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TECHNICAL RUBBER COURSE Mixing Technology & Machinery

Robert Dickstein
June 2003 .

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Topics

Commonly used Rubber Compounding machinery Basic mixing theory Intermeshing and tangential batch mixers Practical Aspects of Batch mixer operation

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Primary Compounding Machinery TYPE General Advantages


MILLS First Rubber compounding machine (not generally a primary mixer they are used as a post mixer forming device) Very versatile Broad range of shear capability accepts all feed forms good for short production runs

Disadvantages
- difficult to control - difficult to automate - batch to batch variation ( due to weighments, feeding ,&heat & shear history) - dirty operation - safety considerations - low output - varying power demand - labor intensive - varying power demand - batch to batch variation (mixer control & weighments) - post mixer variable product heat history - capital intensive - need post mixer forming - can be labor intensive - need free flowing feed (particulate rubber) - require sophisticated weigh & feed systems - not applicable for short runs - difficult to clean - capital intensive - need post mixer forming - need free flowing feed(particulate rubber) - require sophisticated weigh & feed systems - not applicable for short runs - difficult to clean - capital intensive - configuration changes required

BATCH MIXERS

Most common Rubber compounding Machinery

accepts all feed forms high output can be automated good for short production runs long life expectancy broad range of shear capability

CONTINUOUS MIXERS

Specialty applications

- high output - energy efficient - ease of process optimization - easily automated - uniform product shear & heat history

TWIN SCREW EXTRUDERS

Newer technology Specialty applications

energy efficient ease of process optimization easily automated geometry optimized for use uniform product shear & heat history

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Compoundings Quality Objective


QUALITY PRODUCT

PRODUCT POTENTIAL

PROCESSABILITY

WHEN PROPERLY FABRICATED THE PART MUST MEET ALL PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS

THE PRODUCT MIX MUST EASILY BE FORMED INTO THE FINAL PRODUCT SHAPE

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Process Technology

Compound Ingredients

Compounding Machinery

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The Mixing Process

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Raw Materials Typical Material Concerns


Polymer type age, uniformity & purity MW & MWD entanglements thermal &oxidative characteristics homogenization of single or multiple polymers (phase morphological concerns-compatibly) environmental and geometric affect of polymers filler type( extending,reinforcing,& reactive fillers) age,uniformity, purity,reactivity particle size and particle size distribution requirement to breakdown agglomerates or pellets the possible forming of agglomerates requirements for efficient filler/polymer interaction

type of plasticizers ,protective additives,reactive chemicals age,uniformity, purity,reactivity lubricating affects of liquid and melting additives threshold temperature affects for incorporation maximum temperature limitations

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TYPES OF MIXING

REACTIVE

DISPERSIVE High shear

DISTRIBUTIVE

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Batch Mixing Technology

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Basic Components of The Batch Mixer

AIR or HYDRAULIC CYLINDER (ram actuator) HOPPER COVER

HOPPER ASSEMBLY

RAM

ROTORS (Tangential or Intermeshing) Batch discharging mechanism DROP DOOR

CHAMBER

Mixer motor drive & reduction set

THERMOCOUPLE IN DROP DOOR OR END FRAME (indicated mix temperature)

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Batch Mixing Technologies

Intermeshing

Tangential

Intermix Mark 5
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Banbury F series ST

Machinery in Application
AREAS O F APPLICATIO N % O F INTERM IX BATCH M IXERS IN APPLICATIO N
5

% O F BANBURY BATCH M IXERS IN APPLICATIO N


57

TIRE CO M PO UNDS

TECH NICAL RUBBER G O O DS ie,SEALS,H O SE , AND CUSTO M M IXING W IRE AND CABLE

79

23

FLO O RING PLASTICS CO M PO UNDING

13

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Areas of mixer application

Intermix & Banbury


-medium viscosity formulations -general rubber goods

Intermix
-specialty rubber goods (low temperature compounding ) -extreme quality applications reactive mixing applications (high viscosity) single step mixing applications

Banbury
-high volume applications -easy to mix formulations -sticky materials multiple step mixing applications (especially final mix of high viscosity compounds)

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Selected Items of Comparison


Mechanical
INTERMESHING ROTOR DESIGN

TANGENTIAL ROTOR DESIGN

Ram actuation (HYDRAULIC OR PNEUMATIC) Hopper door Ram or weight design Mixer sides Mixer rotor end plates Mixer rotors Drop door design Drop door latch mechanism Dust stops

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Hydraulic hopper Actuation


Potential Benefits Eliminates compressed air requirements Efficient application of high batch pressure Potential Increase of process repeatability due to the elimination of the variations in the plant air supply Potential reduction in plant operating expenses it allows position control and variation of pressure on the batch during the mixing cycle

