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Opening to God: The Cosmographical Diagrams of Opicinus de Canistris Author(s): Catherine Harding Reviewed work(s): Source: Zeitschrift fr Kunstgeschichte,

61. Bd., H. 1 (1998), pp. 18-39 Published by: Deutscher Kunstverlag GmbH Munchen Berlin Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1482925 . Accessed: 16/08/2012 10:32
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CATHERINE HARDING

Openingto God: theCosmographical Diagrams of Opicinusde Canistris


Some of thegreatest of mystics theMiddle Ages, of St Victor, Hugh Joachim Hildegardof Bingen, of Fiore,soughtto expresstheir mystical experience of God bothin wordsand images., The cognitive difficulties comprehending of matspiritual tersis expressedin Joachim'ssuccinctformulation: >>we see in enigmas, through mirror<<, as a hencehisuse offigural as an integral comimages In ponentof his spiritual writings.2 the mindsof the mysticsimagerycould be simultaneously in informational, pedagogicand meditative funcandthepictures couldbe pondered tion, againand again to revealtheirmeaningover time.For inwhenfacedwitha difficult stance, scriptural pasofStVictor would elucidate meanthe sage,Hugh Severalcenturies later, ing by drawing diagrams.3 a betweenca. 133o 135o, little and knownvisionary and mystic namedOpicinus de Canistris also decided to use visual and literary meansto explore hisideasaboutthecosmos,hisself-knowledge and of God, in a seriesof intricate cosmoknowledge basedon thelatemedieval graphical diagrams portolancharts theMediterranean. know also of We thathe added textual visualdetailsto thedrawor overtimeas a result contemplating imof the ings

ages.4 Richard Salomon'sinvaluable studies thePalof atinus and Vaticanusmanuscripts Opicinus by communicate strongsense of disappointment a about Opicinus's ?failure<< a mystic: argued as he thatOpicinusdid notseemto experience feelthe ingsofjoyousunionandpeace ofGod considered for ?normative<< mystics somescholars.5 Evans by was rather morecharitable OpicinusthanSaloto thesediagrams be records his to of mon,declaring as Of studies indimystical visions.6 course, recent a on deficate,reaching consensus an appropriate nitionof terms such as ?mysticism? extraordiis There can be littledoubt that narilydifficult.7 had an artistic, intuitive, side, Opicinus mystical whichhe used to penetrate theheartof divine to truth. The evidenceof both word and image in shows us a mind at times these manuscripts and thwarted intellectual understandtrapped by untilit experienced moment illumination, a of ing in to crystallized theimages>>given<< itsinnereye Biblioteca Ms. 5Forthe Vaticana, Rome, Pal. Apostolica lat.I993,seeRichard Salomon: de Opicinus Canistris. und Bekenntnisse eines avignonesischen Weltbild Klerikers 14.Jahrhunderts, 1936. Biblides London The oteca Ms. is Vaticana, Rome, Vat.Lat.6435, Apostolica discussed Richard Salomon: Newly A Discovered by of de in: of ManuscriptOpicinus Canistris, Journal the
and Institutes XVI, I953,45-57,and Warburg Courtauld
to 41.

I am grateful theassistance MicheleMulchahey for of in the translating Latinpassages. use i For HughofSt-Victor's ofthearkofNoah,seePatriceSicard:Diagrammes M6di6vaux Ex6geseViset uelle.Le Libellusde Formatione Archede Huguesde Turnhout Saint-Victor, I993. See Adelgundis Fiihrk6ttrans. Les N.N. Huyghebaert: miniatures Scividu ter, and Reeves as, Turnhout 1977, for Hildegard, Marjorie and Beatrice Hirsch-Reich: Figurae Joachim The of of used by Joachim Fiore,Oxford1972, forthe imagery andhisfollowers. 2 Reevesand Hirsch-Reich (note i), 20: ?Videmus per in 13:12. speculum enigmate...<, basedon i Corinthians The Studyof the Bible in theMiddle 3 BerylSmalley: on Vatica4 Forinstance, f.74vofBibliotheca Apostolica he of na,Rome,Ms. Vat.lat.6435, addeda detail a rabbit to help explicate particular a etymological point,one the fabrication thedrawing. of yearafter initial 18
Ages, 2nd ed., Oxford I983, 96.

to Opicinus Canistris, Journal idem: Aftermath de in:


of Warburg and CourtauldInstitutes XXV, 1962,137

tectural Association XII, Quarterly 1980,47. Hirsh: Attitudes Mystical and 7 John Religious Language AnneClarkBartlett, 1995, 15-26. Woodbridge

6 Michael Evans: Geometry the The in: of Mind, Archi-

inMedieval Texts: Essay Methodology, An in Literary in:Vox Mystica: on ed. Essays Medieval Mysticism,

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f. Biblioteca Pal. of Vaticana, lat.1993, 2r:Diagram Adam(Primus Homo); Apostolica and of (HomoFidelis) theChurch theSacraments Sacramentalis) (Ecclesia

