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BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

TITLE : FORCE IN A STATICALLY DETERMINED CANTILEVER TRUSS __________________________________________________________________________ _ 1.0 OBJECTIVE To examine a statically determinate frame and to analyze the frame using simple pin joint theory. 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Application of engineering knowledge in practical application. To enhance technical competency in structure engineering through laboratory application. Communicate effectively in group. To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through laboratory application. 3.0 THEORY A truss is a structure composed of slender member joined together at their end points to form one or more triangles. The joint connections are considered as pinned joint without friction. In order to determine the forces developed in the individual members at a truss, the following assumptions should be make : 3.1 The members are connected to each other at their ends by frictionless pins, that is only a force and no moment can be transferred from one member to another. 3.2 External loads are applied to the truss only at its joints. One of the methods to calculate the forces in the member of a truss is using Method of Joint. Method of Joints is suitable to be use in calculating all the member forces for a truss. This method entails the use of a free body diagram of joints with the equilibrium equations Fx = 0 and Fy = 0. The calculation only can be started for joint where the number of unknowns are two or less.
Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

4.0

PROCEDURES 4.1 4.2 4.3 Unscrew the thumwheel on the redundant member. Note that it is effectively no longer part of the structure as the idealised diagram illustrates. Apply the pre-load of 100N downward, re-zero the load cell and carefully apply a load of 250N and check that the frame is stable and secure. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload), re-check and re-zero the digital indicator. Never apply loads greater than those specified on the equipment. Apply load in the increment shown in Table 1 recording the strain readings and the digital indicator readings. Complete Table 2 by subtracting the initial (zero) strain readings. (be careful with the sign)

FAY

A FAX

8 5 FEX E 4 D 3 2

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

5.0

RESULT 5.1 Tables Digital indicator reading (mm) 0 0.034 0.062 0.084 0.140 0.157

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

Strain Reading 1 215 223 234 244 254 263 2 - 311 - 318 - 327 - 336 - 344 - 351 3 - 356 - 363 - 371 - 381 - 389 - 397 4 - 135 - 149 - 166 - 184 - 200 - 215 5 185 184 182 181 179 178 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 94 106 120 134 147 159 8 - 17 -6 6 19 32 43

Table 1 : Strain Readings and Frame Defletion for Experiment 1

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

1 0 8 - 19 29 39 48

2 0 -7 - 16 - 25 - 33 - 40

3 0 -7 - 15 - 25 - 33 - 41

4 0 - 14 - 31 - 49 - 65 - 80

5 0 -1 -3 -4 -6 -7

6 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 0 12 26 40 53 65

8 0 11 23 36 49 60

Table 2 : True Strain Reading for Experiment 1

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

5.2

Graphs 5.2.1 Choose a member (except member 6), and on the same axis plot a graph of Recorded Strain against Load (N) and True Strain against Load (N). 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 On another graph, do the same for a different member (non member 6). Plot a separate graph of deflection (mm) against Load (N). Comment on your graph. Using the Youngs Modulus relationship, calculate the equivalent member force. Complete the experimental force in Table 3. (ignore member 6 at this stage) E=/ Where ; E = Youngs Modulus (Nm-2) = Stress in the member (Nm-2) = Displayed strain and Where, F = Force in member (N) A = cross section area of the member (m2) =F/A

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

Teorectical Force (N) was calculated by using the Method of Joint, and the result obtained from the calculation were recorded in the Table 3 (below).

Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Experimental Force (N) 236.25 -200.00 -200.00 -393.75 -36.35 0 321.06 296.83

Theorectical Force (N) 250.00 -250.00 -250.00 -500.00 0 0 353.55 353.55

Table 3 : Measured and Theorectical Force in the Cantilever Truss

Given, Esteel = 2.10 x 105 N/mm2

Rod Diameter : Reading 1 2 3 Average Diameter (m) 6.06 x 10-3 6.03 x 10-3 6.09 x 10-3 6.06 x 10-3

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

6.0

DATA ANALYZE / CALCULATION Calculation For True Strain Reading ; True Strain Reading (load50, 100,150,200,250) = Strain reading (load50, 100,150,200,250) Strain reading (load0) Example for True Strain Reading (load = 200 N) True Strain Reading (member 1) = 254 215 = 39 True Strain Reading (member 2) = - 344 (- 311) = - 33 True Strain Reading (member 3) = - 389 (- 356) = - 33 True Strain Reading (member 4) = - 200 (- 135) = - 65 True Strain Reading (member 5) = 179 185 =-6 True Strain Reading (member 7) = 147 94 = 53 True Strain Reading (member 8) = 32 (- 17) = 49

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

Calculation for Cross Section Area of the member (m2) ; Diameter, D = 6.06 x 10-3 m

From equation ; A = = =

D 2 4 (6.06 x10 3 ) 2 4
1.1539 x10 4 4

= 2.8846 x10 5 m2

Calculation For Experimental Force (N) ; From =F/A F=A But, from equation ; E = / =E Thus ; F = A E Where ; E = Youngs Modulus (Nm-2) = Stress in the member (Nm-2) = Displayed strain F = Force in member (N) A = cross section area of the member (m2) Given, Esteel = 2.10 x 105 N/mm2

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

Calculation for Member 1 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (39) = 236.25 N Calculation for Member 2 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (-33) = -199.90 N = -200 N Calculation for Member 3 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (-33) = -199.90 N = -200 N Calculation for Member 4 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (-65) = -393.75 N Calculation for Member 5 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (-6) = -36.35 N Calculation for Member 7; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (53) = 321.06 N Calculation for Member 8 ; F=AE = (2.8846 x 10-5) x (2.10 x 105) x (49) = 296.83 N
Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

