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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia

TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2 1.1 History of Burger King ....................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Structure of BK restaurants in Caspian group ...........Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.3 Reasons for expatriation ................................................................................................... 3 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................... 4 2.1 Cultural dimensions ............................................................................................................ 4 2.1.1 Hofstedes cultural dimensions .................................................................................. 4 2.1.2 Trompenaars and Turners culture dimensions .................................................. 6 2.1.3 Edward Halls classification ......................................................................................... 6 2.2. Organizational culture ...................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Communication .................................................................................................................... 7 3. FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................ 10 3.1 Saudi Arabia overview .................................................................................................... 10 3.2 Organizational culture at Burger King...................................................................... 11 3.3 Communication at Burger King ................................................................................... 12 4. ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ 13 5. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................. 15 6. RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................. 15 7. APPENDICES .................................................................................................................. 16 7.1 The expatriate mangers CV .......................................................................................... 17 7.2. For the HR department .................................................................................................. 18 7.2.1 Pre-departure program template ...................................................................... 18 7.2.2 Welcome reception template ............................................................................... 19 7.2.3 Repatriation process template ............................................................................ 20 7.3 Business etiquette in Saudi Arabia ............................................................................. 21 7.4. Guide to Saudi Arabia for the expatriate manger ................................................ 22

TABLE OF FIGURES: Figure 1: Burger King ownership timeline ............................................................................ 2 Figure 2: Burger King world map .............................................................................................. 3 Figure 3: Hofstede's cultural dimensions: UK & Saudi Arabia ....................................... 5 Figure 4: Communication process model ............................................................................... 9 Figure 3: Map of Saudi Arabia .................................................................................................. 11 Figure 9: Culture web .................................................................................................................. 12 Figure 7: Burger King communication process ...... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 8: Shannon-Weaver mathematical model (1949) ......Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 9: Burger King's 5 steps to service ................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

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1. Introduction
1.1 History of Burger King
Burger King has started as just one burger shop back in 1954 in Miami, USA. Soon after, in 1959 the company started franchising and has since grown to a chain of over 12,000 restaurants in 72 countries worldwide (Burger King, 2011). Over the years the ownership of the Burger King Company (BKC) changed as illustrated bellow: 1967
The Pillsbury Company bought Burger King

1989
Grand Metropolitan Plc bought the Pillsbury Company

1997
Grand Metropolitan Plc merged with Guinness to form Diageo Plc

2002

Diageo Plc sold BKC to Texas Pacific Group, Bain capital partners and Goldman Sachs capital partners.

Today 2010
3G acquired Burger King

Figure 1: Burger King ownership timeline

Burger King is the second largest burger chain in the world, serving around 11 million customers per day worldwide. Today, around 90% of the restaurants are operated as independent franchises (Burger King, 2011). Bellow is the map where all the countries that have Burger King restaurants are represented in red, the ones with restaurants only in army bases are represented in orange and yellow represents the territory (Australia) where Burger King operates under name Hungry Jacks.

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Figure 2: Burger King world map

In the UK, the first Burger King opened in 1976 in London and today there are around 650 Burger King restaurants in the UK. This report focuses on the Caspian Group that owns 65 BK restaurants in the UK and has more then 2,700 employees (Caspian Group, 2007). Bellow, hierarchy of staff at the Caspian group is illustrated:

Regional Manager Area Manager Restaurant Manager Senior Assistant Manager Assistant Manager Shift Manager Supervisor Service Expert Staff
Figure 3: Caspian group hierarchy

1.2 Reasons for expatriation


This report strongly advises that the relocation of one of the local managers from the UK for the period of minimum of 12 months would be beneficial to the franchise in Saudi Arabia.

