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ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

ICELT DISTANCE UNIT 6 Lesson Planning

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Contents
Introduction . Aims .. Reading 3 3 4

Section One - Lesson Planning.. . Reflecting on lessons and lesson planning Variety and balance Planning interaction Peer Observation Task

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Section Two - Writing Lesson Plans for ICELT . Component Two - Teaching Completing the lesson plan form Post lesson self-evaluation

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Section Three - Methodology Assignment Two .. Analysing the task Planning the structure Assessment criteria Brainstorming ideas Drafting and editing The final draft

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References Feedback on study skills unit .

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British Council 2004

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Introduction This unit should guide you towards more effective planning. We shall be considering lesson planning, in general, in section one and focussing on lesson planning for ICELT, in particular, in section two. In section three, we shall be focussing on methodology assignment two - planning beyond the lesson. As this assignment is not due until block two of the course (see course guide for exact dates) you may decide to leave this part until a later date. It is important that you complete the reading for this unit as much of the input on lesson planning is contained in these texts. Ideally, you should do the reading before you begin working on the unit itself and certainly before looking at section two. If you work through the tasks here carefully and conscientiously, it will help you enormously with component two of assessment Teaching. It would be very useful if you could do the tasks with one or two colleagues through discussion with colleagues, you will find that ideas and concepts become clearer. If that is impossible, please post your results and comments on the ICELT website forum.

Aims By the end of this unit you should: Have an overview of the planning process Be more aware of the benefits of planning Be more aware of the considerations when planning lessons Be able to plan more effectively to meet the needs of your learners Be better able to write clearer, specific aims for your lessons Be better able to anticipate problems your students may have and plan solutions for these Be better able to complete the lesson plan form used on ICELT Be better able to evaluate your own teaching Be better able to write effective action points following assessed teaching Have a clear understanding of what is expected of you for methodology assignment two - planning beyond the lesson

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Recommended Reading Scrivener, J. 1994. Learning Teaching. Heinemann. Chapter 5 Pages 44 to 58 There are tasks within the text and it is highly recommended that you pay due attention to these to make the reading as worthwhile as possible. Harmer, J. 1998. How to Teach English. Longman. Chapter 12. Pages 121 126 There are a number of tasks relating to this chapter on pages 170 to 172 which are worth working though. Gower, R, Phillips D & Walters S. 1995. Teaching Practice Handbook. Macmillan Heinemann. Chapter 8. Pages 175 187. ELT Forum Lesson Planning Additionally for Primary level teachers: Brewster, J., Ellis, G. (with Denis Girard). 2002. The Primary English Teachers Guide (New Edition). Penguin. PP 231 - 242 Further Reading Woodward, T. 2001. Planning Lessons and Courses. Cambridge University Press Nunan, D. 1988. The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. Module 15. Pages 213 222.

http://www.oup.com/elt/global/teachersclub/teaching/articles/lesson_planning/ This website has many useful and interesting articles. This is one on effective lesson planning.

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Section One
Reflecting on Lessons and Lesson Planning Task 1 Metaphors for a lesson Look at the different metaphors below for describing a lesson, taken from Ur (1991). In your opinion, which one best describes a lesson? There is of course no right answer but it is a useful starting point to this unit to consider how you conceive a lesson. If you cannot find a metaphor which feels right for you, think up your own. A variety show Climbing a mountain A wedding A menu Cooking a meal A conversation Doing the shopping A football game A symphony Consulting a doctor

Why not share your thoughts and find out what others think on the ICELT website forum? Commentary on Task 1 metaphors for a lesson One answer to the task remember there are no right answers! I see the lesson as a symphony. For me it should be a harmonious event with everyone concerned working together to create a satisfying, and shared result. A symphony is enjoyable and has many variations in tempo, volume, tone etc all these variations lead to a whole and balanced outcome.

Task 2 A Good Lesson Think about a good language lesson that you have experienced, either as a learner or as a teacher. Why do you think it was good? Try to identify aspects of the lesson and/or the planning that made it good. Can you list these? Share your ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum.

TASK 3 Personal Experience

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

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Think about the following questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How much time do you usually spend planning lessons and what does this depend on? Do you write out your lesson plan and what do you include in it? How closely do you follow your lesson plan in the classroom? Do you keep old lesson plans and do you refer to them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of writing formal lesson plans for assessed lessons?

Commentary task 3 Reflecting on Lesson Planning Advantages of writing formal lesson plans Leads to a more coherent , well shaped lesson Forces you to streamline lessons be better focussed Helps you to anticipate learners problems and plan solutions Gives a professional impression to learners (and supervisors) Helps the observer to see where you are coming from Provides a starting point for post lesson evaluation Disadvantages of writing formal lesson plans Can limit flexibility you may be tempted to teach the plan rather than the lesson May mean that you do not respond to learners needs May mean that you do not respond to mood of class May mean that you do not respond to an issue that is more important to learners than the language aim of the lesson May mean that you follow your own agenda rather than the learners. In general we spend longer on planning when; We are unfamiliar with the class, the materials, the teaching point We are less experienced We have a demanding class e.g. discipline problems What is certain is that on ICELT you will be expected to spend a great deal of time planning for teaching, probably much more that usual!

Variety and Balance

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

In task 2 above, you probably mentioned variety and balance. Most of us enjoy lessons which offer a variety of activities and which are balanced so that we dont have to concentrate hard all the time. If there is only one activity in a lesson, learners are likely to become bored and this may lead to discipline problems. They will not be able to concentrate properly either and this will not lead to successful learning. A varied lesson is not only more interesting for both the teacher and the learners but is also likely to appeal to a range of learning preferences and will be less tiring and therefore more effective.

Task 4 Adding Variety and Balance Brainstorm as many ways as you can of adding variety and balance to lessons. You might find it helpful to think in terms of contrasts, for example: Individual work versus group work Fast moving versus leisurely activities Reading versus writing Presentation versus practice Accuracy versus fluency Desk top work versus moving around the room Adapted from an idea in Ur (1991). Share you ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum.

Commentary on Task 4 Adding variety

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Penny Ur (1996) has the following suggestions: WAYS OF VARYING A LESSON 1. Tempo Activities may be brisk an fast-moving (such as guessing games) or slow and reflective (such as reading literature and responding in writing) 2. Organization The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks; or in pairs or groups; or as a full class in interaction with the teacher 3. Mode and skill Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language; and within these, they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak, write or receive (listen, read). 4. Difficulty Activities may be seen as easy and non-demanding; or difficult, requiring concentration and effort. 5. Topic Both the language teaching point and the (non-linguistic) topic may change from one activity to another. 6. Mood Activities vary also in mood: light and fun-based versus serious and profound; happy versus sad; tense versus relaxed. 7. Stir-settle Some activities enliven and excite learners (such as controversial discussions, or activities that involve physical movement). Others, like dictations, have the effect of calming them down. (see Maclennan, 1987) 8. Active-passive Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative; or they may only be required to do as they are told.
Cambridge University Press 1996

You probably came up with a range of different ideas but is it enough just to provide varied activities at random? They also need to be balanced to make sure there is a

British Council 2004

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smooth coherent lesson. Here are some suggestions for ordering components in a lesson from Ur (1991). As you read them consider these two questions: 1. Do you agree with the suggestions? 2. Are they appropriate in your teaching context or would you need to change some of them?
a. Put harder tasks first.

