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TE 407: Lesson Plan

Name: William Janshego Mentor Teacher: Nicholas VanDenBrink Class and grade level: Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Grade Partner: Chris Thomas School: Sexton H.S. Date: 11/12/2012

Part I: Information about the Lesson or Unit

Topic: Introduction of Tissues Abstract:
For this lesson I will be covering the nine different types of Epithelium within the human body. This lesson will include a guided Prezi presentation, with formative Iclicker questions. The students will follow along by filling in guided notes, and responding to the various Iclicker questions. After the main presentation the students will complete a three question review assessment. This assignment will act as the summative assessment for the entire lesson, and help to identify what the students understand by the end of the day.

Part II: Clarifying Your Goals for the Topic

Big Ideas
Within the human body there is a distinction between four different types of tissue. These four classes of tissue, Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous tissues, work coherently to help the body maintain homeostasis. The Epithelial tissue is located throughout the body; it covers the internal organs and lines the surface of the body. These tightly packed cells lack blood vessels, and are replaced often. The Epithelium can further be classified by their nine distinct geometric shapes. The nine different shapes of the epithelium help to distinguish between their functions, the thinner Simple Squamous cells help with the diffusion of gasses in the Alveoli, while the cilia covered Simple Columnar and Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium help with the removal of bacteria and dust from the body. The Connective tissue helps to provide support and protect the framework, while allowing for the storage of fat, production of blood cells, and protection from infections. The Connective Tissues are known for their abundance of extracellular matrix, which is composed of fibers and a ground substance whose consistency varies from a fluid to a more solid structure. Similar to the Epithelium tissue the Connective tissues can be subcategorized into the four types of connective tissues, again each serving a distinct purpose. The looser connective tissue helps to bind the skin to the underlying organs and helps to fill the spaces between the muscles. The strongest type of connective tissue located within the body is Bone; the Bone gains the majority of its strength from the mineral salts, such as calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate located within the extracellular matrix. . The Muscle tissue is broken down into three distinct groups; Skeletal Muscle, Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle Tissue. The Smooth Muscle tissue is located within the organs of the body and controls the involuntary actions of the body. This

contrasts with the Skeletal Muscle, which controls the voluntary movements. The Cardiac Muscle is only the heart, and its main function is to move blood throughout the body. The Nervous tissues are broken down into two categories the Neurons and the Neuroglia cells. The Neurons help to transmit impulses sent from the brain and spinal cord, while the Neuroglia cell help to maintain homeostasis, and provide protection and support for the neurons throughout the body (Shier, Butler, and Lewis 91-111).

Student Practices
Have you identified general practices that your students will use as they study many topics (not just this one) Yes I have identified general practices that will be used across many topics; this can be seen throughout my big idea. In the big ideas, we are able to see the connections between the four different body tissues. I have also included a beginning question that talks about cancer, which directly links back to the students previous lessons. Do your inquiry practices describe how students will find patterns in data or develop arguments from evidence? The student will be able to find the pattern in my lesson by using the Iclicker system. By asking questions that will focus on particular part of the lesson, I will be able to point out how material connects. I have also included many review questions that require the students to draw conclusions based off of their evidence. Not only do the students have to identify various types of epithelium, but they have to defend their identifications by using their guided notes. Do your application practices involve predicting or explaining real-world phenomena using patterns and models? My lesson focuses on the two main ideas of inquiry and reflection, as stated in the state objectives. For the aspect of inquiry, I have focused on the idea of providing evidence for a conclusion. This has been done through the use of Iclicker questions and the provided review guide, which requires the students to identify epithelium from a small set of characteristics. Building on this idea I have also required the students to explain their reasoning, in order to make lasting connections to the material. For the concept of reflection, I have focused on using appropriate scientific knowledge in a social argument, and explaining why a claim maybe incorrect. These two correlated well with each other since they both required the students to use scientific language to explain why they have made their choices. By asking the students to defend their arguments, both on paper and in a formal discussion, they will further develop their understandings of the lecture material. Not only will they have to defend their arguments, but they will be able to disprove the other arguments. This type of lesson will help the students to build understanding, and strengthen the main ideas (Straus 3). Are your practices connected to your Big Ideas? Throughout my lesson I have focused on three of the main objectives, which deal with the epithelium. These three objectives require the students to focus on identifying differences between the nine different types of epithelium. The students are not only