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Main reasons are the need for corporate culture transfer as well as organization development needs. This suggestion is supported by the PriceWaterhouseCoopers report from 2002 (in Dowling, Festing and Engle, 2008:89) that found that staff mobility assisted greatly in supporting global corporate culture and assisted in cross-fertilization of ideas and practices. Following criteria were used when selecting the candidate: Attitude Team player/team spirit Positive & approachable Committed to BKC Patient Ethical and fair Knowledge Basic knowledge of operations in BKC How to motivate staff Arabic at intermediate level Fluent in English Skills Interpersonal skills Knowledge of the BKC operational computer program Negotiation skills

Table 1: AKS for expatriate restaurant manager

The recruitment process was internal, after which, the selection process was comprised of personality and psychological tests, as well as scenario role-play and a number of interviews as well as a 2-day assessment centre evaluation. As the result, Ms. Segovia Roman was selected (please, see Appendix X, for her full CV).

2. Literature review
2.1 Cultural dimensions 2.1.1 Hofstedes cultural dimensions

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90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PDI UAI IDV MAS
Figure 4: Hofstede's cultural dimensions: UK & Saudi Arabia

UK Saudi Arabia

As we can see from the chart above, the UK and Saudi Arabia cultures are most similar in the masculinity dimension. Masculinity dimension (MAS) shows the degree to which the culture emphasizes masculine values (competitiveness or performance) or feminine values like relationships or quality of life (GeehrtHofstede, 2009). However, in all other dimensions there are significant differences: Power Distance (PDI): Saudi Arabia has a significantly higher power distance level that the UK. Power distance shows the level of inequality that is both expected and accepted in a culture (French, 2010). This is explained by the fact that Arab cultures are more likely to follow a caste system that doesnt allow significant upward mobility of members. In addition, the Arab world is highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, and regulations all in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have grown within the society (GeehrtHofstede.com, 2009). Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI): Shows the extent to which members welcome uncertainty and change (French, 2010). As afore mentioned, regulations, laws, policies are very important in Saudi Arabia and have the task of elimination and avoidance of unexpected, since this culture is risk adverse and has a low level of tolerance for uncertainty (GeehrtHofstede, 2009). The UK, on the other hand, has a moderate uncertainty avoidance levels.

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Individualism (IDV): Indicates to which extent the members of a culture act as individuals and prioritise their (and their familys) interests (French, 2010). The UK scores very high in this dimension, while Saudi Arabia is clearly a collectivist society with the lowest number in this dimension out of all Arab world. This manifests in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group' (family, extended family or extended relationships). Loyalty in a collectivist culture is principal and over-rides most other societal rules (GeehrtHofstede, 2009).

2.1.2 Trompenaars and Turners culture dimensions


Trompenaars & Hampden Turner (1997) identified 7 cultural dimensions of culture, which are believed to be the basis of cultural differences (Tayeb, 2000). a) Universalism vs. Particularism: Universalist countries are rigid with agreements, and rules are used in defining individualist conduct within the workplace. The UK can be seen as a individualistic country while in Saudi Arabia the particularistic approach is most important, as obligations to both friends and family is its top priority and morally right. Reference? b) Individualism vs. Communitarianism: This can be considered to be almost the same as Hofstedes individualist/collectivist dimension (Tayeb, 2000). c) Specific vs. Diffuse: Specific cultures compartmentalize their lives. In diffuse societies an individual cannot easily separate personal from work domain (French, 2010). d) Achievement vs. Ascription: Focuses on the way status is accorded. Cultures that place a higher value on status than what has been accomplished are more likely to focus upon kinship, gender, age, connection and past record just like in Saudi Arabia. In the UK, it is the other way round as achievements are focused on what has been accomplished with promotion and selection. Again, references! e) Sequential vs. Synchronic: Cultures deal with time differently. Both, UK and Saudi Arabia stand in the middle. Ref! f) Internal and External: The UK see the major focus affecting individuals lives in the origins of the way that people act as residing within the individual or internally.- I do not understand that, can you pls re-write it, add Saudi Arabia point and reference!