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Batch & Cylinder Pressure


CYLINDER AIR PRESSURE - air pressure applied to the piston in the cylinder forcing the weight down

BATCH or RAM PRESSURE - pressure applied by the bottom of the weight on the batch

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Batch & Cylinder Pressure

Cylinder Vs Batch Pressure (F-270 - 22 inch diameter air cylinder)


70

Batch PSI

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Air cylinder PSI

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Batch & Cylinder Pressure (hydraulic system for F-270 mixer)

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BATCH AND CYLINDER PRESSURE


PSI T
(PSI ABOVE PISTON)

BATCH PSI = f (PSI T - PSI B) x AREA PISTON AREA WEIGHT


MIXER AIR CYLINDER PERFORMANCE
(assume area of piston = area of weight)

PSI B
( PSI BELOW PISTON)

( Batch pressurization time)


90 80

PSI (CYLINDER)

70 60

AIR PRESSURE ABOVE PISTON IN CYLINDER


RESIDUE PSI AIR PRESSURE BELOW PISTON BLOCKAGE SLOW PRESSURIZATION

BATCH PSI
( EFFECTIVE PRESSURE ON BATCH)

50 40

BATCH 30 PRESSURIZATION
20 10 0 0 15 20

IN CYLINDER

30

40

50

60

TIME (SECONDS)

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BATCH AND CYLINDER PRESSURE


PSI T
(PSI ABOVE PISTON)

BATCH PSI = f (PSI T - PSI B) x AREA PISTON AREA WEIGHT


MIXER AIR CYLINDER PERFORMANCE Increased pressurization time
Legend PSI(top) PSI(B) PSI (B res.) PSI (EFF.-1) PSI (EFF-res)

PSI B
( PSI BELOW PISTON)

90 80

PSI (CYLINDER)

70 60

BATCH PSI
( EFFECTIVE PRESSURE ON BATCH)

50 40

FAST 30 PRESSURIZATION
20 10 0 0 15 20 30

RESIDUE PSI SLOW PRESSURIZATION BLOCKAGE

40

50

60

TIME (SECONDS)

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Selecting a Hydraulic or Pneumatic actuated ram

Topics to be addressed
Vs Intermeshing rotor mixer Consistency of air pressure to mixer Quality & quantity of supplied air Operating cost Environmental considerations System Maintenance costs Capitol investment Knowledge of system operating characteristics
Tangential

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Selected Items of Comparison


Mechanical

INTERMESHING ROTOR DESIGN

TANGENTIAL ROTOR DESIGN

Ram actuation Hopper door Ram or weight design Mixer sides Mixer rotor end plates Mixer rotors Drop door design Drop door latch mechanism Dust stops

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Intermix full down weight position

The ram when full down is an extension of the body bore ( the bottom becomes a working surface)

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Banbury full down weight position

The ram full down position is elevated.The Elevated Position is necessary for efficient venting and material flow within the mixing chamber

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Selected Items of Comparison


Mechanical

INTERMESHING ROTOR DESIGN

TANGENTIAL ROTOR DESIGN

Ram actuation Hopper door Ram or weight design Mixer rotors Mixer rotor end plates Mixer sides Drop door design Drop door latch mechanism Dust stops

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Intermix Dispersive and Distributive Mixing Dispersive Mixing

Distributive Mixing

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Intermix rotor designs (increased fill factor and shear flow) NR 5 NR 2

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Mixing Action Banbury Distributive Dispersive

Even speed or friction operation

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F-Series Banbury Mixers (tangential mixers)

Even speed Rotor Alignments

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F-Series Banbury Mixers (tangential mixers)

F series Banbury rotor types ST / SN4T


4 wing / SK 2 wing

WFT

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Feeding Efficiency Intermix Vs. Banbury

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Selected Items of Comparison


Mechanical

INTERMESHING ROTOR DESIGN

TANGENTIAL ROTOR DESIGN

Ram actuation Hopper door Ram or weight design Mixer rotors Mixer rotor end plates Mixer sides Drop door design Drop door latch mechanism Dust stops

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Drop door designs of the Intermix Vs. Banbury


a full extension of the body bore for maximum shear work and heat transfer Contoured to be an extension of the body bore and relieved to permit material transfer

Intermix

Banbury

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Mixer Metal Temperature

Temperature Control - Maximum Productivity - Optimum Quality

Heat Transfer

Optimum Material Flow (Stick-Slip)

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Intermix Chamber Water Cooled Cavities

