Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 252

Lqvwlwxw Qdwlrqdo Sro|whfkqltxh gh Juhqreoh WKHVH srxu rewhqlu oh judgh gh GRFWHXU GH O*LQVWLWXW QDWLRQDO SRO\WHFKQLTXH GH JUHQREOH Glvflsolqh= Dxwrpdwltxh

 Surgxfwltxh suvhqwh hw vrxwhqxh sxeoltxhphqw sdu

Mro Fkhedvvlhu
oh : Mdqylhu 4<<< Wlwuh =

Pwkrgrorjlhv srxu od frqfhswlrq g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh sdu fdofxodwhxu


Gluhfwhxu gh wkvh = Prkdpphg P*Vddg MXU\ O1 Gxjdug Suvlghqw S1 Eruqh Udssruwhxu Y1 Zhuw} Udssruwhxu E1 Fdurq H{dplqdwhxu L1G1 Odqgdx H{dplqdwhxu P1 P*Vddg H{dplqdwhxu

P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1

Wkvh susduh dx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh

ll

Uhphuflhphqwv

Oh wudydlo suvhqw gdqv fh pprluh d w udolv dx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juh0 qreoh vrxv od gluhfwlrq gh Prqvlhxu Prkdpphg P*Vddg/ Surihvvhxu o*LVPUD gh Fdhq1 Mh wlhqv oh uhphuflhu vlqfuhphqw srxu vd frqdqfh/ vhv hqfrxudjhphqwv hw vrq vrxwlhq vdqv idlooh pdoju od glvwdqfh qrxv vsdudqw1 Mh uhphuflh jdohphqw Prqvlhxu Oxf Gxjdug/ gluhfwhxu gh uhfkhufkh dx FQUV/ gluhf0 whxu gx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh/ g*dyrlu dffhsw od suvlghqfh gh prq mxu| gh wkvh1 D Prqvlhxu Slhuuh Eruqh/ Surihvvhxu o*Hfroh Fhqwudoh gh Olooh hw Prqvlhxu Ylqfhqw Zhuw}/ Surihvvhxu o*Xqlyhuvlw Fdwkroltxh gh Orxydlq hq Ehojltxh/ m*dlphudlv h{sulphu wrxwh pd uhfrqqdlvvdqfh srxu o*lqwuw tx*lo rqw sruw prq wudydlo hq dffhswdqw g*hq wuh ohv udssruwhxuv/ srxu ohxuv uhpdutxhv frqvwuxfwlyhv tx*lov rqw dssruw srxu o*dpolrudwlrq gh fh pdqxvfulw hw srxu ohxu frqwulexwlrq dx mxu|1 Mh uhphuflh wuv vlqfuhphqw Prqvlhxu Ehuqdug Fdurq/ Surihvvhxu o*Xqlyhuvlw gh Vdyrlh/ srxu dyrlu sduwlfls dx mxu| hw srxu p*dyrlu idlw gfrxyulu hw dssuflhu fhwwh phuyhloohxvh glvflsolqh tx*hvw o*Dxwrpdwltxh1 Mh vxlv jdohphqw wuv krqru gh od sduwlflsdwlrq fh mxu| gh Prqvlhxu Lrdq Gru Odq0 gdx/ Gluhfwhxu gh uhfkhufkh dx FQUV1 Mh oh uhphuflh srxu vhv frpphqwdluhv hw vxjjhvwlrqv txl p*rqw shuplv g*dpolruhu fh pprluh gh wkvh1 Mh wlhqv uhphuflhu o*h{fhoohqwh txlsh gx vhfuwduldw dlqvl txh o*h{fhoohqwh txlsh whfk0 qltxh gx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh srxu ohxu glvsrqlelolw/ ohxuv frps0 whqfhv hw ohxu jhqwloohvvh1 Mh uhphuflh wrxv ohv frsdlqv gh o*txlsh hw gx oder srxu ohv prphqwv gh gwhqwh pdlv dxvvl srxu ohv frqvhlov dylvv uhqgxv oruv gh prq vmrxu1 Xq judqg phufl dx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh hw gh Surfgv gh Fdhq srxu ohxu erqqh kxphxu hw oh wuv erq dffxhlo txh m*dl uhx fkdtxh ylvlwh1 Dx{ v|psdwkltxhv orfdwdluhv gx exuhdx E535/ Ghqlv Oxelqhdx hw Sdror Wrqd/ mh ohv uhphuflh srxu ohxuv frqwulexwlrqv od erqqh dpeldqfh udolvh gdqv fh exuhdx1

ly

Mh uhphuflh sduwlfxoluhphqw Vdolpd hw Prkdpphg srxu ohxu h{wuph jhqwloohvvh dlqvl txh srxu ohxu dffxhlo fkdohxuhx{ Fdhq1 Xq folq g*rhlo frpsolfh o*txlsh gx slTqlT txl p*rqw idlw sdvvhu ghv prphqwv lqrx0 eoldeohv oruv ghv vrluhv Pdoudx{1 Mh q*rxeolh sdv ohv frpsdjqrqv gh od prqwdjqh dyhf txl m*dl sduwdj ghv prphqwv ulfkhv hq prwlrqv1 Xqh dwwhqwlrq soxv sduwlfxoluh yd Odxuhqfh srxu vhv hqfrxudjhphqwv/ vrq dlgh hw vd frpsolflw gh wrxv ohv lqvwdqwv1 Mh uhphuflh vlqfuhphqw phv sduhqwv txl p*rqw wrxmrxuv vrxwhqx hw jxlg wrxw dx orqj gh phv orqjxhv wxghv1 D Juhqreoh hw vhv Prqwdjqhv1

Wdeoh ghv pdwluhv

41 Lqwurgxfwlrq 51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd 514 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 515 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51514 Usrqvhv whpsruhoohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51515 Rsudwhxu gh wudqvihuw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51516 Wudqviruphv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 516 Irupxodwlrq xqlh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51614 O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv 1 1 1 1 1 51615 Od wudqviruph jqudolvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51616 Irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51617 Grpdlqh iutxhqwlho 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51618 Grpdlqh gh vwdelolw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 517 Sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd 1 1 1 1 51714 Uhsuvhqwdwlrqv qxpultxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 51715 Vxsulrulw qxpultxh gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd 51716 H{hpsoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 518 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61 Lghqwlfdwlrq 614 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh 1 1 61414 Prgohv g*lghqwlfdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61415 Xq fulwuh xvxho g*lghqwlfdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 61416 Hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv 1 1 1 1 1 615 Dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 616 Wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61614 Vxssuhvvlrq ghv frpsrvdqwhv lqgvludeohv 61615 Vxssuhvvlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv 1 1 1 1 61616 Plvh o*fkhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 617 Dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61714 Dqdo|vh whpsruhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 : : : ; 43 46 48 48 49 4< 53 56 57 57 5: 64 64 68 68 68 74 78 7; 83 83 83 84 84 85

yl

Wdeoh ghv pdwluhv

61715 Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 618 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61814 Ohv prlqguhv fduuv hq whpsv uho 1 1 61815 Pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv 61816 Pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh 1 1 1 1 1 1 619 Ydolgdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61914 Dqdo|vh gx prgoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61915 Dqdo|vh gx fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq 1 1 61: Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

86 87 88 95 98 9; 9; 9< :7 :8 :8 ;4 ;5 ;8 ;9 ;< <4 <6 <6 <7 <; 436 436 437 437 43< 444 446 448 44< 454 454 456 457 459 45: 45: 45; 45< 463 466 466 468

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh 714 Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 715 V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh = dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh 1 71514 Ohv prgohv gh frppdqgh olqdluh1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71515 Uhodwlrq hqwuh suglfwlrq hw gulyhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71516 V|qwkvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71517 Frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho 716 Dssurfkh g*wdw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 717 Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71714 Shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71715 Txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71716 Urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 718 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71814 Sulqflsh gh vsdudwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71815 Sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx fulwuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71816 Vsflfdwlrq gh od g|qdpltxh gh suglfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 71817 Xqlyhuvdolw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71818 Srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71819 Pwkrgrorjlh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 719 Plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71: Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph 814 Shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv hw udolvhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 815 Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81514 Hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh ghv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw gh od 81515 Hwxgh ghv frkuhqfhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81516 Sulvh hq frpswh gh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu 1 816 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81614 H{suhvvlrq gx eldlv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81615 H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81616 Fkrl{ gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 817 Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81714 Od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81715 Sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 erxfoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ihuph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Wdeoh ghv pdwluhv

yll

818 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81814 Uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx vljqdo g*hqwuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81815 Uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh 819 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 91 Oh 914 915 916 917 orjlflho VLPDUW Suvhqwdwlrq gx orjlflho 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Wudlwhphqwv gh grqqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh 1 1 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh 91714 Suvhqwdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 91715 Lghqwlfdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 91716 Frppdqgh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 91717 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph 1 918 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

46: 46; 474 478

47: 1 47: 1 486 1 48; 1 49: 1 49: 1 49: 1 4:: 1 4;6 1 4;7 4;:

:1 Frqfoxvlrq D1 Dqqh{hv D14 Wudqvirupdwlrq gh sro|qphv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D15 Sursulwv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D16 Plvh vrxv iruph ufxuvlyh gx fulwuh ghv prlqguhv fduuv 1 1 D17 Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh 1 1 1 D1714 Fdv lgdo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1715 Fdv vwrfkdvwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D18 V|vwphv sdvvliv olqdluhv whpsv lqyduldqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D19 Uhodwlrq hqwuh suglfwlrq hw gulyhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1: Glylvlrqv sro|qrpldohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1; Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph D1;14 Lghqwlfdwlrq gluhfwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1;15 Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1;16 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1< Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv 1 1 1 1 D1<14 Dqdo|vh whpsruhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D1<15 Dqdo|vh iutxhqwlhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Eleolrjudsklh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4;< 4;< 4<3 4<9 4<< 533 536 539 545 546 549 54: 54: 54; 55; 55; 563 56<

ylll

Wdeoh ghv pdwluhv

41 Lqwurgxfwlrq

Xq ghv vrxflv sulqflsdx{ gh o*Dxwrpdwltxh 0vflhqfh srxu o*lqjqlhxu0 hvw gh idflolwhu o*dffv gh vrq vdyrlu0idluh vrq xwlolvdwhxu sulylojl = o*lqjqlhxu1 Dfwxhoohphqw/ o*Dxwrpdwltxh hw soxv sduwlfxoluhphqw o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv glvsrvh g*xq wuv judqg qrpeuh g*rxyudjhv1 Ghydqw o*h{sorvlrq ghv gluhqwhv dssurfkhv glvsr0 qleohv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh g*xq v|vwph/ o*xwlolvdwhxu vh uhwurxyh idfh dx sureoph slqhx{ gx fkrl{1 Frpph lo q*h{lvwh sdv xqh vroxwlrq xqlyhuvhooh srxu wrxv ohv sureophv/ lo q*h{lvwh sdv gh pwkrgh pludfoh1 O*xwlolvdwhxu grlw grqf glvsrvhu g*xq sdqho gh pwkrgrorjlhv srxu srxyrlu uvrxguh oh soxv vlpsohphqw srvvleoh vrq sureoph1 Dq gh uhjurxshu dlvphqw od fxowxuh g*Dxwrpdwltxh/ oh gyhorsshphqw g*xq orjlflho g*dlgh od frqfhswlrq ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh dssdudw frpph od vroxwlrq od soxv dssursulh1 Od prwlydwlrq sulqflsdoh gh fh wudydlo frqvlvwh gyhorsshu ghv pwkrgrorjlhv shu0 phwwdqw xqh dgtxdwlrq hqwuh ohv whfkqltxhv rhuwhv sdu o*Dxwrpdwltxh hw ohv h{ljhqfhv gh o*lqgxvwulh1 Hq hhw/ od soxsduw ghv wxghv idlwhv gdqv ohv oderudwrluhv qh vrqw sdv gluhf0 whphqw h{sorlwdeohv srxu od frqgxlwh gh surfgv lqgxvwulhov1 Fhv pwkrgrorjlhv rqw w oderuhv sduwlu ghv edvhv irqgdphqwdohv gh o*Dxwrpdwltxh hw g*xq hqvhpeoh gh fodvvhv gh v|vwphv txl uhsuvhqwh ghv sureophv fodvvltxhv gh o*Dxwrpdwltxh uhqfrqwuv gdqv od sudwltxh1 Hoohv rqw w ydolghv sduwlu g*xq hqvhpeoh gh surfgv slorwhv hw gh prgohv gh frqqdlvvdqfhv1 VLPDUW = xq orjlflho g*dlgh od frqfhswlrq ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh d w sulqfl0 sdohphqw gyhorss srxu phwwuh hq rhxyuh fhv pwkrgrorjlhv1 Fhw rxwlo shuphw xq dffv dlv hw udslgh ghv sulqflsdohv dssurfkhv gh od frppdqgh hw gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv1 Xq vrlq sduwlfxolhu d w dssruw o*lqwhuidfh judskltxh dq gh uhqguh djudeoh od vsflfdwlrq hw o*dqdo|vh ghv sulqflsdx{ sureophv gh o*dxwrpdwltxh1 O*xwlolvdwhxu hvw jxlg srxu fkrlvlu ohv vroxwlrqv rudqw oh phloohxu frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv 2 vlpsolflw1 Srxu fh idluh ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv rqw w gqlv sduwlu ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Od udolvdwlrq ghv gluhqwhv wdshv gh frqfhswlrq g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw hhfwxh vhorq od surfgxuh lwudwlyh uhsuvhqwh sdu od jxuh 4141 Dydqw wrxwh v|qwkvh/ q*rxeolrqv sdv txh o*oderudwlrq g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh usrqg xq fdklhu ghv fkdujhv txl suflvh ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv1 Xqh suhpluh wdsh frqvlvwh grqf wudgxluh fh fdklhu ghv fkdujhv hq vsflfdwlrqv frpsdwleohv dyhf ohv pwkrghv gh v|qwkvh glvsrqleohv1 Elhq

41

Lqwurgxfwlrq

Vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv


Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh

" 

&  # 

Dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv Erqqhv 

Frqfhswlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

Lqvx!vdqwhv

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Iljxuh 414 = V|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh

hqwhqgx/ fhv shuirupdqfhv grlyhqw wuh udolvdeohv hw gshqghqw grqf gh od frpsoh{lw gh od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph frppdqghu +Vhurq/ Eudvodyvn| hw Jrrgzlq 4<<:,1 Rq glvwlqjxh txdwuh skdvhv sulqflsdohv/ vdyrlu  O*wdsh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlvwh oderuhu xq prgoh gh frppdqgh txl uhsuvhqwh dx plhx{ oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx surfg sdu udssruw dx{ shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv1 Rq glvsrvh srxu fh idluh gh od wkrulh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv grqw ohv rxyudjhv gh +Omxqj 4<;:,/ +Vrghuvwurp hw Vwrlfd 4<;<, hw +Odqgdx/ Or}dqr hw P*Vddg 4<<:, uhsuvhqwhqw oh soxv ufhqw wdw gh o*duw1  O*wdsh gh frqfhswlrq g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo txl udolvh ohv shuiru0 pdqfhv uhtxlvhv1 Fhwwh frqfhswlrq hvw idlwh sduwlu gx prgoh lghqwl1 Srxu fh idluh/ od wkrulh gh od frppdqgh qrxv ruh xq yhqwdlo gh pwkrghv +Dqghuvrq

hw Prruh 4<<3,/ +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,/ +Elwphdg/ Jhyhuv hw Zhuw} 4<<3,/ +Juhhq hw Olphehhu 4<<8, hw +]krx/ Gr|oh hw Joryhu 4<<9,1  O*wdsh g*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv frqvlvwh yulhu d srvwhulrul oh frp0 sruwhphqw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hw whpsruhooh ghv vl0 jqdx{ rewhqxv o*lvvxh g*xqh h{sulhqfh hq erxfoh ihuph shuphw gh ydolghu ohv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1  Xqh wdsh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph shuphw g*dpolruhu vl ehvrlq hvw ohv shu0 irupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 O*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hvw o*ruguh gx mrxu gdqv od frppxqdxw g*Dxwrpdwltxh +Jhyhuv hw Ehvdqrq0Yrgd 4<<;,1 Hq hhw/ oh sureoph gh o*lqwhudfwlrq hqwuh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh d w sdu0 wlfxoluhphqw wxgl hq yxh g*rewhqlu ghv prgohv gh frppdqgh dvvxudqw xq erq frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv0urexvwhvvh +Ed|dug/ \dp hw Phwwohu 4<<5,/ +Jhyhuv 4<<6,/ +]dqj/ Elwphdg hw Jhyhuv 4<<8, hw +Ydq ghq Kri hw Vfkudpd 4<<8,1 Sdudooohphqw/ ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq gglhv dx{ v|vwphv hq erxfoh ihuph rqw w gyh0 orsshv> hoohv udolvhqw xqh gfruuodwlrq hqwuh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv g*wdw hq vruwlh hw oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh +Ydq ghq Kri hw Vfkudpd 4<<6,/ +Ydq ghq Kri/ Vfkudpd/ gh Fdoodirq hw Ervjud 4<<8, hw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:, vh udphqdqw dlqvl dx{ frqglwlrqv gh od erxfoh rxyhuwh1 Rq glvwlqjxh ghx{ dvshfwv irqgdphqwdx{ gh od pwkrgrorjlh sursrvh srxu udolvhu oh phloohxu frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv 2 vlpsolflw gdqv o*hvsrlu gh frqfxuuhqfhu o*lqgwuqdeoh SLG1  Xqh dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv wludqw oh phloohxu surw gh wrxv ohv uvxowdwv glvsrqleohv gdqv od olwwudwxuh1 Oh surwrfroh h{sulphq0 wdo vrxv0mdfhqw d w gql od oxpluh ghv pwkrghv g*dqdo|vh gh grqqhv hw gx wudlwhphqw gh vljqdo/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh o*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh1  Xqh pwkrgh gh v|qwkvh vx!vdpphqw jqudoh srxu hqjorehu ohv whfkqltxhv gh v|qwkvh glvsrqleohv hw grqw od vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv shxw wuh hhfwxh uhodwlyhphqw idflohphqw1 Srxu fh idluh/ qrxv dyrqv dgrsw od frppdqgh suglfwlyh ghv v|vwphv srxu odtxhooh xqh surfgxuh gh vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh d w gyhorssh1 Fhv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh frqvlvwhqw hq ohv krul}rqv gh suglfwlrq hw gh frppdqgh/ od srqgudwlrq gh od frppdqgh hw od g|qdpltxh gx suglfwhxu1 Ohv krul}rqv vrqw vsflv sduwlu ghv uvxowdwv gh vwdelolw glvsrqleohv hq irqfwlrq gh od frpsoh{lw gx v|vwph frppdqghu hw od srqgudwlrq hvw fkrlvlh hq irqfwlrq gh od urexvwhvvh qxpultxh uhtxlvh hw gh od vhqvlelolw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh dx{ euxlwv gh phvxuh1 Txdqw od g|qdpltxh gx suglfwhxu/ hooh hvw vsflh sduwlu gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh hw gh ghx{ sdudpwuhv = xq krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq hw xq vhxlo g*dpruwlvvhphqw1 Fhwwh vsflfdwlrq d w idlwh sduwlu ghv sursulwv gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh Vplwk/ hooh d w dgdswh sduwlu gh od frppdqgh dyhf sodfhphqw gh sohv urexvwh gyhorssh gdqv +gh Oduplqdw 4<<6,/ +gh Oduplqdw 4<<;,1