2.1.3 Edward Halls classification


Hall contributed to the study of cultures by organizing societies into high and low context societies.
Context is the information that surrounds the event it is inextricably bound up with the meaning of the event (Hall, 1990)

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia The UK according to this classification is a low-context society whereas Saudi Arabia is a high-context society (French, 2010:71). Low context (UK) Most information explicit Direct communication style Value on performance and expertise Business concluded quickly High context (Saudi Arabia) Implicit shared understanding within the group Indirect communication styles (nonverbal communication in great use) Relationships regarded as of great importance Business transactions depend on forging friendships/strong relationships, hence can take long time

Table 2: Hall's low/high context cultural characteristics

2.2. Organizational culture


Through a strong culture, an organization can deliver sustained superior performance gaining competitive advantage and corporate success (Barney (1986) in Millmore at al., 2007:203). Needle (2004, in French, 2010:39) says that organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is product of factors like history, national culture, management style, technology, product markets and strategy. Similarly, Kinicki and Kreitner (2009) argue that it is shaped by four key components, which are: founders values, the industry and the business environment, the national culture and the leaders vision and behavior. Organizational culture gives members organizational identity facilitating collective commitment. It also promotes organizational stability and shapes behaviors (Wagner and Hollenbeck 2005:436). Newstron (2007) adds to this that it helps new recruits interpret what goes on inside an organization, by providing an important context for events that would otherwise seem confusing. Kotter and Iteskett (1992) add that organizational culture is the social glue that holds the organization together, reduces employee uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviors and differentiates the organization from others. In addition, it helps explain why employees are attracted to certain employer/s. On the other hand, Hendrys (1995, in Millmore et al, 2007) research evidence shows only a week connection between the firms organizational culture and its performance.

2.3 Communication
Organizational communication is an issue of vital importance within an organization. Bellow, the following aspects will be discussed:

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Goals and Structure Effective Communication Vertical and Horizontal Communication Verbal, Non-Verbal, and Written Communication

2.3.1 Goals and Structure According to Elving (2005), organizational communication has two main goals: To inform the employees about their tasks and about the policy and other issues of the organization To create a community (De Ridder, 2003).
Organizational communication helps to define the identity of a group and to create a community spirit (De Ridder, 2003)

According to Schein (1985, in Tukiainen, 2001), the organizational communication can be structured in four parts. Working community: group of people in a definite part of the organization Communication system: channels, contents, and rules of communication Communication climate: subjective views and interpretations of the organizations employees Communication culture: sharing experiences generated in the organization

2.3.2 Effective Communication In order to achieve the goals, organizational communication has to be effective. Effective communication and HR managers' communication skills are an extremely important issue for effective organizational behavior. Indeed, ineffective or poor communication is frustrating for employees, and becomes a source of conflict. According to Perrone (2006), reinforcing the corporate identity is fundamental in order to achieve an effective communication. This has to be highlighted by the management leadership of the organization and by building company values.

Effective communication issending the right message that is also being correctly received and understood Perrone (2006)

In conclusion, according to Perrone (2006), effective communication in the workplace provides employees with a clear understanding of what is demanded from them, with knowledge of what to do and what to expect. For organizations, this communication style creates effective performance of the staff and leads to an increasing level of customer loyalty and profit.

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2.3.3 Vertical and Horizontal Communication Another important aspect of the organizational communication is the balance between vertical and horizontal communication. According to Bartels (2009), vertical communication is work-related and travels top-down and bottom-up within the organizations hierarchy. It helps to define employees position and tasks. Furthermore, Postmes (2003) observed that vertical communication also allows the organisation to inform its employees about how it distinguishes itself from other organisations [] which may contribute to employees organisational identification (Postmes, 2003). Conversely, horizontal communication is both informal and task-related and comes between people on the same level of the hierarchy (Postmes, 2003). A good degree of horizontal communication may conduct to a stronger cohesion of the employees refers as a working community, and to a subsequent reinforce of the group identity (Bartels, 2009). 2.3.4 Verbal, Non-Verbal, and Written Communication The Communications process model (Bretton and Gold, 2007) depicts employee communication as a process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver. The model highlights three methods of transmitting information between employees: verbal, non-verbal, and written.

