c
b
x  s e c t i o n
d h
A
s
s '
A
s '
f
c t
c t
f
s '
f
s
u n c r a c k e d t r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n
( n  1 ) A
s
'
( n  1 ) A
s
b
(a)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
3
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
s t r a i n s s t r e s s e s
f
c
c
b
x  s e c t i o n
d h
A
s
s '
A
s '
f
s '
f
s
c r a c k e d t r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n
( n  1 ) A
s
'
( n  1 ) A
s
b
(b)
s t r a i n s s t r e s s e s
c
b
x  s e c t i o n
d h
A
s
s '
A
s '
c r a c k e d t r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n
( n  1 ) A
s
'
( n  1 ) A
s
b
f
s
f
c
(c)
Fig. 3.2 Behavior of reinforced concrete beam under increasing load
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
4
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
F a i l u r e
C r a c k i n g
R e i n f o r c e m e n t y i e l d s
S e r v i c e l o a d
= / y
M
Fig. 3.3 Momentcurvature diagram for a beam under increasing load
Basic principles and assumptions in flexure theory of RC
Although the method used in the analysis of RC beams are different from those used in the
design of homogenous beam such as structural steel, the fundamental principles are essentially
the same. Accordingly, the basic equations for the flexural design of beams and slabs are
derived based on the following basic principles and assumptions at ultimate limit state. The
derived equations are then used to develop design Tables and Charts for various grades of
concrete and steel.
1. Internal stress resultants such as bending moments, shear forces etc. at any section of a
member are in equilibrium with the external action effects.
2. Plane sections before bending remains plane after bending
3. The strain in the reinforcement is equal to the strain in the concrete at the same level
4. The tensile strength of concrete is neglected
5. The stresses in concrete and reinforcement can be computed from the strains using their
 curves.
6. The behavior of the concrete under compression is as shown in Fig. 3.3. The equivalent
rectangular stress block as recommended by EBCS 2 is shown in Fig. (Concrete is assumed
to fail when the compressive strain reaches its ultimate value. The compressive
stressstrain curve for concrete may be assumed to be rectangular trapezoidal,
parabolic or any other shape, (which is easier for computation) provided that it
adequately predicts the test results).
7. The stress strain relation ship of the reinforcement is as shown in Fig.3.3
8. The strain diagrams at the ultimate limit state is as shown in Fig. 3.4
a) The maximum compressive strain in the concrete is taken to be
 0.0035 in bending
 0.002 in axial compression
b) The maximum tensile strain in the reinforcement is taken to be 0.01
For manual calculation, for the sake of simplicity, the simplified rectangular stress block can be
used whereas design Charts and Tables are based on the parabolarectangle stress distribution
diagram.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
5
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Strain Distribution at the Ultimate Limit State
The entire range of strain distribution at the ultimate limit state is assumed to pass through one
of the three points A, B or C as shown in Fig. 3.4 (reproduce from EBCS2). This resulted in five
possible zones with respect to the limiting values of the ultimate strains in concrete and steel as
shown in the same figure.
Each zone is characteristic of the particular type of loading on the section and may be
described as follows:
Zone 1  The section is subjected to a tensile load with a small eccentricity.
Zone 2  The section is subjected to an axial load combined with bending that will cause
the strain in the steel to reach the maximum
st
= 0.01 while the strain in the concrete
c
is less or equal to its maximum value of
cu
= 0.0035.
Zone 3  The section is subjected to axial load and large bending moments. The tensile
steel strain is in the range 0.01
st
sy
while the concrete strain reaches
cu
=
0.0035.
Zone 4  The section is subjected to axial load with moderate eccentricity. The tensile
steel strain is less than the yield value
sy
while the concrete strain reaches
cu
=
0.0035.
Zone 5  The section is subjected to predominantly compressive load with small
eccentricity.
Fig. 3.4 Parabolicrectangular stressstrain diagram for concrete in compression
Fig. 3.5 Rectangular stress diagram
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
6
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Fig. 3.6 Stressstrain diagram for reinforcing steel
Fig. 3.7 Strain diagram in the Ultimate Limit State
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
7
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
3.3 Tension, Compression and balanced Failure
Depending on the amount of reinforcing steel in a beam, flexural failures may occur in three
different ways.