41

Lqwurgxfwlrq

Sdu dloohxuv/ qrxv dyrqv uhirupxo ohv sureophv gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh hw g*lghqwl0 fdwlrq ghv v|vwphv dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd gdqv od frqwlqxlw ghv wudydx{ udolvv gdqv +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<<3,/ +Erxvolpdql 4<<6, hw +Wdgmlqh 4<<7,1 Fh wudydlo d w idlw gdqv oh vrxfl g*xqlhu od wkrulh ghv vljqdx{ hw v|vwphv wrxw hq dvvxudqw xqh erqqh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh1 Hq hhw/ od irupxodwlrq sdu o*rsudwhxu ghowd  shuphw gh uhwurxyhu wrxv ohv uvxowdwv irqgdphqwdx{ ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv sduwlu gh fhx{ ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv fh txl q*hvw sdv udolv dyhf od irupxodwlrq fodv0 vltxh xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug1 Vrq xwlolvdwlrq d grqf ghv lqwuwv sgdjrjltxhv fhuwdlqv1  ruh xqh phloohxuh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh sdu udssruw fhooh gh od irupxodwlrq vwdq0 gdug1 Oh sodq gh qrwuh pprluh hvw lqvslu gh od pwkrgrorjlh gh v|qwkvh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh sursrvv +jxuh 414,1 Lo frpsuhqg ohv fkdslwuhv vxlydqwv =  fkdslwuh 5 = o*rsudwhxu ghowd Od suvhqwdwlrq dlqvl txh ohv sulqflsdohv sursulwv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd vrqw udsshohv gdqv fh fkdslwuh dq gh shuphwwuh xqh phloohxuh frpsukhqvlrq ghv sureophv uhq0 frqwuv gdqv ohv fkdslwuhv xowulhxuv1 Qrxv lqvlvwrqv soxv sduwlfxoluhphqw vxu ohv txdolwv xqlfdwulfhv gh fhw rsudwhxu dlqvl txh vxu vrq erq frpsruwhphqw qxp0 ultxh1  fkdslwuh 6 = lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh Fh fkdslwuh hvw frqvdfu o*dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh txl d w sursrvh srxu o*lghq0 wlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv shuphwwdqw g*dftxulu od phloohxuh frqqdlvvdqfh srvvleoh gx v|vwph frppdqghu1 Ohv pwkrghv suglfwlyhv g*lghqwlfdwlrq rqw w uhirupxohv dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd1 Qrwuh fkrl{ v*hvw sduwlfxoluhphqw sruw vxu ohv yhuvlrqv ufxu0 vlyhv srxu ghv udlvrqv gh frpsdwlelolw dyhf od frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh1 Ohv uvxowdwv irqgdphqwdx{ dvvrflv rqw w uhgprqwuv1  fkdslwuh 7 = frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh Od pwkrgrorjlh gh v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu sursrvh hvw suvhqwh gdqv fh fkd0 slwuh1 Hooh xwlolvh xqh surfgxuh lwudwlyh dowhuqdqw od vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh hw o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv sduwlu ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv1 Od frppdqgh suglfwlyh d w uhirupxoh dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd hw xqh surfgxuh gh vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh hvw suvhqwh1  fkdslwuh 8 = lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph Fh fkdslwuh suvhqwh g*derug xqh pwkrgh gh ydolgdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh edvh vxu xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gh vrq frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 Xqh hvwlpdwlrq ghv gluhqwhv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv hvw hhfwxh srxu fh idluh1 O*dqdo|vh gh fhv shuirupdqfhv shxw dphqhu uhfrpphqfhu od v|qwkvh g*xq qrxyhdx ujxodwhxu dq g*dpolruhu ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Xq wdw gh o*duw ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hvw hqvxlwh suvhqw dyhf od irupxodwlrq sdu o*rsudwhxu ghowd1

 fkdslwuh 9 = oh orjlflho VLPDUW Oh vdyrlu0idluh lvvx gh od pwkrgrorjlh sursrvh d w wudqviu gdqv xq orjlflho g*dlgh od frqfhswlrq ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh = VLPDUW1 Wurlv sureophv g*lghqwl0 fdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh rqw w wudlwv dq g*looxvwuhu ohv qrpeuhxvhv srvvlelolwv rhuwhv sdu VLPDUW hw g*wxglhu o*dssolfdelolw gh od pwkrgrorjlh sursrvh1  fkdslwuh : = frqfoxvlrq Ohv sulqflsdohv frqwulexwlrqv gh fh wudydlo vrqw plvhv hq ylghqfh hw vhv shuvshfwlyhv vrqw hqylvdjhv1

41

Lqwurgxfwlrq

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

Fh fkdslwuh lqwurgxlw ohv rxwlov xwlolvv wrxw dx orqj gh fh pprluh wudyhuv od suvhqwdwlrq gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd1 Ohv sulqflsdohv qrwlrqv gh edvh srxu od uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv vrqw udsshohv1 Elhq hqwhqgx/ wrxwhv ohv sursulwv irqgdphqwdohv frqfhuqdqw od irupxodwlrq dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd vrqw uhsulvhv sduwlu gh fh olyuh lqfrqwrxuqdeoh vxu oh vxmhw +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<<3,1 Ohv sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd vrqw plvhv hq ylghqfh sduwlu ghv uvxowdwv glvsrqleohv gdqv +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6,1

514

Lqwurgxfwlrq

Od wkrulh ghv vljqdx{ hw v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv hvw wudglwlrqqhoohphqw irupxoh o*dlgh gh o*rsudwhxu uhwdug hw od wudqviruph hq 5 1 Ohv sulqflsdx{ dydqwdjhv gh fhw rsudwhxu vrqw vd wuv judqgh vlpsolflw gh plvh hq rhxyuh hw vd fdsdflw gh wudlwhu oh sureoph gx uhwdug1 Pdlv fhwwh irupxodwlrq qh shuphw sdv g*rewhqlu ghv uvxowdwv frpsdwleohv dyhf fhx{ ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv vrxv0mdfhqwv1 Fhwwh gluhqfh d frqgxlw wxglhu vsduphqw ohv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv hw ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv1 O*lqwurgxfwlrq gh o*rsudwhxu gh gluhqfh dqwlflsh B srxu o*wxgh ghv v|vwphv fkdq0 wloorqqv d shuplv gh idluh fruuhvsrqguh wrxv ohv uvxowdwv dvvrflv ohxuv krprorjxhv frqwlqxv oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh ghylhqw lqqlphqw shwlwh1 Xqh irupxodwlrq xqlh gh od wkrulh ghv v|vwphv d w gyhorssh dyhf xq who rsudwhxu1 Hooh hvw sduwl0 fxoluhphqw prwlyh sdv ghv frqvlgudwlrqv sgdjrjltxhv gdqv od suvhqwdwlrq ghv glyhuv sureophv g*Dxwrpdwltxh = ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv ghylhqqhqw dlqvl xq fdv sduwlfxolhu ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh ghylhqw qxooh1 Gh soxv/ od irupxodwlrq xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu B suvhqwh gh phloohxuhv sursulwv qxp0 ultxhv txh od irupxodwlrq vwdqgdug/ fhooh xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug/ qrwdpphqw gdqv oh fdv g*xq fkdqwloorqqdjh udslgh ++Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<;9, hw +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6,,1

515

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv

Gdqv fh sdudjudskh/ xq udssho wuv vxfflqfw ghv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv xvxhoohv ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv lqyduldqwv gdqv oh whpsv hvw suvhqw dq g*lqwurgxluh o*rsudwhxu B hw gh gqlu ohv fruuhvsrqgdqfhv hqwuh ohv rsudwhxuv1

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

51514

Usrqvhv whpsruhoohv

Ohv v|vwphv olqdluhv shxyhqw wuh uhsuvhqwv frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 514 r iE|j hw i+E|j gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph1 Od usrqvh lpsxovlrq0 qhooh hvw xqh fdudfwulvdwlrq xvxhooh g*xq v|vwph olqdluh1 Fhshqgdqw fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hvw shx xwlolvdeoh srxu od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Ohv v|vwphv olqdluhv vrqw jqudohphqw uhsuvhqwv sdu ghv txdwlrqv gluhqwlhoohv +v|vwphv frqwlqxv, rx sdu ghv txdwlrqv dx{ gluhqfhv +v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv,1 Fhv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv gfulyhqw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh sdu rssrvlwlrq dx{ udolvdwlrqv g*wdwv txl shuphwwhqw xqh fdudfwulvdwlrq lqwhuqh gx v|vwph1

E|

V|vwph olqdluh

+E|

Iljxuh 514 = V|vwph olqdluh

Gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv/ o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh vrqw glvsrqleohv xqltxh0 phqw dx{ lqvwdqwv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh | ' &AA dyhf & 5LQhw AA od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 O*hqwuh E| hvw pdlqwhqxh frqvwdqwh hqwuh ohv lqvwdqwv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Uhsuvhqwdwlrqv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv Ohv glyhuvhv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv whpsruhoohv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv vrqw  Oh surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq ] +E| '
f

"

RS E E|  _

r iRS E j gvljqh od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gx v|vwph1  O*txdwlrq gluhqwlhooh _?@3 _?K _?K3 _?@ + E | n @ + E | n  n @ + E |  ' K  E | n K E|n  n K?K E| +514, ?@ J _|?@ _|?@3 _|?K _|?K3 grqw ohv sdudpwuhv @ hw K gqlvvhqw frpsowhphqw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph1  Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw gqlh sdu _ E| ' S E| n S E| _| +E| ' S E| n #S E| +515,

5151 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv

<

r %E| gvljqh oh yhfwhxu g*wdw gx v|vwph hw ES c S c Sc #S  hvw xqh udolvdwlrq g*wdw gx v|vwph1 Qrwrqv txh ohv vroxwlrqv ghv txdwlrqv g*wdw hw gh vruwlh vrqw grqqhv sdu ] "  5| E| ' e Ef n e5 E|3  S E _ f ] "  5| Ef n S e5 E|3  SE _ n #S E| +E| ' Se
f

Fhv txdwlrqv phwwhqw hq ylghqfh wrxwh od sxlvvdqfh gx frqfhsw g*wdw = o*wdw g*xq v|vwph uhsuvhqwh od pprluh plqlpdoh sduwlu gh odtxhooh rq shxw gwhuplqhu rx sugluh vrq frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv Frpph srxu ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv/ ohv glyhuvhv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv whpsruhoohv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv vrqw  Oh surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq +E| '

" [
& '

R^ E&Ae E|  &Ae 

+516,

r iR^ E|j gvljqh od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh fkdqwloorqqh1  O*txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv +E|n@ +E|Aenn@?@ +E|?@Ae ' KJ E|Ae nKE|2Ae nnK?K E|E?KnAe  +517, txl fdudfwulvh hvvhqwlhoohphqw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph fkdqwlo0 orqq1  Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw E| n Ae  ' ^ E| n ^ E| +E| ' ^ E| n #^ E| +518,

r E^ c ^ c ^ c #^ hvw xqh udolvdwlrq g*wdw gx v|vwph fkdqwloorqq txh o*rq shxw rewhqlu sduwlu gh od udolvdwlrq g*wdw gx v|vwph frqwlqx vrxv0mdfhqw ES c S c S c #S frpph vxlw ^ ' i T ESAe  ] AA ^ ' i T ESEAe  S_ ^ ' S hw #^ ' #S
f

+519,

43

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

Qrwrqv txh ohv vroxwlrqv ghv txdwlrqv g*wdw hw gh vruwlh vrqw grqqhv sdu E| ' +E| ' & ^ Ef n
& 3 [ 'f

33^ E & ^ 33^ E n #^ E| ^ & ^

^ & ^

Ef n

& 3 [ 'f

51515

Rsudwhxu gh wudqvihuw

Oh frqfhsw g*rsudwhxu d w sulqflsdohphqw lqwurgxlw srxu vlpsolhu ohv pdqlsxodwlrqv ghv glyhuvhv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv ghv v|vwphv dxvvl elhq srxu o*dqdo|vh txh srxu od v|qwkvh1 Rq glvwlqjxh o*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho srxu ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv hw ohv rsudwhxuv uhwdug hw dydqfh srxu ohv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv1 O*rsudwhxu ghowd d w lqwurgxlw sduwlu gh o*rsudwhxu dydqfh srxu ghv udlvrqv g*xqlfdwlrq gh od wkrulh ghv v|vwphv hw gh ohxu urexvwhvvh qxpultxh1 O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho R hvw gql sdu R%E| ' _ %E| _|

r %E| hvw xqh irqfwlrq gx whpsv uhsuvhqwdqw xq vljqdo grqq1 Lo shuphw gh ufuluh o*txdwlrq gluhqwlhooh +514, vrxv od iruph frpsdfwh ER+E| '  ERE| dyhf ER ' R?@ n @R?@3 n  n @?@  ER ' KJ R?K n K R?K3 n  n K?K rx wrxw vlpsohphqw vrxv od iruph +E| ' S ERE| dyhf S ER '  ER ER

r S ER hvw frppxqphqw dssho rsudwhxu gh wudqvihuw gx v|vwph gdqv od phvxuh r lo uhsuvhqwh xqh dssolfdwlrq gh o*hqvhpeoh ghv hqwuhv gx v|vwph yhuv o*hqvhpeoh ghv vruwlhv gx v|vwph1 Ohv rsudwhxuv dydqfh hw uhwdug Ohv rsudwhxuv dydqfh ^ hw uhwdug ^ 3 vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw gqlv sdu ^%E| ' %E| n Ae

5151 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv

44

hw

^ 3%E| ' %E|  Ae ^ E^ 3+E| ' ^ E^ 3E|  Ae ^ E^ 3 

Lov shuphwwhqw xqh ufulwxuh v|qwkwltxh g*xqh txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv/ vrlw

dyhf ' n
?K [ & 'f ?@ [ & '

@& ^ 3&

^ E^ 3  ' rx g*xqh pdqluh vlplodluh

K& ^ 3& ^ E^ 3 ^ E^3 

+ E| ' S^ E^ 3E| dyhf S^ E^3  ' ^ 3 r S^ E^ 3  gvljqh xq rsudwhxu gh wudqvihuw fkdqwloorqq1 O*rsudwhxu ghowd Gqlwlrq =

O*rsudwhxu ghowd hvw gql sduwlu gh o*rsudwhxu g*dydqfh ^ frpph vxlw B' ^ rx ^ ' Ae B n Ae +51:,

vrlw

%E| n Ae  %E| Ae txl q*hvw dxwuh txh o*dssur{lpdwlrq g*Hxohu gh od gulyh1 O*rsudwhxu B srvvgh od sursulw irqgdphqwdoh oruvtxh od olplwh h{lvwh/ B%E| '
AA

*4 B%E| ' R%E|

<

txl hvw o*ruljlqh gh od frqyhujhqfh gh wrxv ohv uvxowdwv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv yhuv fhx{ fruuhvsrqgdqw dx{ v|vwphv frqwlqxv vrxv0mdfhqwv oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorq0 qdjh whqg yhuv }ur1 Fhwwh sursulw hvw sulprugldoh g*xq srlqw gh yxh sudwltxh gdqv od phvxuh r o*fkdqwloorqqdjh hvw xqh rsudwlrq xqltxhphqw lpsrvh sdu o*xwlolvdwlrq g*xq fdofxodwhxu1 Oh frpsruwhphqw gx v|vwph frqwlqx uhvwh o*remhfwli suhplhu gx wudlwhphqw frqvlgu1 Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh od qrwlrq gh fdxvdolw hvw suvhqwh gdqv wrxwhv pdqlsxodwlrqv uhodwlyh o*rsudwhxu B doruv tx*hooh hvw lpsolflwh srxu o*rsudwhxu uhwdug ^ 3txl shxw frqgxluh uhodwlyhphqw idflohphqw txhotxhv lqwhusuwdwlrqv huurqhv1 Xq rsudwhxu vlplodluh o*rsudwhxu B d w lqwurgxlw gdqv +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6,/ lo frqvlvwh wrxw vlpsohphqw uhpsodfhu od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh Ae sdu xq vfdodluh { 5 Efc 1 Fhw rsudwhxu d w sduwlfxoluhphqw prwly sdu xq phloohxu frqglwlrqqhphqw qxpultxh1

45

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

Wudqvirupdwlrq gh sro|qphv = Oh sdvvdjh gh o*rsudwhxu ^ yhuv o*rsudwhxu B vh idlw sdu xqh vlpsoh wudqvirupdwlrq olqdluh +51:,1 Hq hhw/ vrlw oh sro|qph ^ E^  '
? [ 'f

@ ^?3

oh sro|qph txlydohqw gfulw dyhf o*rsudwhxu B hvw grqq sdu B EB  ' d^ E^ o^'nAA B '
? [ 'f

k B ?3

Od uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv frh!flhqwv @ hw k hvw rewhqxh hq xwlolvdqw oh wuldqjoh gh Sdvfdo frpph vxlw 5 6 5 65 6 kf |ff f    f @f 9 k : 9 |f |    f : 9 @ : 9 : 9 :9 : +51;, 7    8 ' 7    |       8 7    8 k? |?f       |?? @? ?3  ?3 & dyhf | ' ?3 Ae vl  :  vlqrq f gdqv od phvxuh r 6 ' &-E&& 36- 1 Od uhodwlrq lqyhuvh hvw rewhqxh g*xqh pdqluh vlplodluh sdu 5 6 5 65 6 7ff f    f @f | kf 9 @ : 9 | :9 : 7 7 9 : 9 f |    f : 9 k : +51<, 7  8 ' 7  | 7       8 7    8 7?f       | 7?? @? | k?   7 ' En ?3 Ae3? vl  :  vlqrq f dyhf | ?3 Xq h{hpsoh looxvwudwli hvw grqq hq dqqh{h D141 Qrwrqv txh oh ghju ghv sro|qphv hvw suvhuy sdu oh fkdqjhphqw g*rsudwhxu1 Lo hq hvw gh pph srxu o*ruguh hw oh ghju uhodwli ghv rsudwhxuv gh wudqvihuw1 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw = Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw gx v|vwph fkdqwloorqq shxw wuh irupxoh o*dlgh gh o*rsudwhxu B gh od idrq vxlydqwh B E| ' B E| n B E| + E| ' B E| n #B E| +5143,

