Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120

Platos Republic I

Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and


Commentary












Geoffrey Steadman















Platos Republic I
Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary


First Edition

2011 by Geoffrey D. Steadman

Revised June 2011, February 2012, July 2012

All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may
not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by
Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the
public press), without written permission from the publisher.

The author has made an online version of this work available (via email) under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The terms
of the license can be accessed at creativecommons.org.


Accordingly, you are free to copy, alter, and distribute this work freely under the
following conditions:

(1) You must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that
the author endorses your alterations to the work).
(2) You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
(3) If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting
work only under the same or similar license as this one.

The Greek text is the edition by John Burnet, first published by Oxford University
Press in 1903.

ISBN-13: 978-0-9843065-4-1
ISBN-10: 0-9843065-4-4

Published by Geoffrey Steadman
Cover Design: David Steadman

Fonts: Times New Roman, SPIonic, GFS Porson

geoffreysteadman@gmail.com
Table of Contents


Pages
Preface to the Series..v-vi
The Dramatic Introduction to the Republic Book I vii-ix
Characters .x
Outline of the Republic................................................................................................ xi
Bibliography... xii
How to Use This Commentary.. xiii
Running Core Vocabulary Listxiv-xix
Abbreviations.. xx
Regular Verb Synopsis.. 90-91
Synopses -mi Verb .... 92-93
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List.. 94-99


Republic Book 1


The Descent into the Piraeus (327a-328c).2-5

Cephalus and Socrates (328c-331d) 5-15
Justice is telling the truth and paying what one owes

Polemarchus and Socrates (331d-336a).15-33
Justice is helping friends and harming enemies

Thrasymachus and Socrates (336a-354c) . 33-89
Justice is the advantage of the stronger









































v
Preface to the Series


The aim of this commentary is to make Platos Republic Book I as accessible as
possible to intermediate level Greek readers so that they may experience the joy,
insight, and lasting influence that comes from reading one of greatest works in
classical antiquity in the original Greek.
Facing each of the 44 pages of the Greek text (Burnets Oxford Classical Text) is
a single page of commentary divided into halves. The top half includes all of the
corresponding vocabulary that occur five or fewer times in the dialogue, arranged
alphabetically in two columns. The bottom half is devoted to grammatical notes,
which are organized according to the Stephanus page numbers (see Abbreviations)
and likewise arranged in two columns. The advantage of this format is that it allows
me to include as much information as possible on a single page and at the same time
insure that the numerous commentary entries are distinct and accessible to readers.
To complement the vocabulary within the commentary, I have added a Running
Core Vocabulary List at the beginning of this commentary that includes all words
occurring six or more times arranged in the order in which they first occur in the
dialogue. An alphabetized form of this list can be found in the glossary. Together, this
book has been designed in such a way that, once readers have reviewed and mastered
the Running Core List, they will be able to rely solely on the Greek text and facing
commentary and not need to turn a page or consult outside dictionaries as they read.
The grammatical notes are designed to help beginning readers read the text, and
so I have passed over detailed literary and philosophical explanations in favor of
short, concise, and frequent entries that focus exclusively on grammar and
morphology. The notes are intended to complement, not replace, an advanced level
commentary, and so I encourage readers to consult some of the additional readings
listed in the bibliography. Assuming that readers finish elementary Greek with
varying levels of ability, I draw attention to subjunctive and optative constructions,
identify unusual aorist and perfect forms, and in general explain aspects of the Greek
that they should have encountered in first year study but perhaps forgotten. As a rule,
I prefer to offer too much assistance rather than too little.
vi
Print on Demand Books

This volume is a self-published, print-on-demand (POD) book, and as such it
gives its author distinct freedoms and limitations that are not found in traditional
publications. After writing this commentary, I simply purchased an ISBN number (the
owner is de facto the publisher) and submitted a digital copy for printing. The most
significant limitation of a POD book is that it has not undergone extensive peer-
review or general editing. This is a serious shortcoming that should make readers
wary. Because there are so many vocabulary and commentary entries, there are sure
to be typographical and factual errors that an extra pair of eyes would have spotted
immediately. Until all of the mistakes have been identified and corrected, I hope the
reader will excuse the occasional error.
The benefits of POD, however, outweigh the costs. This commentary and others
in the series simply would not exist without POD. Since there is no traditional
publisher acting as a middle man, there is no one to deny publication of this work
because it may not be profitable for the publisher. In addition, since the production
costs are so low and there is no standing inventory of unsold books, I am able to offer
this book at a low price. Finally, since this book is no more than a .pdf file waiting to
be printed, I am able to make corrections and place a revised edition of a POD book
for sale as often as I want. In this regard, we should liken PODs to software instead of
traditional typeset books. Although the first edition of a POD may not be as polished
as a traditional book, I am able to respond very quickly to readers recommendations
and criticisms and create an emended and augmented POD that is far superior to
previous editions. Consider, therefore, what you hold in your hand as an inexpensive
beta version of the commentary. If you would like to recommend changes to this
volume or download a free .pdf copy, please contact me at the addresses below.
I am grateful to Todd Jones, Ryan Proctor, and Scott Schreiber for their astute
observations, which have led to a number of revisions throughout this volume.

Geoffrey Steadman Ph.D.
geoffreysteadman@gmail.com
www.geoffreysteadman.com
vii
The Dramatic Opening to the Republic Book I

The Republic is not a dialogue. It is a recollection of a dialogue. It begins as Socrates
recalls an extraordinarily long conversation that he had had on just the previous day.
This introduction would seem to defy credulity, if it were not for the fact that Socrates
is speaking during a festival in honor of an unnamed goddessrevealed only at the
end of Book I to be the Thracian Bendis. On occasions such as the Panathenaic
festival, it was common for rhapsodes to recite from memory the Iliad and Odyssey
for Athenian audiences. Socrates, it appears, begins the Republic as a rhapsodeone
with an account that promises to be just as memorable as the epics of his own age.
One of the conventions of epic poetry is to place added significance on the first
word in the poem. In the Iliad, the word is appropriately mh=nin, wrath, and in the
Odyssey the word is a1ndra, man. In the Republic, it is kate/bhn, I descended, a
word that resonates with readers familiar with the later books in the Republic. Many
will recall the first half of the Allegory of the Cave and its description of the souls
ascent from darkness to the light, but few give equal attention to the second half of
the allegory, the descent of the enlightened man back into the cave (517a). His eyes
unaccustomed to the dark, his steps are unsure, and to the prisoners his education
makes him unsuitable for life among the shadows. He tries to persuade others to join
him in the ascent, but they refuse to follow his example and instead wish to kill him.
The descent is at once an acknowledgement of the seemingly impractical nature of the
enlightened man (his eyes need time to adjust to the darkness) and of the challenge
that awaits him when he attempts to persuade others to follow his lead.
It is tempting to view Socrates description of his descent from Athens to the port
city of Piraeus in light of the Allegory of the Cave. First, there are the physical
similarities. During the second half of the 5
th
century, long walls enclosed the entire
five-mile road that stretched from Athens to the port, and the cities themselves were
also contained within walls. In addition, the Piraeus was regarded as a bastion for
democratic politics. In 403 B.C., for example, it was in Piraeus where the revolt
which overthrew the oligarchic Thirty Tyrants and reestablished democratic rule first
took hold. And so, when Socrates says I descended yesterday to Piraeus, it is not
viii
difficult for readers familiar with the Republic to envision Socrates descent between
the long walls as the enlightened mans return to the cave and the dwellers within.
Another telling piece of evidence is Socrates initial conversation with
Polemarchus, a wealthy supporter of the democracy and brother of the famous
speechwriter Lysias. After witnessing the opening procession in the festival, Socrates
is about to return to Athens accompanied by Glaucon, Platos brother, when he is
stopped by Polemarchus and his entourage and invited to stay in Piraeus at
Polemarchus house. In a veiled threat, Polemarchus says Do you see how many we
are?...Either then become stronger than these or remain here. When Socrates objects
that one option still is left, namely that he and Glaucon persuade Polemarchus to let
them go home, Polemarchus says that they will not be able to persuade (pei/swmen)
him if he does not listen (327c7-12). This oddly inappropriate exchange between host
and guest highlights the contrast between the descending philosopher who advocates
dialogue and persuasion and a denizen of the Piraeus, who makes decisions based on
the democratic calculus of mass opinion, strength in numbers, and its resulting force.
Finally, the third and most pervasive point of correspondence between the
allegory and Socrates descent is the lack of success Socrates has persuading others at
Polemarchus house. Polite conversation quickly gives way to a discussion of
dikaiosu/nh, a word that denotes right action in general but for practical purposes
we shall call justice. For most of Book I, Socrates examines and eventually
dismisses popular concepts of justice presented by Cephalus, his son Polemarchus,
and finally Thrasymachus. Although Socrates prevails over each man in argument, no
one is persuaded. After Cephalus, the self-proclaimed lover of lo/goi (328d3-4),
excuses himself from his conversation with Socrates to finish a sacrifice, he never
returns. His son Polemarchus, who fares no better than his father in defending his own
view of justice, is replaced in the discussion by Thrasymachus and does not seem the
least contrite. Finally, Thrasymachus, initially so full of bluster and rage, is silenced
by the end of Book I, but he too seems less to have changed his mind than to have
abandoned the conversation altogether. In fact, even Platos own brothers, Glaucon
and Adeimantus, who are present throughout Book I and will become Socrates main
interlocutors for the remainder of the Republic, are dissatisfied with the outcome. At
ix
the beginning of Book II Socrates continues his recollection and says:
When I said this, I thought I had done with the discussion, but it turned out
to have been only a prelude. Glaucon showed his characteristic courage on
this occasion too and refused to accept Thrasymachus abandonment of the
argument. Socrates, he said, do you want to seem to have persuaded us that it
is better in every way to be just than unjust, or do you want to truly convince
us of this? (357a1-b2, tr. Grube)
Plato clearly wishes for his readers to see Book I as a failure in persuasion and the
remainder of the Republic as Socrates endeavor to make amends. Socrates is like the
enlightened man who, after failing to persuade the reluctant and abusive prisoners that
the shadows are not what they seem to be, renews his efforts to turn them to the light.
Socrates failure does not mean that the arguments on justice are unworthy of
careful scrutiny. Modern commentaries and articles abound, and readers should
consider the bibliography as a starting point for investigation. What is often left out of
these analyses is how the readers knowledge of the present and future lives of the
interlocutors undermine the interlocutors own arguments.
1
Cephalus, who amassed a
fortune by making and selling (a0podi/dosqai) shields to Athenians argues that justice
is to tell the truth and give back (a0podi/donai) what is owed. But he is stymied by
Socrates when asked whether it is just to give back arms owed to an intemperate
madmana prescient question in light of his customers defeat at the hands of the
Spartans. Likewise, Polemarchus, who defends the popular view that justice is
helping friends and harming enemies, will later see this ideal applied to his own
life. After the Spartans defeat the Athenians in 404 BC, the Spartan-backed Thirty
Tyrants will arrest and execute without trial its own political enemies, including
Polemarchus. Lastly, Thrasymachus, who is identified by his home city Chalcedon at
the beginning of Book I and defines justice as the advantage of the stronger, will live
to see his city suffer the consequences in 409-408 BCbesieged by no other than
Alcibiades himselffor an unsuccessful revolt from an imperial and indeed stronger
Athens. Some may deny the relevance of these events; but, if we are to examine the
arguments on justice seriously, should we not treat the interlocutors in the same way?

1
See Mark Gifford (2001) for a clear and well-reasoned discussion on this topic.
x
Characters

Below are brief descriptions of the main participants in Republic Book I, adapted from Debra
Nails highly recommended study, The People of Plato. For a fuller study of these and other
characters throughout the Platonic corpus, please consult her book.

Adeimantus (432/428 >382) is a brother of Plato and Glaucon. According to
Socrates (Rep. 368a), both Glaucon and Adeimantus were recognized for their
military service at a battle at Megara, which perhaps occurred at 409. Adeimantus
is accompanying Polymarchus when Socrates and Glaucon arrive in the Piraeus.
Cephalus ( ? 421/415) is father of Polemarchus and Lysias. We learn from an
autobiographical speech by Lysias (12) that Cephalus was invited by Pericles
himself to come to Athens around 450 and as a metic became very wealthy as the
owner of a shield-making factory.
Clitophon ( 452 >404) is a friend of both Lysias and Thrasymachus who intervenes
briefly in the discussion between Socrates and Thrasymachus.
Glaucon (ca. 429 >382) is a brother of Plato and Adeimantus. According to
Socrates (Rep. 368a) both Glaucon and Adeimantus were recognized for their
military service at a battle at Megara, which perhaps occurred at 409. Both brothers
will be Socrates chief interlocutors in Books 2-10 of the Republic.
Lysias (ca. 445 380) is son of Cephalus and half-brother of Polemarchus. Very
wealthy, he and his brother sponsored choral performances, paid war taxes
(eisphora), and ransomed citizen prisoners of war (Lys. 12.20). When the Thirty
temporary wrestled power from the democracy, Lysias fled the fate of his brother in
404 and returned in 403 to help restore the democracy. He became a successful
speechwriter for legal clients, and many of his speeches survive today.
Polemarchus (ca. 450 404): is a son of Cephalus and half-brother of Lysias. He
was likely born in Syracuse and moved to Athens along with his father ca. 450. The
house which provides the setting of the Republic is Polemarchus.When the
democracy was briefly overthrown as the end of the Peloponnesian war, the
oligarchic regime known as the Thirty executed Polemarchus. Lysias recalls the
events of Polemarchus arrest and death in a speech Against Eratosthenes (Lys. 12).
Socrates (470 - 399): A stonemason by trade, Socrates acquired a reputation for
discussing philosophy in public places. He did not write down his philosophical
beliefs, so whatever we know about him comes from the works of a number of his
contemporaries including Plato, Xenophon, and Aristophanes.
Thrasymachus (ca. 455 - ? ) is a sophist from Chalcedon, a city in Asia Minor at the
mouth of the Black Sea. Platos Socrates discusses his rhetorical style in the
Phaedrus (267c-d) and later says that both Thrasymachus and Lysias provide the
wrong models to acquire rhetorical skill (269d).

xi
Outline of Platos Republic

Below is one of many proposed outlines of the entire Republic, here adapted from Eric
Vogelins 1957 edition of Plato (pp. 46-7), which in turn was adapted from Kurt Hildebrandts
Platon. Readers should view it as a general guide and be wary of how the outline influences
their view of the work as a whole.

Prologue
1.1. 327a-328b. Descent to the Piraeus
1.2-I.5 328b-331d. Cephalus
1.6-1.9 331e-336a. Polemarchus
1.10-1.24 336b-354c. Thrasymachus

Introduction
2.1-2.10 357a-369b. Problem: Is Justice better than Injustice?

Part I: Genesis and Order of the Polis
2.11-2.16 369b-376e. Foundation of the Polis
2.16-3.18 376e-412b. Education of the Guardians
3.19-4.5 412b-427c. Constitution of the Polis
4.6-4.19 427c-445e. Justice in the Polis

Part II: Embodiment of the Idea
5.15.16 445a-471c Women, Family, War
5.176.14 471c-502c Why Philosophers should Rule
6.197.5 502c-521c The Idea of the Good
7.67.18 521c-541b Education of the Philosophers

Part III: Degeneration of the Polis
8.1-5 543a-550c Timocracy
8.6-9 550c-555b Oligarchy
8.10-13 555b-562a Democracy
8-14-9.3 562a-576b Tyranny

Conclusion
9.4-9.13 576b-592b Why Justice is Better than Injustice

Epilogue
10.1-10.8 595a-608b. Rejection of Mimetic Art
10.9-10.11 608c-612a. Immortality of the Soul
10.12 612a-613e. Rewards of Justice in Life
10.13-10.16 613e-621d. Rewards in the Afterlife: Myth of Er
xii
Bibliography

Adams, J. (1902) The Republic of Plato. Perseus Digital Library.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper (accessed November 21, 2010).
Algra, K. (1996) Observations on Platos Thrasymachus: The Case for Pleonexia in
K. Algra, P. van der Horst, and D. Runia. Polyhistor: Studies in the History and
Historiography of Ancient Philosophy. pp. 41-59.
Annas, Julia (1981) An Introduction to Platos Republic, Oxford.
Boter, G. J. (1986) Thrasymachus and pleonexia Mnemosyne 39:261-81.
Blundell, M.W. (1991) Helping Friends and Harming Enemies: A Study of Sophocles
and Greek Ethics, Cambridge.
Chappell, T. D. J. (1993) The Virtues of Thrasymachus, Phronesis 38:1-17.
Gifford, M. (2001) Dramatic Dialectic in Republic Book 1, Oxford Studies in
Ancient Philosophy 20: 35-106.
Hourani, G. F. (1962) Thrasymachus Definition of Justice in Platos Republic
Phronesis 7: 110-120.
Howland, Jacob (2004) Platos Reply to Lysias: Republic 1 and 2 and Against
Eratosthenes American Journal of Philology 125:179-208.
Kerferd, G. B. (1947) The Doctrine of Thrasymachus in Platos Republic Durham
University Journal 9: 19-47.
--. (1970) Thrasymachus and Justice: A Reply Phronesis 9: 12-16.
Kraut, Richard, ed. (1997) Platos Republic: Critical Essays. Rowman & Littlefield.
Nails, Debra (2002) The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other
Socratics. Hackett Publishing. (characters and dramatic dating of the Republic)
Nicholson, P. P. (1974) Unravelling Thrasymachus Arguments in The Republic
Phronesis 19: 210-232.
Rose, Gilbert. (1983) Platos Republic: Book I. Bryn Mawr.
Santas, Gerasimos, ed. (2006) The Blackwell Guide to Platos Republic. Cambridge.
Weiss, Roslyn (2007) Wise Guys and Smart Alecks in Republic 1 and 2, in G.R. F.
Ferrari, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Platos Republic, Cambridge.
White, Stephen (1995) Thrasymachus the Diplomat Classical Philology 90: 307-27.
Williams, Bernard (1997) The Analogy of City and Soul in Platos Republic in
R. Kraut, ed., Platos Republic: Critical Essays. Rowman & Littlefield.
Yunis, H. (1997) Thrasymachus B1: Discord, Not Diplomacy Classical Philology
92: 58-66.


xiii
How to Use this Commentary

Research shows that, as we learn how to read in a second language, a combination of
reading and direct vocabulary instruction is statistically superior to reading alone.
One of the purposes of this book is to encourage active acquisition of vocabulary.
1. Master the core vocabulary list as soon as possible.
A. Develop a daily regimen for memorizing running vocabulary and forms before
you begin reading. Start with an intensive review of the running core list on the
next page and then turn to less frequent vocabulary words as you encounter them.
B. If you have to consult the alphabetized core list as you read, either photocopy
the list or print it from online and keep it by your book to avoid page-flipping.
More importantly, place a dot or similar mark by all core words that you consult.
As review progresses, focus extra effort on the words that accumulate marks.
C. Download and use the core list flashcards available online (ppt or jpg format).
Research has shown that you must review new words at least seven to nine times
before you are able to commit them to long term memory, and flashcards are
particularly efficient at promoting repetition. Develop the habit of deleting
flashcards that you have mastered and focus your efforts on the remaining words.
2. Read actively and make lots of educated guesses.
One of the benefits of traditional dictionary work is that it gives readers an
interval between the time they encounter a questionable word or form and the
time they find the dictionary entry. That span of time often compels readers to
make educated guesses and actively seek out understanding of the Greek.
Despite the benefits of facing vocabulary lists (see the preface), there is a risk
that without that interval of time you will become complacent in your reading
habits and treat the Greek as a puzzle to be decoded rather than a language to be
learned. Your challenge, therefore, is to develop the habit of making an
educated guess under your breath each time before you consult the facing
vocabulary and grammar. If you guess correctly, the commentary will reaffirm
your understanding of the Greek. If you answer incorrectly, you will become
more aware of your weaknesses and therefore more capable of correcting them.
3. Reread a passage immediately after you have completed it.
Repeated readings not only help you commit Greek to memory but also increase
your ability to read the Greek as Greek. Always read the words out loud (or at
least whisper them to yourself). While you may be inclined to translate the text
into English as you reread, develop the habit of reading Greek as Greek and
acquiring meaning without turning the text into English.
4. Reread the most recent passage immediately before you begin a new one.
This additional repetition will strengthen your ability to recognize vocabulary,
forms, and syntax quickly, bolster your confidence, and most importantly provide
you with much-needed context as you begin the next selection in the text.
xiv
Running Core Vocabulary

The following six pages include all words that occur six or more times in the Republic Book 1
in a running core vocabulary list. Beneath each page number is an alphabetized list that
includes the first occurrence of each core vocabulary word in the dialogue. Flashcards for this
list are available online. For a single alphabetized list of these core words, consult the glossary.

Page 3: 327a1-c7
oo : from, away from. (+ gen.), 9
oiio,, -q, -o: other, one...another, 73
ouiooi, ouiqoooi, , , touiqoi, touiqqv: wish, be willing, choose, 16
yop: for, since 103
liou |ov, o : Glaucon, 10
t: but, and, on the other hand, 290
o|to, oo, too, to|q|o, toyoi, to|qqv: seem (good); think, suppose 50
tyo: I, 227
ti,: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 74
tii, toooi: to be, exist. 453
tpooi, tpqoooi, qpoqv: to ask, question, inquire, 8
q : in truth, truly (begins open question), 27
qi : I say, 100
q ov, -ov: less, weaker, inferior, 12
|oi : and, also, even, too, 472
|o|o,, -q, -ov: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 25
|oio,, -q, -ov: beautiful, fair, noble, fine, 13
Ktoio,, o : Cephalus, 8
|tituo, |tituoo, t|tituoo, |t|titu|o, |t|tituoooi, t|tituoqv: to bid, order, 6
ioovo, iqooi, tioov, tiiqo, tiiqoi, tiqqv: to take, receive, grasp, 7
tv: on the one hand, 94
tvoi: however, nevertheless; certainly, 15
to: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 13
vuv: now; as it is, 26
o, q, o: the, 926
o,, q, o : who, which, that, 122
ooo,, -q, -ov: as much as, as many as; all who, all that, 23
ou, ou|, ou_: not, 169
ouv: and so, then; at all events, 72
ouo,, ouq, ouo: this, these, 158
oito, -qoo, toiqoo, toiq|o, toiqoi, toiqqv: to do, make, create, 52
po,: to, towards (+ acc.), near, in addition to (+ dat.), 45
poo,, -q, -ov: first, earliest, 11
2o|poq,, -ou,, o : Socrates, 29
t: and, both, 88
oivo, ovo, tqvo, tqvo, toooi, tovqv: to show; mid. appear, seem, 25
qi, t pto, tiov, tipq|o, tipqoi, tppqqv: to say, claim, assert, 172
o: O! oh! 92
o,: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 51
Page 5: 327c8-328c6
o|ouo, o|ouoooi, q|ouoo, o|q|oo, , q|ouoqv: to hear, listen to (acc., gen.), 8
oiio : but, 141
Running Core Vocabulary xv
oiiqio,, -o, -ov: one another, 15
oiio,: otherwise, in another way, 8
ov: ever; modal adv., 95
opo: introduces a yes/no question, 21
ouo,, -q, -o : -self; he, she, it; the same, 123
ouou: at the very place, here, there, 8
yt: at least, at any rate; indeed, 104
yiyvooi, ytvqoooi, tytvoqv, ytyovo, ytytvqoi, : come to be, become, 23
io : through (+ gen.) on account of, because of (+ acc.), 19
uvooi, uvqoooi, , , tuvqoi, tuvqqv: to be able, can, be capable. 14
ti : if, whether, 57
ti ov: said, spoke (aor. it yo, qi), 38
ti,, io, tv: one, single, alone, 7
tv: in, on, among. (+ dat.), 51
toi|o: to be like, seem likely (dat.), 24
ti: near, at (+ gen.), to, toward (+ acc), near, at (+ dat.), 28
tp_ooi, tituoooi, qiov, tiqiuo, , : to come, go, 29
ti: still, besides, further, 13
t_o, to, to_ov, to_q|o, to_qoi, : have, hold, possess; be able; be disposed, 47
q : or (either...or); than, 116
Opoouo_o,, o : Thrasymachus, 45
io,, o : a horse, 11
|ptiov, -ov: better, stronger, superior, 29
ityo, ito, tito, tiio_o, itityoi, tit_qv: to say, speak, 117
q : not, lest, 71
oio: to know, 27
oi: that; because, 75
out : and not, but not, nor, not even, 37
ou|ouv: therefore, then, accordingly, 25
ouo,: in this way, thus, so, 49
opo : from, at, to the side of (+ gen., dat., acc.); in respect to, 18
tio, tioo, ttioo, toio, ttiooi, ttioqv: persuade, trust; mid. obey, 14
Hoitop_o,, o : Polemarchus, 21
oiu,, oiio, oiu : much, many, 28
o,: how? in what way?, 25
oi -vuv: well then; therefore, accordingly, 6
uy_ovo, tuooi, tu_ov, tu_q|o, , : to chance upon, get; happen, 8
_pq : it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 10
Page 7: 328c7-329b4
io,, o : life, 6
ti : it is necessary, must, ought (+ inf.), 19
uvoi,, -to,, q : power, strength, force; faculty, capacity, 6
yqpo,, o: old age, 12
tti: when, after, since, because, 17
tpto: I will say or speak, 7
tu: well, 27
oo, qoo, tqoo, : to live, 7
Ztu,, o : Zeus, 8
qq: already, now, at this time, 8
qo,, -to,, o: pleasure, enjoyment, delight, 8
ioo,: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 10
Running Core Vocabulary xvi
|oo : down from (+ gen.), down, down along (+ acc.), 24
ioyo,, o : word, speech, discourse, argument, 41
tyo,, tyoiq, tyo: big, great, important, 9
qv: truly, surely, 12
ot, qt, ot: this, this here, 12
oio,, -o, -ov: of what sort, as, 14
oi|tio,, -o, -ov: ones own; peculiar; relatives, 9
ou-ti,, out-io, ou-tv: no one, nothing, 32
ovu: quite, entirely, exceedingly, 36
tpi: around, about, concerning (+ gen., dat., acc.), 26
otpo,, -o, -ov: which of the two? whether?, 15
poio,, -o, -ov: easy, ready, 10
ooo, -oo,, o : the body. 8
oiouo,, -ouq, -ouo: such, 24
ot: at that time, then, 13
iio,, -ou, o : friend, relative, kin, 9
_oito,, -o, -ov: difficult, hard, harmful, 6
ootp: as, just as, as if, 21
Page 9: 329b5-329e8
oiqq,, -t,: true, 28
ovpoo,, o : human being, 12
t|tivo,, -q, -ov: that, those, 27
tvt|o: for the sake of, because of, for (+ preceding gen.), 8
ttiov: whenever, 6
tpooo, tpoqoo, qpoqv, qpoq|o, qpoqoi, qpoqqv: to ask, inquire, 15
qytooi, qyqoooi, qyqooqv, , qyqoi, : lead, guide; consider, think, believe 9
|oooi, |qoooi, t|qooqv, , |t|qoi, t|qqv: to acquire, procure, get, 10
oiooi, oiqoooi, , , , oqqv: to suppose, think, imagine, 46
oov: ot ov, whenever, 23
ovo-ooi: all in all, altogether, absolutely, 6
o,, ooo, ov: every, all, the whole, 27
ot: ever, at some time, once, 9
uo : by, because of, from (+ gen.), under (+ dat.), 15
Page 11: 330a1-d3
oyoo,, -q, -ov: good, brave, capable, 34
oo-|pivooi, |pivouoi, t|pivoqv: to answer, reply, 28
tov: ti ov, if (+ subj.), 120
touou, -q,, -ou: himself, herself, itself, themselves, 47
ttio, ttiqoo, qtiqoo, qtiq|o, , :: to be willing, wish, desire. 19
tpyov, o: work, labor, deed, act, 21
ou -t: and not, neither...nor, 18
itov, -ov: more, greater, 14
oii,, q : a city, 16
_pqo, -oo,, o : thing, money, goods, 8
Page 13: 330d4-331b4
o -i|to: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 16
o -i|o,, -ov: unrighteous, unjust, 41
o|ov, o|ouoo, o|ov: unwilling, unintentionally, 6
ovqp, ovpo,, o : a man, 15
ou: again, once more; further, moreover, 9
Running Core Vocabulary xvii
t|: out of, from (+ gen.), 11
t-tio: then, next, secondly, 7
oiioo: most of all; certainly, especially, 7
oiiov: more, rather, 11
qt: and not, but not, nor, 14
q-ti,, q-tio, q-tv: no one, nothing, 15
otiio, otiiqoo, otiiqoo, otiiq|o: to owe, 14
o|ot o: to look at, examine, consider (other than pres. and impf. see o|t ooi) 24
iqi, qoo, tq|o, tq|o, ttioi, ttqv: put, place, arrange, make, cause, 24
u_q , q : breath, life, spirit, soul, 10
Page 15: 331b5-e8
oyvoto: not know, be ignorant of, 6
o -i|o,, -ov: unrighteous, unjust, 41
oo-ioi, -ooo, to|o, to|o, tooi, toqv: give back, return, render, 20
opo: then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 33
opi: just, exactly, 8
qio,, -q, -ov: clear, evident, conspicuous, 9
i|oio,, -o, -ov: just, right, lawful, fair, 105
t|ooo,, -q, -ov: each, every one, 24
opo,, -q, -ov: straight, upright, right, 13
ou: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 10
2ioviq,, o : Simonides, 10
oo ,, -q, -ov: your, yours, 16
ooo ,, -q, -ov: wise, skilled, 12
iio,, -q, -ov: dear, friendly; subst. friend, kin, 31
_pqoio,, -q, -ov: useful, serviceable, apt, fit, 12
Page 17: 331e9-332c8
t_po,, -o, -ov: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 24
iopi|o,, -q, -ov: of a physician, medical, 14
|oito, |oito, t|oitoo, |t|iq|o, |t|iqoi, t|iqqv: to call, summon, invite, 13
ovovo: to learn, understand, 16
voi : yes, yea, 14
poo-q|ti: it concerns, relates to; is fitting (+ dat) 7
t_vq, q : art, skill, craft, 28
o: ivi, dat. for to/for whom? 58
Page 19: 332c9-333a2
ioo, ioo, tioo, : to hurt, harm, 19
titv: well! well now!, 9
iopo,, o : physician, doctor, 12
|o vo, |oouoi, t|oov, |t|q|o, , : to be ill, tired, weary; toil, work, 6
|utpvqq,, -ou, o : a helmsman, pilot, governor, 9
ito: to sail, 6
poi,, -to,, q : a action, deed, transaction, business, 6
otito, otiqoo, otiqoo: to help, to be of use, benefit, 16
otitio, q : help, aid, use, advantage, benefit, 8
Page 21: 333a3-c7
opyupiov, o : silver (coin), piece of silver, 9
to, tqoo, ttqoo, ttq|o, ttqoi, ttqqv: lack, want, need; mid. ask, beg, 17
qo: certainly, to be sure, of course, 6
|oivq: in common, together, by common consent, 9
Running Core Vocabulary xviii
_poooi, _pqoooi, t_pqooqv, , |t_pqoi, t_pqoqv: to use, employ (+ dat.), 6
Page 23: 333c8-334a6
ovoy|q, q : necessity, force, constraint, 11
tivo,, -q, -ov: terrible; strange, wondrous, clever , 8
tit: either...or; whether...or, 16
|ivuvtuo, |ivuvtuoo: to risk, venture; impers. it is likely, 7
iovovo: to escape notice of, act unnoticed, 6
ooi,, qi,, o i: whoever, whichever, whatever, 89
o|tooi, o|tooi, to|toqv, to|toi: to consider, examine, look at, 12
uioo, uioo, tuyov, tuio_o, , tuio_qv: keep watch, keep guard, 6
Page 25: 334a7-d6
oopovo, oopqoooi, qopov, qopq|o: miss the mark, make a mistake, 16
tvovio,, -o, -ov: opposite, contrary, 17
ovqpo,, -o, -ov: bad, evil; painful, grievous, 9
oot: so that, that, so as to, 12
Page 27: 334d7-335b5
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
ou-oivo, -qoooi, -tqv, tq|o, tooi, toqv: to happen, occur, result, 5
_pqoo,, -q, -ov: good, useful, worthy, 5
Page 29: 335b6-d9
o -uvoo,, -ov: unable, incapable, impossible, 8
optq, q : excellence, goodness, virtue, 27
tiiov, -ov: better, 6
ouoi|o,, -q, -ov: musical, educated, cultured, 7
Page 31: 335d10-336b6
iqi: to send, let go, release,; mid. hasten, 11
o|opio,, -o, -ov: blessed, happy, 7
ouy-_opto, -_opqoo: to come together; yield, concede, 6
Page 33: 336b7-337a4
o|piq,, -t,: exact, accurate, precise, 13
op_o, opo, qpo, qp_o, qpyoi, qp_qv: to begin; rule, be leader of, 69
t-oopovo, oopqoooi, qopov, qopq|o: to miss (the mark), fail, err, 8
iuoitito: to pay (what is due), profit, avail, 6
ovo,, -q, -ov: alone, only, solitary, 8
oo,: how, in what way; in order that, that, 6
potpo,, -o, -ov: before, previous; earlier, 15
ou-tpo, -oioo, -qvty|ov, -tvq|o_o: to gather, collect; be useful, be expedient, 47
Page 35: 337a5-d7
oioo: to think worthy, deem right, 8
t : se (reflexive), 49
ttpo,, -o, -ov: one of two, other, different, 8
ooio,, -o, -ov: like, resembling, similar, 13
oo_o, tioooi, toov, tovo: to suffer, experience; allow 6
Page 37: 337d8-338c3
tiioo,, -q, -ov: best, 10
ivo: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 7
ooi o, q : wisdom, skill, judgment, intelligence, 7
Running Core Vocabulary xix
Page 39: 338c4-339a9
opioo,, -q, -ov: best, most excellent, 6
op_q, q : a beginning; rule, office, 15
Page 41: 339b1-d10
ti-_tipto: to put one's hand on, attempt, try, 7
oo-ioyto, ooioyqoo, ooioyqoo, ooioyq|o, , ooioyqqv: to agree, 17
poo-oo, oo, too, to_o, tooi, toqv: order, assign, appoint (dat)8
Page 45: 340c6-341b2
qioupyo,, o : a skilled workman, craftsman, 6
vuv-q: just now, 6
ootp, qtp, otp: the very one who, very thing which, 8
Page 47: 341b3-e1
vou,, vto,, q : a ship, boat, 15
vou q,, -ou, o : sailor, 8
tito,, -o, -ov: finished, complete, perfect, last, 8
Page 51: 342c7-343a4
ti-oo, oo, too, to_o, tooi, toqv: to order, command, 6
Page 53: 343a5-e1
o -i|io, q : wrong-doing, injustice, 28
tu -oiov, -ov: happy, fortunate, blessed, 9
ioo,, -q, -ov: equal to, the same as, like, 11
o,: somehow, in any way, 26
Page 55: 343e2-344d1
t|otpo,, -o, -ov: each of two, either, 6
iio,, -o, -ov: private; owns own, peculiar, 6
itovt|to: gain or have more, gain or have advantage, go beyond, exceed (gen), 11
Page 57: 344d2-345c2
ioo, iooooi, tiooo, tio|o, tiooi, : to live, 7
too, tooo, tiooo, tio|o, tiooi, tioqv: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 14
to,, -q, -ov: my, mine, 9
iuoitiq,, -t,: profitable, useful, advantageous, 7
poo, poo, tpoo, tpo_o, tpoyoi, tpo_qv: to do, make, act, 19
Page 59: 345c3-346b2
|oivo,, -q, -ov: common, ordinary; public, 10
tiio, tiiqoo, ttiiqoo: to be about to, to intend to, 6
ioo,, o : wage, pay, hire, 13
Page 61: 346b3-d8
tpyoooi, tpyooooi, qpyoooqv, , tipyoooi, qpyooqv: work, labor, toil, 6
Page 63: 346d9-347b9
ooio,, -o, -ov: similar, resembling, 13
Page 67: 348a8-d6
|o|io, q : wickedness, vice, cowardice, 9
povio,, -ov: intelligent,wise, prudent, 6
xx
Abbreviations

