential environment stripped of all historical heritage, is the occasion for the artist to reflect on his relationship to time and history. At the end of this return to the places of his childhood, Smithson made the paradoxical acknowledgement that these places do not bear the traces of the past but those of a standardized future, one in which the suburbs have brought to art a new consciousness of the vapid and the dull.
vonu (voluntary non vulnerable society) [ f ] En 1973, Mike Freeman publie VONUlife, un

journal hippie qui sinscrit dans la tradition libertaire amricaine des anarcho-primitivistes, hritire de 3 henry David Thoreau qui, dans

Walden, ou La Vie dans les bois (1854), proposait la fuite hors de la socit comme forme de rsistance. Ce journal est adress ceux qui veulent devenir invisibles au regard de la socit. Aprs la publication du manifeste What is VONU ? [Quest-ce que VONU ?], Freeman schappe dans les forts de lOregon et disparat jamais. Aujourdhui certains disent quil y a des milliers de Mike Freeman, anonymes et invisibles, puisque Mike Freeman peut devenir le nom de quiconque dsire sortir du champ de la surveillance de notre socit pour disparatre. On ne peut reprer ou rencontrer ou trouver dinformations au sujet des partisans de cette stratgie dchappement notre socit de linformation et du contrle, lexception des textes originaux et de leurs fac-simils. Un alphabet secret aurait t labor par ses partisans afin que leurs communications ne soient pas interceptes. Une recherche sur Internet ne permet pas daccder plus quau rcit cocasse par un certain Ben Best de son stage VONU auprs dun mystrieux Tom Marshall dans une fort de lOregon et aux occurrences lies aux expositions 4 doscar Tuazon et Eli Hansen se rfrant au VONU . Que cette absence dinformation signale le succs dun devenir imperceptible lpoque de la surveillance gnralise ou une blague visant mettre en chec notre volont de savoir , VONU semble le nom dun questionnement infini de toute possibilit de rsister la contrainte sociale et de parvenir lautodtermination. [ e ] In 1973 Mike Freeman published VONUlife, a hippie newspaper that was in the American libertarian tradition of anarchic primitivists, descended from 3 henry David Thoreau. In Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854), Thoreau suggests escaping from society as a form of resistance. The newspaper was directed at those who want to become invisible to the eyes of society. After publishing the manifesto What is VONU? Freeman took refuge in the forests of Oregon, disappearing for ever. Today some people say that there are thousands of Mike Freemans, anonymous and invisible, since Mike Freeman can become the name of anyone who wants to exit from our societys field of surveillance and disappear. We cannot track down or meet or find information about those who adopt this strategy of escaping from our society dominated by information and control, other than in original texts and facsimiles of them. A secret alphabet has supposedly been worked out by those who adopt the strategy so that their communications are not intercepted. An Internet search only allows us access to the comical account by one Ben Best of his VONU probationary period with a mysterious character

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VonU

WardenclyFFe

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by the name of Tom Marshall in a forest in Oregon, and the incidents associated with the exhibitions by 4 oscar Tuazon and Eli Hansen that relate to VONU . Whether this absence of information indicates the success of becoming imperceptible at a period of widespread surveillance or is a joke aimed at foiling our desire to know, VONU seems to be the name of an endless questioning of any possibility of withstanding social constraint and achieving self-determination. [ Disparatre (instructions pour) ] [ Furtivit ] [ 3 Primitivisme ]

wardenclyffe (tour de transMission)

Wardenclyffe (Transmission tower) [ f ] Construite partir de 1901 Shoreham, Long Island, la tour de transmission Wardenclyffe a t conue par nikola Tesla dans le cadre de ses recherches sur la 3 transmission sans fil dnergie lectrique par lionosphre. [ e ] Built from 1901 in Shoreham, Long Island, the Wardenclyffe transmission tower was designed by nikola Tesla as part of his researches related to wireless transmission of electrical energy [ 3 transmission sans fil dnergie ] across the ionosphere [ ionosphre ]. [ 3 Transmetteur amplificateur ]