Hq xwlolvdqw od gqlwlrq gh o*rsudwhxu B / fhwwh txdwlrq g*wdw shxw v*fuluh vrxv od iruph B E| ' E| n Ae  E| ' B E| n B E| Ae +E| ' B E| n #B E|

txl shuphw gh uhwurxyhu od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw +518, irupxoh dyhf o*rsudwhxu vwdqgdug ^ / vrlw E| n Ae  ' EW n Ae B  E| n Ae B E| ' ^ E| n ^ E| +E| ' B E| n #B E| ' ^ E| n #^ E|

5151 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv

46

Hq xwlolvdqw ohv fruuhvsrqgdqfhv +519, dyhf od udolvdwlrq g*wdw frqwlqx/ rq hq ggxlw ohv uhodwlrqv ohv uhodwlrqv vxlydqwh B ' B B dyhf K ' Ae ^  W ' KS Ae ^ ' ' KS Ae ' ^ ' S hw #B ' #^ ' #S ]
f

+5144,

AA

i T ES _

' Wn

SAe 2 A2 n S e n  2 -

txl shuphwwhqw gh sdvvhu g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq frqwlqxh xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq fkdqwlo0 orqqh dyhf o*rsudwhxu B 1 Revhuyrqv txh vl Ae $ f/ doruv ohv pdwulfhv g*wdw B hw g*hqwuh B whqghqw yhuv ohxuv krprorjxhv frqwlqxv S hw S 1

51516

Wudqviruphv

Ohv wudqviruphv rqw w gyhorsshv srxu idflolwhu oh sdvvdjh gx grpdlqh whpsruho dx grpdlqh iutxhqwlho r vrqw gqlhv ghv qrwlrqv lpsruwdqwhv whoohv txh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw/ ohv sohv hw ohv }urv g*xq v|vwph1 Fhw rxwlo pdwkpdwltxh hvw frppxqphqw xwlolv srxu o*dqdo|vh hw od v|qwkvh ghv v|vwphv1 Gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv/ rq xwlolvh od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh xqlodwudoh gqlh fl0ghvvrxv Gqlwlrq 514 Vrlw s G LUn $LU xqh irqfwlrq whpsruhooh frqwlqxh/ od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh xqlodwudoh gh s hvw xqh irqfwlrq frpsoh{h 8 G ir 5 F * +iEr : -s j $ F gqlh sdu ] 8 Er ' O is E|j '
f n

"

s E|e3r| _|

r -s gfulw oh grpdlqh gh frqyhujhqfh gh od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh txh o*rq shxw gwhu0 plqhu frqirupphqw od sursulw vxlydqwh <Ekc -s  5 LU  LU * m s E| m  k i TE-s | Od wudqviruph hq 5 hvw wudglwlrqqhoohphqw xwlolvh gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwlo0 orqqv/ hooh hvw gqlh frpph vxlw Gqlwlrq 515 Vrlw s G LUn $LU xqh irqfwlrq whpsruhooh frqwlqxh/ od wudqviruph hq 5 xqlodwudoh gh s hvw xqh irqfwlrq frpsoh{h 8 G i5 5 F * m5 m : i TE-s Ae j $ F gqlh sdu od vulh gh Odxuhqw " [ 8 E5  ' ] is E|j ' s E&Ae 5 3&
& 'J

47

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

r i TE-s Ae  gvljqh oh ud|rq gh frqyhujhqfh txh o*rq shxw gwhuplqhu frqirupphqw od sursulw vxlydqwh <E?Wc kc -s  5 LQ  LU  LU * ;& : ?W G m s E&Ae  m  k i TE-s &Ae 

Frpph vhxohv ohv ydohxuv gh od irqfwlrq dx{ lqvwdqwv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh &Ae vrqw xwl0 olvhv/ od wudqviruph hq 5 hvw frpsowhphqw gqlh sdu od vtxhqfh is E&Ae j&MLQ / vrlw 8 E5  ' ] is E&Ae j '

" [
& 'J

s E&Ae 5 3& srxu m5 m : i TE-s Ae 

F*hvw srxutxrl/ rq lqgltxh jqudohphqw od wudqviruph hq 5 lqgluhpphqw vrxv ohv iruphv 8 E5 / ] is E|j/ ] i8 ERj hw ] is E&Ae j1 Sdu dqdorjlh dx{ yduldeohv frpsoh{hv r hw 5 dvvrflhv uhvshfwlyhphqw o*rsudwhxu R hw o*rsudwhxu ^ / rq shxw gqlu od yduldeoh frpsoh{h  dvvrflh o*rsudwhxu B ' 5 rx 5 ' Ae  n Ae

hw xqh wudqviruph hq  sduwlu gh od gqlwlrq gh od wudqviruph hq 5 frpph lo d w idlw gdqv +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<<3,1 Qrwrqv txh fhwwh wudqviruph shxw dxvvl wuh ggxlwh gluhfwhphqw sduwlu gh od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh frpph lo d w prqwu gdqv +Khuvk 4<<6, Gqlwlrq 516 Vrlw s G LUn $LU xqh irqfwlrq whpsruhooh frqwlqxh/ od wudqviruph hq  xqlodwudoh gh s hvw xqh irqfwlrq frpsoh{h 8 G i 5 F * m Ae  n m: i TE-s Ae j $ F gqlh sdu 8 E  ' G is E&Ae j ' Ae d8 E5 o5'AA n ' Ae grqw i TE-s Ae  gvljqh oh ud|rq gh frqyhujhqfh1
n" [

s E&AeE n Ae  3&

&'f

U" Pr|hqqdqw ghv frqglwlrqv dvvxudqw txh o*lqwjudoh gh Ulhpdqq f s E| i T E|_| h{lvwh srxu wrxw  : -s / od wudqviruph hq  frqyhujh yhuv od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh = ] " *4 d8 E o ' d8 Eror' ' s E| i T E|_|
AA

<

G*dxwuhv h{suhvvlrqv gh od wudqviruph hq  rqw w gyhorsshv gdqv ++Mh}hn 4<<3, hw +Khuvk 4<<6,, srxu shuphwwuh/ sdu h{hpsoh/ gh suhqguh hq frpswh xq uhwdug 0 hqwuh o*0 fkdqwloorqqhxu gx vljqdo gh vruwlh hw fhoxl gx vljqdo g*hqwuh 8 E  ' Ae
n" [

s EE& n 0AeE n Ae  3& dyhf f  0

& 'f

Qrwrqv txh fhwwh h{suhvvlrq hvw vlplodluh od wudqviruph hq 5 prglh xwlolvh srxu wudlwhu fh jhquh gh sureoph1

5161 Irupxodwlrq xqlh

48

516

Irupxodwlrq xqlh

Rq lqwurgxlw g*derug o*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv txl shuphw g*xqlhu od ghvfulswlrq ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv hw fhooh ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv1 Hqvxlwh rq suvhqwh od wudqv0 iruph jqudolvh txl oxl hvw dvvrflh dyhf vhv qrpeuhxvhv sursulwv1 Ohv frqfhswv gh edvh whov txh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw/ usrqvh kduprqltxh/ vwdelolw hw frqjxudwlrq sohv hw }urv shxyhqw wuh doruv gqlv1

51614

O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv

O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv 4 hvw gql sduwlu ghv rsudwhxuv R hw B frpph vxlw  R%E| srxu Ae ' f 4%E| ' B%E| srxu Ae 9' f r %E| uhsuvhqwh xqh irqfwlrq gx whpsv gdqv oh fdv frqwlqx +Ae ' f, hw xqh vtxhqfh gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv +Ae 9' f,/ vrlw + LU r srxu Ae ' f | 5 l dyhf l ' q |* A|A 5 ] srxu Ae 9' f O*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv shuphw dlqvl gh wudlwhu g*xqh pdqluh xqlh ohv sur0 eophv dvvrflv dx{ v|vwphv frqwlqxv +Ae ' f, hw dx{ v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv +Ae 9' f,1 Srxu fh idluh/ lo xwlolvh ohv frqfhswv gh pdwulfh h{srqhqwlhooh jqudolvh hw g*lqwjudoh jqudolvh uhvshfwlyhphqw gqlv sdu  i T | srxu Ae ' f ,Ec | ' |*AA EU n Ae  srxu Ae 9' f hw ; |Q U A A A s E|_| srxu Ae ' f A A ? |B |Q 5 s E|_| ' A |B E|Q *AA 3 A S A A A s E&Ae  srxu Ae 9' f = Ae
&'|B *AA

Ohv sulqflsdohv sursulwv gh o*rsudwhxu 4 vrqw udsshohv fl0ghvvrxv =  Gulyh jqudolvh g*xq surgxlw 4 dE| E|o ' 4E| E| n E|4 E| n Ae 4E|4 E|  Gulyh jqudolvh g*xqh lqwjudoh jqudolvh   | 4 5 s E _ ' s E| @   K 4 5 s E _ ' s E|
|

 Lqwjudoh jqudolvh g*xqh gulyh jqudolvh 5 d4s E o _ ' s EK  s E@


@ K

49

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

51615

Od wudqviruph jqudolvh

Gqlwlrq Od wudqviruph jqudolvh hvw grqqh sdu Gqlwlrq 517 Vrlw s G LUn $LU xqh irqfwlrq whpsruhooh frqwlqxh/ od wudqviruph jq0 udolvh xqlodwudoh gh s hvw xqh irqfwlrq frpsoh{h 8 G i 5 F* mAA  n m : i TE-s Ae j $ F gqlh sdu " 8 E  ' W is E|j ' 5 s E|,Ec |_|
f

grqw i TE-s Ae  gvljqh oh ud|rq gh frqyhujhqfh1 Qrwrqv txh oh grpdlqh gh frqyhujhqfh hvw gql sdu Ae m m2 n 2 +iE  :

i TE2-s Ae   Ae hw txh oh grpdlqh gh frqyhujhqfh gh od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh shxw wuh uhwurxy sdu sdvvdjh od olplwh +Ae $ f,1 Hq hhw frpph   i TE2-s Ae   E2-s ? Ae?32 2 n  ' 2-s n Ae E2-s  n    n Ae ?rq rewlhqw Wudqviruph jqudolvh lqyhuvh Lo hvw srvvleoh gh uhprqwhu od irqfwlrq whpsruhooh s E| sduwlu gh vd wudqviruph jq0 udolvh frpph o*lqgltxh oh uvxowdw vxlydqw Wkruph 514 Srxu | : f/ od irqfwlrq s E| hvw uholh vd wudqviruph jqudolvh sdu od uhodwlrq lqwjudoh L s E| ' ,Ec |  Ae8 E _ 2Z  r F hvw xq frqwrxu ihup vh wurxydqw o*lqwulhxu gx grpdlqh gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 E  hw hqfhufodqw wrxwhv ohv vlqjxodulwv gh 8 E  gdqv oh vhqv gluhfw1  Rq uhwurxyh od wudqviruph lqyhuvh gh Odsodfh srxu Ae ' f/ doruv txh od wudqviruph hq 5 lqyhuvh hvw rewhqxh dyhf oh fkdqjhphqw gh yduldeoh 5 ' Ae  n 1 Hq hhw/ o*xwlolvdwlrq ghv uvxowdwv vxu ohv vulhv gh Odxuhqw shuphw g*qrqfhu od sursulw vxlydqwh Sursulw 514 Vl 8 E  hvw xqh irqfwlrq dqdo|wltxh srxu i TE-s Ae m Ae  n m doruv 8 E  shxw wuh gyhorssh g*xqh pdqluh xqltxh hq xqh vulh gh Odxuhqw 8 E  ' dyhf
" [

+iEr : -s

&'3"

@& EAe  n &

L @& ' 8 E  EAe  n 3&3 _ 2Z  r F hvw xq frqwrxu lqfoxv gdqv oh grpdlqh gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 E 1

5161 Irupxodwlrq xqlh

4:

Frpph s E&Ae  ' @3& / rq rewlhqw s E&Ae  ' 2Z

L


8 E  EAe n &3 _

hw hq xwlolvdqw od qrwdwlrq xqlh/ rq uhwurxyh oh uvxowdw uhfkhufk1 Sursulwv Rq grqqh fl0ghvvrxv ohv sursulwv irqgdphqwdohv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh1 Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvhud ghv irqfwlrqv whpsruhoohv frqwlqxhv s / } hw  grqw ohv wudqviruphv vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqhv sdu 8 / C hw M 1 Ohv ud|rqv gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 E / CE  hw M E  vhurqw uhvshfwlyhphqw qrwv -s / -} hw - 1 41 Olqdulw1 Vrlhqw k hw q ghx{ qrpeuhv frpsoh{hv/ rq d W iks E| n q}E|j ' kW is E|j n q W i} E|j ' k8 E  n qCE  Qrwrqv txh oh ud|rq gh frqyhujhqfh gh k8 E  n qCE  hvw jdo 4@ E-s c -}  51 Wudqvodwlrq whpsruhooh1 Vrlw xq vfdodluh A  f hw A 5 l/ doruv   A W is E| n A j ' ,Ec A  8 E   5 ,Ec |s E|_|
f

hw

W is E|  A j ' ,Ec A 8 E 

61 Wudqvodwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1 Vrlw @ xq uho/ doruv W i,E@c |s E|j ' 8 E @  n Ae @

71 Gulydwlrq1

W i4s E|j ' 8 E   s EfE n Ae  

81 Gulydwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1 W i|s E|j ' E n Ae   91 Lqwjudwlrq1 _ 8 E  _

  | W 5 s E _ ' 8 E   f   ' ]

"

:1 Lqwjudwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1 W

s E| |

8 E# _# n Ae #

4;

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

;1 Gulydwlrq hw lqwjudwlrq sdu udssruw xq sdudpwuh1   Y Y W s E|c @ ' 8 Ec @ Y@ Y@ hw W ] S


K

 ] S s E|c @_@ ' 8 Ec @_@


K

<1 Wkruph gh od ydohxu lqlwldoh1 vl *4 s E| h{lvwh/ doruv od ydohxu lqlwldoh gh s E| |<f hvw grqqh sdu 8 E  *4 s E| ' *4 |<f  <" n Ae  431 Wkruph gh od ydohxu qdoh1 vl *4 s E| h{lvwh/ rq dxud
|<" |<"

*4 s E| ' *4 8 E 


 <f

441 Surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq1 Vrlw E| ' Es  }E| ' 5 s E }E|  _


f

|nAe

doruv/ rq d

W iE|j ' W is E|j W i}E|j

Sdu dloohxuv/ frqvlgurqv oh surgxlw gh ghx{ irqfwlrqv gql sdu E| ' s E|}E| rq d W iE|j ' 2Z L 8 E# CE  3#  nAe #


n Ae #

_#

srxu wrxw  o*h{wulhxu gh F  451 Wkruph gh Sduvhydo1 Lo hvw rewhqx sduwlu gx surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq/ vrlw  ]Ae   e/Ae  2 " 2 8 E  5 s E|_| '   _/ 2Z Ae f
Z 3A e Z

Od ujlrq gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 +  lqfoxv m n Ae m '  Wrxwhv fhv sursulwv vrqw gprqwuhv gdqv +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<<3, hw uhsulvhv hq dqqh{h +D15,1 Ohv wudqviruphv jqudolvhv ghv vljqdx{ xvxhov vrqw grqqhv gdqv od wdeoh vxlydqwh

5161 Irupxodwlrq xqlh

4<

Vljqdo frqwlqx B E| kE| |kE| |2 kE| ,Ec |kE| |,Ec |kE|

Ghvfulswlrq lpsxovlrq fkhorq udpsh sduderoh h{srqhqwlho

Wudqviruph jqudolvh n Ae   n Ae  2 E n Ae E2 n Ae    E n Ae  EU  3 E n Ae  EU n Ae EU  32 E n Ae  / t?UE/Ae   2 n Ae E/c Ae  n E/c Ae  2E  ULtE/Ae  dyhf E/c Ae  ' Ae2
e E n Ae  E n A 2 E/c Ae   2 n AeE/c Ae  n E/c Ae 

Wudqviruph gh Odsodfh r r2 2 r ErU  3 ErU  32 / 2 r n /2 Uhpdutxh = E/c f ' /2 hw t?UEf ' r2 r n /2

t?E/|kE|

vlqxv

ULtE/|kE|

frvlqxv

Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh oh sdvvdjh gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh od wudqviruph gh Odsodfh hvw hhfwx sdu sdvvdjh od olplwh/ hw txh o*rq shxw uhwurxyhu ohv wudqviruphv hq 3 5 dyhf oh fkdqjhphqw gh yduldeoh  ' 5A 1 e

51616

Irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw
4 E| '  E| n E| +E| '  E| n #E|

Dyhf fhwwh irupxodwlrq xqlh/ od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw ghv v|vwphv v*fulw vrxv od iruph=

r Ec c c # uhsuvhqwh od udolvdwlrq g*wdw EB c B c B c #B  gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv rx od udolvdwlrq g*wdw ES c S c Sc #S  gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv1 Hq suhqdqw od wudqviruph jqudolvh/ rq dxud f E  ' E W  3 dE n Ae   %Ef n L E o t E  ' f E  n #L E  r f E / t E / L E  vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv wudqviruphv jqudolvhv gh i%E|j/i+ E|j hw iE|j1 Srxu ghv frqglwlrqv lqlwldohv qxoohv/ rq rewlhqw t E  ' S E L E  dyhf S E  '  E W  3  n # +5145,

53

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

r S E  uhsuvhqwh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw gx v|vwph1 Hooh gqlw frpsowhphqw oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh g*xq v|vwph srxu ghv frqglwlrqv lqlwldohv qxoohv1 Fhwwh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw shxw wuh plvh vrxv od iruph g*xqh iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh/ vrlw S E  '  E  KJ  ?K n K  ?K3 n       n K?K3  n K?K ' ?@ E   n @  ?@3 n       n @?@3 n @?@
?K T

rx g*xqh pdqluh vlplodluh S E  ' KJ

' ?@ T

E  5 

'