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED WEIGHT STANDARD

HIGH EFFICIENCY TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED SIDES

HIGH EFFICIENCY TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROTORS

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROTOR END PLATES STANDARD TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED DOOR TOP

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Intermix Rotor Cooling

Enhanced spiral cooling passages over whole length of rotor body Enhanced cooling of Nog

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NR5 Rotor Spiral Cooling

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Banbury Mixer Heating / Cooling


OPTIONAL CORED WEIGHT FOR TEMPERATURE CONTROL

HIGH EFFICIENCY TIP COOLED ST ROTORS

HIGH EFFICIENCY TEMPERATURE CONTREOLLED SIDES

OPTIONAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROTOR END PLATES AND DUST STOPS

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED DOOR TOP

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Banbury Rotor Cooling

(Tip Cooled Design)

conventional rotor cooling

ST rotor cooling

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Typical Ram Action and Power Demand

Banbury Ram Action and Power Demand

Intermix Ram Action and Power Demand

Mixer power

Mixer Power

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PRIMARY VARIABLES AFFECTING BATCH MIXERS compound formulation batch weight / fill factor mixing steps and procedures mixer applied batch pressure mixer rpm mixer temper ( metal temperature control ) compound component considerations environmental effects

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Batch Size Calculation

BATCH SIZE
(THEORETICAL)

batch wt. = (net mixer volume)

(density compd.)

(fill factor)

Fill factor (Intermix) = 0.85 (fill factor(Banbury))

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BANBURY Mixer Net Chamber Volume& Rotor Type (liters)

NET MIXER VOLUME LITERS rotor type 2 wing 4wing ST Br- 1600 1.6 1D 16.5 F-50 50

rotor type 2 wing 4 wing 4 wing ST

F-80 80 70.5 70.5

F-200 200 156 156

F-270 270 257 257

F-370 ----414 414

F-620 ---652 704

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Intermix Mixer Net Chamber Volume (nr-5) rotors (liters)


Net Mixer volume liters
Machine size K-0 NR-2 rotors 1.64 NR-5 rotors 1.82 K-1 5 5.5 K-2 K-2A 18 44 20 49 K-4 82 91 K-5 126 140 K-6 K-6A K-7 185 231 330 205 257 330 K-8 436 484 K-10 783 870

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Intermix Vs Banbury Batch Weight & fill Factor


Banbury ST equipped mixer @ 50 psi batch pressure Intermix NR5 equipped mixer @ 75 psi batch pressure

160 140 120

ML 4 @ 100 C

100 80 60 40 20 0 0.5 Legend Tangential Intermeshing

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

FILL FACTOR

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BANBURY BATCH WEIGHT & FILL FACTOR


APPLIED BATCH PRESSURE

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BANBURY Batch Pressure & Viscosity

APPLIED BATCH PRESSURE ( PSI )

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Optimum fill factor (Banbury)


% FILL VS PRODUCT VISCOSITY
50

48
PRODUCT MOONEY ML4

46

44

42

PROPRIETARY NR SINGLE STEP MIX 105 C DISCHARGE 25 RPM 25 PSI BATCH

67

69
% FILL

74

80

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RPI DATA (Banbury Data)


1A 1B 1C

ram position Vs time small batch weight

ram position Vs time optimum batch weight

ram position Vs time large batch weight

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Typical Ram Action and Power Demand

Banbury Ram Action and Power Demand

Intermix Ram Action and Power Demand

Mixer power

Mixer Power

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RPI SYSTEM
signal conditioner

RECORDER

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Mix Topography & Process Optimization

INDICATED MIX TEMPERATURE

MIXER POWER

RAM POSITION

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Banbury Mixer RPM & Mix time

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Mixer RPM & CB Dispersion


% CB DISP.
100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 30 35 40 45 55 60 65 70 75 80

OPERATING WINDOW

F-270 MIXER RPM

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Mixer RPM,TCU settings & Mooney Viscosity


100 90 80 70 70 F mixer Legend cycle time 100%=10 minutes Mooney 0-90 ML4 std deviation 100% = +/- 66.7

Mixer rpm, Mixer temperature, Mooney Viscosity, & Cycle time

90 80 70 60 50 40

% of full scale

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

90 F mixer

mooney ML 4

30 20 10 56 84 0 112

140 F mixer

28 3D mixer 2 wing rotor 100 lb. #4SS Natural 43 PSI batch pressure uniform feed @ approx. 10 Lb. chunks 70 F feed temperature discharge @ 285 -300F

mixer rpm

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Mix Cycle and Mixer RPM


MIX CYCLE FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION

loading 4% low speed breakdown 16%

(POLYMER)