abs. absolute
acc. accusative
act. active
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aor. aorist
app. appositive
comp. comparative
dat. dative
dep. deponent
d.o. direct object
f. feminine
fut. future
gen. genitive
imp. imperative
impf. imperfect
imper. impersonal
indic. indicative
i.o. indirect object
inf. infinitive
inter. interrogative
m. masculine
n. neuter
nom. nominative
obj. object
opt. optative
pple. participle
pass passive
pf. perfect
pl. plural
plpf. pluperfect
pred. predicate
prep. preposition
pres. present
pron. pronoun
reflex. reflexive
rel. relative
seq. sequence
sg. singular
subj. subject
superl. superlative
voc. vocative



Stephanus Page Numbers

The universal method for referring to pages in any of Platos dialogues is through
Stephanus page numbers. This paging system was developed by Henri Estienne (Lat.,
Stephanus), who published a multi-volume edition of Platos dialogues in 1578.
Stephanus divided each page in his edition into roughly equal sections, which he
labeled with the letters a, b, c, d, and e. This system allowed his readers to locate a
particular passage not only by the page number but by the section letter as well (e.g.
327a, 327b, 327c, 327d, 327e, 328a). Many modern editions, including the Greek
text in this volume, have adopted this system and gone one step further by dividing
the sections into individual lines (e.g. 327a1, 327a2, 327a3). This paging system
offers the same advantages as chapters and verses in the Bible. Since most editions of
Plato include the Stephanus page numbers in the margins of the text, a reader can pick
up any volume of Platoin Greek or in translationand easily locate a particular
passage in the dialogue.

Because Stephanus placed the Republic on pages 327-621 in his second volume of
Plato, the Republic begins on Stephanus page 327a1 and ends on page 621d3. In this
commentary all of the grammatical notes are arranged and labeled according to this
paging system. Since most of the entries on a given page of commentary have the
same Stephanus page number, I have identified the page number only once and
labeled all subsequent grammatical note entries by the section letter and line number
(e.g. 327a1, a2, a3b1, b2, b3, b4).





























Magee: Do you share the traditional view that his masterpiece is the Republic?

Burnyeat: Yes, I do.

Magee: Why?

Burnyeat: I think because it is in the Republic more than anywhere else that Plato
makes good his belief that every question is connected with every other;
the inquiry need never stop, because every conclusion for now leads on
to the next problem

-Bryan Magee, The Great Philosophers





To make the ancients speak, we must feed them with our own blood.

-von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff

2








St. II
327
a



5
b



5



c




5












.
,
.
.


. ,
, , .
. , ,
. -
, .


.
,
.
, .
, , ;

Republic I. 327a1-c7 3
oyo: to lead, bring, carry, convey, 2
Atiovo,, o : Adeimantus, Platos brother, 2
otio,, o : a brother, 2
oo: at the same time; along with (dat.), 5
o-tp_ooi: to go away, depart, 5
Apioov, -ovo,, o : Ariston, father of Plato, 1
oou, o: a city, town, 3
o t: inasmuch as, since (+ pple.), 2
ooo: to think, opine, suppose, imagine, 1
topq, q : a feast, festival, 1
ti-_opioi, oi : inhabitants, locals, natives, 1
q|o: to have come, be present, 2
to ooi: to see, watch, look at; consider, 3
to ,, o : a god, divinity, 5
topt o: to see, watch, look at, 1
Opo, Opo|o,, o : a Thracian, 1
ioiov, o : a cloak or mantle, 1
|o-opoo: to look down, perceive, 2
|oo-oivo: walk down, step down, 2
to-opt o: to turn about, turn around, 1
Ni|qpoo,, o : Niceratus, 1
Ni|io,, -ou, o : Nicias, 1
oi|o-t: homeward, home, 2
oiiyo, -q, -ov: few, little, small, 1
oiotv: behind; in the future (+ gen.), 2
oou: where, 3
opoo: to see, look, behold, 5
opoo: to set in motion; set out, hasten, 5
oi,, oio,, o, q : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
Htipoitu,, Htipoo,, o : Piraeus, 2
to: to send, conduct, convey, dispatch, 1
tpi-tvo: to wait for, await, 5
oq, q : procession, parade, 2
oppo-tv: from afar (pooo-tv) 1
pto: to fit, suit; be fitting, be suitable, 2
poo-tp_ooi: to come or go to, approach, 1
poo-tu_ooi: to pray to, worship (dat.) 2
pt_o: to run, 1
poo,, o : a manner, way; turn, direction, 4
uotpo,, -o, -ov: later, last, 4
_t,: yesterday, 1


327a1 Kotqv: 1
st
sg. aor., |oooivo
denotes a trip to the shore, as ovo-oivo
denotes a trip inland; the verb may allude
to the return descent in the Allegory of
the Cave (519a) where the enlightened
have trouble persuading those in the cave
ou Apioovo,: (son) of Ariston; a
patronymic, see also b3 and c2 below
a2 pootuotvo,: intending to pray; fut.
pple denoting purpose, i.e. in order to...
q to : later revealed to be Bendis, 354a
a3 topqvivo poov oiqoouoiv: in
what way they will celebrate the festival?
the festival in what way, topqv
precedes ind. question in anticipation
ot: ot + pple asserts a cause from the
speakers point of view, whereas o, +
pple suggests an alleged cause, cf. c5
poov: for the first time; adv. acc.
a4 tv ou vtvoi: indeedhowever
ti voi: inf. tii
a5 qov: adv. acc. qov follows pttiv
qv: (the procession) which; nom. subject
antecedent oq is missing
b1 o qtv: 3
rd
pl. impf. o-tp_ooi
oou: i.e. Athens, five miles inland
b2 |oiov: nom. sg. aor. pple. |o-opoo
opqtvou,: having set out; pf. mid.
pple. opoo
b3 poovo: aor. pple. pt_o with oio,
which here denotes a slave of any age
tpitivoi: aor. inf. tpitvo
t : him; i.e. Polemarchus, a 3
rd
person sg.
reflexive pronoun, acc obj. of tpitivoi
b4 |tituooi: to bid (us) + inf.; aor. inf.
|tituo, supply the object qo,
iootvo,: aor. mid. pple ioovo
ou ioiou: by the cloak; partitive gen.
b5 tq: (the slave) said; impf. qi (cf. p. 5)
b6 ttopoqv: 1
st
sg. aor. pass. deponent
qpoqv: 1
st
sg. aor. tpooi
tiq: where(ever)was; 3
rd
sg. opt. tii in
an ind. question in secondary sequence
ouo,: (he) himself; intensive pronoun
b7 oiio: come; introducing an imperative
Aiio tpitvoutv: well then; future
b8 q o, o liou|ov: said this one Glaucon;
3
rd
sg. impf. qi, o, is a demonstrative
c1 oiiyo : a little; dat. degree of difference
uotpov: later; as often, adverbial acc.
c3 o,: as if, just as
c5 opqooi: pf. mid. inf. opoo
o, oiovt,: as if; pple otp_ooi
c7 qv tyo: I said; impf. qi (see p. 5)
c8 qo,oooi totv: how many we are;
prolepsis (see a3 above), 1
st
pl. tii
327c

4


10





328



5




b



5




c



5

;
, , .
, , ,
;
, , ;
, .
, .
, , ,
;
; .
;
;
, .
,
.
.
.
, , , .
, , .
,
,
,
-
.

. -
.

.

,

Republic I 327c8-328c6 5
Atiovo,, o : Adeimantus, 2
otio,, o : a brother, 2
o iiioooi: to contend with, compete, 2
oio,, -o, -ov: worthy of, deserving of, 3
Apioovuo,, o : Aristonymus, 1
oooooi: to welcome, embrace, 2
ouiq, q : the court-yard, 1
ouo -i: on the very spot or moment, 4
o-iqi: to let go, send forth, give up, 5
tivov, o : the principal meal, dinner, 1
io-ioi: to give, hand over, 1
io-ityooi: to converse with, discuss, 3
io-vot ooi: to think, consider, intend, 4
ipo,, o : seat, chair, stool, 2
tiov: aor. of opoo, to see, behold, 3
tvov: within, at home, 1
t-ovioqi: to raise up, stand up, 1
totpo, q : evening, eve, 1
Euuqo,, o : Euthydemus, 1
tuu,: right away, straight, directly, at once 1
oi o: to come often, 1
to ooi: to see, watch, look at; consider, 3
to ,, o : a god, divinity, 5
u o: to sacrifice, 1
|o-tooi: to sit down, take a seat, 1
|o-qoi: to sit, 1
|oivo,, -q, -ov: new, novel, strange, 1
Koi_qovio,, -o, -ov: of Chalcedon, 1
|oo-oivo: to walk down, step down, 2
|oo-ioovo: to find; seize; compel 1
|tioi: to lie, lie down, be set, 4
Kitioov, o : Clitophon, 4
|u|io,, o : a circle, round, ring, 1
iooiov, o : small torch, 1
ioo,, -oo,, q : torch-race, 1
itio: to leave, forsake, abandon, 1
/uoi o,, o : Lysias, a famous speech-writer, 1
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
tvtto,, -o, -ov: (worthy) to be waited for, 1
tvo: to stay, remain, abide, 2
vt o,, -o, -ov: young; new, novel, strange, 1
oi|o-t: homeward, home, 2
opoo: to see, look, behold, 5
ouoo,: in no way, not at all, 5
Hoiovito,, -o, -ov: of the deme Paeania, 1
ov-vu_i ,, i o,, q : a night-festival, 2
oqp, o : a father, 4
ptouq,, o : old man, 2
poo-|toioiov, o : cushion (for the head) 1
otovo o: to crowne, wreath, honor, 1
ou v-tii: to be with, associate with, 2
Xopoviq,, o : Charmantides, 1
_povo,, o : time, 1


c8 Ho, yop ou : how could (I) not?; affirms
and expresses (im)possibility and surprise
c9 ouov: these (men); gen. of comparison
|ptiou,: |ptio(v)t,, predicate adj.
ytvtot: aor. pl. imperative yiyvooi
ouou : here; adverb in core vocabulary
c10 Ou|ouv: Thennot?; seeks a yes reply
o qvtiootv: namely that if; t ov,
aor. subj. tio, in a future more vivid
protasis made a substantive by o
c12 uvoiot ov: could you; pres potential opt
tiooi: aor. inf. tio
q o|ouovo,: (us if) not listening
c14 1,o|ouootvov: since (we); o, +
fut. pple (gen. abs.) denotes alleged cause
328a1 iot: 2
nd
pl. oio
a2 tooi: 3
rd
sg. fut. tii
o iov: on horseback; from horses
a3 ouo: this (is); supply linking toiv
a5 o, ityti,: How do you mean?
a6 |oi po, yt: and in addition; emphasized
a7 oiov: (is) worthwhile; add linking toiv
a8 ouvtoo to: fut. ouv-tii + dat.
b2 tvttov tivoi: that we must wait
b4 Hitv: impf. tp_ooi
ti, Hoitop_ou: at Polemarchus home
b8 qv: 3
rd
sg. impf. tii
b9 io _po vou: over (a long) time
c1 topo|q: I had seen; plpf. opoo
totovotvo,: pf. mid. pple otovo
c2 tu|o,: happened to have sacrificed;
uo pf. complementary pple + uy_ovo

qi and qi : Common Verbs of Saying in Present and Imperfect tense
1
st
qi otv tqv totv qi qv
2
nd
q, ot tq, tot
3
rd
qoi(v) ooi(v) tq tooov qoi q
328c
6


d



5


e



5


329



5



b



. .
,
, -
.
,
. ,

.
, , ,

,
, , ,
.
,
,
, .
, , , ,
. -
, -
,


,
, .

,
. , ,
. ,


Republic I: 328c7-329b4 7
oyovo|to: to be annoyed, be irritated, 1
oiioooi: to charge, blame, accuse, 1
oiio,, -o, -ov: responsible, blameworthy, 4
ovo-ivqo|o: to remind (+ acc. + gen.), 1
oo-opoivooi: to waste away, die, 1
oo-otpt o: to deprive from, rob, defraud, 1
oou, o: a city, town, 3
ouovo: to increase, augment, 1
opoioio,, -o, -ov: of Aphrodite; sex 2
tupo: here, to this point, hither, 3
io-ityooi: to converse with, discuss, 3
io-ooo: to preserve, recover, 1
tvioi, -oi, -o: some, 1
t v-ouo: here, hither, there, thither, then, 5
t-oyytiio: to send out, report, 1
ti-ui o, q : desire, longing, yearning, 2
tu -opo,, -ov: easily done; resourceful, 1
tuo_io, q : good cheer, feasting, 2
qovq, q : pleasure, enjoyment, delight, 3
qii|io, q : age, time of life, 3
vtovi o|o,, o : a youth, 1
vto q,, -qo,, q : youth, 2
vq : by + acc.; invoking a divinity, 2
oo,, q : road, way, path, journey, 1
oupooi: to lament, bewail, mourn, 1
oioupooi: to lament, bewail, mourn, 1
ouo,, o : threshold, entrance, 1
oioio,, -o, -ov: old, aged, ancient, 1
opo-iqoio,, -o, -ov: resembling, similar, 1
opoiio, q : saying, proverb, maxim, 1
Htipoitu,, Htipoo,, o : Piraeus, 2
itioo,, -q, -ov: most, greatest, 3
oiqq,, ou, o : maker, creator, poet, 3
oio,, -o, -ov: what sort of? what kind of?, 2
oto: to long for, yearn after, 1
oiio|i,: many times, often, frequently, 3
optuooi: to travel, journey, march, 2
oo,, o: drinking, 1
ptouq,, o : old man, 2
po-tp_ooi: to go before(hand), advance, 1
poqio|ioi,, q : abuse, abuse treatment, 1
u|vo,, q, ov: frequent; compact, stout, 1
uvovooi: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 5
ou v-tii: to be with, associate with (+ dat.) 2
ouv-tp_ooi: to go together or in company, 2
oti,: they, 2
oo po: very, exceedingly, earnestly, 3
po_u,, tio, u : rough, ragged, harsh, 1
uvto: to sing, laud, celebrate; recite, 1
oioo: to go to and fro, visit, 1
_oipo: to rejoice, enjoy; fare well, 1


c7 _pqv: it was proper (to visit); impf. _pq
ti q ov tti: if I wereit would be
necessary; contrary-to-fact condition:
1
st
sg. impf. tii and ov + impf. ti
c8 ou . . . optutooi: ofing; articular inf.
outv: not at all; adverbial acc.
d1 itvoi: inf. tp_ooi
ovqtv: would; 1
st
pl. impf. tp_ooi
in the apodosis of the same contrafactual
u|votpov: comparative adverb
d2 ioi: singular imperative oio
ooovooouov: as much asso much;
correlatives, inner acc. or acc. of extent
d3 ouovoi: fut. deponent ouovo
d4 q...oi ti: negative pres. imper.; oit-t
d5 ou vioi: associate with; sg. imper. ouv-
tii or perhaps imper. ouv-oio
d6 oio: oio-t, o-contract imperative
o,: as if, just as
d7 |oi qvyt: and truly; consents and
marks the enclosed _oipo as something
of greater importance
e1 _pqvoi: it is necessary; inf. _pq
e2 ivo oov: over a road; acc. of extent
potiqiuoov: gen. pl. pf. act. pple
po-tp_ooi
qv: over which (road)..; acc. of extent
|oi: also; adverbial
e3 tqoti: fut. impersonal ti
oio i,: whatever sort; governed by
uvovooi
e4 |oi q |oi: in particular; and indeed also
ov uoiqv: I would learn; potential opt.
e5 oi: what;. o i
tvouo: at that point; + partitive gen.
ti : 2
nd
sg. pres. tii
e6 ti...ouo : on the threshold of old age
otpovq : whether (it is)or; in
response to oiouo above
329a1 vq ov Li o: by Zeus; acc. sg. Ztu,
a2 ti, ouov: to the same place; o ouov
a4 ouvio vt,: nom. pl. pple ouv-tp_ooi
a6 oii oo: some other things oiio ivo
a7 t_toi: pertain to; cling + partitive gen
o,: since; + participles, alleged cause
b2 ti ouo q: on this very condition
329b

8




c



5



d



5


e



5





, ,
.
,
, ,
, ;
; , , ,
, -
.
, .


, ,
.

, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
,
, ,


.
, , .
, -
,



Republic I 329b5-e8 9
oyooi: to wonder at, admire (gen) 2
oypio,, -o, -ov: wild, fierce, 1
oiio, q : cause, responsibility, blame, 1
o -oiioooo: to set free, release, deliver, 1
oo-t_ooi: to accept, receive, 5
oo-ipoo|o: to run away, flee, escape, 1
oo-tuyo: to flee from, escape, 1
ootvq,, -t,: well-pleased, glad, 2
opoioio,, -o, -ov: of Aphrodite; sex 2
yuvq, yuvoi|o,, q : a woman, wife, 1
tooq,, o : master, lord, 3
tipqvq, q : peace, 3
titutpio, q : freedom, liberty, 1
t v-ouo: here, hither, there, thither, then, 5
tv-uy_ovo: to chance upon, encounter, 1
ti-ui o, q : desire, longing, yearning, 2
ti-ovo,, -ov: painful, toilsome, laborious, 1
tu -|oio,, -ov: easily satisfied; contented, 1
tu -qto: to keep religious silence, be quiet, 1
qii|io, q : age, time of life, 3
Otioo|itq,, o : Themistocles, 1
|oo-tivo: to draw taut, stretch, extend, 1
|ivto: set in motion, move; arouse, irritate 1
|ooio,, -o, -ov: well-ordered, moderate, 2
ioiopto: to abuse, rail against, revile, 1
iuoo: to rage, rave, be mad, 1
oivooi: to be mad, rage, be furious, 3
tpio,, -o, -ov: moderate, well, fair, 2
vto q,, -qo,, q : youth, 2
ouoio, q : property; essence, substance, 3
opo-yiyvooi: come near, be present (dat.) 1
opo-uiov, o : abatement, comfort, 1
ouo: to stop, make cease, 1
iouoio,, -o, -ov: rich, wealthy, opulent, 3
oiqq,, ou, o : maker, creator, poet, 3
2tpiio,, o : Seriphius, 2
2oo|itq,, 2oo|itou,, o : Sophocles, 3
ouy-yiyvooi: to be with, associate with, 2
ou-oivo: to happen, occur, 5
poo,, o : a manner, way; turn, direction, 4
tpo: to bear, carry, bring, convey, 5
_oioo: to slacken, loosen, release, 1


b5 |ovttovq: were...then I would have
experienced; contrafactual; plpf. oo_o
yqpo,: yqpo-o,, gen. object of tvt|o
b6 tvtu_q|o: 1
st
sg. pf. tv-uy_ovo
b7 ouo, t_ouoi: being so disposed; dat. pl.
pple, t_o + adv. is translated often as to
be disposed + adv. or to be + adj.
|oi q |oi: in particular; and indeed also
uo ivo, by someone; gen. of agent,
governed by the pres. pass. pple tpooo
c1 Ho, t_ti,: How do you feel; How are
you disposed, see b7
oio, t ti: are you able; are you such,
oio, t + tii is an idiom for be able
c2 |oi o,: and that one; demonstrative
Euqti: keep quiet; tuqt-t, sg. imper.
c3 ootvtooo: superlative adverb
tvoi: certainly, of course; eager assent
iuovo: iuoovo, acc. pres. pple
c4 oopo,: nom. aor. pple ooipoo|o
|oi ot: even at that time; |oi is an adv.
c5 qov: less; comparative adverb, qov
c6 ov yt oiouov: from..; gen. separation
c7 ttiov: whenever; ov + aor. subjunctive
ouo, _oioo; pres. general condition
c8 o ou : that (response) of Sophocles
yiyvtoi: comes to pass
d1 tooov: from; large gen. separation
toi: (it) is + inf.; i.e. old age
oqiio_oi: to be freed from; pf. pass.
d2 ouov tpi: both regarding these and..
d4 ovooiv: if they are; tov + 3
rd
pl. subj.
d6 o oiouo : for such a person; interest
d7 oyooti,: struck with amazement at him;
+ gen.; nom. sg. inceptive aorist dep. pple
e1 oioi: I suppose that; syncopated oiooi
oou: accept (this) from you; gen. source
e2 qytiooi: believe; oiiou, is acc. subj.
e4 |t|qooi: pf. inf. |oooi
oi, iouoioi,: dat. poss. with inf. tii
e7 i: something (important)
o...tu t_ti: the response..is good; cf. b7

3
rd
Decl. Nouns Nom. 2o|poq, 2oo|iq, (t-q,) yqpo, (old age)
t (o)- & o-stem Gen. 2o|poou, (t-o,) 2ooitou, (t-to,) yqpo, (o-o,)
Dat. 2o|poti (t-i) 2oo|iti (t-ti) yqpo (o-i)
Acc. 2o|poq (t-o) 2oo|ito (t-to) yqpo,
Voc. 2o|pot, 2oo|iti, (t-t,) yqpo,
330a
10
330



5



b



5



c



5




d




,

. ,
, ,

.
, , ,
;
, , ;
.

,

,
.
, ,
,

. -
,

, .
,
.
, , .
, .

;

Republic I 330a1-d3 11
oyooo: to love, be fond of; satisfy, 4
Aqvoio,, -o, -ov: Athenian, of Athens, 1
oo-iouo: to enjoy, have enjoyment (gen.), 2
oooooi: to welcome, embrace, 2
po_u,, -tio, -u : short, 1
iioo,, -q, -ov: twofold, double, 1
tioov, -ov: smaller, fewer, 5
toivto: to praise, approve, commend, 3
ti-ti|q,, -t,: fitting, suitable, reasonable, 5
ti-|oooi: to acquire in addition, 2
tptooi: to ask, enquire, 1
tu -o|ito: to be of good repute, esteemed, 2
tu -|oio,, -ov: easily satisfied; contented, 1
|oo-itio: to leave behind, abandon, 1
/uoovi o,, o : Lysanias, 1
too,, - q, -ov: middle, in the middle of, 2
o-ovuo,, -q, -ov: having the same name, 1
ovoooo,, -q, -ov: named, notable, famous, 1
ouoio, q : property; essence, substance, 3
oi,, oio,, o, q : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
oo,, o : grandfather; ancestor, 3
opo-ioovo: to receive from, 3
oqp, o : a father, 4
tvio, q : poverty, need, 1
iouoio,, -o, -ov: rich, wealthy, opulent, 3
iouto: to be rich, wealthy, 1
iouo,, o : wealth, riches, 2
oiqo, -oo,, o : poem; product, 1
oiqq,, ou, o : maker, creator, poet, 3
oio,, -o, -ov: what sort of? what kind of?, 2
oiio|i,: many times, often, frequently, 3
2tpiio,, o : Seriphius, 2
oouoo: to be serious, be eager, hasten 2
ouy-yiyvooi: to engage or associate with, 2
oo po: very much, exceedingly, earnestly, 3
o_to v: nearly, almost, just about, 1
ouq: in this respect, in this way, so, thus, 2
oi: ya know, let me tell you, surely, 3
oooot, -qt, -ovt: so great, much, many 3
ooouo,, -ouq, -ouo: so great, so many, 2
tpo: to bear, carry, bring, convey, 5
_ptio, q : use, advantage, service; need, 3
_pqoio: to negotiate, transact business, 1
_pqoioq,, o : money-maker, 4


330a1 i ouov: through himself; touov
tuo|ioi : tuo|itoi, pres opt. replacing
a past indicative in secondary sequence
a2 ov ouo,tytvto: he himself would not
become; ov + aor. ind. is past potential
(unrealized); the subject is Themistocles
ov: if he were; being pres. pple. tii in
place of a protasis, pres. contrary-to-fact
a3 t|tivo, Aqvoio,: that one is
Seriphius, supply the parallel clause ov,
ov ovoooo, tytvto
a4 tpouoiv: bearing; dat. pl. pple tpo
tu t_ti: is good; holds well, t_o + adv.
ouo,: the same; attributive position
oi: (namely) that; clarifying ioyo,
ovtvty|oi: would bear; endure ov +
aor. potential opt. tpo (tvty|)
a5 o titi|q,: the reasonable man
a6 o q titi|q,: the unreasonable man
ovytvoio: would; aor. potential opt.
o : ot
touo : with himself
a7 Hotpovq : begins an either-or question
ov: (of the things) which; ouov o,
acc. attracted to gen. of lost antecedent
|t|qooi: 2
nd
sg. pf. |oooi
o iti o: itio(v)o, comparative n. pl.

a8 optiot,: 2
nd
sg. aor. opoioovo
tt|qoo: t-t|qoo(o)o, 2
nd
sg. aor.
b1 Hoi : What sort?; Hoio, neuter pl.
ytyovo: 1
st
sg. pf. yiyvooi
b2 oovuo,: same person as oo,
o_tov i: somewhat almost, just about
b5 tioo: tioo(v)o, comparative adj.
q,ouoq,: than; gen. of comparison,
pres. pple. tii; ouoiov is fem. sg.
b6 oyoo : I am satisfied
tioo: tioo(v)o, comparative adj.
|ooiio: 1
st
sg. aor. subj. |ooitio
ouoioiv: for these sons; dat. of interest
b7 po_ti ivi: a little bit; dat. degree of
difference with itio, itio(v)o cf. a7
b8 Ou . . oi: this...namely that; demonstrative
c1 oyoov: pres. inf. o-contract verb
o, o oiu: for the most part, generally
c4 ouq q |oi: in this very way in fact
c5 o, tpyov: as if their creation; product
|oo..._pti ov: in its use, owing to its use
c6 qtp: in which way; add oouoouoiv
c7 ouyytvt ooi: explanatory inf. + _oitoi
outv.oiio q : nothing other than
d2 oiti: you suppose; oit(o)oi, 2
nd
sg. pres.
ou |t|qooi: articular inf. + ooiouo
330d

12

5




e




5



331




5





10

b


, .
, , , ,
,
.
,
, ,


-
.