E  R 

+5146,

r i5 jMdc?Ko hw iR jMdc?@o vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv }urv hw ohv sohv gh S E 1 Uhpdutxh 514 Xq uhwdug sxu 5 l hvw uhsuvhqw sdu o*h{srqhqwlhooh jqudolvh ,Ec   fh txl frqgxlw gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv dx wudqvihuw E n Ae  3 *Ae Xq uhwdug sxu dxjphqwh oh ghju gx gqrplqdwhxu gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw hw grqf sdu od pph rffdvlrq od glphqvlrq gh o*wdw1 Qrwrqv txh fhwwh fulwxuh qh shuphw sdv gh uhsuvhqwhu xq uhwdug iudfwlrqqdluh gh pdqluh xqlh1  Oh surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq jqudolv hvw grqq sdu +E| ' 5 RE E|  _
f

|nAe

+5147,

r iRE j gvljqh od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh txh o*rq shxw rewhqlu sduwlu gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh lqyhuvh gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw S E 1

51617

Grpdlqh iutxhqwlho

Oh sdvvdjh gdqv oh grpdlqh ghv iutxhqfhv shuphw xqh dqdo|vh ghv sureophv g*lghqwl0 fdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv frpph hq wprljqhqw ohv gyhorsshphqwv gh od frppdqgh urexvwh wrxw dx orqj gh od ghuqluh gfhqqlh1 Hq sduwlfxolhu/ o*dqdo|vh iutxhqwlhooh ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh g*xq v|vwph dssruwh xqh lqirupdwlrq d sulrul vxu od vwuxfwxuh gx v|vwph hw vxu oh fkrl{ ghv frqglwlrqv h{sulphqwdohv shuphwwdqw dlqvl xqh lghqwlfdwlrq soxv dlvh gh fh ghuqlhu frpph qrxv oh yhuurqv gdqv oh fkdslwuh vxlydqw1

5161 Irupxodwlrq xqlh

54

Usrqvh kduprqltxh Oh fdv sduwlfxolhu g*xqh hqwuh vlqxvrgdoh shuphw gh fdofxohu od usrqvh kduprqltxh g*xq v|vwph1 Frqvlgurqv o*hqwuh vlqxvrgdoh E| ' +i d i TE E/| n o '  ULtE/| n  Od vruwlh gx v|vwph +E| ' S E4E| hvw grqqh sdu   |nAe +E| ' +i 5 RE  i TE E/ E|   n _ f   |nAe ' +i  i TE E/| n  5 RE  i TE/ _ f   |nAe ' +i  i TE E/| n  5 RE ,EDc  _
f

dyhf D '

e/Ae  1 Ae Gdqv oh fdv g*xq v|vwph dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh/ o*lqwjudoh S ED  ' 5 RE ,EDc  _
f

"

h{lvwh hw rq shxw gqlu oh ujlph shupdqhqw sdu +" E| ' +i d i TE E/| n S ED o rx +" E| '  mS ED m ULtE/| n  n @h}ES ED 

Qrwrqv txh oh qrpeuh frpsoh{h S ED  q*hvw dxwuh txh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw fdofxoh dx /Ae srlqw D ' e Ae 3 1 Od vruwlh +" E| rewhqxh hvw xq vljqdo gh pph sxovdwlrq / txh o*hqwuh vlqxvrgdoh E|/ pdlv dyhf xq gskdvdjh vxssophqwdluh gh @h}ES ED  hw xqh dpsolwxgh pxowlsolh sdu mS ED m1 Oh qrpeuh frpsoh{h S ED  grqqh xqh lqirupdwlrq frpsowh vxu oh frpsruwhphqw dv|pswrwltxh gx v|vwph hq usrqvh xqh hqwuh vlqxvrgdoh gh iutxhqfh / 1 Od usrqvh /Ae kduprqltxh gx v|vwph hvw doruv gqlh sdu od irqfwlrq frpsoh{h S ED  ' S E e Ae 3  Z srxu / yduldqw gh f 2 Ae 1 Hooh shxw wuh h{sulph judskltxhphqw sdu ohv gldjudpphv elhq frqqxv gh Ergh/ gh Q|txlvw rx gh Eodfn1 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq vljqdo Udsshorqv txh ohv irqfwlrqv g*dxwrfruuodwlrq hw g*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh ghx{ vljqdx{ i%E|j hw i+E|j vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw gqlhv sdu -% E  ' Hi%E|%E| n j hw -%+ E  ' Hi%E|+E| n j +5148,

55

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

r Hij gqrwh o*hvsudqfh pdwkpdwltxh gdqv xq frqwh{wh vwrfkdvwltxh rx wrxw vlpsoh0 phqw  [ %E| Hi%E|j ' *4  <"  |' frqirupphqw od orl ghv judqgv qrpeuhv1 Sdu dloohxuv xq vljqdo i%E|j hvw txdvl0vwdwlrqqdluh vl lo yulh ohv sursulwv vxlydqwhv Gqlwlrq 518 41 Vd pr|hqqh Hi%E|j hvw eruqh1

51 Vrq dxwrfruuodwlrq -% E  h{lvwh srxu wrxw 5LU1 Fhv suolplqdluhv shuphwwhqw gh gqlu oh vshfwuh rx od ghqvlw vshfwudoh g*xq vljqdo txdvl0vwdwlrqqdluh i%E|j x% E/ ' I E-% E  '
" [

'3"
" [

-% E  i TE / 

+5149,

hw oh vshfwuh furlv hqwuh ghx{ vljqdx{ i%E|j hw i+E|j x%+ E/  ' I E-%+ E  ' r I E gvljqh od wudqviruph gh Irxulhu1 Uhpdutxh 515 Od wudqviruph gh Irxulhu lqyhuvh ] Z -%E  ' x%E/  i TE /_/ 2Z 3Z grqqh hq sduwlfxolhu -% Ef ' 2Z ] Z
3Z

'3"

-%+ E  i TE / 

+514:,

x%E/ _/ 

Ohv uhodwlrqv lpsruwdqwhv vxu ohv ghqvlwv vshfwudohv gh vljqdx{ owuv vrqw uvxphv gdqv oh ohpph vxlydqw +vwup 4<:3,/ +Omxqj 4<;:, Ohpph 514 Frqvlgurqv xq owuh dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh I E4 grqw o*hqwuh hvw xq vljqdo txdvl0vwdwlrqqdluh i%E|j/ doruv od vruwlh gx owuh +E| ' I E4%E| hvw dxvvl xq vljqdo txdvl0vwdwlrqqdluh/ hw x+% E/ ' I ED x% E/ x+ E/ ' mI ED m2 x% E/ 
/Ae r D ' e Ae 3



5161 Irupxodwlrq xqlh


^ Im

56

1/Te Re > 1/Te

Iljxuh 515 =

Grpdlqh gh vwdelolw

51618

Grpdlqh gh vwdelolw

Srxu ohv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv irupxov o*dlgh gh o*rsudwhxu 4/ oh grpdlqh gh vwdelolw hvw gql sdu od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh mAA  n m rx AA m m2 n 2 +i E  f
frpph uhsuvhqw vxu od jxuh 5151 Lo v*djlw gx glvtxh gh fhqwuh E*AA c f hw gh ud|rq  A e Fhwwh gqlwlrq shuphw gh phwwuh hq oxpluh soxvlhxuv dydqwdjhv dssruwv sdu o*rs0 udwhxu 4 qrwdpphqw oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh whqg yhuv }ur/

 Oh grpdlqh gh vwdelolw whqg yhuv fhoxl ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv ++i E  f,1  Ohv sohv gx v|vwph fkdqwloorqq RB whqghqw yhuv ohv sohv gx v|vwph frqwlqx ruljlqdo R eRAe  RB ' $ R Ae <f Ae doruv txh srxu oh fdv ghv v|vwphv prgolvv hq ^ / ohv sohv R^ whqghqw wrxv vh uhwurxyhu dxwrxu gx srlqw Ec f R^ ' eRAe $
Ae

<f

hw/ hq frqvtxhqfh/ xqh soxv judqgh uvroxwlrq qxpultxh hvw qfhvvdluh srxu ohv glvwlqjxhu1 Gdqv oh pph hvsulw gh od irupxodwlrq xqlh/ frqvlgurqv od iurqwluh gh vwdelolw ; ir ' / * / 5 LUj srxu Ae ' f ? C' = i* Ae m m2 n 2 +i E  ' fj srxu Ae 9' f

57

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

hw oh grpdlqh gh vwdelolw ; ? (r ' =

ir* +i Er f j
2

srxu Ae ' f

i* Ae m m n 2 +i E  fj srxu Ae 9' f

+514;,

517

Sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd

O*dxwuh fdudfwulvwltxh lpsruwdqwh gh o*rsudwhxu B sdu udssruw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug hvw od ugxfwlrq gh od vhqvlelolw ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv dx{ huuhxuv gh txdqwlfdwlrq1 Hq hhw/ ohv sdudpwuhv g*xq v|vwph fkdqwloorqq shxyhqw wuh uhsuvhqwv dyhf prlqv gh fkluhv vljqlfdwliv1 Sdu dloohxuv/ od sursdjdwlrq ghv huuhxuv g*duurqgl suryrtxh sdu xqh rsudwlrq dulwkpwltxh hvw uhodwlyhphqw ugxlwh1 Srxu looxvwuhu fhv sursulwv/ rq udsshooh wrxw g*derug ohv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv qxpultxhv1

51714

Uhsuvhqwdwlrqv qxpultxhv

Lo h{lvwh ghx{ dssurfkhv srxu uhsuvhqwhu qxpultxhphqw ohv qrpeuhv uhov1 Od suhpluh hvw xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq elqdluh gh orqjxhxu qlh rx ylujxoh {h/ doruv txh o*dxwuh uhsuvhq0 wdwlrq hvw glwh hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh1 Xqh ghvfulswlrq vrppdluh gh fhv ghx{ uhsuvhqwdwlrqv hvw grqqh fl0ghvvrxv +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6, Uhsuvhqwdwlrq elqdluh gh orqjxhxu qlh Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq elqdluh gh orqjxhxu qlh rx ylujxoh {h od soxv xwlolvh srxu xq qrpeuh uho hvw od vxlydqwh # $ " [ % ' g %f n % 23
'

dyhf vd yhuvlrq wurqtxh 'd%o ' g

# %f n

 [ '

% 23

r oh vfdodluh g hvw xq idfwhxu g*fkhooh/  hvw oh qrpeuh qlv gh gljlwv ydodeohv srxu %f % 111 % 111 %

Iljxuh 516 =

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh {h

uhsuvhqwhu %/ ohv judqghxuv % suhqqhqw ohv ydohxuv f rx / hw %f uhsuvhqwh oh vljqh gh % vl % f doruv %f ' vlqrq %f ' f

5171

Sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd

58

O*hqvhpeoh ghv ydohxuv srvvleohv srxu oh qrpeuh uho % dssduwlhqw o*lqwhuydooh dgc g o1 Od yhuvlrq wurqtxh 'd%o gx qrpeuh h{dfw % hvw txdqwlh sdu o*hqvhpeoh ghv ydohxuv pxowlsohv gh ^ ' g23 dssduwhqdqw o*lqwhuydooh g  'd%o  g  ^ Oh qrpeuh ^ uhsuvhqwh od soxv judqgh huuhxu gh txdqwlfdwlrq srvvleoh f  %  'd%o ^ +514<,

O*lqfrqyqlhqw pdmhxu gh fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hvw oh idlw txh wrxv ohv vljqdx{ vrqw eruqv vxlydqw xq lqwhuydooh {h dgc g  ^ o1 O*huuhxu gh txdqwlfdwlrq gshqg gh o*dp0 solwxgh gh o*lqwhuydooh g hw gx qrpeuh gh gljlwv  1 Lo h{lvwh grqf xq frpsurplv hqwuh sdufrxulu xqh judqgh sodjh +idfwhxu g lpsruwdqw, gh qrpeuhv hw dvvxuhu xqh huuhxu gh txdqwlfdwlrq idleoh +idfwhxu g shwlw,1 Sdu frqwuh/ frpph od vlpsolflw gh fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq shuphw xqh h{fxwlrq hq whpsv uho soxv udslgh/ hooh hvw hqfruh xwlolvh gdqv ohv plfurfrqwuohxuv hw fhuwdlqv dxwrpdwhv surjudppdeohv1 Wrxwhirlv/ dyhf o*yroxwlrq gh od sxlvvdqfh ghv plfursurfhvvhxuv/ fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq whqg wuh uhpsodfh sdu fhooh hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh txl vh yhxw soxv shuiru0 pdqwh1 Uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh Xq qrpeuh uho gdqv oh irupdw hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh hvw uhsuvhqw sdu wurlv fkdpsv/ oh vljqh %f/ o*h{srvdqw %e hw od pdqwlvvh %6 frpph gfulw vxu od jxuh 517 %f  % 111 %& %&n 111 111 111 %

~}  H{srvdqw %e

~} Pdqwlvvh %6

Iljxuh 517 =

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh


% ' E%J %62%e

Od sodjh g*xqh whooh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hvw gwhuplqh sdu oh qrpeuh gh gljlwv vljqlfdwliv e e gh o*h{srvdqw %e / hooh hvw gh o*ruguh gh 22 1 Od uvroxwlrq hqwuh ghx{ qrpeuhv rwwdqwv gshqg gh od ydohxu gh fhv qrpeuhv/ o*huuhxu gh txdqwlfdwlrq hvw soxv shwlwh srxu ohv shwlwv qrpeuhv txh srxu ohv judqgv/ hooh hvw grqqh sdu od uhodwlrq 0 m%  'd%om  m%m 2 36 r 0 hvw od suflvlrq pdfklqh/ 0 ' 2 hw 6 oh qrpeuh gh gljlwv vljqlfdwliv gh od pdqwlvvh1 Revhuyrqv txh gdqv oh fdv gh od uhsuvhqwdwlrq elqdluh gh orqjxhxu qlh/ o*huuhxu devroxh

59

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

hvw eruqh sdu xqh frqvwdqwh +514<, doruv tx*dyhf fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq f*hvw o*huuhxu uhodwlyh txl d srxu pdmrudqw xqh frqvwdqwh1 O*huuhxu uhodwlyh hvw grqf soxv dssursulh txh o*huuhxu devroxh srxu gfuluh ohv hhwv gxv od txdqwlfdwlrq1 H{hpsoh 514 Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq vwdqgdug LHHH0ISV +LHHH Iordwlqj Srlqw Vwdqgdug, d w dgrswh sdu ohv ruglqdwhxuv frpsdwleohv LEP0SF1 Fh irupdw d ehvrlq gh 2 elwv hq vlpsoh suflvlrq srxu oh frgdjh g*xq uho txl vrqw gfrpsrvv gh od pdqluh vxlydqwh  elw gh vljqh  H elwv srxu o*h{srvdqw grqw gh vljqh/ vrlw e ' . elwv vljqlfdwliv fh txl grqqh xqh e sodjh gh uhsuvhqwdwlrq gh 22  f H / f3 H m%m f H  2 elwv srxu od pdqwlvvh/ fh txl grqqh xqh suflvlrq pdfklqh 0 ' 232 ' 2 He2  f3. vrlw hqylurq . fkluhv vljqlfdwliv1 Dyhf fhwwh uhsuvhqwdwlrq/ oh uho % ' fffffff2 eDS. ghylhqw 'd%o ' fffffffff wdqglv txh oh uho %  ' ffffffff2 eDS. ghylhqw 'd%  o ' 2 eDS.fff  f3H r fff shxw suhqguh q*lpsruwh txhooh ydohxu1 Q

Uhpdutxh 516 Dyhf od uhsuvhqwdwlrq elqdluh gh orqjxhxu qlh/ vrlw . fkluhv vljqlfd0 wliv/ oh uho % ' fffffff2 eDS. ghylhqw 'd%o ' fffffff gh pph txh oh uho %  ' ffffffff2 eDS. ghylhqw 'd%  o ' ffffffff  Uhpdutxh 517 Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq od soxv xwlolvh sdu ohv ruglqdwhxuv frpsdwleohv LEP0 SF hvw fhooh hq grxeoh suflvlrq r Se elwv vrqw qfhvvdluhv srxu oh frgdjh g*xq uho txl vrqw gfrpsrvv gh od pdqluh vxlydqwh  elw gh vljqh  f elwv srxu o*h{srvdqw grqw gh vljqh/ vrlw e ' b elwv vljqlfdwliv fh txl grqqh xqh e sodjh gh uhsuvhqwdwlrq gh 22  fDe  D elwv srxu od pdqwlvvh/ fh txl grqqh xqh suflvlrq pdfklqh gh 23D  222f3S vrlw D fkluhv vljqlfdwliv1

5171

Sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd

5:

51715

Vxsulrulw qxpultxh gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd

O*dqdo|vh ghv huuhxuv qxpultxhv dyhf oh irupdw hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh hvw hq jqudo ehdx0 frxs soxv gl!floh txh gdqv oh fdv gx irupdw hq ylujxoh {h1 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uvxowdwv gdqv fh grpdlqh rqw vxuwrxw w gyhorssv gdqv oh fdv gh od ylujxoh {h/ fhshqgdqw fhuwdlqv g*hqwuh hx{ vrqw dxvvl dssolfdeohv dx fdv gh od ylujxoh rwwdqwh frpph o*dqdo|vh gh od vhqvlelolw ghv frh!flhqwv g*xq sro|qph vxu vhv udflqhv1 Dqdo|vh gh od vhqvlelolw ghv frh!flhqwv g*xq sro|qph vxu vhv udflqhv1 Oh qxpudwhxu rx oh gqrplqdwhxu gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw g*xq v|vwph rx g*xq ujxodwhxu hvw uhsuvhqw dyhf o*rsudwhxu ^ sdu oh sro|qph vxlydqw ^ E^c @  ' @f
? \ & '

E^  o&  '

? [ 'f

@ ^ ?3

r io& j&Mdc?o vrqw ohv udflqhv gx sro|qph ^ E^c @ 1 Vxlydqw txh oh sro|qph ^ E^c @  gfulw oh gqrplqdwhxu rx oh qxpudwhxu gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw/ ohv udflqhv o& uhsuvhqwhqw ohv sohv hw ohv }urv gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw1 Oruv gh od plvh hq xyuh qxpultxh gh fhwwh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw/ ohv frh!flhqwv @ gx sro|qph ^ E^c @  vrqw uhsuvhqwv sdu ghv prwv gh orqjxhxu qlh1 Xqh huuhxu qxpultxh devroxh {@ hvw dlqvl lqwurgxlwh dx qlyhdx gh fkdtxh frh!flhqw @ / fh txl lqgxlw xqh yduldwlrq {o& vxu ohv udflqhv o& gx sro|qph1 O*hvwlpdwlrq +dx suhplhu ruguh, gh fhwwh yduldwlrq hvw grqqh sdu +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<;9,/ +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6,/ +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:, o?3 {o&   T & E{@ *6 +5153, Eo&  o 
 '&

dyhf 6& o*ruguh gh pxowlsolflw gh od udflqh o& hw srxu  doodqw gh f ?1 Fhwwh h{suhvvlrq dpqh soxvlhxuv uhpdutxhv =  oruvtxh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw hvw vwdeoh/ f*hvw gluh oruvtxh wrxwhv ohv udflqhv gx gqrplqdwhxu +ohv sohv, mo& m  / od ydohxu pd{lpdoh gh {o& hvw udolvh srxu ? ' 1 Oh frh!flhqw @? hvw grqf soxv vhqvleoh txh ohv dxwuhv sdudpwuhv @ 1  od yduldwlrq {o& hvw soxv lpsruwdqwh oruvtxh vrq gqrplqdwhxu hvw shwlw/ grqf oruvtxh ohv udflqhv vrqw surfkhv ohv xqhv ghv dxwuhv1 Fhfl hvw vrxyhqw yudl dyhf o*rsudwhxu g0 fdodjh srxu ohv sohv g*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh hvw shwlwh1  frpph oh ghju ? gx sro|qph dxjphqwh od vhqvlelolw/ xq v|vwph g*ruguh ohy grlw wuh gfrpsrv hq fhooxohv gh suhplhu rx ghx{lph ruguh hq fdvfdgh srxu ugxluh fhwwh vhqvlelolw1  od yduldwlrq {o& hvw dffhqwxh sdu oh idfwhxu gh pxowlsolflw 6& 

5;

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

Oh sro|qph txlydohqw gfulw dyhf o*rsudwhxu B hvw grqq sdu


? B EBc k  ' d^ E^ o^'nAA B ' kf Ae ? \

&

'f

EB  4&  ' Ae?