Tension failure
If the steel content of the section is small, the steel will reach the yield strength f
yd
before the
concrete reaches its maximum capacity. Such a beam is said to be under reinforced. With
further loading, the steel force remains constant at A
s
f
yd
and the strains in the remaining
compression zone of the concrete increases to such a degree that crushing of concrete, the
secondary compression failure, follow at a load slightly larger than that which causes the steel
to yield (i.e. Although failure is initiated by yielding of tension steel, the steel does not fracture
at the flexural strength of the section unless the steel content is extremely small). Such yield
failure is gradual and is preceded by visible signs of distress, such as the widening and
lengthening of cracks and the marked increase in deflection. In the final loading stages, the
beam deflected extensively and developed wide cracks. This type of behavior is said to be
ductile since the moment curvature or loaddeflection diagram has a long plastic region. If a
beam in a building fails in a ductile manner, the occupants of the building have warning of the
impending failure and hence have an opportunity to leave the building before the final collapse,
thus reducing the consequence of collapse.
Compression failure
If the steel content of the section is large, the concrete may reach its maximum capacity
before the steel yields. Such a beam is said to be over reinforced. In such a case the neutral
axis depth increases considerably, causing an increase in the compressive force. The flexural
strength of the section is reached when the strain in the extreme compression fiber of the
concrete is approximately 0.0035. The section fails suddenly in a brittle fashion with out warning
of the failure as the widths of the flexural cracks in the tension zone of the concrete are small,
owing to the low steel stress.
Compression failure through crushing of the concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature, and
occurs without warning.
Balanced failure
At a particular steel content, the crushing of concrete and yielding of reinforcement occur
simultaneously. Such a beam has balanced reinforcement. This failure also exhibits a brittle
type of failure which marks the boundary between ductile tension failure and brittle
compression failure.
Thus it is good practice to dimension flexural members in such a manner that when overloaded,
failure would be initiated by yielding of the steel rather than by crushing of the concrete.
Negative Moment Redistribution in Continuous Beams
In ductile members, plastic hinge regions are formed at the locations of maximum moments and
cause a shift in the elastic moment diagram. The result is a reduction in the negative moment
and the corresponding increase in the positive moment. Codes, including EBCS 2, permit
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
8
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
redistribution of negative moment depending on the rotational capacity of the member.
Accordingly, as per EBCS 2:
 Moments obtained from a linear analysis may be reduced by multiplying by the following
reduction coefficient provided that the moments are increased in other sections in
order to maintain equilibrium
 For continuous beams and for beams in rigid jointed braced frames with span /effective
depth ratio not grater than 20;
d
x
25 . 1 44 . 0 +
The neutral axis depth, x, is calculated at the ultimate limit state and the term x/d refers
to the section where the moment is reduced.
 For other continuous beams and rigid jointed braced frames;
75 . 0
E l a s t i c M o m e n t d i a g r a m
R e d i s t r i b u t e d M o m e n t d i a g r a m
Fig. 3.8 Negative moment redistribution in continuous beam
3.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure
Parabolic rectangular stress block:
Although it is not easier for computation, the parabolic rectangular stress distribution at
the ultimate is more realistic and rational than the others for the concrete compression stress
distribution. Accordingly, the General Design Charts and Tables in EBCS2 have been
developed based on this stress distribution (see Fig.).
b
l o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w
d y
y
x  s e c t i o n s t r a i n s a c t u a l s t r e s s b l o c k
p a r a b o l i c  r e c t a n g u l a r
s t r e s s b l o c k
d h
A
s
s t e e l
c
( y )
x
c
y
C
c
T
s
c
d
f
c d
T
s
= A
s
f
s
y
f
c d
z
N . A
f
c
( y )
x
c c
bdy y f c
0
) (
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
9
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Fig. 3.9 Strain and stress distribution across beam depth/parabolicrectangular stress block
Force Equation:
C 0
c s H
T F
x
c s s
dA y f f A
0
) ( (3.1)
Where: T
s
= the resultant internal tensile force
A
s
= area of steel
f
s
= steel stress
C
c
= the resultant internal compressive force
Moment Equation:
M
rd
= C
c
Z = C
c
d(1
c
) or
M
rd
= T
s
Z = T
s
d(1
c
) (3.2)
Where: d, effective depth, is the distance of the centroid of steel area from the
extreme compression fiber..
c
is the distance of the total resultant compression force C
c
from the outer
compression fiber.