In general, learners are more energetic and better able to concentrate in the earlier stages of a lesson, especially long lessons. If a task demands effort and concentration from the learners, it is better therefore to have it in the early stages of the lesson. b. Have quieter activities before lively ones It is often quite difficult to calm learners down if they have been engaged in a lively, exciting activity. However, if you have a class in the late afternoon or evening, you may think that an energizing activity early in the lesson is necessary to refresh students and prepare them mentally for learning, especially if they are adults. c. Think through transitions carefully It can be disconcerting for learners if the teacher moves rapidly from one activity to another (e.g. reading to speaking, a fast moving game to a listening activity etc). You should think how to move smoothly between different components. Sometimes a simple phrase is enough Now, we are going to do something different. Other times you may feel a short transition activity is needed.
d. Pull the class together at the beginning and the end.

Have some sort of routine to begin classes (maybe just greeting students and briefly explaining the lesson aims. Similarly have a short rounding up at the end.
e. End on a positive note.

Make sure the learners leave the class feeling good. What you do depends on the class. You could set an easy-to-achieve task. You might simply summarize the lesson or give a positive evaluation of a task that the class was involved in. You could tell a joke!

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Planning Interaction Have you heard of the terms teacher talking time (TTT) and student talking time (STT) ? By TTT, we mean that the teacher is mainly or only active and the students are mainly or only receptive. STT is the opposite, students are mainly or only active while the teacher is mainly or only receptive. Most teachers agree that it is important to have a balance of TTT and STT in a lesson. Pair work and group work are often incorporated into lessons in order to achieve this balance. Task 5 Pair work and Group work What are the advantages and disadvantage or using pairwork or group work? Commentary on Task 5 Pair work and group work Here are some general suggestions share any other ideas you had with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum Advantages Students learn from each other All the students in the class have the opportunity to practise Students can become more independent It is more comfortable for shy / weak students Disadvantages Too noisy Seating in classroom is inappropriate for this organisation Students use Spanish Students want to listen to the teacher not other students I feel that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and that careful teacher monitoring can reduce the likelihood of Spanish being used. What do you think? Task 6 Interaction Patterns Look at the following interaction patterns and mark each one as follows: TT = teacher very active, students only receptive T = teacher active, students mainly receptive TS = teacher and students fairly equally active S = students active teacher mainly receptive SS = students very active, teacher only receptive

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From: Ur, Penny. 1991. A Course in Language Teaching. CUP. Page 228. Group work Students work in small groups on tasks that entail interaction: conveying information, for example, or group decision-making. The teacher walks around listening, intervenes little if at all. Closed-ended teacher questioning (IRF) Only one 'right ' response gets approved. Sometimes cynically called the 'Guess what the teacher wants you to say' game. Individual work The teacher gives a task or set of tasks, and students work on them independently, the teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where necessary. Choral responses The teacher gives a model which is repeated by all the class in chorus: or gives a cue which is responded to in chorus. Collaboration Students do the same sort of tasks as in 'individual work', but 'work together, usually in pairs, to try to achieve the best results they can. Students initiates, teacher answers For example, in a guessing game: the students think of questions and the teacher responds; but the teacher decides who asks. Full-class interaction The students debate a topic or do a language task as a class; the teacher may intervene occasionally, to stimulate participation or to monitor. Teacher talk This may involve some kind of silent student response, such as writing from dictation, but there is no initiative on the part of the student. Self-access Students choose their own learning tasks, and work autonomously. Open-ended teacher questioning There are a number of possible 'right' answers, so that more students answer each cue.
Cambridge University Press 1996

Task 7 Interaction and Activities

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Look at the following list of activities that students might do in the classroom on their own. Decide what interaction pattern would be most effective for each one and mark them as follows: P G I W = pair work = group work = individual work = whole class teacher led

1. doing coursebook grammar exercise 2. doing coursebook vocabulary exercise 3. reading comprehension 4. answering comprehension questions 5. preparing arguments for a discussion 6. writing dialogues 7. brainstorming a lexical field 8. doing a revision test 9. talking about topics of personal interest 10. using a dictionary to research vocabulary 11. drilling to improve pronunciation 12. role playing a situation Adapted from Parrott (1993)

Commentary on Task 7 interaction and activities These are only suggestions and you might have good reasons for saying otherwise why not share your ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum? 1. doing coursebook grammar exercise P 2. doing coursebook vocabulary exercise P 3. reading comprehension I 4. answering comprehension questions P G 5. preparing arguments for a discussion G 6. writing dialogues P 7. brainstorming a lexical field W G 8. doing a revision test G 9. talking about topics of personal interest P G W I (?) 10. using a dictionary to research vocabulary P G 11. repetition to improve pronunciation W I 12. role playing a situation P

Classroom Research

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Investigating students attitudes to different interaction patterns. This task is designed to help you learn more about your learners attitude to different patterns of interaction in the classroom. Devise a very brief questionnaire (maximum five items) to help you discover the attitude of your students towards aspects of different interaction patterns. You might ask questions to see how the nature of the activity affects students preference (see example). You might compare the responses of different levels or age groups by giving the questionnaire to different groups. Example: Indicate your preference by marking as follows: 1 = I dont like this 2 = I quite like this 3 = I like this a lot

In class you sometimes work: - on your own (e.g. silent reading) - with the whole class (e.g. listening to the teacher) - with one other student - with other students in a small group When you work on a grammar exercise from the book do you like: - working on your own - working with one other student - working with other students in a small group etc Adapted from Parrott (1993) When you have collected the data, post your result on the ICELT website forum.

Peer Observation Task

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During the course you are required to observe your peers or other ELT professional on a minimum of eight times. This is an essential part of the course and an essential part of your portfolio of assessed work that you submit to Cambridge ESOL at the end of the course. If you do not have at least eight completed observation tasks and observation reports in your portfolio when you submit it, a certificate will not be issued by Cambridge ESOL. Observing your peers or other teachers is an opportunity to reflect on and learn about both your own teaching and that of others. "Being in the classroom as an observer opens up a range of experiences and processes which can become part of the raw material of a teacher's professional growth." (Wajnryb, 1992.) You should always approach these observations with a clear purpose in mind and in order to help with this we have provided specific observation focus tasks. This task requires you to gather data while observing and then you will need to reflect on the data you have and evaluate it in terms of you own professional development. There are three stages: Pre observation Arrange a mutually convenient time with a colleague If possible discuss the lesson with the teacher Read the appropriate ICELT observation task and do the task suggested on it The observation Gather the data as indicated on the observation task Post observation If possible discuss the data you have gathered with the teacher Write a short observation report form Place the originals of the completed observation task and the observation report in your candidate portfolio. Enter the details on your ICELT/5 form. Observations must be recorded chronologically on ICELT/5.

