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# CONTENTS

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Linear system design Introduction to design using compensators Lag compensator Lead compensator Lag-Lead compensator PI, PD and PID controllers Feedback compensation Short questions and answers Exercise 1 5 34 63 83 109 127 137

Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

Nonlinear systems Introduction to nonlinear sytems Describing function Describing function of dead-zone and saturation non-linearity Describing function of saturation nonlinearity Describing function of dead-zone nonlinearity Describing function of relay with dead-zone and hysteresis Describing function of backlash nonlinearity Describing function analysis of nonlinear systems Review of polar plot and Nichols plot Phase plane and phase trajectories Short questions and answers Exercise 141 150 151 156 159 162 167 172 175 193 215 225

Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15

Sampled data control systems Introduction Sampling process Analysis of sampling process in frequency domain Reconstruction of sampled signals using hold circuits Discrete sequence (Discrete time signal) z-Transform Linear discrete time systems Transfer function of LDS system (Pulse Transfer Function) Analysis of sampler and zero-order hold Analysis of system with impulse sampling Analysis of sampled data control system using z-transform The z and s-domain relationship Stability analysis of sampled data control systems Short question and answers Exercises 229 231 232 234 235 240 268 271 277 278 284 295 296 305 315

Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

State space analysis Introduction State space formulation State model of linear system State diagram State space representation using physical variables State space representation using phase variables State space representation using canonical variables Short questions and answers Exercises 319 320 321 323 325 346 360 403 417

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12

Analysis and design of control system in state space Definitions involving matrices Eigenvalues and eigenvectors Similarity transformation Cayley-Hamilton theorem Transformation of state model Concepts of controllability and observability Controllable phase variable form of state model Control system design via pole placement by state feedback Obervable phase variable form of state model State observers Short questions and answers Exercises 421 422 424 426 436 449 460 470 489 494 504 515