, ,

,
. , ,
,
,



.
.
,
.
,

, -


Republic I 330d4-331b4 13
Aq,, o : Hades or Pluto, 1
o -i|qo, -oo,, o : a wrong, wrong-doing, 1
oti : always, forever, in every case, 2
ovo-ioyiooi: to reckon up, sum up, 1
oio, q : worth, value, 1
o -ot vtio, q : weakness, feebleness, 1
ooiio: to skip, gambol, 1
yqpo-poo,, -ov: nourishing in old age, 2
yiu|u,, -tio, -u : sweet, pleasant, delightful, 1
yvoq, q : thought, judgement, opinion, 1
tio: to fear, 3
tio, -oo,, o : fear, dread, 1
tioivo: to be afraid, be in a fright, 1
to,, tou,, o : fear, alarm, dread, awe, 1
i-oyo: to live, pass, go through, 2
ioi: to give, offer, grant, provide, 1
i|q, q : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 1
tytipo: to awaken, wake up, rouse, 1
tyyu,: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 2
tyyutpo: nearer, closer, at hand, 1
tio-tp_ooi: to go in, enter, 2
t|ti: there, in that place, 2
t|ti -ot: thither, to that place, 1
tii,, -io,, q : hope, expectation, 3
t-pootv: before, previously; earlier, 3
tv-o t: hither, thither, 5
t-oooo: to deceive, beguile, 2
ti-ti|q,, -t,: fitting, suitable, reasonable, 5
tupio|o: to find, discover, devise, invent, 4
qu,, -tio, -u : sweet, pleasant, glad, 4
qoi: now surely, truly, 2
oo: often, 1
ouooo ,, -q, -ov: wonderful, marvelous, 2
to,, o : a god, divinity, 5
vqo ,, -q, -ov: liable to death, mortal, 1
uoi o, q : an offering, sacrifice, 1
|o-opoo: to look down, perceive, 2
|opio, q : the heart, 1
|oo-ytioo: to laugh (at), mock, 1
|ooio,, -o, -ov: well-ordered, moderate, 2
|qoi,, -to,, q : possession, acquisition, 5
|utpvoo: to be a helmsman; steer, govern, 2
tpo,, -to,, o: a part, share, portion, 5
too,, -q, -ov: full, filled, filled full, 1
uo,, o : story, word, speech, 2
ooio,, -o, -ov: hallowed, sacred, ordained, 2
oi,, oio,, o, q : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
op-tii: to be near, be present, be at hand, 3
Hivopo,, o : Pindar, 1
itioo,, -q, -ov: most, greatest, 3
oiuopoo,, -ov: versatile, much-twisted, 1
opt o: to turn, twist, 1
ou-oiio: to contribute; join in battle, 1
ouv-oopt o: to accompany, join with, 1
ou v-oio: to know with, be conscious of, 2
oo po: very much, exceedingly, earnestly, 3
tituoo: to end, complete, finish; die, 3
to,: up to this time; till then, as long as, 1
oi: ya know, let me tell you, surely, 3
uvo,, o : sleep, slumber, 1
u-oio, q : suspicion, jealousy, 1
povi,, -io,, o : throught, care, concern, 1
_opitvo,: charmingly, gracefully, lovely, 1
tuooi: mid. to lie, cheat, beguile, 2


d4 Oityov: saying this; saying which,
ovtiooii: potential aor. opt. tio
ioi: sg. imperative oio
d5 q : wheneveris; 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. tii,
tyyu,ou oitooi: close to thinking;
articular infinitive
d7 tioqti: 3
rd
sg. impf. tio-tp_ooi
d8 ov tv Aiou: affairs in Hades (house)
o,: (namely) how
iovoi i|qv: to pay the penalty
e1 |ooytiotvoi: mocked up to this time
opt ouoiv: subject is oi uoi above
q...o oiv: lest the storiesare; clause of
fearing, 3
rd
pl. pres. subj. tii
e2 |oi ouo,: and he himself; ouou above
uo: because of + gen.
e3 |oi ootpov: as if being; o,(tp)
+ pple describes an alleged cause
ov t|ti : those things there; in Hades,
gen. object of comparative tyyutpo
oiiov i: somewhat better; i is adv.
acc. (or acc. of extent by degree)
e4 ouo : them; i.e. the ov t|ti
ouv: but at any rate
e5 ivo i: wrong someone in something;
verb can take a double acc. of the person
wronged (ivo) and an inner acc. (i)
e6 |oi: even
331a5 ov ioyoyq : 3
rd
sg. aor. subj. ioyo
b1 o |ooio : to the reasonable and well-
ordered person
b2 tooqooi: aor. inf. t-oooo
b3 oitvoi: inf. o-tp_ooi
b4 tioo: acc. sg. pf. pple. tio
331b
14
5


c



5




d



5




e



5


.

, , .
, , , . ,
,
,
,
; ,
, ,
,
,
.
, , .
,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
, , , , ;
, , .
, , ,
;
, ,
.
, , -

, , , ,
, ,


Republic I 331b5-e8 15
oiqtio, q : truth, 2
oo: at the same time; along with (dat.), 5
ovi : instead of, in place of (+ gen.), 5
o-oito: to ask back, demand back, 3
o -ioto: to distrust, not believe (+ dat.), 1
oio,: singly, plainly, absolutely, 2
ytioo: to laugh, 1
yiyvoo|o: to come to know, learn, realize, 5
titp: if really, if in fact (to imply doubt), 5
tio_ioo,, -q, -ov: smallest, least, 1
tvi -ot: sometimes, 5
ti-titooi: to take care, care for (+ dat.), 3
tio,, -o, -ov: divine, sent by the gods, 3
itpo,, -q, -ov: holy, divine; sacred rites, 3
|iqpo-vo o,, o : heir, inheritor, 2
oivooi: to be mad, rage, be furious, 3
vou,, o : mind, intention, attention, thought, 3
oiov, o: arms, weapons, tools, 1
opo,, o : definition; boundary, marker, 1
oy-|oio,, -q, -ov: all-beautiful, -noble, 2
opo-ioi: to hand over, transmit, 1
iouo,, o : wealth, riches, 2
oopovt o: to be prudent, temperate, 1
oioot, -ot, -ovt: such (as this), 5
uo-ioovo: to take up, reply; suppose, 5
_ptio, q : use, advantage, service; need, 3


b5 tv yt ov tvo,: (setting) one thing
against (another) one
b6 ou| tio_ioovti, ouo: for this
(purpose) not least(namely that)
ti qv: I would set forth, I would
propose; aor. potential opt. iqi
ovpi vouv t_ovi: for a man having
(good) sense; dat. of interest
tivoi: inf. tii, iouov is acc. subject
c1 ouo ouo, qv i|oioou vqv: (as for)
this thing itself, justice,; in respect
to acc. of respect and an appositive
c2 qootvq : will we claimor; fut. qi
qv oiqtiov|oi o ooiovoi: (to
speak) the truth and to give back; joined
by |oi; acc. pred. of tivoi
ouo: it is; acc. subject of tivoi
c3 ov ioq : if someone receives something
from someone; tov, ou is gen. ivo,;
3
rd
sg. aor. subj., pres. general condition
c4 ouo ouo: these things themselves;
i.e. truth, neuter object of oitiv
toiv tviot tvtviot t: it is possible
sometimes.othertimes
c5 oiov oiovt ityt: I mean the following
example; I mean this such sort
ou: I suppose
ovtioiiooi: would...should; fut.
less vivid, aor. opt. ityo, ioovo
c6 opo: from (the side of); + gen.
ovti,: becoming mad; inceptive aor.
pple. oivooi
c7 ov tiq: would be; 3
rd
sg. pres. opt. tii
c8 o ooiou,: aor. pple, ooioi
ouo, t_ovo: to one being so disposed
d2 opo: it turns out; for truth just realized.
d4 Hovu tv ou v: quite, on the contrary; tv
ouv indicates a correction: rather
d7 |oi tvoi: and moreover
uoioov: nom. sg. aor. pple
d8 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
tyo: am I.; supply linking verb ti i
ov yt oov: of your (affairs)
d9 ovu yt: quite so; common affirmative
qti: 3
rd
sg. impf. tp_ooi; Cephalus goes
and arrives performing sacred rites
e3 o...ooiovoi: to return; articular inf.
e5 Aiio tvoiyt: well certainlyat least
ou poiov: (it is) not rather easy; toiv
e6 ouooi: this which he
e8 qiovoi: clearly; (it is) clear that

Type of Condition Protasis (if-clause) Apodosis (then-clause)
Simple ti + any indicative any indicative
Present General (Indefinite)
Past General (Indefinite)
tov + subjunctive (if ever) present indicative
ti + optative (if ever) past indicative
Future More Vivid
Future Less Vivid
tov + subjunctive future indicative
ti + optative (should) ov+ optative (would)
Contrary to Fact ti + past ind. (were/had) ov+ past (would/would have)
331e
16

332



5




10


b



5




c



5



-
.
;
.

;
, .
, ,
.
,
, .
,
, -
,

;
.
; ;
, , , -

, .
, , , -
. , ,
, ,
.
; .
, ,
,
;
;

Republic I 331e9-332c8 17
oiviooi: to speak in riddles, hint at, 1
o-oito: to ask back, demand back, 3
o o-ooi,, q : giving back, return, 1
oo-oto,, -o, -ov: to be given back, 2
oo-ioovo: to take or receive from, 1
iotpo,, -o, -ov: harmful, disadvantageous1
io-vot ooi: to think, consider, intend, 4
poo: to do, 2
|oioi: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
iqi,, q : receiving, acceptance, 3
vq : by + acc.; invoking a divinity, 2
ovooo: to name, call by name, 1
oot: when, by what time, 2
oooiouv: in any way whatever, 2
ooio-ouv, qioouv, o i-ouv: whosoever, 2
opo-|oo-iqi: to deposit, 4
oiqi|o,, -q, -ov: poetic, in manner of poets1
oo pov, -ov: sound, prudent, right-minded, 2
u_q, q : chance, luck, fortune, success, 1
_puoiov, o : gold coin, money; jewelry, 4


e9 oooiovoi: to return; articular
inf. which governs everything inbetween
ivo, opo|oottvou i: after one
had deposited something; someone
depositing something, gen. absolute
ooouv: to anyone whoseover; dat. sg.
oivi-ouv, i, and ouv make it indefinite
q...ooiouvi: asking it back (though)
not in his right mind; dat. sg. pple
332a1 |oioi yt: and yet; yt stresses |oioi
otiiotvov: owed; nom. predicate
ou: I suppose; acute from enclitic toiv
a2 opo|otto: he deposited; again, aor.
middle not passive
q yop;: is this not so?; often in surprise,
yop seeks confirmation of the preceding
a4 Aootov: must one return; (it is) to be
returned (by one), verbal adj. often with
form of tii + dat of agent (missing here)
t yt: yt at least, emphasizes not t
but Aootov or the entire clause
ootooioi : when one asked; opt. in
indirect discourse. Socrates is referring to
a point admitted by Cephalus earlier in
331c6: ti ovti, ooioi
a7 Aiio q q : Then, is it anything other
than...; q is inferential
o oiouovo...ti voi: such, (namely
that) it is just; articular infinitive is in
apposition to the demonstrative
a9 tvoi: certainly; often eager assent
vq Li : by Zeus; Lio, acc. sg. Ztu,
a10 pov: inf. o-contract poo
a11 ooiooiv: present 3
rd
singular
o, ovooo : whoever returns; 3
rd
sg.
aor. subj. ooioi
a12 o opo|oottvo : to someone
having deposited; ivi, dat. sg.
tovtpyiyvqoiooiv: ifbecomes
are; 3
rd
pl. pres. subj. tii
b2 q ,: 2
nd
sg. pres. qi
b4 Hovu tv ou v: quite so indeed; expresses
positive certainty, cf. 331d4
b5 1i t: What?; what about this expresses
surprise and introduces another question
oi, t_poi,: dat. indirect object
oootov: must one return; (is) to be
returned, verbal adj., see 332a4 above
oiu_q : happens to be owed; o i,
3
rd
sg. aor. subj. uy_ovo governs a
complementary pple
b6 tv ou v: indeed; again, positive certainty
ytytyt: repetition of yt suggests
that Polemarchus is irritated and wishes
to make his point emphatically
o yt|o|ov i: (one must return) WHAT
is owed to them, and, I suppose, IT IS
OWED FROM AN ENEMY to an enemy
that very thing which in fact befits (him),
some evil; yt stresses preceding words;
indicated in upper-case as if by shouting
c1 o i|oiov o tiq: what the just is?; the
just, what it is prolepsis (anticipation) is
common in Plato, opt. in secondary seq.
c2 o pooq|ov: what is fitting; that being
fitting, substantive, neuter sg. pple
c3 ovoootv: named (x) (y); double acc.
c4 Aiio i : Well, what do you think?; 2
nd

sg. oiooi; oiio repudiates alternatives
c5 1 po, Lio,: O, by Zeus; o is an
exclamation, not article in the vocative
ti qptoov oo|pivoooi: ifhad
askedhe would have responded; past
contrary-to-fact condition
c6 q ioivi : the art returning what (that
is) owed and befitting to whom is called
the art of medicine?; double interrogative
c7 ov oo|pivoooi: he would reply; cf. c5

332c
18

10


d



5




10


e



5




10



333

, ,
.

;
.

;
, , , , -
,
.

;
.

;
.
;
.
;
;
, .
, ,
.
.
.
.
;
.
;
.
;

Republic I 332c9-333a2 19
o|oiouto: to follow (+ dat.), 1
o-_pqoo,, -ov: useless, unprofitable, 5
ioq, q : hurt, harm, damage, 4
ytopyio, q : farming, agriculture, 1
uvoo,, -q, -ov: capable, strong, possible, 4
tipqvq, q : peace, 3
t-pootv: before, previously; earlier, 3
quoo, -oo,, o: seasoning, sauce, 1
o ioooo, q : sea, 2
|ivuvo,, o : risk, danger, venture, 1
oytipi|o,, -q, -ov: culinary, of cooking, 1
vo oo,, o : sickness, illness, disease, 2
oov, o : meat, cooked meat, 1
oitto: to wage war, go to war, 2
oov, o: a drink, 1
poo-oitto: to wage war against, 1
oii ov, o : grain, bread, food, 2
ou-o_to: fight together with, be an ally, 2
uyitio, q : soundness, health, 3
opo|ov, o: drug, medicine, 1


c9 Lqiov oi: clearly; (it is) clear that
q : (it is) the (art returning); supply t_vq
and ooiouoo from above
oo ooiv: for bodies; dat. pl. ooo, in
response to dat. pl. interrogative ioiv
opo|o oo: acc. reply to i above
c11 H|oitioi see 332c6 above for a
translation of a similar double question
d1 Hquooo: see c9 above
d2 Ei tv: well, well then
ouv q: certainly then
d4 i: at all; as often, adverbial acc.
oi, tipqtvoi,: the things mentioned;
said, pf. mid. pple ityo (stem tp-)
d5 q : the art; the parallelism allows for
ellipsis throughout these passages
d7 o...tu oitiv|o|o,: to treatwell
poorly; i.e. behave toward
d8 ityti: (the poet Simonides) says
d10 uvoooo,: superlative uvoo,
|ovovo,: (being) ill
d11 po,: with regard to + acc.
e1 itovo,: sailors; (those) sailing); acc.
pl. pple ito; parallel to question in d10
e3 1i t: and what (about)
o i|oio,: the just (one)
tv ivipo, i: in whatand with
regard to what; interrogative adjs.
e5 tv o poooittiv o ouo_tiv:
articular infinitives, objects of tv
toiyt: to me at least
e6 q |ovouoi yt: for those NOT being
ill; dat. pl. pple of reference
qv: surely, certainly; strongly assertive
iopo,: supply linking verb toiv
e9 Koi..q: and indeed; emphasizes the
words intervening just as |oiyt
q itouoi: for those not sailing; cf. e6
q oitouoiv: those waging war; cf. e9
e13 _pqoiov: (is returning something)
useful; acc. sg. is not pred. to i|oioouvq
but the obj. of missing pple ooiouoo
333a2 |oi yop ytopyio: yes, and farming

Helping Friends, Harming Enemies
The view of justice set forth by Polemarchus was part of popular Greek morality and was
expressed by a variety of authors including Polemarchus own brother, Lysias (cont. p. 27):
Euripides, Medea 809-810 (tr. David Kovacs): hurtful to foes, to friends kindly. Such
persons live a life of greatest glory.
Lysias 9.20 (tr. W.R.M. Lamb): I considered it ordained that one should harm ones
enemies and serve ones friends.
Plato Meno 71e (tr. G.M.A. Grube): mans virtue consists of being able to manage public
affairs and in so doing to benefit his friends and harm his enemies
Sophocles Antigone 643-4 (tr. H. Lloyd-Jones): that they may requite the enemy with
evil and honour the friend as they honour their father.
Xenophon, Memorabilia 2.6.35 (tr. E.C. Marchant): A mans virtue consists in outdoing
his friends in kindness and his enemies in mischief.
See M.W. Blundells analysis of Sophocles in Helping Friends and Harming Enemies.
333a
20


5




10




b



5




10


c



5

.
;
.
;
.
;
.
;
;
, .
;
.

, ;
.

;
.

,
;
, .
, , ,

, , . ;
.
, ;
.
,
;
, .

Republic I 333a3-c7 21
otivov, -ov: better, 5
tipqvq, q : peace, 3
tpioqv: buy, purchase (aor. ovtooi), 1
t oi,, -to,, q : placing, arranging; position, 3
ii|o,, o : a horse-trainer, 5
|opo,, o : fruit, produce; profits, 1
|iopioi|o,, o : cithara player, harpist, 2
|oivovqo, -oo,, o : associations, dealings2
|oivovio, q : association, communion, 2
|oivovo,, o : partner, associate, companion, 3
|pouo, -oo,, o : stroke, pluck; a note, 1
|qoi,, -to,, q : possession, acquisition, 5
iio,, o : a stone, 1
vouqyo ,, o : a shipwright, ship-builder, 1
oi|o-oi|o,, -q, -ov: builder, 3
ouoo,: in no way, not at all, 5
opo-|oo-iqi: to deposit, 4
ttui|o,, o : a draughts player, 2
to,, o : draught-stone, 1
iqv: except, but (+ gen.), 1
iivo,, o : a brick, 1
ioiov, o : vessel, ship, 1
o|uooi|o ,, -q, -ov: of a shoemaker, 1
ou-oioiov, o : contract, covenant; token, 3
oo ,, o, q : safe and sound, safe, sound, 2
uo-qo, uoqoo,, o : sandal, 1
_ptio, q : use, advantage, service; need, 3
_puoiov, o : gold coin, money; jewelry, 4


a6 |oi qv |oi: and certainly also; as with
|oi q |oi, 2
nd
|oi is adverbial
o|uooi|q : (the art) of a shoemaker; as
often, assume adj. is modifying t_vq
a8 oioi: I suppose; as often, parenthetical
ov oiq,: would you say; potential pres.
opt. qi
a9 Hovu yt: quite so; common assent
a10 1i t q;: What then?; q emphasizes
the addition noted by t
qv i|oioou vqv: acc. subj. of inf. tii
po, ivo,: with regard to whose use?
interrogative pronoun, gen. sg.
a12 ouo ioio: (monetary) contracts
a14 qo: yes, indeed; affirmative, as often
after a word repeated from the question
b1 o i|oio,q : (is) the just manor?;
supply the linking verb toiv
ti, tov toiv: for the placing of
draught-stones; in a boardgame
b4 o i|oio,: (is) the just man?; supply
the linking verb toiv
_pqoiotpo,: comparative degree
b5 ou oi|ooi|ou : than; gen comparison
b7 ti, ivo q: for exactly what association?
interrogative, q is an intensifier
b8 ou oi|ooi|ou : than; gen comparison
b9 ou i|oiou: gen. comparison
ti, |pouoov: supply |oivoviov
b10 ti, opyupiou: supply |oivoviov
b11 po,: with regard to + acc.
o _pqooi: the use of; an articular inf.
that governs a dative
b12 tq opyupiou: there is need for silver;
3
rd
sg. subj. ti , present general condition
pioooi q oooooi: (in order) to buy
and sell; aor. mid. infinitives of purpose;
ooioi in this context means to
sell or to exchange
|oivq : in exchange
c1 q yop;: is this not so?; often in surprise
yop seeks confirmation for the preceding
c2 Koi qv: and surely; as often, yt follows
connecting particles to focus our
attention on a new idea or clause
c3 ioiov: vessel; ellipsis, supply b12-c1
but replace acc. iov with ioiov
c5 i _pqooi: when there is need to make
what use of silver and gold in exchange,
is the just man more useful than others;
the interrogative i is an inner acc. of
_pqooi: to make what use of + dat;
this awkward construction is confirmed
by Polemarchus response in infinitives;
oiiov is gen. of comparison
c7 opo|ootooi: (there is need that
silver) be deposited; aor. mid. inf., add
tq opyupiov from above (acc. not dat.)

The Thirty [Tyrants] issued to Polemarchus their accustomed order to drink
hemlock, before stating the reason that he was going to dieso far was he from
being tried and defending himself.
(Lysias 12.17, Against Eratosthenes)
333c
22


10

d



5




10


e



5



334



5


;
.
,
;
.
, -
, ;
.

, ,
, ;
.

, ;
.
, ,
, .
.
, ;
.
,
;
.
,

;
.
, .
.

Republic I 333c8-334a6 23
oiiq: in another place; in another way, 1
oti-oupyi|o,, -q , -ov: of a vinedresser, 1
ooi,, -io,, q : shield, round shield, 1
o -_pqoio, q : uselessness, 1
o -_pqoo,, -ov: useless, unprofitable, 5
ouituo, -oo, o : deliberation; plan, 1
ptovov, o : a scythe, 2
t-oito: to create in, produce in, cause, 2
|tioi: to lie down, 4
|ito: to steal, rob, 2
iupo, q : lyre, 2
o_q, q : battle, fight, combat, 3
ouoi|q, q : music, 2
vo oo,, o : sickness, illness, disease, 2
oiii|o,, -q, -ov: of a hoplite, of a soldier, 1
ooooo: to knock, beat, strike, 1
oitio,, -o, -ov: hostile, of the enemy, 1
u|i|o,, -q, -ov: with fists, of boxing, 1
oouoio,, -o, -ov: serious, earnest; good, 1
opoo tov, o : camp, encampment; army 3
uio, -|o,, o : a watcher, guard, sentinel, 2
op, opo,, o : a thief, 1
_pqoi,, -to,, q : using, use, employment, 1


c8 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
tq : there is need; it is necessary, 3
rd

sg. pres subj.
qtv_pqooi: to make no use + dat.;
qtv is, as i in c5, an inner accusative
ouo : it; i.e. money, obj. of _pqooi
c9 |tiooi: to lie (idle)
c11 q : is; 3
rd
sg. pres. tii in a general
temporal clause
o_pqoov: readers must be careful to
distinguish useless from not in use
t ouo : in relation to it; i.e. money
d2 |ivuvtuti: it looks as though; it runs the
risk, i.e. there is a probability it is true
d3 ptovov: acc. obj. of uiotiv
Koi..q: and indeed; emphasizes the
words intervening just as |oiyt
d4 |oi |oivq |oi iio : both in public
dealings and in private matters
oov_pqooi: when (it is necessary) to
make use of (the scythe); ellipsis
otioupyi|q : the art of vinedressing; as
often, the fem. adj. modifies t_vq
d6 qoti,: fut. qi
qtv _pqooi: to make no use of (them)
d8 oiii|qv, ouoi|q v: supply t_vqv
d10 |oi tpi o iio q o vo: and
regarding all other things in fact; cf. d3
t|ooou_pqoti: in the use of each thing
d11 tv o_pqoio : add t|ooou from above
e1 ou|ouv: thennot; ou|ouv , inferential
ovtiq: could be; potential opt. tii
i: something; predicate noun, thus n. sg.
oouoiov modifies i not i|oioouvq
e2 ov uy_ovti: happens to be; verb governs
a complementary pple; subject is neut. i
e3 o|to to: let us; hortatory aor. subj.
oooi: in striking; aor. epexegetical
(explanatory) inf. with tivooo,
e4 ivi |oi oiiq : or in some other manner
in fact;
uiooooi: in defending also; aor.
exepegetical (explanatory) inf.; supply
tivooo, from above
e6 ooi,: whoever is; supply toiv
e7 ouo,: this one is; supply toiv
iotivt oiqoo,: in escaping notice
while producing (it); aor. explanatory inf.
iovovo modifying superl. tivooo,
334a1 Aiio qvyt: but again; but surely,
positive transition to new item in a series
o ouo,: (is) the same man; supply toi
a2 |itoi (is good) in stealing; epexegetical
(explanatory) aor. inf. |ito
a5 Oou i,ouou |oi: of whatsoever
one (is)of this (one) also; oivo,
op: supply is





334a
24



10

b



5




c



5




10


d



5

,
.
, , .
, , ,


-

,
.
;
, ,
,
, .

, , ,
;
, , ,
.
,
,
;
.
, ;
.

, ;
.
;
.

.

Republic I 334a7-d6 25
oyooo: to love, be fond of; satisfy, 4
ovo-oivo: to appear, show forth, display, 2
Auoiu|o,, o : Autolycus, grandfather, 1
ioq, q : hurt, harm, damage, 4
youv: yt ouv, at least, at any rate, any way, 3
ti|o,, oo,, o: likely, probable, reasonable 4
|oivuoi: to excel, surpass, 1
|itq,, o : a thief, robber, 4
|iti|o,, -q, -ov: of theft, thievish, 1
|itoouvq, q : theft, robbery, 4
|ito: to steal, rob, 2
o: by + acc. (in affirmation) 5
qqp, q : a mother, 1
ioto: to hate, 4
Ouootu,, o : Odysseus, 1
Oqpo,, o : Homer, 2
oo,: nevertheless, however, yet, 3
op|o,, o : an oath, 1
ou|-ti: no more, no longer, no further, 4
oo,, o : grandfather; ancestor, 3
oqoi vo: to indicate, point out, 1
iito: to love, befriend, 1
_pqoo,, -q, -ov: good, useful, worthy, 5
ooouo,: in the same manner, just so, 1


a7 youv: as, at any rate; a qualified assent
which introduces a reason that is not
conclusive: Polemarchus is hesitant
a10 ovotovoi: has been shown (to be);
pf. pass. ovooivo, supply inf. tivoi
a11 |ivuvtuti,toq|tvoi: it looks as
though you had learned; you run the
risk to have learned, pf. inf. ovovo
ouo : it; i.e. that the just man is a thief
b1 po, qpo,: on the mothers side
b2 qoiv: 3
rd
sg. pres. qi
ouov: that he; acc. subj.; i.e. Autolycus
|t|oooi: pf. inf. |oivuoi
|itoouvq, op|o : in (respect to);
both are dat. of respect with |t|oooi
b3 t: bothand; t before aspirated o-
|oo: according to; + acc.
b4 |iti|q : (art) of thievery
b5 t ti: forfor; ti + dat. here
expresses purpose or motivation
b6 tityt,: did you mean
b7 o ov Li o: by Zeus; acc. sg.
oi: what; o i
b8 tvoi: however; adversative
c1 otpov: leave untranslated, otpov
introduces an either-or proposition
o|ouvo,: those seeming; pple + inf.
c2 ovo, those (actually) being; pple tii,
supply _pqoou,
|ovo|ooi: even if they do not appear
(to be friends); |oi tov + pres. subj. is
concessive in force
c4 Ei|o,..iitiviotiv: (it is) reasonable
to; the infinitives are the subjects
ou,: whomever; missing antecedent is
the acc. object of iitiv
qyqoi: believes (to be); pres. subj. in a
relative clause of characteristic (general
relative clause)
c5 ov ovqpou,: (one believes to be) bad;
supply qyqoi
c6 oot: so as to; + inf., result clause
c7 ouoi,tivoi: that they have; to them
there are dat. of possession
q ovo,: though not (actually) being;
concessive pple tii
c8 ouvoviov: the opposite; o tvoviov
c10 1ouoi,: for these; dat. of reference
c12 i|oiov: (it seems) just; inf. is the subject
d3 Aiio qv: but surely; introduces an
objection or, as here, resumes the
discussion with a new idea or premise
oi oyooi : the good (are)
oioi q: not capable of + inf.; not the
sort + inf.
Koo q: then according ; q is used
as a connective
d5 ou, qtv oi|ouvo,: those not at all
being unjust; ou is used for facts while
q, as here, reflects the conditional nature
of the pple; acc. direct object of oitiv
i|oiov: (it is) just; inf. is the subject
d6 oitiv: to treat

334d
26



10


e



5




10
335



5




10
b



5
, ,
.
, , ,
;
.
, , , -
, -


.
, , .
.
, ;
, .
, , ;
, ,
, ,
. .
, , ,
.
.