Figure 5: Communication process model

Verbal communication encompasses from an accidental chat between two or more employees to a formal speech by the chairman of an organization. According to a research conducted by Albert Mehrabian (cited in Egan, 1994, p. 95) on how we receive information found that: we will keep it depending on word count? Verbally (linguistic), refers as words used: 7% Vocally (paralinguistic), refers as the tone of the voice: 38%

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Non-verbally (body language), refers as gesture or expressions: 55%

According to Bretton and Gold (2007), written communication range from a casual note to a co-worker to an annual report . Electronically mediated methods of communication, such as email and videoconferencing systems, are an increasingly popular form of communication within and across organizations (Bretton and Gold, 2007).

3. Findings
3.1 Saudi Arabia overview
Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines: Mecca and Medina. Its terrain is mostly uninhabited making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world (Cia.gov, 2011). UNITED KINGDOM LOCATION CAPITAL POPULATION GDP OFFICIAL LANGUAGE POPULATION CLIMATE GOVERNMENT CULTURE CURRENCY RELIGION Western Europe London ? 2.29 trillion $ English Over 60 million 4 seasons Constitutional monarchy Western Pounds Christianity/Islam/Hindu SAUDI ARABIA South-western Asia Riyadh 24 million (including 6.5 million expatriates) 369 trillion $ Arabic Over 25 million Hot season Royal monarchy Islamic Riyals Islam (97%)

Table 3: UK and Saudi Arabia, overview

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Figure 6: Map of Saudi Arabia

It is important to note that gender roles in Saudi society originate from Sharia (Islamic law) and tribal culture; women are required to have a male guardian for most activities regardless of age for such as travelling, opening a bank account, employment etc. Nonetheless, women make up 30% of Saudi Arabia workforce. Girls are still raised to believe that their primary role is to raise children and take care of the household. Working is allowed as long as it does not lead to them neglecting their essential duties and if the job role is deemed suitable for the female physique and mentality (e.g. women cannot drive). Saudi Womens Rights : June 2010. In the appendix X, a useful table of business etiquette in Saudi Arabia is provided.

3.2 Organizational culture at Burger King


Through training, development and team association the employees at BKC are able to develop self-confidence in their different job functions and are proud of what they do and stand for in the organization.

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia By proclaiming We want everyone to show what they can do (Burger King, 2011), they empower their staff, thus fostering the empowered culture. The staff says that every new assignment is a challenge and the reward is seeing the challenge through.

Culture at Burger King is Bold, empowered, accountable and fun (Burger King, 2008)

Burger King is viewed as an extension of employees immediate family as it provides a stable and conducive environment for work. Nathan, a crew member, who says that working for Burger King goes way beyond being part of a great team best illustrates this- Its more like having a second family (Burger King, 2011). Bellow is culture web of Burger Kings organizational culture (Johnson and Scholes, 2003) based on the primary and secondary findings:

Job satisfaction regularly measured via face to face interviews

Satisfied customer (Have it your way)

Uniforms Daily contact with upper management Christmas parties Teamwork

BK logo
Figure 7: Culture web

Control by the USA office, at least once a year

3.3 Communication

at

Burger King

According to Ms. Segovia Roman, Restaurant Manager of Burger King in Reading (Berkshire), the Burger King working process follows these succeeding steps:
Customer Order Cooking Payment Delivering

Furthermore, the manager highlighted the importance of the timing of the process, which has to be no longer than 3 minutes. HRM 451 12

Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia

According to the Burger King Training Manual (2011), the communication process is implemented in the Burger King 5 steps to service:
Welcome to the customer Take the order and suggestive sell the meal Repeat the total order Cash transaction Give out the order

Under the manager point of view, suggestive sell the meal and the repetition of the total order represent crucial steps of this process in order to increase the cost of the transaction and to avoid any kind of potential conflict with the customer respectively. Concerning the fundamental issue of how to improve a brand identification in the employees, according to the Burger King Training Manual (2011), one of the most important steps in which Burger King builds its own values occurs during the training of the new staff recruited.