andsenseofjudgement; article seeksto counter universeto the mappamundi, will be demonit my theoverly viewof Opicinus'smysticism. strated thatOpicinus attempted finda higher, to negative This article of valueformany themoremundane, of arguesthatthediagrams theBib- spiritualized lioteca ApostolicaVaticana,Rome, Ms. Vat. lat. literal phenomena that he experiencedin the Vaticanusmanuscript), exe- world, he related information hissenseof as this to 6435(henceforward: cutedby Opicinus between1337 and 134I, were a the minormundusor microcosmof the human of world.'o uniquemeansforhimto opento God, as he strug- body and thegeography theinhabited the gled to comprehend meaningof God's uni- The end result of the process undertakenby verseand hisplace within thatscheme. The earlier Opicinus was thateventhemostinsignificant aswork by Opicinus containedin the Biblioteca pectoftheuniverse seemedto proclaim God's deApostolica Vaticana, Rome, Ms. Pal. lat. 1993 signand plan forsalvation. An unusualfeature thesediagrams, of whichhas Palatinus manuscript)is only (henceforward: to it is considered herein relation theVatica- not receivedthe attention deserves, the role briefly of ideas in ascribed by Opicinus to his consciencein the nus; thedevelopment cosmographical and his both manuscriptsand their interrelationship processof constructing analysing knowlof consulting conhis awaitsfuller treatment.8 edge.He speaksrepeatedly better understand God's and We maywitness, bothin thedrawings inhis scienceso thathe might the of an how he tried accomplish exhaustive will as he contemplated inevitability the to writings, In analysis of the shades and grades of evidence, Day ofJudgement. thelaterMiddleAges,conto a of his whole morallifeas re- sciencewas seenbysomeminds require rigoropinion,knowledge and the microcosmwithinthe macrocosm. ous process of self-examination self-knowlflecting to Like many other mystics,Opicinus was con- edge.According St Bonaventura 1274),con(d. the cernedto renounce objectsof sensory sciencewas a dispositionthathelped to perfect experifor himself theoutsideworldto a understanding, it directed and ence,subjecting people to perform On level,a process of rigorous scrutinyand continuous some deeds but not others. a practical of the person might ask the question, before acting, cleansing the>windows ofthesoul<<,so that would transform un- >>WhatoughtI to do?<< and then,>>DidI do the his reality lightof spiritual The resultwas thatit becameimTo thisend,I haveprepared hand- right a derstanding.9 thing?<<" ideas thathe exploresin the perativeto examineone's consciencein minute list of the manifold of I basis,bothforsaintsand more cosmographical diagrams theVaticanus. have detailon a regular involvedin ordinary he also analyzedthemechanical Although onlyreachedthe process mortals.I2 the the diagrams underscore richness level of beatus,the devoutPeterof Luxembourg to drawing of of as to at and mutability his system representation, (1369 1387)felt compelled confess leastthree in the timesa week, oftenpurging how it assistedhim of well as to demonstrate himself the most and This aspect trifling offenses processofself-reflection analysis. accordingto the dictatesof his of hisworkhas not beenpreviously studied. sensitive conscience.'3This same exceptionally in In the finalpartof the article, relationto a conscience evident thelifeof Opicinus,who is in ideas of of drawing integrating aboutthecreation the was a near contemporary Peter's. However, of New see Microcosmsthe in History Philosophy, York, 8 Salomon 1936 (note 5), 130-33; also J6rg-Geerd Arentzen: Munich1984, 1967, 29-52. ImagoMundiCartographica, Potts: in: HistoConscience, TheCambridge 275-319,fora more recent analysisof the moralized ii Timothy of KretzMedieval ed. ryofLater Philosophy, Norman geography thePalatinus. Harmondsworth mann al.,Cambridge 696. et 9 Fredeick 1970, 1982, Happold: Mysticism, 12 Thomas Tentler: andConfession the ofthe Sin on Eve 58. Allers: in: Princeton II, Reformation, Microcosmus, Tradition 1944, 321, 1977,134-62. io Rudolf and George Conger: Theoriesof Macrocosmsand 13Richard Kieckhefer: Souls, 1984, Unquiet Chicago 125-27.
20

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of Church Pal. lat.1993, 5r: f. Diagram theCorporeal (Ecclesia Corporalis) AboutitsState andLamentations

Opicinus has been assessed by modernscholarone even shipin overwhelmingly negative, might terms. has beendescribed a He as say,pathological failed as >>psychotic<<, an alienated individmystic, ual in the social realm, filled with obsessive abouthis selfand his body.14 has been It thoughts saidofhisimages that are they >all aboutbodyand not mind<<, this view cannot be supported but based on theanalysis theVaticanus of manuscript thatthe presented Opicinuswas convinced here.50 of revealed himfor to imagesweremoments truth theperfection his soul, in orderthathe might of shed scientianaturalis(knowledgeof facts),in or to preference highertruth maiorscientia.He in claimsthat spiritual his oc>renovation<< Christ in curred 1337.'6 Opicinus was a minorclericfromPavia who in of workedas scriptor the office the Apostolic on immersed a regular basisin theworkofadminof the istering special cases involving sacrament of underthedirection Vaticanofficials.'8 penance his In the autobiographical notes accompanying f. iir),he tellsus thaton Au(Palatinus, drawing a he de gust24, 1330, completed breveconfessionale in Severalyearslater, 1334and 1335, meis.'9 peccatis he producedan initial oftendrawings. set Writing
Penitentiaryat Avignon until 1350.17He was thus

myconscience...<<20 he BetweenFebruary1335 and June1336, proof duced the manuscript the Palatinus:fifty-two skins of parchment, images on twenty-seven which generally retaintheirnaturaloutline,all To done in consultation withhis conscience. his the drawingswere unlike any otherthat mind, for be might found, theyhad been done withthe aid ofhis>interioreye<<, filled withimages tesand timonial about the truth it had been as writings revealed him.21 to

later abouttheprocess, explains he that these were done following conscience.He describesthe his to processaccordingly: Therefore, beginning >... be born in the thirteenth hundredth thirtyand fourth yearof theLord, I againrenewedthediaof on a gram thehierarchy, whichI corrected little the explanation the book, both concerning of it and the of [i.e.thehierarchy] concerning meanings thegospels, partly and from conscience, which my untilthenhad been veryrough, and possessedof of the onlya modicum clarity right until yearof up in of I [= expectation 1335 his system reckoning]. thesecondbook oftheaforesaid composed explanation,on ten pieces of paper,my interior eyes towardsdiscerning imagthe beingopeneda little es of theearthand thesea to considering themin

in 14ErnstKris:Psychoanalytic Explorations Art,New York1952, 118-27; Gerhard Ladner:Homo Viator. MedievalIdeas on Alienation Order,in: Imagesand and in Ideas in theMiddleAges. Selected Studies History andArt, Rome1983, 937-74. i~ MichaelCamille:The Imageand the Self:Unwriting in: LateMedieval Medieval Bodies, Framing Bodies,ed. SarahKay andMiriRubin, Manchester 94. 1994, 16Salomon (note5),214, andSalomon (note6),50. 1936 1952 17Salomon1936 (note5),26. 18Emil G6ller:Die papstliche P6nitentiarie ihrem von bis unterPius V, Ursprung zu ihrerUmgestaltung Rome 1907-11;see also Bernard Guillemain: Cour La Paris 1966,332-45. Pontificale Guillemain d'Avignon, io that before August suggests Opicinusdiedsometime whenhisposition reclaimed was 1355, (344). 1936(note5),212. I9 Salomon >... Incipiens f. 20 Vat. lat. 6435, 53r: ergonascianno dominiMCCCXXXIIII iterum renovari tabulam ierarlibellum correxi declarationis chiesuperqua paulatim etsuper etsuper ea et, proprietatibus evangeliorum partimde conscientia adhucvalderudicum modica mea
22

claritate usque ad annumexpectationis, aliquantulum ad oculusmeisinterioribus discernendas apertis ymaginesterre maris conferendas conscienta seet in et mea in cundum libellum declarationis predicte peciisX paFor of of piricomposui...<< an explanation his system with being year expectation, the of 1335 reckoning years, with as theyearoftranquillity, Salomon see 1341 ending
21