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PEER OBSERVATION TASK 2: Patterns of Interaction


(from Wajnryb, 1992) Name of Observer: Date:
Teachers signature: Introduction: In this task you are asked to note down the interaction patterns you observe in a class. For example, who talks to whom, who questions, who responds etc. Before the lesson: Familiarise yourself with Figure 6.1 next page (Taken form Wajryb, 1992 and based on Woodward, 1991) During the lesson: 1. Draw up a seating plan and either include the students names or number each position. This means that if students move from their seat during the lesson, their interactions can still be plotted on the diagram. 2. Lines are drawn between the names of the people who are talking to each other. Decide on symbols to represent different kinds of interaction: for example, a small arrowhead can be used to indicate a direct question to a particular person. 3. Start by making one type of interaction. As you develop skill, work out symbols for other kinds of interaction patterns and plot them. For example: Place and X nest to the teacher when the question asked is open or undirected, e.g. Does anyone know ..? Who can tell me ..?

Class: Time:

XXX
Teacher

Place a slash on the line when a student volunteers a response unprompted, e.g. Paul to teacher

________________________________
Students interacting in pairs as directed, e.g. Jaime and Jorge

_______________________________
Students interacting without being directed, e.g. Diana and Sonia

_____
Questions asked by students, e.g. Sonia to teacher

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TEACHER XXX

Paulo

Jaime

Jorge

Diana

Sonia

Figure 6.1

Learning Journal: Look at the post observation reflection tasks in Wajnryb, 1992 pages 108 - 109

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Peer Observation REPORT: Patterns of Interaction


Observer .. Date of observation Level Candidate of number class

You should write between 100 and 200 words. This piece of writing is not assessed but it is an essential part of your portfolio. Use the following notes to help you evaluate the observation in terms of you own professional development. Continue on the other side of this page if necessary

Do any overall patterns emerge? Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching, what comments can you make about patterns of communication that happen in your classes? If there is anything you would want to change? How could you do so? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ This report should be kept in your candidate portfolio

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Section 2
Writing Lesson Plans for ICELT

Below you will find notes about the second component of assessment on ICELT teaching and also the assessment criteria for this component. Read these carefully now so that you are aware of what is expected of you. Component Two Teaching You will teach a minimum of four lessons supervised and assessed by a tutor. At least three of these lessons must be with classes of a size that is considered normal in local conditions. For each lesson you must provide: A lesson plan which: Specifies the aims and learning objectives and states any important assumptions of prior knowledge needed for the achievement of aims Describes the procedures planned Includes a description of the language item/skill which the lesson focuses on Is accompanied by sourced copies of the materials to be used A rationale which Includes a brief profile of the learners and outlines their linguistic and affective needs Explains how the needs of the learners relates to the aims and objectives of the lesson Provides a clear analysis of any anticipated problems and possible anticipated solutions A post lesson evaluation After the lesson, you should evaluate your lesson in discussion with your tutor, formulate action points for on-going development and provide a brief written summary of the discussion and the action points

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Component Two Teaching: Assessment Criteria At PASS level, the candidate can: 1 Lesson Planning a) identify learning objectives appropriate to the needs, age and ability level of the group b) select and/or adapt materials and/or activities suitable for the learning the learners and the lesson objectives including, where appropriate, stories, art, music, investigations outside the classroom c) assign realistic timing to the stages in the lesson d) include an appropriate variety of activity, interaction and pace e) anticipate potential difficulties with language and activities f) present plans in language which is clear , accurate (including the appropriate use of terminology) and easy-to-read g) present materials for classroom use with a professional appearance and regard for copyright requirements 2 Classroom teaching skills a) use clear, generally accurate and appropriate language for all aspects of classroom teaching. b) establish rapport c) foster a constructive and safe learning environment taking into account appropriate learner and teacher roles d) set up and manage a range of classroom events e) maintain discipline, showing sensitivity to individual needs f) maintain learners interest and involvement g) teach in a way that encourages the development of learner autonomy h) teach language items effectively i) convey the meaning of new language with clear and appropriate context and check learners' understanding of it j) help learners develop language accuracy k) monitor learners language performance and give appropriate feedback l) identify errors and sensitively correct learners oral and written language when and where appropriate m) make appropriate use of learners first or other languages n) teach language skills appropriately and effectively including literacy where relevant o) help learners develop language fluency p) use appropriate aids , materials and resources (including the board) effectively q) adopt plans and activities appropriately in response to the learners and to classroom contingencies r) achieve learning objectives 3 Lesson evaluation a) reflect critically on their plan and their teaching b) review and adapt their practice in the light of this reflection and of the views of tutors, colleagues and learners c) set targets for on-going development and where appropriate the next assessed lesson

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At MERIT level, the candidate can meet all of the above criteria. In addition classroom performance will give strong and consistent evidence of all-round effectiveness as a classroom practitioner, in terms of qualities such as flexibility, organizational ability, independence of judgement, confidence, rapport with students and support for learning.

At DISTINCTION level, the candidate can meet all the above criteria. In addition, there will be consistent evidence of exceptional ability in terms of the following: a. breadth of knowledge b. depth of knowledge c. insight into learners and learning

A few rules to begin with! Always use black ink when writing your lesson plan pencil is not acceptable Make sure you complete each section Make sure the administrative information is accurate Give the lesson plan and all attachments to your observer before the lesson The original lesson plan must be kept in your portfolio

The ICELT Lesson Plan Form Youll find a blank ICELT lesson plan form on pages 21 - 24

Look at the lesson plan form carefully

Following that youll find guidance on completing the ICELT lesson plan form

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ICELT LESSON PLAN FORM


Name of teacher: Institution: Date of Observation: YEAR DAY MONTH Time of observation class __________________ Room: Average age of Students: Level of students Elementary Advanced Lesson Number 1 Aims: 2 (please circle) 3 4 Observer: (please circle) Intermediate Length of ______________ Candidate Number:

________ ________ ________ Class/grade: Number of students: Number of years of English study (students):

Personal aims:

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Assumed knowledge:

Description of language item / skill

Materials : (please include source and attach all materials)

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Rationale part 1: Profile of the learners

1. Describe ages and language level of the learners in the group you are going to teach 2. Outline the learners linguistic and affective needs 3. Explain how the aims of the lesson are related to learners needs outlined in 2 above.

Rationale part 2: Anticipated problems


Anticipated problems Planned solutions

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Stage

Aim

Procedure Teacher and student activity

Time and interacti on

Tutors comments

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Guidance on completing the ICELT Lesson Plan Form


Administrative Information
The first part of the lesson plan form contains essential administrative information - please make sure this is completed accurately Name Please write your first name and surname in BLOCK CAPITALS here Candidate number Institution Date You will be given a candidate number, which you should quote on all assignments and write here. Please write the institution name and address here in BLOCK CAPITALS

Write this in the order indicated e.g. 02 06 04 = 2nd June 2004

Time Write the time that the observation starts and finishes e.g. 09.40 to 10.30 Length Class / Grade The observation should last between 40 and 60 minutes please indicate the length here Write here the class name or grade e.g. grade 10 A

Room Please indicate the room which the observer should go to Number of Students Write how many students you expect there to be in the class remember each observation should be with class sizes which are normal in your context What is the average age of the students in the class? You should indicate approximately how many years students have been studying English. E.g. if you are teaching fourth grade and students begin studying English in third grade, you should write one year here. If you are teaching fourth semester and students begin studying English in first semester, you should write one year here

Age of students Years of English study

Level You must indicate level using the descriptions on the form. If the class is described as pre-intermediate by your institution you circle ELEMENTARY Lesson number Circle the lesson number here. If you have been referred on lesson two and this is a repeat of lesson two, you should circle 2 Write the name of the observer.