After having meal in our Restaurant, the customer must say, I will come back! For that we are improving our friendly deal with the public and the speed to service the food. (Segovia Roman, 2011)

4. Analysis
Dissimilarities shown through cultural dimensions confirm the necessity for the expatriate manger to familiarize herself with practical implications of the national differences. This is best done through the Cross Cultural Training (CCT) program that will be customized to her particular needs- in addition to face-to-face sessions, further iCulture sessions can be arranged (during the time abroad) as well as use of podcasts. The fact that Caspian group has a clear hierarchy in place and strict rules and regulations in their manuals that everyone abides by will be beneficial in Saudi Arabia, since the high power distance shows the need for hierarchy and high uncertainty avoidance the need for rules and regulations. Communication styles in regards to importance of context are very different. This will impact everyday conversation as well as building business relationships. Firstly, in order to understand the Burger King organizational communication it is helpful to focus on its working structure. As basis of the scientific approach, the results of Taylors experiments (Taylor, 1947) concluded that segmenting work into a series of allocated tasks improves the efficiency and the productivity of the working processes (Nieto, 2006). Therefore, according to Ms. Segovia Roman, Restaurant Manager of Burger King in Reading (Berkshire), the Burger King working process follows these succeeding steps: HRM 451 13

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In order to show the connection among the Burger King working structure and the organizational communication it has been highlighted the Shannon and Weaver Mathematical Model of Communication (1949).

Traditionally formulated with the purpose to avoid technical and economic problems related to the use of telephonic cables, the Mathematical Model shows the passage of an information from an encoder, the transmitter of the information, to a decoder, the receiver of the information. In a similar way, according to the Burger King Training Manual (2011), the communication process is implemented in the Burger King 5 steps to service:

In order to achieve an effective communication organizations have to reinforce their corporate identity (Perrone, 2006). Therefore, according to the Burger King Training Manual (2011), one of the most important steps in which Burger King builds its own values occurs during the training of the new staff recruited. According to Segovia Roman (2011), the vertical and horizontal communications are affected by the Burger King organizational structure. Concerning the vertical communication, the passage of the company directives from the top management to every single restaurant helps the synchronization among the different areas where the restaurants are located, especially during the

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia launch of a new product. Furthermore, a vertical communication, which highlights the hierarchy roles, is considered crucial within a working structure of a Burger King restaurant. Regarding the horizontal communication, a good teamwork management brings the staff to obtain a stronger cohesion within the restaurant employees and to reinforce the identification of the staff itself with the brand image of the company. As explained by the Restaurant Manager, the customer service is critically important for the company. Furthermore, concerning the verbal and non-verbal communication the company highlights the importance on one hand to serve the customer always politely and smiling, and on the other hand to handle the customer meals with accuracy. Possible challenges: Communication between employees, both, on the vertical and horizontal level due to different national cultures Different use and meaning of body language: Ear circle: this sign can be easily misunderstood. According to Morris (1994), in the western world it means You are crazy either in a funny or impolite way. Conversely, in Saudi Arabia the meaning refers to the exclamation Be good, or I will punish you! Eyelid pull: though this body language gesture can be confused. In the western countries it means Be alert, expressed in a serious manner. In contrast, in Saudi Arabia this gesture highlights the expression You are stupid! (Morris, 1994).