? [

'f

k B?3

Ohv udflqhv gx sro|qph B EBc k  vh ggxlvhqw gluhfwhphqw ghv udflqhv o& sdu od uhodwlrq 3 1 Rq d doruv srxu A vxlydqwh 4& ' o e AA   4&  4  : mo&  o m Od yduldwlrq {4& hvw lghqwltxh fhooh grqqh sdu o*h{suhvvlrq +5153, +5154,

3 4? Eo&  ?3 *6 3 &   T {4&   T ' Ae E{k  Eo&  o  4&  4


'&

'&

srxu  doodqw gh f ? Qrwrqv txh  frpph m4& m q*hvw sdv irufphqw soxv shwlw txh / od vhqvlelolw g*xq sdudpwuh sdu udssruw xq dxwuh hvw prlqv pdutxh1 Srxu oh fdv sduwlfxolhu gh o*lqwjudwhxu +4& ' f,/ od vhqvlelolw hvw pd{lpdoh srxu ? ' / pdlv frpph k? ' f/ o*huuhxu hqjhqguh sdu od wurqfdwxuh {k uhvwhud qxooh> dxfxqh yduldwlrq {4& qh ylhqw dowuhu o*lqwjudwhxu1  g*dsuv od uhpdutxh +5154,/ ohv udflqhv 4& vrqw soxv orljqhv txh ohxuv krprorjxhv o& / fh txl glplqxh g*dxwdqw od yduldwlrq {4& 1  {4& hvw dxvvl dffhqwxh sdu oh idfwhxu gh pxowlsolflw 6&  Sdu frqwuh/ srxu xq lqw0 judwhxu pxowlsoh/ od vhqvlelolw uhvwhud qxooh sxlvtxh {k ' f1  vl Ae r hw m  o& m mo& m c f*hvw gluh vl ohv udflqhv o& vrqw soxv suv gx srlqw Ec f txh gh o*ruljlqh/ rq d doruv     ?3   {o   {4 m  o m     & & & 3 T  A     e  E{k *6  mo&  o m  E{@ *6 


'&

fh txl dvvxuh gh phloohxuhv sursulwv qxpultxhv o*rsudwhxu B gdqv oh fdv r ohv udflqhv vrqw soxv surfkhv gx srlqw Ec f txh gh o*ruljlqh1 Frpph oh sro|qph ^ E^c @  rx B EBc k  shxw uhsuvhqwhu oh sro|qph fdudfwulvwltxh g*xq v|vwph grqq/ ohv frqfoxvlrqv sufghqwhv shxyhqw doruv wuh lqwhusuwhv hq whuphv g*xqh phloohxuh urexvwhvvh gh od vwdelolw ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv irupxov hq B hq usrqvh ghv yduldwlrqv sdudpwultxhv +Vrk 4<<4,1

5171

Sursulwv qxpultxhv gh o*rsudwhxu ghowd

5<

Phvxuh gh od vhqvlelolw qxpultxh g*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw hvw vrxyhqw xwlolvh srxu od plvh hq rhxyuh qxpultxh g*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw1 Frpph od uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw hvw soxulhooh/ ghv pwkrghv rqw w gyhorsshv srxu rewhqlu od udolvdwlrq g*wdw suvhqwdqw ohv phloohxuhv sursulwv gh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh/ l1h1 plqlplvdqw ohv huuhxuv gxhv dx{ wurqfdwlrqv ghv frh!flhqwv hw ohv huuhxuv gxhv dx{ duurqglv gh fdofxo1 Soxvlhxuv phvxuhv gh od vhqvlelolw qxpultxh g*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw rqw w sursrvhv gdqv oh fdv g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh {h +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6,1 Frpph xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw I^ E5  shxw wuh udolvh frpph vxlw I^ E5  ' ^ E5 W  ^ 3 ^ n #^ r E^ c ^ c ^  hvw xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw plqlpdoh gh I^ E5 / rq shxw lqwurgxluh xqh phvxuh gh od vhqvlelolw gh I^ E5  ylv ylv ghv sdudpwuhv E^ c ^ c ^  frpph vxlw        Y I^ E5  2  Y I^ E5  2  Y I^ E5  2      7^ '   Y ^  n  Y ^  n  Y A  ^ 2 2 2 #^ q*lqwhuylhqw sdv gdqv fhwwh phvxuh gh vhqvlelolw gdqv od phvxuh r lo hvw lqyduldqw sdu fkdqjhphqw gh edvh1 Vl o*rq h{sulph fhwwh pph irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw dyhf o*rsudwhxu B/ rq dxud od udol0 vdwlrq IB E  ' B E W  B 3 B n #B Od phvxuh gh vhqvlelolw ghylhqw        Y IB E5  2  Y IB E5  2  Y IB E5  2       7B '  n n  Y B 2  Y B 2  Y A B 2 Hq xwlolvdqw ohv uhodwlrqv +5144,/ rq d        Y I^ E5  2  Y I^ E5  2  Y I^ E5  2 2 2      7B ' Ae   Y ^  n Ae  Y ^  n  Y A  ^ 2 2 2 fh txl dpqh oh uvxowdw vxlydqw Ae r ', 7B 7^ Fh uvxowdw prqwuh tx*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu B shxw wuh prlqv vhqvleoh dx{ huuhxuv qxpultxhv txh fhooh xwlolvdqw oh irupdolvph ^ oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh hvw lqiulhxuh r1 Plvh hq rhxyuh Xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw h{sulph dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd +E| ' IB E4E|

63

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

hvw plvh hq rhxyuh vrxv vd iruph g*wdw hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh IB E  ' B E W  B 3 B n #B Rq shxw xwlolvhu xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq dxvvl vlpsoh tx*xqh iruph frpsdjqrq/ doruv txh fh w|sh gh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hvw ylwhu gdqv oh fdv g*xqh irupxodwlrq hq o*rsudwhxu uhwdug +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,1 Od plvh hq rhxyuh qxpultxh g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu B ghyud vh idluh vrxv od iruph lqfuphqwdoh vxlydqwh E| n Ae  ' E| n Ae EB E| n B E| + E| ' B E| n #B E| Oh fdofxo gh o*lqfuphqw B E| n B E| d xq phloohxu frqglwlrqqhphqw qxpultxh txh o*h{suhvvlrq ^ E| n ^ E|1 Hq hhw/ srxu xqh shwlwh sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh/ od pdw0 ulfh ^ hvw surfkh gh od pdwulfh lghqwlw +gx idlw txh wrxwhv vhv ydohxuv sursuhv vhurqw surfkhv gh , wdqglv txh od pdwulfh ^ hvw sursruwlrqqhooh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Fhv ghx{ pdwulfhv dxurqw grqf ghv ruguhv gh judqghxu wuv gluhqwv/ fh txl q*hvw sdv vrx0 kdlwdeoh g*xq srlqw gh yxh qxpultxh1 Frpph od pdwulfh ^  W hvw dxvvl sursruwlrqqhooh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh/ ohv pdwulfhv B ' ^  W ^ hw B ' Ae Ae

jdughqw dlqvl oh pph ruguh gh judqghxu1 Gh soxv/ od uhsuvhqwdwlrq qxpultxh hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh gh od pdwulfh ^  W txl hvw surfkh gh }ur uhtxlhuw prlqv gh fkluhv vljqlfdwliv txh fhooh gh od pdwulfh ^ txl hvw surfkh gh o*xqlw1 Fhw dvshfw hvw looxvwu sdu o*h{hpsoh 5141 Dqdo|vh ghv huuhxuv g*duurqgl Rq glvwlqjxh xq dxwuh w|sh g*huuhxu txh fhoohv lqwurgxlwhv gdqv od uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv frh!flhqwv = fh vrqw ohv huuhxuv g*duurqgl surgxlwhv od vxlwh g*rsudwlrqv dulwkpwltxhv1 Gdqv oh fdv g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh {h/ fhv huuhxuv vrqw xqltxhphqw surgxlwhv od vxlwh ghv pxowlsolfdwlrqv1 O*dqdo|vh hvw soxv frpsoh{h gdqv oh fdv g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh rwwdqwh r ohv dgglwlrqv sursdjhqw dxvvl ghv huuhxuv g*duurqgl1 Ohv huuhxuv g*duurqgl vxu od vruwlh g*xq owuh +E| ' I E4E| vrqw phvxuhv sdu xq jdlq gql frpph oh udssruw hqwuh od yduldqfh ghv huuhxuv g*duurqgl od vruwlh hw od yduldqfh g*xqh huuhxu g*duurqgl jquh dsuv xqh pxowlsolfdwlrq/ vrlw j2 +e C' 2 j Xqh frqglwlrq vx!vdqwh srxu dyrlu xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq dyhf o*rsudwhxu B prlqv vhqvleoh dx{ huuhxuv g*duurqglv tx*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq dyhf o*rsudwhxu ^/ vrlw CB C^

5181

Frqfoxvlrq

64

d w grqqh gdqv +Jhyhuv hw Ol 4<<6, hq irqfwlrq ghv sohv gx owuh [ R   ? ' 2?


?

r ? hvw oh qrpeuh gh sohv hw R ohv sohv gx owuh1

51716

H{hpsoh

Frqvlgurqv oh prgoh g*xqh elooh vxu xq udlo uljlgh frxso xq prwhxu frxudqw frqwlqx dvvhuyl orfdohphqw txh o*rq shxw dssur{lphu sdu

2 &K ? S Er ' 2 2 2 dyhf &K ' S/ ? ' e o@_*r/ hw l ' f. r r n 2l? r n ?
hw surfgrqv xq fkdqwloorqqdjh dyhf xqh fdghqfh gh D6r1 Ohv wdeohv 514 hw 515 prqwuhqw ohv }urv hw ohv sohv rewhqxv dyhf xqh irupxodwlrq xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug dyhf ghv suflvlrqv gh f hw S fkluhv vljqlfdwliv1 Ohv uvxowdwv dqdorjxhv dyhf xqh irupxodwlrq xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu B vrqw grqqv gdqv ohv wdeohv 516 hw 5171 Rq frqvwdwh txh fhwwh txdqwlfdwlrq q*d sdv xqh frqvtxhqfh qrwdeoh vxu ohv }urv/ sdu frqwuh od suflvlrq S fkluhv vljqlfdwliv qh shuphw sdv gh uhwurxyhu ohv fdudfwulv0 wltxhv gx v|vwph gdqv oh fdv gh o*rsudwhxu uhwdug1 Hq hhw/ oh grxeoh lqwjudwhxu d w wudqvirup hq xq prgh lqvwdeoh frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 5181 Fhfl q*hvw sdv oh fdv dyhf xqh irupxodwlrq xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu B sxlvtxh o*rq uhwurxyh elhq oh grxeoh lqwjudwhxu frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 5191

518

Frqfoxvlrq

Ohv sulqflsdx{ rxwlov xwlolvv srxu od uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv v|vwphv rqw w udsshov/ qrwdp0 phqw od irupxodwlrq xqlh dyhf o*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv 41 Fhwwh irupxodwlrq shuphw wrxv ohv uvxowdwv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv sduwlu gh fhx{ rewhqxv dyhf ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv hq idlvdqw whqguh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh yhuv }ur1 Sdu dloohxuv/ ohv plvhv hq rhxyuh xwlolvdqw xqh whooh irupxodwlrq suvhqwhqw ghv sursulwv gh urexvwhvvh qxpultxhv vxsulhxuhv fhooh rewhqxhv dyhf od irupxodwlrq vwdqgdug1

65

51

O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

Diagramme de Bode 100


Amplitude (dB)

100 3 10

10

10 Frquence (Hertz)

10

10

Phase ()

200

400

600 3 10

10

10 Frquence (Hertz)

10

10

Iljxuh 518 =

Prgohv rewhqxv dyhf o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh/ hq wudlw iruw dyhf od suflvlrq pd{lpdoh hw hq wudlw q dyhf xqh suflvlrq gh 9 fkluhv vljqlfdwliv

Suflvlrq 43 ffH ebDbSH2 fHHS2f. Hf.DD.eSbH

Suflvlrq 9 ffH eb fHHS Hf.DDH

Vhqvlelolw {R& 2SHe.f3. efDbf3S efbf3D

Wdeohdx 514 = ]urv fdofxov dyhf o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh

Suflvlrq 43 fD HDSH. f2beHf S  f f

Suflvlrq 9 fD HD f2be.b ffff2 fffSf 0

Vhqvlelolw {R& 2S2H2f!, n .Dbb2f!5 2fDDDf! 2fDDDf!

Wdeohdx 515 = Sohv fdofxov dyhf o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh

5181 Frqfoxvlrq

66

Diagramme de Bode 100


Amplitude (dB)

100 3 10

10

10 Frquence (Hertz)

10

10

Phase ()

200

400

600 3 10

10

10 Frquence (Hertz)

10

10

Prgohv rewhqxv dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd/ oh prgoh rewhqx dyhf od suflvlrq pd{lpdoh hw fhoxl dyhf xqh suflvlrq gh 9 fkluhv vljqlfdwliv vrqw vxshusrvv1
Iljxuh 519 =

Suflvlrq 43 2SSbbb2e  S S 2ee HDebe

Suflvlrq 9 2SSbH  S S D HD

Vhqvlelolw {R&  beD f!A  eff!A e bDSf!,

Wdeohdx 516 = ]urv fdofxov dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd

Suflvlrq 43 b 22H..S2D DHbSfS 2SD ff ff

Suflvlrq 9 b 22b DHbSfS ff ff

Vhqvlelolw {R& f2e2f!A fH.Df!A ff ff

Wdeohdx 517 = Sohv fdofxov dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd

67

51 O*rsudwhxu Ghowd

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Fh fkdslwuh hvw frqvdfu od uhirupxodwlrq ghv sureophv g*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hq whpsv uho dyhf o*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv 4 +Plggohwrq/ Jrrgzlq/ Kloo hw Pd|qh 4<;;,/ +Plggohwrq hw Jrrgzlq 4<<3,1 Rq suflvh g*derug oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghq0 wlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv gdqv fh fdguh1 Hqvxlwh/ rq sursrvh xqh dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv sduwlu gh od fxowxuh glvsrqleoh gdqv ohv rxyudjhv gh +Omxqj 4<;:,/ +Vrghuvwurp hw Vwrlfd 4<;<, hw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Hq sduwlfxolhu/ ohv sulqflsdx{ uvxowdwv frqfhuqdqw od vwdelolw hw od frqyhujhqfh ghv dojrulwkphv g*dgdswd0 wlrq sdudpwultxh vrxv0mdfhqwv vrqw gprqwuv1

614

Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

Od wkrulh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv d w sulqflsdohphqw gyhorssh srxu ohv v|vwphv grqw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh shxw wuh gfulw sdu +E| ' SJ E4E| n KJ E4eE| r SJ E4 hvw xqh iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh vwulfwhphqw sursuh txl uhsuvhqwh od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph/ KJ E4 hvw xqh iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh sursuh hw lqyhuvhphqw sursuh txl gfulw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph hw ieE|j hvw xqh vtxhqfh gh yduldeohv dodwrluhv gh pr|hqqh qxooh hw gh yduldqfh qlh1 Oh frqwh{wh g*lghqwlfdwlrq gh fhv v|vwphv hvw gql sdu xq hqvhpeoh ghv prgohv sdudpwultxhv frpsdwleoh dyhf ohv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq glvsrqleohv hw xq fulwuh g*rs0 wlplvdwlrq sdudpwultxh1

61414

Prgohv g*lghqwlfdwlrq

O*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hvw frppxqphqw idlwh sduwlu ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh iE|c +E|j srxu | 5 dfc A o hw xqh vwuxfwxuh grqqh sdu +E| ' S E4c wE| n KE4c weE| dyhf S E4c w  ' e E4c w e E4c w hw KE4c w ' e E4c w8e E4c w e E4c w (eE4c w  +614,