required to identify the epithelium from pictures, but they are also required to select from word problems. By having the students notice these visual differences, they will be better able to notice the visual differences between the three other types of tissue. Are your practices connected to your objectives for student learning My practices are connected to my objectives for student learning, by requiring the students to defend their arguments. They are not simply answering a, yes or no answer question, but they are using the provided scientific evidence to formulate a conclusion. Though the scientific evidence is in the form of guided lecture notes, I am still requiring the students to find support for their argument. By having the students find support for their arguments, while using explicitly stated information, they will begin to feel more comfortable formulating these types of arguments. After allowing the students to feel comfortable with provided information, they will be better able to defend their own data collected from a laboratory assignment.

Objectives for Student Learning

Objective Michigan Objective(s)
1. List the four major tissues types, and provide examples of where each occurs in the body. 2. Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissues. 3. Name the types of epithelium, and identify an organ in which each is found. 4. Explain how glands are classified 5. List the types of connective tissues within the body. 6. Describe the general cellular components, structures, fibers, and matrix (where applicable) of each type of connective tissue. 7. Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue. 8. Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissues. 9. Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissues. 10. Describe the four major types of membranes.

Choose one: 1. What 2. How 3. What 4. How 5. What 6.How 7. Why 8. Why 9. What 10. What

Specific Lesson Objective(s)

1. 2. Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissues. Be able to properly identify the different epithelial cells from their pictures/descriptions, and provide reasoning as to why you selected your answer (Shier, Butler, and Lewis 91-111). 1. How 2. Why

Part III: Formative Assessment

For my pre-assessment, I decided to ask the students two general questions. The first question was, Name a few of the tissues that are located inside of the body, and what their functions maybe? For the second question I asked the students to explain the difference between a cell and tissue. After reviewing the pre-assessment responses, I have noticed a reoccurring theme between the students ideas. They seem to understand that there are many different types

of tissue within the body, but they are unsure of what distinguishes one tissue from another. This is very noticeable in the responses of Joey and Rachel. Joey responded by saying, cell tissue, brain tissue, muscle tissue and Rachels wrote nose tissue, finger tissue and joint tissue. By responding in this way, I am able to see that the students think that every major structure of the body is composed of its own tissue. Though the students thoughts are not entirely false, it is easy to understand why they have made these connections. Any person that has watched a crime show has probably heard the characters mention brain tissue or muscle tissue. From this it would be easy to see how a person would think, that different parts of the body are the result of different tissues. In order to correct for these misconceptions I would start by explaining the seven different types of epithelial cells. For the second question, the most common answer can be heard in Chandler response a cell is smaller and the tissue is made up of similar cells. The majority of the students believed that cells were the building blocks of tissues. This was really interesting to see that the students already understood that tissue was compromised of cells, and that there was a similarity between them. I believe that since the students had mentioned that the different parts of the body were composed of different cells, this is why they believed there were specialized cells for each tissue. In order to help the the students understand how the different parts of the body are composed of the seven different epithelium cells; I will begin by explaining that organs are composed of epithelial cells and other types of cells. From here I will break down the individual epithelial cells and how their different shapes affect their functions. I will have the students take observations on the seven different types of cells, and then I will explain how their observations help the cell to perform its function. In order to make sure my students comprehend the material, I will have the students use Iclickers and explain why they matched the different epithelial cells.

