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Geography An Integrated Approach Matching Grid for CAPE Geography Syllabus

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 1 Module 1: Population and Settlement 1.Population Distribution and Density (i) Population density and population distribution (ii) The factors influencing population distribution at a local, regional and global scale (iii) Methods of depicting population distribution and density (iv) The merits and demerits of the methods of depicting population distribution and density 2. Population Structure (i) Birth Rate, Death Rate and Natural Increase (ii) Construction and interpretation of population pyramids (iii) Interpretation of population structure in less developed countries(LDCs) and more developed countries (MDCs) (iv) Dependency ratios- calculations and implications 3. Population and Population Change (i) Optimum, under and over population (ii) Models of population growth in relation to resources(Malthus, Boserup) (iii) The demographic transition model and its applicability to the experiences of developed and developing countries (iv) Calculation of population growth rates 4. Migration (i) Types of population movements international (trends); internal: rural urban, urban rural, urban urban, rural rural. (ii) Causes and consequences of migration (iii)Questionnaire design, data collection and analysis 5. Location and Functions of Settlements (i) Physical and human factors influencing location and functions of rural and urban settlements (ii) The use of topographic maps to identify and analyse site, situation, and settlement patterns Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

13 344-45 346-48 344[very little] 344[very little] 13 349 353 354 354 13 376 378-79 350-352 349[very little] 13 361

362-375 ---------14 388-417 -----------

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 1 Module 1: Population and Settlement (contd) 6. Urbanisation

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

15

(i) the process of urbanisation in MDCs and LDCs (ii) Technology, urbanisation and counter-urbanisation (iii) Models of urban structure: Burgess, Hoyt, Ullman and Harris (assumptions, zones, limitations) (iv) Problems and solutions to urban growth in MDCs and LDCs (v) Pedestrian and traffic counts and methods of depicting the data collected ( flowlines and isolines)

13,15

418-19 365,419 [very little] 420-24 437-41 443-47 ------------

Module 2: Hydrological, Fluvial, Coastal and Limestone Environments 1. Hydrology 3 (i) Concepts associated with the hydrological cycle and the 3,9 river basin (ii) Major flows and factors influencing flows within the hydrological cycle (iii) The storm hydrograph and water budgets (spatial and temporal changes) (iv) Climatic, physical and biotic (human and vegetation) factors affecting the drainage basin characteristics (v) Drainage patterns and drainage density (vi) The use of topographic maps to identify geological, physical and biotic (human and vegetation) influences on the drainage basin 2.Fluvial Processes and Landforms 3 (i) Concepts associated with fluvial processes and landforms (include competence and capacity) (ii)The major flows and processes operating within the river channel (iii)Stream channel characteristics (iv)The influence of physical, biotic (human and vegetation)and geological processes on the long and cross profiles of rivers (v) The measurement and calculation of stream velocity, stream width and channel geometry

58,214 58-59 60-64 62-63 67,84-86 --------------

72 68-74 68-71 75-83,87-97

68-71 [very little]

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 1 Module 2: Hydrological, Fluvial, Coastal and Limestone Environments 2.Fluvial Processes and Landforms (contd) (vi) Weathering and its influence on river basins 3. Coastal Processes and Landforms (i) Major flows (for example, long-shore drift) and processes(for example, marine erosion and deposition)

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

3 ------------6 149-50,153

operating in coastal environments (ii) The influence of the processes of erosion, transportation and deposition on the development of related landforms (iii)Formation of coral reefs(including theories) (iv)The effects of fluvial depositional processes on coastal regions (v)The influence of geological factors (rock type and structure) on the shape of coastlines (vi)A study of the processes at work on a particular stretch of coastline in the Caribbean (vii) drawing and labelling field sketches of coastal features (viii) The use of topographic maps and aerial photographs to identify coastal features 4. Processes and Landforms in Limestone Regions (i) Concepts associated with limestone topography (ii) Characteristics of limestone as a rock (iii) Chemical weathering processes and limestone (iv) Development of limestone features in Jamaica and Puerto Rico including changes over time (v) The use of topographic maps in identifying landforms and land use in limestone areas Module 3: Natural Events and Hazards 1. Natural Events and Hazards (i) Concept of a natural event and a hazard (ii) Types of hazards technological, climatic and geomorphological 2. Flooding (i) Types of precipitation events (ii) Influence of man (iii) Sea level changes