69

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

eE|

KE4c w

E|

 S E4c w

G3   ?9
S E|

+ E|

Iljxuh 614 =

Prgohv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq

A E4cw A E4cw(A E4cw


E|

eE|

E|

A E4cw  ! AE 4cw8A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S

+ E|

Iljxuh 615 =

Vwuxfwxuh jqudoh gh prgohv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq

r e E4c w/ e E4c w/ e E4c w/ (e E4c w hw 8e E4c w vrqw ghv iudfwlrqv udwlrqqhoohv sursuhv hq 4 gqlhv frpph vxlw  ?@ E4c w dyhf .@ E4 ' 4 n e E4c w ' .@E4 Ae  ?K9  E4c w dyhf .K E4 ' 4 n e E4c w ' .K E4 Ae ?S   E4c w dyhf .S E4 ' 4 n e E4c w ' .S E4 Ae  ?_ (E4c w dyhf ._E4 ' 4 n (e E4c w ' ._E4 Ae  ?s 8 E4c w dyhf .s E4 ' 4 n 8e E4c w ' .s E4 Ae

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

6:

r ohv sro|qphv E4c w  E4c w  E4c w (E4c w 8 E4c w ' ' ' ' ' 4?@ n @ 4?@! n    n @?@!4 n @?@ KJ 4?K n K 4?K! n    n K?K! 4 n K?K 4?S n S 4?S! n    n S?S!4 n S?S 4?_ n _4?_! n    n _?_! 4 n _?_ 4?s n s4?s ! n    n s?s !4 n s?s

+615,

vrqw frpsowhphqw gqlv sdu oh yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv  A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w ' @ 1K 1S 1_ 1s Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh  oh ghju ?K9 gx sro|qph .K E4 grlw wuh vxsulhxu dx ghju gx sro|qph  E4c w  srxu jdudqwlu txh od iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh S E4c w vrlw vwulfwhphqw sursuh1  od iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh KE4c w hvw sursuh hw lqyhuvhphqw sursuh1  od vsflfdwlrq ghv sro|qphv .% E4 hvw odujhphqw lqvsluh sdu od irupxodwlrq xwl0 olvdqw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh suglfwhxu rswlpdo xq sdv dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu   + E|*w ' K! E4c wS E4c wE| n  K!E4c w  +E| vrlw   e E4c w(e E4c w e E4c w(e E4c w E| n  +E| + E|*w ' 8e E4c we E4c w e E4c w

+616, +617,

Xq who suglfwhxu hvw hvvhqwlho srxu oh gyhorsshphqw ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq +Omxqj 4<;:,1 Fhwwh sdudpwulvdwlrq hvw uhodwlyhphqw jqudoh srxu gfuluh xq hqvhpeoh gh prgohv vhorq oh fkrl{ ghv sro|qphv E4c w /  E4c w/  E4c w/ (E4c w  hw 8 E4c w Qrxv udsshorqv fl ghvvrxv ohv idploohv gh prgohv xvxhov dyhf ohxuv suglfwhxuv dvvrflv1

E|

e E4c w

G3   ?9
S eE|

+ E|

Iljxuh 616 =

Prgoh ILU

6;

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

 Od iruph ILU rewhqxh hq srvdqw e E4c w  ' e E4c w ' (e E4c w  ' 8e E4c w ' / vrlw +E| ' e E4c wE| n eE| oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu + E|*w ' e E4c wE|

eE|

E|

A E4cw A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S E|

A E4cw

+ E|

Iljxuh 617 =

Prgoh DU[

 Od iruph DU[ rewhqxh hq srvdqw eE4c w  ' (e E4c w ' 8e E4c w ' / vrlw e E4c w+E| ' eE4c w E| n eE| oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu + E|*w ' e E4c wE| n d  e E4c wo + E|

 Od iruph DUPD[ txl shuphw xqh ghvfulswlrq ghv shuwxuedwlrqv prlqv vlpsolvwh txh fhooh gh od iruph DU[ hq xwlolvdqw oh sro|qph  E4c w 1 Hooh hvw rewhqxh hq srvdqw (e E4c w ' 8e E4c w ' / vrlw e E4c w +E| ' e E4c wE| n e E4c w eE| oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu   e E4c w e E4c w + E|*w  ' E| n  +E| e E4c w e E4c w +619, +618,

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

6<

E|

A E4cw A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S E|

A E4cw A E4cw

eE|

+ E|

Iljxuh 618 =

Prgoh DUPD[
eE|

A E4cw(A E4cw
E|

E|

A E4cw A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S

+ E|

Iljxuh 619 =

Prgoh DUDU[

 Od iruph DUDU[ txl shuphw g*dyrlu xqh dxwuh ghvfulswlrq ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hq xwlolvdqw oh sro|qph (E4c w1 Hooh hvw rewhqxh hq srvdqw A E4c w ' 8A E4c w ' / vrlw A E4c w+E| ' AE4c w E| n eE| (A E4c w oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu + E|*w ' A E4c w(A E4c wE| n d  A E4c w(A E4c wo +E|  Od iruph DUDUPD[ txl hvw xqh vwuxfwxuh hqfruh soxv frpsowh srxu gfuluh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hq xwlolvdqw ohv sro|qphv  E4c w  hw (E4c w 1 Hooh hvw rewhqxh hq sr0 vdqw 8A E4c w ' / vrlw A E4c w+E| ' AE4c w E| n A E4c w  eE| (A E4c w

73

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

A E4cw A E4cw(A E4cw


E|

eE|

E|

A E4cw A E4cw

G3   ?9
S

+ E|

Iljxuh 61: =

Prgoh DUDUPD[

oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu   e E4c w(e E4c w e E4c w(e E4c w  + E|*w  ' E| n  +E| e E4c w e E4c w

E|

A E4cw 8A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S eE|

+ E|

Iljxuh 61; =

Prgoh RH

 Od iruph RH txl shuphw gh gfuluh ohv prgohv S E4c w hw KE4c w  g*xqh pdqluh lqgshqgdqwh frqwudluhphqw dx{ iruphv sufghqwhv1 Hooh hvw rewhqxh hq srvdqw e E4c w ' e E4c w ' (e E4c w ' / vrlw +E| ' oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu + E|*w ' e E4c w E| 8e E4c w +61;, e E4c w E| n eE| 8e E4c w +61:,

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

74

E|

A E4cw 8A E4cw

G3  ! ?9
S E|

A E4cw (A E4cw

eE|

+ E|

Iljxuh 61< =

Prgoh EM

 Od iruph EM txl hvw xqh h{whqvlrq qdwxuhooh gh od iruph RH hw txl hvw udolvh dyhf xqh ghvfulswlrq soxv suflvh gx prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv1 Hooh hvw rewhqxh hq srvdqw e E4c w ' / vrlw eE4c w  eE4c w  +E| ' E| n eE| 8e E4c w (e E4c w oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw grqq sdu   (e E4c w  e E4c w(e E4c w E| n  +E| + E|*w ' 8e E4c we E4c w e E4c w Uhpdutxh 614 Oh fkrl{ g*xqh iruph gh prgoh shxw wuh glfw sdu od qdwxuh hw ohv vrxufhv ghv shuwxuedwlrqv1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ vl ohv shuwxuedwlrqv shxyhqw wuh udphqhv o*hqwuh gx v|vwph/ doruv oh fkrl{ gh od vwuxfwxuh DUPD[ v*dyuh soxv mxglflhx{ txh fhoxl gh od vwuxfwxuh EM1 Hq hhw/ ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw owuhv sdu od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph hw qh shxyhqw sdv wuh gfulwhv lqgshqgdpphqw gh fh ghuqlhu1 

61415

Xq fulwuh xvxho g*lghqwlfdwlrq

Oh sureoph gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hvw gh gwhuplqhu oh yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv txl gfulw oh plhx{ srvvleoh oh v|vwph sduwlu ghv lqirupdwlrqv glvsrqleohv/ vrlw o*hqvhpeoh ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh iE|c +E|j|MdfcA o1 Xqh vroxwlrq xvxhooh frqvlvwh plqlplvhu/ sdu udssruw dx{ sdudpwuhv w gx prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlgu/ oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh T Ewc A  ' A 2 5 0s E|*w  _| A f +61<,

i0s E|*w j gvljqh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh grqqh sdu 0s E|*w  ' I E4 d+E|  + E|*wo

75

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

r I E4 uhsuvhqwh od g|qdpltxh gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Oh uoh gx suglfwhxu xq sdv +616, gdqv o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv dssdudw fodluhphqw/ lo shxw wuh ufulw vrxv od iruph g*xqh ujuhvvlrq svhxgr0olqdluh + E|*w ' E.@ E4  E4c w E| +E| + E|c w n  E4c w n E E4c w  .S E4 .@ E4 .K E4 .S E4 D E|c w /E|c w n E._E4  (E4c w n E.s E4  8 E4c w ._ E4 .s E4

dyhf + E|c w ' +E|  + E|*w e E4c w / E|c w ' E| 8e E4 D E|c w ' e E4c w+E|  /E|c w Fhwwh txdwlrq shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph ujuhvvlyh vxlydqwh + E|*w ' E|c wA w dyhf  ?@3 ?K3 E| 1 4?S3 + ?_3 D E|c w 1 4?s 3 / E|c w  4 +E| 1 4  E |c w  1 4 1 1 1 1 E|c w ' 1 1 1 1 .@E4 .K E4 .S E4 ._E4 .s E4   1 1 S1 1 1 1 1 _ 1 s wA ' e@   @ 1 K 1 S  e 1 e  _ 1 e  s
A

Ohv suglfwhxuv xvxhov vh ggxlvhqw qdwxuhoohphqw gh fhwwh iruph jqudoh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ od iruph olqdluh gx suglfwhxu hvw rewhqxh dyhf od iruph DU[ hw dlqvl oh yhfwhxu g*revhu0 ydwlrq A E|c w qh gshqg soxv gx yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv   1 1 w ' e  @ 1 K  ?@3  4 +E| 1 4?K3 E| A 1 1  E| ' .@ E4 .K E4
A

+6143, +6144,

Rq d doruv + E|*w ' A E|w Od iruph olqdluh gx suglfwhxu yd shuphwwuh g*rewhqlu xqh vroxwlrq dqdo|wltxh vlpsoh srxu od plqlplvdwlrq gx fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq +61<,1 F*hvw od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv1

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

76

Lqwhusuwdwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh iutxhqwlho O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh shxw vh ufuluh vrxv od iruph     I E4 KE4c w 0s E|*w  ' ESJ E4  S E4c w  E| n KJ E4  eE| n eE| KE4c w I E4 txl phw hq ylghqfh ohv fduwv hqwuh oh v|vwph hw oh prgoh grqw ohv sdudpwuhv vrqw grqqv sdu wEA  ' @h} 4? T Ewc A 
w

Oruvtxh oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv A whqg yhuv o*lqql/ ohv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv wEA  frqyhu0 W jhqw yhuv ohv sdudpwuhv w vdwlvidlvdqw k l wW ' @h} 4? *4 T Ewc A  +6145,
w A

<"

Vrxv o*k|srwkvh txh oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqyhujh


A

*4 T Ewc A  4

<"

xqh lqwhusuwdwlrq iutxhqwlhooh gh o*h{suhvvlrq +6145, shxw wuh grqqh hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq gh Sduvhydo Z ]Ae wW ' @h} 4? x0s E/_/ w 2Z

3 AZe

r x0s E/  gvljqh oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh/ vrlw    I E/  2    m{S E/c wm2 x E/ n m{KE/c wm2 xe E/  n xe E/  x0s E/ '   KE/c w dyhf {S E/c w ' SJ E/  S E/c w KE/c w {KE/c w ' KJ E/  I E/ O*xwlolvdwlrq ghv ghqvlwv vshfwudohv shuphw gh grqqhu xqh lqwhusuwdwlrq iutxhqwlhooh gx fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 U41 Vl ohv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw sudodeohphqw owuhv/ o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph shxw wuh udolvh doruv txh fhooh gx prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw eldlvh1 U51 Oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw jqudohphqw vxssrv frqqx sduwlu g*xqh k|sr0 wkvh udlvrqqdeoh vxu ohxu qdwxuh/ vrlw KE4c w G' KE4 Fhwwh k|srwkvh shuphw gh udolvhu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv dyhf ghv pwkrghv uhodwlyhphqw vlpsohv srxu wuh srsxodluhv/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv1

77

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

U61 Oh fkrl{ gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw wurlwhphqw ol od vsflfdwlrq gx prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv/ vrlw KE/ I E/  ' KJ E/ Xqh whooh vsflfdwlrq gshqg gh od pwkrgh g*lghqwlfdwlrq xwlolvh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh fruuhvsrqg dx fkrl{ KE/ ' hw uhtxlhuw grqf xq owudjh grqq sdu I E/  ' dKJ E/ o3 1 U71 Od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh shuphw gh v*dudqfklu gx fkrl{ gx prgoh gx euxlw1 Hq hhw/ oh prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq/ oh suglfwhxu hw o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq dvvrflh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu +E| ' S E4c wE| n E| + E|*w  ' S E4c wE| 0s E|*w  ' I E4 dESJ E4  S E4c w  E| n  E|o Oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh hvw   x0s E/  ' mI E/m2 m{S E/c wm2 x E/  n x E/ dyhf {S E/c w ' SJ E/  S E/c w
Z Z

O*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw elhq frqvlvwdqwh hw od ydohxu plqlpdoh gx fulwuh hvw grqqh sdu T EwW ' Rq dxud grqf I E/ ' ', T Ew W ' KJ E/ 2Z ]Ae
Z

2Z

]Ae

3 AZe

mI E/m2 x E/ _/ '

2Z

]Ae

3 AZe

mI E/ KJ E/m2 xe E/_/

3 AZe

xe E/_/ ' j2

r j2 gvljqh od yduldqfh gh od vtxhqfh ieE|j  Eldlv hw yduldqfh O*wxgh dssurirqglh gh o*huuhxu hqwuh oh v|vwph hw oh prgoh idlw dssdudwuh ghx{ huuhxuv d|dqw ghv sursulwv gluhqwhv = o*huuhxu gh eldlv hw o*huuhxu gh yduldqfh1 Hq hhw/ o*huuhxu hqwuh oh v|vwph hw oh prgoh shxw wuh gfrpsrvh frpph vxlw {S E/c w ' SJ E/  S E/c w ' SJ E/  S E/c wW n S E/c wW  S E/c w  ' EE/ n Q E/c wEA 

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

78

Rq glvwlqjxh xqh huuhxu gh eldlv hw xqh huuhxu gh yduldqfh grqqhv uhvshfwlyhphqw sdu E E/ ' SJ E/  S E/c wW  hw Q E/c w  ' S E/c wW  S E/c w EA 

O*huuhxu gh eldlv hvw lqgshqgdqwh gx qrpeuh gh grqqhv +f*hvw xqh huuhxu dv|pswrwltxh,/ doruv txh o*huuhxu gh yduldqfh gshqg gx qrpeuh gh grqqhv hw hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh1 Frpph o*huuhxu gh yduldqfh hvw lqgxlwh sdu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv/ hooh hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh hq o*devhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrqv srxuyx txh od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh vrlw vx!vdpphqw h{leoh srxu uhvwdxuhu od usrqvh kduprqltxh gx v|vwph1 Sdu dloohxuv/ od fryduldqfh gx prgoh hvw grqqh sdu JS E/c w ' . idS E/c wW  S E/c wo dS E/c wW  S E/c woWj   ' . mQ E/c wm2 hw hvw jqudohphqw dssur{lph sdu o*h{suhvvlrq J S E/c w 9 ? x E/  x E/ +6146,

r ? hvw o*ruguh gx prgoh hw  oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv +Omxqj 4<;:, hw +Qlqqhvv hw Jph} 4<<9,1 Fhwwh h{suhvvlrq prqwuh fodluhphqw o*lpsruwdqfh gx surwrfroh h{sulphqwdo gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq v|vwph/ qrwdpphqw oh fkrl{ gx vljqdo g*hqwuh hq irqfwlrq gx udssruw euxlw vxu vljqdo hw gh od frpsoh{lw gx prgoh1

61416

Hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv

Hvwlpdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv dx vhqv ghv prlqguhv fduuv O*hvwlpdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv shxw wuh hhfwxh uhodwlyhphqw vlpsohphqw dx vhqv ghv prlqguhv fduuv gdqv oh fdv g*xq prgoh DU[1 Hq hhw/ oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl vh phw vrxv od iruph olqdluh sdu udssruw dx{ sdudpwuhv + E|*w ' A E|w dyhf   1 w ' e  @ 1 1 K  ?@3  4 +E| 1 4?K3 E| A 1  E| ' 1 .@ E4 .K E4
A

O*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv hvw doruv grqq sdu wEA  ' @h} 4? T Ewc A 
w

dyhf T Ewc A  '

A A 2 5 +E   E  w _ A f

79

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Od plqlplvdwlrq g*xq who fulwuh sdu udssruw w grqqh od vroxwlrq xqltxh   YT Ewc A  2A '  5 E  +E   E A w _ ' f Yw A f Vxssrvrqv txh od pdwulfh A A 5 E|E| A f hvw ujxoluh/ doruv o*hvwlpdwhxu uhfkhufk hvw grqq sdu wEA  ' 6EA  5 +E E _
f

dyhf

6EA  ' 5 E E  _


f

3

Srxu fhwwh suhpluh iruph gh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ rq qrwhud txh od plvh hq xyuh qxpultxh hvw orxugh sxlvtx*hooh qfhvvlwh xq dojrulwkph g*lqyhuvlrq pdwulflhooh hw xq vwrfndjh gh wrxwhv ohv grqqhv hq pprluh1 Sdu frqvtxhqw/ fhw dojrulwkph g*hvwlpdwlrq sdudpwultxh q*hvw sdv xqh iruph dssursulh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho1 Xqh iruph ufxuvlyh gh fhw hvwlpdwhxu vhud suvhqwh xowulhxuhphqw1 Qrwrqv txh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv yulh A A wEA  ' f 5 E|E+E|  E| A f vrlw HiE|  E|j ' f dyhf  E| ' +E|  + E|* wEA 

Frqvlvwdqfh gh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv Frqvlgurqv od iruph DU[ hw vxssrvrqv txh oh v|vwph uho dssduwlhqw od fodvvh gh prgohv vdqv dxfxqh k|srwkvh vxu od vtxhqfh ieE|j/ doruv rq dxud SJ E4 ' S E4c w hw KJ E4 ' KE4c w fh txl shuphw gh ufuluh oh v|vwph lghqwlhu vrxv od iruph ujuhvvlyh +E| ' E|A wJ n eE| A A A A 5 E|+E| ' 5 E|E| w J n 5 E|eE| A f A f A f hw vl o*rq xwlolvh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv E rq dxud A A A 3 A A wEA 2 5 E|E|  5 E|+E| ' @h}4? 5E+ E|  E| A f A f A f A A w EA  ' w J n E 5 E|E|A 3 5 E|eE| A f A f Rq d