Part IV: Classroom Activities

Materials Prezi- This is the link to the presentation (http://prezi.com/w4ry9hpbmdpk/tissues/) Iclickers

Epithelial Cell Note Sheet Pages in textbook: Book: Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Pages: 91-98

Introduction (5 minutes) When the students enter the class, I will have them pick up their Iclicker and note sheets from the front of the class. I will start the lesson by explaining to the students how to operate the Iclickers, and telling them that we will be using them throughout the lesson. To make sure that everyone understands how to use the Iclickers, I will ask them Which of the following choices is not one of the four types of tissues found in the body? By asking this question I will be able to make sure the Iclickers are functioning, and to make sure that they have paid attention to the previous days overview. From here I have decided to begin my lesson with an interesting fact, which should help to grab the attention of the students. Since they have just completed individual papers on cancer, I will ask them how much of human cancer originates

in the epithelial cells. By informing the students that 90 percent of all cancer originates in these tissues, I should be able to spark their interest and keep them interested.

Main Teaching Activities (35 minutes) (http://prezi.com/w4ry9hpbmdpk/tissues/?kw=vieww4ry9hpbmdpk&rc=ref-9845201) For the rest of the instructional time I will be having the students fill out a note sheet, which corresponds to my Prezi. The Prezi will focus on the nine different types of epithelial cell, and how their geometric shapes affect their functions. In order to get the students to participate, I will periodically ask the students questions about information that has been previously discussed on the Prezi. Throughout the Prezi there are many Iclicker questions that ask the students to determine which type of epithelial tissue is being described. They will have to use their notes, in order to decipher the various clues (Notes are located in Appendix 1). By having the students use their notes to determine the answers to these questions, I am able to reinforce previous topics and see where my students maybe struggling. These questions also help to reinforce the structure and functions of the tissues, since the students will have to distinguish between the different types. After polling the class, I will ask for the student volunteers to explain why they choose their answers. This way the students will be able to contribute to the lesson, and help other students understand what is going on. Questions: Based off of this picture how would you classify this epithelial cell?(After Review Question) Why did you choose simple cuboidal? (After Prezi Question) What type of organ would we find this cell in?(prior to showing Simple Squamous Cell locations) What do you think the prefix Pseudo means? Why did you say C was the holocrine gland and not the apocrine gland? Conclusion (15 minutes) I have three final review questions that once again highlight the main points form the Prezi, and help to reinforce the main ideas. These will first be distributed as an assignment, and then we will review them by using the Iclickers. Similar to before I will have a few of the students defend their answers, by providing explanation as to why they choose a particular answer I will end by having the students turn in their Iclickers, and reading the answer to my Prezi joke.

Questions: 1. I am made up of a single layer of flattened cells, and can be easily broken. I allow gasses to pass through me, who am I and where can you find me? 2. I am tall and thin, with cilia that cover me. Every time you breath in I will be there to protect you from dust...Who am I? 3. Image Identification

Part V: Assessment of Students

Focus Objective
Be able to properly identify the different epithelial cells from their pictures/descriptions, and provide reasoning as to why you selected your answer.

Developing Assessment Tasks (Assessment in Appendix 2)

1. I am made up of a single layer of flattened cells, and can be easily broken. I allow gasses to pass through me. Who am I, where can you find me, and how did you know? This is describing the Simple Squamous Epithelium. These tissues are located within the alveoli of the lungs, lymph vessels and cover the membranes that line the body cavities. I was able to tell that this was the Simple Squamous because their thin shape makes them fragile enough to break, and thin enough for the gasses to pass through. 2. I am tall and thin, with cilia that cover me. Every time you breathe in I will be there to protect you from dust. Who am I, Where can you find me, and how did you know? This is describing the Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium. This tissue lines the passages of the respiratory system, and helps to remove mucus. The Pseudostratified Columnar and the Simple Columnar both contain cilia, but only the Pseudostratified Columnar works with the respiratory system. The Simple Columnar is found mostly in the digestive system. 3. Who Am I, and why do you know I am not another type of Epithelial Cell? This picture is showing the Stratified Squamous Epithelium. I know this because there are many layers of cells, which become flatter as they move toward the surface. There is also a noticeable keratin layer that has hardened and died to produce a water resistant layer

Works Cited 1) Shier, David, Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis. Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. Ninth. McGraw-Hill, 2006. 91-111. Print. 2) Straus, Kathleen. Michigan Merit Curriculum. Michigan Department of Education. High School Content Expectations. 2006. Web.