Observer

Aims Aims You may usually refer to aims as something different, for example learning objectives, learning goals etc. We shall use the

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term aims on this course. You may want to break your aims down into main aims and secondary or subsidiary aims. Personal aims this does not refer to what you want the learners to achieve or learn during the lesson but what you want to achieve personally in your teaching. For example, if you have been working on checking instructions effectively this might be your personal aim for the lesson. This might be related to your action points from your last observed lesson.

Generally, when we teach we go into the classroom with some idea of what we want to achieve. For assessed lessons, the observer will pay a great deal of attention to your stated aims and whether or not these are achieved. (see assessment criteria 2 r). It is therefore vital to express these aims or learning objectives as clearly as possible. To start you should be clear about the difference between aims and activities and personal aims. Task 8 Aims, Activities and Personal Teaching Aims. Divide the following into: A. Lesson aims (or learning objectives what you hope the learners to achieve (or learn) during the lesson) B. Personal teaching aims (a feature of your teaching that you want to improve) C. Activities a means of achieving learning objectives 1. to do a role play of a job interview 2. By the end of the lesson the learners will have understood the meaning of eight verb collocations with money (save, spend (on), waste, owe, invest (in), give away, earn, make) and they will have had the opportunity to use these in a restricted and more authentic way. 3. To try to keep more closely to estimated timings by quickening the pace, particularly during the language clarification stage. 4. To do an information gap activity where learners ask about each others daily routines and then give feedback on these 5. To do the reading on page 132 of the coursebook and then go onto to a discussion based on it 6. To keep instructions clear and well staged. Particularly to avoid repeating and rephrasing each instruction and giving them all at once 7. To teach going to for future plans 8. By the end of the lesson the students will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves Commentary to task 3 Aims and Activities A. Lesson aims (or learning objectives what you hope the learners will achieve (or learn) during the lesson)

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2, 7 and 8 B. Personal teaching aims (a feature of your teaching that you want to improve) 3 and 6 C. Activities a means of achieving learning objectives 1, 4 and 5 are activities It is very important that you are aware of the differences here in order to write effective aims.

Task 9 Improving Aims Look at the three lesson aims form task 3 again (2, 7 and 8) and decide: Which ones are clearly expressed and why? Which ones could be more clearly expressed and why?

Commentary to Task 4 Improving Aims Aim 2 By the end of the lesson the learners will have understood the meaning of eight verb collocations with money (save, spend (on), waste, owe, invest (in), give away, earn, make) and they will have had the opportunity to use these in a restricted and more authentic way. This is clear in some respects: we know that it is a lesson about vocabulary and we know exactly what the vocabulary is and that the learners will be practising it. It is also expressed in terms of outcomes for the learners (By the end of the lesson, the learners will). However we dont know whether the practice is going to be written or spoken and it would also be useful to know more about the context in which they will be practising. Will they be relating it to their personal experiences or writing a story using the collocations for example? Aim 7 To teach going to for future plans This is not satisfactory at all. It doesnt tell us which use and which forms of going to are going to be practised (affirmative statements, WH question forms etc). There is no indication of the learner outcomes: Will they be able to use the target form or just understand it? Will they be expected to write it or use the spoken form? What context will they be using it in? It would be almost impossible for an observer to assess whether the aim has been achieved here the observer would have to conclude that it had not! We might rewrite the aim in the following way for a group of elementary level teenagers: By the end of the lesson, learners will be able to ask and answer about their plans for the weekend using be going to + verb(WH and yes/no questions forms, short answers,

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positive and negative statements, first and second person singular) Aim 8 By the end of the lesson the students will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves This again is rather wide in scope and needs to be more focussed. It is clear that the learners will be speaking, but how does the teacher intend to help them to better able to do the task? We might rewrite this aim to include more important information as follows: By the end of the lesson, the learners will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves: This will be done by: 1. Focussing on and practising fixed expressions (I really enjoy .., I have been . For - see Handout 1 for full list) 2. Raising awareness of and practising the division of the presentation into chunks and using rising then falling intonation to show whether an utterance is unfinished or finished. It is clear from the examples in Task 4 that it is usually more effective to try to write aims from the learners point of view. REMEMBER Lesson aims need to: Be written from the learners point of view Focus on learner achievement (preferably in the real world) Be precise (e.g. Which forms of the verb?, which meaning?, which listening subskill?, which text type / genre?) Be prioritized (and differentiated between main and secondary aims) Be aims NOT activities Be achievable and realistic, but also challenging If you are having problems expressing your aims, you might find it helpful to ask yourself these questions: What is it that learners will be able to do better by the end of the lesson that they couldnt do at the beginning? What language will they be using? What skills will they be practising? What is the context? You will probably have only one main aim, but you may have several secondary aims. Task 10 Writing Aims

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Look at the examples of aims below. In each pair of aims a) is badly written and b) is better written. For each pair of aims list the factors that makes b) better written than a) 1. a) to present and practise the present perfect b) By the end of the lesson, learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. This will be done by: Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular yes/no question form e.g. Have you ever been to Rome?) contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e.g. Yes, I was there last year) giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this 2. a) to practise writing passives of all tenses b) By the end of the lesson, learners will have improved their writing of objective scientific reports by: identifying the overall organization of a typical report (see coursebook p 127 appendix 1) identifying the prevalent use of passives in such reports doing restricted practice in writing a parallel text 3. a) to introduce and practise the language for shopping and complaints b) By the end of the lesson, learners will be better able to participate in a semi-formal conversation in shops to complain about goods They will have been introduced to and practised 7 lexical items/phrases to describe problems with goods (its shrunk, the colours ran, it doesnt work, its scratched, its got a mark/stain on it, its got a hole in it, its torn) They will become more accurate and confident in using phrases they have previously learnt for making requests (Id like a refund, could I speak to the manager, could you exchange it?) They will become more aware of the typical discourse patterns of a transactional exchange on this type (greeting narrative request request for further information conclusion) through listening to an example 4. a) to develop students ability to understand conversations b) Main: By the end of the lesson, learners will have become more confident about their listening skills by being shown that they can infer and pick out key information from an informal, conversation (much of which they will not understand) by identifying the prominent or stressed words and by being given practice in this Secondary: learners will have revised lexical phrases to ask for clarification (e.g. Im sorry I didnt catch that, Could you say that again, please) 5. a) to improve learner autonomy b) Main: By the end of the lesson, learners will be more independent by being shown how to use dictionaries to discover the connotation of words and by being given practice in identifying connotations

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Secondary: By the end of the lesson, learners will have activated some of the vocabulary (personality adjectives) by talking about their own personalities.