151-57

--------------158 [very little] 149,167 [very little] -----------------------------------2,8 8 8 2

196-200 196 43 -----------------------------

31 31

3 62 62-63 63[very little]

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 1 Module 3: Natural Events and Hazards 2. Flooding (contd) (iv) Drainage basin characteristics (v) Positive and negative impacts 3. Plate Tectonics (i) Continental drift and plate tectonics (ii) The formation of plates, global distribution and the direction of movements of plates (iii) Processes operating at different margins 4. Plate Movements as Natural Events

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

3 62 87-97 1 12-13 14-15 15 1

(i) Nature of earthquakes including faulting (ii) Formation of island arcs and origin of fold mountains (iii) Distribution of and characteristics of volcanic landforms (iv) Characteristics of volcanic landscapes in a Caribbean island (v) Positive impact of volcanic and earthquake activity (vi) Value of folded and faulted landscapes 5. Volcanoes and Earthquakes as Hazards (i)Negative impacts of volcanic and earthquake activity (ii) Case studies of the negative impacts of earthquakes occurring in developed and developing countries 6. Response to Hazards (i) Current capabilities in predicting earthquake, flooding and volcanic activity (ii) Individual and collective responses to volcanic hazards before the occurrence and after the occurrence (iii) Differences in the individual and collective responses to earthquake hazards (iv) Government responses to hazards earthquakes, floods and volcanoes

9-11 17-20 [very little] 11,24-30 ------------30 ----------9, 18, 30, 33-36 11,16 [developed only] 1 1 1 1 35-36 [not flooding] 32,35 [very little] 35 [very little] --------------

Cape Geography Syllabus

Topic Areas UNIT 2 Module 1: Climate, Vegetation and Soils 9 1. Atmosphere and Weather Systems (i) Global heat budget (ii) Global surface and upper wind circulation (iii)Global patterns of vertical and horizontal temperature and pressure variations (iv) Atmospheric humidity (v) Condensation and precipitation (vi) Lapse rates (vii) Weather conditions resulting from atmospheric stability and instability (viii) Development of high and low pressure systems: 9, 12 anticyclones, depressions, hurricanes, Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (ix) Weather conditions associated with the weather systems (x) Synoptic charts (xi) The impacts of hurricanes on the physical and human environment (xii) Hurricane mitigation strategies

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

208-212 224-228 Integrated in previous topic 213-215 215, 219-223 216 216-217 229-238 226-227, 316, 323 Integrated in previous topic 230-234, 237, 244-245 235-237 237 (little; only short term)

(xiii) The concept of microclimates (xiv) Urban, rural and mountain microclimates

Urban, Rural, mountain microclimates

242 (little) 242-243 243 240-241 (little) 221-222

(xv) The formation of local winds and fogs in mountains and valleys

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 2 Module 1: Climate, Vegetation and Soils 2. Vegetation Types (i) The distribution and characteristics of tropical rainforest, tropical grasslands, temperate grasslands and northern coniferous forests

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

12, 16, 11 tropical rainforest, tropical grasslands, temperate grasslands, northern coniferous forests

316-318 319-321 325-328 330-323

(ii) The relationship between vegetation types, climates and human factors (iii) The opportunities and problems associated with the development of tropical rainforests (iv)Variations in vegetation in response to differences in rock type, altitude, slope angle and drainage in a local area (v) Vegetation studies using quadrats and transects 3. Soil Formation and Soil Conservation (i) The interrelationships among parent material, climate, vegetation, topography, human activity and time on soil formation

Amazon case

Krakatoa case

Incorporated in previous section 347-348 (little) 480 304-305 289

10, 11, 7 parent material, climate, vegetation, topography, human activity, time (ii) The nature and properties of soil: soil profile, texture, Soil profile Texture structure, organic matter content, water, air Structure Organic matter Soil moisture Air (iii) The formation of the soil types that develop under Soil formation tropical rainforest and temperate grasslands Rainforest Grasslands (iv) Soil variations within a local area

260 261 261 261 ---262 263-264 264-265 265-266 266-267 267 268 260-262, 271272, 318 327-328 274-276

(v) The study of soil horizons in the field (vi)Erosion and methods of soil conservation