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yodel

ZoMBie

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yZ

yodel

Yodeling [ f ] Le yodel est une technique vocale qui permet un chanteur de passer sans intermdiaire de sa voix de poitrine sa voix de tte et vice-versa, de manire rapide et rpte, en prenant appui sur des coups de glotte. Il en rsulte des vocalises o les aigus et les graves se succdent et se mlent de manire aussi tourdissante que jouissive tant pour le musicien que pour son public. Typique de la musique folklorique alpine, du Tyrol la Bavire en passant par la Suisse, cette technique se retrouve dans les chants traditionnels de nombreuses cultures, notamment dans les polyphonies pygmes, et a t mise profit par la country music et le bluegrass texan. On peut compter au rpertoire yodelisant du xxe sicle des chefs-duvre du blues, commencer par le Standin On The Corner du grand matre amricain du folk yodel Jimmie Rodgers, accompagn par Louis et Lil Armstrong ; des classiques du music-hall, comme Le Coucou de ma GrandMre dAndreany ; des hits de la pop, comme Wind It Up de Gwen Stefani, titre inspir de la comdie musicale montagnarde La Mlodie du bonheur ; les parodies frntiques de grands airs dopra dans lesquelles sillustre Mary Schneider, reine du yodel australien ; et surtout, le clbre cri de Tarzan pouss par Johnny Weissmuller. Selon 1 Jean-Pierre Guis, lintrt du yodel va cependant bien au-del de son aspect folklorique : le jeu de graves et daigus qui le caractrise induit un brouillage des identits sexuelles et des strotypes culturels associs aux sons et aux tessitures musicales. On associe spontanment la voix grave au masculin et, par contraste, la voix aigu au fminin. Ces soi-disant oppositions sont pourtant des constructions sociales qui relvent de la logique de genres analyse par Judith Butler. Le yodel masculin est alors comprendre comme une critique de la pseudo-raison sexuelle en musique : Loscillation rapide, la limite de la confusion, entre le registre grave et laigu dvirilise le mle. Le voil transform en folle, en travelo doprette, avec tout le ridicule souvent associ ce genre de mise en scne et de remise en question de la sexualit htronorme. Cest pour cela que le yodel fait souvent rire : comme va-et-vient rapide entre voix grave et voix aigu, cest--dire entre masculin et fminin, il induit une forme dindiffrenciation et dambigut sexuelle. Le yodel est une sorte de travestissement, dont le comique peut tre clair en le rapportant au ridicule de ladolescent qui mue, commenant une phrase dans un registre et la terminant avec sa voix de tte. Quand la voix draille, sort des rails, ou dlire, cest aussi

le signe dune grande tension sexuelle , souligne Jean-Pierre Guis. Ainsi que Pascal Quignard a pu le noter dans son livre La Leon de musique, la voix aigu ne caractrise pas seulement la femme, mais aussi le petit garon avant sa mue ; une voix que celui-ci perd en grandissant et quil naura de cesse de rechercher dans la musique. Jean-Pierre Guis voit dans le yodel un autre moyen pour lhomme de laisser remonter en lui sa voix denfant, en une jubilation innocente. Brouillant tous les codes, le yodel saffirme comme une performance physique particulirement forte : sy mlent dailleurs souvent des cris danimaux, lappel du coucou, le jappement du coyote, le mugissement de la vache, rvlant in fine la part joyeusement bestiale de ltre humain. [ e ] Yodeling is a vocal technique which enables a singer to pass without a break from his chest voice to his head voice and vice versa, rapidly and repeatedly, using the support of glottal stops. This results in vocal exercises where the bass and treble notes follow and mingle in a way that is as stunning as it is brilliant, for the musician and his audience alike. This technique which is typical of Alpine folkloric music, from Tyrol to Bavaria by way of Switzerland, is found in the traditional songs of many cultures, in particular in Pygmy polyphonic chants, and has been exploited by country music and Texan bluegrass. The list of examples of 20th-century yodeling includes masterpieces of the blues, starting with Standin On The Corner by Jimmie Rodgers, the great American master of yodeled folk, accompanied by Louis and Lil Armstrong; music-hall classics like Le Coucou de ma GrandMre by Andreany; pop hits like Wind It Up by Gwen Stefani, a title inspired by the musical The Sound of Music, with its mountain setting; the frenzied parodies of great tunes from opera which are the speciality of Mary Schneider, the queen of Australian yodeling; and above all the famous Tarzan whoop emitted by Johnny Weissmuller. According to 1 Jean-Pierre Guis, the interest of yodeling goes well beyond its folkloric aspect: the interplay of bass and treble notes that characterize it leads to a blurring of the sexual identities and cultural stereotypes associated with sounds and musical tessitura. The bass voice is spontaneously associated with the male, and in contrast the treble voice with the female. However, these supposed oppositions are social constructs which have to do with the logic of genders analyzed by Judith Butler. So the male yodel should be understood as a criticism of sexual pseudo-reason in music: The rapid oscillation, verging on confusion, between the bass and treble