Z, the internal lever arm, is the distance between the resultant internal
forces.
(Analysis example)
General formula for C
c
and
c
for different cases:
Equations of equilibrium for crosssection strength analysis were generally solved using
numerical methods; however, for rectangular sections with reinforcement on two faces, the
following expressions were used for the determination of the resultant compressive force C
c
developed in the concrete and its relative location
c
from the outer most compressive concrete
fibers:
Definitions:
cm
 compressive strain in outer most concrete fiber
c
 nondimensionalized C
c
o
 strain at the point on the parabolicrectangular stressstrain diagram where the parabolic
section joins the linear section
sy
 strain in reinforcement at yield point
Case (i)
cm
o
and N.A with in the section (zone 2)
x
cm cm
c
k
12
) 6 (
bd f c
cd c c
Case (ii)
cm
>
o
and N.A with in the section (zone 2)
x
cm
cm
c
k
3
) 2 3 (
x
cm cm
cm cm
c
k
) 2 3 ( 2
2 ) 4 3 (
bd f c
cd c c
Zone 3 and zone 4 (
cu
= 3.5 %)
K1 = 0.8095
K2 = 0.4160
Case (iii)
cm
>
o
and N.A outside the section (zone 5)
) 16 64 125 (
189
1
2
cm cm c
+
)
16 64 125
) 2 (
(
7
40
5 . 0
2
2
cm cm
cm
c
bd f c
cd c c
In expressions (i), (ii) and (iii) strains are in o/oo, K
x
= x/d and
o
= 2 %o (0.002)
(The derivation of Cc and c (representative case), i.e.:
Case (i)
cm
o
and N.A with in the section (zone 2) )
Simplified Rectangular Stress Block
The actual distribution of the compressive force in a section has the form of a rising parabola as
shown in fig. The compressive stressstrain curve for concrete may be assumed to be
rectangular trapezoidal, parabolic or any other shape, which is easier for computation, provided
that it adequately predicts the test results. Therefore; as a simplification, EBCS 2 recommends
(ACI also) the use of the equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution for sections which
are partly in tension (beams or columns with large eccentricity), as shown below.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
11
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
b
l o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w
x  s e c t i o n s t r a i n s a c t u a l s t r e s s b l o c k
e q u i v a l e n t  r e c t a n g u l a r
s t r e s s b l o c k
d h
A
s
s t e e l
0 . 8 x
T
s
= A
s
f
s
f
c d
z = d  0 . 4 x
N . A
cd c
xbf c 8 . 0
x
c
f
s
f
c d
Fig. 3.10 Strain and stress distribution across beam depth/equivalent rectangular stress block
In order to define the effect of concrete compression stresses, it is not really necessary
to know the exact shape of the concrete stress distribution. What is necessary is to know
for a given distance of neutral axis:
(1) The total resultant compression force C in the concrete and
(2) Its vertical location i.e. its distance from the outer
compression fiber.
Therefore; EBCS 2 recommends (ACI also) the use of the equivalent rectangular concrete
stress distribution for sections which are partly in tension (beams or columns with large
eccentricity), as shown below.
The equivalent rectangular stress block will be used in all manual calculations.
Note: Two requirements are satisfied though out the analysis and design of reinforced
concrete beams and columns (stress and strain compatibility and equilibrium)
 Stress and strain compatibility: The stress at any point in a member must
correspond to the strain at that point. Except for short deep beams, the
distribution of strain over the depth of the member must be linear to satisfy the
earlier assumptions 1 and 2.