262-263 270 279-283, 191-192

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 2 Module 2: Economic Activity 1. Agriculture (i) The characteristics of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activities (ii) The environmental, economic, cultural and political factors which influence farming in the Caribbean and the European Union ( for example transnational trading blocs, government policies) (iii) Traditional and non-traditional agriculture in the Caribbean (iv) Recent trends in agriculture in the European Union (v) Von Thunens model of rural land use and its applicability at both the local and international scales (vi)Graphs to show net profit curves and to calculate locational rents based on Von Thunens model (vii) The effects of agriculture on the physical environment in MDCs and LDCs 2. Industry (i) Traditional and modern factors (including new technologies, globalization) affecting the location of industries (ii) the relevance of Webers and Smiths models of industrial location (iii)The factors responsible for the development of a major industrial region in an MDC (iv)Economic and social characteristics of informal sectors (v)The role of the following factors in producing changes within a major industrial region in an MDC: changes in the organisation of the industry; transport; technological development; transnational organizations; foreign investment and raw material. (vi) The challenges of industrial development in the Caribbean Region

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

19, 16 552 environmental, economic, cultural and political factors 462-465 469 466-469 492-498 506-510 ----------492-498 506-509 471-475 472-473 China case 468-470 480, 510 553-556

557-562 Case studies 562-572 574-576 562-572

Case studies

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Cape Geography Syllabus

Geography-An Integrated Approach

Topic Areas Chapter/s UNIT 2 Module 2: Economic Activity 20 3. Tourism (i) Tourist arrivals in selected MDCs and LDCs over the last 40yrs (ii) The social and economic factors accounting for the growth in tourist arrivals globally (iii) The factors influencing the location of island and mainland tourism (iv) The pattern of arrival of tourists and the organization of the tourist trade in island and mainland tourism (v) The development of package tours and all inclusive packages and the conflicts arising within the tourism sector (vi) The role of Caribbean owned hotel chain entrepreneurs in the tourist industry and their effect on the industry within the region (vii) The effects of tourism on the socio-economic, cultural and physical environment (including conflict over land use) of a Caribbean country Module 3: Development and Disparity in the Caribbean Region 1. The Concept of Regions in Regional Development Planning (i) The concept of a region (ii) The different types of regions (iii) The need for regional planning (iv) Different levels of planning regional and national 2. The Role of History in the Spatial Development Process (i) Social, economic and political dimensions of colonialism (ii) The relationship between colonialism and development in the Caribbean (iii) Post-colonial development strategies in the Caribbean education, industrialization, nationalization, trade policies, shelter strategies and improved infrastructure

Page Number/s

586-601 587-588 589, 601 (little) -----594 596 (little) ------------

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Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 2 Module 3: Development and Disparity in the Caribbean Region 3. Models of Development (i) Plantation model, dependency theory, core-periphery model, cumulative causation model, Rostows model and Friedmans model

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

22 Plantation model, dependency theory, core-

(ii) Factors providing opportunities or limitations in the development of the Caribbean region: (a) physical environment; (b) socio-economic and cultural conditions; (c) political organization; (d) demographic condition. 4. Disparities in Caribbean Development (i) The different methods of measuring development (ii) The concept of regional disparities (iii) The causes and consequences of regional disparities in development (iv) The collection of data on selected indices on Caribbean countries in respect to: (a) Unemployment levels; (b) Per capita income; (c) Purchasing power; (d) Educational environment; (e) Doctor: patient ratios; (f) Life expectancy; (g) Dependency ratios; (h) Fertility rate; (i) Percentage literacy; (j) Mortality rate; (k) Nutritional status.

periphery model, 640-641 cumulative causation model, Rostows model, Friedmans 638-639 model ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

22 631-633 630-632 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cape Geography Syllabus Topic Areas UNIT 2 Module 3: Development and Disparity in the Caribbean Region 4. Disparities in Caribbean Development (contd) (v) The representation of the data collected in the form of tables, charts, graphs and maps

Geography-An Integrated Approach Chapter/s Page Number/s

(vi) Analysis of disparities from the data collected

Scattergram tables, charts, graphs and maps Spearmans Rank Correlation

635 used but not explained in text 636-637 637-638

Chi-squared 5. Regional Development Policies Policies and programmes to combat regional disparities Overseas aid 642-644