makes the male seem less manly. Here he is transformed into a madwoman, an operetta drag queen, with all the ridiculousness often associated with this kind of scenario and the requestioning of standard heterosexuality. That is why yodeling often provokes laughter: as a rapid to and fro between a bass voice and a treble voice, i.e. between masculine and feminine, it induces a form of lack of differentiation and sexual ambiguity. Yodeling is a sort of disguise, the comic side of which can be elucidated by relating it to the ridiculousness of the adolescent boy as his voice breaks, starting a sentence in one register and finishing it with his head voice. When the voice goes off the rails, or raves, it is also the sign of great sexual tension, Jean-Pierre Guis stresses. As Pascal Quignard was able to note in his book La Leon de musique, the treble voice is characteristic not just of women, but of little boys before their voices break; a voice the child loses as he grows up and will ceaselessly look for in music. Jean-Pierre Guis sees yodeling as another means for men to allow their childs voice to arise again, in innocent jubilation. Blurring all the codes, yodeling asserts itself as a particularly powerful physical performance: moreover there are often animal calls mixed up in it, the sound of the cuckoo, the yelp of the coyote, the mooing of the cow, ultimately revealing the joyously bestial side of the human being. [ 4 Cor des alpes ] [ 1 Jeudis de CinQ MiLLiarDS DannES (Les)]
ZoMbie [ f ] Type de mort vivant particulirement rpandu de

nos jours, du cinma de genre la philosophie de lesprit. Le mot mme provient du folklore vaudou, o il dsigne un humain pass sous le contrle dun sorcier qui le maintient, grce une forme dempoisonnement ou denvotement, entre la vie et la mort. Sont venus sy agrger les traits des fantmes revenant doutre-tombe, des goules dvoreuses de chair humaine et des lgions de pestifrs pour former le modle international actuel du cadavre en dcomposition, aux mouvements lents mais implacables, dnu dintelligence et de volont, sinon celle de traquer jusquau dernier reprsentant de lespce humaine pour sen repatre. Cest la srie de films dhorreur initie par George A. Romero et James A. Russo avec La Nuit des morts vivants ( 4 1968) qui a mis en place la description canonique du zombie, ainsi que la dfinition corollaire des moyens de se dfendre contre ses attaques. Selon la doxa, le zombie est trs sensible au feu, aux blessures la tte et, bien sr, la dcapitation ; stupide, il ne sait manier dautres

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Zombie George A. Romero, Night of the Living Dead, 1968

yodelClub suisse de yodel / Swiss yodeling club,


Monroe (USA)