 Equilibrium: The internal forces must balance the external load effects.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
12
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
T e n s i o n f a i l u r e
f
s
= f
y d
<
b
B a l a n c e d f a i l u r e
f
s
= f
y d
b
C o m p r e s s i o n f a i l u r e
f
s
< f
y d
>
b
c u
= 0 . 0 0 3 5
d
x
c
x
b
x
t
E x t r e m e
c o m p r e s s i o n
f i b e r
C e n t r o i d o f
t e n s i o n s t e e l
s
yd
yd s
E
f
<
s
yd
yd s
E
f
s
yd
yd s
E
f
>
Fig. 3.11 Strain profiles at the flexural strength of a section
Balanced Failure (balanced Reinforcement): =
b
, X = X
b
and
s
=
yd
= f
yd
/E
s
From the strain line at balanced failure:
(3.3a) d x
yd cu
cu
b
Force equation:
(3.3b) 8 . 0 A 0
s cd b yd H
bf x f F
Substituting for x
b
from eqn (3.3a) in to eqn(3.3b) and simplifying:
cd
yd cu
cu
yd s
dbf f A
+
8 . 0
yd
cd
yd cu
cu s
f
f
bd
A
+
8 . 0
yd
cd
yd cu
cu
b
f
f
+
8 . 0
(3.3c)
Moment equation:
The moment equation about Cc results in:
) 4 . 0 (
b yd b rd
x d df M
(3.4)
Tension Failure (underreinforced Section) : <
b
, X < X
b
and
s
>
yd
= f
yd
/E
s
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
13
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Force equation:
8 . 0 A 0
s cd yd H
xbf f F
(3.5a)
cd yd
xbf bdf 8 . 0
cd
yd
f
f
d
x
8 . 0
cd
yd
f
f
d x
8 . 0
(3.5b)
Moment equation:
The moment equation about Cc results in:
) 4 . 0 ( x d f A M
yd s rd
(3.6a)
Substituting the value of x from eqn (3.5b) and simplifying:
) 4 . 0 1 ( 8 . 0
2
m m f bd M
yd rd
(3.6c)
Where
cd
yd
f
f
m
8 . 0
0035 . 0
s
x
x d
Therefore; 0.0035
s s s s
E
x
x d
E f
Force equation:
8 . 0 A 0
s cd s H
xbf f F (3.7a)
0.8xbf ) E 0035 . 0 (
cd s
x
x d
bd
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
14
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
0 8 . 0
0035 . 0
2 2
+
,
_
d dx x
E
f
s
cd
(3.7b)
Therefore the above equation may be solved to obtain X.
Moment equation:
The moment equation about T
s
results in:
) 4 . 0 ( 8 . 0 x d xbf M
cd rd
(3.8)
(Analysis example)
3.5 Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure
Generally, ductility is a design requirement in reinforced concrete structures to ensure that a
brittle failure will not occur. In EBCS2, ductility is ensured by limiting the depth of the neutral
axis k
x
(used to determine the maximum carrying capacity of a singly reinforced beam) to
specified values depending on the percent plastic moment redistribution as:
K
x
0.8 (  0.44)
Where: = reduction coefficient which multiplies the elastic moment (see section 3.4)
Accordingly,
K
x
= 0.448 for condition of no redistribution and
K
x
= 0.208 for a recommended max. of 30 %
Other codes of practice such as the ACI ensure ductility by limiting the reinforcement ratio,
to a value below some specified value which is a function of the balanced reinforcement ratio,
bal
.
0.75
bal
Parabolicrectangular Stress block
Reconsider the two equilibrium equations for a rectangular section using the expressions
developed for a parabolicrectangular stress block as follow:
bd f f A
cd c yd s
(3.9a)
M k
sd z
2
bd f
cd c
(3.9b)
The number of unknowns in equations (3.9a) and (3.9b) are seven which are greater than the
number of available equilibrium equations (i.e. two), there fore the designer should make decision
on:
1) material strengths i.e. f
cd
, f
yd
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
15
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
2) dimensions of cross sections b and d. The minimum thickness for deflection specified in
the code can be used as a guide and the ratio b/d varies between 0.3 and 0.6 in usual
practice.
So that
c
, A
s
and k
z
are left as unknowns where
c
, and k
z
could both be expressed in terms of
k
x
or x. Thus the two equations are sufficient to uniquely determine the remaining two unknowns
A
s
and K
x
.