5. Conclusion
This report concludes that the move to Saudi Arabia will present many challenges for Caspian group. However, if the laid out plan is followed any foreseeable problems should be minimized. This will include the HR departments involvement in expatriate predeparture training, regular contact with the expatriate while abroad (to prevent premature repatriation) as well as assisting the expatriate manger at re-entry to reduce the possibility of reverse culture shock or departure from the organization. At the same time, measurable and realistic goals for the franchise performance should be pre-set by the company, keeping in mind the socio-economic state of affairs in Saudi Arabia.

6. Recommendations

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Extensive involvement of the HR department throughout the expatriation process (as outlined in Appendix 9)- including predeparture steps, planning of the welcome reception and co-operating with the expatriate in connection to repatriation. BK needs to clearly communicate with the public (via advertising campaigns) that the meet used at the restaurant is Halal and in accordance with Islamic religion.

Pre-departure training should include developing intercultural sensitivity in order to be able to adapt to a different cultural environment more easily. (Nieto, 2006)

7. Appendices

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7.1 The expatriate mangers CV


IRENE SEGOVIA ROMN Restaurant manager at Burger King 202 Pentonville road N1 9JP, London UK Work experience Restaurant manager at Burger King, Reading Since October 2009 Travel guide located in Jordan January-March 2009 Travel agent internship at Zafiro tours November and December 2007 Receptionist at Juan Miguel Hotel (Granada, Spain) July and August 2007 Diplomas and education Tourism university of Granada (Spain) BA in Tourism 2005-2008 Dactylographer course (typing master pro 2002 6.2) November 2009 English intensive course at Shane school of English (London, UK) Advanced level April- September 2009 Arabic intensive course at Ah-Ahliah school of Arabic (London, UK) Upper intermediate level January 2008- June 2008 Experiential leadership camp at Mymma camp (UK) July and August 2008 Language skills Spanish Native speaker English Advanced both written and spoken Arabic Intermediate both written and spoken Other information mobile phone: 07526925422 e-mail: irenesero@gmail.com DOB: 29/9/1987

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Interests: Trekking, swimming,

7.2. For the HR department

In order to follow the previously given recommendations, this report will here provide the templates so that Caspian group can customize them to their needs, at the same time insuring no important issues are overlooked. 7.2.1 Pre-departure program template Since the candidate for the expatriate manger has already been selected, the pre-departure program should contain the following: - CEO letter It is recommended that this letter expresses CEOs vision of expatriates performance and conduct at job, give detailed job description as well as briefly mention the future of the expatriate with the organization upon her return. - Pre-departure tasks (visas, vaccinations) - Cross-cultural training (CCT) - This report recommends Farnham Castle Intercultural Training Centre that organizes intensive, custom made programs in order to prepare future expatriate for their time abroad. Best is to arrange the face-to-face part of the training around 3 months prior to departure. Expatriates success is largely determined by the cross-cultural adjustment to the host country (Black and Mendenhall (1990), Kealey and Protheroe (1996), Sappinen (1993) in Harzing and Ruysseveldt, 2005). The object of CCT according to Farnham Castle (2011) is to Develop awareness of cultural diversity Investigate cultural differences and the logic behind them Identify these differences to avoid value clashes and build common ground Generate familiarity of culture diversity within a team environment Provide the understanding and the skills to react to different management styles and corporate cultures
The objective of the pre-departure program is to assist the expatriate to adjust to the demands of living and working in a foreign location (Dowling, Festing & Engle, 2008)

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Explain the tools required to communicate effectively face-to-face and remotely with other team members Reinforce the need to project the right image Assist in the development of personal strategies to build an effective working relationship with other team members

Briscoe, Schuler and Claus (2009:224) say that the goal of CCT is to develop: Cognitive competencies (facts about the country and the culture, mainly socio-political situation, history and business practices) Behavioural competency (ability to adapt to new conditions, communicate well, learn the appropriate etiquette) Performance competency (ability to perform well in the new environment, to develop networks in the new culture)