Zombie Edward D. Wood, Jr., Plan 9 from Outer Space,

1956 -1956

outils que des armes de poing ; lent, il peut facilement tre pris de vitesse. La mythographie attribue cependant au zombie une facult problmatique, mis part la rsistance qui va de pair avec linsensibilit de son corps sans vie : dfaut de tuer, les blessures quil inflige transforment leur tour ses victimes en zombie. Par consquent, que le retour des morts parmi les vivants soit d de douteuses exprimentations scientifiques, aux retombes de la bombe atomique, la redcouverte de sortilges antiques ou une maldiction divine, il est toujours plus urgent de les fuir ou de lutter contre leur prolifration que de rechercher les responsables de leur apparition. La menace reprsente par le zombie est ds lors aussi inexorable que paradoxale. Tandis que les plus clbres morts vivants taient des tres dexception venus de pays lointains commencer par le vampire, aristocrate dun romantisme anachronique , le zombie est banal, sans volont, sans motions : proltaire de lhorreur, il trouve sa force dans le nombre. Il appartient notre quotidien, saffirme comme notre semblable. Ainsi, mesure que le flau progresse, voisins, amis, parents deviennent leur tour des monstres dont le visage dcompos et pourtant identifiable figure lhorreur de notre propre alination. Au lieu dun simple memento mori, la leon des zombies est celle dmules de lcole de Francfort : rends-toi compte que tu ne vis pas. [ e ] A zombie is a type of living dead creature that is particularly widespread at present, from genre cinema to the philosophy of the mind. The word itself comes from voodoo folklore, where it refers to a human being who has come under the control of a sorcerer who uses a form of poisoning or magic to keep him between life and death. Ghosts returning from beyond the tomb, ghouls that eat human flesh and legions of plague victims have been incorporated into the concept. Together, they form the current international model of the decomposing corpse moving slowly but implacably, devoid of understanding and will, except the will to track down every last representative of the human species to gorge on them. It was the series of horror films initiated by George A. Romero and James A. Russo with Night of the living dead ( 4 1968) which established the canonical description of the zombie, as well as the corollary definition of the means of defending oneself from its attacks. According to the doxa, zombies are very sensitive to fire, head wounds, and of course decapitation; they are stupid, and do not know how to handle any tool other than handguns or knives; they are slow, and can easily by caught by speed. However,

mythography attributes one problematic ability to the zombie, apart from the toughness that goes hand in hand with the insensitivity of his lifeless body: rather than killing his victims, the wounds he inflicts on them transform them into zombies in their turn. Consequently, whether the return of the dead among the living is due to doubtful scientific experiments, the fall-out of the atomic bomb, the rediscovery of ancient spells or a curse by the gods, it is always a matter of greater urgency to run away from them or fight against their proliferation than to look for those responsible for their appearance. The threat represented by a zombie then becomes as inexorable as it is paradoxical. While the most famous living dead were exceptional creatures from far-off countries starting with the vampire, an outdatedly romantic aristocratzombies are ordinary, devoid of will or emotions: the proletarians of horror, they find their strength in numbers. The zombie is part of our everyday life and resembles us. Thus as the scourge progresses, neighbours, friends and relations in their turn become monsters [ monstres ] whose decomposed yet identifiable faces portray the horror of our own alienation. Instead of being a simple memento mori, the lesson of the zombies is that of adherents of the Frankfurt school: realize that you are not alive. [ 1 Brooks, Max ] [ Essaimage ] [ 2 LaBruce, Bruce ]

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18 (kHZ)

100 000 000 000

100
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18 (khZ) [ f ] Limite suprieure des frquences audibles

par les tres humains. Les ondes sonores restent audibles pour les chiens jusqu environ 35 kHz. [ e ] Upper limit of the frequencies audible by human beings. Sound waves remain audible by dogs up to around 35 kHz. [ 3 allen, Dave ] [ Vritables prludes flasques (pour un chien) ]
80 (kM) [ f ] Altitude de la basse ionosphre. [ e ] Altitude of the lower ionosphere [ ionosphre ]. 271 (ducati Model) [ f ] Modle des 4 chaussures jetes par le journaliste irakien 4 Muntazer al-Zaidi au visage du prsident amricain 4 George W. Bush, rebaptis

haleine : linventaire photographique de toutes les rues et les maisons de 3 reykjavk (33 000 diapositives). La mme anne, le 3 Community reinvestment act sefforce dencadrer les prts hypothcaires risque. [ e ] In 1977, Theodore Kaczynskiwho doesnt yet answer to the name unabomberlives alone in a small cabin [ cabane ] in Montana in anticipation of the collapse of the technological system. 3 Paul Laffoley finishes The Renovatio Mundi in the confines of a fifteen square meter atelier, and 3 Dieter roth works on a long-term project: a photographic inventory of all the streets and houses in 3 reykjavk (33,000 slides). That same year, the 3 Community reinvestment act is passed, an attempt to regulate subprime loans.
100 000 000 000 [ f ] Nombre moyen de neurones dans le cerveau