Equivalentrectangular stress block
Reconsider the two equilibrium equations for a rectangular section using the expressions
developed for equivalentrectangular stress block as follow:
8 . 0
cd yd s
xbf f A
(3.10a)
M ) 4 . 0 ( 8 . 0
sd
x d xbf
cd
(3.10b)
The number of unknowns in equations (3.10a) and (3.10b) are six which are greater than
the number of available equilibrium equations (i.e. two), therefore the designer should
make decision on:
3) material strengths i.e. fcd, fyd
4) Dimensions of cross sections b and d. The minimum thickness for deflection
specified in the code can be used as a guide and the ratio b/d varies between 0.3 and
0.6 in usual practice.
So that c, As and kz are left as unknowns where c, and kz could both be expressed in
terms of kx or x. Thus the two equations are sufficient to uniquely determine the remaining
two unknowns As and Kx.
Equation 3.6c can be rewritten and simplified to give the reinforcement ratio as:
4
2
1
2
2
2
1 1 1
]
1
t
c bd
M
c c (3.10c)
Where:
m
c
5 . 2
1
,
cd
f m c
2
2
32 . 0 ,
cd
yd
f
f
m
8 . 0
c
= compressive strain in outer most concrete fiber
s1
= strain intension reinforcement
s2
= Strain in compression reinforcement
The upper limits of the design values of the ultimate relative moment capacities( with out
compression reinforcement) about tension steel, for 0%, 10 %, 20%, and 30% moment
redistribution are shown by the broken vertical lines
*
u,s
= 0.295, 0.252, 0.205, and 0.14
respectively. Compliance with these upper limits implies compliance with the upper limit
specification for the relative neutral axis depth, K
x
, thus ensuring ductile response of the cross
section. For the cases that
sd,s
>
*
u,s
, ductile behavior can be achieved by providing compression
reinforcement.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
18
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
The area of reinforcement required is determined from the following equations:
If
sd,s
*
u,s
, compression reinforcement is not required and
yd
sd
yd
s sd
s
f
N
zf
M
A +
,
1
If
sd,s
>
*
u,s , compression reinforcement is required and
2 2
*
,
2
) (
,
s
s sd
s
d d
s u M M
A
yd
sd
yd
s u
s sd
yd
s u
s
f
N
f d d
M M
zf
M
A +
+
) (
2
,
*
,
,
*
1
Starting from a strain profile in ULS:
c
, k
x
, k
z
,
Rd
etc. are determined.
In design the chart is entered by equating
sd
=
Rd
, then k
z
is read and A
s1
is
determined from:
A
s1
= M
sd
/ (k
z
d f
yd
)
Another advantage is the possibility of handling axial forces in addition to bending.
The horizontal relative moment axis is designated as
Rd,s
for this reason should an
axial force be present, then it is shifted to the location of tension reinforcement
and the associated moment is added to M
sd
to give M
sd,s
.
M
sd,s
= M
sd
N
sd
y
e
(N
sd
is +ve when tension) &
Design Using Tables (K
d
 Method)
Procedure of computing design parameters using table involves the following and the table has
the following format.
Km Ks
C15 C20 C25 C30 C40 S300 S400 S460
15 17 19 21 24 3.95 2.96 2.58
























 Evaluate
2
bd
M
k
m
Where: M in KN.m, b & d in m
 Enter the table for appropriate concrete grade used
 Obtain K
s
corresponding to steel grade & K
m
 Evaluate the area of steel required as :
d
M
K A
d
s s
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
19
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Discussion
Consider M
d
= 0.8bd
2
f
cd
pm (10.4pm)
Recall
cd
yd
x
0.8f
f
m , k where 8 . 0
d
x
8 . 0
d
x
m
k
f
f
f
f
d
x
x
yd
cd
cd
yd
When
m
k
x
is substituted in equation (3*) and simplified
) 4 . 0 1 ( 8 . 0
2
x x cd
d
k k f
bd
M
Note that (1*)
2
bd
M
k
d
m
) 4 . 0 1 ( 8 . 0
x x cd
k k f which is essentially a function of
concrete grade & section property
On the other hand,
d
M
k
k f d
M
x d f
M
A
d
s
x yd
d
yd
d
s
) 4 . 0 1 (
1
) 4 . 0 (
) 4 . 0 1 (
1
x yd
s
k f
k
Which implies that k
s
is a function of steel grade and section
property.