Calculation For Theoretical Force (N) ; FAY

A FAX

8 5 FEX E MA =0 FEX = -500 N ME =0 FAX = +500 N 4 D 3 2

250 N

+250 (2) + FEX = 0

+250 (2) + FAX = 0

+ B 2 1

FY = 0

FCB (1/2) 250 = 0 FCB = 250 (2) FCB = 353.55 N

FX = 0

FCD + FCB = 0 FCD = - FCB (1/2) FCD = - 353.55 / (2) = - 250 N

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

FAY
1

FAX
1

2 D E

FY = 0

- 250 + FAY = 0 FAY = 250 N + FY = 0

250 FAD (1/2) = 0 FAD = 250 (2) FAD = 353.55 N + FY = 0

FAY + FAE 250 = 0 FAE = 250 250 FAE = 0 + FX = 0 FAB + FAD (1/2) 500 = 0 FAB = 500 250 / (2) FAB = 500 250 FAB = 250 N

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

2
1 D C 250 N

FY = 0

FCB (1/2) + FBD = 0 FBD = - FCB / (2) FBD = - 353.55 (2) FBD = - 250 N

D 500 N E

+ FX = 0 FED + 500 = 0 FED = - 500 N

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

7.0

DISCUSSION Discussion for the graph plotted ; For Graph of Strain versus load for member ; From the Graph 1 and Graph 2 plotted for member 7 and 8, we obtain a linear graph for both members. From the graphs, when the values of strain increase, the loading apply also increased. This was caused by the compression and tensioned in the member of truss when the loading is apply on it. From Graph of Strain versus load for member 7, we can notice that there is a big difference between the values of strain for the strain we recorded in the experiment and the true strain. Values for Recorded strain are higher than the True Strain. The same go to the graph of Strain versus load for member 8. These differences exist because the forces created in the truss are different at the point of the joint when the load is applied on it. The arrangements of the member in the truss also cause the difference of the force in the truss. Therefore, in order to find the forces in the truss for each member, we have to use equilibrium equation for x-axis and y-axis equal to zero and the calculation is done part by part for each member.

For Graph of Deflection versus Load ; From the Graph 3 plotted, we obtain a linear graph. From the graphs, we noticed that, when the values of loading apply increase, the deflection also increased. This was caused by the compression and tensioned in the member of truss when the loading is applied on it. The compression and tensioned created will cause the deflection in the member of truss. In this experiment, the deflection created is proportional to the loading apply. Besides, the deflection also can happen due to the high temperature or an error occurs when recording the reading during the experiment.

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

For Experimental Force and Theoretical Force ; 7.1 Compare the experimental and theoritical result. The value of forces obtains from the Experimental and Theoretical (calculation) are almost equivalent. There are only slight differences between the values for Experimental Force and Theoretical Force. This indicate that the Experimental Force obtain are accurate and correct. 7.2 From your result and the theoritical member force, identify which members are in compression and which member are in tension. Explain your choice. From the results for Experimental Force and the Theoretical member force, we noticed that the members of 2, 3, and 4 are in compression while the members of 1, 7 and 8 are in tension. This is because we know that, the compressed member has a negative force values while tensioned member has a positive force values. From the framework, we also noticed that member 2 is being burdened and compressed by both member 3 and 7. The same goes to member 4 which was compressed by member 5 and 8. 7.3 Observe the reading of member 5. Explain why the reading is amost zero. From the results obtain by observing the member 5, we noticed that the reading force is almost zero. We know that, member 5 is attached by a pin joint and a roller joint at both ends. On the pin joint, two forces acting towards it on the horizontal axis and vertical axis. On the roller joint, there is only one force acting towards it on the horizontal axis. Therefore, the reading force of member 5 is almost zero due to these three forces. 7.4 Are the strain gauges are an effective tranducers for the measurement of forces in the framework? Yes, the strain gauges are an effective tranducers for the measurement of forces in the framework.

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

7.5

Does the framework comply with pin joint theory even though the joint are not truly pin joint? From the results, we noticed that the value of forces obtains from the Experimental and Theoretical (calculation) are almost equivalent. There are only slight differences between the values for Experimental Force and Theoretical Force. Therefore, this indicates that, the framework comply with the pin joint theory even though the joint are not truly pin joint.

8.0

CONCLUSION From this experiment, our group managed to examine a statically determinate frame and to analyze the frame using simple pin joint theory. We conclude that, when the loading apply on the member in the truss is increase, the deflection also increase due to the compression and tensioned. Therefore, we also conclude that, when the loading apply is increase, the stain for both recorded and true strain value will increase. In this experiment, we also noticed that the framework comply with the pin joint theory even though the joint are not truly pin joint. Therefore, Method of Joints is suitable to be use in calculating all the member forces for a truss in this experiment. This method entails the use of a free body diagram of joints with the equilibrium equations Fx = 0 and Fy = 0.

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

BFC 2091 Structure Lab Force In A Statically Determined Cantilever Truss

9.0

REFERENCES Yusof Ahamad (2001). Mekanik Bahan Dan Struktur. Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Darul Tazim. R. C. Hibbeler (2000). Mechanic Of Materials. 4th. ed. England: Prentice Hall International, Inc.

Wong Siew Hung AF040176