pour loccasion The Bush Shoe par son fabricant, 4 Baydan Shoe. [ e ] Model of the shoes [ 4 chaussures ] thrown by the Iraqi journalist 4 Muntazer al-Zaidi at the American president 4 George W. Bush, renamed for the occasion The Bush Shoe by its manufacturer, 4 Baydan Shoe. [ 4 al-amiri, Laith ] [ sockandawe.com ] [ 4 SyMBoL oF CouraGE ]
380 (nM) [ f ] Limite infrieure du spectre visible. Longueur

humain.
[ e ] Average number of neurons in the human brain. [ Cerveaux (Contrle des) ] [ tincelles du cerveau ] [ ondes crbrales ] [ ondes lectromagntiques (effets) ]

donde correspondant la couleur violette.


[ e ] Lower limit of the visible spectrum. Wavelength

corresponding to the colour purple. [ Lumire ] [ Spectre lectromagntique ] [ ultraviolet (rayonnement) ]


750 (nM) [ f ] Limite suprieure du spectre visible. Longueur

donde correspondant la couleur rouge.


[ e ] Upper limit of the visible spectrum. Wavelength

corresponding to the colour red. [ Lumire ] [ Spectre lectromagntique ]


1977 [ f ] En 1977, Theodore Kaczynski qui ne rpond pas encore au surnom de unabomber vit isol dans une petite cabane du Montana en

prvision de leffondrement du systme technologique . 3 Paul Laffoley termine The Renovatio Mundi, confin dans les 15 m2 de son atelier et 3 Dieter roth travaille un projet de longue

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enGlisH - FrencH indeX

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a
Abandonment of art abandon de lart Acceleration acclration Alien abductions Enlvements extraterrestres Alphorn Cor des alpes Antimatter antimatire Artesian well Puits artsien Artificial life Vie artificielle Atmospherics atmosphriques Aurora borealis aurore borale

Electromagnetic waves (effects) ondes lectromagntiques (effets) Electrosmog Pollution lectromagntique Escapology Escapologie Evrugo Mental State Evrugo (tat mental d) Extraterrestrial Extraterrestre Exurbanization Exurbanisation

M
Magic Magie Magician Prestidigitateur Magnetic storm orage magntique Magnifying Transmitter Transmetteur
amplificateur

Scientific management organisation scientifique


du travail

f
Flourish Fioriture Fraction line Barre de fraction Function of Etc. Fonction Etc. Furtivity Furtivit

b
Baldness Theorem Thorme de calvitie Battle of Cable Street Cable Street (Bataille de) Beehive Colony Collapse Disorder Syndrome
deffondrement des colonies dabeilles Belief Croyance Benway Institute institut Benway Bicameral Brain Bicamral (cerveau) Black aurora aurore noire Black light Lumire noire Black mirror Miroir noir Boredom Ennui Brain sparks tincelles du cerveau Brainwaves ondes crbrales

G
Generative system Systme gnratif Geodesic Godsique God Dieu Goreans Gorens Graphical sound Son optique

Modernist movement Mouvement moderne Matter Matire Memory Mmoire Mentalism Mentalisme Micrograms Microgrammes Mnemosyne (Atlas) Mnmosyne (atlas) Mobile phone mast antenne relais Modular Modulaire Monster Monstre Mosquito Moustique Mummification Momification

Serendipity Srendipit Singularity Singularit Slippage Glissement Solar wind Vent solaire Sonic weapons armes sonores Space-time Espace-Temps Submarines (Films of) Sous-marins (Films de) Swarming Essaimage Swiss National Exposition (Geneva, 1896)
Exposition nationale suisse (Genve, 1896)

t
Taxidermy Taxidermie Telepathic hallucinations hallucinations
tlpathiques Tesla coil Bobine de Tesla Theremin Thrmine Thoreaus Journal Journal de Thoreau (Le) Tour of the monuments of Passaic Visites des monuments du Passac Transfer Transfert Truly Flabby Preludes (for a dog) Vritables prludes flasques (pour un chien) Twin paradox Paradoxe des jumeaux

n
NDE (Near Death Experience) EMi (Exprience
de mort imminente)

h
Heterotopia heterotopie How can you check that you really have been abducted by aliens? Comment vrifier que vous
avez bien t enlev par des extraterrestres ? Hurricane Katrina Katrina (ouragan) Hypertext hypertexte Hysteria hystrie