Thus the following example can be solved using the table as follows
b/h/d = 250/730/675mm
M
d
= 431.45KN.m
2
bd
M
k
m
2
675 . 0 * 25 . 0
45 . 431
= 61.55,
m
d
k
k
1
= 0.0162
The value of k
s
corresponding to C25, steel S300 is K
s
= 4.68
Then
d
M
K A
d
s s
2
2996
675 . 0
432
68 . 4 mm
# 20 bars = 9.5
Use 10 20 bars
(Design examples using parabolic & rectangular)
3.6 Analysis and Design of One way Slabs for Flexure
One way slabs are concrete structural floor panels for which the ratio of the long span to the
short span equals or exceeds a value of two. When this ratio is less than 2, the floor panel
becomes a two way slab or plate, which will be covered in chapter six. A one way slab is designed
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
20
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
as a singly reinforced 1 meter wide beam strip using the same design and analysis procedures
discussed earlier for singly reinforced beams. Fig. shows a one way slab floor system.
Loading for slabs is normally in KN per square meter (KN/m
2
). One has to distribute the
reinforcement over the 1 meter strip and specify the center to center spacing of the reinforcing
bars.
Transverse reinforcement has to be provided perpendicular to the direction of bending in order
to resist shrinkage and temperature stresses.
1 m st r i p
Fig.3.13 Isometric view of fourspan continuous onewayslab floor system
Flexural Reinforcement for Slabs as per EBCS 2:
 The geometrical main reinforcement ratio in a slab shall not be less than:
yk
f
5 . 0
min
where f
yk
is in MPA
 The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least
equal to 0.2.
 The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350mm.
where h is the thickness of the slab.
 The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400mm.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
21
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
= 4 0 0 m m
2 h 3 5 0 m m
h
Fig. 3.14 Bar spacing in slabs
(Analysis and design example)
3.7 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams
Doubly reinforced sections contain reinforcement both at the tension and at the compression
face. Compression steel may be required in design for the following reasons.
a. When either architectural limitation restrict the beam web depth at
the mid span, or the mid span section dimensions are not adequate to carry the support
negative moment even when the tensile steel at the support is sufficiently increased.
In such cases about onethird to onehalf of the bottom bars at mid span are extended
and well anchored at the supports to act as compression reinforcement.
b. To increase the ductility of the section at flexural strength. It is
evident that if compression steel is in the section, the neutral axis depth will be
smaller as the internal compressive force is shared by the concrete and the
compression steel.
c. To reduce deflection of beams at service loads
d. To support the shear reinforcement (stirrups)
b
l o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w
x  s e c t i o n
s t r a i n s a c t u a l s t r e s s b l o c k
e q u i v a l e n t  r e c t a n g u l a r s t r e s s b l o c k
& r e s u l t a n t i n t e r n a l F o r c e s
d '
h
A
s
s t e e l
0 . 8 x
T
s
= A
s
f
s
f
c d
z = d  0 . 4 x
N . A
cd c
xbf c 8 . 0
x
A '
s
d
s t e e l
c
'
s
f
s
f
c d
f '
s
' '
s s s
f A c
Fig. 3.15 Doubly reinforced beam design
In the analysis or design of beams with compression reinforcement A
s
, the section is
theoretically split in to two parts, as shown in Fig.
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
22
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
b
l o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w
x  s e c t i o n
s t r a i n s
d '
h
A
s
s t e e l
A '
s
d
s t e e l
c
'
s
P a r t I o f t h e s o l u t i o n
S i n g l y r e i n f o r c e d P a r t
+
P a r t I I o f t h e S o l u t i o n
c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c o m p r e s s i o n
r e i n f o r c e m e n t
0 . 8 x
T
s 1
= A
s 1
f
s
f
c d
z = d  0 . 4 x
cd c
xbf c 8 . 0
x
N . A
' '
s s s
f A c
T
s 2
= A
s 2
f
s
Fig. 3.16 doubly reinforced beam design (singly reinforced part plus contribution of compression reinforcement)
The two parts of the solution comprise:
(1) The singly reinforced part involving the equivalent rectangular stress block with the area of
tension reinforcement being (A
s
A
s
); and
(2) The two areas of equivalent steel A
s
at both the tension and compression side to form the
coupleT
s2
and C
s
as the second part of the solution. It can be seen from Fig. that the total
resistance moment M
rd
= M
d1
+ M
d2
, that is, the summation of the moments for Parts 1 and 2 of
the solution.