Vat. lat. 6435, 53r: For three >>... continuous f. yearsI filled and folia as many as itwereinnumerable ofpaper, muchgreat foliaoflarger format smallonesoflesser as with diverse varied and and of scraps, types images circles concerning descriptions the lands of the the of earth and of otherfigures mystery, manyexof with in of of planatory captions, sucha variety experience no so them seento is sort, that oneworkamongst every be like to anotheramongstthose diversethings.../ ... Perhostres annos continuos multa quasiinnumeret abiliafoliacartarum, magnamaioris tam forme quam et parvaminoris peciole,diversis variismodisymaginumet rotarum orbisterrarum et superdescriptione in aliarum varietate misterii tanta figuaram experiantie

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BetweenJuneand November 1337(with later additionsto manyof the pages throughout 1338 in and 1339, sparsely 1341), was at workon and he theimagesand text theVaticanus, manuscript of a a done on paper foliosthatrepresents day-book his thoughts sacredand mundane on filledwith matters.22 His intentions thiswork are best summafor rizedbythefollowing statement: the >Concerning of all actions. universalexplanation, spiritually, Each manmayexplainhis own lifespiritually acof whichhe to thememory thosethings cording he whathisbirth has done. Similarly, mayexplain In withall hisactions. similar maysignify together fashion could recallall his dreamsto his mind he and discussthemall withhis conscience. Thence, if discussedall things, he shall have perhaving of ceived froma conference this sort whether a a from lie or from truth of [these proceed] things he faith, will obtainthrough graceof God thegift withmyofjudging own personand no other, his selfas an example.For the councilof my hands whichwerewritme taught to judge thosethings tenfrom conscience.<<23 my in that He mentions bothmanuscripts he had to unknown the for standon trial reasons during earthe after ofhis timein Avignon.Shortly lyperiod a he experienced several visionsduring trial ended, his boutofillness I334.24 in Duringhisillness, right to hand became paralyzed,which he refers in a veiledway in thepassageabove, (as well as in an earlierautobiographical drawingin the PalatiThis paralysis was seen as an markof spenus).25 cial favourfromGod, forthe ailment permitted

himto be able to drawand writedown all thathe in fashion.26 experienced miraculous He feltgracedby his special,spiritualized unofthenewlook ofEuropeanportolan derstanding such as Genoa, chartsbeingproducedin centres thelatethirteenth and Veniceand Majorca during in The centuries.27 shift themapearlyfourteenth conventions foundon thesecharts resulthad ping visualconfiguration thecontifor ed in a different nents of Europe and Africa,together with the is sea. The term>>mappamundi<< Mediterranean the used hereto describe maps createdby Opicihis nus,although workbelongsto thetransitional of when the older conceptualframework period the world map was undergoinga profound as by change, described Woodwardand others.28 the Whenthemapis oriented eastwards, sea beto assumetheshapeofa beardedman,which, gins the accordingto Opicinus,signified presenceof the Princeof Darkness,the Devil and the mare and diabolicum (figs. 2). In hisimagination in the i, Africa and Europa, thetwo continents, drawings, as could assumesuchidentities a manand a womi an, a monkand a nun,a jew and an apostle(figs. chart to 9). It is clearthatOpicinushad a portolan at his disposalin Avignon.29 Althoughtheparallelmay seem crude to spein in functioned cialists Buddhist hisdrawings art, much as it has a certain way as sacredmandalas, of been arguedthatHugh of St-Victor's drawing thetwelfth centheArkofNoah, executed during a used forthepedagogiresembled mandala, tury, cal and mysticalpurposes of Hugh's monastic in traIt religious community.30 is clearthat many

videa- 25 Salomon1952 (note5),47. alteri simile ut opus cuiuscumquenullum exhiis 26 cumscripturis testimonialibus Salomon1936(note5),32. turinter diversa ista of charts beenmostrecently has ...<< multis 27 The history portolan implevi from A summarized TonyCampbell: Portolan Charts work Victoria Morse, Complex 22 See therecent by by to in: of in and theLate Thirteenth Terrain: Church, Century 1500oo,A History Society theIndividual the BrianHarleyandDavid Wooded. de of Works Opicino Canistris - ca. I354),Ph.D. (1296 Cartography, John of dissertation ward,I, Chicago1987, 371-463. 1997, Berkeley University California, in: and Medieval a edition the of Vaticanus. 28D. Woodward, whoplans publishcritical to Mappaemundi, Harley the line Woodward 23 SeeSalomon (note 5i, (note27), 314-18. 1952 5), whoomitted last of in transcription: enim the entry his ..... Consilium man- 29 Salomon1952(note6), 5o. and Grover Zinn:MandalaSymbolism Use intheMysuum mearum docuit me omnia iudicare conscripta 30o que in: in ticism Hugh of St-Victor, Historyof Religions of sunt conscientia mea.<<
24 Salomon 1936(note5),31-32.

