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EXTENDED TWIN OPERATIONS

Royal Jordanian Airlines Crew Training Department

ETOPS COURSE TOPICS


Introduction Regulations ETOPS Approvals ETOPS Flight Dispatch Crew Procedures Cre Proced res

INTRODUCTION

What is ETOPS The benefits of ETOPS The Mil Th Milestones

The

Opportunity Presented by Technology pp y gy

What is ETOPS?

The operation of twin engine aircraft over a route that contains a point further than one hour's flying hour s time from an adequate airport at the approved

one-engine inoperative cruise speed one-

The benefits of ETOPS


Track shortening g Reduced flight time Fuel savings Overall reduction in operating costs

Area of operation before ETOPS

Area of operation after ETOPS

The 60 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine

The 120 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine

The 180 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine

The Milestones

1936: 100 miles of an adequate airport 1953: FAA created 60-minute rule

1985: 1985: B767 f first 90 min ETOPS operation O S


1989: 1990: 1991: 1993: 1995 1995: FAA AC 120-42A ETOPS rules A300/A310 FAA ETOPS 180 approved DGAC ETOPS 180 approved JAA issues IL20/ AMJ 120-42 A330 300 JAA type design approval t d i l A330-300

REGULATIONS

Regulations relevant to ETOPS? Applicable regulatory sources

Why regulate ETOPS operations?

To achieve an Equal level of Safety and Reliability

Regulations relevant to ETOPS?

Definitions Diversion Strategies ETOPS fuel planning requirements MEL, DDG

Definitions

Adequate Airport Suitable Airport ETOPS Enroute alternate Maximum diversion time Maximum diversion distance ETOPS area of operation ETOPS entry point (EEP) t i t

ETOPS segment Equal time point (ETP) Critical point (CP) ETOPS EXIT POINT (EXP) One-Engine-Out Diversion Speed Exposure Time

Adequate Airport
Runway Length Width, Strength (for landing) Length, Width ATC services Communications weather reporting NOTAM Lighting equipment One approach & one let down aid Rescue and Fire Fighting Services

Suitable Airport
An Adequate Airport which satisfies the ETOPS Dispatch Weather Minima in terms of ceiling and visibility within the required period of suitability

ETOPS Enroute Alternate

A Suitable Aerodrome is nominated and indicated on the Operational Flight Plan for a particular ETOPS flight as an aerodrome to which a diversion can be safely accomplished

Maximum Diversion Time


The maximum diversion time (120, or 180 minutes) from an ETOPS enroute alternate authorized in an operators Operations Specifications issued by Authority. Authority

Maximum Diversion Distance a u e so sta ce


It is the maximum distance which can be covered within the Maximum Diversion Time based on:
a) ) b) c) ) aR f Reference Altitude, Altit d a Reference Weight the approved one engine inop cruise speed pp g p p

It is used to define the Area of Operations

One Engine Out Diversion Speed


A d i l i di d l db

1. Establishing the area of ETOPS operations and any dispatch limitations; and 2. Calculation f i l 2 C l l ti of single engine cruise speed f l requirements; th i i d fuel i t the approved single engine cruise speed is calculated in standard atmospheric conditions (ISA) and in still air

ETOPS Area of Operation


Area in which it is authorized to conduct a flight under ETOPS regulations and is defined by the maximum diversion distance from an adequate airport airport.

330

ETOPS Exit Point (EEP)

The point located on an ETOPS route at which the aircraft would proceed beyond the declared 60 minute distance, from the last available adequate , q airport

ETOPS ETP

A point on an ETOPS route that is located at an p equal flight time*, from two suitable Enroute alternate airports. p

*(in forecasted atmospheric conditions at 10,000 feet)

ETOPS Exit Point (EXP)

An EXP is the point on the aircrafts inbound route where the aircraft is within 60 minutes flying time at the approved single engine cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport(s). The EXP marks the end of the ETOPS segment.

Critical Point (CP)

A CP is the point along a route at which the difference b t diff between th standard f l expected t the t d d fuel t d to be on board (fuel to continue) and the required ETOPS diversion fuel (fuel to divert) is minimum or di i f l (f l t di t) i i i negative. (The CP is usually, but not always, the last l t ETP)

Exposure Time
Period during which a diversion scenario is forecasted to be horizontally exposed to icing conditions for a certain duration

Diversion Strategies

Standard Obstacle Fixed S Fi d Speed d

The Fixed Speed Strategy is the one used for:


Determining the Maximum Diversion Distance (Area of Operations) Comparing fuel requirements and helping to establish the Critical Fuel Scenario

Diversion Strategies

ETOPS Fuel Planning Requirements

The minimum fuel to be carried must be the higher of:

Standard Fuel Planning Requirements ETOPS Critical Fuel Scenario Requirements

Standard Fuel Planning Requirements

ETOPS Fuel Planning Requirements


The Critical Fuel Scenarios

Decompression

1 Eng Inop & Decompression

HIGHEST

Most Critical Fuel Scenario

ETOPS Fuel Planning


Depressurization Scenario

1 Engine Out + Depressurization Scenario

ETOPS Fuel Planning

ETOPS Fuel Planning


ETOPS fuel planning requirements must also include:

Contingency fuel (as per company policy) Fuel for Anti-ice use and the effect on unheated surfaces
(if exposure to icing is anticipated at 10,000ft)

MEL items (such as the use of the APU as a required power


source)

( (MEL) & ( ) (DDG) )

Minimum Equipment List (Airbus) Must include restrictions for ETOPS

"For ER or "Except for ER For ER" Except ER


Or

Extended Overwater flight is prohibited E t d d O t fli ht i hibit d

Airbus - MEL example

ETOPS APPROVALS
Manufacturer Approvals Operator Approvals Policy of Regulatory Approvals

Operator Approvals
ETOPS Type Design Approval:
ETOPS Type Design Eligibility yp g g y ETOPS Type Design Capability ETOPS Capability Statement

ETOPS Type Design Eligibility yp g g y


Includes design features such as:
Propulsion system reliability Electrical sources redundancy / APU design Emergency / Standby electrical generator Minimum crew workload operating systems p g y Systems redundancy Time limited equipments

Propulsion System Reliability

APU Design

Time limited equipments

References

Equipment q p Cargo Category Cargo Fire Bottles

A320

A319

A330 C 2.01.20 p1 1 + 285 min 1.26.50 p3

A340 C 2.01.20 p1 1 + 285 min 1.26.50 p3

ETOPS type Design Capability


In service, aircrafts must demonstrate a certain level of actual performance reliability such as:
In-flight engine shutdowns (IFSD) Diversions and air turn backs Un-commanded Un commanded power changes and engine surges Inability to obtain the desired thrust levels ETOPS critical system malfunctions

Technical Transfer Analysis y

ETOPS Capability Statement

Design Eligibility and Capability information can be found in:


Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures for Extended Range Operation (CMP) Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL)

Operator Approval
Operator achieve their by submitting an Approval Plan to the regulatory authority of the State of Registry and g y y g y are based on:

Ai Aircraft capability statement ft bilit t t t Crew training and qualification Maintenance procedures and practices

Policy of Regulatory Approvals


120 min is the maximum initial approval that may be granted by an operators Approval operator s Approval Plan 180 min is granted through in in service experience Manufacture/Operator ETOPS approval can be REVOKED
serious single event (e g IFSD) (e.g. series of related events

ETOPS FLIGHT DISPATCH

Required Documentation Si l ETOPS Alternate Operations considerations Single Alt t O ti id ti

Required Documentation
The BRIEFING PACKAGE must be constructed to include:
The OFP shall contain:

ETOPS Flight Denotation Critical fuel scenario computations ETOPS Minimum Block Fuel requirements EEP, ETP, & EXP Windows of Suitability ( y (based on ETOPS Dispatch Wx Requirements) p q )

Adequate En-route Alternate (NOTAM) Plotting chart or orientation chart with area of operations limit

Critical Fuel Scenario Computations

ETOPS Minimum Block Fuel requirements

Standard Fuel Planning

Requirement

ETOPS Fuel Planning

Requirement

HIGHEST

Minimum Block Fuel

EEP, ETP, & EXP , ,

(based on ETOPS Dispatch Wx Requirements)

Windows of Suitability

ETOPS Alternates must meet Dispatch Wx requirements:


Starting 1 hour before the earliest ETA at the en-route alternate airport
(take-off time) + (flight time to equitime point before alternate) + (diversion time at normal cruise speed and altitude) - (one hour)

Ending 1 hour after the latest ETA at this en-route alternate airport
(take-off time) + (Flight time to equitime point after alternate) + (diversion time at long range speed FL100 one engine) + (one hour)

Adequate En-route Alternate q En(NOTAM)

Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p


1. 1 The ETOPS segment is relatively short, typically 60 short minutes or less, at the single engine cruise speed, in standard conditions, and in still air; , ; 2. The ETP between two en route diversion airports is located outside of the ETOPS area; 3. A reduction in diversion time is achieved by using a single alternate; 4. There is only one en route diversion airport with weather forecast at or above ETOPS enroute alternate limits limits.

Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p

EEP EXP

OPKC 120 min

Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p


OPKC is the only ETOPS Enroute Alternate There i no ETP only EEP and EXP Th is l d Critical fuel requirements should be satisfied at the EEP and EXP respectively

CREW PROCEDURES

Crew R C Responsibilities ibiliti Diversion Decision Making


Weather Failures

Crew Procedures
Crew Responsibilities

Crew Procedures
In Flight Briefings

A comprehensive briefing shall be conducted in the following phases of an ETOPS flight:

Before entering any EEP

After crossing any ETP

Crew Procedures
Diversion Decision Making

Weather:
Dispatch weather minimum requirements no longer p q g apply when in flight (Before the EEP if weather falls below the
applicable minima a ETOPS may not be entered)

Crew Procedures
Diversion Decision Making

Failures:
Loss of Navigation capability (depending on airspace) Failures requiring landing at the nearest suitable airport F lC Fuel Considerations id ti Electrical Generation Redundancies (depending on aircraft type)

Crew Procedures
Diversion Decision Making

In case of a diversion due to engine problems it is recommended to use the speed schedule used to establish p the area of operations (i.e. Fixed Speed Strategy)

NOTE:
The PIC has the authority to deviate from this planned speed after completion of the assessment of the actual situation

Thank y .. n you..