Assumed knowledge In this section you should state: Language: what language (you assume) the learners already know which is necessary in order to achieve your aims. Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson, learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. This will be done by: Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular yes/no question form e.g. Have you ever been to Rome?) contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e.g. Yes, I was there last year) giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this If this were my aim I might assume that learners: Are aware of the use of past simple for actions at a specified time in the past Can use the past simple reasonably well Are familiar with the past participle form of verbs (regular and irregular) Skills: the level of ability learners have with skills and / or subskills which will help with the skills work in the lesson For example, in the example here I might assume that Learners are able to ask for and respond to and give personal information using past simple, present simple and going to

Description of Language item / skill Here you need to briefly describe the language item or skill.

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Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson, learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. This will be done by: Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular yes/no question form e.g. Have you ever been to Rome?) contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e.g. Yes, I was there last year) giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this For this lesson this section might look like this: Meaning To express an action in the past that is not specified by time It is a good idea to include here (or in your lesson plan procedure) how you are going to check that students understand the meaning. Form HAVE SUBJECT (ever) (second person singular) Have you ever Pronunciation Have you ever been to Rome? PAST PARTICIPLE been .. to Rome?

/ /

Use To ask about experiences. (the distance unit on language awareness will help you to do this better)

Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson, learners will have improved their writing of objective scientific reports by: identifying the overall organization of a typical report (see coursebook p 127 appendix 1) identifying the prevalent use of passives in such reports doing restricted practice in writing a parallel text For this lesson this section might look like this:
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Objective scientific reports tend to be formal and impersonal in tone. This tone is often achieved by the use of the passive rather than active verb forms. In general, since these describe processes the organization of the text starts at the beginning of the process and follows the process. There is often a very brief introduction and conclusion. These reports are also charactised by precision of detail (e.g. 40 days rather than just over a month). They also conform to other aspects of formal writing such as the avoidance of contractions and colloquial language. Materials In this section you should list the following List any published materials that you are going to use in the lesson. You should always acknowledge (source) the author (s), the date of publication, the title, the publisher, and page reference. For example, Soars, Liz and John. 2000. New Headway Pre-intermediate Student Book. Oxford University Press. P 122. Remember that you should respect copyright law. Make sure you attach a clearly labelled and sourced copy to your plan. Include a reference to and copy of any other worksheets or overhead transparencies you are gong to use. If you have a number of worksheets you should number them and refer to these numbers in your lesson plan procedure. It is also strongly recommended that you supply a completed version of any worksheets. This will help you to check for accuracy and help the observer to see what you expect. List any tapes, videos, visual aids or realia you intend to use. (you neednt attach copies of these!)

The next two sections form your rationale for the lesson: Profile of Learners

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Very briefly describe the course (length, frequency of classes, time and length of lessons, course materials being used etc) You should give a brief description of the class (any skills discrepancies within the group, issues with group dynamics, discipline etc) and outline what their needs are. You can refer to what you have covered on the course so far here but only if it is relevant! You might also mention how you will be consolidating work in this lesson in the future again make sure this is relevant to the lesson. any individuals in the class who are worthy of special comment (particularly strong or weak students, learning difficulties, discipline problems, attitude, learning style etc). It is very important to explain how the lesson (content / approach / activities / materials etc relates to the learners needs (and learning preferences). You may refer to your reading briefly in this section make sure that it is relevant. Anticipated Problems and Planned Solutions These are problems related to the aims, activities, and materials in this lesson specifically (not general problems with the class they can be discussed in the section Profile of the Learners). For each problem, you should consider how you are going to deal with it in the lesson. If you think through this section carefully, it will help: You plan more effectively You feel more confident about dealing with anything that might arise during the lesson Your observer to see your ability to analyze language systems and skills It will help you to focus if you go through the following checklist: Linguistic Problems Meaning Specify exactly what part will cause problems Appropriacy Is there anything that needs pointing out to students (style, formal/informal/ connotation / restrictions to certain social occasions etc.) Form This could be grammatical form, word order, morphology, associated grammatical patterns (after verbs, conjunctions etc), spelling, punctuation etc Phonology Stress, intonation, sounds, features of connected speech (weak forms, linking) etc. Be specific, for example write any difficult sounds in phonemic script Effect of Spanish Are there any false friends or other confusion relating to Spanish?

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Other problems Level of skills In general, or with certain members of the group there may be very different reading and/or writing speeds Sub-skills Are there any subskills which will be especially challenging for the class (or individuals? (for example, focussing on main ideas in a listening text and ignoring parts that you do not understand) Learning context Location, time of day etc Learners Group dynamics, discipline etc Classroom management Unfamiliar activities, complicated tasks REMEMBER You should be thorough when listing anticipated problems but also selective. Do not invent unrealistic problems just for the sake of it or to fill the page! Always focus on your group of learners Always include information about linguistic problems there are sure to be some. This is often the area that is neglected! Always write your planned solution for every problem Task 11 Anticipating Problems Look at the following language items and classroom activities. For each one, list the problems you could anticipate and suggest solutions. Remember to refer to your own particular context when doing this. a) b) c) d) Question tags Fluency work: a discussion on being able to choose the sex of your children Listening to the news recorded from BBC world Writing a CV for a job with an American company

There are no right answers for this because it depends on the context and group you chose but it would be very useful to discuss your ideas with your colleagues.

The Procedure

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When you are writing the procedure for others (the observer and examiners from Cambridge), obviously it must be much more detailed than if you were writing it for yourself. Many teachers just have few brief notes of the main stages of their lesson and can work from that in the classroom that is not acceptable for an observed lesson on ICELT. The procedure must be clear and logical, legible and, most importantly, the reader should be able to reconstruct your lesson from your plan. This does not mean that you need a word for word script of what is going to happen however! Give enough information so that another competent teacher could easily reconstruct and teach your lesson with your plan. If you prefer to work from brief notes, you can have a simpler plan for yourself. Stage Number each stage of the lesson this is very useful for the observer when commenting on your lesson. You may also wish to give each stage a title such as lead in, presentation etc. Aim Each stage of your lesson should have a very clear aim. Once again consider this carefully and make sure you are not confusing aim with either stage or procedure. Procedure This should be written in note form and should indicate clearly what the teacher and students are doing at each stage. It is a good idea to include here how you intend to check students understanding of new language (completed timelines, concept questions etc) this both ensures that you think this through at the planning stage and also demonstrates to the observer that you have done so. It is also a good idea to draw a small board plan (either here or attached) again this ensures that you think this through at the planning stage. Time and interaction Time: Indicate the amount of time you intend to spend on each stage / activity in the lesson. Be realistic about this you should have some idea of how long your students will take to do particular things so dont rush them and ensure that they have thinking time when necessary. Often your timing reflects what you perceive as important so you need to make appropriate decisions about this. Of course, timing can go wrong and you need to be flexible in the lesson to make sure that you are responding to learners needs, but the observer needs to see that you have thought about timing and allocated realistic times to different activities / stages. Allocating times can be one of the most difficult things to do you might find the following helps with this:

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Plan backwards: Start with your main learning outcome and decide how long learners will need for that. Look at the lesson aim (from task 5 above) 6 b) By the end of the lesson, learners will be better able to participate in a semiformal conversation in shops to complain about goods You might decide that you will achieve this through a role play and that you will need 15 minutes for this stage for Learners to plan role play Learner to perform role play Teacher to give feedback and/or do an error spot: You then need to decide how to get to that point but remember that the last 15 minutes of the lesson are taken. Cut activities: Make sure everything that you do contributes to your main learning outcome. Be ruthless! Sometimes we are tempted to include a particular warmer because it is so wonderful but forget that this takes 10 minutes of class time! Plan for 50 minutes: (if you are teaching a 60-minute lesson. This gives you the freedom to respond to learners naturally during the lesson. Plan flexi-stages: make it very clear on your plan that these are optional stages and will be ignored if you feel there is no time. You cannot miss stages that are essential to achieving your aims! Interaction: This will help both you and the observer sees the overall balance of the lesson in terms learner-learner and teacher-learner focus. You may use these simple abbreviations TS teacher to individual student T SS teacher to the class PW pairwork GW 4 groups of 4 SS open pair work etc

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Classroom Research Investigating timing of different activities. This should help you to plan timing better and be more realistic about how long activities take. Write a detailed lesson plan and teach the lesson. During the lesson write down the actual time on each occasion that you change an activity of begin a new stage of the plan (you could invite a colleague to observe the lesson and ask him or her to do this for you)

You should leave the last column Tutors comments empty!

Task 12 Evaluating Lesson Plans Read through the following lesson plan and in light of what you have studied in this unit and the assessment criteria evaluate its strengths and weaknesses. Please note: all names have been changed

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Name of teacher: Number:

Mary Brown

Candidate

03 Collegio Queen Elizabeth


DAY MONTH Time of observation class Length of

Institution:

Date of Observation: YEAR

11
Class/grade:

09

03

12.15 1.00
Room:

45 mins

1A 28

201 9 years

Number of students:

Average age of Students: Level of students ( Elementary ) Advanced Observer: Michael

Number of years of English study (students):

(please circle) Intermediate

2 years

Lesson Number 1 Aims: 2

(please circle) 3 (4)

By the end of the lesson students will be able to: Give each other instructions on how to arrange people and furniture in a given room of a house Describe the position of items in each room Use cuisinaire rods to organise the contents of the room following directions given by a peer
Personal aims:

Provide a balance of interaction patterns with maximum participation Explore the use of cuisinaire rods in the language classroom To manage excess noise / excitement
Assumed knowledge:

Ss are aware of basic prepositions of place Most of the lexis will be familiar Ss are aware of use and form of present continuous

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Description of language item / skill

Ss will give each other instructions on how to organise a representation of a room using cuisinaire rods. They will use example sentences with the previously learned vocabulary, prepositions of place family members.
Materials : (please include source and attach all materials)

dolls house and dolls cuisinaire rods wall posters ( reminder of cuisinaire rod equivalents worksheet used by students to give instructions (attached floor mat depicting rooms of a house

Profile of learners: describe ages and language level outline linguistic and affective needs explain how learners needs relate to aims of the lesson

This class is a group of 28 children. They are elementary level. Three children are functioning slightly below the class level. There is one child who requires special support and materials (he is just beginning to read in L1). He is also very shy and reluctant to participate orally. They enjoy working in groups and benefit from the use of concrete materials as well as other means of visual support. They need practice using the vocabulary learned in the previous lesson to form complete utterances to communicate.
Anticipated problems Planned solutions

Ss might have problems remembering the value of each cuisinaire rod Ss might find it difficult to use the cuisinaire rods in their current seating arrangement (semi circle)

There will be wall posters of the equivalents

I will arrange the tables so that two Ss face each other

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Ss might have difficulties understanding instructions Distribution of the rods might cause confusion and lead to indiscipline

T will give short clear instructions and will demonstrate each step Enough rods will be placed in envelopes so that the activity can be set up quickly

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Stage

Aim

Procedure Teacher and student activity

Time and interacti on

Tutors comments

1. lead in 2. review

Review/ recylce vocabulary Recycle vocab /language needed for main task

Hangman on board. T elicit learned vocabulary (family members, furniture, parts of house With dolls house T and Ss will place the dolls in different rooms and positions T asks Where do you think the sister is? T places doll where Ss say. Drill sentences eg mother is in the kitchen Using rods. T dems how to build her room and place people and furniture. Ss lead her into placing dolls and furniture in each room (rods) Ss in pairs take a picture of a room with a few objects and people in it and will describe it to partner whos eill have to build it using cuisinaire rods Then swap and vice versa Ss draw a picture of their own bedroom If time in the classroom or homework

T- Ss 5 mins T SS 10 15 mins T Ss 3 mins T SS 5 mins PW 20 mins Indvidua l

How many items?

3. controlled oral practice 4. demonstra tion 5. Freer oral practice 6 follow up or homework

Develop pron on TL Pre-teach use and equivalents Personalise topic Develop fluency

Provide an easy quiet task after the intensive practice

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Commentary on Task 12 Strengths The administrative information is complete and accurate. The lesson aims are clear and seem appropriate for this age. They are written from the learners' point of view so they are easily measurable when observing. The personal aims are useful and valid. The procedure is mostly clear. Timing for activities is mostly realistic. There is a variety of interaction patterns and the teacher has planned a learner-centred lesson. Weaknesses Assumed knowledge - this could be more detailed, for example which prepositions do learners know. It is rather vague. Description of language item / skill - this is inadequate. It does not describe either the language or the skills being used and needs more work. Profile of learners - this should be more detailed in places although it does give a fairly good description of some individual differences within the group. Anticipated problems - the teacher has not listed any linguistic problems at all and this surely is necessary in a language lesson. Making use of your lesson plan Once you have produced your lesson plan, it is worth considering how to use it in the classroom. Clearly you do not want to follow it slavishly not will you want to diverge from it totally in class if you do you will not achieve your stated aims! Having thoroughly planned your lesson, anticipated problems, considered timings etc, the key word is flexibility. You should always put the learners first and deal with unexpected learning difficulties that arise. This shows that you are responding to your learners and you will be given credit for this. For example, if learners have not understood new language it is better to go back and clarify for them. If they do not understand what to do in a pairwork activity, it is better to stop the activity and repeat the instructions. As a teacher you have to make many decisions while executing the lesson. You must be sensitive to the learners and their difficulties and demonstrate your ability to respond appropriately. If this means that you cannot follow your lesson plan exactly then explain why you changed it in your post lesson evaluation. On this point Scrivener (1994) says Prepare thoroughly. But in class, teach the learners not the plan. It is unlikely that you will spend so much time or effort planning lessons once the course has finished. However, we believe that the rigorous and disciplined approach you need to adopt when lesson planning for assessed teaching and assignments on the ICELT course will be of enormous long-term benefit.