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bothEast and West,a symbolic structure lis), speaking to Europe the spiritual church ditions, was (and is) often used as an aid to meditation and (Ecclesiaspiritualis). aboutthesignificance things. of Carru- 5. f. ofAfrica thecommunity as cogitation 6iv. Comparison thers describes processbywhichmedieval the dia- of carnalmen(universitas and carnalium) Europe as on of as thechurch thesick(ecclesia of vergramsfunction ?realizations parchment infirmorum), mental sus Africa theuniversal as of God (caritas [a] kind of meditative, ... compositional charity in The framework universalis deum) and Europe as thecharity in of [emphasis original].<<3' imaging ofa particular was therefore inval- God in theuniverse an (caritas in universo). composition dei uable aid to individuals who wishedto ponderand 6. f.68v.Commentary a passagefrom on Aristotle elaborate on sacred meaning,with the image on thevelocity theplanets. of to further mentalimage-mak- 7. f. 69r. Explorationof Macrobius's Commenworking stimulate in themind.Although thereare twenty-three taryon theDream of Scipio. ing in as thatis, diagrams usingthemappamundi theVaticanus, 8. f.69v.Africa, thetongueof theJews, each imagediffers from other, the id demonstrating ofthecarnalclergy (linguaiudeorum estcarnalof theremarkable and fluidity thisparticular symbolic ium clericorum) Europe as thelaity(persona structure: was able to varythestructure gentium estlaicorum), id versusAfrica theseras Opicinus attimes somepartsofthe vile Church (servilis ecclesia)and Europe as the considerably, expanding Church(spiritualis map, at others layeringimage upon image, to spiritual ecclesia). searchout themeaning relationships wished 9. f. of he of the vita activa and the 7Ir. Comparison to explore. vita contemplativa, Africa theministry as with of The following enumerates list some of thekey Martha(ministerium and Europe as the Marthae) conceptsbeing exploredin each of the twenty- apostle Thomas,versusAfricaas the laziness of threemappaemundi it drawings; is commonfor Mary (ocium Marie) and Europe as the apostle him to compare and contrastrevealedtruthin Jacob. number of often twos,threes fours, or as io. f. 7Iv. Meditationon Consolationof Philopatterns, in was customary medieval thought:32 sophy Boethius. by The of on i. f.53v. pathway sin(viapeccati)compared Ii. f. 73v.Meditation the sevendays of Creato theway of salvation(salvatioanimarum), the tion, versus Africa Infidelity as (infidelitas) speakin latter beinglocatedgeographically Avignon. ingto Europe as Faith(fides). 2. f. 54r.Africaas the material church(ecclesia 12. f. 74v.Comparisonof Europe as theimageof materialis) compared to the higher value of Prudence (ymago prudentie),versus Africa as Europe as the sacramentallife of the church cursedBabylon(Babiloniamaledicta). with Christ 13. f.76v.Comparisonof Africa thetraitor as (ecclesia sacramentalis), an enthroned Juat theeast(ascensio das or carnalman(Judas id spiritualis). proditor estuniversitas and Europe as theChurchof 3. f. 58r.Explorationof the statesof the soul in carnalium hominis) relation thecardinal to thepeople or universal pointsand fourseasons. (ecclesiagenChristianity versusAfrica 4. f.6ir.Comparisonoftheconceptsofthenatu- tiumid estchristianitas universalis), ral versus the spiritualworld, symbolized by as thesynagogue (sinagogaiudaica)and Europeas the continents the phariseeand the theApostolicchurch as drawing (apostolicum templum). and Europa naturalis), 14. f.77r.Africa thedamnation theseductress naturalis as of publican(Affrica who tries seduceEurope to the versusAfrica spiritual world(Affrica seductris) spiritua- (dampnatio

Carruthers: BookofMemory, The 31 Mary Cambridge in to of 32 Fornumber patterns relation Joachim Fiore's
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the man,versusAfricaas a monk seducingthe church (seductorecclesiae) and Europe as the from seducer church liberated the liberata (ecclesia a seductore). on of 15. f.78r.Meditation thecarnality man,and of to as thecircumcision Christ, be understood the Afrirenewal man(regeneratio of versus hominis), of while ca as a nun,as thelamentation eachparish, uniussleeps (lamentatio Europe or Christianity requicumqueparrochieand sancta christianitas escit). of 16. f.79v. Meditation thefate Opicinus'ssoul, on of as with Africa Opicinusatthemouth Hell (Opiciand wounded nusosinferni), Europeasthe prostrate, of theLord (Ecceprostratio dominitemple templi the ... ubi suntplurimavulnera);by orienting ci to drawing theeastwe see Opicinus'shope to be in os reconciled Christ (Opicinus Domini). f. 82r.Comparisonof the angelsof lightand 17. versusEurope as theunskilled angelsofdarkness, to newrector novus)speaking Afri(advena rector ca as thealienated aliena). parish(parrochia of 18. f.84r.Pavia,thedeviland thepresence the7 in virtues theworld.33 discord. 19. f.84v.Pavia and thestateof clerical of Africaas a monk,as theservant the 20. f. 8Sr. Lord (Servusdominidei) and Europe as thefaithoverlaidwiththegrid fulservant (Servus fidelis), of thetownofPavia. 21. f. 85v.Signs of the zodiac, Aquarius,Gemini and Virgo, in relationto Africa,Europe and a Church. meditation thematerial on 22. f. 87r. The carnal church, sayingit is to be called the churchof Rome (Ecce affricaid est carnalis se ecclesia dicitvocariRomana ecclesia). as Africa laypride(superbia 23. f.87v. laicalis)and saceras thewholepriesthood (universitas Europe in of to to33Fora discussion these drawingsrelation the e Tozzi:Opicino Pavia, of see pographyPavia, Pierluigi
34Salomon1952 (note5),55. f. 6435, 70v. 35Salomon 1952(note5), basedon Vat.lat. 5~, the f. of lat. 36Vat. 6435, 22r: >>About apparition a comet.
Como 1990.

dotalis),containedwithina large figureof the Church with Christ embracing Mary, overlaid of withplacenames Italiantownsfrom Bolognato Milan. thantheones listedabove Many moreconcepts are foundin each drawing, it is evidentthat but he his themes dominate: focusses attention certain he on spiritual versus carnal understanding; is critical of the corruptionof the clergy and the of the Church;he exhorts inhabitants his native in Pavia to abandontheir ofdarkness prepaways rationfortheDay ofJudgement. There can be little doubt that,althoughhe as (he thoughtof himself philosophus mentions XXII oncecalledhimthis), levthe that Pope John el of meaninghe findsin some thingsseems at timessimplistic, evensomewhat sillyto themodhis For he mind.34 instance, subjected eatern-day that>at habitsto allegorical stating exegesis, ing I breakfast eat like a wolf,in the eveningmuch to whichhe related hisattitude studyand to less<<, thirst knowledgein his youth,whichhe did for he notsharewithothers now in later life, wished The to share his knowledge.35 Vaticanusmanuaboutthenatis musings script fulloftheological whena cometappeared uralworldaroundhim,as and in theskythroughout monthofJuly the 1337, he was reminded God's questionto Job (Job of 38:31):>>Canyou bindthechainsofthePleiades,or loose thecords of Orion?<<36Opicinus's propendein sityto searchformeaning eventhesmallest withcontempt modern tailshas been treated by scholars,an approachwhich does not take into the consideration manydifferent epistemological in or levelsexisting medievalsociety, in any one at individual, a particular pointin time.Opicinus was justifiably ofhisliterary proud outputandthe
of theorbitof Arcturus, as theLord foretold to just comete.A decimadie Juliifere Job/Deapparitione illius mensisvidi cometam pusillam usque ad finem rectam facientes viam... iuxtapolumseptentrionale... Ecce indicium sicutdominus giri dissipationis arcturi is ad praedixerat Job.<< The reference to Job 38:31. stellasPleiavalebismicantes coniungere >>Numquid I Arcturi das,autgyrum poeteris dissipare?<< am gratefor of fulto Michele point. Mulchahey clarification this

