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How does the human heart function?

Name:

A.F.L

Date: 22/1/2013-18/2 /2013

Introduction:
Heart is a is a vital organ and it belongs to the circulatory system or the cardiovascular system and most animals have this system, the function must stay healthy in order to ensure survival. The mammal heart and the human heart, they work the same way and it is in the same shape, the human heart is closet to the pigs heart. It has the weight of a average human male heart of 300 grams. The average beats per minute for both pigs and humans is 70 BPM.

" The way it works is also the same, de-oxygenated blood goes to the heart which is then sent to the lungs to collect oxygen and then it will comeback and will be pumped to the rest of the body. The left side of both of the hearts are more muscular than the right side, as it is needed to pump to the rest of the body rather than just to the lungs.

Research questions:
The purpose of this experiment is to nd out how the human heart functions and how it is similar to and different from other mammalian hearts.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

You will need to write some specic research questions here. You can write these ahead of time, or as you do your research. By the end, you should know: What a human heart looks like: What the different measurements are for the human heart It is about the size of your st. A females heart is 9 ounces and a Males heart is 10.5 ounces. How the human heart functions, and how this function is similar to and different from other mammalian hearts? Human heart is just like a pump of our body. It has four chambers - 2 atria which are the right atrium and the left atrium and 2 ventricles which are the right ventricle and left ventricle. First the right atrium receives the impure blood from our body, and transfers it to right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood to our lungs where this blood gets oxygenated. The left atrium then receives the oxygenated blood from the lungs and transfers it to left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygenated blood to our body by blood vessels. The Human heart and other mammalian hearts both have four chambers, they all have veins that lead de-oxygenated blood to the right ventricle that will travel to

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

the lungs and will be brought to the left ventricle which will go through the Aorta and will to the rest of the body. How human hearts are different from and similar to other mammalian hearts, especially pig hearts? They have the same number of veins and chambers, only that some are bigger than the others. The beats are either faster or slower: Average beats for various creatures per minute: Human - 70 Elephant - 25 Mouse - 600-700 Large dog - 80 Small dog - 120 Pig - 70 Notice how the Human and Pig has the same average beats per minute, this suggest that the Human and Pig are quite similar. The procedures for dissecting a mammalian heart, especially a pig heart, though other mammalian hearts are similar The names of the different parts of the mammalian heart, both inside and out Superior vena cava, Right pulmonary artery, right pulmonary veins, Right atrium, Right ventricle, Inferior vena cava, Left pulmonary artery, left pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle coronary artery.

Variables:
The independent variable is: (the one variable that you will change)

Type of heart

The dependent variable is: (The variable that you are investigating)

Function and measurement of the human heart.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Control Variables
The factors that you keep the same, so that the experiment is a fair test. Try and list at least 5.

Factors to be controlled: 1 Parts to be investigated/measured.

Reason it needs to be controlled:

How it will be controlled:

So we can see the difference Investigating the chambers and between a Human heart and a arteries. Pig heart in those areas.

2 Units to be used for measurements

So we will be able to tell the By using the same measurement differences and similarities. unit.

3 Method for dissecting So then we will know what to the pig heart. do.

By writing a list of things we will investigate.

4 Use the same equipment.

Because we dont need to By using the same equipment. many tools to dissect the heart

5 Use the same pig heart.

So we dont have to spend By using the same heart. And money to buy another one. recording every changes of data. And if we throw another one away, it wont be fair to others.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Human Heart Bigger than pig heart Found in the human body
Both heart works the same way Same amount of arteries and veins. Same valves. Same materiel

Pig Heart Smaller than a human heart Found in pigs

Hypothesis:
What will happen to the dependent variable as the independent variable is changed?
" How similar will the human heart you investigated be to the pig heart you are dissecting? I think that it is the same as a human heart. Because the heart of mammals shouldnt be too different. They should only have a few more arteries or a few less arteries or just a bit bigger or smaller. The mammals are the same species, so the heart

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

and other organs should be the same or similar, such as the Pig heart and the Human heart. We also have the same heart rate

What would that relationship look like? Try to sketch or illustrate this:

"

Mateals:
Scalpel, Dispin, Lab

risecting coats (if

available), Googles, gloves, tray, water. Plastic bags (put beneath the heart incase blood leaks onto the table.) Computer to record our process. Face mask. Ruler. Tweezers.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Diagram One: Set-up of your materials for dissecting a pigs heart:

Method:
Drawn by Holly.M. Farrall
First remove the fat. Look for the coronary artery and the coronary vein. Fall the texture of the ventricle walls.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Run water into the vena cava. Run water into the pulmonary veins. Run water into the pulmonary artery. The semi-lunar valves stop water coming out. Cut the ventricles from the bottom into halves. Cut away the ventral half. Cut away the front half of the auricles. Cut open the base of the pulmonary artery. Cut open the base of the aorta.