Numbers Stations Stations de nombres

o
Occultism occultisme One-time pad (OTP) Masque jetable Ontology ontologie

c
Cabin Cabane Cine eye Cin-il Climate manipulation Manipulation du climat Cocaine Cocane Collectives Collectif Construction site Chantier Controlling the brain Cerveaux (contrle des) Cosmic rays rayons cosmiques Crookes radiometer radiomtre de Crookes Cup Gobelet

p
Palming Empalmage Particle detectors Dtecteurs de particules Patter Boniment Phone box Cabine tlphonique Pieces of human being Morceaux dhomme (Des) Porcia (Battle of) Porcia (Bataille de) Proto-cinema Protocinma

u
Ultraviolet (radiation) ultraviolet (rayonnement) Unabombers Book Collection (a selection) bibliothque dunabomber (La) (une slection) Uroboros ouroboros

i
Iconoclasm iconoclasme Industrial production Production
industrielle

v
Vernacular Vernaculaire Vernacular architecture architecture
vernaculaire

d
Diracs Equation Dirac (quation de) Disappear (how-to) Disparatre
(instructions pour) Double bind Double contrainte Dynamistograph Dynamistographe

Infra-thin inframince Inverse geometry Gomtrie inverse Ionosphere ionosphre Isochronism of pendulums isochronisme des
pendules

q
Quantum physics Physique quantique

Video game Video game

k
Kings of Judah Juda (rois de) Kodiak Island Kodiak (le de) Krays Twins Krays (frres Jumeaux)

r
Radiogoniometry radiogoniomtrie Rainbow Warriors (The) Guerriers de larc-enciel (Les)

w
Wand Baguette Wardenclyffe (Transmission tower) Wardenclyffe
(Tour de transmission)

e
Elasticity lasticit Electric arc arc lectrique Electromagnetic sensitivity Sensibilit
lectromagntique

l
Labyrinth Labyrinthe Levitation Lvitation LHC (Large Hadron Collider) LhC (Grand Collisionneur de Protons) Light Lumire Low Frequency Basse frquence Lynching Lynchage

Random alatoire Recorded music Musique enregistre Relativity relativit Rhombicuboctahedron rhombicuboctadre Rhombohedron rhombodre

Weeds Mauvaise herbe Wild Bunch (The) horde Sauvage (La) Window vision Vision-fentre Wreck of the Prestige naufrage du Prestige

y
Yodeling yodel

Electromagnetic spectrum Spectre


lectromagntique

s
Satanism Satanisme Schizophrenic quotient Quotient
schizophrnique

Electromagnetic waves ondes


lectromagntiques

the pledge / the turn / the prestige

(...) Every magic trick consists of three acts.


Christopher Priest dans un entretien avec Marc-Olivier Wahler, mars 2011 / Christopher Priest in an interview with Marc-Olivier Wahler, March 2011

# 01

the pledge

Mark handforth, Honda, 2002 ; Vespa, 2001 ; Vincent lamouroux, Scape, 2006 ; philippe decrauzat, Fade In Out, 2006 ; Jonathan Monk , Constantly Moving Whilst Standing Still, 2005 ; Franois Morellet , Pi Weeping Neonly, 2006

the pledge

# 02

the pledge

2 Christoph Bchel, Dump, 2008

# 03

the pledge

1 Ronald Bladen, Cathedral Evening, 1971 ; Three Elements, 1965

# 04

the pledge

iMages

steven parrino, instructions donnes Marc-Olivier Wahler pour la prparation de son exposition au CAN / instructions given to Marc-Olivier Wahler for the preparation of his exhibition at CAN, Neuchtel, 1998