( TO PREVENTcooling 60% STICKING ON THE MILL)

( FILLERS)
high speed mixing 20%

Legend loading low speed breakdown high speed mixing ram bump cooling

ram bump 1%

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Mixer Metal Temperature

Temperature Control - Maximum Productivity - Optimum Quality

Heat Transfer

Optimum Material Flow (Stick-Slip)

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Metal Temperature & Interfacial friction effects

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SBR mixing,TCU settings & mix efficiency

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Mixing Action Banbury Distributive Dispersive

Even speed or friction operation

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ST Rotor Performance
Cure Uniformity and Rotor Temperature Tread Compound - Final Mix
F-270 4wST mixer body @49 C (120 F) mixer door @ 27 C (81 F) fill factor @ 75% batch Pressure @ 4.1 bar (60 psi) mixer @ 30 rpm 70 sec rm dn mix time

rotor water @ 71 C (160 F)

rotor water @ 60 C (140 F)

rotor water @ 49 C (120 F)

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Temperature Control Unit TCU

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Banbury Water Flow Rates ( for maximum heat transfer)

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Banbury TCU settings (starting points)

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COMPONENT CONSIDERATIONS Feed Form


(kW)

(NR)
(410) (298) (336)

LBS. (50.9Kg)
(298)

PSI
(261) (224) (186) (149) (112)

(32 C) (121 C) (149C)

(0.045)

(0.136)

(0.455)

(4.55)

(45.5)

AVERAGE WEIGH OF RUBBER FEED UNIT - LBS. (KG)

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COMPONENT CONSIDERATIONS environmental effects


NAT,L RUBBER MASTICATION
100

* TEMPERATURE * HUMIDITY

AVG POWER

80

MOONEY REDUCTIION RATE

% of scale range

60

40 MIX TIME 20 Legend--scale range mix time 0-10 min. avg kw 0-200 mooney reduction rate 0-10 M/min.

0 -10

(14 F)

(40 F)

21

(70 F)

32

(90 F)

RUBBER FEED TEMPERATURE DEGREES CENTIGRADE

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Mixing Parameters, Steps and Procedures The Art of Mixing Rubber


I MIXING STEPS III MIXER OPERATING PARAMETERS
- % fill(batch weight) - temper - ram pressure SINGLE STEP MIX - conventional single step - upside down single step - process specific single step MULTIPLE STEP MIX - premastication (optional ) - masterbatch -simple single step mix -process specific single step mix - remill (optional ) - final mix

mixer speed

II MIXING PROCEDURES
- order of additions - number of additions - number of ram cleanings (brushes) - discharging procedures - rpm and batch pressure settings - means of control
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CYCLE CONTROL -time - indicated temperature - energy (kwh) - torque (power hp or kw )

Indicated Mix Temperature

Time

Mixer Power

Mixer Motor Power

175 F

225 F

90 sec. START

Time (min)

180 sec.

END

Indicated Mix Temperature (end frame or drop door T.C.) Mix Energy (hp-hr)
(Power x time)
(area under the power Vs time curve)
Mixer Power

Mixer Power

Time (min)

5 hp-hr 10 hp-hr

Time (min)

125 hp

Mixer Motor power


(mixer motor torque)
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Mixer Power

100 hp

Tim e (m in)

Single step mixing


Event 1 2 3 4 5 Description load polymer,all black,chemicals ,oils ,fillers ,cures ram down mix to 175 F raise ram and brush ram down mix to 225 F discharge batch- float ram open, drop door& dwell 15 sec close drop door and raise ram rpm 10 50 30 25 30 batch PSI up 50 up 30 up time (sec. 17 50 20 30 30 147 Kwh 0.09 2.66 1.01 1.87 0.00 5.72

(discharge & make ready)

Event 5

Event 1
(loading)

Event 4
(ram down mixing)

Event 2
(ram down mixing)

Event 3
(Brush-clean ram)
Event 4

Event 5

Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

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The End

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Banbury Technical Data

Banbury designation

Br

00C

1D

F-50

F-80

F-120

F-200

F-270

F-370

F-620

Net Chamber 1.57 4.24 18.7 volume (liters) Rotor type 2w 2w 2w

47.4

80 /70

124 / 106

220 / 200

270 / 257

414

650 / 711

ST

2w/4w&ST 2w/4w

2w/4w&ST

2w/4w&ST 4w & ST 4w / ST

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Intermix Technical Data Capacities with the NR5 Rotors (liters)

Intermix type

K0 K1

K2

K2A K4 K5

K6

K6A K7

K8

K10

Net Chamber volume (liters)

1.8

5.5

20

49

91 143 206 257

306

484

870

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