, ,
,
,
;
, , .
, ,
;
,
.

Republic I 334d7-335b5 27
i-oopovo: to fail or be utterly mistaken, 2
t oi,, -to,, q : a placing, arranging; position 3
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
to-iqi: to transpose, change, alter, 4
qoo,: in no way, not at all, 2
vou,, o : mind, intention, attention, thought, 3
ooioouv, qioouv, o iouv: who- whatsoever2
poo-iqi: to add, attribute, impose, give. 4
ou-oivo: to happen, occur, turn out, result 5
_pqoo,, -q, -ov: good, useful, worthy, 5
ot: in this (here) way, so, thus, 3


d9 i|oiov: (it is) just
d11 t|tivou: than; gen. of comparison
|oiiiov: more attractive; comparative
d12 ouq otoi: it will turn out; fut. dep.
ou-oivo
iqopq|ooiv: 3
rd
pl. pf. ioopovo
e1 ov ovpoov: partitive gen. with oooi
i |oiov tivoi: (namely that) it is just
e2 ouoi,: to them; in their eyes, dat. of
reference
tioiv: 3
rd
pl. pres. tii
e3 oyooi yop: ellipsis, add ouoi, tioiv
tpoutv: 1
st
pl. tpto, often used as the
future tense for ityo
ouo: (that) it (is); supply linking tivoi
ouvoviov q : opposite to; opposite
than, o tvoviov
e4 totv: 1
st
pl. impf. qi
e5 tooto: let us change; hortatory
aor. subj. to-iqi
e6 |ivuvtuotvt ooi: it looks as though
we set forth; we run the risk of setting
forth, aor. mid. inf. iqi
e7 Ho, ttvoi: setting forth what?; aor.
mid. iqi
e8 ov o|ouvo: that the one seeming;
ind. discourse in response to ttvoi
e9 tooto: are we to; deliberative; e5
e10 ov ovo: the one (actually) being; pple
iiov: (is) a friend; predicate, add tivoi
335a1 q ti voi: is not a friend; should not be
a friend, in ind. discourse ou is used for
facts while q is used for wishes,
prohibitions or conditions; this is the part
of the toi, Polemarchus aims to change
a2 ouq: the same; in the attributive position
a3 ouo o ioyo : by this argument; dat.
of standard of judgment, or dat. means
tooi: 3
rd
sg. fut. tii
a6 pootivoi: to add to the just; aor. inf.
pooiqi
q : or (in other words); there is not a 2
nd

option, Socrates is simply clarifying what
he means by pootivoi o i|oio
o,: as
o poov: the first time; adverb
a8 po, ouo : in addition to this; common
translation for po, + dat.
b1 Hovu tv ou v: quite so indeed; expresses
positive certainty, cf. 332b4, 331d4
b2 ovitytooi: that it would be said well;
ov + inf. is equivalent to a potential opt.
i|oiou ovpo,: (the characteristic) of a
just man; gen. of quality or characteristic
|oi: even
b3 ovivouv: acc. sg. ov-ivo-ouv
Helping Friends, Harming Enemies in Greek Tragedy
Tragedy often explores conflicts that arise when heroes mistakenly treat iioi, often relatives, as t_poi.
Socrates question therefore about whether people mistaken the good as enemies and bad as friends
(334c) and treat them accordingly is not a quibble but an appropriate topic for discussion.
Aeschylus Euripides
Agamemnon: wife kills husband Bacchae: mother kills son
Eumenides: mother(s' Furies) torment son Electra: children kill mother
Libation Bearers: son kills mother Iphigenia in Aulis: father kills daughter
Seven Against Thebes: brother kills brother Iphigenia in Tauris: sister to kill brother
Sophocles Herakles: father kills children and wife
Antigone: brother kills brother Hippolytus: father kills son
Elektra: children kill mother Medea: mother kills children
Oedipus Rex: son kills father, marries mother Orestes: children kill mother
335b
28




10


c



5




10




d



5



;
.
, ;
.

;
.
, , ,
;
.
;
.
, ,
.
.

;
.
;
.
;
;
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
;

Republic I 335b6-d9 29
o -ouoo,, -ov: unmusical, -cultured -refined 4
ovpotio,, -o, -ov: human, of a human, 2
o-io,, -ov:: not suitable for riding, 1
toipo,, o : a comrade, companion, mate, 2
tpo q,, -qo,, q : heat, 1
ii|o,, o : a horse-trainer, 5
|uov, |uvo,, o : dog, 3
ouoi|q, q : art of music 2
qpoq,, -qo,, q : dryness, 1
ouiiq qv: collectively, in sum, in short, 2
uypoivo: to wet, make wet, moisten, 1
_tipov, -ov: worse, more severe, inferior, 5
u _o: to make cold, to cool, 3


b6 tiiou, q _tipou,: nom. pl. predicate,
tiio(v)t, q _tipo(v)t,
b8 ti, qv ov |uvov optqv: with regard
to the excellence of dogs
ti, qv: with regard to (the excellence)
c1 q...otv: shall we not say; deliberative
subjunctive; 1
st
pl. subj. qi
c2 _tipou,: _tipo(v)t,, acc. pl. predicate
c3 Hovu tv ou v: quite so indeed; expresses
positive certainty, cf. 332b4, 335b1
c4 ou|: (is) not?; expecting a yes reply
c5 ouo: this (is); supply toiv
c6 ov ovpoov: among men; partitive
gen. or possibly gen. of comparison
c7 ovoy|q: (it is) necessary; supply toiv
c9 q ouoi|q : dative of means
ouoi|oi: musicians; substantive
c10 oitiv: make (men) unmusical; oito
governs a double acc.: make x y
c11 Auvoov: supply toiv, it is
c12 oiou,: parallel to c9-10
c13 toiv: it is possible
c14 q i|oioouvq : again, parallel to c9-10
d5 oioi: I imagine that; oiooi
tpyov: the function + gen.; acc. subject
ou tvoviou: modifies missing tpyov
d5 Out qpo qo,: parallel to d3
d7 Out q ou oyoou : parallel to d3
d9 t yt: yt at least, emphasizes not t
but o i|oio, or the entire clause


335d
30
10



e



5





10
336



5



10
b



5

.
, ,
, , .
, , .

,
, ,
.
.
, .
, , ,

.
, , .
, , ,
,
;
; .


.
, , .
,
, ;

,

,
,
.

Republic I 335d10-336b6 31
oyo: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 2
ovi-ioovo: to take up in turn (+ gen.) 1
io,, iovo,, o : Bias, 1
ioq, q : hurt, harm, damage, 4
youv: yt ouv, at least, at any rate, any way, 3
i-o|ouo: to hear (out), learn (by hearing), 1
io-|oiuo: to hinder, prevent, 2
io-ityooi: to converse with, discuss, 3
io-ouo: to make cease; mid. rest, pause, 1
i-opoo: to seize, plunder; tear apart, 1
toio,, -q, -ov: ready, prepared, at hand, 1
qou_io, q : silence, quiet, stillness, rest, 1
Oqoio,, -o, -ov: Theban, 1
qpi ov, o : a wild animal, beast, 1
Ioqvio,, o : Ismenias, 1
|oivovto: have a share of, partake in (gen) 2
o_q, q : battle, fight, combat, 3
o_ooi: to fight, contend, quarrel, dispute, 3
tou : betwixt, between, 1
vot o: to think, mean, indicate, suppose, 1
:tpq,, -ou, o : Xerxes, 1
opoo: to set in motion; set out, begin, 5
ouoou : nowhere, 2
ou|-ti: no more, no longer, no further, 4
opo -|otooi: to sit down beside, 1
Htpi||q,, -ou, o : Perdiccas, 1
Htpiovpo,, o : Periander, 1
Hio|o,, o : Pittacus, 1
iouoio,, -o, -ov: rich, wealthy, opulent, 3
oiio|i,: many times, often, frequently, 3
pqo, o : a word, saying, phrase, 2
ou-opt o: to wind into a ball, gather, rally, 1


d11 tpyov: the function of the just (is); subj.
d12 iiovoiiov outvo: acc. direct objs.
of iotiv
ou tvoviou: but (it is the function) of
the opposite; supply tpyov
ou oi|ou: an appositive
e2 ouo t q voti ouo : and this means to
him that; ouo refers to i, above
oi, tv t_poi, ioqv otiitooi:
that harm is owed to the enemy
opo...ovpo,: from; gen. of source
e3 oi,iioi,: to friends; object of
otiitooi, missing through ellipsis
e4 qv: 3
rd
sg. impf. tii
tiov: nom. sg. aor. pple ityo
e5 ouoou outvoiotiv: in no case
to harm someone; subject of tovq
i|oiov: predicate adjective
tovq ov: turned out to be; was shown
being, aor. pass. oivo and neuter sg.
complementary pres. pple tii can be
translated was clearly or seems to be
e7 Mo_outo: we will resist (him); future
o_t(o)oto
tovq : if someone says; future more
vivid condition; 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. qi
e8 ouo: it; i.e. e1-e3
tipq|tvoi: pf. inf. ityo (tp-)
e9 ov ooov: i.e. the Seven Sages
e10 Eyo youv: I for my part then; intensive
(yt) and inferential (ouv)
336a1 oioo: 2
nd
sg. oio
ou : whose; gen. relative modifying pqo
o o voi: the claiming that; i.e. the
statement that; an articular inf. in
apposition to pqo
a3 ivo,: whose?; in response to ou in a1
a5 oioi: oiooi
a6 ivo, oiiouiouoiou ovpo,: all four
genitives describe the same person
tyo oiotvou uvoooi imagining that
(he) has great power; tyo is inner acc.
with pres. inf. uvooi, to have power
a8 Aiqtooo: superlative, oiqq,
a9 Ei tv: well, well now
ttiq: since; causal
tovq ov: turned out to be; was shown
being, aor. pass. oivo and neuter sg.
complementary pres. pple tii can be
translated was clearly or seems to be
a10 o i |oiov: the just; note that out...
out makes o i|oiov a distinction
subject along with q i|oioouvq
ovoiq: could one say; potential opt.
b1 ioityotvov qov: genitive absolute
b2 opo : tried to dart forward; set out,
3
rd
sg. conative impf. opoo
oviioovtooi: expressing purpose or
complementary inf. with o po
b3 uo...opo|oqt vov: by those sitting
beside him; gen. agent with it|oiuto
io|ouooi: aor. inf. io|ouo
b5 qou_iov qytv: did keep quiet; impf. oyo
q|tv t : launched at; aor. iqi throw
b6 o,..: as if about to; o, + fut. pple
336b
32


c



5

d



5



e



5




10
337



, , ,
, ; -
;
,
, ,
,
.

,

.

, ,
, .
, ,
, -
,
,
. ,
, -

, ,
,
. ,
.
-
.

, , ' -


Republic I 336b7-337a4 33
ovo-|oyoo: to burst out laughing, 1
o -vo qo,, -ov: foolish, unintelligent, 1
oo-t_ooi: to accept, receive, 5
o -ovo,, -ov: speechless, dumb, silent, 1
yiyvoo|o: to come to know, learn, realize, 5
tio: to fear, 3
io-oto: to terrify thoroughly, startle, 1
io-tipo: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 1
to: to be accustomed, be in the habit, 4
ti|o,, oo,, o: likely, probably, reasonable 4
titp: if really, if in fact (to imply doubt), 5
tipovtio, q :, feigned ignorance, irony, 1
t|-iqyvui: strike out of; astound, amaze, 1
t|ov, t|ouoo, t|ov: willing, intentionally, 5
tity_o: to cross-examine, question; refute, 3
titto: to have pity, show mercy, 1
t-oypioivooi: to become savage or fierce 1
tu-qiooi: to play the fool, be nave 2
tuptoi,, -to,, q : finding, discovery, 1
qto: to seek, look for, investigate, 5
qqoi,, q : a search, seeking, 1
qvi|o: at which time, when, since, 1
Hpo|itq,, o : Heracles, 1
|tpoito,, -q, -ov: profitable; gainful, crafty 3
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
too,, - q, -ov: middle, in the middle of, 2
oio,, -q, -ov: alone, lone, lonely, 3
opoo: to see, look, behold, 5
oioi: long ago, formerly, of old, 2
poyo, o : deed, act; matter, affair, 5
poo-ito: to look at or upon, 2
oopo vio,, -o, -ov: bitter, scornful, sardonic 1
ooq ,, -t,: clear, distinct, definite, 3
o|t i,, -to,, q : examination, speculation, 1
oouo o: to be serious, be eager, hasten 2
iio,, -o, -ov: honored, worthy, valuable, 1
uio,, o : nonsense, idle talk, gossip, 1
u-ti|o: to withdraw, retire; yield; depart, 1
uo-|oo-|iivooi: lie down under; submit, 2
uo-pto: to tremble a little or slightly, 1
tyyooi: to utter a sound, voice, speak, 1
iio-itooi: to seek honor, be ambitious, 1
iuopio, q : nonsense, silly talk, foolery, 1
oto: to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 2
_oitoivo: to be sore, angry, grievous, 2
_puoiov, o : gold coin, money; jewelry, 4
otiio,, -q, -ov: useful, profitable, helpful 2


b7 tioovt, itoq qtv: we were
panicstricken out of fear; becoming
afraid, ingressive aor. pple. and passive
b8 1i,iuopio: what nonsense; subject
oioi t_ti: has for long been gripping;
present verb is pf. progressive in sense
c1 i : why?
po, oiiqiou,: toward one another
c2 uiv ouoi,: to yourselves; reflexive
o, oiqo,: truly
ouiti: you wish; ouit(o)oi 2
nd
sg. mid.
c3 titvoi: inf. oio
o i|oiov oi toi: what the just is; the
just, what it is, as frequently, prolepsis
q ovovoiio |oi: not onlybut also
tpoo, iioiou : pres. sg. imperatives
c4 tity_ov: by; nom. sg. pple, causal
oo|pivqoi: whenever; pres. subj,
general temporal clause
c5 tyvo|o,: nom. sg. pf. pple. yiyvoo|o
oi: namely that; in apposition to ouo
poov (it is) rather easy; (it is) easier
comparative of poio, as a predicate
tpoov: inf. tpooo
ouo,: (you) yourself; intensive pronoun
oo|pivoi, tit: aor. imperatives
c6 oo,tpti,: (see to it) that you will not
say; i.e. do not say! oo, + fut. ind.
is an idiomatic form of strong exhortation
c6 oi o..oi: what is thewhat is the; o i
d1 tov..outpov: the fitting, the beneficial,
the profitable, the gainful, the
advantageous..; all substantive participles
d3 o,: since; conjunction with causal force
d5 ttioyqv: I was struck with fear; 1
st
sg.
ingressive aor. pass. t|-iqyvui
d6 potpo,q : earlier...than; adj. as adv.
topo|q: 1
st
sg. plpf. opoo
d7 ov ytvtooi: I would have become; past
contrary-to-fact, equiv. to ov + aor. ind.
uo: because of; gen. of cause, not agent
e1 oio, tytvoqv: I was able; the sort to
e2 ioi: be; sg. imperative tii
e4 ioi: know; sg. imperative oio
oiou: sg. imperative oiooi
e8 _puoiov: than; gen. of comparison
e9 oi oiioo: as much as possible
ovqvoi ouo : that it appear; aor. pass.
337a1 uo...tivov: by you clever men; agent
a4 tiouio: accustomed; fem. pf. pple to
337a
34
5




b



5


c



5




10
d



5


, ,
,
, .
, ,
, -
, ,



. ,
; ; ,
, ,
; ; ;
, .
,
, ,
,
;
, ,
, ;
,
.
, ,
, ; ;
, ,
;
.
,
.

Republic I 337a5-d7 35
oio,, -o, -ov: worthy of, deserving of, 3
o-oyoptuo: to renounce, give up, forbid, 2
o-tiov: to speak out, tell, declare, 1
oo-t_ooi: to accept, receive, 5
oo -|pioi,, -to,, q : an answer, 2
oo-ivo: to render, pay, pay back, repay, 1
ti|vui: to point out, display, show, 1
i,: twice, doubly, 1
uo: two, 3
o-t|o: twelve, 2
tipovtuooi: to feign ignorance or modesty, 1
t: six, 1
t-o|i,: six times, 1
qu,, -tio, -u : sweet, pleasant, glad, 4
ouo o: to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 2
|oiuo: to hinder, check, prevent, 1
oooo,, -o, -ov: how much, many or great,1
po-tiov: aor. tell beforehand, state before, 2
po-ityo: to predict, foretell (+ dat.), 1
uvovooi: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 5
tpo|i,: four times, 1
topt,, -o: four, 1
pti,, pio: three, 1
pi,: three times, thrice, 1
iuopto: to talk nonsense, prattle, 1


a5 qq: 1
st
sg. simple past (plpf.) oio
pouityov: po-tityov, 1
st
sg. impf.
oi: (namely) that; appostion to ouoi,
a6 ttiqooi,tipovtuooiooiqooi, q
oo|pivoio: would be willingwould
feign ignorancewouldwould; 2
nd
sg.
fut. optative act. and mid. in secondary
sequence can replace what otherwise
would be fut. ind. in primary sequence
a7 tpoo : asks; tpooti, 3
rd
sg. pres. ind.
a8 ti : 2
nd
sg. pres. tii
qqoo: 2
nd
sg. simple past (plpf.) oio
a9 tpoio: if ever you ask; 2
nd
sg. mid. opt.
tpooi not tpto (fut. ityo), replacing
what would be ov + subj. in primary seq.
b1 Oo,q tpti,: (see to it) that you do
not say; do not say! oo, + fut. ind. is
an idiomatic form of strong exhortation,
in which the main verb, e.g. o|oti, is
dropped; this is a response to 336c6
b2 i, t: 2 times 6; i.e. multiplication tables
b3 o,: since; repeating 336d3 above
oou: from you; gen. of source
b3 toviuopq,: 2
nd
sg. pres. subj. in a
future more vivid condition
b4 qiov..qv: it was clear; impf. tii
oioi: oiooi, parenthetical
oo|pivoio : would respond; fut. opt.
replaces a fut. ind. in secondary sequence
b5 ti titvov tit,: if someone had
saidwould you have said; past contrary
to fact condition (ti aor., ov + aor. ind.)
b6 o, ityti,;: What do you mean?
q oo|pivooi: am I not to answer?;
deliberative subjunctive
b7 q ti : not even if
ouov: partitive gen. with subject i
uy_ovti ov: happen to be (the case); i.e.
be true, complementary pple tii
tio: am I to say; deliberative aor. subj.
c1 ou oiqou,: from the true; separation
ov tit,: see b5 above
c2 Ei tv: well (now); exclamation
o, qt|tivo : so very similar this
(instance is) to that (instance); q is
ironic and sarcastic in tone
c3 ti ouv: if at any rate; ouv is a
hypothetical that the speaker really denies
|oi: in fact; adverbial
c4 tpoqtvi: to the one asked; aor. pass.
qov i: any less; less in any way
ouov: that he; acc. subject
c5 oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi
o oivo tvov: what appears to him(self)
tovttovt: whetheror; ifif
c7 Aiio i: is it anything other (than)
ovouov: of these things, which I;
acc. pl. assimilates to the gen. of ouov
c8 oo|pivq : 2
nd
sg. fut. mid.
c9 ov ouoooiiotitv: I would, it
should seem; future less vivid, aor. opt.
d1 1i ouv: What then; What, pray? ouv
here expresses impatience
ov tio: if I show; aor. subj. ti|vui
d2 tiio: better; tiio(v)o, acc. sg.
otiv: that (I) suffer; aor. inf. oo_o
d3 o q tioi: for one not knowing; oio
d4 otiv: to learn; aor. inf. ovovo
d6 Hu, yop: Yeah, you are nave; (you
talk like this) for you are sweet 338d3
po, o otiv: in addition to learning
ootioov: aor. imperative, ooivo
337d
36


10
e



5


338



5



b



5




c


, .
, . ,
, .
, -
,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
;
.
,
.
,
.
,

. ,
, , ,
,
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
.
; .

Republic I 337d8-338c3 37
o-tiov: to forbid, deny, refuse, 1
oo -|pioi,, -to,, q : an answer, 2
oui|o: straightway, at once; presently, 2
io-poo: to accomplish, effect, 1
ioo|o: to teach, instruct, 3
poo: to do, 2
ti|o,, oo,, o: likely, probably, reasonable 4
tio-tpo: to bring in, introduce; contribute, 2
t|-ivo: to pay in full, pay back, 2
tity_o: to cross-examine, question; refute, 3
toivto: to praise, approve, commend, 3
ti-ut o: to desire, long for, 2
tu -o|ito: to be of good repute, esteemed, 2
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
oy-|oio,, -q, -ov: all-beautiful, -glorious, 2
tpi-tp_ooi: to go around, 1
po-u o,: eagerly, zealously, willingly, 1
poo-oito: to make up, pretend; allege, 1
tituoo: to end, complete, finish; die, 3
ovtpo,, -o, -ov: visible, manifest, evident, 3
oo|o: to say, affirm, claim, 2
ouio,, -q, -ov: slight, trivial, insignificant, 1
ovto: to begrudge (acc.) to (inf.), 1
iio-vti|t o: to be contentious, fond of strife 1
_opiooi: to do a favor, gratify, indulge, 3
_opi,, _opio,, q : favor, gratitude, thanks, 2
tu ooi: mid. to lie, cheat, beguile, 2


d8 Ou|ouv ttiov oi ytvqoi: (I will pay)
whenever I have the money, then; dat. of
poss., aor. subj., general temporal clause
d9 toiv: you have (it); there is (the money
for you) in response to d8
oiio: come (now); introducing an imper.
d10 tiooiootv: 1
st
pl. fut. tiotpo + dat.
e1 q o,: he said; demonstrative pronoun
ivoiopoqoioo|pivqoi
ioovq tity_q : so that; aor. subj.
iopoo and more often 3
rd
sg. pres.
subj. in an extended purpose clause
o tioo,: his customary thing; the
accustomed, pf. pple to
e2 oiiouoo|pivotvou: gen. absolute
e4 Ho , yop: how could..?; confirms
and expresses (im)possibility and surprise
ovi, oo|pivoio: anyone answer;
indefinite pronoun, aorist potential opt.
e5 tio,: nom. sg. pple oio
titvoi: inf. oio
ti i |oi oitoi: if in fact he has some
opinion; thinks something, inner acc.
e6 otipqtvov ouo tiq: it would be
forbidden for him; periphrastic perfect:
pf. pple otiov + 3
rd
sg. opt. tii
oo,tpti : that; oo, and fut.
(ityo) in a clause of effort
e7 ov: (of the things) which; acc. assimilates
to the gen. of the missing antecedent
uo ovpo,: gen. agent with pass. voice
in e6
ou ouiou: no ordinary; i.e. important;
litotes
ot q: just you; you (and no other), acc.
subject of itytiv
338a1 ti|o,: (it is) reasonable; supply toiv
ou...q: just you; you (and no other),
titvoi: inf. oio
t_tiv: are able; t_o + inf.
a2 oiti: oitt, sg. imperative oito
_opiou: 2
nd
sg. mid. imperative + dat.
a3 q ovqoq,: you should not; 2
nd
sg.
aor. prohibitive subjunctive
iooi: aor. inf. ioo|o
a4 Eiovo, t ou: gen. absolute
a5 ttovo: asked; + gen.
ovtpo,: clearly; nom. adj. as adverb
a6 qv: 2
nd
sg. impf. tii
ivo: so that he might; aor. opt. in a
purpose clause, secondary sequence
a7 po, o...ti voi: with regard to; here,
with an articular inf. tii
a8 tituov: finally; ending, pres. pple
b1 |otio: |oi ttio
Auq q : this (is) precisely
ouovooiovoi: namely that he;
acc. subj. + inf. in apposition to ouq
b2 tpiiovo: pres. pple tpi-tp_ooi
ouov: for these things; gen. of value
b4 Oi: that
b6 tu q : tut(o)oi, 2
nd
sg. pres.
ooqv: as much favor as; supply _opiv
b7 ovov: only; adverbial acc.
o, pouo,: how eagerly; obj. of tioq
b8 tioq : tiot(o)oi, 2
nd
sg. fut. oio
b9 tptiv: will speak; tpto fut. inf. ityo
c1 A|out q : Hear then
c2 o out pov: the advantageous; pple
c3 oiio i : Well, why?
338c
38

5



d



5




10

e



5

339



5



, ,
. .
, , ;

,

.
, , , -
.
, ,
.
, , ,
, ;
;
, ;
.

, ,
,
, ,

. , ,
,
,
, -
.
, , ,
. , ,


.

Republic I 338c4-339a9 39
oo: at the same time; along with (dat.), 5
o-oyoptuo: to renounce, give up, forbid, 2
oo,, oooo, oov: every, quite all, 3
oo-oivo: to show, make clear; perform, 1
opioo-|potooi: be governed by the best 1
ouo -i: on the very spot or moment, 4
tiupo,, -o, -ov: loathsome, disgusting, 1
otio,, -o, -ov: of an oxen
qo|potooi: be governed by the people 1
qo|poio, q : democracy, 1
qo|poi|o,, -q, -ov: democratic, 1
tio: then, next, and so, therefore, 1
t|-oivo: to step out; go out, (gen.) 1
|o-ioqi: to set down; appoint, establish, 1
|oioi: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
|o|-oupyto: to do wrong, do mischief, 4
|oioo: to punish, correct, check, 1
|poto: to rule; control, overcome (gen.) 3
|pto,, o : meat, flesh, 1
ioyiooi: to reckon, calculate, count, 1
vo o,, o : law, custom, 2
ouoo,: in no way, not at all, 5
ou -o: not yet, 3
oy-|poiooq,, o : skilled in pancration, 1
ovo-_ou: everywhere, in all places, 2
opo-vot o: to transgress the law, 1
tipoo: to try, attempt, endeavor, 2
Houiuoo,, o : Poulydamas, 1
poo-tii: to be in addition, 2
ooq ,, -t,: clear, distinct, definite, 3
oii ov, o : grain, bread, food, 2
ou-oivo: to happen, occur, result, 5
ouq: in this respect, in this way, so, thus, 2
oioot, -ot, -ovt: such (as this), 5
upovvtooi: to be governed by a tyrant, 1
upovvi|o,, -q, -ov: despotic, autocratic, 1
upovvi,, -io,, q : absolute power, tyranny, 2
uo-ioovo: to take up, reply; suppose, 5


c4 oo: 1
st
sg. aor. subj. ovovo, a
protasis in a future more vivid condition,
complementing Thrasymachus fut. tense
apodosis in the previous sentence
i ityti,: what you mean
c6 ouoityti,: What in the world do you
mean (by) this?; whatever
o yt oiovt: the following at any rate;
this here sort
c7 qov: gen. of comparison
|ptiov: (is) stronger; supply verb
c8 out pti: is advantageous to + dat., here
with a neuter pl. subject |pto
po,: with regard to + acc
d1 qooiv t|tivou: weaker than that one;
dat. pl. comparative and gen. comparison
d3 tiupo, yop: Yeah, you are a buffoon;
(you talk like this) for you are a
buffoon, cf. 337d6
ouq q in this wayin which (way);
dat. of manner
d4 o v |o|oupyq ooi,: you would; ov +
aor. opt., relative clause of characteristic
d7 oioo: 2
nd
sg. oio
ov oitov: among the cities; partitive
oi tv..oi t: someothers
d9 Ho, yop ou : how could (I) not?;
expresses (im)possibility and surprise
d10 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
o op_ov: the one ruling; neuter pple in
apposition to ouo
e1 1itoi: makes; sets down
po,: with regard to + acc.
o ouq outpov: the advantage to
itself; touq, 3
rd
person reflexive
e3 t tvoi: making (laws); aor. pple iqi
otqvov: made clear; aor. oooivo
e4 oi oi: for them; i.e. the rulers; cf. e1
ovt|oivovo: the one transgressing
o,: on the grounds that; since o, +
pple expresses alleged cause, in this case
the charge against the one transgressing
339a1 oitoiv: dat. pl. oii,
ouov: the same; o ouov; acc. subject
|otoq|uio,: established; fem. gen. sg.
aor pple |o-ioqi
a2 ouoi vti: it results
o opo, ioyiotvo : for the once
reasoning correctly; dat. of interest
a3 o ouo...: the same; attribute position
a5` toov: 1
st
sg. aor. ovovo
a6 tipooooi: fut. dep. tipoo
a7 ot|pivo: you answered; ot|pivo(o)o;
2
nd
sg. aor.
a8 oo, q...oo|pivoiqv: that I would
not; clause of effort with fut. optative
in place of fut. ind. in secondary seq.
339b
40
b



5




c



5




10


d



5




10

, , .

, .
,
, , .
, .
, .
;
.

;
, , .

, ;
.
,
; ;
.
,
;
;

,
.
; .
, .

,

; ;
, .