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Post lesson self-evaluation After you have taught the lesson your tutor will discuss it with you briefly and then you must write an evaluation of no more than 500 words. This is an essential part of your portfolio and you should do it as soon after the lesson as possible. Look again at the criteria for this At PASS level, the candidate can: Lesson evaluation a) reflect critically on their plan and their teaching b) review and adapt their practice in the light of this reflection and of the views of tutors, colleagues and learners c) set targets for on-going development and, where appropriate, the next assessed lesson As a teacher, this is a very valuable activity and may be one of the most useful parts of the course for you because it: Provides a reflection stage which is necessary in any experiential learning Helps you improve your self-evaluation skills Puts you in control of the evaluation process Acts as a record of your learning and development Enables you to draw conclusions and to set yourself new goals Helps you to find simple practical ways to develop your teaching skills

Your evaluation should not be simply a transcription of the conversation with your tutor directly after the lesson. That is an opportunity to talk through initial impressions but both you and your tutor will need to reflect on the lesson more fully after some time has elapsed. If you keep a journal during the course, you may wish to write about the lesson in there and you can include as much detail as you like in the journal. However, when you write the evaluation that you hand in it is important to prioristise and pick out the most important points from the lesson. When writing the self-evaluation try to be objective and to put things in proportion. Comment positively and critically make sure that your critical comments are constructive though. If something went wrong in the lesson, try to work out why and how you could do it another way to avoid the problem. If part of your lesson went very well, say so but identify why. Start by giving an overall evaluation of the lesson was the lesson, in general, effective or not and why. Dont go through the whole lesson it is not necessary to comment on every stage of the lesson. It is much clearer for the reader if you use bullet points and/or headings rather than continuous prose. This also helps you to focus and prioritise so that you mention the

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most important strengths and weaknesses. You must avoid simply describing what happened you must analyse and account for strengths and weaknesses. Consider both planning and teaching when commenting on strengths and weakness. You can also refer to your reading on the course. You can decide on what framework you will use for the self-evaluation but we strongly advise you to follow the guidelines suggested here as this will ensure that you are reflecting effectively. When writing your self-evaluation think of/answer the following questions: 1. What went well? 1.1 Why? 1.2 How do you know? (give evidence from the lesson, students production, class atmosphere, etc.) What didnt go so well? 2.1 Why? 2.2 How do you know? (give evidence) What were your lesson objectives? 3.1 Have they been achieved? 3.2 How do you know? (give evidence from the lesson) What were your personal/professional aims? 4.1 Have they been achieved? 4.2 Give evidence or justify. What would you do differently if you were to teach this lesson again, if anything at all? 5.1 Why? In view of your learning experience in this lesson, and your observation of your students, what will your next steps be, what will you do in the next lesson. (your action plan)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Your action plan should contain small-scale, realistic and measurable points. You should say how you are going to achieve these goals. For example, you can name or describe specific strategies, activities, techniques or research.

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Task 13 Writing Action Points Look at the following action points none of them is acceptable. How could they be improved? 1. 2. 3. 4. I am going to improve my instructions Im going to give my students more control. Im going to think of drilling more. Im going to be more careful with my timing.

Example: 1. I am going to record a lesson next week and investigate why students do not seem to understand my instructions. I am going to experiment with scripting my instruction in my lesson plan and rehearsing them with a colleague before the lesson.
Commentary on task 13 1. I am going to record a lesson next week and investigate why students do not seem to understand my instructions. I am going to experiment with scripting my instruction on my lesson plan and rehearsing them with a colleague before the lesson. 2. I feel insecure if my lesson is not planned in great detail and sometimes this means that I dont respond to learners. I am going to plan a short section in my next lesson where the learners can ask me what they want to know about the topic of the lesson. 3. I am going to read more about drilling in Learning Teaching by Scrivener and experiment with it in my next lesson. 4. In my next two lessons I am going to write down exactly how long learners take to do different activities. This should help me to be more realistic about timing for activity types when planning lessons.

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Section Three
Methodology Assignment Two - Planning Beyond the Lesson Analyzing the task Task 3 a Here is the rubric for the assignment. Read it carefully and underline the key words. Outline: You are required to teach and evaluate a language-focussed lesson and complete follow up work. Guidelines: This must be developed from a language focus lesson (not a skills based lesson) The lesson may be (but need not be) one of your assessed lessons) Sections 1 & 2 below will probably be about the same length Include the original lesson plan and evaluation with this assignment 1. After teaching and reflecting on the lesson, outline your plan for the next three or four lessons and give a rationale for your plan. For your rationale you should consider one or all of the following issues: a. what extra practice your learners need in order to develop their skill in using the target language from this lesson b. how could you help them extend their analytical understanding of the target language from this lesson. (NOTE: could be remedial or extension work with the target language) c. what language development work would you move onto next and give reasons. NOTE: you are NOT required to give a detailed description of outline practice activities, extension/remedial work or focus on new target language 2. Select one piece of material and/or one classroom activity that you would use to achieve one of these aims (1a, 1b or 1c) in one of your lessons. a. explain how you would use the material or organise the activity in order to achieve the aim (NOTE: could be presented as a full lesson plan or a written description/rationale or a combination of both) b. comment on the difficulties that the learners might have with the materials/activity and how you would help them c. justify your decisions in 2b and 2c. NOTE: You may use published ELT material or materials from another source. The practice or development may be planned for classroom use, homework or self-study. Include a sourced copy of the material used.

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Commentary - Task 3 a Outline: You are required to teach and evaluate a language focussed lesson and complete follow up work. Guidelines: This must be developed from a language focussed-lesson (not a skills based lesson) The lesson may be (but need not be) one of your assessed lessons) Sections 1 & 2 below will probably be about the same length Include the original lesson plan and evaluation with this assignment After teaching and reflecting on the lesson, outline your plans for the next three or four lessons and give a rationale for the sequencing you describe. For your rationale you should consider one or all of the following issues: a. what extra practice your learners need in order to develop their skill in using the target language from the lesson b. how could you help them develop their analytical understanding of the target language (NOTE: could be remedial or extension work with the target language) c. what language development work would you move onto next and justify your choice NOTE: you are NOT required to give a detailed description of outline practice activities, extension/remedial work or focus on new target language
1

2.Select one piece of material and/or one classroom activity that you would use to achieve one of these aims (1a, 1b or 1c) in one of your lessons. a. explain how you would use the material or organise the activity in order to achieve the aim (NOTE: could be presented as a full lesson plan or a written description/rationale or a combination of both) b. comment on the difficulties that the learners might have with the materials/activity and how you would help them c. justify your decisions in 2a and 2b. NOTE: You may use published ELT material or materials from another source. The practice or development may be planned for classroom use, homework or self-study. Include a sourced copy of the material used.

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TASK Read the assessment criteria for this assignment carefully. Remember if you do not meet ALL of the following criteria your assignment cannot be graded PASS. Assessment Criteria PASS level assignments will show that the candidate can: General Assessment Criteria
1. complete the assignment as detailed in the Assignment outline 2. present the assignment in language which is sufficiently clear, accurate and easy to read in relation to requirements of ICELT 3. show knowledge and understanding of relevant theory and principles contained in the ICELT syllabus 4. draw on this knowledge and understanding to evaluate their own strengths weaknesses as English teachers, and to draw up justified plans for their own continuing development as ELT practitioners 5. present materials with a professional appearance 6. include acknowledged references to a limited number of appropriate sources relevant to the theme of the assignment. Each assignment should provide evidence of the candidate having read sufficiently to show his/her understanding of the main points of accepted current theory and the ability to relate these points to his/her classroom practice.