the pledge

# 48 # 75

# 05

the pledge

1 Steven Parrino, 13 Shuttered Panels for Joe Ramone, 2001

# 06

the pledge

dadamaino, Volume, 1958

# 07

the pledge

laurie simmons, Girl Vent Press Shots, 1989

# 08

the pledge

Werner reiterer, Beginnings of Space Travel, 2002

# 09

the turn

3 Roman Signer, Parapluies, 2009

the turn

# 10

the turn

3 Ceal Floyer, ON AIR, 2009

# 11

the turn

3 Gardar Eide Einarsson, Garbage (Class 1-5), 2009 ; Garbage (Class 6-10), 2009

# 12

the turn

2 Melvin Moti, No Show, 2004

# 13

the turn m 2 Arcangelo Sassolino, Afasia 1, 2008

# 14

the turn

roman signer, Water boots, 1986

# 15

the turn

robert Barry, Electromagnetic Energy Field, 1968

# 16

the turn

Jason dodge, Amethyst, Garnets, Sapphires, Aquamarine, Quartz, Topaz, Rubies, Tourmaline, Inside an Owl, 2006. Pendant le processus de taxidermie, des pierres prcieuses furent places lintrieur du hibou. / During the process of embalmment, precious gems have been placed inside of an owl.

# 17

the turn 3 Robert Gober, Drain, 1989

# 18

the prestige

2 Jonathan Monk, Meeting #7, 2008

the prestige the prestige

# 19

the prestige

hannah rickards, Birdsong, 2002

# 20

the prestige

pierre huyghe, Timekeeper, 1999

# 21

the prestige

3 Ryan Gander, Nathaniel Knows, 2009

# 22

the prestige

John dee, Dr Dees Magical Mirror, XV e XVI e av. J.-C. / 15th16th century AD

# 23

the prestige

rossella Biscotti, The Heads in Question, 2009

# 24

the prestige

ugo rondinone, lax low lullaby, 2010

# 25

the prestige

piero Manzoni, Socle du monde, 1961

# 26

the prestige

gianni Motti, Mani Pulite, 2005

# 27

the prestige

Christian Jankowski, Direktor Pudel (Director Poodle), 1998/2003

# 28

the prestige

abigail lane, Youknowwhoyouare, 2004

#29

the prestige

Marcel duchamp, Mirror, 1964

# 30

the prestige

2 Jonathan Monk, Meeting #13, 2008

A la Tour Eiffel, le 13 Octobre 2008 midi

Crdits iMages / iMage Credits # 01

1 Mark handforth, Honda, 2002


Collection Paul Rubell 1 Mark handforth, Vespa, 2001 Collection particulire / private collection 1 Vincent lamouroux, Scape, 2006 Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist 1 philippe decrauzat, Fade In Out, 2006 Courtesy galerie Praz-Delavallade (Paris) 1 Jonathan Monk, Constantly Moving Whilst Standing Still, 2005 Collection Dr Paul Marks Courtesy Meyer Riegger (Karlsruhe) 1 Franois Morellet, Pi Weeping Neonly, 2006 Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist ADAGP (Paris) 2011 Photo : Marc Domage

# 08

2 Werner reiterer, Beginnings of Space Travel, 2002


Collection particulire / private collection Courtesy galerie Loevenbruck (Paris) Photo : Andr Morin

# 1 8 m 2 Jonathan Monk, Meeting #7, 2008

Collection prive / private collection m 2 TiME BETwEEn SPACES


# 19

2 ChTEAu dE Tokyo / PAlAiS dE FonTAinEBlEAu


# 09

3 hannah rickards, Birdsong, 2002


Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist Photo : Andr Morin

3 roman signer, Parapluies, 2009


Courtesy Art:Concept (Paris) Photo : Andr Morin

3 ChASinG nAPolEon
# 20 pierre huyghe, Timekeeper, 1999

3 GAkonA
# 10

3 Ceal Floyer, On Air, 2009


Courtesy galerie Esther Schipper (Berlin), Lisson Gallery (Londres / London) & 303 Gallery (New York) ADAGP (Paris) 2011 Photo : Andr Morin
# 21

Courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery (Paris, New York) ADAGP (Paris) 2011