Republic I 339b1-d10 41
ov-oopqo,, -ov: unfailing, unerring, 2
o -ou opo,, -ov: inexpedient, inconvenient, 4
i-oopovo: to make a mistake, fail utterly2
tvi -ot: sometimes, 5
vo o,, o : law, custom, 2
ou -o: not yet, 3
ovo,: altogether, by all means, certainly, 1
oiqto,, -o, -ov: to be made or done, 3
poo-q |q, q : addition, add-on, 1
poo-iqi: to add, attribute, impose, give. 4
o|tt o,, -ov: one must reflect or consider, 4
oi|po ,, -o, -ov: small, little, 3


b1 oi|po: trifling; i.e. small in significance;
Thrasymachus does not think the addition
of the stronger is trifling and is likely
testing Socrates response
b2 qiov ou ti : (is it) even clear whether;
qiov is neuter predicate, add toiv
tyoiq: (it is) important; add toiv
oiqiov: (it is) clear that; clearly
o|tt ov: this must be examined; (is) to
be examined, verbal adjective expresses
necessity or obligation; supply toiv
b4 |oi tyo: I also; |oi is an adverb
pooiti,: nom. sg. pres. pple
b6 2|oti: o|ot-t, sg. pres. imperative
b7 tooi: 3
rd
sg. fut. tii with neut. pl. subj.
ou : do you not?; expects yes answer
oi, op_ouoiv: those ruling; dat. pl.
object of titooi
c1 tioiv: 3
rd
pl. pres. tii
oitoiv: cities; dat. pl. oii,
c2 oiovooptiv: (are they) such so as
to make an error; aor. inf. of result
i: inner acc. of ooptiv
|oi: in fact; adverbial
c3 ou: I suppose
itooiv: they make; 3
rd
pl. pres.
c6 Oi oi: oiooi
c7 o t...touoi,: to make laws rightly is to
make those advantageous to themselves;
o t opo, (itooi) opo toi o o
outpovo touoi, itooi; ellipsis,
the same articular inf. is subj. and pred.
c8 o t...oouopo: o t q opo,
(itooi toiv o) o oouopo
(touoi,) itooi; parallel to c7
c10 Aovoi: whatever (laws the rulers)
make; 3
rd
pl. aor. subj. iqi in
clause of characteristic (general relative)
oiqtov oi, o p_otvoi,: must those
being ruled do...; (is it) to be done by
those ruled dat. agent with verbal adj.
c12 Ho, yop ou : how could I not?; confirms
and expresses (im)possibility and surprise
d1 Ou ovovoiio |oi: not onlybut also
|oo: according to; + acc.
d2 o q out pov: what is not an
advantage (of the stronger); |ptiovo,
d5 Aityti,: (I am saying) what; relative
clause with missing antecedent
toiyt o|o : I think; I seem to myself
o|ootv: let us; hortatory subjunctive
tiiov: better; comparative adverb
ou_ ooioyqoi: has it not been agreed
that; pf. pass. governs two acc. subject +
inf. clauses: ou, op_ovo,
ioopovtiv and i|oiov tivoi
d7 oitiv oo: to do something; object of
poooovo,; equivalent to ivo
ou tiioou: from what is best for
themselves; equivalent to o outpov
o oi op_ovt,: whatever; pres.
subj. in a relative clause of characteristic
(general relative); object of oitiv below
d8 i|oiov tivoi: it is just; + inf. otiv

A Stronger Athens Beseiges a Weaker Chalcedon, Thrasymachus Birthplace, in 409
Alcibiades set to work with the whole of his troops to draw lines of circumvallation round
Chalcedon from sea to sea, so as to include as much of the river as possible within its wall,
which was made of timberAfter his success Alcibiades set off to the Hellespont and the
Chersonese to raise moneyit was further stipulated by mutual consent and under oaths
provided, that the Chalcedonians should continue the payment of their customary tribute to
Athens, beings also bound to discharge all outstanding debts. The Athenians, on their side,
were bound to desist from all hostilities until the return of their ambassadors from the king.
Xenophon, Hellenica I.3, trans. H. G. Dakyns
339e
42
e



5



340



5




b



5




c



5
, ,
,
,

, , -
,
;
.
, , , , -
.
, , , .
, , ;

, .
, ,
.
, ,
. -

.

.
, ,

, .
, , .
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, -
; ;

Republic I 339e1-340c5 43
ootpo,, -o, -ov: each of two, both, 1
ovoy|oio,, -o, -ov: necessary, inevitable, 3
oo-t_ooi: to accept, receive, 5
o -ou opo,, -ov: inexpedient, inconvenient, 4
q-ou: perhaps, I suppose, of course, 4
io-tpo: to differ, surpass, be superior to, 5
tvi -ot: sometimes, 5
Kitioov, o : Clitophon, 4
o: by, in affirmation, 5
opupto: to bear witness, give evidence, 1
opu,, o, q : a witness, 1
ooioyio, q : agreement, 1
oiqto,, -o, -ov: to be made or done, 3
ooq ,, -t,: clear, distinct, definite, 3
ou-oivo: to happen, occur, result, 5
uo-ioovo: to take up, reply; suppose, 5


e1 oiou: think; sg. imperative oiooi
o...oitiv: that to do;acc. subj. of
i|oiov tivoi and the entire construction
is acc. subj. of inf. ooioyqooi below
oi, op_ouoi |ptiooi: for those
ruling and stronger; dat. of interest
modifying oouopo
e2 ooioyqooi ooi: that it has been
agreed by you; pf. pass. inf. + dat. agent
e3 ouoi,: for themselves; touoi,
poooooiv: 3
rd
pl. pres. subjunctive
general temporal clause
e4 oi, t: but for others; i.e. those ruled
e5 ooo ot: superlative degree, vocative
ovoy|oiov: (it is) necessary
e6 ouooi: in this here way; deictic iota
used here to express close proximity
ouvoviov q : opposite to; opposite
than, o tvoviov
o...oouopov: acc. object of oitiv
e7 poootoi oi, qooiv: it is
ordered for the weaker to; dat. pl. obj.
340a1 o Li o: by Zeus; acc. sg.
oot ooo yt: yes, most accurately;
superlative adverb
a3 Eov ou y : yes, if you; ov + aor. subj. is
a protasis in a present general condition
without an apodosis
a4 i : why?
a6 oi, t: but for others; i.e. those ruled
a7 1o yop: yes, because
uo ov op_ovov: by; gen. agent
governed by pass. pple o |tituotvo
a8 tto: set down; aor. mid. iqi
a9 Koi yo p: yes, for also; |oi as connective
b1 tto: he set forth that; aor. mid. iqi
t tvo,: aor. mid. pple iqi
b2 ouoi,: for themselves; touoi,
b3 ou, qou,: the weaker; qo(v)t,
op_otvou,: one and same as qou,
b4 outv oiiovq : nothing more than;
acc. of extent of degree with comparative
b5 ov tiq: would be; potential opt. tii
b7 o qyoio: (was that) whichbelieved;
pres. opt. qytooi replacing present ind.
in secondary sequence; supply tivoi and
a missing antecedent before this clause
ouo : for himself; dat. respect
ouo oiqtov ti voitito: that this
had to be done by the weaker and that
this (was) the just he set down; verbal
adj. + tivoi expresses obligation and
governs a dat. of agent; supply tivoi
tito: he was setting down that; impf.
c1 Outviotpti: it makes no difference;
inner. acc.
ouou : from him; gen. source
c2 oot_oto: let us; hortatory subj.
qv: was; impf. tii
c3 touiou: touit(o)o, 2
nd
sg. impf. mid.
o i |oiov: that the just (is)
c4 o...o|ouv tivoi namely something
appearing to be; in apposition to
ouo above
tovttovt: whetheror
c5 out pq : it is advantageous; 3
rd
sg. pres.
subjunctive
otv: are we to claim; delib. subj. qi

yop in replies
Whereas in English we often express an affirmative and leave out a subordinate conjunction,
e.g. Yes, (because) Thrasymachus said (340a7), Greek often expresses the conjunction
and leaves out the affirmative: (Yes), because Thrasymachus said It is for this reason
that we often have to translate yop in replies as yes, because or yes, for
340c
44




d



5


e



5



341



5




b

, -
;
, ,
.
, , ,

; ,
, ,
; ,
-
,
,
, ,
. -
,
,
.

, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, , ;
, .

;
, .
,
.

Republic I 340c6-341b2 45
o|pioioytooi: to be exact, be precise, 1
oopio, q : mistake, failure, fault; guilt, 2
ov-oopqo,, -ov: unfailing, unerring, 2
oui|o: straightway, at once; presently, 2
ioo: to overpower, use force, use force, 1
ypooioq,, o : schoolmaster, teacher, 1
ti-ouiq, q : plot, a plan against, 1
ti-itio: to leave behind; fail, be wanting, 1
ti-oq q, q : knowledge, understanding, 3
q|ioo,, -q, -ov: least; not at all, 1
|o|-oupyto: to do wrong, do mischief, 4
ioyioo,, o : calculation; counting, reasoning1
ioyioq,, o : calculator, one who counts, 1
ioyioi|o,, -q, -ov: skilled in calculating, 1
ot: when, at some time, 1
out -ot: not ever, never, 3
oiqto,, -o, -ov: to be made or done, 3
poo-oyoptuo: to address, call by name, 1
pqo, o : a word, saying, phrase, 2
ou|o-ovto: to quibble, accuse falsely, 4
ou|o-ovq,, -ou o : quibbler, false accuser, 1
uo-ioovo: to take up, reply; suppose, 5


c6 H|ioo : least (of all); superlative adv.
|ptio: |ptio(v)o, acc.sg.
oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi
ov toopovovo: the one erring; 1
st

of a double acc. governed by |oiti,
c7 toopovq : 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. in a
general temporal clause
c8 oqv: 1
st
sg. impf. oiooi
d1 2u|oovq, yop ti : Yeah, for you are
quibbler; (you talk like this) for you
are a quibbler, cf. 337d6, 338d3
d2 tti oui|o: since to begin with; or
since for example, since straightaway
ov toopovovo: the one erring; 1
st

of a double acc. governed by |oiti,
d3 ou, |ovovo,: those being ill; pple
|o ouo ouotoopovti: in
respect to this (mistake) itself which he
made
d4 ioyioi|ov o,oopovq : or (do you
call) a counter (the one) who errs;
pres. subj. in a relative clause of
characteristic (general relative clause)
|oo....: in respect to
d5 oioi: oiooi, parenthetical
ityotv o pqoi: we literally speak;
we speak in (ordinary) wording
oi: namely that
d6 tqoptv: aor. toopovo
d7 o : but in respect to this; acc. respect
|o ooov: insofar as
e1 |oo...o|piq ioyov: in (accordance
with) precise speech
e2 ttiq: (I say this) since
o|pioioyq : -oioyt(o)oi; 2
nd
sg. pres.
e3 tiitiouoq,tioqq,: while
knowledge leaves him: gen. absolute
e4 tv o : in which (time);
e5 oovq : whenever he is; 3
rd
sg. pres
subj. tii
e6 ov tioi: would say; interative optative
e7 oiouov ouv q uoiot: accept just
this sort (of answer) then that I was
giving to you just now; aor. imperative
e8 o o|pitooov: superlative, subject
t|tivoov op_ovo: that one
(namely) that the ruler
uy_ovti ov: happens to be; neuter pple
tii is a complementary pple
|o ooov: insofar as
341a1 q oopovovo: and while not erring
o...t iioov: the best; i.e. what is
advantageous
ouo : for himself; ouo, dat. interest
a2 ouooiqtov: and this must be done;
verbal adjective + missing tii expresses
obligation, here with dat. of agent
a3 t op_q,: from the beginning
o...oitiv: to do; the article is part of the
articular infinitive, not outpov
a5 Ei tv: well then
a6 Hovu tv ou v: quite so indeed; expresses
positive certainty
a6 Oiti yop: (you say that) for you think; 2
nd

sg. mid.
a8 o, qpoqv: as I asked; aor. tpooi
a9 tv ou v: indeed; again, positive certainty
ooitooi: there will befor you; dat.
of possession, fut. tii
b1 ov t iooi,: you could not escape my
notice; potential opt. iovovo
q ioov: (if) not escaping my notice;
aor. pple iovovo conditional in sense
b2 ioooooi: overpower me with speech
uvoio: would you be able; uvoi(o)o,
2
nd
sg. pres. potential opt., supply ov
341b
46


5




10
c



5




10

d



5




10

e
, , .
,
,
, , -
.
, , .
,
.
, , -
;
, , , .
, , .
, ,
;
.
, , .
;
;
.
, ,

, .
, .
;
.
, , ,
;
, .

;
;

Republic I 341b3-e1 47
oqv: to ones fill, enough, 1
oui,: back again, later, 3
youv: yt ouv, at least, at any rate, any way, 3
i-opio: to define, separate, determine, 3
ty-yiyvooi: to happen in; be born in, 5
t|-opio: to provide, furnish; invent, 5
to,, -to,, o: a word, 1
qto: to seek, look for, investigate, 5
tpotuq ,, o : attendant, worshipper, 2
|o|-oupyto: to do wrong, do mischief, 4
|iqto,, -o, -ov: to be called, be named, 1
itov, itovo,, o : lion, 1
oivooi: to be mad, rage, be furious, 3
vou q,, -ou, o : sailor, 8
upto: to shave, 1
opo-iqi: to let go; mid. ask to be let off, 1
ou|o-ovto: to quibble, accuse falsely, 4
uo-ioyiotov: one must take into account, 1
uo: to bring forth, beget; am by nature, 3
_pqoioq,, o : money-maker, 4


b3 ti_tipqooii: I would try; potential opt.
b4 ivotyytvqoi: so that such a thing may
not arise among us; purpose clause
iopiooi: aor. mid. imperative
otpo,: in which of two ways; adv.
b5 ov o, to, titiv: the (ruler) so to
speak; so to speak a word,
b6 ov o|piti ioyo : the (ruler) in precise
sense; in precise speech
ou o out pov: whose advantage
|ptiovo, ovo,: modifies ou , pres.
pple tii and a predicate genitive
b7 i|oiov tooi: 3
rd
sg. fut.. tii
o qovi: for a weaker; dat. interest
oitiv: explanatory inf. with i|oiov
d8 1ovovo: the (ruler) being; acc. sg.
pres. pple. tii
o o|pitooo ioyo : in the most
precise sense; superlative adj.
po, ouo: against these (things)
b9 |o|oupyti |oi ou|oo vti: t-contract
imperatives: |o|oupytt, ou|oovtt
uvoooi: 2
nd
sg. uvooi
outv oou opitoi: I do not at all ask
to be let off; be allowed to pass, 1
st
sg.
pres. mid. opiqi
b10 ou q oio, q,: you will not be able; ou
q + pres. subj. tii suggests a strong
denial; tii + oio, t is commonly
translated as to be able
c1 oiti, yop: What? Do you think; 2
nd
sg.
mid. pres. oiooi, yop begins a question
rhetorical and incredulous
ovqvoi: aor. inf. oivooi
oot: so as to + inf.; result clause
c3 Nuv youv: just now
outv ov: being worthless; pple tii
|oi ouo: in respect to these things too;
acc. of respect, |oi is adverbial
c5 ov: whom; acc. sg. relative pronoun
c6 ov |ovovov: for those being ill;
objective gen. pple
ov...ovo: the one being a doctor
o ovi: actually; adverbial
c9 1i t: What (about)
op_ov: ruler; nom. sg. predicate
d1 outvouo uoioyiotov, oi: this is
not at all to be taken into account,
namely that; verbal adj. + missing toi
expresses obligation
iti : 3
rd
sg. pres. ito
vqi: dat. sg.. vou,
d2 toiv |iqt o,: he should be called;
governs a pred. nom., cf. d1
|oo o itiv: regarding sailing
d3 |oo: in regard to
d5 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
d7 Ou |oi...t u|tv: does notin fact
naturally exist?; pf. uo
ti ou o : on this condition (namely);
a clarification is to follow
ti o qtivt|opitiv: on seeking
out and providing; articular infinitives
clarifying ti ouo above
d9 Ei ou o : repetition indicates assent
d10 t|ooq toiv: each of the crafts has;
dat. of possession
d11 oi oiioo: as much as possible
titov: perfect; pred. adj.
e1 Ho,tpoo,;: What do you mean by
this question?; In what way do you ask
this? tpooti,, 2
nd
sg. pres.

341e
48



5




342



5


b



5



c



5

, ,
,
.
,
. ,
. , ,
, ;
, .
; ,



,
,
, ;
;


,
,
, ;
;
, , .
, ,
.
, .


.

Republic I 341e1-342c6 49
o -ioq,, -t,: harmless, unhurt; unharmed, 1
oopio, q : mistake, failure, fault; guilt, 2
o -|tpoio,, -ov: unmixed, uncontaminated, 1
o|oq, q : hearing, 1
o -tpovo,, -ov: endless, boundless, 1
t|-opio: to provide, furnish; invent, 5
t-op|to: to be enough, suffice, 2
tupio|o: to find, discover, devise, invent, 4
too-tp: so long as; until, 1
qto: to seek, look for, investigate, 5
ii|o,, o : a horse-trainer, 5
oio,, -q, -ov: whole, entire, complete, 3
ou,, oo,, o : ear, 3
o oio,, o : the eye, 4
oi,, -to,, q : seeing, vision; appearance, 2
opo-o|tuo o: to get ready, prepare, 3
op-tii: to be near, be present, be at hand, 3
ovqpio, q : badness, baseness, wickedness, 3
poo-tooi: to need in addition (+ gen.) 5


e2 1otp: just as
tpoio, tioi ov: if you should askI
would say; future less vivid condition,
tpoi(o)o; 2
nd
sg. pres. opt. tpooi
top|ti oooi: it is enough for the
body; dat. of interest
tivoi oooi: to be the body; the pred. is
drawn into the dat. by the preceding dat.
e3 ivo,: of something; obj. of pootioi
e5 toiv qupqtvq: has been invented; tii
+ pf. pass. pple. is a periphrastic pf. pass.
ovqpov: faulty, defective
e6 oiouo tivoi: see similar dat. in e2-3
ou oo, t|opiq : so that it provide
things advantageous to this (body);
purpose clause with 3
rd
sg. subj. in
secondary sequence, where we would
expect the opt. mood
e7 ti ouo : for this (purpose); repeat the
purpose clause above
opto|tuooq: 3
rd
sg. aor. pass.
e8 ov titiv: that I would speak; governed
by o|o , potential opt. in response to
the future less vivid in e3
342a1 1i t q: Then what about (this)?
a2 to oi: is there any other art which
needs some excellence; toiv o i
oto,, o|oq,, ivo, t_vq, supply
pootioi for all three gen. objects
a3 oo: ears; nom. pl. ou,
io ouo: for these reasons; on
account of these things
t ouoi,: over these things; i.e. the
eyes and ears
ti : there is need of; + gen.
a4 q,o|tot vq,t|opiouoq,: to
examine and provide advantage; fut.
pples here as often express purpose
ti, ouo ouo: in respect to these
things themselves; i.e seeing oto, and
hearing o|oq, from above
a5 tvi: is in; tv-toi
ti : there is need of (gen.) for (dat.)
qi,: which;
ouq o out pov: advantage for it; note
that the pronoun is not reflexive
o|t toi: will consider; fut. deponent
a7 q o|ooutvq : for the (art) considering
(there is need of) another such (art) in
turn; supply ti
otpovov: i.e. ad infinitum, an infinite
regress of arts that examine other arts
b1 q ouq...: or will this (art) examine the
advantage for itself
ouq : for itself; touq
q : or?
ouq,oiiq,: both are gen. object of
pootioi; reflexive touq,
b2 ti...ovqpi ov: against its own
deficiency; antonym of outpov
b3 outoutio outio : neitherany
any
outio t_vq : present in any art;
dat. with compound verb optoiv
b4 pooq|ti: is it fitting for?; + dat.
q t|tivo ou t_vq toiv: advantageous
(for anything other) than that (object)
whose art it is
b5 ouq t: but the art itself is; subject
b6 ouoo: being; fem. sg. nom. pple tii
ov q t|ooqtoiv: as long as each
(art, being) precise, is entirely what it is;
subj. tii in a general temporal clause
b7 o|o ti: sg. imperative, o|ot-t
t_ti: is this so or otherwise?; t_o + adv.
is often is disposed or is + adj.
342c
50



10


d



5




10
e



5




10

343



, , .
, ,
.
.

,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
, ;

. ;
.

;
.

,
.
.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
,
.

,
, , ,
, ;

Republic I 342c7-343a4 51
ovi : instead of, in place of (+ gen.), 5
oo,, oooo, oov: every, quite all, 3
ito: to see, look, 3
qioupyto: practice a craft, be a craftsman, 2
tv-ouo: here, hither, there, thither, then, 5
ti-oq q, q : knowledge, understanding, 3
|oo-ovq,, -t,: obvious, evident, plain, 2
|poto: to rule; control, overcome (gen.) 3
oio: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
o_ooi: to fight, contend, quarrel, dispute, 3
oyi,: with difficulty, reluctantly, scarcely, 4
vou q,, -ou, o : sailor, 8
tpi-ioqi: to place, set or bring around, 1
pto: to fit, suit; be fitting, be suitable, 2
ou -qi: to assent, approve, 3
ouv-oo-ioyto: to agree with, speak alike, 1
tituoo: to end, complete, finish; die, 3
iq, q : wet-nurse, nurse, 1
_pqoioq,, o : money-maker, 4


c8 Aiio q v: but surely; a transition to
another premise in the argument
op_ouoi yt: the arts rule; yt
emphasizes the role of the verb in the
new premise of the argument
c9 outp: of which very thing; relative
pronoun
tioiv: 3
rd
pl. pres. tii
2uvt_opqotv: aor. ouy-_opto
c10 |oi o io o yi,: and with very great
difficult
c11 opo: accordingly; inferential, marking
the conclusion of an argument, cf. e2
tioqq: (type of) knowledge; here a
synonym for t_vq
c12 o...op_outvou: the (advantage) of both
the weaker and the ruled
d1 uo touq,: by it; by itself, gen. agent
d2 |oi ouo: these things also; adverbial
tituov: finally; finishing, nom. pple.
d3 Aiio i: is it not.?; (is it) anything
else (than) used as an interrogative
d4 out...outi,ou : neitheranynor
|o ooov: inasmuch as (he is) a doctor
d5 o o |ovovi: that (advantage) for the
one being ill; dat. sg. pple |ovo
d6 ooioyqoi: it has been agreed; pf.
d9 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
e2 opo: accordingly; inferential, marking
the conclusion of an argument, cf. c11
e3 o|t toipoooti: fut. tense
e6 Ou|ouv: and so; inferential, but not
opening a question seeking a yes reply
out...outi,out: neitheranynor
e7 tv outio op_q : in any rule
|o ooov: inasmuch as, insofar as
ouo : for himself; touo, adverbial
e8 o o o qioupyq : the (advantage)
for the one ruled and for whom he
himself practices his craft; dat. interest is
one and same person as o op_otvo ;
3
rd
sg. pres. subj., clause of characteristic
e9 po, t|tivo itov: looking to that
(purpose); looking at that, pple
optov: what is advantageous and
suitable for that one; neut. sg. pples
343a1 tvouoou ioyou: at this point of
the discussion; partitive gen.
a2 qv: (it) was; 3
rd
sg. impf. ti i
o ou i|oiou ioyo,: the account of
justice
ouvoviov: the opposite; o tvoviov
tpitioq|ti: 3
rd
sg. plpf. tpi-ioqi
a3 ou oo|pivtooi: of replying; articular
infinitive, object of ovi
a4 ooi toiv: do you have; is there to you,
dat. possession

343a
52
5




10
b



5


c



5



d



5



e
;
;
, , -
,
.
; .



,
, ,
,
,
.
,

, ,
,
,
,
, -
, . ,
, ,
.
, ,


, ,
, , ,
, .


Republic I 343a5-343e1 53
oiiopio,, -o, -ov: anothers, alien, foreign, 3
o-ouo: to wipe (off), 1
ioq, q : hurt, harm, damage, 4
ito: to see, look, 3
ooo: to cry aloud, to shout, 1
ou|oio,, o : herdsman, cowherd, 1
yiyvoo|o: to come to know, learn, realize, 5
too q,, o : master, lord, 3
io-iuoi,, q : dissolution, separating, parting 1
io-vot ooi: to think, consider, intend, 4
io-iqi: treat, handle; pass. be disposed 1
tio-tpo: to contribute; bring in, introduce, 2
tio-opo, q : tax, contribution; gathering, 1
tioov, -ov: smaller, fewer, 5
tu -qq,, -t,: nave, innocent, good-natured, 2
tu-qiooi: to play the fool, be nave 2
tu -qi|o,, -q , -ov: nave, good-natured, 1
tupio|o: to find, discover, devise, invent, 4
qtpo, q : day, 1
tpotu o: to attend to, care for, serve, 2
|tpoivo: to profit, gain advantage, 1
|oivovto: have a share in, be partner with, 2
|oivovio, q : partnership, association, 2
|opuoo: to snivel, have a runny nose, 1
iqi,, q : receiving, acceptance, 3
vu , vu|o,, q : a night, 1
o -tv: from where, from which, 2
oou: where, 3
oooiouv: in any way whatever, 2
ouoou : nowhere, 2
ouooi: in this way, thus, so, 2
ovo-_ou: everywhere, in all places, 2
o_uvo: to thicken, fatten, 1
tpi-tii: to surpass, excel, be superior, 1
tpi-opoo: to look over, overlook, 1
itov, -ov: more, greater, 14
oiqv, -tvo, o : herdsman, shepherd, 5
oppo: forwards, further, far off, (too) far, 1
po-oo, o: cattle, flocks, herd, 5
ou-oioiov, o : contract; token, marker, 3
u-qptto: to serve, minister, 3


a5 1i t;: What?; or Why? expressing
surprise and introducing another question
ou|_pqv: is it not proper to; was it
not proper, impf. _pq, refers to the pres.
but suggests the obligation is unfulfilled
a6 tpoov: inf. tpooo
a7 Oi oi: because, ya know; oi
|opuovo: snivelling; snotty
tpiopo : she overlooks; the nurse is the
subject of this and the following verb
a8 totvov: (you) though needing (it); the
antecedent is missing, pple is concessive
o, yt: since; yt is causal in force
ouq : for her; i.e. at her request
a9 yiyvoo|ti,: you distinguish
a10 Oi q i oiioo: precisely because of
what in particular?
b1 oi oiti: because you think; 2
nd
sg. pres.
mid. oiooi
b2 o|otiv: watch over not consider
b3 po, oiio iq : to any other (purpose)
than;
b4 o ouov: that of themselves; touov,
reflexive
|oi q |oi: and in particular; and indeed
also, second |oi is adverbial
oitoiv: cities; dat. pl. oii,
b5 o, oiqo,: truly; i.e. the tyrants, kings
oiio, o,q : somehow otherwise
than; i.e. somewhat differently than
qyq : you believe; qyt(o)oi, 2
nd
sg. pres.
mid. qytooi
b6 po,: with regard to; + acc.
oviottiq: would be disposed; aor.
pass. potential opt. ioiqi
b7 o|otiv: they consider; ouou,, the
shepherds, is the acc. subject
oiio iq : something other than
c1 otiqoovoi: future mid.
ouo oppo: so far out; i.e. mistaken
ti : 2
nd
sg. pres. tii
ou i|oiouoi|ou: the just.the
unjust; substantives
c4 o ovi: actually, really; dat. pple tii
out pov: in apposition to oyoov
c5 oi|tioioq: private harm; appositive
c6 ouvoviov: (is) the opposite; add verb
d2 tuqtoot: superlative adj., vocative
ouooi: in this here way; deictic iota
oi|ou than the unjust; gen. comparison
d4 ov|oiovqoq : is partner with; + dat.
d5 ov tupoi, you would find; potential aor.
d6 ou oi|ou: than; gen. comparison
tv oi, po,: in (matters) regarding
d8 oo o ioov: from equal (estates)
iqti,: (there are) redistributions
343e
54



5


344



5



b



5


c



5



d
, ,
, ,
,
-
,
.
,
,
.
, ,
, -
.
,
, ,

,

-

,

,


. , ,
-
,
,
, .
,


Republic I 343e2-344d1 55
oiio,, -o, -ov: miserable, wretched, 3
oio_po,, -o, -ov: shameful, disgraceful, 3
oiiopio,, -o, -ov: anothers, alien, foreign, 3
o -titio, q : negligence, indifference, 1
ovpo-oio: to kidnap, enslave 1
ovpo-oioq,, o : kidnapper; slave-dealer, 1
ovi : instead of, in place of (+ gen.), 5
o-tp_ooi: to go away, depart, 5
o-t_ooi: to be hated, incur hatred, 1
oo-otpqq ,, o : robber, depriver, 1
o-oipto: to take away from, 1
io, io,, q : bodily strength, force, might, 1
yvopio,, -ov: familiar; subs. acquaintance, 1
tooi|o,, -q, -ov: despotic, of a sovereign 1
qooio,, -o, -ov: public, of the people, 2
ouioo: to enslave, make a slave, 3
titp: if really, if in fact (to imply doubt), 5
titutpio,, -o, -ov: of a free person, frank, 1
qio , q : loss, damage; penalty, 5
qioo: to fine, penalize 1
itpo,, -q, -ov: holy, divine, 3
itpo -ouio,, o : temple-robber, 1
i|ovo,, -q, -ov: enough, sufficient; capable, 4
io_upo,, -o, -ov: strong, powerful; severe, 5
|o|oupyqo, oo, o : wrongdoing, injustice2
|itq,, o : a thief, robber, 4
|pivo: to pick out, choose, 1
iopo : secretly, covertly, by stealth, 2
tpo,, -to,, o: a part, share, portion, 5
o_qpo,, -q, -ov: worthless, wretched, 1
vou,, o : mind, intention, attention, thought, 3
ovtiio: to object, reproach, rebuke, 2
ovtio,, o : reproach, censure, rebuke, 2
oio,, -q, -ov: whole, entire, complete, 3
ovoo, -oo,, o : name, 1
ooio,, -o, -ov: hallowed, sacred, ordained, 2
oiiq,, o : citizen, 2
uvovooi: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 5
oi|po ,, -o, -ov: small, little, 3
ouiiq qv: collectively, in sum, in short, 2
oi_-opu_o,, o : burgler, wall-digger, 1
upovvi,, -io,, q : absolute power, tyranny, 2
u-op_o: be there, be available, be possible 3
u-qptto: to serve, minister, 3
oto: to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 2


e2 op_qv.op_q : holds office; 3
rd
sg. subj.
o uop_tit_tiv: it is possible for
the just (man) that, even if (there is) no
other loss, his own (affairs) are worse off
through neglect; acc. subject + inf.; t_o
...+ adv. (here, comparative) is translated
are disposed + adv. or to be + adj.
e4 ou qooiou: from the public; i.e. state
io o..ti voi: on account of being; art. inf
e5 po, ouoi,: in addition to these things
ot_tooi: he incurs the hatred of; dat.
oi|tioi,: relatives; here, a substantive
e6 qtv: not at all
ttiq : 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. ttio in a
present general condition
opo o i|oiov: contrary to the just
e7 o t oi|o : whereas for the unjust;
ovovio: the opposite things; subject
ityo yop: for I mean
344a1 o...uvotvov itovt|tiv: the one
able to gain great advantage; inner acc.,
see p. 71 for the meaning of itovt|tiv
a2 o|o ti: o|ott, sg. imperative
ouiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. ouiooi
ooo : by how much; dat. degree of diff.
a3 iio : personally; in private, adverbial
ouo : for him; touo
ovov: of all; partitive gen.
a4 pooo: most easily; superlative adv.
oqoq : 2
nd
sg. fut. mid. ovovo
tiq,: 2
nd
sg. aor. subj. tp_ooi
a5 oiti : makes (x) (y); double accusative
oi|qtvo,: those wronged; aor. pass.
a6 oi|qooittiovo,: (who) would not
be willing to wrong the most wretched;
pple as an impf of unrealized potential
a7 ou |oo oi|pov: not little by little
a8 io : by force; dat. of manner
b1 ov t . . tpti: in each part of which (evil)
q ioq : does not escape notice; aor. subj
b2 ovtiqtyioo: greatest reproaches
b4 |oo tpq: through forms of wrongdoing
b5 |oiouvoi: are called; + predicate nom.
po,.._pqooiv: in addition to the goods
ovi...: instead of shameful names
c1 |t|iqvoi: are called; pf. pass. |oito
ou ovov uo: not only by; gen. agent
c2 uovoi: learn by hearsay; aor. subj.
qi|q|oo: having committed; pf. pple
c6 i|oioouvq,: than justice; comparison
i|ovo,: becoming sufficiently (large)
d1 tv vo ti_tv: had in mind to go away
344d
56