Results:
Include a table for your results. The table should include: a descriptive title heading with units

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

data is in the same units (units identied at the top of the table) units are not in the body of the table include processed data

Human Heart Weight (units) depth (CM) Size width (CM) height (CM) Aorta (Heigh t) Right Atrium (height ) Left ventricle (height ) females heart is 200 grams Males heart is 300 grams 20.32 cm 12 cm 9 cm

Pig Heart 371.90

6 cm 7-8 cm 14 cm

5.08cm

2 cm

Measurements: What other parts of the heart will you measure?

2.4cm

0.1cm

5cm

0.2cm

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Exterior Diagram

Hard to see, I know

Interior Diagram

Anything else you need to add that I havent included?


It was hard to cut and it was bigger than I expected.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Graph 1: Measurements of the different parts of pig and human hearts


Include a graph of your results. The graph should include: a descriptive title clear and evenly marked scale y-axis labeled, including units x-axis labeled, including units appropriate type of graph drawn. Points are connected as a smooth line. clear and evenly marked scale key included when appropriate

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Conclusion:
" " After going through the dissection, I found that the pig heart is very similar to the human heart, which is amazing, they have a similar shape, it close to the same weight and it has the same amount of veins and arteries. However similar they are, pig heart cannot be transplanted to a human body and vice-versa.

"

" As you can see above in the research questions, you can see that the human and pig has the same heart rate of 70 BPM. This indicates how similar a pig heart is to a humans. " During the lab, our group found it difcult to cut open the heart, so our measurements might not be very accurate. We were able to cut open the heart and nd the valves, but we were not able to see the inside completely. The picture below shows how much the heart is dissected:

"

"

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

"

" One bad thing is We were not able to pull open the heart completely, but it was good enough for us to nd the parts we were looking for, for example, the left atrium. The left ventricle was easily spotted but again, we were unable to cut it open entirely therefore we could not measure the left ventricle accurately. We measured the aorta and the left atrium. Again, we found the left atrium, but then again, we were unable to cut it open entirely to measure the left atrium accurately. The measurement we have got was the most closet measurement we could get.

Evaluation:
Table 2: Validity of the method (Was the investigation a Fair Test?) If you were not able to control any of the control variables you listed above, how did any change in that variable affect your data?
Control variable What affect did this Degree of impact Improvement (how to x that was not have when compar- (small, medium or the problem): controlled: ing the independlarge): ent and dependent variables? medium Remove the fat 1 Remove the fat We werent able to
2 Cut open the heart entirely 3 open up the heart entirely. We cant see the parts large we were looking for clearly Cut it in half

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Table 3: Reliability of the method: Were there enough trials? Did multiple trials give similar data? Are there anomalous points?
Reliability of data. The measuring instruments. a) Did the measuring instruments collect data that can be trusted? Yes/ No Yes and no, we were unable to entirely see the inside of the heart. Explanation (why / why not?)

b) Was the experiment repeated enough times? Yes/ No

No, we only had one trial.

c) Did the measuring instrument collect precise data? (i.e. Did the multiple trials give similar data?) Yes/ No

Yes, we measured the same spots multiple times, and given the fact that we were unable to entirely cut open the heart, we measured the same spot multiple times and if we get the same measurement enough times, we decide thats the correct answer.

Size of sample.

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

Reliability of data. d) was the range large enough?

Explanation (why / why not?) No, we didnt open the heart entirely, so we were unable to measure the parts effectively.

Yes/ No

There were no surprising results, except for the heart being bigger than we thought.

You are almost done! Now go back to the beginning and give your investigation a title using the dependent and independent variable.

Reference List:

A.C. M A.V. H H.M. F

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0BHYvGSp40 http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/human-biology/ heart1.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9758141

Andr Lo

Friday, 22 February 2013 12:17:28 PM Hong Kong SAR China Time