until the From tenth ofJuly almost endofthat the day a I comet month sawa small making straight path... the of decaying the toward north pole...Behold sign the
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a edubut drawings, he did notreceive university We are fortunate have such a detailed to cation.37 clerof of recording theinner experience a literate and papal scribeat Avignonfrom perthis gyman iod. The problemof undervaluing literalversus more >sophisticated? modes of knowingwill be to returned below. I In thenextsection thisstudy, shallfocuson of a previously unexamined of the drawings, aspect used by Opicinusto the method namely, working out themappaemundi foundin both diagrams lay we understand his so manuscripts, that maybetter line general ofapproachto theparticular problem beingexploredin theimages.It was not onlythe new shapeoftheMediterranean thetwo conand tinentswhich impressedhim, it was his newfoundability copy themap,and thereby to make use ofitssymbolic structure heldsignificance that in f. forhim.As he states theVaticanus, 77v:>God alone gaveme theunderstanding thatI became so able to copy a mapwithout me anybodyshowing how to do it. Adaptingnew formsof knowl<8 edge about mappingcoordinatesand grids for he a copying, discovered way to produceendless sameimage.Whatwerethemavariations the on jor stagesin his drawing process? The identical was used fortheimagesin system it bothmanuscripts; is worthwhile at lookingfirst severalof thedrawings from Palatinusmanuthe to that script demonstrate he had alreadydevised thesystem earlyas 1335. as Whenone examines the structure thatmake up the centreof underlying theoval on f. 6r,it is evident thathe has created a of threeinterlocked circles (fig. 3), alpattern the of though mapis alwaysconstructed two conof The joinedcircles equal diameter.39 bottomcircle contains shapesofEurope and Africa, the visible in faint outline below theradiating, directional lines known as rhumblines.40 The upper circle containstheimageof Mediterranean man,whose
mon1952 (note5),45-57.

head is justvisible, nextto thedrawings theeaof as in and Christ Supreme Priest f.6r.Although gle itis notpossibletopointto a specific modelthat he have seen in Genoa or Avignon,it seems might he a that hadstudied portolan basedon chart likely two rhumb on twin-circle systems charts.4' To setouttheconnecting circles f.6rheruled on down thecenter theoval,bothon thehorizonof tal and vertical. The innerspace of the largeoval was thusbisected twocircles equal diameter. of by He has traced outlines thetwo outercircles the of on thissheet,whereasin otherdrawings unthe hiddencompassmarks onlyvisiblein are derlying raking light. He also establisheda proportionally-related gridof linesin thisarea (visibleon f. 6r),to assist himwithlaying theappropriate in landmasses and so forth. use Thus,we see himmaking of another newfeature latemedieval of map-making, namely, the use of a grid,perhapsthe same square-grid method usedto modify scale cartographic on early hereto create endless his variations maps,adapted on themappaemundi.42 The important used to points of conjunction the generate shape and dispositionof the continentsand thesea areevident f. 5rofthePalation nus (fig. The diameter thetwo outercircles of is 2). not visibleto the naked eye in thisdrawing, and central circleis visible. onlytheoutlineof a third, The keyto hissystem reproducing map lay of the in the establishment the pointwherethe two of outer circlesmeet - in the arch of the foot or >boot? of Italy,as may be seen here,withlines out thisarea.(The drawing f.5r on radiating from has the thirdcirclesuperimposed over the two the outerones to represent calendarand signsof thezodiac). The compasswas moveda secondand,as inf.5r and f.6r,sometimes third timedepending what on he overthemap, concepts wantedto superimpose

and are Roe and 37Hiseducation literary output discussed Salo- 40 Gerald Crone: by Makers, Maps Their Folkestone 38Salomon (note 52. 1952 5), three interlocked inrelation circles to 39Forhisuseofthe and ideas, (note Joachimite seeReeves Hirsch-Reich i),
298.

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42 Woodward (note 322-23, 27),
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the line up or down the oval's cardinal following vertical points,thefourseasonsand statesof the the to establish centrepoints of the two humansoul (fig.4). Althoughnot visibleto the centre, To the outercircles. create Europe-Africa of pair,he nakedeye,each of thefourmaps is comprised point of the compass at a two conjoinedcircles.A line of fourcircleswas placed the stationary side of that would mark the breast of Europe, thusestablished down thepage on either point somewherenear the inwardly-curving coast of the centreline,and Opicinus probablyreversed of Provence,and swungthe freecompass arm to a theorientation thepage (at least)twiceto create of images.The midpointof the centre pointwhichwould be in the>>boot<< Italy.In all thesemirror he the of the map-diagrams establishes shape of line is visiblein the lefthand image,at the point the intersect. the at Africa beginning >nose<<ofthefigure the wheretwo linesconnecting figures by At times,when the second or subsequentmapof outercircumference thecircle, usually(dependa whichmay imagewas created illuminate particular to of point, ing on theproportions the figure, scalethanthepriwithin second itwas created a muchsmaller the on between drawings) varyslightly the if from inner circumfer- maryimage,as maybe seen in f.68v(fig.6). setofsquares, reading that is It is worthwhile enceoftheoval. Thus,could theshapesofAfrica, mentioning there no corthe the of for the>>head?of Spain/Europe, >>leg<< Italybe rectorientation reading page.It was meant to be turnedagain and again,so thatvariousasboxes in thegrid. drawnin their appropriate the would strike viewerin difthe To generate upperpartoftheMediterranean pectsofitscontent to at different of man (= theequivalent Greece,theHoly Land, ferent times, according his or ways was Whatwas important to find andtheBlackSea),usingthepointinthe>>boot of herdisposition.43 if the reading, one possessed spiritualized Italyto establish outeredge or circumference thecorrect, of of the second circle,the stationary point of the a true understanding God. Schmitthas descholasticdiaof di- scribedthe movement circular armwas placed again on the central compass to this point is always adjacentto the gramsbeforethe eyes as aidingtheindividual vidingline; as a visual itinerarium of or >>mouth<< the Devil-man,as may be ascend the spiritual >>chin<< path, that ad Thisdevilimagebecomesimmediately mentis Deum.44It is evident these seeninf.5r. drawings It moments crystallization, opening of whenthepage or oval is turned. is represent of recognizable and intellectual to boxes of the the doors of sensoryperception not difficult fillin the remaining in whichwerebrought and ?beard?,etc, ... of this reasoning, withthe >>hair<< together a state grid is the and in manydrawings, figure col- of mystical understanding, thereby enabling figure, of ouredto lendit greater Opicinus to reach a clearer understanding prominence. but Not onlyin thePalatinus, laterin theVati- God.45 in ima canusmanuscript,number mappaemundi of Opicinus usuallybegana drawing a stateof as to of in were generated relationto each otherto openness God, often a result itbeinga speages in he sometimes mirror cific text, holyday,orafter had reada particular concept, explaina particular in Salomonhas in as 4), example. (fig. or otherwise playing- as demonstrated ourfirst images, in f.58r as his on 6ir, characterized styleof dictionas ))oracular<<, cardfashion, maybe seenmostclearly ff. as On f. 6ir of the On f.58r, map appears thefollowing the 68v,7Ir, 71v(figs.5-8). passage suggests.46 thatanabetweenthe Vaticanus fourtimes,to explorerelationships (fig.5),at thetop ofa drawing
and in 45The interpenetration ofintellectual instance a turning of 43For a similar analysis a mysmappaemundi is of The Lost Wheel tical state of understanding characteristic his Siena townhall,see MarciaKupfer: in of in: for thought; a parallel thecase ofJoachim Fiore, Map of AmbrogioLorenzetti, The Art Bulletin see ReevesandHirsch-Reich LXXVIII, 1996,305-308. (note1),54. in: 46 Salomon1952(note5), Les imagesclassificatrices, 44JeanClaude Schmitt: 55. de CXLVII, 1989, Bibliotheque l'Ecole des Chartres 33932