6141 Oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh

7:

vrlw

wW ' wJ n EHiE|E|A j3HiE|eE|j

txl prqwuh fodluhphqw txh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv h{kleh xq eldlv hq suvhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrqv grqq sdu  ' EHiE|E|A j3 HiE|eE|j Xq who eldlv hvw lghqwltxhphqw qxo vl ieE|j hvw xqh vtxhqfh gh yduldeohv dodwrluhv lqgshqgdqwhv gh pr|hqqh qxooh hw gh yduldqfhv qlhv sxlvtxh HiE|eE|j ' HiE|j  HieE|j ' f Gdqv oh fdv frqwudluh/ rq glvsrvh g*xq hqvhpeoh gh pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq txl shuphw0 whqw gh irxuqlu ghv hvwlpdwhxuv frqvlvwdqwv oruvtxh iE|j hvw h{flwdqwh/ vrlw wE| $ wJ  ' hLME *4
|

<"

Rq glvwlqjxh  ghv pwkrghv txl vrqw edvhv vxu oh eodqfklphqw dv|pswrwltxh gh o*huuhxu gh su0 glfwlrq frpph ohv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv/ ohv prlqguhv fduuv jqudolvv hw oh pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh11  ghv pwkrghv txl vrqw edvhv vxu od gfruuodwlrq dv|pswrwltxh hqwuh o*huuhxu gh su0 glfwlrq hw oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq frpph ohv yduldeohv lqvwuxphqwdohv hw od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh1 Plvh hq rhxyuh gh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv Oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq shxw wuh udolv sduwlu g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq g*wdw gx owuh gh fdxvdolw frpph vxlw 4+ E| ' ,+ + E| n + +E| 4 E| ' ,  E| n  E| dyhf 5 6 5 6 : : : 8 6 : : : 8

e    9 f 9 ,+ ' 9 111 7 f 1 111 1 1 5 e    9 f 9 , ' 9 111 7 f 1 111 1 1

   e?@  f 1 111 1 1 f    e?K9  f 1 111 1 1 f

: 9 : 9 : hw + ' 9 8 7 6 5

f 1 1 1 f f 1 1 1 f

: 9 : 9 : hw  ' 9 8 7

7;

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Ohv yhfwhxuv g*wdw vrqw doruv grqqv sdu  ?@3  4 +E| +E| '  . E4 . E4    ?K9  ?K ?K 4 E| E| E| 4 E| 4 E| A A  E| '   / vrlw ) E| '  . E4 . E4 . E4 . E4 . E4

A + E|

Oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq hvw qdohphqw rewhqx frpph vxlw % & A A  E| ) E| A E| '  + ~}  ~}
?@ ?Kn

615

Dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh

O*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv shxw wuh hhfwxh vhorq od pwkrgrorjlh uhsuvhqwh sdu od jxuh 61431 Hooh frqvlvwh udolvhu ohv wdshv vxlydqwhv 41 Dftxlvlwlrq ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 51 Wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv srxu plhx{ vdwlvidluh ohv frqglwlrqv uhtxlvhv sdu oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv1 61 Dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv dq gh gwhuplqhu od frpsoh{lw gx prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph/ qrwdpphqw od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh gx v|vwph hw oh w|sh gh prgoh gh shuwxuedwlrqv1 71 Lghqwlfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gx prgoh dyhf ohv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq dssur0 sulhv1 81 Ydolgdwlrq gx prgoh lghqwl1 Vl oh uvxowdw gh od ydolgdwlrq q*hvw sdv vdwlvidlvdqw/ ohv wdshv sufghqwhv grlyhqw wuh uhyxhv frpph o*lqgltxh oh vfkpd lwudwli 61431 Hq hhw/ od ydolgdwlrq g*xqh suhpluh lghqwlfdwlrq shxw prqwuhu txh oh fkrl{ gh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh q*wdlw sdv mxglflhx{> h1j1 o*h{flwdwlrq q*wdlw sdv dvvh} lpsruwdqwh srxu lghqwlhu ohv prghv gh uvrqqdqfh dyhf od suflvlrq uhtxlvh1 Fhw dvshfw vhud looxvwu sdu xq h{hpsoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 91 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh uhmhw gx prgoh shxw wuh vlpsohphqw g xq pdxydlv fkrl{ gh vd vwuxfwxuh/ gdqv fh fdv ohv grqqhv vrqw jdughv hw o*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw uhidlwh dyhf xqh vwuxfwxuh gluhqwh1 Hq gqlwlyh/ frpph wrxwh pwkrgh h{sulphqwdoh/ lo hvw uduh gh uxvvlu rewhqlu oh prgoh gh udolvdwlrq gh o*remhfwli gvlu dx suhplhu sdvvdjh qh vhudlw fh txh gdqv xq vrxfl gh yulhu txh o*rq qh shxw sdv d!qhu ohv uvxowdwv rewhqxv1

6151 Dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh

7<

 E|

E|

 ! !
V\VWHPH D FRPPDQGHU

+E|

WUDLWHPHQW GHV GRQQHHV

" " " " "


DQDO\VH GHV GRQQHHV


VWUXFWXUH GX PRGHOH


DOJRULWKPH G*DGDSWDWLRQ SDUDPHWULTXH


Y DOLGDWLRQ GX PRGHOH

"
RXL


PRGHOH VDWLVI DLVDQW B QRQ

V|qwkvh g*xqh orl gh frppdqgh

Iljxuh 6143 =

Ohv gluhqwhv wdshv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv

83

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

616

Wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv

Gdqv od sudwltxh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv/ od txdolw ghv grqqhv lq xhqfh judq0 ghphqw od suflvlrq ghv prgohv rewhqxv1 Gdqv xq plolhx lqgxvwulho/ ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw rpql0suvhqwhv hw vh suvhqwhqw hqwuh dxwuhv vrxv iruph gh gfdodjh rx gh gulyh1 Fhv shuwxuedwlrqv qh vrqw sdv sulvhv hq frqvlgudwlrq gdqv oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hw gv oruv xq wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv v*lpsrvh1 Lo hvw jqudohphqw udolv sdu ghv pwkrghv txl uhoyhqw gx wudlwhphqw gx vljqdo/ h1j1 od gidloodqfh g*xq fdswhxu rx xqh huuhxu g*dftxlvlwlrq shxyhqw suryrtxhu ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv tx*lo idxw devroxphqw olplqhu1 Gdqv od vxlwh/ i%E|j gvljqh oh vljqdo wudlwhu hw shxw wuh lqgluhpphqw oh vljqdo g*hqwuh rx gh vruwlh1

61614

Vxssuhvvlrq ghv frpsrvdqwhv lqgvludeohv

Oruvtx*xq vljqdo qh frqwlhqw tx*xq gfdodjh/ vd pr|hqqh q*hvw sdv qxooh hw shxw wuh gwhuplqh frpph vxlw  [ % 7' %E|  |' Oh wudlwhphqw uhtxlv frqvlvwh oh fhqwuhu/ rq rewlhqw oh vljqdo wudlw i%|E|j gql sdu %|E| ' %E|  % 7 Gdqv oh fdv r oh vljqdo frqwlhqw hq soxv g*xq gfdodjh/ xqh gulyh rx xq vljqdo edvvhv iutxhqfhv lqgvludeoh1 Rq shxw oh gfrpsrvhu frpph vxlw %E| ' %| E| n %_E| r i%| E|j uhsuvhqwh oh vljqdo xwloh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw i%_ E|j ohv frpsrvdqwhv vxssulphu1 Fhv ghuqluhv shxyhqw wuh rewhqxhv sdu xq owuh sdvvh0edv grqw od iutxhqfh gh frxsxuh hvw irqfwlrq gh od gulyh vxssulphu/ vrlw %_E| ' I E4%E| Oh vljqdo wudlw hvw rewhqx sdu vrxvwudfwlrq %|E| ' %E|  %_E| Oh srlqw lpsruwdqw gh fhwwh pwkrgh hvw oh fkrl{ gh od iutxhqfh gh frxsxuh gx owuh sdvvh0edv1 Hooh grlw wuh fkrlvlh od soxv edvvh srvvleoh srxu qh sdv ugxluh ohv lqirupdwlrqv frqwhqxhv gdqv ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh txl vrqw shuwlqhqwhv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph1

61615

Vxssuhvvlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv

Ohv srlqwv dehuudqwv vrqw sulqflsdohphqw gxv od gidloodqfh g*xq fdswhxu rx xqh huuhxu g*dftxlvlwlrq1 Lov vrqw frppxqphqw vxssulpv sdu xqh lqwhusrodwlrq olqdluh frpph o*lq0 gltxh od jxuh 6144 r ohv eruqhv %4@ hw %4? vrqw fkrlvlhv srxu od gwhfwlrq1 Fhshqgdqw/ lo idxw xwlolvhu fhwwh pwkrgh dyhf sufdxwlrq fdu xqh prglfdwlrq dexvlyh ghv grqqhv shxw idxvvhu o*lghqwlfdwlrq1

6171 Dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv


2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0

84

10

15

10

15

Gwhfwlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv


Iljxuh 6144 =

Uvxowdw gh od vxssuhvvlrq

Vxssuhvvlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv sdu lqwhusrodwlrq olqdluh

61616

Plvh o*fkhooh

Ohv ydohxuv ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh shxyhqw wuh wuv gluhqwhv hq irqfwlrq ghv yd0 uldeohv sk|vltxhv tx*hoohv uhsuvhqwhqw> h1j1 o*hqwuh g*xq v|vwph shxw wuh h{sulph hq S6 doruv txh vd vruwlh hvw h{sulph hq &}*621 Fhwwh judqgh glvsdulw q*hvw sdv vrxkdlwdeoh srxu xqh erqqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq qxpultxh frpph lo d w vrxoljq gdqv oh sdudjudskh 517141 Xq frqglwlrqqhphqw qxpultxh hvw qfhvvdluh> lo shxw wuh hhfwx sdu xqh qrupdolvdwlrq dssursulh frpph vxlw %E| %? E| ' j% r j% gvljqh o*fduw w|sh gx vljqdo txl d w sudodeohphqw fhqwu y x  x [ w j% ' %2E|  |' Fhwwh qrupdolvdwlrq shuphw g*dyrlu ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx pph ruguh gh judq0 ghxu1

617

Dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

Dsuv dyrlu uhohy xq hqvhpeoh gh grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh/ xqh suhpluh dqdo|vh gh fhv grqqhv shuphw g*dssruwhu ghv lqirupdwlrqv vxu od vwuxfwxuh gx v|vwph txh o*rq fkhufkh lghqwlhu hw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw vrq irqfwlrqqhphqw1 Fhwwh dqdo|vh hvw hhfwxh sdu ghv pwkrghv qrq0sdudpwultxhv dxvvl elhq gdqv oh grpdlqh whpsruho txh gdqv oh grpdlqh iutxhqwlho1 Xqh dqdo|vh txdolwdwlyh looxvwuh sdu ghv v|vwphv vlpsohv hvw grqqh hq dqqh{h D1<1 Ohv pwkrghv suvhqwhv gdqv fh sdudjudskh vrqw hvvhqwlhoohphqw xwlolvhv gdqv oh fdv r oh vljqdo g*hqwuh hvw lqgshqgdqw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv> f*hvw gluh oruvtxh oh v|vwph hvw hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1 Vl fhwwh frqglwlrq q*hvw sdv vdwlvidlwh/ rq xwlolvh ghv

85

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

pwkrghv vsfltxhv txl vhurqw suvhqwhv gdqv oh fkdslwuh 8 txl wudlwh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph1 Rq vxssrvhud txh oh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph hvw gfulw sdu ohv prgohv +E| ' SJ E4E| n  E| rx +E| ' 5 RJ E E|  _ n E|
f

+6147,

|nAA

61714

Dqdo|vh whpsruhooh

Fhwwh dqdo|vh hvw idlwh sdu ghv pwkrghv fodvvltxhv r o*rq wxglh od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh rx lqglflhooh gx v|vwph1 Fhv usrqvhv shxyhqw wuh rewhqxhv gluhfwhphqw sduwlu ghv hhwv g*xqh lpsxovlrq rx g*xq fkhorq/ rx lqgluhfwhphqw sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh ghv irqfwlrqv gh fruuodwlrq1 Dssurfkh gluhfwh Oh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh g*xq v|vwph shxw wuh dqdo|v vlpsohphqw sduwlu gh vhv usrqvhv lpsxovlrqqhooh hw lqglflhooh1 Hq hhw vl E| ' B E| rx E| ' kE| dyhf BE| ' doruv 
AA

srxu | ' f srxu | ' 9 f

 hw kE| '
|nAA
f

srxu |  f f srxu | f

+E| ' RJ E| n  E| rx +E| ' 5 RJ E _ n E| Lo dssdudw fodluhphqw txh frqwudluhphqw od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh/ od usrqvh lqglflhooh shuphw gh idluh plhx{ uhvvruwlu od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph sdu udssruw dx{ hhwv ghv shuwxu0 edwlrqv1 F*hvw srxutxrl od usrqvh lqglflhooh hvw vrxyhqw xwlolvh hq ujxodwlrq lqgxvwulhooh> h1j1 v|qwkvh ghv ujxodwhxuv SLG1 Fh w|sh g*h{sulhqfh dssduhpphqw vlpsoh q*hvw sdv wrxmrxuv xwlolvdeoh hq sudwltxh gdqv od phvxuh r fhuwdlqv v|vwphv vxssruwhqw wuv pdo ghv fkhorqv g*dpsolwxgh vx!0 vdpphqw lpsruwdqwh srxu txh od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph vrlw grplqdqwh sdu udssruw dx{ hhwv ghv shuwxuedwlrqv1 Dssurfkh lqgluhfwh Ohv usrqvhv lpsxovlrqqhooh hw lqglflhooh shxyhqw wuh ggxlwhv g*xqh dqdo|vh sdu fruu0 odwlrq ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxuyx txh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh vh frpsruwh frpph xq euxlw eodqf srxu oh v|vwph/ h1j1 xqh vtxhqfh elqdluh svhxgr dodwrluh1 Frqwudluh0 phqw o*dssurfkh gluhfwh/ o*dqdo|vh sdu fruuodwlrq hvw uhodwlyhphqw prlqv vhqvleoh dx{ shuwxuedwlrqv hw shxw wuh hhfwxh dyhf ghv vljqdx{ gh idleoh dpsolwxgh1 Hq hhw/ rq d -+ E  ' H i+E|E|  j '

 [
&'

RJ E&- E&   n - E 

6171 Dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

86

Vl o*hqwuh hw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw lqgshqgdqwhv/ doruv o*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh fhv ghx{ vljqdx{ hvw qxooh - E  ' H iE| E|  j ' f hw ohv hhwv ghv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw frpsowhphqw olplqv gdqv o*h{suhvvlrq gh o*lqwhu0 fruuodwlrq hqwuh od vruwlh hw o*hqwuh1 Rq dxud doruv  [ RJ E&- E&   -+ E  '
&'

Vl o*hqwuh hvw xq euxlw eodqf qrupdolv/ doruv vrq dxwrfruuodwlrq hvw grqqh sdu - E  ' BE  hw grqf RJ E  ' -+ E  Dlqvl/ gdqv oh fdv r o*hqwuh gx v|vwph hvw xq euxlw eodqf/ o*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh od vruwlh hw o*hqwuh gx v|vwph gfulw od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gh fh v|vwph1 Fhwwh ghuqluh shxw wuh xwlolvh dxvvl elhq srxu od v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu SLG txh srxu vsflhu od vwuxfwxuh g*xq prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Hq hhw od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh shuphw gh phwwuh hq ylghqfh oh uhwdug sxu gx v|vwph hw vhv fdudfwulvwltxhv grplqdqwhv> h1j1 ohv prghv rvfloodqwv1 Fhw dvshfw vhud wudlw gdqv oh fkdslwuh 91 Gdqv oh fdv r o*hqwuh gx v|vwph q*hvw sdv xq euxlw eodqf/ xq owuh eodqfklvvhxu hvw dssoltx o*hqwuh dlqvl tx* od vruwlh gx v|vwph> o*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh fhv ghx{ vljqdx{ owuv gfulw doruv od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gx v|vwph1

61715

Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh

D sduwlu ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuhv0vruwlh iE|j hw i+ E|j/ ohv vshfwuhv x E// x+ E/  hw x+ E/  shxyhqw wuh fdofxov dyhf ohv uhodwlrqv +5149, hw +514:,1 Hq xwlolvdqw oh ohpph 514/ oh sdvvdjh gdqv oh grpdlqh ghv iutxhqfhv grqqh ohv fruuhvsrqgdqfhv vxlydqwhv x+ E/ ' SJ ED x E/ n x E/ x+ E/ ' mSJ ED m2 x E/ n x E/  +6148, +6149,

/ Ae r D ' e Ae !