5


e



5


345



5


b



5




c


,

.
,

;
, -
;
, , ;
, ,

. , , -

,

,
. , , ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
, , ;
, ;
;
, , ,
, , ,
. ,



Republic I 344d2-345c2 57
opoo,, -o, -ov: crowded, close-packed, 1
ovoy|oo: to force, compel, require, 1
o-tp_ooi: to go away, depart, 5
oiovtu,, -to,, o : bath-attendant, 1
ouituo: to deliberate, plan, take counsel, 2
oiovio,, -o, -ov: god-touched, god-sent, 1
i-oyo: to pass time, continue, go through, 2
i-oyoyq, q : way of life, course of life, 1
io-|oiuo: to hinder, prevent, 2
io-o_ooi: to fight, strive, contend, 1
ioo|o: to teach, instruct, 3
i-opio: to define, separate, determine, 3
t-oiio: to throw in, cast in, put in, 1
t-tvo: to abide in, remain, 1
t-io: to fall in, fall upon; attack, 1
t-pootv: before, previously; earlier, 3
tv-ti|vui: to point out, mark, show, 1
tv-iqi: to put in or into, inspire, 1
t-oooo: to deceive, beguile, 2
ti-o|ot o: to examine, inspect, 1
tu -tpytto: to do well, treat well, 1
qoi: or; now surely, truly, 2
oq, q : life, living, 2
i|ovo,, -q, -ov: enough, sufficient; capable, 4
|o-ovito: to pour over, 1
|tioi: to lie down, 4
|tpoito,, -q, -ov: profitable; gainful, crafty 3
|qooi: to be troubled, be distressed, 1
o: by, in affirmation, 5
to-iqi: to transpose, change, alter, 4
vou,, o : mind, intention, attention, thought, 3
oio,, -q, -ov: whole, entire, complete, 3
oo,: nevertheless, however, yet, 3
opoo: to see, look, behold, 5
opio: to define, mark out, limit, 1
ou|-ti: no more, no longer, no further, 4
ou,, oo,, o : ear, 3
ou -oi: certainly not, surely not, 1
op-tii: to be near, be present, be at hand, 3
op-t_o: to provide, furnish, supply, 3
oiqv, -tvo, o : herdsman, shepherd, 5
poyo, o : deed, act; matter, affair, 5
piv: until, before, 3
po-ut ooi: to be eager, ready, willing, 1
oi|po ,, -o, -ov: small, little, 3
oooot, -qt, -ovt: so great, much, many 3
uo-tvo: to stay behind, stay firm; submit, 1
ovtpo,, -o, -ov: visible, manifest, evident, 3
povio: to think, worry, give heed to, 1
_tipov, -ov: worse, more severe, inferior, 5


d2 |oo o ov: having poured over the ears
d3 tiooov: 3
rd
pl. aor. too
oi opovt,: those standing nearby
d4 uotivoi: aor. inf. uotvo
opoo_tiv: aor. inf. opt_o
tipqtvov ioyov: an account of the
things said; pf. pple ityo (stem tp)
d5 |oi q tyoyt |oi: I myself in particular
d6 oiovit: god-touched; expresses dismay
oiovioyov: hurling such a speech
toiov: aor. pple toiio
tv vo t_ti,: you have in mind; dat. vou,
d7 oitvoi: inf. o-tp_ooi
piv: before; + inf.
iooi, otiv: aor. inf. ovovo
tittit: whetheror
e1 t_ti: it is (disposed); t_o. + adverb
oi|povpoyo: (that it is) a small
matter to try; acc. subj., supply tivoi
oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi
e2 q ioyotvo,: living in which (manner)
ovoq: would live alife; opt. oo
e4 tyo yop: Why? Do I think that this is
otherwise?; oui is a deictic acc. ouo
e5 outv |q tooi: to care not at all; + gen.
e6 tittiiov: whether worse or better
e7 titvoi: to know; inf. oio
oyot: good man; o oyot, vocative
pouou : mid. imperative poutooi
345a1 ouoi: not indeed; ou -oi
|o|o, ooi |tiotoi: will poorly be
deposited for you; i.e. invested, |tioi
o itutpytqoq,: what benefit you give
ooouot ovo,: being so many here
a2 o y tov, oi: my own (opinion), that
a3 i|oioouvq,: than; gen. comparison
a4 to : even if one allows; pres. subj. too
a5 too: let him belet; 3
rd
sg. imper. ti i
a6 q o : either by evading notice; art. inf.
a7 i|oioouvq,: than; gen. comparison
b1 tovtv: has experienced; oo_o
tioov: aor. imperative tio
b3 tpi...: considering of greater value than
b4 tioo: am I to?; aor. deliberative subj.
b5 ttiooi: 2
nd
sg. perfect pass. tio
tvo : am I to cram; deliber. aor tviqi
b8 toitoo: change; mid. imperative
c2 oou: 2
nd
sg. impf. oiooi
345c
58


5

d



5


e



5


346



5




b

,
, , -
,
, ,
, .
,

,

,
, ,
,
. ,
, ;
, , .
, , ;
, ,

;
,
; , , ,
.
, , .
-
, ,
, ;
.
;
;


Republic I 345c3-346b2 59
ovoy|oio,, -o, -ov: necessary, inevitable, 3
oito: to ask, ask for, beg, 5
ito: to see, look, 3
oiuov, -ovo,, o : entertained guest, 1
q-ou: perhaps, I suppose, of course, 4
oo, q : opinion, reputation, honor, glory, 2
t|ooot: each time, on each occasion, 1
t|-opio: to provide, furnish; invent, 5
t|ov, t|ouoo, t|ov: willing, intentionally, 5
tv-to: to be in want of, fail (+ gen.), 1
tv-vot o: to have in mind, notice, consider, 1
toioo: to entertain, give a feast, 3
tuo_io, q : feast, good cheer, entertainment, 2
to,: until, as long as, 2
tpotu o: to attend to, care for, serve, 2
iioi|o,, -q, -ov: of a private person, 1
i|ovo,, -q, -ov: enough, sufficient; capable, 4
o: by, in affirmation, 5
titi: there is a care for (dat.) for (gen.), 1
iooi|o,, -q, -ov: of a wage-earner, 3
op-t_o: to provide, furnish, supply, 3
tpoivo: to finish, accomplish, 1
ioivo: to fatten, make fat, 1
oitvi|o,, -q, -ov: of a shepherd, 2
oiqv, -tvo, o : herdsman, shepherd, 5
oiii|o,, -q, -ov: of the city, political, 1
po-oo, o: cattle, flocks, herds, 5
ooqpi o, q : safety, preservation; guarantee, 1
oooo: to appoint, order, arrange, 2
oooot, -qt, -ovt: so great, much, many 3
uyitio, q : soundness, health, 3
uotpo,, -o, -ov: later, last, 4
_pqoioq,, o : money-maker, 4


c3 tiv: that it is necessary; impersonal
uotpov: later; in contrast with poov
uiooi: to guard (the flock); aor. inf.,
the acc. subject is oitvo
oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi
c4 |o ooov: insofar as inasmuch as
c5 po,tiioov: to the best
ootp: as if
c6 toiootooi: to be entertained; fut. inf.
po, qv tuo_iov: with regard to
po, o oooooi: with regard to
selling; exchanging aor. articular inf.
d1 ootp: as if
q oitvi|q : shepherds art; add t_vq
d2 oiiou ouq : something else than; gen.
object of impersonal titi
t o : over which; antecedent ouo
to|oi: he has been appointed; i.e. the
shepherd, pf. pass. oooo
oo,t|opiti : how he will provide;
fut. in a clause of effort
d3 ouo : for this; i.e. sheep, dat. interest
tti o..ouq,: since its affairs; touq,,
the antecedent of the reflex. is oitvi|q
oottiioq: so as to be the best;
result clause, oot + inf.
d4 t|topiooi: 3
rd
sg. pf. pass.; o subj.
to, y : as long as, at any rate; restrictive
ov qtv tvtq : it not at all fails + gen.
d5 ou tivoi: of being; oitvi|q is a pred.
oqv: impf. oiooi
d6 ovoy|oiov tivoi: that it is necessary
ooov op_qv: that every form of rule;
e.g. democracy; acc. subj. of o|otiooi
|o ooov op_q : insofar as (it is) a form
of rule
d7 qtvi oiio .q : for no one else than
o op_otvo tpotuot vo : in
apposition to t|tivo , pres. pass. pples
e1 tviioi|q op_q : in both political and
private rule
e2 oitoiv: cities; dat. pl. oii,
o, oiqo,: truly
e3 oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi
e4 ou|: I dont think (this); add oiooi
e5 1i t;: What?; expressing surprise
op_o,: types of rule
ou| tvvoti,: do you not consider?
e7 o,tootvqv: on the grounds that there
will be a benefit not for them.; o, +
fut. pple tii expressing alleged cause
346a1 tti ooovt tit: for tell me this much
ou_i t|ooqv tvoi: do we not indeed
say that each (art); supply t_vqv
a2 ouo o : because of this, (namely)
because of having; dat. of cause
a3 q oo|pivou: sg. mid. imperative
opo o ov: contrary to (your) opinion
a4 tpoivotv: may accomplish; purpose
a5 Aiio ouo : well, because of this (it is)
a6 otiiovivo: some private benefit
a7 oiov: for example; with respect to such
b1 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential
ouq: for this (is); supply toiv
346b
60


5




10

c



5




10


d



5



, ,
,
,
;
, .
, , , .
.
; ,
;
.
-
;
, .
-
,
.
, .


.
.

, , , ,
, ,
,
,
.
,
;

Republic I 346b3-d8 61
opvuoi: to earn, gain, reap for oneself, 1
i-opio: to define, separate, determine, 3
tooi: to follow, accompany, escort, 1
o ioooo, q : sea, 2
ioooi: to heal, cure, 1
|utpvoo: to be a helmsman; steer, govern, 2
iqi,, q : receiving, acceptance, 3
ioopvto: to work for a wage, 2
ioopvqi|o,, -q, -ov: of a wage-earner, 3
iooi|o,, -q, -ov: of a wage-earner, 3
oyi,: with difficulty, reluctantly, scarcely, 4
oi|io, q : a house, home, dwelling, 1
oi|o-oi|o,, -q, -ov: of a builder, 3
poo-yiyvooi: to come to be in addition, 1
poo-_poooi:to use in addition (+ dat.), 2
ou -qi: to assent, approve, 3
oooo: to appoint, order, arrange, 2
uyioivo: to be sound, healthy, 1
uyitio, q : soundness, health, 3
uyiq,, -t,: sound, healthy, wholesome, 1
uo-iqi: to set down; suggest, advise, 1


b3 tovtp ouiq : if you wish; 2
nd
sg. pres.
mid. subj. in a pres. general condition
ootp: just as
utou: utt(o)o; 2
nd
sg. aor.
uoiqi
outv i oiiov|oiti, oiiov: not
any more(not any) more do you
call?; the second oiiov is redundant
b4 |utpvov: being a helmsman; pres. pple
io o...itiv: on account the advantage
for him to sail on the sea; explanatory
(epexegetical) inf. modifying outpov
b5 |oiti,: do you call (x) (y); verb takes a
double accusative
b8 iooi|qv: the (art) of the wage-earner
uyioivq : 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. in a present
general condition, uyioivo
b10 1i t;: What?; Why? expressing
surprise and introducing another question
qv iopi|qv: (do you call) the art of
medicine; supply |oiti, from above
ioopvq : 3
rd
sg. pres. subj. in a present
general condition, ioopvto
c1 Ou| tq: No, he said.
c2 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
iiov: peculiar (to it); pred. after tivoi
c4 Eoo: let it be so; 3
rd
sg. imperative, tii
c5 Hvivo: whatever benefit..?; interrogative
adj. ooi,, modifying acc. sg. otiiov,
which is a cognate accusative
|oivq : in common
c6 qiov oi: clearly; (it is) clear that
ivi o ouo : some same thing; dat. obj.
of pres. pple poo_potvoi
c9 o...otitiooiqioupyou,ouoi,:
the fact that craftsmen benefit by earning
a wage comes to them from employing
the wage-earning art in addition; the art.
infinitive o otitiooi is acc. subject
of yiyvtooi
d1 ouou : his own; touou , reflexive
Ou|ouq..toiv: is this not the benefit?
d2 q iqi,: in apposition to otiio
d3 ioopvqi|q: (art) of the wage-earner
d4 ouq totvq: accompanying it; i.e.
accompanying the oi|ooi|q
d5 o ouq,tpyov tpyotoi: performs
its own function; touq,, cognate acc.
d6 t o : over which; antecedent ouo
to|oi: he has been appointed; pf.
pass. oooo
d7 to oi: is it (the case) that; toiv

346d
62

e



5




347



5




10
b



5




, .
, ;
.
, , ,
, ,
,
, -
, . ,
,
,
, -

,
, ,
, ,
.
, ;
,
, .
, , ,
, .

;
, .
, , -


,
. .


Republic I 346d9-347b9 63
oito: to ask, ask for, beg, 5
oiiopio,, -o, -ov: anothers, alien, foreign, 3
ov-opoo: to set straight, correct; restore, 1
yiyvoo|o: to come to know, learn, realize, 5
uo: two, 3
t|ov, t|ouoo, t|ov: willing, intentionally, 5
ti-ti|q,, -t,: fitting, suitable, reasonable, 5
qio , q : loss, damage; penalty, 5
|itq,, o : a thief, robber, 4
iopo : secretly, covertly, by stealth, 2
tpo,, -to,, o: a part, share, portion, 5
to-_tipio: to handle, manage; practice, 1
iooo,, -q, -ov: hired, 1
ovtio,, o : reproach, censure, rebuke, 2
out -ot: not ever, never, 3
oioi: long ago, formerly, of old, 2
opo-o|tuo o: to get ready, prepare, 3
poi, poi|o, q : to gift, present, 1
ouv-iqi: to understand; put together, 2
iq, q : honor, 3
u-op_o: be there, be available, be possible 3
ovtpo,, -o, -ov: visible, manifest, evident, 3
iio-opyupo,, -ov: fond of money, greedy, 1
iio-io,, -ov: ambitious, honor-loving, 2
otiio,, -q, -ov: helpful, beneficial, useful 2


e1 ou otiti : does he not give a benefit
poi|o: for free; as a gift, adv. acc.
tpyoqoi: pres. subj., general temporal
clause
e3 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
ouo qq qiov, oi: this (is) already
clear (namely) that
e4 ouq : for itself; reflexive, dat. interest
e5 o o op_otvo : (the advantage) for the
ruled; supply outpov
e6 qovo,: weaker; gen. pred. of ovo,
ovo,: pres. pple tii modifies t|tivou
o|oouoo: pres. pple o|oto modifies
the implicit subject t_vqop_q
e7 o ou |ptiovo,: that of the stronger;
supply outpov
io q ouo: on account of these very
things
e8 qtvo: no one; acc. subject of ttitiv
e9 o oiiopio |o|o: the problems of
another; acc. obj. of to_tipiooi
ovopouvo: attempting to correct them;
conative pres. pple ov-opoo
347a1 oiio...oitiv: but he asks for a wage;
i.e. all ask for pay; governed by tityov
oi: because
o tiiovpotiv: the one intending
to fare well in art; dat. respect; fut. inf.
a2 ouo : for himself; dat. reference
|oo qv t _vqv: according to art
a3 ov q tvt|o: for these very reasons
a4 ioovuop_tiv: it is necessary that
a wage be at hand
oi, tiiouoiv: for those intending; +
fut. inf. of ttio
a5 q q q : eitheroror
tov q op_q : if (one) does not rule; 3
rd

sg. pres. subj., present general condition
a7 Ho, ouo ityti,: what do you mean by
this?
a8 yop: (I say this) for
qv t qiov qvivo ityti,tipq|o,:
but the penalty which you speak of and
have talked about as a form of wage
pres. and pf. ityo
a9 ou ouvq|o: I do not understand; 1
st
sg.
aor. ouviqi called the dramatic aorist
because it is used in tragedy and comedy
to describe a present state of mind
a10 ouviti,: 2
nd
sg. pres. ouviqi
i ov: on account of which; i.e. wage
b1 titi|toooi: best men; superlative
oioo: 2
nd
sg. pres.. oio
b2 o...ti voi: to be a lover of honor and
silver; art. inf. with two acc. predicates
ovtio,: reproach; nom. pred. of
itytoi and toiv
b6 iq,: (for the sake of) honor; tvt|o
ovtpo,: openly; clearly
b7 pootvoiioov: exacting a wage
ioooi: predicate with |t|tiqooi
b8 |t|iqooi: be called; pf. pass. inf. |oito
ouoi...|it oi: they (by) themselves be
called thieves; supply from above
ouiovoi |t|iqooi
b9 tioi: they are; 3
rd
pl. pres. tii
q: accordingly; inferential

347c
64
c



5


d



5



e



5


348



5


, -


,
,
, ,
,
-
. -
,
,
-


.
, .

,
.
, , , ;
;
.
, ,
;
, , .
, ,
;
; .
, ,


Republic I 347c1-348a7 65
oipto: to seize, take; mid. choose, 3
oio_po,, -o, -ov: shameful, disgraceful, 3
oiqivo,, -q, -ov: truthful, true, real, 1
otivov, -ov: better, 5
ovoy|oio,, -o, -ov: necessary, inevitable, 3
ovi-|ootivo: to set out against, 1
oui,: back again, later, 3
yiyvoo|o: to come to know, learn, realize, 5
tio: to fear, 3
i-tp_ooi: to go through, pass through, 1
t|ov, t|ouoo, t|ov: willing, intentionally, 5
tv-ouo: here, hither, there, thither, then, 5
t-tupio|o: to find out, discover, 1
ti-ti|q,, -t,: fitting, suitable, reasonable, 5
ti-pto: to trust, commit, turn to (dat), 1
tu -oto: to be well off, enjoy oneself, 1
qio , q : loss, damage; penalty, 5
q|o: to have come, be present, 2
|oo-ovq,, -t,: clearly seen, evident, plain 2
voi o: to believe, think, deem, 2
vuvi: now; as it is, 2
o -tv: from where, from which, 2
ouoq : in no way, not at all, never, 1
tpi-o_qo,, ov: greatly fought for, 1
tpi-tvo: to wait for, await, 5
q: in some way, somehow, 2
otpo,: in which of two ways, 2
poyo, o : deed; matter, affair, trouble 5
poo-tii: to be in addition, 2
oo|o: to say, affirm, claim, 2
uo: to bring forth, beget; am by nature, 3


c1 ovoy|qvqiov: that for them there is
in addition compulsion and penalty
c2 otv |ivuvtuti: for this reason it looks as
though to pursue holding office willingly
and not to await compulsion is
considered shameful; to go after holding
office, acc. subj. of pf. pass. inf. voio
c4 q, t qi o, tyi oq: the greatest
penalty (is); partitive gen., supply verb
uo ovqpotpou: by someone worse.;
gen. of agent, here a comparative
tovttiq : 3
rd
sg. subj. present general
ouo,: he himself; i.e. the better man
c5 qv: which; acc. sg. of pple tioovt,
tioovt,: nom. pl. aor. pple. tio
c6 tp_ovoi ti o op_tiv: they pursue
holding office; go after holding office
c7 ou_ o,iovt,: not on the grounds that
they go after; o, + pple, alleged cause
o, tuoqoovt,: not on the grounds
that they will enjoy themselves; fut. pple
d1 o, t ovoy|oiov: on the grounds of
(going after) the inevitable; add iovt,
ou| t_ovt,: not (on the grounds of)
being able; supply o,, t_o + inf.
touov: than themselves; comparison
tiiooiv: dat. pl. tiiov object of inf.
tiptoi: aor. inf. tipto with t_o
d2 tti |ivuvtu tiop_tiv: since it looks as
though that, if a city of good men should
arise, not to hold office would be greatly
fought for just as to hold office (is) now
oii, ovpov oyoov: subj. of ytvoio
in a future less vivid condition (should,
would), the apodosis is ov tivoi, which
expresses potential
d4 ovytvtooi, oi: it would become clear
that; potential ov in same fut. less vivid
o ovi: actually, really; adverbial
d5 ou tu|to|otiooi: does not
naturally consider; is not naturally
disposed to consider, 3
rd
sg. pf. uo
d6 o o op_otvo : (the advantage) to the
one ruled
o,o yiyvoo|ov: every one having
understanding; the pple. is intransitive
d7 ov tioio: would choose; aor. opt. oipto
oiiovq : rather.than
u oiiou: by another; with otitiooi
otiov: pres. pple
d8 poyoo t_tiv: to have troubles
ouoo,: thisnamely that
e2 |oi ti,o|to to: we will consider
later also
oiu...tiov: far better; acc. of extent
e4 |ptio: stronger; |ptiovo, acc. sg.
e5 oipq : which do you choose; 2
nd
sg. mid.
e7 tyoyt: I for my part (say that)
348a1 H|ouoo,: did you hear; 2
nd
sg. aor.
iqitv: related; aor. i-tp_ooi,
a2 o oi|ou: for the life of the unjust
a3 tiooi: I am persuaded; pres. pass.
a4 ouiti: do you wish; + deliberative subj.
ov uvoto q : if we are able somehow
a6 Ho, yop ou : how could I not.?
a7 Av. . ityotv..ioyov: if we make a speech
348a
66


b



5




10
c



5




10


d



5

,
, , ,
,

,
.
, .
, , .
, .
, , ,
.
;
, , , .
, ;
, ;
;
,
;
, , ,
, .
;
, .
;
, .
;
, , .
, ,
;
, , ,



Republic I 348a8-d6 67
oo: at the same time; along with (dat.), 5
ov-ooioytooi: to agree upon, 1
opto|o: to please, satisfy, appease, 3
opito: to count, number, reckon, 1
oui,: back again, later, 3
ytvvoio,, -o, -ov: noble, well-bred, 1
io-|pivo: to decide, distinguish; separate, 1
i|ooq,, ou, o : a juror, 2
tvo,, o: tribe, race, people, nation, 2
ti|o,, oo,, o: likely, probably, reasonable 4
tu -ouiio, q : good counsel, prudence, 1
tu -qtio, q : navete, innocence, good nature, 1
qu,, -tio, -u : sweet, pleasant, glad, 4
|o|o-qtio, q : lack of innocence, bad nature, 1
ootpo,, -o, -ov: which of two, 1
pqop, o : a public speaker, orator, 1
otpt o: to measure, 1
oioot, -ot, -ovt: such (as this), 5
tpo: to bear, carry, bring, convey, 5


a8 opo ioyov: in response to (his) speech;
contrary to (Thrasymachus) speech
ooooyoo: how many goods; in
apposition to ioyov
o i|oiov tivoi: being just; subj. of t_ti
a9 oui, ouo,, |oi...qti,: and again this
one (speaks) and we (make) another
speech; just as litigants make 2 speeches
tqot: it will be necessary for us; fut. ti
b1 oyoo: o oyoo
ooo: how many (goods)
t|otpoi tv t|otpo : each (of us) in each
(speech); or in each (life),
b2 tqooto: we will be in need of (+ gen.);
fut. mid. tooi
ovo|ootv: if we consider; fut. more
vivid condition; tov
b3 po, oiiqiou,: with one another
tooto: 1
st
pl. fut. tii
b5 Hovu tv ou v: quite so indeed; expresses
positive certainty, cf. 331d4
b6 Ootpo,: in which way
opto|ti: it is pleasing; impersonal
Ouo,: in this way
b8 Ii q : come now; sg. imperative tii
(tp_ooi)
oo|pivoi: aor. mid. imperative
b9 tito, ouoq,: being complete; gen.
predicate; pple tii with i|oioouvq,
i|oioouvq,: than; gen. comparison
c1 |oi...|oi: bothand
i o : for what reasons; on account of
what
tipq|o: 1
st
sg. pf.. ityo (stem -tp)
c2 1tpt q : come now; often introduces an
imperative but here before a question
o oiovto, ityti,: as for the
following point concerning themhow
would you speak?; prolepsis; a similar
question o, ouo ityti,; is often
translated as what do you mean by this
c3 o tvouoivo t: one of those
twothe other; i.e. the justthe unjust,
dual gen. pl.
ou oiv: of those two; dual gen.
c4 Ho, yop ou : how could (I) not?; used
12 times in Book 1, o, yop confirms
and expresses (im)possibility and surprise
c5 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response; add
|oiti,, governing a double accusative
c7 Ei|o, y : it is indeed likely;
Thrasymachus is being sarcastic as we
read on below
o q iot: you very nave man; very
sweet man, superlative; cf. 337d6,
where Socrates is likewise described as
qu,, a word that ranges from sweet to
innocent to simple-minded
ttiq yt |oi: (I say this) since in fact
c9 Aiio i qv: Well, what then?; qv adds
liveliness to the question i
c10 ouvoviov: the opposite; o tvoviov
d3 povioi : pred. nom. with oyooi
following tivoi
d5 Oi yt: (yes) those at least; restrictive,
but a yes response is implied
oioi t: (being) able; the sort, oio, +
tii often means to be capable
oiti,: cities; acc. pl.
tvq: tribes; tvto, neuter. acc. pl.
d6 u touou, oitiooi: to putunder
their control; to putunder themselves
oiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. mid. oiooi

348d
68



e



5




10
349



5




10
b



5


.
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
.
.
, , , ,
.
,
,


,
.
, , .
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
, , , ,
;
, . -

;
, , ,
.
; ;
, .