Appendix 1:

Name: Hour:

Epithelium Tissue Notes

Location: Cover body surfaces, cover and line , compose glands. Function: Protection, Secretion, Absorption Excretion Distinguishing Characteristics: Lack blood vessels, readily divided; cells are packed Cancer: What percentage of Human Cancer originates in epithelial tissues? 1) Simple Squamous EpitheliumShape:
- Single layer of thin flattened Cells - Fight tightly together(like a floor tile) - Their Nuclei are usually broad and thin Functions: - Substances pass easily through them - Common site of

and and

Locations: -Line the air sacks of the lungs (Alveoli) where are exchanged. - Capillaries, Blood Lymph vessels Problems: Since they are so thin and delicate, they can be easily damaged

2) Simple Cuboidal EpitheliumShape: - Single layer of Cube-shaped cells - Centrally located, spherical nuclei Function: -In secretion and absorption -In glands it secretes glandular products Locations: -Kidney tubules -Glandular Ducts including the Salivary Glands, Thyroid Gland, Pancreas and Liver.

3) Simple Columnar Epithelium

Shape: - They are elongated (Longer than they are wide) -Single layer of cells with nuclei located near the - They can have Cilia extend from the surface Function: - Since Elongated this Tissue is , so it can protect the underlying tissues. .

- Secrete digestive fluids and absorbs nutrients from digested foods. -The aid in moving the females reproductive eggs Location: - Digestive Tract (Stomach and Large Intestine) Extra: Located along the sides of the simple columnar epithelium, are the Goblet Cells, which secrete a protective fluid, called _____ _. The prefix Pseudo means .

4) Stratified Squamous Epithelium:

Shape: -Many Layers piled on top of each other make this tissue relatively thick. -The cells divide in the deeper layers, and newer cells push older ones farther outward, where they become flattened. Locations: -Skin -Oral Cavities -Vagina -Anal Cavity Function: -They form the outer layer of the skin called the . -As the skin cells age they accumulate the protein , then harden and die. -The keratin creates a dry, tough protective material that prevents water and other material from entering. -When not on the skin, the cells smooth and soft. produce keratin, and remain

5) Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium:

Shape: - These cells appear to be , but they are not!! - This layering effect comes from the cell nuclei that are located at two or more levels in a row of aligned cells, even though all of the cells touch the basement membrane. -Commonly have and . Location: -Line the - Mucus covered lining collects dust, and the cilium moves the mucus out of the airways.

6) Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Shape: - Consist of two or three layers of cuboidal cells that form the lining of the lumen Location: - Lines the Larger ducts of the: Mammary glands, Sweat glands, Salivary glands and Pancreas - Lining of the and (which are part of the female and male reproductive systems)

7) Glandular Epithelium
Shapes: -Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or body fluids. Types -Merocrine Glands- Release watery, protein-rich fluids by exocytosis. -Apocrine Glands- Lose of their glandular cell bodies during secretion. -Holocrine Glands- The entire cell lyses (breaks apart) during secretion.

8) Transitional Epithelium
Shape: -Several layers of the Cuboidal cells -Changes in response to tension -Stretched -Not Stretched Function: -Provides expanded lining -Prevents contents of the urinary tract from diffusing back into the internal environment. Location: -Urinary Bladder -

Appendix 2 Name: _______________________ Date: _________________ Hour: _________

Epithelial Tissues
1. I am made up of a single layer of flattened cells, and can be easily broken. I allow gasses to pass through me. Who am I, where can you find me, and how did you know?

2. I am tall and thin, with cilia that cover me. Every time you breathe in I will be there to protect you from dust. Who am I, Where can you find me, and how did you know?

3. Who Am I, and why do you know I am not another type of Epithelial Cell?