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versus the lyzestheconceptoftheworldofnature he worldofspirit, writes: the [made]between >Act V and IIII kalendsofOctober[27- 28 September], on theXVI Sundaypast Pentecost whichtime at theBook ofMaccabeesis beginning be read,as to a testament thequarrels theclergy...<<47 to of Prein to abouttheinspirasumably response reading tionalleadership betweenrivalfactions Leonat andJerusalem, was prompted use the he to topolis to betweenAfrica map-diagram setup a contrast as a monkand Europe as a man,representing two ofthehypocritical, natural lowerforms or aspects of understanding about the world. The monk = Africabearsa smallwheel or rotaon his chestilthe lustrating mental processthatleads thesinner to err: the individualis led fromevil thoughts in/coi(thinking, imagining, deciding, delighting to consent to tatio, electio, delectatio) ymaginatio, sin (consensuspeccati). When the drawing is viewed with east at the top, we see Europe and Africaspiritualis dialogue, shown as a nun in to a woman (= the Church). Europe speaking bears a rota with Christ inscribedwithin,his wound placedat thesiteofAvignon. The wheelin the breastof Africa= thenun demonstrates how theinterior sensesmust gathered be inthe together spirit:we are led to knowledgeof God by the discernprocessesof meditating, contemplating, discrein/meditatio, ing,delighting contemplatio, to in resolution thecompretio,degustatio, their hensionof God, comprehensio Dei. On another of the diagramhe addressesthe issue of the part unityof the Church,a potentthemeat thistime in duringthe Babyloniancaptivity Avignon,reus of how multi-layered thesediagrams minding are intended be.48 to
f. inter octo47Vat.lat.6435, 61:>>Actum V etIIII kalendas bris tunc dominica XVI postpentecostam incipitur tunc libermachabeorum testimonium in litium clerilegere

Our secondexample howaparticular day of holy be is might used as a starting pointfora drawing a morestraightforward. a diagram f.7Ir little In on the between vita the (fig.7) exploring relationship activa and thevita contemplativa, thecontiwith nentsrepresented saintsMaryMagdaleneand by ThomasandJacob, writes: he ?Madeonthe Martha, XVII kalends November October]ontheday of [16 of SaintMichael-in Sea, Danger-of-the whichday is said to be thededication themajorchurch of of Saint Michael Major in Pavia. On the thirdday is following thesignoftheScorpio,or thedragon, whom Michael fought with his angels.49 against in severalplaces on the drawinghe And, indeed, refers theworkoftheangelsin combatting to evil. In one pairofcomparisons, instance, writes: for he I ?Behold the angels' assistance, say, in keeping watchovertheperfect.<so the Upon reversing orientation the page in the righthand of we corner, readitscomplement: of >Beholdtheministrations theangelson behalf thesick.<<~s another In of place on thedrawing makesreference themythical he to theTarasque,whichSt Marthatamed.52 monster, The universe therefore is filled withrelationships, the from revealed truth physicalgeography, of to thehidden, actionoftheangels. metaphysical Like manyother medieval scholastics, Opicinus was fascinated theinterpretative of by possibilities four-fold either texts images. the of or In exegesis, case ofimages, meant this the of examining import a particular on i) a literal historical or level, image or 2) in an allegorical mystical way,3) on thetroas an emotional moridentified or pological(often 53 al level),and 4) anagogical reading. The drawing on f. 73vof the SevenDays of Creationis a clear of levels of meaning, as exposition the four-fold

die sancti michaeli periculo in maris, die dicitur qua dedicatio sancti michaelis maioris Ab ecclesie papienis. hactertia est die signum sive adverscorpionis draconis corum... << susquem michael cum suis.<< pugnat angelis f. Vat.lat.6435, 71r: >>Ecce assistentia 48 See Guillaume Mollat,trans. Love, 9thed.: The 50o Janet angelorum specuLondon 1963;Yves Renlariter propter dico Popes at Avignon, 1305-1378, perfectos.<< trans. Denis Bethell: Avignon The f. >Ecce ministeria lat. ouard, Papacy1305- 5i Vat. 6435,71r: angelorum propter infirmos.<< 1403,London 1970;and theusefuloverviewof Bernhard
198-218. pacy, New York, 1988, XVII kalendas novembris 49 Vat.lat.6435,f. 71r: >>Actum

trans. Sievert, ed.:The Pa3rd Schimmelpfennig, James

52Salomon1962(note5),137-41.
1-16.