Republic I 348d7-349b7 69
oio_po,, -o, -ov: shameful, disgraceful, 3
oiqtio, q : truth, 2
oio,, -o, -ov: worthy of, deserving of, 3
o-o|vqto,, -ov: worthy to shrink from, 1
oo-tvo: to cut off, sever, 2
ootio,, -o, -ov: urbane, sophisticated, 1
o -t_vo,: simply, absolutely, really, 1
oiioviov, o : purse, pouch, bag, 1
io-vot ooi: to think, suppose, intend, 4
io-tpo: to differ, surpass, be superior to, 5
tity_o: to cross-examine, question; refute, 3
t-t-tp_ooi: to go out against, go through, 1
toipo,, o : a comrade, companion, mate, 2
tu -qq,, -t,: nave, innocent, good-natured, 2
to,: until, as long as, 2
ouo o: to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 2
io_upo,, -o, -ov: strong, powerful; severe, 5
ovtuooi: to divine, prophesy, 1
tpo,, -to,, o: a part, share, portion, 5
voi o: to believe, think; be accustomed, 2
ouoo,: in no way, not at all, 5
ou|-ti: no more, no longer, no further, 4
tipoo: to try, attempt, endeavor, 2
poo-iqi: to add, attribute, impose, give. 4
o|oo: to joke, make fun of, mock, 1
otpto ,, -o, -ov: stiff, firm; solid, 1
oioo: to dare, undertake, endure, 1
uo-ioovo: to take up, reply; suppose, 5


d7 ootvovo,: those cutting off purses;
i.e. thieves snatching or stealing purses
d8 tv ou v: indeed; again, positive certainty
o oiouo: neut. pl. subj. of iuoititi
tovtp: if in fact
iovovq : 3
rd
sg. subj. in a present simple
condition
toi: (they) are; oiouo is subject
d9 oio ioyou: worthy of mention
e1 ouiti: you wish; 2
nd
sg. pres. ouiooi
otti : the followingnamely if
e2 touooo: I am surprised; cf. 347a9
tv optq,tpti: in the category of
excellence and wisdom; in the division
e2 iti,: you place; 2
nd
sg. pres. iqi
e4 Aiio: But I certainly do place them in
this way
e5 otpto tpov: (is) a more rigid position
e6 poiov: (is it) easy; neuter predicate
t_tiv: to know; to have (in mind)
e6 oi i, tiq : what one is to say; o i,
3rd sg. aor. deliberative subj.
ti titooti_otv ov: if you were to
set forth thatwe would be able; impf.
and impf. + ov in a present contrary-to-
fact condition; t_o + inf means be able
e7 tvoiooioyti,: (and) yet you were
to agree; impf. in same protasis above
ouo: that it; acc. subject of tivoi
e8 i itytiv: to say something
|oo....voio tvo: according to custom
e9 vuv t: but as it is; but now
e10 qio, ti oi qoti,: you obviously will
claim that; you are clear that you will
say, fut. qi
oiioovo: all other (qualities); o
oiio
pooqoti,: you will attribute; 2
nd
sg. fut
349a1 pootittv: we are accustomed to
attribute; or we were used to attribute,
impf. for customary action
ttiq yt |oi: (I say this) since in fact
a2 tivoi: aor. inf. iqi
a3 Aiqtooo: most truthfully; adverb in
the superlative degree
ovtuq : ovtut(o)oi; 2
nd
sg. pres.
a4 Aii ou tvoi: But surely I
oo|vqtov: (I must not) shrink away
from; + inf.; verbal adj. + tii, often
with dat. agent but here with acc. as a
periphrastic form expressing obligation
o ioyo tttitiv: to following
through the discussion ; aor. inf.
a5 o|oou tvov: examining; modifying the
understood acc. tt, I, in a4
ovuoioovo: as long as I suppose;
pres. subj. in a general temporal clause
a6 iovoq : you intend; iovott(o)oi
a7 o o|ouvo: what seems right (to you)
a9 1iiotpti: What difference does this
make to you?; i is an inner accusative
b1 tipo : try; tipo(o)o; pres. sg. imper.
b2 ou i|oiou: than another just (man)
i itov t_tiv : to have something
more; enclitic i, see box on page 71
ov ttitiv : would want; potential
b4 ov qv : he would be; impf. past potential
b6 q,..poto,: than a just action?; cf. b2
349b
70


10

c



5




10


d



5




10




, ;
, , , .
, , ,
,
;
, , .
;
;
; , ;


;
.
,
, ,
;
, , .
, , ,
;
, , .
, ,
, ;
, ,
, ;
.
;

Republic I 349b8-349d11 71
oiiioooi: to contend with, compete, 2
ov-ooio,, -ov: unlike, dissimilar, 5
oo,, oooo, oov: every, quite all, 3
outtpo,, -o, -ov: not either, neither of two 1
itioo,, -q, -ov: most, greatest, 3
ot: in this way, so, thus, 3


b8 1ou t oi|ou: than/over an unjust man;
proleptic, yet another gen. comparison,
here governed by itovt|tiv, see below
for suitable translations for this infinitive
oioi ov: would (the just man) deem it
right; + inf.; 3
rd
sg. pres. potential opt.
qyoio: would (the just man) believe
that; 3
rd
sg. potential opt. qytooi
b10 uvoio: would be able; present opt.
ou i|oiou: than (another) just man
c1 ti q oioi : whether the just man does
not deem (it) right; 3
rd
sg. pres. indicative
o-contract verb in an ind. question
ou t oi|ou: but ( have more) than
(only) the unjust; see the box below for
alternative translations
c3 ouo,t_ti: it is in this way; t_o +
adv. is often translated to be + adj. or
it is disposed + adv.
c4 1i t q : Then what about?; cf. 342a1
itovt|tiv: see the box below, where
the verb must be translated two different
ways in English to accommodate the two
genitives of comparison: one a person
and the other an action
c6 Ho, yop ou|: how could he not?; o,
yop expresses impossibility and surprise
o, yt: since he; yt is causal
ovov: than all; gen. comparison
c7 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
|oi...yt: emphasizes the intervening word
c8 o,ioq : so that he may receive;
purpose clause; aor. subj. ioovo
oovov: of all; partitive gen.
c10 Eoi ouo: these things are (the case)
c11 1t q: in just this way; emphatic
ityotv: let us speak; hortatory subj.
d2 Apioo: very well; superlative adverb
tipq|o,: 2
nd
sg. pf. ityo (stem tp-)
d4 outtpo: (is) neither; neuter pl. where
we would expect a sg. predicate
d5 Koi ou tu : well put indeed; indeed
(you have spoken) this well, ouo
d6 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
|oi...|oi: bothand
toi|t: he resembles, is like + dat.
d8 Ho, yop ou tiititoi|tvoi: Of
course! How is one, being such, not
going to be like; pf. inf., o, yop, as
often, expresses surpise and incredulity:
o oiouo, ov: one being such; pple tii
d9 o t: while the other (is going)
d10 Koio,: very well
t|otpo, ouov: each of the two of
them; nom. subject
oiouo,oiotp: such as those very
ones which

itovt|tiv

This key term, derived from the words itov t_tiv, appears to have a variety of meanings
that are difficult, if not impossible, to capture with a single English definition. Below are
three suggested translations for the word. All three senses govern a genitive of comparison.

(1) to gain/have more (than) + gen.

(2) to gain/have an advantage (over) + gen.

(3) go beyond/exceed/outdo/outreach + gen.

Translations (1) through (3) are frequently used with people (cf. b9, c1, c4) whereas (3) is
used for inanimate objects (q, i|oio, poto,, c5).
349d
72


e



5




10




15

350



5




10

b
; .
, ,
;
.
;
,
.
, , , ;
.
; ;
.
, , -


;
.
; ;
, .
;
;
.
;
.


,
.
, , .
;
, ;

Republic I 349d12-350b1 73
oipto: to seize, take; mid. choose, 3
o -ouoo,, -ov: unmusical, -cultured -refined 4
ov-tioqoouvq, q : ignorance, 1
ov-tioqov, -ovo,: ignorant, 2
ovtoi,, -to,, q : loosening, 1
opoo: to harmonize, tune, join, adapt, 1
o -pov, -ov: unintelligent, foolish, silly, 3
q-ou: perhaps, I suppose, of course, 4
toq, q : food, meat, 1
ti-oq q, q : knowledge, understanding, 3
ti-oq ov, -ovo,: knowledgeable, wise, 4
ti-ooi,, q : tightening, 1
iupo, q : lyre, 2
ooio-ouv, qioouv, o i-ouv: whosoever, 2
ooi,, q : drink, 1
poyo, o : deed, act; matter, trouble, 5
_opq, q : string, gut-string, 1


d13 Aiio i tiiti: Well, what else is he
going (to be like); see 349d8 above
d14 titv: Well then
ouoi|ovityti,: do you say one man
(is) a musician..and another; add tivoi
ttpovoouoov: supply tivoi
e3 Hotpovotpov: which of the two (do
you say is)which of the two (do you
say is); acc. governed by missing ityti,
e6 Ou|ouv|o|ov: Then (do you say that he
is) good in respect to the very things (he
is) intelligent and bad in respect to things
(he is) unintelligent; otp, o are acc. of
respect; the antecedents are missing
e8 i t iopi|ov: what about a physician;
a man of medicine
ou_ ouo, (is it) not in this way?
e10 Lo|ti ttitiv: does it seem that a
musical man would be willing; ov +
ttitiv expresses potential
opootvo, iupov: tuning a lyre; mid.
pple opoo
e11 ouoi|ou ovpo,: gen. of comparison
governed by itovt|tiv
e12 oiouv: would deem right; o-contract
inf., parallel to ttitiv, supply ov
e15 1i t;: What?; expressing surprise and
introducing a further question
oouoou: parallel to ouoi|ou ovpo,
350a1 ttitiv ov: does it seem that a physican
would be willing; supply o|ti from e10
i: at all; inner acc. with itovt|tiv
a6 opoti : see whether; opot sg. imper.
a7 i, ooiitytiv: any knowledgeable
man whosoever seems to choose either to
do or say more that what another
knowledgable man (chooses) to do or say
itioq ooo: more..than what
itiovo, comparative, obj. of infinitive
a8 oiptiooiq potiv q itytiv: to
choose either to do or say
|oi ou ouo: and not the same things;
o ouo governs a dative
a9 o ooio touo : as the one similar to
himself
ti,poiv: in regard to the same
action
a10 ovoy|q: (it is) necessary
ouo, t_tiv: to be in this way; t_o +
adv. is to be + adj. or to be disposed
a11 i t: what about?
ou_i...itovt|qotitv ov: wouldnot?
aor. potential opt., ou_i modifies the verb
ooio, tvooio, t: equally..equally
tioqovo,: gen. comparison governed
by itovt|qotitv, see box on p. 71

350b
74



5




10




15
c



5




10


d


.
;
.
;
.

, .
, .

.
.
, , ,
; ;
, .
,
;
.
, ,
, .
.
, ,
.
.

, .
,
, ,
,
, ,


Republic I 350b2-350d3 75
o -oq,, -t,: unlearned, ignorant, stupid, 3
ovo-oivo: to appear, show forth, display, 2
ov-ooio,, -ov: unlike, dissimilar, 5
ot: inasmuch as,, since (+ pple.), 2
tiov: aor. of opoo, to see, behold, 3
ti|o: to draw, drag, 1
ti-oq ov, -ovo,: knowledgeable, wise, 4
tpupioo: to blush, be apt to blush, turn red, 1
ouooo ,, -q, -ov: wonderful, marvelous, 2
t po,, o : summer, summertime, 1
ipo,, -oo,, o : sweat, 1
oyi,: with difficulty, reluctantly, scarcely, 4
ou -o: not yet, 3


b3 ooo ,: (is) wise; supply toiv
b4 qi : I say (so); in assent
b7 ou tv ooioutvoviou: all gen. of
comparison governed by itovt|tiv
b10 |o|o, t |oi ooq,: supply ttiqoti
itovt|tiv from above
b13 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
qiv: in our view; dat. of reference
c4 o ooo |oi oyoo : dat. obj. of toi|tv
c5 ooti : dat. sg. ooq,
|ivuvtuti:, it looks as though or it is
probable; it runs the risk
c7 Aiio qv: but furthermore; but
certainly introduces a further point
o tivoi: that each (of the two) in fact is
such as that to which each is like
c10 qiv: for us; dat. of reference
ovotovoi ov: has been shown to be;
pf. pass. ovooivo, pple tii
c12 q: then; now, connective
d1 ou_ o,poio,: not as lightly (as)
ti|otvo,: being dragged; pass. pple
to ipoo, ouooou ooou: with
sweat, (it is) amazing how much (there
is); cf. ouooo, o, oopo
(331a10); the construction ouooov
toi is attracted into the gen. ooou
d2 otovo,: since in fact; ot + pple
expresses cause from the speakers point
of view; here gen. absolute with pple tii
d3 tiov: 1
st
sg. aor. opoo
potpov t ouo: and not yet before;
adverbial accusative

350d
76


5



10
e



5




10

351



5


b




, ,
, , ,
. ,
;
, ,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
, , .
, , , .
;
, , ,
.
.
, , -
,
. -
, ,
,
,
,
, ,

,
;

Republic I 350d4-351b3 77
o -oio, q : ignorance, folly, 3
ovo-vtu o: to nod up and back; refuse, deny, 2
oio,: simply , plainly, absolutely, 2
opto|o: to please, satisfy, appease (+ dat.) 3
ypou,, ypoo,, q : an old woman, 1
qqyopto: to give a public speech, 1
io-o|tooi: to examine thoroughly, 1
i-oo-ioyto: to agree upon; concede, 1
oo, q : opinion, reputation, honor, glory, 2
ouioo: to enslave, make a slave, 3
titp: if really, if in fact (to imply doubt), 5
tq,: one after another, in order, 1
ti-uto: to desire, long for, 2
io_upo,, -o, -ov: strong, powerful; severe, 5
|oioi: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
|oo-ouioo: to enslave, reduce to slavery, 1
|oo-vtu o: to nod down in assent; approve, 2
|tioi: to lie down, 4
o: by.; in affirmation, 5
qoo,: in no way, not at all, 2
ivqo|o: to recall, remember, 2
uo,, o : story, word, speech, 2
ooio,, -o, -ov: of what sort or kind, 1
q: in some way, somehow, 2
otouou, -q, -ou : of you, of yourself, 1
qt: in this way, thus, here 1


d4 ttiq t ou v: but when in any case; t
ouv is used to resume after a digression
d6 Ei tv: Well then
qiv: dat. of interest
|tioo: letbe estalished; letbe set
down, 3
rd
sg. mid. imperative |tioi
t q |oi: but indeed also; or but already
in fact where q is temporal like qq
d7 tvqooi: 2
nd
sg. pf. ivqo|o
d9 tvqoi: 1
st
sg. pf. ivqo|o
o : (the things) which; the antecedent, the
neuter. pl. subject of opto|ti, is missing
d10 t_o: I am able; as often with infinitives
ityoiiov oiq,: shouldwould; opt.
and ov + opt., future less vivid condition
oi : oio
e1 q q : eitheror
to: allow; sg. imperative too
e2 ouiti: 2
nd
sg. pres. ouiooi
tpoov: inf. o-contract tpooo
tpoo: sg. imperative tpooo
e3 ityouooi,: feminine dat. sg. pple ityo
titv: Well then
tpo : I will say; tpto
e5 opo yt: at least (not) contrary to; + acc.
1otopto|tiv: so as to; + inf. in a
result clause
e6 ttiqtp: since
to,: toti,, 2
nd
sg. pres. too
e7 i oiio: what else?
e8 o Li o: by Zeus; acc. sg.
e9 oiti: oitt, sg. imperative oito
e10 Epoo q: Well, ask then!; just ask!,
q adds strong emotion to the imperative
e11 otp: which very thing I just (asked)
ivo: so that; purpose clause + pres. subj.
351a1 ooiov i: what sort of thing;
introducing an indirect question
uy_ovti ov: happen to be; common
translation for complementary pple tii
po,: in comparison to; with regard to
a2 tit_q: it was said; 3
rd
sg. aor. pass.
ityo; this statement, however, was not
explicitly made earlier in the dialogue
oi: that
a3 tiq: is; in secondary sequence, an opt.
may replace pres. indicative in indirect
discourse; 3
rd
sg. pres. opt. tii
i|oioouvq,: than; gen. comparison
a4 oioi: I suppose; parenthetical, oiooi
ovqotoi: will be shown; fut. pass.
|oi: in fact
a5 oi|io,: than injustice; gen. comparison
ttiqtp: since
a6 outi,oyvoqotitv: no one would still
not recognize this; parenthetical, aor.
potential opt. oyvoto
ou i: not at all
ouo, oio,: so simply; modifying
o|toooi in contrast with qt q
a7 o|t oooi:; sg. imperative too
b1 oiq, ov: would you say that it is unjust
that a city; oiiv is acc. subj. of three
infinitives: (1) ti_tiptiv ouiouooi,
(2) |ootouioooi, and (3) t_tiv ;
potential opt. qi; pres. mid. inf. and pf.
mid. inf. of an o-contract verb
oiio,: supply oiti,
b3 u touq t_tiv: hold under its control;
hold beneath itself
351b
78

5




c



5




10
d



5




10

e

; .
.
, , .

,
;
, ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
, , .


, ,
, ;
, .
; ;
.
, ,
,
;
, , .
, .
, ,


;
.

Republic I 351b4-351e2 79
oyooi: to wonder at, admire, 2
ovo-vtu o: to nod up in refusal; deny, 2
ovtu: without, 1
io-tpo: to differ, surpass, be superior to, 5
ouio,, o : a slave, 1
ty-yiyvooi: to happen in; be born in, 5
tvo,, o: tribe, race, people, group, 2
titutpo,, -o, -ov: free, 1
t-oito: to create in, produce in, cause, 2
tv-iqi: to send in, put in, implant, inspire, 1
ti-vtu o: to nod assent, nod to, 1
|itq,, o : a thief, robber, 4
iqoq,, o : robber, plunderer; pirate, 1
o_q, q : battle, fight, combat, 3
ioto: to hate, 4
ioo,, o: hatred, hate, 2
oo -voio, q : oneness of mind, unity, 1
oou: where, 3
op-t_o: to provide, furnish, supply, 3
oooio o: to rebel, revolt; quarrel, 3
oo oi,, q : faction, discord, 1
opoo tov, o : camp, encampment; army 3
titioo: to make perfect, complete, finish, 3
iiio, q : friendship, affection, love, 1
_opiooi: to favor, gratify, indulge (dat.) 3


b4 Ho, yop ou|: how could (I) not?; o,
yop confirms and expresses possibility
|oi ouo yt: and this indeed; i.e.
enslaving other cities; |oi...yt very often
emphasizes intervening word
q opioq: the best city-state; add oii,
b5 titooo: superlative adverb.
ouoo: fem. pple tii modifying the subj.
oi|o,: fem. nom. sg. two-ending adj.
b6 qv: 3
rd
sg. impf. tii
b7 otpovq : whetheror
b8 oito,: than (another) city; gen. of
comparison governed by |ptiov
tti: fut. t_o, note the aspiration
b8 ovoy|q: (is it) necessary
b9 ouq : for it; i.e. the city, dat. of interest
c1 o,t_ti: it is as; t_o + adv. is often
it is disposed or to be + adj.
c5 oo|pivq : 2
nd
sg. mid. oo|pivooi
ovu |oio,: quite well
c6 yop: yes, for; assent and explanation
c7 Eu yt ou oiov: Yes, you do well (to
favor me); doing well, pres. pple.
oiio q: well now
ot: in respect to this; acc. respect
_opiooi: sg. imperative _opiooi
c8 ov: with inf. uvoooi, repeated in c10
oiio i tvo,: any other group
o oo |oivq oi|o,: as many (groups) as
unjustly go after something
c9 pooi: aor. inf. poo
ovuvoooi: could; potential inf. with
an extensive acc. subj.
i: anything; object of pooi
c10 oi|oitv: they should; 3
rd
pl. optative in a
future less vivid condition
d2 1i : what about
ou oiiov;: (would they) not be more
(able)?
d3 Hovu yt: quite so
d4 2ooti,: factions; acc. pl. joined by |oi
with ioq and o_o,
q yt oi|io: injustice
ioq: hatreds; ioto, acc. pl.
d5 tv oiiqioi,: among one another; with
o_o,
d6 q yop: is it not so?;. expressing surprise
d7 Eoo: let it be so; 3
rd
sg. imper. tii
ivo: so that; purpose clause with pres.
subjunctive
d8 Aii tu yt ou oiov: see c6 above
d9 ouo tpyov oi|io,: this (is) the task of
injustice; supply toiv
toitiv: to engender; ioo, in acc. obj.
oou ov tvq : wherever it arises. aor. subj.
tviqi
ou |oi: then willnot; apodosis becomes
a question eliciting a yes answer
d10 iotiv oiqoti oiiqiou,: will cause
them to hate one another
|oivq potiv: to act in common
e2 Hovu yt: quite so

351e
80


5




10
352



5




10

b



5




;
;
, .
, , ,
, ;
, .
, ,
,
,
,
; ;
.


,
;
.
, , ;
, .
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, , -
.

,


Republic I 351e3-352b8 81
otivov, -ov: better, 5
o-t_ovooi: to be hated, be hateful to, 1
o-oiiui: to destroy, kill, ruin, 1
oo-iqpoo: to fill up, satisfy (gen) 1
ytvo,, -to,, o : family; race, stock, 1
io-tpo: to differ, surpass, be superior to, 5
uvoo,, -q, -ov: capable, strong, possible, 4
uo: two, 3
ty-yiyvooi: to happen in; be born in, 5
tvovioooi: to oppose, contradict, 1
t v-tii: to be in, 2
toiooi,, -to,, q : a feasting, banquet, 1
tuo_tooi: to feed, feast on; relish, enjoy, 1
opot o: to be confident, take courage, 1
ouooo ,, -q, -ov: wonderful, marvelous, 2
to ,, o : a god, divinity, 5
ioio,, q, ov: remaining, the rest, 1
ioto: to hate, 4
ov: surelynot? (expects no reply), 1
oo-vot o: be of the same mind, agree (dat) 1
ooio-ouv, qioouv, o i-ouv: whosoever, 2
oooio o: to rebel, revolt; quarrel, 3
opoo tov, o : camp, encampment; army 3
oioot, -ot, -ovt: such (as this), 5
uo: to bring forth, beget; am by nature, 3


e3 1i t ov tv uoiv: whatever arises
between the two; dual dative
ioioovoi: 3
rd
pl. fut. mid. iotpo
e4 toovoi: 3
rd
pl. fut. tii
e6 Eovtyytvqoiooiti tti: ov +
aor. subj. and fut. ind. in a future more
vivid condition
t q : but then
tv tvi: in one (of the two); dat. sg. ti,
ov q: surelynot; expecting a no
answer
e7 ooiti : it will lose; 3
rd
sg. fut. ooiiui
ouq,: its own; touq,
outv qov tti: will be no less (justice);
t_o + adv. is often translated is
disposed or is + adj.; qov is a
comparative adv. and outv is an acc. of
extent of degree
e8 qtvt_to: let it be no less; 3
rd
sg
pres. imperative t_o
e9 Ou|ouvoiov: Then does it not appear
to have some such force such as--in
whatever it rises, whether in a city,
family, military camp or whatsoever
elseto make (oitiv) it first unable to
act with itself on account of rebelling
and quarreling and furthermore (make) it
be an enemy to itself and every opponent
and the just?
o : in whichever (place)
e10 tittit: eitheroror
352a1 oiio ooouv: anything whatsoever
else
poov tvti : firstfurthermore
oitiv: to make (x) (y); double acc.
potiv: to act; governed by ouvoov
t : with; to + gen.
a2 io: on account of; + articular inf.
a3 touo i|oio : governed by. t_pov
o tvovio ovi: every opponent
a5 tv tvi: in one (of the two); dat. sg. ti,
governed by tvouoo
tvouoo: nom. sg. fem. pres. pple tv-tii
ouo ouo: these same things; o
ouo
a6 tu|tv tpyotooi: it naturally
produces; pf. uo
poov tvttio: firstthen
potiv: see e9 to 352a3 below
oiqoti: will make (x) (y); double acc.
a8 q yop: is it not so?;. expressing surprise
tioiv: are; 3
rd
pl. tii
a11 too: let it be; 3
rd
sg. imperative, tii
b1 tooi: 3
rd
sg. fut. tii
b3 Euo_ou : relish or enjoy; + partitive gen.
feast on, tuo_tt(o)o; sg. mid. imper.
ou ioyou: discussion; partitive gen.
oppov: pres. pple opoto
b4 ivo: so that I not be hated to these here
men;; purpose clause with pres.
Ii q : come now; sg. imperative.
tp_ooi (tii)
b5 |oi o ioio ootp |oi vuv: in the
remaining matters alsojust as even now
ooiqpooov: have your fill of; aor.
imperative + partitive gen.
b6 oi tv: now that; oi governs Socrates
summary through c8
b7 otivou,: better; nom. pred. otivo(v)t,
potiv: governed by uvootpoi
b8 oioi t: are able; (are) capable

352c
82
c



5



d



5




e



5




10
353


,

, ,

, ,
,

,

, -
, . , ,
.
, .
, .
, .
;
.

, ;
, .
;
.
; ;
.
[] ;
.
;
;

Republic I 352c1-353a2 83
oo: at the same time; along with (dat.), 5
otivov, -ov: better, 5
o-t_o: to be distant, keep away from, 2
otio,, q : vine, 1
oo-tvo: to cut off, sever, 2
t v-tii: to be in, 2
ti-uy_ovo: to hit upon, meet, attain, reach1
tppotvo,, -q, -ov: in good health, vigorous 1
qi-o_qpo,, -ov: half-evil, half a villain, 1
|iqo, -oo,, o : vine-twig, small branch, 1
|oiq : absolutely, altogether, 1
o_oipo, q : knife, large knife, 1
qoi: no (stronger from of q ), 1
oo,: nevertheless, however, yet, 3
opoo: to set in motion; set out, begin, 5
ooio-ouv, qioouv, o i-ouv: whosoever, 2
ouoo,: in no way, not at all, 5
ou,, oo,, o : ear, 3
ooio,, o : the eye, 4
o-ovqpo,, -o, -ov: utterly-depraved, 1
po-iqi: to set forth before, 1
o-ot: ever yet, ever, 1
o|tt o,, -ov: one must reflect or consider, 4
oi iq, q : carving knife, 1
poo,, o : a manner, way; turn, direction, 4
uotpo,, -o, -ov: later, last, 4
ot: in this way, so, thus, 3


c1 oiio q: but then
|oi ou, otvovo,: even (in respect
to those) whom, though being unjust, we
say vigorously did something at one time
with one another; missing antecedent is
acc. of respect; ovo, is acc. pl. pple tii
c3 ov oti_ovo oiiqiov: they would not
have kept themselves from one another;
ov + impf. mid. o-t_o expresses past
potential and governs a gen. of separation
c4 qiov oi: clearly; (it is) clear that
tvqv: impf. tv-tii
ouoi,: in them; dat. of compound verb
c5 q : which; nom. sg. relative pronoun
qoi |oi...yt |oi: at least not both
and; yt emphasizes the preceding word
t ou, qoov: whom they came after; i.e.
they pursued or attacked; impf. tp_ooi
c6 i q : for which reason
opqoov t ti o oi|o: pursued
unjust (deeds); hasten after, aor opoo
c7 oi|io : by injustice
ovt,: nom. pl. pple tii
tti: since
c8 tito,ouvooi: are completely
incapable in fact of acting; 3
rd
. sg. tii
ouooi ouo, t_ti: that these things
are so; proleptic; t_o + adv. is often
to be + adj. or to be disposed
d2 titoo: proposed; impf.
otivov: better; adverbial acc.
ov oi|ov: than; gen. comparison
d3 tuoiovtotpoi: comparative degree
otp: which very thing
poutto: we proposed; aor.
poiqi or the variant poto
d4 o|tt ov: we must consider; (it is) to be
considered (by us), verbal adj. with form
of tii + dat. of agent (both missing here)
|oi vuv: even now
t ov: from the things which
d5 tipq|otv: 3
rd
pl. pf. ityo (-tp)
ti tiiov: still better; i.e. still more
carefully
ou yop tpi ou tiu_ovo,: for not
about something we chance upon; lit.
chancing upon (us), aor. tiuy_ovo
tpi ou ovivo poov: concerning the
question in what way one ought to live
d6 qv: inf. oo
d7 2|oti: o|ott, sg. imperative t-contract
d9 tpyov: function, task
e2 ov tiq,: would you set forth that; 2
nd
sg.
potential aor. opt. iqi
oiiou oououv: of whatsoever else
e3 tpyov, o : task(is) that which; add tivoi
o ovoiq : whatever one does either
with that (object) alone or (one does)
best with that object; ov + pres. subj.
oito, dat. means and superlative adverb
e5 to oo oiio q : is there (anything)
else by whichthan; missing antecedent
ovioi,: potential aor. opt. opoo
e7 1i t;: What (about this)?
(ov) o|ou ooi,: parallel to e5; dat. pl. ou,
353a1 ovootoi,: aor. potential opt.
353a
84


5




10


b



5




10




c



5

;

.
.
;
.
, -

.
, ,
.
, .
;
, , ;
.
;
.
; ;
.
;
.
; ;
.

,
;
;
.
, ,


Republic I 353a3-c5 85
otivov, -ov: better, 5
ovi : instead of, in place of (+ gen.), 5
o-tpyoooi: to accomplish, complete, 4
ptovov, o : pruning-knife, scythe, 2
oo, -oo,, o : the eye, 1
ou,, oo,, o : ear, 3
ooio,, o : the eye, 4
oi,, -to,, q : vision, seeing; appearance, 2
oiiv: again, once more; back, backwards, 1
poyo, o : deed, act; matter, trouble, 5
uvovooi: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 5
o: yet, up to this time, 1
uioq,, -oqo,, q : blindness, 1


a3 Ho, yop ou : how could (I) not?
a4 outvi y ov: but (you would cut) with
nothing; supply ootoi, from above,
here with a dat. of means parallel to a1
oioi: I suppose; oiooi, parenthetical
ouo |oio, o,: as well as; so well as
o ti ou o tpyootvi: made for this
(purpose); aor. pass. pple. tpyoooi
a7 ouotpyov: that this (is) the function;
of this; add tivoi for indirect discourse
or view as a double acc. construction
q ootv: 1
st
pl. fut. iqi
a8 tv ou v: Indeed; expressing full assent
a9 vuv q: now then; q is inferential
oioi: I suppose; parenthetical, oiooi
otivov: comparative adverb
ooi,: aor. potential opt. ovovo
qpoov: 1
st
pl. impf. tpooo
a10 ti tiq: whether this is; 3
rd
sg. opt. tii
is replacing an indicative in an indirect
question in secondary sequence
t|oooutpyov: the function of each
o otpyoqoi: (namely) whatever
something either alone or best of the
others accomplishes; ov + pres. subj. in a
relative clause of characteristic (general
relative clause); i is the subject and
|oiiioo is a superlative adv. of |oio,
a12 Aiio : but of course, I understand;
t|ooou poyoo,: of each thing
Ei tv: very well
b2 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
optq: excellence; in a general sense, not
moral excellence or moral virtue
tivoi t|ooo : to exist for each thing; dat.
of interest
b3 otp: to which; dat. compound verb
pooto|oi: pf. pass. poooo
iotvo ouo o iiv: let us pursue the
same things again; let us go after
hortatory subj. tp_ooi (-i)
b6 |oi: also
b8 1i t;: What (about this)?; well then
introducing a further question
qv: 3
rd
sg. impf. tii
oov: gen. pl. ou,
b10 Ou|ouv: Then,not?
|oi: also; parallel with b6
b12 ovov tpi: about all of the rest;
anastrophe, obj. of tpi is ovov;
oiiov is partitive gen.
b14 E_t q: consider now; sg. imperative
t_o, hold (in mind) now
o ouov tpyov: their own task; acc.
direct object; reflexive touov
otpyoooivo: couldaccomplish?;
aor. potential opt.
c1 q t_ovo: through not having; q is
used with participles with conditional or
concessive force
ouov oi|tiov: their own peculiar
c3 |oi o, ov: and, how could they
(accomplish it)?; |oi here conveys an
emotional response, often of surprise
c5 Hi,optq : whatever their excellence
(is)

353c
86




10

d



5




10


e



5




10

,
, .
, , .

;
.
;
.
, .
,

,
;
.
; ;
, .
;
.
, ,
, ;
.
,
.
.
-
, ;
.
,
.