3 ryan gander, Nathaniel Knows, 2009


Courtesy Flowerman Collection (Hiroshima) Photo : Andr Morin

1 Cinq MilliARdS dAnnES


# 02

3 GAkonA
# 11

3 ChASinG nAPolEon
# 22 John dee, Dr Dees Magical Mirror, xve xvie av. J.-C. /

2 Christoph Bchel, Dump, 2008


Collection Juan Carlos Verme Courtesy Christoph Bchel & Hauser & Wirth (Zurich, Londres / London) Photo : A. Burger

3 gardar eide einarsson, Garbage (Class 15), 2009


Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist, Standard (Oslo) & galerie Bugada & Cargnel (Paris) 3 gardar eide einarsson, Garbage (Class 6 10), 2009 Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist, Standard (Oslo) & galerie Bugada & Cargnel (Paris) Photo : Andr Morin

15th-16th century AD The Trustees of the British Museum


# 23 rossella Biscotti, The Heads in Question, 2009

2 duMP
# 03

1 ronald Bladen, Cathedral Evening, 1971


Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Collection Marzona (Berlin) 1 ronald Bladen, Three Elements, 1965 Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Collection Marzona (Berlin) Photo : Marc Domage ADAGP (Paris) 2011
# 12

3 ChASinG nAPolEon 2 Melvin Moti, No Show, 2004 2 no Show


Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist & Prometeogallery di Ida Pisani (Milan, Lucca) Photo : Ela Bialkowska
# 24 ugo rondinone, lax low lullaby, 2010

# 1 3 m 2 arcangelo sassolino, Afasia 1, 2008

Courtesy Sadie Coles HQ (Londres / London) Ugo Rondinone Photo : Stefan Altenburger Photography
# 25 piero Manzoni, Socle du monde, 1961

m 2 AFASiA Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist


# 1 4 roman signer, Water boots, 1986

1 ThE ThiRd Mind


# 04

1 steven parrino, instructions donnes Marc-Olivier


Wahler pour la prparation de son exposition au CAN / instructions given to Marc-Olivier Wahler for the preparation of his exhibition at CAN, Neuchtel, 1998

Courtesy Art:Concept (Paris) Photo : Marek Rogowiec


# 1 5 robert Barry, Electromagnetic Energy Field, 1968

HEART, Herning Museum of Contemporary Art Courtesy Fondazione Piero Manzoni (Milan) ADAGP (Paris) 2011 Photo : Lilian Bolvinkel
# 26 gianni Motti, Mani Pulite, 2005

# 05

1 steven parrino, 13 Shuttered Panels for Joe


Ramone, 2001 Collection de la famille Parrino / collection of the Parrino family & Gagosian Gallery (New York) Photo : Marc Domage

Courtesy Walker Art Center (Minneapolis) T.B. Walker Acquisition Fund, 2008
# 1 6 Jason dodge, Amethyst, Garnets, Sapphires, Aquamarine,

Collection prive / private collection Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist Photos : Stefan Altenburger (gauche / left) ; Gianni Motti (droite / right)
# 2 7 Christian Jankowski, Direktor Pudel (Director Poodle),

1 STEvEn PARRino RTRoSPECTivE 1981 2004


# 06 dadamaino, Volume, 1958

Courtesy Vedovi Gallery (Bruxelles / Brussels)


# 07 laurie simmons, Girl Vent Press Shots, 1989 # 17

Quartz, Topaz, Rubies, Tourmaline, Inside an Owl, 2006 Pendant le processus de taxidermie, des pierres prcieuses furent places lintrieur du hibou. / During the process of embalmment, precious gems were placed inside an owl. Courtesy Casey Kaplan Gallery (New York)

1998-2003 Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist


# 28 abigail lane, Youknowwhoyouare, 2004

Courtesy de lartiste / of the artist


# 29 Marcel duchamp, Mirror, 1964

3 robert gober, Drain, 1989


Collection S.M.A.K., Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, (Gand / Gent) Photo : Andr Morin

Courtesy Laurie Simmons & Salon 94 (New York)

Succession Marcel Duchamp / ADAGP (Paris) 2011


# 30 m 2 Jonathan Monk, Meeting #13, 2008

3 ChASinG nAPolEon

TiME BETwEEn SPACES