Divina Amsterdam 53Anna 1978, Esmeijer: Quaternitas,

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viewedby Opicinus(fig.9); theexegetical process in is not explored directly anyoftheotherdiaas in grams his oeuvre. in the As was customary thedrawings, imageof man may be seen blocked out on Mediterranean of the lower halfof thepage, and the continents and Africa thespacesthatreceive are colEurope is of our.The culmination meaning thedrawing or the large?pyramidshaped?<lozengebearinga seThis shapeoccursfreriesofsevenaligned circles. in his map-diagrams; used it to allude he quently of to theconceptof Noah's ark.On thedrawing churchand the sacramental the material church in he mentioned thelistaboveas no. 2 (f.54r), identifiesthe location of Noah's ark near Christ's throne and writes >>ourrefugeat the Second Flood?, mostlikelyan allusionto thehope of salvationat the end of theworld.54 the Creation In itis possibleto readaboutGod's creative drawing, acton eachofthesevendaysin therighthand columnoftext, whichendswith,>>BeholdthebeginBehold thetreeand lineningsof all philosophy. Behold Noah's ark whose side age of our faith. for door Christreserved life.All thesethings are to referred themystery our redempof mystically tion. Withoutwhich all these thingsare differin Everyorderof lifeis collectedtogether ent,.55 thisdrawing, he drawscomparisons and between paired conceptssuch as spiritversusanimal,rational versus irrational, thingswith or without sensation and (sensible/insensible), so forth. When the drawingis reversed, Africahas bein come a man,labelledInfidelity, dialoguewith Europe as Faith.In linewithhis clearsympathies fortheAvignonpapacy,Europe has a medallion this in that corre54He situates writing a location would with where Noah'sark Armenia, itwasbelieved spond cameto rest. connection with ideasof The here the and note HughofStVictor Noah'Ark (Smalley, 3,95-

whichis locatedinthegenon ofChrist herbreast, of withthefollowing eralvicinity Avignon, paired enumeratedaround it: Spirit-Word; concepts The must Christ-Man; Beginning-End. continents wherewe be related thelefthand to columnoftext, to see clearlyhis attempt lay out an exegetical for of scheme theauthors thefour Gospels.He has >HistoricalMatthew establishes faith the written: in Alliterally, thenameofMark,Luke andJohn. Mark, leads back all thatwhichis read legorical out to the mystical sense,lest we remainon the literal and he does thisin thename of Matlevel, Luke andJohn. thew, TropologicalLuke arranges morallessonsfromtheseletters the nourishfor in ment theinfirm, thenameofMatthew, of Mark andJohn. all converts to invisible John Anagogical in Markand Luke. matters, thenameofMatthew, Behold whateach one does fortheothers. the By of theWord...<<56 grace The keyto understanding imagelies in the the the he related natural spiritual and worldsin a way hierarchical Here he systemof understanding. uses the partsof the humanbody to classify the orlowervalueofeachoftheevangelists, a superior in commonstrategy manyof his drawings. Near the body of Africathe unfaithful, writesin he >>As thepectorals fashion: descendto the cryptic Luke loins, Matthewat the loins of the infidel, to thechest<<, thatMatjoined together indicating thew'swork is to be regarded beinglower in as than understanding inthegospelaccountby Luke of has (although courseeachgospelwriter hisown value within totalscheme).57 the John's Similarly, gospel has a highervalue than Mark's: >As the stomach ascendsto thechest, Markatthestomach

Sine hecomnia varia sunt.<< quo f. >>Matheus lat. historicus fundat ad fiem 56Vat. 6435,73v: litteram nomine LuceetJohannis. Marcus alleMarci,
36

omniarecitata reducit misticum ad sensum ne goricus in et Luce et quisceremus littera hoc nomineMathei, Lucastropologicus litteris mores de illis comJohannis. nomine Marciet infirmos, Mathei, ponitad nutriendos totum convertit inad 97) is obvious. Johannis. Johannes anagogicus totius f. >>Ecce rem,nomineMathei,Marci et Luce. Ecce 55Vat.lat.6435, 73v: principia philosophie. visibilem Eccearbor linea et fidei nostri. archa cuius Ecce noe verbi facit ceteris pro quod unuquisque gratia...<< ostium laterale christus reservavitvitam. omnia 57Vat.lat.6435, 73v:>>Ut ad Hec descendant lumad f. pectorales mistice referunturredemptionis misterium. bos, Matheusad lumbosinfidelium, ad nostre Lucas ad pectus
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io. Vat.lat.6435, 79r: RotaoftheGeocentric with f. Universe, theLiturgical Octave, in Events Christian and History, theNameofOpicinus

set It ofthefaithful, atthechest apart<<.58 may John seem simplistic Opicinus to use this type of of the to bodilymetaphor classify different graphic, but it was quite qualitiesof the gospel accounts, to commonin the laterMiddle Ages to attempt reconcile forms understanding of higher, spiritual was within notionsofthemicrocosm.59 result The a networkof analogies joining these formsof knowledge together. Ladner has observedthat modernwritersin medieval studies tendto pay moreattention the to of symbolism deand abstract, meaning mystical and valueconcrete literal which waysofthinking, in wereinfact esteemed medieval culture.6o greatly Throughout Opicinus's work,we can findmany form connection, ofthistypeofliteral of examples whichseemssimplistic the modernmind.Alto in he not though evident thisdrawing, playedendwiththesignificance etymologies, of another lessly in medieval commonepistemological culstrategy As thefollowing evena ture.6' exampleindicates, wordcouldsparkoff trajectory thought a of single forOpicinus thatis not always easy to comprehendtoday.As statedearlier, beOpicinus often workon hisdrawings holydays.In one of on gan thedrawings the exploring textof Consolation of by Philosophy Boethius(f. 71v), he writesin the >>Actbegunon theXVII kalendsof Nomargin: vember[I6 October], finished the day of St on Luke theevangelist October],who wrote[his] [18 of the Gospelinparts Achaia,andofBoethius, true philosopher<< (fig.8).62 Althoughthe connection remindto mayseemforced us,he was apparently ed on this feast that, as Boethius seized was day just andputon trial, too theapostlePaul was arrestso ed by thejews and tried sedition Achaia,the for in