The analysis of such section is best carried out by assuming the compression reinforcement bars
to be yielded and check for compatibility of strain to verify whether the compression steel
yielded or not and use the corresponding stress in the steel for calculating the forces and
moments.
Let M
d
be the total design bending moment which this section sustains. Then
M
d
= M
d1
+ M
d2
As =A
s1
+ A
s2
Where M
d1
= is the bending moment carried by the concrete and the corresponding steel
which may be obtained using case of singly reinforced section.
M
d1
= 0.8bd
2
f
cd
p
1
m(10.4p
1
m) and A
s1
= p
1
bd
If the process involved is design: p
1
= p
max
= 0.75p
b
If the process involved is analysis p
1
= (A
s
A
s
) /bd < p
max
It can be seen from Fig. that the total resisting moment M
rd,t
= M
rd1
+ M
rd2
, that is, the
summation of the moments for parts 1 and 2 of the solution.
From part I:
Force equation
T
1
= C
1
A
s1
f
yd
= (A
s
A
s
)f
yd
= 0.8xf
cd
b
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
23
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
b f
f A A
x
cd
yd s s
8 . 0
) (
'
Moment equation
Taking the moment about the centroid of the compression zone:
M
d1
= A
s1
f
yd
(d  0.4x) = (A
s
 A
s
)f
yd
(d  0.4x)
Where
b f
f A A
x
cd
yd s s
8 . 0
) (
'
c
s t r e s s e s
r e s u l t a n t i n t e r n a l
f o r c e s
0 . 8 x
x
f
c d
f
s
C
c
= 0 . 8 x f
c d
b
e f f
T
s
=A
s
f
y d
x  s e c t i o n
N . A
z = ( d  0 . 4 x )
Fig.3.20 T beam section with neutral axis within the flange
Force equilibrium gives:
A
s1
f
yd
= 0.8xf
cd
b
f
f cd
yd s
b f
f A
x
8 . 0
1
Moment equilibrium gives:
M
rd
= A
s1
f
yd
(d  0.4x)
Where
f cd
yd s
b f
f A
x
8 . 0
1
c
z = ( d  0 . 5 h
f
)
0 . 8 x x
P a r t I I o f t h e s o l u t i o n
w e b p o r t i o n
N . A
C
c 2
= 0 . 8 x f
c d
b
w
T
s 2
= ( A
s 1
 A
s f
) f
y d
f
c d
z = ( d  0 . 4 x )
Fig.3.21 T beam section with neutral axis in the web
As a computational device, it is convenient to divide the total tensile steel into two parts.
The first part, A
sf
, represents the steel area which, when stressed to f
yd
is required to balance
the compressive force in the overhanging portion of the flange. Thus,
A
sf
*
f
yd
= f
cd
(b
f
 b
w
)h
f
A
sf
= f
cd
*h
f
(b
f
b
w
)/f
yd
The partial resisting moment capacity as a result of these forces:
M
ult1
= A
sf
* f
yd
(d  h
f
/2)
The remaining steel area (A
s
A
sf
), at a stress f
yd
is balanced by the compression in the
rectangular portion of the beam.
From force equilibrium:
(A
s
 A
sf
)f
yd
= f
cd
( b
w
*0.8x)
From Moment equilibrium:
M
ult2
= (A
s
 A
sf
)f
yd
(d  04x)
The total resisting moment, taking moments of the rectangles about the tension steel, gives:
M
rd
= 0.8xf
cd
b
w
(d0.4x) + f
cd
(b
f
b
w
)h
f
(d0.5hf)
General design chart is not applicable.
The resultant compressive force acts at the centroid of the Tshaped compressed area.
From force equilibrium
f
cd
(0.8xb
w
+ h
f
(b
f
b
w
)) = A
s
f
yd
w cd
w f f cd yd s
b f
b b h f f A
x
) (
The total moment
M
rd
= 0.8xf
cd
b
w
(d0.4x) + f
cd
(b
f
b
w
)h
f
(d0.5hf)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
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Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Note:
 When the Tsection is subjected to bending moment and tension is produced in the
flange portion, the can be considered as a rectangular with b = b
w
for design purpose.