- Clear targets and objectives need to be pre-set. This will be beneficial to both, the expatriate manager and the company. This will also make the performance appraisal easier. - Discussion and support (Nieto, 2006) Any concerns the expatriate may have should be freely discussed. - Skill development (Nieto, 2006) Through learning materials and role-playing. Should Caspian group decide to do so, an orientation trip can also be arranged. - Information packet Further, in appendix 9.2, there is a booklet that should be given to the expatriate in order to familiarize herself with Saudi Arabia. Of course, further information should also have to be given about accommodation, contact person both in the UK and in Saudi Arabia 7.2.2 Welcome reception template This report advises that the expatriate arrives to Saudi Arabia 1 to 2 weeks prior to work arrangements commencement in order to have time to adjust. Ideally, the expatriate will be greeted by Mr. Smith, the UK expatriate who has been living in Saudi Arabia for the past 5 years and has already assisted companies with expatriate welcome receptions. He will maintain contact throughout the staying period. It is also necessary to appoint a person within the HR department back in the UK as a main contact person. In addition, it is highly important to understand the stages most expatriates go through, represented best by the U-curve theory (Dowling, Festing and Engle, 2008:117):

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The U-curve theory shows the different stages of adjustment process Honeymoon (can start already in the home country due to feelings of excitement and sense of adventure, once novelty wares off homesickness sets in and the next phase begins) Culture shock (it is critical how the individual deals with this phase because it can lead to early exit) Adjustment (once the person starts adjusting to the new environment) Mastery (once recovery is achieved). Also, a set schedule should be made for the first workweek, so that the expatriate familiarizes herself with they way things are done at the Saudi Arabia franchise, meets with the staff and the management. CCT can be continued through use of podcasts and iCulture sessions through the Farnham castle website. Since the expatriate has already spend some time in a similar situation (3 months in Jordan and speaks the language well, continuance should be at her digression, but nonetheless offered). 7.2.3 Repatriation process template Re-entry process is complex due to career anxiety often felt, necessary work adjustment, coping with new role demands and sometimes dealing with loss of status and pay (Dowling, Festing and Engle, 2008). In addition, many expatriates experience reverse culture shock (Gullahorn and Gullaharn (1963) in Harzing and Ruysseveldt, 2005). This report strongly advises to follow the next steps adapted from Harzing and Ruysseveldt (2005): Successful repatriation process starts before the assignment, it is necessary to have an agreement of the job and position that the expatriate will return to HRM 451 20

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Career management advice should be offered few months before the return (this report suggests 3 months before the repatriation date) Once back, reorientation program about changes at the company would be beneficial The company should clearly show that it values the expatriates international experience

7.3 Business etiquette in Saudi Arabia


Business appointment Work week Punctuality Age Made usually for times of the day, rather than exact hours (so afternoon rather then 17h) Saturday-Wednesday Saudi Arabians are generally unpunctual; daily prayers should also be considered when making appointments. Greater respect must be shown to elders at all times. When greeting your Saudi partners for the first time, you should shake hands with the most senior person first. Face to face meetings preferred Trust necessary and precondition to doing business It is common to shake hands with all members individually going anti-clockwise around the room. However business woman should wait for the man to offer his hand first Not necessary. Not polite to admire an object too much, because the owner will feel obliged to gift it to you and not accepting such gift would be very impolite Intensive eye contact is expected as well as standing in close proximity because they both indicate trust In Saudi Arabia the spoken word has much more weight than written agreements. An agreement is only final when both parties have parted. Until then it is open to negotiation, even if the contract has been signed.