Task Specific Assessment Criteria a) select (or adapt or design) materials/activities appropriate to the learners' needs, their grasp of the previously taught material and the objectives b) organise activities in logical sequence and describe the rationale behind this ordering c) shoe an ability to identify potential problems and offer some realistic possible solutions d) justify planning decisions reached on the basis of evaluation of their own teaching

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Planning the structure Task 3 b What do you think would be a good structure for this assignment? How many sections do you think there should be in this assignment? Approximately how long will each section be? Commentary on Task 3b Here is a suggested structure for this assignment - you are strongly advised to follow it. 1. Assignment Front Page You must include a British Council ICELT Assignment Front Cover with each assignment you submit. Assignments given in without this will not be marked. These can be downloaded from the ICELT website.
2. Introduction (200 words approximately)

Very briefly describe the language focus lesson (the main aim of the lesson MUST NOT be language skills) that you taught. Very briefly say what was successful and why.
3. Further Practice Needed (200 words approximately)

Identify one area that your students still need to further practice on and / or Describe briefly how you could help your students to develop their analytical knowledge of the target language and / or Describe briefly what language development work you would go on to next NOTE: you may address just one of these points if you like you do NOT have to cover all these areas You may include references to your reading in this section
4. The next lessons (300 words approximately)

Briefly describe your plans (in relation to 3 above) for the next 3 or 4 lessons. Explain what your aims. Explain why you have chosen this sequence. You may include references to you reading in this section. You DO NOT need to include detailed lesson plans in this section.

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5. Description of material or activity and how you would use it in the

classroom (350 words approximately) Describe one piece of material or one of the activities (from 4 above) in more detail. Explain why you have chosen it. Explain how you will use the activity / material in the classroom This must relate to your learners needs that you identified in 3. This must relate to the lesson aims you have outlined on 4. This section can be presented as a lesson plan or a written description or a combination of both.
6. Learner difficulties and solutions (200 words)

Describe potential difficulties your learners may have with the activity / material and how you will help them with these difficulties. 8. Conclusion (150 words approximately) Explain why you have made the planning decisions outlined in this assignment with relation to your evaluation of your own teaching. 8. References Remember you MUST include references to your reading in order to pass. These should be written in the style described in distance unit 1. 9. Appendices For this assignment you must include: a copy of your original lesson plan (this should be written on the ICELT lesson plan form) and lesson self-evaluation sourced copies of the material / activity that you have chosen. Remember to label appendices clearly and make reference to them in the assignment.

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Planning ideas Consider the language-focussed lesson that you have taught. Reflect carefully on the lesson and think about at least one part of structure that you learners need further practice on. This might be using it correctly, form or and pronunciation for example. Make some notes here.

Can you think of a way of developing your learners' knowledge of the language from the lesson you taught? Make notes here.

What language development work would be appropriate to follow this lesson? Make notes here.

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Bearing in mind your notes above - outline you plans for the next two or three lessons - make sure there is balance and variety in your lessons.

Now think about one piece of material or an activity that will help you to achieve the aims outlined above. Write you ideas here. Make sure you say WHY you have chosen it.

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LESSON PLANNING

You need to describe how you are going to use this activity / material in class - make notes on that here.

Think about your learners. What problems might they have with the material / activity you have chosen? What are you going to do to help them with these problems? Write you ideas here. Learners' difficulties Planned solutions

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British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Drafting Write a first draft of your assignment. Remember this is the first draft and you can make changes later. Use the notes you have made above and include references to your reading. Editing Now you need to look at your writing critically. At this stage it is a good idea to show the writing to your peers, especially if there is somebody on your course who you work closely with. There are three main areas that you need to consider: 1. Organisation Have you included headings for the different sections? Introduction / Further Practice Needed / The next lessons / Description of the activity/material / Using the material/activity in class / Learner difficulties and solutions / References Have you paragraphed your writing appropriately? Is your writing coherent and easy to understand? Have you respected the word limit? 2. Content Have you answered all parts of the task? Have you included evidence for the points you have made? Do the points you have made refer to the areas mentioned in the task guidelines? Have you included references to your reading? 3. Language Have you spelled words correctly? Do you need to check any spellings in a dictionary? Have you used correct punctuation? Have you used a wide range of vocabulary? Have you used a mixture of shorter and more complex sentences? Have you linked your ideas appropriately? Is everything you have written clear for the reader or will some things confuse the reader? Have you written in a fairly formal style? Finally, are you confident that you have addressed all the assessment criteria?

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British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Writing Having analysed your draft critically - it is time to type your assignment. Before you write the final draft - look at criteria 5 again
1. Complete the assignment as detailed in the Assignment outline 2. present the assignment in language which is sufficiently clear, accurate and easy to read in relation to the language requirements of ICELT.* 3. show knowledge and understanding of relevant theory and principles contained in the ICELT syllabus 4. draw on this knowledge and understanding to evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses as English teachers, and to draw up justified plans for their continuing development as ELT professionals

5. present materials with a professional appearance


6. include acknowledged references to a number of appropriate sources relevant to the theme of the assignment. Each assignment should provide evidence of the candidate having read sufficiently to show his/her understanding of he main points of accepted current theory and the ability to relate these points to his/her classroom practice

In order to pass this criterion, make sure you do the following:

Complete the BC ICELT assignment front page accurately Type your assignment (hand-written is NOT acceptable) Use 12 point font size (and preferably universal or Ariel font) Use double spacing Leave an extra line between paragraphs Use sub headings within you writing to guide the reader Use LETTER sized paper Type your name on each page Insert page numbers Make sure your references section is complete and follows the standard laid out in this unit Make sure your appendices are complete and labelled clearly Include a word count at the end of the assignment before the references section

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British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

References: Maclennan, S. 1987. Integrating lesson planning and class management. In ELT Journal, 41, 3, 193-7 Parrott, M. 1993. Tasks for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. 1991. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. Scrivener, J. 1994. Learning Teaching. Heinemann. Wajnryb, R. 1992. Classroom Observation Tasks. Cambridge University Press. Woodward, T. 1991. Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training. Cambridge University Press

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British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

FEEDBACK on lesson planning unit 1. How long did it take you to work through this unit? Less than 6 hours About 6 hours X More than 6 hours

2. In general, how did you find the unit? Good X OK Poor

3. Was the level of the material? Too challenging About right X Too easy

4. Please assess the overall presentation of the unit. Good X OK Poor

5. Please assess the clarity of the writing in the unit. Good OK X Poor

6. Please write any other comments you have here. This unit requires a great deal of concentration on the part of the candidate. I should acknowledge the way to plan lessons way it is suggested in this unit is quite demanding. Apart from this, I dont understand why this unit contains the guidelines for a peer observation task that has been already done (patterns of interaction). On the other hand, its been hard for me to find the description and assessment criteria for the first TP. In fact, Ive read through the unit several times, and I havent been able to find anything related to this task. It seems to me like there are too many things in this unit that might confuse the reader at some point. Thank you for taking time to complete this form.
We appreciate your comments

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British Council 2004