southernhalf of Greece. All threemen - Paul, similar conditions Boethius,Opicinus - suffered and one one oftrial tribulation, in Greece, inPavia, He in thethird fourteenth-century Avignon. may of that October 18 also havebeenreminded thefact lines is thefeastday StBoethius.63In establishing of that otherwise seemrelatnot ofsignificance might the ed logically, Opicinuswas able to elevate most of and a mundane worldly details, ascribe highof value to the analogieswhich he er, spiritualized within universe.64 the perceived The multiplemeaningof theseimages,which in from the is turning drawing, evident mayresult the Creationsheet.It is no accidentthatdirectly man above thehead ofthedevilor Mediterranean in thedrawing, readthewords:>Jesus, of we son man,MaryMotherof God, thehusband Joseph<<, in relation >Men oftheSpirit<< >[The] door to and ofthearkofNoah<<, or that wheelon Europe's the breastremainds of Christ,the beginning us and theend. Text and imageworktogether perfect in As of fabricaharmony. a result themulti-layered we tion of thesedrawings, are privyto new and manifold moments revelation of eachtime look we at a drawing. We mayconcludeafter lookingat themappaethattheyare intended reconmundidrawings to cile a setof relationships Opicinuswishedto that as explore, usinga bodilylevelof understanding their thesenseof geography metaas foundation, to phor and reality revealan additionallayerof in truth abouttheuniverse, relation God's plan to ofsacredhistory, from to end.As we have creating is function largely withsymseen,their exegetical, bolismand allegory a majorrole in their playing conception.

f. >Ut Vat. 6435,73v: ascendantur to Opicinus. Bernardus See Silvestris: Cosmolat. 58Marcus ventrem ventrales ad adpectus, knowned. P. ad discreLeiden1978, fidelium, Dronke, 29-50. Johannespectus graphia, For of in tiui.<< thesignificance theheart medieval 6oGerhard Ladner: Medieval Modern and Understanding on see Le ofSymbolism: A Comparison, Speculum 1979, Head or in: LIV, thoughts thebody, Jacques Goff: Heart? Political of BodyMetaphors the The Use in 223-56. in: Middle for of and 1962 (note 1-36, 3), Ages, Zone.Fragments a History the 61Salomon (note 146;Smalley 5), Human ed. Feher al.,NewYork et Howard Bloch: and 1989, more Body, Michel recently, Etymologies GenA of 13-27. eologies. Literary Anthropology the French most thinkers contributed who to Middle Ages, Chicago 1983, 59Oneofthe 11-29,55-58. important of thenotion microcosm macrocosm thelater 62Vatlat.6435, 71v: and in f. XVII inceptum kalendas ,,Actum was Middle whose was indie novembris etconsumatum sancti evangeliste luce Silvestris, work Ages Bernard
38

At thebottomof f.79rin theVaticanus, anin other>>Actum<< on the8thNovember, completed as universe, Opicinusdrewa rotaofthegeocentric a meditation his name(fig.io). He says >>from on and mynameI makea circle crownofourLord.<<65 As he states theright theimage:4I relate the to of vowelsofmynameto theSun,Mars,Joveand Satand he drew urn,whicharethesuperior planets<<, linesbetweenthecircular of disposition hisname in relation these to The consonants were planets.66 withthelowerplanetsin thesystem: harmonized Venus and theEarth.ChristapMoon, Mercury, in between as terra theconnection octavesin pears the liturgical whichhe linksto the folcalender, of lowingphasesin thehistory God's salvific plan forthehumanrace:thediesdominica= Creation, feriaII = Flood,feriaIII = Circumcision, feriaIV = Reign, V = Transmigration, VI = Referia feria sabbatum= Repose and octava = Resdemption, he surrection. Later in the same entry, says >>He who stillhas desireoftheworldcannotsee butthe earth.But he who shall have been corruptible all freed cleansedfrom desirealready and possesses theincorruptible earth.<<67 a veryrealsense, In a thissimplemedallionrepresents sacredcosmoof graphforOpicinus,withits harmonies different categories: universewith its planets,the the the of ranking vowelsand consonants, correlation octaveswithcorresponding of liturgical phasesin the of theChristian story all these proclaim truth thedifferent levelsofthevisionofGod in one synas Whenthedrawing reversed, is statement. thetic in had happenedwiththemappaemundi diagrams we the this manuscript, are leftto contemplate in achaie boetie et scripsit partibus quae evangelium verus philosophus.<<

diminutive figureof a prayingpriestwho says is >>Speak,Lord, foryourservant listening<<, perat somelevelan imageof Opicinushimself.68 haps Much workremains be done on thetextand to createdby Opicinus de Canistrisduring images hisexilein Avignon. in Although thepastscholars have feltthatthisobsessive,endlessrepetition of themappaemundi evidence a deeppaof provides in a to thology hissoul,I havetried suggest different reading here. Camille has suggested that the Opicinushopedto prevent stripping awayofa and unifiedAugustinianworld order stratified the of and through creation thesedrawings thathe channeled knowledge thedivine his of his through As I haveindicated, processofrepeatthe body.69 its to ingtheimagepermitted author be continualin of lytransformed a number ways,bodily,menThus was he able to effect in tallyand intuitively. some smallmeasure experiential an re-creation of God's world, to establishmany new points of whichwere at once internal and comprehension, In transcendental. placeshis senseof therelationand theirultimatemeaningseems hidden, ships wrotemany obsessive, cryptic, yet,as he himself the timesthroughout Vaticanusin relation his to words and images: >>Who has ears to hear will This symbolicstructure particularly was hear.<<70 useful himas a focusformeditation cogitato and as a meansto analyzeand makemeaning action, to thedictates his conscience, open of to cording himself further his God, bothin themaking to of he theseimages,and whenever chose to contemthereafter. platehis drawings

sonantes autemlune mercurio veneriet incorruptibili cumterra...<< terre suntinferiores qui planete this 67Vat.lat.6435, 79r:>>... Qui habet hucconcupiscento for f. ad 63I1am grateful MicheleMulchahey bringing connection myattention. to nisi tiam mundi potest non videre corruptibilem terram. of the liber 64For the use of analogiesbetween two spheres ab Qui verofuerit omni concupiscentia etmundus and see Evans:Philosophy Theoloiampossidet terram...<o knowledge, Gillian incorruptibilem f. 89. 68Vat.lat.6435, 79r:>Loqueredomine gyintheMiddleAges,LondonandNew York1993, quia auditservus meocircuitum f. tuus.<< 65Vat.lat.6435, 79r:>... faciode nomine etcoronam dominonostro.<< 69Camille(note 5i),87,94. f. mei 66Vat.lat.6435, 79r:>>..... Vocalesnominis tradosoli 70As, forexample, f.53v relation thediagram on in to of Coniovi marti et saturno suntsuperiores theviapeccati: audiat.<< qui planete. >Qui habetauresaudiendi,

All of Rome. Photocredits: photographs Vaticana, Apostolica courtesy Biblioteca