Working relationships Greeting

Gifting

Trust Agreements

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When OK is not OK Western sign for OK means evil eye in Saudi Arabia and is insulting

Table 4: Saudi Arabia business etiquette (Communicaid, 2007)

7.4. Guide to Saudi Arabia for the expatriate manger


Travel advice Passport and visa: A passport valid for at least six months at time a visa is issued is required by all nationals Health: Medical facilities are generally of a high standard, but treatment is expensive. Health insurance is essential and is provided by BKC Money: Saudi Arabian currency is Riyal (SAR) = 100 halala; 5 halala = 20 qurush. Language: Arabic, English is spoken in business circles Public holidays:

Eid Al-Fitr, the feast of the breaking of the fast, from the evening of the twentyfifth day of Ramadan through the fifth day of Shawwal; Eid Al-Adha, the culmination of the Hajj, from the fifth through fifteenth day of Dhu Al-Hajjah; National Day- September 23 (Saudi embassy.net, 2011) In Saudi Arabia Time diference to the UK Keeping in Touch Internet: The Ministry of Post, Telegraph and Telephones provides internet facilities in most cities. But email can also be accessed from many hotels and internet cafes. Media: Saudi Arabia has a very tightly controlled media environment and criticism of the government, the royal family and religious tenets are not really tolerated.. Mobile telephone: Visitors can apply for a mobile telephone number upon arrival at the airport. Prepaid SIM cards, which operate in most handheld devices, are affordable and reliable. A mobile phone will be given to you upon arrival

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Things to do Nightlife: Given the strict laws against alcohol and music, visitors should not expect to find clubs, bars, or typical live music. Examples of entertainment are traditional sword dancing and drumming, which are hosted at restaurants or hotels. Shopping: Much-loved way to spend time in Saudi Arabia, mostly in malls and open markets, Sat-Thurs 0900-1300 and 1630-2000 (Ramadan 20000100). Hours differ in various parts of the country.

Things to know: Eating, drinking and smoking in public during the fasting hours of Ramadan will incur strict penalties.; note that this applies to all nationals regardless of religion Food and Drink Local food is often strongly flavoured and spicy. The most common meats are lamb and chicken, beef is rare and pork is forbidden under Islamic law. The main meat meal of the day is lunch. International cuisine restaurants are situated in larger towns. Climate Saudi Arabia has a desert climate. Riyadh, which is inland, is hotter in summer and colder in winter, when occasional heavy rainstorms occur. Early spring and late autumn are lovely times to visit this desert capital. Required Clothing: Lightweight, long-sleeved shirts and light trousers, sun hats, and sturdy shoes. Dress etiquette Most men wear white long thobes. outsiders\visitors are expected to wear a suit. Dress well if you want to make a good impression. Business women should make certain that their collarbones and knees are covered and that their clothes are not form-fitting.

Hobby

Emergency numbers

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The police The fire brigade The ambulance

999 998 997

References: http://www.burgerking.co.uk/company, accessed on March 30,2011 http://www.geert-hofstede.com, accessed on April 1, 2011 Swaak, R. (1995) Expatriate failures: Too many, too much cost, too little planning. Compensation and Benefits Review, 27(6), 47-55. http://www.communicaid.com/cross-cultural-training/culture-for-business-andmanagement/doing-business-in/Saudi-arabian-business-and-social-culture.php Dowling P, Festing M and Engle A (2008) International human resource management, 5th edition, South-western cengage learning: Croatia French R. (2010) Cross-cultural management in work organizations, 2nd edition, CIPD:London Nieto M. (2006) An introduction to human resource management- an integrated approach, Palgrave Macmillian:China Harzing A and Ruysseveldt J (2005) International Human resource management, 2nd edition, SAGE publications:London, (p251-357) www.farnhamcastle.com Briscoe D, Schuler R and Claus L (2009) International Human Resource management, 3rd edition, Routledge:Oxon Caspian group - www.flame-grilled.co.uk http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/country-information/facts_and_figures https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html

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Burger King The move to Saudi Arabia Wright (2006) suggests that due to power distance in Saudi Arabia, a hierarchical reward system must be constituted while in the UK due to individualism performance based pay is a better option. In SA rewards need to be visible to reflect power, whereas in the UK extrinsic rewards are a measure of personal success. Wright A (2006) Reward management in context, 2nd edition, CIPD:London

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