Republic I 353c6-353e11 87
o-tpyoooi: to accomplish, complete, 4
ouituo: to deliberate, plan, take counsel, 2
ti-titooi: to take care, manage (+ dat.), 3
ou,, oo,, o : ear, 3
ot pooi: to lack, be deprived of, want, 2
oioot, -ot, -ovt: such (as this), 5


c6 q oi|tio tv optq : because of its
peculiar excellence; dat. of cause
c7 o ouov tpyov tu tpyootoi o
tpyootvo:: the things working will
accomplish their function well; future
tpyoooi
|o|io : because of a defect; dat. of cause
in contrast with optq above
c9 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential, begins
question seeking a yes response
oo: ears; neuter acc. pl. ou,
otpo tvo: being deprived of; pass. pple
governs a gen. of separation
c11 Hovu yt: quite so
d1 ittv: Do we apply; pres. iqi
|oi o iio o vo: and all other things;
o oiio
ov ouov io yov: the same principle
d2 ii q : come now; imperative tp_ooi
d3 o|t oi: aor. imperative o|tooi
d4 o : which; acc. direct object
oiio ov ovov ou ov tvi: by
nothing other of the things that exist; by
not one thing dat. of cause and gen.
pple tii; dat. sg. ti,, note the aspiration
ov pooi,: aor. potential opt. poo
oiov o oiovt: as for example the
following; oiov in respect to such, is an
adverbial acc. or acc. of respect often
translated as for example
o tititiooiovo: in respect to;
all of the articular infinitives are acc. of
respect
d6 to oo oiio .q u_q oooitv
oitv: is it to anything other than to
the soul we would rightly assign them
and say that (they) are that ones
peculiar (function); aor. potential opt.
ooioi, qi
ouo: them; i.e the infinitives in d4-6
d7 tivoi: that (they) are; the acc. subject is .
ouo in d6, inf. tii
d8 outvi oiio : to nothing other;
repetition, as often, expresses assent
d9 1i o qv: What in turn about
living?; articular inf. oo
qoooi: fut. qi
d11 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential
tivoi: exists;. optqv ivo is acc. subj.
e2 otpyootoi: will accomplish; fut.
q, oi|tio, optq,: of its peculiar
excellence; gen. separation with pple
ouvoov: or (is it) impossible
e4 Avoy|q: (it is) necessary
e7 Ou|ouv: Then,not?; inferential
ouvt_opq ootv: we agreed; aor.
ouy-_opto, see 350c
e9 2uvt_opqootv yop: yes, we agreed
e10 iootoi: will live; fut. ioo

353e
88

354



5




10



b



5




c



, , .
,
.
;
, .
, .
, .
;
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
.

Republic I 353e12-354c3 89
oti : always, forever, in every case, 2
oiio,, -o, -ov: miserable, wretched, 3
o -oio, q : ignorance, folly, 3
o-t_o: to be distant, keep away from, 2
oo-ytuooi: to take a taste of (+ gen.) 1
oo-iouo: to enjoy, have enjoyment (gen.), 2
opoo: to snatch away, carry off, 1
o-iqi: to send forth, let go, give up, 5
tvitio, o : festival of Bendis, 1
io -ioyo,, o : conversation, dialogue, 1
touou, -q,, -ou : myself, 1
t-io: to fall in, fall upon; attack, 1
toioo: to entertain, give a feast; mid. enjoy 3
tupio|o: to find, discover, devise, invent, 4
ii_vo,, -q, -ov: greedy; gluttonous, curious, 1
tpio,, -o, -ov: moderate, well, fair, 2
vuvi: now; as it is, 2
oot: when, by what time, 2
opoo: to set in motion; set out, begin, 5
out -ot: not ever, never, 3
opo-tpo: to bring forward, hand over, 1
po o,, -ov: mild, gentle, soft, 1
piv: before (+ inf.), until, 3
o_oiq , q : leisure, spare time; rest, 1
uotpo,, -o, -ov: later, last, 4
_oitoivo: to be sore, angry, grievous, 2


e12 |oo...io yov: according to your account
354a1 Aiio qv: but surely; introduces an
objection or, as here, resumes the
discussion with a new idea or premise
o yt tu ov: one who lives well; the one
living well, pple oo
o t q: the one who does not (live well);
the one not, supply tu ov
a2 ovovio: the opposite; o tvovio
a3 Ho, yop ou : how could he not?; o,
yop expresses impossibility and surprise
a5 Eoo: let it be so; 3
rd
sg. imperative tii
a6 iuoititi : it does not pay; it does not
profit, impersonal verb, iuoitito
a9 oi|io: injustice (is); supply toiv
i|oioouvq,: than; gen. comparison
1ouotioiooo: Let these things
complete your feast; have been feasted
upon; pf. pass. 3
rd
sg. imper., cf. 352b3
Htvii oi,: named for first time
a12 uo oou yt: because of you; governed by
tioiooo, gen. of agent or cause
a13 tytvou: tytvt(o)o; 2
nd
sg. aor. yiyvooi
touoo: touoo(o)o, 2
nd
sg. aor. mid.
ouo with complementary participle
ou |oio, yt: however not well indeed
b1 tioiooi: I have enjoyed the feast; pf.
mid. toioo
b2 ou oti opotpotvou ooytuovoi:
taste something served to (them) at any
time; partitive gen.
b3 ou potpou: the previous (dish); obj.
of ooiouooi
tpio,: sufficiently; in due measure
ooiouooi: aor. inf. ooiouo
ouo: marks the end of the simile
b4 pivtuptiv: before finding; aor. inf.
tupio|o
o poov: at first; adverbial acc.
o i |oiovtoiv: what in the world
the just is; proleptic, the just, what it is
b5 ottvo,: letting go; aor. mid. pple
oiqi
t|tivou: of that (inquiry); partitive gen.
object of oiqi
opqooi: I seem to have set out; aor. inf.
opoo, governed by oi o|o in b3
ti o o|t tooi: for (the purpose) of
examining
b6 tittit: whetheror
b7 ttoovo,ioyouoi: when in turn
the argument later fell upon (us) that;
gen. absolute, aor. pple ooio
b8 q, i|oioouvq,: than justice; gen. of
comparison
oto_oqv: aor. ot_o + gen.
o q ou|titiv: from pursuing this
(topic); q + inf. in a clause of
prohibition; q ou| is left untranslated;
ou| corresponds to ou| in the main verb
b9 o t|tivou: from that (topic)
vuvi: just now; here now, deictic iota
ytyovtv: has turned out; pf. yiyvooi
c1 titvoi: to know; inf. oio
oot: when
o i |oiovo toiv: what the just is;
the just what it is, proleptic
tioooi: I will know; fut. mid. oio
c2 tittit: whetheror
ouoo uy_ovti: (the just) really is;
happens to be; pple tii
|oi ou : in fact not; |oi is adverbial
Regular Synopsis 90
lu/w, lu/sw, e1lusa, le/luka, le/lumai, e0 lu/qhn: loosen, ransom

PRESENT FUTURE
Active Middle/Pass. Active Middle Passive
P
r
i
m
a
r
y

I
n
d
i
a
t
i
v
e

lu/w
lu/eij
lu/ei
lu/omen
lu/ete
lu/ousi(n)
lu/omai
lu/e(s)ai
lu/etai
luo/meqa
lu/esqe
lu/ontai
lu/sw
lu/seij
lu/sei
lu/somen
lu/sete
lu/sousi(n)
lu/somai
lu/se(s)ai
lu/setai
luso/meqa
lu/sesqe
lu/sontai
luqh/somai
luqh/se(s)ai
luqh/setai
luqhso/meqa
luqh/sesqe
luqh/sontai
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y

I
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
v
e

e1luon
e1luej
e1lue(n)
e0lu/omen
e0lu/ete
e1luon
e0luo/mhn
e0lu/e(s)o
e0lu/eto
e0luo/meqa
e0lu/esqe
e0lu/onto

S
u
b
j
u
n
c
t
i
v
e

lu/w
lu/h|j
lu/h|
lu/wmen
lu/hte
lu/wsi(n)
lu/wmai
lu/h|
lu/htai
luw/meqa
lu/hsqe
lu/wntai

O
p
t
a
t
i
v
e

lu/oimi
lu/oij
lu/oi
lu/oimen
lu/oite
lu/oien
luoi/mhn
lu/oio
lu/oito
luoi/meqa
lu/oisqe
lu/ointo
lu/soimi
lu/soij
lu/soi
lu/soimen
lu/soite
lu/soien
lusoi/mhn
lu/soio
lu/soito
lusoi/meqa
lu/soisqe
lu/sointo
luqhsoi/mhn
luqh/soio
luqh/soito
luqhsoi/meqa
luqh/soisqe
luqh/sointo
I
m
p

lu=e
lu/ete
lu/e(s)o
lu/esqe

P
p
l
e

lu/wn,
lu/ousa,
lu/on
luo/menoj,
luome/nh,
luo/menon
lu/swn,
lu/sousa,
lu/son
luso/menoj,
lusome/nh,
luso/menon
luqhso/menoj,
luqhsome/nh,
luqhso/menon
I
n
f
.

lu/ein lu/esqai lu/sein lu/sesqai luqh/sesqai
2
nd
sg. mid/pass -s is often dropped except in pf. and plpf. tenses: e(s)ai h|,ei e(s)o ou
Regular Synopsis 91


AORIST PERFECT
Active Middle Passive Middle Passive


itiu|o
itiu|o,
itiu|t
itiu|otv
itiu|ot
itiu|ooi(v)
itiuoi
itiuooi
itiuoi
itiuto
itiuot
itiuvoi
P
r
i
m
a
r
y

I
n
d
i
a
t
i
v
e

tiuoo
tiuoo,
tiut(v)
tiuootv
tiuoot
tiuoov
tiuooqv
tiuoo(o)o
tiuooo
tiuooto
tiuooot
tiuoovo
tiuqv
tiuq,
tiuq
tiuqtv
tiuqt
tiuqoov
titiu|q
titiu|q,
titiu|ti
titiu|ttv
titiu|tt
titiu|toov
titiuqv
titiuoo
titiuo
titiuto
titiuot
titiuvo
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y

I
n
d
i
a
t
i
v
e

iuoo
iuoq,
iuq
iuoq
iuootv
iuoooi(v)
iuoooi
iuoq
iuoqoi
iuooto
iuoqot
iuoovoi
iuo
iuq,
iuq
iuotv
iuqt
iuooi(v)
itiu|o
itiu|q,
itiu|q
itiu|otv
itiu|qt
itiu|ooi(v)
itiutvo, o
q,
q
otv
qt
ooiv
S
u
b
j
u
n
c
t
i
v
e

iuooii
iuooi,
iuooi
iuooitv
iuooit
iuooitv
iuooiqv
iuooio
iuooio
iuooito
iuooiot
iuooivo
iutiqv
iutiq,
iutiq
iutitv
iutit
iutitv
itiu|oii
itiu|oi,
itiu|oi
itiu|oitv
itiu|oit
itiu|oitv
itiutvo, tiqv
tiq,
tiq
tiqtv
tiqt
tiqoov
O
p
t
a
t
i
v
e

iuoov
iuoot
iuooi
iuooot
iuqi
iuqt

itiuoo
itiuot
I
m
p

iuoo,,
iuoooo,
iuoov
iuootvo,,
iuootvq,
iuootvov
iuti,,
iutioo,
iutv
itiu|o,,
itiu|uio,
itiu|o,
itiutvo,,
itiutvq,
itiutvov
P
p
l
e

iuooi iuooooi iuqvoi itiu|tvoi itiuooi
I
n
f
.

Adapted from a handout by Dr. Helma Dik (http://classics.uchicago.edu/faculty/dik/niftygreek)
Synopses: -mi verbs

92

di/dwmi, dw/sw, e1dwka, de/dwka, de/domai, e0do/qhn to give
Present Imperfect Aorist
A
c
t
i
v
e

di/dwmi di/domen
di/dwj di/dote
di/dwsin dido/a>sin
e0di/doun e0di/domen
e0di/douj e0di/dote
e0di/dou e0di/dosan
e1dwka e1domen
e1dwkaj e1dote
e1dwken e1dosan
Imp
di/dou di/dote

do/ j do/te
Pple didou/j, didou=sa, dido/n
dido/ntoj, -ou/shj, -o/ntoj

dou/j, dou=sa, do/n
do/ntoj, dou/shj, do/ntoj
Inf.
dido/nai

dou=nai
M
i
d
d
l
e

di/domai dido/meqa
di/dosai di/dosqe
di/dotai di/dontai
e0dido/mhn e0dido/meqa
e0di/doso e0di/dosqe
e0di/doto e0di/donto
e0do/mhn e0do/meqa
e1dou e1dosqe
e1doto e1donto
Imp
di/dou di/dosqe

dou= do/sqe
Pple
dido/menoj, h, on

do/menoj, h, on
Inf.
di/dosqai

do/sqai


ti/qhmi, qh/sw, e1qhka, te/qhka, te/qeimai, e0te/qhn to put, place
Present Imperfect Aorist
A
c
t
i
v
e

ti/qhmi ti/qemen
ti/qhj ti/qete
ti/qhsi(n) tiqe/a>si(n)
e0ti/qhn e0ti/qemen
e0ti/qeij e0ti/qete
e0ti/qei e0ti/qesan
e1qhka e1qemen
e1qhkaj e1qete
e1qhke(n) e1qesan
Imp
ti/qei ti/qete

qe/j qe/te
Pple tiqei/j, tiqei=sa, tiqe/n
tiqe/ntoj, -ei=shj, -e/ntoj

qei/j, qei=sa, qe/n
qe/ntoj, qei=sa, qe/ntoj
Inf.
tiqe/nai

qei=nai
M
i
d
d
l
e

ti/qemai tiqe/meqa
ti/qesai ti/qesqe
ti/qetai ti/qentai
e0tiqe/mhn e0tiqe/meqa
e0ti/qeso e0ti/qesqe
e0ti/qeto e0ti/qento
e0qe/mhn e0qe/meqa
e1qou e1qesqe
e1qeto e1qento
Imp
ti/qeso ti/qesqe

qou= qe/sqe
Pple
tiqe/menoj, h, on

qe/menoj, h, on
Inf.
ti/qesqai

qe/sqai
Synopses: -i verbs

93

iqi, q oo, q|o, ti|o, tioi, tiqv: to send, release, let go
Present Imperfect Aorist
A
c
t
i
v
e

iqi ittv
iq, itt
iqoiv iooi
iqv ittv
iti, itt
iti itoov
q|o titv
q|o, tit
q|tv tioov
Imp
iti itt

t, tt
Pple
iti,, itioo, itv
itvo,, itioq,, itvo,

ti,, tioo, tv
tvo,, tioq,, tvo,
Inf.
itvoi

tivoi
M
i
d
d
l
e

itoi itto
itooi itot
itoi itvoi
itqv itto
itoo itot
ito itvo
tiqv tito
tioo tiot
tio tivo
Imp
itoo itot

ou tot
Pple
ittvo,, q, ov

ttvo,, q, ov
Inf.
itooi

tooi

tii (to be)
present imperfect imp. pple inf.
1
st
tii totv q, qv qtv ioi ov tivoi
2
nd
ti tot qoo qt tot ouoo
3
rd
toiv tioiv qv qoov ov
subjunctive optative
1
st
o otv tiqv titv
2
nd
q, qt tiq, tit
3
rd
q ooiv tiq titv

ti i (to go, present translates as the future of tp_ooi)
present imperfect imp. pple inf.
1
st
tii itv qo qtv ii iov itvoi
2
nd
ti it qtioo qt it iouoo
3
rd
tioi iooiv qtiv qoov iov
subjunctive optative
1
st
io iotv ioii ioitv
2
nd
iq, iqt ioi, ioit
3
rd
iq iooiv ioi ioitv
94
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List
(Words 6 or More Times)
This is an alphabetized list of the running core vocabulary found at the beginning of this
commentary. To use this book properly, readers should review and memorize the running core
vocabulary as they read the dialogue. If they encounter a word in the text that is not found in
the facing vocabulary, it is most likely in the running vocabulary and the list below.
The number of occurrences of each word in the Republic Book I was tabulated with the help
of vocabulary tools in the Perseus Digital Library (perseus.tufts.edu).

oyoo,, -q, -ov: good, brave, capable, 34
oyvoto: not know, be ignorant of, 6
o -i|t o: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 16
o -i|i o, q : wrong-doing, injustice, 28
o -i|o,, -ov: unrighteous, unjust, 41
o -u voo,, -ov: unable, incapable, impossible, 8
o|ouo, o|ouoooi, q|ouoo, o|q|oo, , q|ouoqv: to hear, listen to (acc., gen.), 8
o|piq,, -t ,: exact, accurate, precise, 13
o|ov, o|ouoo, o|ov: unwilling, unintentionally, 6
oiqq,, -t ,: true, 28
oiio : but, 141
oiiqio,, -o, -ov: one another, 15
oiio,, -q, -o: other, one...another, 73
oiio,: otherwise, in another way, 8
oopovo, oopqoooi, qopov, qopq|o: miss the mark, make a mistake, 16
ov: ever; modal adv., 95
ovoy|q, q : necessity, force, constraint, 11
ovqp, ovpo,, o : a man, 15
ovpoo,, o : human being, 12
oioo: to think worthy, deem right, 8
oo: from, away from. (+ gen.), 9
oo-i oi, -o oo, t o|o, t o|o, tooi, toqv: give back, return, render, 20
oo-|pi vooi, |pivouoi, t|pivoqv: to answer, reply, 28
opo: then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 33
opo: introduces a yes/no question, 21
optq, q : excellence, goodness, virtue, 27
opyupiov, o : silver coin, piece of silver, 9
opioo,, -q, -ov: best, most excellent, 6
opi: just, exactly, 8
op_q, q : a beginning; rule, office, 15
op_o, opo, qpo, qp_o, qpyoi, qp_qv: to begin; rule, be leader of, 69
ou: again, once more; further, moreover, 9
ouo,, -q, -o: -self; he, she, it; the same, 123
ouou: at the very place, here, there, 8
t iioo,, -q, -ov: best, 10
tii ov, -ov: better, 6
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List

95
i o,, o : life, 6
ioo, iooooi, tiooo, tio|o, tiooi, : to live, 7
io o, ioo, tioo, : to hurt, harm, 19
ou iooi, ouiq oooi, , , touiqoi, touiqqv: wish, be willing, choose, 16
yop: for, since 103
yt: at least, at any rate; indeed, 104
yqpo,, o : old age, 12
yiyvooi, ytvqoooi, tytvoqv, ytyovo, ytytvqoi, : come to be, become, 23
liou|ov, o : Glaucon, 10
t : but, and, on the other hand, 290
ti : it is necessary, must, ought (+ inf.), 19
tivo ,, -q, -ov: terrible; strange, wondrous, clever , 8
t o, tqoo, ttqoo, ttq|o, ttqoi, ttqqv: lack, want, need; mid. ask, beg, 17
qio,, -q, -ov: clear, evident, conspicuous, 9
qioupyo ,, o : a skilled workman, craftsman, 6
qo: certainly, to be sure, of course, 6
io: through (+ gen.) on account of, because of (+ acc.), 19
i |oio,, -o, -ov: just, right, lawful, fair, 105
o|to, oo, too, to|q|o, toyoi, to|qqv: seem (good); think, suppose 50
u vooi, uvq oooi, , , tu vqoi, tuvqqv: to be able, can, be capable. 14
u voi,, -to,, q : power, strength, force; faculty, capacity, 6
t : se (reflexive), 49
tov: ti ov, if (+ subj.), 120
touou, -q,, -ou: himself, herself, itself, themselves, 47
too, tooo, tiooo, ti o|o, tiooi, tioqv: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 14
tyo : I, 227
ttio, ttiqoo, qtiqoo, qtiq|o, , :: to be willing, wish, desire. 19
ti : if, whether, 57
ti tv: well! well now!, 9
tii, toooi: to be, exist. 453
ti ov: said, spoke (aor. it yo, qi), 38
ti,: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 74
ti,, io, tv: one, single, alone, 7
tit: either...or; whether...or, 16
t|: out of, from (+ gen.), 11
t|ooo,, -q, -ov: each, every one, 24
t|otpo,, -o, -ov: each of two, either, 6
t|tivo,, -q, -ov: that, those, 27
to,, -q, -ov: my, mine, 9
tv: in, on, among. (+ dat.), 51
tvovio,, -o, -ov: opposite, contrary, 17
tvt|o: for the sake of, because of, for (+ preceding gen.), 8
t-oopovo, oopqoooi, qopov, qopq|o: to miss (the mark), fail, err, 8
toi|o: to be like, seem likely (dat., pf. with pres. sense), 24
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List 96
tti: when, after, since, because, 17
ttiov: whenever, 6
t-tio: then, next, secondly, 7
ti: near, at (+ gen.), to, toward (+ acc), near, at (+ dat.), 28
ti-oo, oo, o o, t oo, t o_o, t ooi, to qv: to order, command, 6
ti-_tipt o: to put one's hand on, attempt, try, 7
tpto: will say, will speak, will mention (fut. of it yo, pf. tipqoi), 7
tpyoooi, tpyooooi, qpyoooqv, , tipyoooi, qpyooqv: work, labor, toil, 6
tpyov, o: work, labor, deed, act, 21
tpooi, tpqoooi, qpoqv: to ask, question, inquire, 8
tp_ooi, tituoooi, qiov, tiqiuo, , : to come, go, 29
tpooo, tpoqoo, qpoqv, qpoq|o, qpoqoi, qpoqqv: to ask, inquire, 15
ttpo,, -o, -ov: one of two, other, different, 8
ti: still, besides, further, 13
tu: well, 27
tu -oi ov, -ov: happy, fortunate, blessed, 9
t_po,, -o, -ov: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 24
t_o, to, to_ov, to_q|o, to_qoi, : have, hold, possess; be able; be disposed, 47
oo, qoo, tqoo, : to live, 7
Ztu ,, o : Zeus, 8
q : or (either...or); than, 116
q : in truth, truly (begins open question), 27
qytooi, qyqoooi, qyqooqv, , qyqoi, : lead, guide; consider, think, believe 9
qq: already, now, at this time, 8
qo,, -to,, o : pleasure, enjoyment, delight, 8
qi : I say, 100
qov, -ov: less, weaker, inferior, 12
toi,, -to,, q : a placing, arranging; position, 3
Opoou o_o,, o : Thrasymachus, 45
iopi|o,, -q, -ov: of a physician, medical, 14
iopo,, o : physician, doctor, 12
iio,, -o, -ov: private; owns own, peculiar, 6
ioo,, -q, -ov: equal to, the same as, like, 11
ioo,: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 10
iqi: to send, let go, release,; mid. hasten, 11
ivo: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 7
io,, o : a horse, 11
|oi: and, also, even, too, 472
|o|i o, q : wickedness, vice, cowardice, 9
|o|o ,, -q, -ov: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 25
|oito, |oito, t|oitoo, |t|iq|o, |t|iqoi, t|iqqv: to call, summon, invite, 13
|oio ,, -q, -ov: beautiful, fair, noble, fine, 13
|o vo, |oouoi, t|oov, |t|q|o, , : to be ill, tired, weary; toil, work, 6
|oo: down from (+ gen.), down, down along (+ acc.), 24
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List 97
Kt oio,, o : Cephalus, 8
|tituo, |tituoo, t|tituoo, |t|titu|o, |t|tituoooi, t|tituoqv: to bid, order, 6
|ivuvtu o, |ivuvtu oo: to risk, venture; impers. it is likely, 7
|oivq: in common, together, by common consent, 9
|oivo ,, -q, -ov: common, ordinary; public, 10
|pti ov, -ov: better, stronger, superior, 29
|oooi, |qoooi, t|qooqv, , |t|qoi, t|qqv: to acquire, procure, get, 10
|utpvq q,, -ou, o : a helmsman, pilot, governor, 9
ioovo, iqooi, tioov, tiiqo, tiiqoi, tiqqv: to take, receive, grasp, 7
iovo vo: to escape notice of, act unnoticed, 6
ityo, ito, tito, tiio_o, itityoi, tit_qv: to say, speak, 117
io yo,, o : word, speech, discourse, argument, 41
iuoitit o: to pay (what is due), profit, avail, 6
iuoitiq ,, -t ,: profitable, useful, advantageous, 7
o|o pio,, -o, -ov: blessed, happy, 7
o io: very, very much, exceedingly, 5
o iioo: most of all; certainly, especially, 7
oiiov: more, rather, 11
ovo vo: to learn, understand, 16
t yo,, tyo iq, t yo: big, great, important, 9
tiio, tiiqoo, ttiiqoo: to be about to, to intend to, 6
t v: on the one hand, 94
t voi: however, nevertheless; certainly, 15
to: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 13
q : not, lest, 71
q v: truly, surely, 12
qoo,: in no way, not at all, 2
qt : and not, but not, nor, 14
q-ti ,, q-ti o, q-t v: no one, nothing, 15
i oo,, o : wage, pay, hire, 13
o vo,, -q, -ov: alone, only, solitary, 8
ouoi|o ,, -q, -ov: musical, educated, cultured, 7
voi : yes, yea, 14
vou,, vto,, q : a ship, boat, 15
vouq,, -ou, o : sailor, 8
vou,, o : mind, intention, attention, thought, 3
vuv: now; as it is, 26
vuv-q: just now, 6
o, q, o : the, 926
ot, qt, ot: this, this here, 12
oio: to know (pf. with pres. sense), 27
oi|tio,, -o, -ov: ones own; peculiar; relatives, 9
oiooi, oiqoooi, , , , oqqv: to suppose, think, imagine, 46
oio,, -o, -ov: of what sort, as, 14
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List 98
oo-ioyto, ooioyqoo, ooioyqoo, ooioyq|o, , ooioyqqv: to agree, 17
ooio,, -o, -ov: like, resembling, similar, 13
oo,: how, in what way; in order that, that, 6
opo,, -q, -ov: straight, upright, right, 13
o,, q, o : who, which, that, 122
ooo,, -q, -ov: as much as, as many as; all who, all that, 23
ootp, qtp, otp: the very one who, very thing which, 8
ooi,, qi,, o i: whoever, whichever, whatever, 89
oov: ot ov, whenever, 23
oi: that; because, 75
ou, ou|, ou_: not, 169
ou-ti,, out-io, ou-t v: no one, nothing, 32
out: and not, but not, nor, not even, 37
ou|ouv: therefore, then, accordingly, 25
ouv: and so, then; at all events, 72
ou -t: and not, neither...nor, 18
ouo,, ouq, ouo: this, these, 158
ouo,: in this way, thus, so, 49
otiio, otiiqoo, otiiqoo, otiiq|o: to owe, 14
o,, ooo, ov: every, all, the whole, 27
ovo -ooi: all in all, altogether, absolutely, 6
ovu: quite, entirely, exceedingly, 36
opo : from, at, to the side of (+ gen., dat., acc.); in respect to, 18
oo_o, tioooi, toov, tovo: to suffer, experience; allow 6
tio, tioo, ttioo, toio, ttiooi, ttioqv: persuade, trust; mid. obey, 14
tpi: around, about, concerning (+ gen., dat., acc.), 26
itovt|to: gain or have more, gain or have advantage, go beyond, exceed (gen), 11
ito: to sail, 6
itov, -ov: more, greater, 14
oito, -qoo, toiqoo, toiq|o, toiqoi, toiqqv: to do, make, create, 52
oii,, q : a city, 16
otpo,, -o, -ov: which of the two? whether?, 15
Hoit op_o,, o : Polemarchus, 21
oiu,, oiio, oiu: much, many, 28
ovqpo,, -o, -ov: bad, evil; painful, grievous, 9
ot: ever, at some time, once, 9
ou: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 10
poi,, -to,, q : a action, deed, transaction, business, 6
poo, poo, tpoo, tpo_o, tpoyoi, tpo_qv: to do, make, act, 19
po,: to, towards (+ acc.), near, in addition to (+ dat.), 45
poo-q|ti: it concerns, relates to; is fitting (+ dat) 7
poo-oo, o o, t oo, t o_o, t ooi, to qv: order, assign, appoint (dat)8
potpo,, -o, -ov: before, previous; earlier, 15
poo,, -q, -ov: first, earliest, 11
o,: how? in what way?, 25
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary List 99
o,: somehow, in any way, 26
poio,, -o, -ov: easy, ready, 10
2ioviq,, o : Simonides, 10
o|t ooi, o|tooi, to|toqv, to|toi: to consider, examine, look at, 12
o|ot o: to look at, examine, consider (other than pres. and impf. see o|t ooi) 24
oo ,, -q, -ov: your, yours, 16
ooi o, q : wisdom, skill, judgment, intelligence, 7
ooo ,, -q, -ov: wise, skilled, 12
ouy-_opt o, -_opqoo: to come together; yield, concede, 6
2o|poq,, -ou,, o : Socrates, 29
ou-oi vo, -q oooi, -t qv, t q|o, tooi, toqv: to happen, occur, result, 5
ou-tpo, -oioo, -qvty|ov, -tvq |o_o: to gather, collect; be useful, be expedient, 47
ooo, -oo,, o : the body, 8
t: and, both, 88
tito,, -o, -ov: finished, complete, perfect, last, 8
t_vq, q : art, skill, craft, 28
iqi, qoo, tq|o, tq|o, ttioi, ttqv: put, place, arrange, make, cause, 24
ot: at that time, then, 13
oi-vuv: well then; therefore, accordingly, 6
oiouo,, -ouq, -ouo: such, 24
uy_ovo, tuooi, tu_ov, tu_q|o, , : to chance upon, get; happen, 8
o: ivi, dat. for to/for whom? 58
uo: by, because of, from (+ gen.), under (+ dat.), 15
oivo, ovo, tqvo, tqvo, toooi, tovqv: to show; mid. appear, seem, 25
qi, t pto, tiov, tipq|o, tipqoi, tppqqv: to say, claim, assert, 172
iio,, -q, -ov: dear, beloved; subst. friend, kin, 31
iio,, -ou, o : friend, relative, kin, 9
povio,, -ov: intelligent,wise, prudent, 6
uioo, uioo, tuyov, tuio_o, , tuio_qv: keep watch, keep guard, 6
_oito,, -o, -ov: difficult, hard, harmful, 6
_poooi, _pqoooi, t_pqooqv, , |t_pqoi, t_pqoqv: to use, employ (+ dat.), 6
_pq : it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 10
_pqo, -oo,, o : thing, money, goods, 8
_pqoio,, -q, -ov: useful, serviceable, apt, fit, 12
_pqoo,, -q, -ov: useful, good, worthy, 5
u_q , q : breath, life, spirit, soul, 10
o : O! oh! 92
ot: in this way, so, thus, 3
o,: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 51
ootp: as, just as, as if, 21
oot: so that, that, so as to, 12
otitio, q : help, aid, use, advantage, benefit, 8
o tit o, otiqoo, otiqoo: to help, to be of use, benefit, 16
Notes

100