 For Tbeam sections, when the flexural strength is reached, the depth to the neutral
axis is generally small because of the large flange area. Therefore; a tension failure
generally occurs and it is usually safe to assume in analysis that f
s
= f
yd
; and ck when the
flexural strength is reached check the validity of the assumption when the neutral axis
depth is found.
Note: the problem at hand is one of the following
(i) Analysis:
As is given
Determine A
sf
Determine A
s
A
sf
Determine N.A depth from force equilibrium.
(ii) Design:
If the N.A. is with in the flange
rectangular section(use the general design chart)
If the N.A. lies in the web:
Determine A
sf
and
Mult1
Determine M
ult2
= M
sd
 M
ult1
Determine the required amount of reinforcement from the two
equations. (unknowns are A
s
and x.)
Note: For ve bending moment T beams are not analyzed. It is rather analyzed (designed)
as rectangular beams.
(Analysis and Design Examples)
3.9 Ribbed Slabs
Ribbed slabs comprise closely spaced concrete joists which are monolithically built with thin
concrete slabs (See Fig). These are economical for buildings where there are long spans and light
and moderate live loads such as in hospitals or apartment buildings.
An advantage of such constriction systems is either effectiveness in spanning longer openings
and in reducing the dead loads by essentially eliminating concrete in tension in the space between
the ribs below the neutral axis. Near the supports the full depth is retained (the slab is made
soild) to achieve greater shear strength.
They can be formed in one of the following ways: (The topping is considered to contribute to
structural strength)
a) As a series of in situ concrete ribs cast between hollow or solid block formers which
remain part of the completed slab (See Fig.). Floors having hollow blocks are generally
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
30
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
constructed with blocks made of clay type or with concrete containing a light weight
aggregate.
Fig. 3.22 Cross section of a ribbed slab cast with integral hollow block
b) As a series of in situ concrete ribs cast monolithically with the concrete topping on
removable forms (see Fig).
Fig. 3.23 Cross section of a ribbed slab cast on removable formers
c) As an apparently solid slab but containing permanent forms to create voids within the
cross section (See Fig.)
Fig. 3.24 Cross section of a ribbed slab cast with permanent void formers
The design of ribs can follow the design principles of Tbeams except that the closeness of the
joist ribs in a floor system resulting into a good redistribution of local over loads to adjacent
members
Design of ribbed Slab, as per EBCS 2 (general requirement)
Sizes:
1) Ribs shall not be less than 70mm in width; and shall have a depth, excluding any toping, of
not more than 4 times the minimum width of the rib. The rib spacing shall not exceed
1.0m (must not exceed 1.5m).
2) thickness of topping shall not be less than 40mm, nor less than 1/10 the clear distance
between ribs
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
31
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Minimum Reinforcement
1) The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each direction a
cross sectional area not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.
2) If the rib spacing exceeds 1.0m, the toping shall be designed as a slab resting on ribs,
considering load concentrations, if any.
Transverse ribs
1) transverse ribs shall be provided if the span of the ribbed slab exceeds 6.0m
2) when transverse ribs are provided, the centre to center distance shall not exceed 20
times the overall depth of the ribbed slab
3) The transverse ribs shall be designed for at least half the values of maximum moments
and shear force in the longitudinal ribs.
Fig. 3.25 General requirement for ribbed slabs, EC2
The ribbed slabs are formed using temporary or permanent shuttering. the forms which
remain part of the completed structure may contribute to the structural strength of the
slab. If not they can be regarded as non removable formers. It should be remembered
that we are talking about in situ concrete slabs, not slabs consisting of precast concrete
ribs with in fill blocks between them, on top of which is cast a concrete topping. Where
the block do contribute to the structural strength they will be referred as structuraltype
blocks which comply with requirements of EBCS. Although these blocks may contribute to
flexural strength, their main contribution is regarding shear and deflection.
(Analysis and design example)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
32
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
33
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
34
Chapter Three: Ultimate Limit State (Flexure)
Reinforced Concrete I Yibeltal Temesgen
35