Hvwlpdwlrq gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh gx v|vwph Vl o*hqwuh hw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw gfruuohv doruv rq d x E/  ' f hw o*txdwlrq +6148, ghylhqw +614:, x+ E/ ' SJ ED x E/  Od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh SJ ED  shxw wuh hvwlph frpph vxlw x+ E/ SJ ED  ' +614;, x E/ Fhwwh hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh dssruwh xqh frqqdlvvdqfh txdolwdwlyh d sulrul vxu od vwuxfwxuh gx v|vwph/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh od suvhqfh ghv slfv gh uvrqdqfh/ oh gfdodjh gh od skdvh hw o*dwwqxdwlrq gx jdlq hq kdxwh iutxhqfh1

87

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Hvwlpdwlrq gx vshfwuh gx euxlw Oh vshfwuh gx euxlw shxw wuh ggxlw sduwlu gh o*txdwlrq +6149, frpph vxlw x E/  ' x+ E/  mSJ ED m2 x E/  rx g*xqh pdqluh tlydohqwh hq xwlolvdqw +614;, x E/ ' x+ E/   Od frkuhqfh Od frkuhqfh hqwuh ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh hvw gqlh frpph vxlw  + E/2 ' mx+ E/m2 mSJ ED m2 x E/ ' x+ E/ x E/ mSJ ED m2 x E/ n x E/ +6153, mx+ E/m2 x E/ +614<,

Hooh shuphw gh yrlu ohv sodjhv gh iutxhqfhv r oh euxlw hvw susrqgudqw sdu udssruw dx v|vwph1 Hq hhw/ od frkuhqfh hvw surfkh gh xq dx{ iutxhqfhv r ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw uhodwlyhphqw idleohv sdu udssruw dx frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph hw ghylhqw surfkh gh }ur gdqv oh fdv frqwudluh1 Rq qrwhud txh  oh vshfwuh gx euxlw +614<, shxw wuh h{sulp hq irqfwlrq gh od frkuhqfh   x E/  ' x+ E/   + E/2 fh txl shuphw gh gqlu oh udssruw vljqdo vxu euxlw hq irqfwlrq gh od frkuhqfh -7 E/ ' x+ E/ ' x E/   + E/ 2

 od frkuhqfh shxw wuh yxh frpph xq w|sh gh fruuodwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh ghv iu0 txhqfhv1 Pdlv dwwhqwlrq $ / od wudqviruph gh Irxulhu lqyhuvh gh od frkuhqfh q*d sdv g*lqwhusuwdwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh whpsruho1  ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hqjorehqw dxvvl ohv qrq0olqdulwv yhqwxhoohv gx v|vwph grqw od g|qdpltxh hvw dssur{lph sdu xq prgoh olqdluh1 Gdqv oh fdv r ohv vljqdx{ qh vrqw sdv euxlwv/ od frkuhqfh shxw vh uyohu frpph xqh phvxuh gh od olqdulw gx v|vwph1

618

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

Ohv dojrulwkphv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho vrqw frppxqphqw udolvv sdu xqh orl g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh gh od iruph +Jrrgzlq hw Vlq 4<;7, 4 wE| ' s EE|c |

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

88

dyhf

E| ' i+E|c +E|  c    c E|c E|  c   j

r wE| hvw xqh hvwlpdwlrq o*lqvwdqw | ghv sdudpwuhv w gx prgoh/ E| uhsuvhqwh ohv phvxuhv glvsrqleohv o*lqvwdqw | hw s Ec  hvw xqh irqfwlrqqhooh dojeultxh gshqgdqw gx fulwuh g*hvwlpdwlrq1 O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv grlw wuh ufxuvli srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh plvh hq xyuh hq whpsv uho hw grlw wuh grw g*xqh pprluh srxu xqh erqqh frpsuhvvlrq ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 Lo shxw wuh qdwxuhoohphqw plv vrxv od iruph 4 wE| ' KE|#E| +6154, r # E|/ KE| vrqw dsshov uhvshfwlyhphqw o*huuhxu g*dgdswdwlrq hw oh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq1 O*dojrulwkph shxw wuh uhsuvhqw frpph vxlw # E|

huuhxu g*dgdswdwlrq

KE|

4 U?R

w E|

jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq

pprluh

prgoh hvwlp

Iljxuh 6145 = Jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq hw pprluh g*xq dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh

Qrwrqv txh

EKE| $ f rx E# E| $ f , E4 wE| $ f

Od sursulw gh frqyhujhqfh ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv txdqg o*huuhxu g*dgdswdwlrq hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh hvw xqh sursulw qdwxuhooh E# E| $ f , E4 wE| $ f doruv txh od udolvdwlrq gh fhwwh frqyhujhqfh dyhf xq jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxo EKE| $ f , E4 wE| $ f vljqlh soxww txh fhwwh orl g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh q*hvw sdv dssursulh gdqv oh fdv ghv sdudpwuhv yduldeohv gdqv oh whpsv1

61814

Ohv prlqguhv fduuv hq whpsv uho


wE| ' 6E| 5 +E E _
f

Frqvlgurqv o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv


|

+6155,

dyhf Rq shxw gqlu

6E| ' 5 E E  _


f

!

89

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

 xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d sulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw + J E|* wE| ' A E| wE| hw 0J E| ' +E|  E|A wE|  xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d srvwhulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw + E|* w E| n  ' A E| wE| n  hw 0E| ' +E|  E|A wE| n  Qrwrqv txh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul shxw v*fuluh frpph vxlw   A 0E| ' + E|  E| w E| n Ae 4wE| hw tx*hooh hvw jdoh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d sulrul gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv1 Qrxv doorqv prqwuhu txh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv +6155, shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph ufxuvlyh 4 wE| ' KE|0J E| Hq hhw   | 4wE| ' 4 6E| 5 + E E _
f

' 46E| 5 +E E _ n 6E|+E|E| n Ae 46E|+E|E| ' 46E|6E|! wE| n 6E|+E|E| n Ae 46E|+E|E| Frpph   4 6E|6! E| ' 46E|6!E|n6E|46!E|nAe46E|46!E| ' f hw rq dxud 46E|6!E| '  E6E|nAe 46E| 46!E| '  E6E|nAe 46E| E|E|A Grqf 4 wE| '  E6E|nAe 46E| E|E|A wE| n E6E| n Ae 46E| +E|E|   ' E6E|nAe 46E| E| +E|  E|A wE| Sdu dloohxuv/ rq d  ! 46E| ' 6E|46!E| 6! E|nAe 46!E|  ! ' 6E|E|E|A 6! E|nAe E|E|A 46!E|'E|E|A
f

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

8:

Hq xwlolvdqw oh ohpph g*lqyhuvlrq pdwulflhooh/ rq dxud  !  ! ! 6 E|nAe E|E|A ' 6E|  6E|E| Ae! n E|A 6E|E| E|A 6E| Ae 6E|E|E|A 6E| ' 6E| n AeE|A 6E|E| hw grqf 46E| '  6E|E|E|A 6E| n AeE|A 6E|E|

Od orl g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh ghv prlqguhv fduuv shxw doruv vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph 4 wE| ' KE|0J E| dyhf KE| ' E6E|nAe 46E| E| ' 6E|E| n Ae E|A 6E|E|

Hq uvxp/ o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh ghv prlqguhv fduuv hvw grqq sdu 4 wE| ' hw 46E| '  k l 6E|E| A +E|  E| wE| n AeE|A 6E|E| 6E|E|E|A 6E| n AeE|A 6E|E|

Gdqv vd yhuvlrq ufxuvlyh/ lo plqlplvh oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh vxlydqw 2 | T E wE|c | ' 5 +E   E A w E| _ n T E wEf | f dyhf k lA k l Ef  w d6Efo! T E wEf ' w wEf  w

r o*lq xhqfh ghv frqglwlrqv lqlwldohv 6Ef hw wEf shxw wuh uhqgxh wuv idleoh vl 6Ef hvw fkrlvl vx!vdpphqw judqg1 Sdudpwuhv yduldqw gdqv oh whpsv O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh ghv prlqguhv fduuv q*hvw sdv dssursul gdqv oh fdv ghv sdudpwuhv yduldqw gdqv oh whpsv fdxvh gh od qdwxuh lqwjudoh gh od orl gh plvh mrxu gx jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq 46E|! ' E|E|A Hq hhw/ vl od qruph gh iE|E|A j q*hvw sdv qxooh hq pr|hqqh/ doruv od pdwulfh 6E|! ghylhqw lqqlh/ hw sdu frqvtxhqw oh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq KE| ghylhqw qxo1 Srxu uhpglhu fh sureoph/ rq shxw ujxodulvhu oh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq frpph vxlw s6? U?R  6E|  s6@% U?R dyhf f  s6?  s6@% 4

8;

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Srxu fh idluh/ xqh vroxwlrq hvw gh uhpsodfhu oh v|vwph lqwjudwhxu sdu xq v|vwph vwdeoh gx suhplhu ruguh >E| 6E|! ' E|E|A !bE| 4 n Ae txh o*rq shxw ufuluh frpph vxlw  bE| 6E|! n >E|E|E|A 46E|! '  Ae dyhf f bE|  hw f  >E| 2 Od frqglwlrq vxu bE| dvvxuh od vwdelolw gh od plvh mrxu gx jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq doruv txh od frqglwlrq vxu >E| hvw prwlyh sdu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh vwdelolw hw gh frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh1 O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh fruuhvsrqgdqw hvw doruv grqq sdu n Ae E|A 6E|E| + ,   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 46E| ' 6E|  bE| bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|
>E|

4 wE| '

bE| >E|

6E|E|

l +E|  E| wE|


A

Fhw dojrulwkph shxw wuh rewhqx gluhfwhphqw sduwlu gh od plqlplvdwlrq gx fulwuh txd0 gudwltxh vxlydqw | wE|2 _ n T E T E wE|c | ' 5 q E|c E+E   E A wEf | f dyhf hw k l k lA T E wEf ' wEf  w d6Efo! wEf  w 3 q E|c  ' C
| -e

4 bEAe D >E 

n ' A e

txl q*hvw dxwuh txh fhoxl ghv prlqguhv fduuv srqguv +yrlu dqqh{h D16,1 Vxlydqw ohv ydohxuv ghv vtxhqfhv gh srqgudwlrqv ibE|j hw i>E|j/ rq glvwlqjxh gluhqwv w|shv g*dojrulwkphv  Oh fdv bE| ' >E| ' txl fruuhvsrqg od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv r wrxwhv ohv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw sulvhv hq frqvlgudwlrq gh od pph idrq gdqv oh fulwuh1 Oh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq shxw ghyhqlu dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxo hw qh suvhqwh grqf dxfxqh urexvwhvvh ylv ylv ghv yduldwlrqv yhqwxhoohv ghv sdudpwuhv1

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

8<

 Oh fdv bE| ' b hw >E| ' dyhf f b fruuhvsrqg od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv dyhf idfwhxu g*rxeol {h r ohv grqqhv ohv soxv ufhqwhv rqw ehdxfrxs soxv g*lpsruwdqfh txh ohv dqflhqqhv grqqhv gdqv oh surfhvvxv g*hvwlpdwlrq/ fh txl mxvwlh o*dsshoodwlrq gh od pwkrgh1 Fhw dojrulwkph shxw frqgxluh fhshqgdqw xqh vtxhqfh i8 E|j gh pdwulfhv gh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq h{srqhqwlhoohphqw furlvvdqwhv gdqv oh fdv g*xqh gjquhvfhqfh gx jdlq rx gh o*lqirupdwlrq frqwhqxh gdqv ohv g*dgdswdwlrq grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh/ l1h1 E|E|A hvw qxooh hq pr|hqqh1  Oh fdv bE| ' bbE|   n E  b hw >E| ' dyhf fbD bEf hw b fbH fruuhvsrqg od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv dyhf idfwhxu g*rxeol yduldeoh1 Qrwrqv txh oh idfwhxu g*rxeol bE| frqyhujh h{srqhqwlhoohphqw yhuv xq/ fh txl frqgxlw xq dojrulwkph ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv1 Fh w|sh gh idfwhxu g*rxeol shuphw wrxwhirlv gh uhpglhu dx sureoph ghv pdxydlvhv frqglwlrqv lqlwldohv1  Oh fdv gh o*dojrulwkph ghv prlqguhv fduuv dyhf wudfh frqvwdqwh hvw rewhqx hq fkrl0 vlvvdqw bE| ' >E| who txh |h@Ui E46E| ' f/ vrlw   Ae |h@Ui 6E|E|E|A 6E| bE| '  E n Ae E|A 6E|E| |h@Ui E6E| Fh w|sh g*dojrulwkph shuphw g*dvvxuhu txh od pdwulfh gh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq hvw eruqh vxsulhxuhphqw lqgshqgdpphqw gh od qdwxuh ghv lqirupdwlrqv wudlwhv1 Hq hhw/ oh idfwhxu g*rxeol bE| ghylhqw lghqwltxhphqw jdo xq gdqv oh fdv g*xq pdqtxh g*lqirupdwlrq rx xqh gjquhvfhqfh gx jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq1  Oh fdv gh o*dojrulwkph gx judglhqw qrupdolv hvw rewhqx hq fkrlvlvvdqw bE| ' hw >E| ' f fh txl grqqh 46E| ' f grqf 6E| ' 6Ef 'frqv|@?wh1 Fhwwh pwkrgh plqlplvh/ sdu udssruw wE|/ oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh vxlydqw  2 k lA k l a E wE| ' +E|  wE|A E| n w E|  wE|   d6Efo! wE|  wE|   Hooh hvw soxv sduwlfxoluhphqw xwlolvh sdu od frppxqdxw gh wudlwhphqw gx vljqdo1 Od frqyhujhqfh g*xq who dojrulwkph hvw uhodwlyhphqw ohqwh hw qfhvvlwh grqf xqh erqqh lqlwldolvdwlrq1 Od vtxhqfh gh pdwulfhv gh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq i6E|j ghv dojrulwkphv g*dgdswdwlrq sd0 udpwultxh gx w|sh prlqguhv fduuv shxw dyrlu xqh eruqh lqiulhxuh qxooh vl od frqglwlrq g*h{flwdwlrq shuvlvwdqwh q*hvw sdv yulh1 Lo hvw grqf qfhvvdluh g*xwlolvhu xqh vtxhqfh i+E|j vxssophqwdluh srxu ylwhu xq who sureoph1 O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpw0 ultxh ghylhqw doruv n Ae E|A 6E|E| + ,   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 46E| ' 6E| bE| n +E| bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|
>E|

4 wE| '

bE| >E|

6E|E|

l +E|  E|A w E|

+6156,

93

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Xqh surfgxuh uhodwlyhphqw vlpsoh shxw wuh rewhqxh sduwlu ghv sursulwv vxlydqwhv 4?ib E|jU?R  6E|  4@ ib E|jU?R  |h@Ui E6E| U?R srxu  5 dc ?Ro hw
?R \ '

b E| ' _i|E6E| ' _i|E#E| '

?R \ '

_ E| srxu  5 dc ?Ro

r b E| hw _ E| uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od e


6e ydohxu sursuh gh 6E| hw oh e
6e ophqw gh od pdwulfh gldjrqdoh #E|1 Hq hhw/ rq shxw dvvxuhu xqh eruqh lqiulhxuh qrq qxooh gh od pdwulfh gh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq 6E| hq ujxodulvdqw od pdwulfh gldjrqdoh frpph vxlw vl _  _J doruv _ E| ' _ E|   vlqrq _J qvl r _J hvw xq vhxlo vsfl sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1 Lo v*djlw g*xqh surfgxuh sduwlfxoluh gh ulql0 wldolvdwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq 6E|1 Sursulwv Ohv sulqflsdohv sursulwv gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh dyhf jdlq g*dgdswd0 wlrq yduldeoh +6156, vrqw qrqfhv vrxv od iruph gx wkruph vxlydqw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:, Wkruph 614 Frqvlgurqv o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh +6156, hw vxssrvrqv txh od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu d srvwhulrul 0E| hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh  wE|n ' wE|nwJ r oh yhfwhxu w J uhsuvhqwh ohv yudlv sdudpwuhv gx v|vwph hvw grqqh sdu 0E| ' PE4A E| wE| n  r PE  hvw xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw vwdeoh/ doruv vl J E  ' PE   r > 2

4@ d>E|o  > 2
|

hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh/ doruv 41 o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh
|

*4 0E| ' f

<"

51 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d sulrul qrupdolvh hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh 0J E| 'f |<" d n Ae E|A 6E|E|o*2 *4

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

94

61 Ohv yduldwlrqv ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv vrqw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxoohv1


|

wE|  wE|  &n ' f srxu wrxw & ql *4 n

<"

71 Od vtxhqfh i w E|j hvw xqlirupphqw eruqh < kw 5 LUn * n wE|n kw  Od gprqvwudwlrq gh fh uvxowdw lpsruwdqw d w idlwh sduwlu gh fhoohv hhfwxhv dyhf o*rsudwhxu uhwdug gdqv +Jrrgzlq hw Vlq 4<;7, hw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Hooh hvw uhsruwh hq dqqh{h D171 Qrwrqv txh gdqv oh fdv ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu d srvwhulrul hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh hvw grqqh sdu wE| n  0E| ' +E|  E|A wE| n  ' E|A wJ  E|A wE| n  ' A E| txl lpsoltxh PE  ' >E|  2 srxu wrxw | Oh wkruph sufghqw sruwh hvvhqwlhoohphqw vxu od frqyhujhqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglf0 wlrq gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh1 Od frqyhujhqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq q*lpsoltxh sdv irufphqw fhooh ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv yhuv fhx{ gx v|vwph/ g*dxwuhv frqglwlrqv grlyhqw wuh udolvhv srxu rewhqlu od frqyhujhqfh ghv sdudpwuhv1 Hq hhw/ od frqyhujhqfh ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv gdqv xq yrlvlqdjh gh ohxuv yudlhv ydohxuv hvw dvvxuh vl od vtxhqfh iE|j yulh od frqglwlrq g*h{flwdwlrq shuvlvwdqwh/ vrlw = Hwdqw grqq xq hqwlhu qdwxuho / srxu wrxw hqwlhu qdwxuho  / lo h{lvwh ghx{ qrpeuh uhov vwulfwhphqw srvlwliv k hw q whov txh f k
 n [

Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh hvw wrxmrxuv vdwlvidlwh vl

|'

E|E|A  q 4

Rq uhwurxyh dlqvl od frqglwlrq gh ujxodulw gh od pdwulfh gx jdlq g*dgdswdwlrq uhtxlvh srxu od gwhuplqdwlrq gh o*hvwlpdwhxu ghv prlqguhv fduuv1 Srxu plhx{ dssukhqghu fhwwh sursulw/ lo vx!w g*fuluh o*txdwlrq g*yroxwlrq gh o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh  w E| ' wE|  wJ / vrlw 6E|E|E|A E| 4 wE| '  bE| w A n A  E |  6 E |   E |  e >E| Lo dssdudw fodluhphqw txh vl od qruph gh od vtxhqfh pdwulflhooh E|E|A hvw qxooh hq pr|hqqh/ doruv o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh yulh od sursulw 4 wE| ' f txl phw hq ylghqfh txh ohv sdudpwuhv qh frqyhujhqw sdv qfhvvdluhphqw yhuv ohxuv yudlhv ydohxuv1

95

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

61815

Pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv

Fhwwh pwkrgh g*lghqwlfdwlrq d w gyhorssh hq vxssrvdqw txh oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0 vruwlh gx v|vwph hvw gfulw oh prgoh DUPD[ e E4c w+E| ' e E4c wE| n e E4c weE| txh o*rq shxw ufuluh vrxv od iruph ujuhvvlyh svhxgr0olqdluh +E| ' E|A w n eE| dyhf   ?@! 4?K! E| 1 4?S! + 4 +E| 1 E| 1 1 1 1 .@E4 .K E4 .S E4   1 S 1 1 1 wA ' e@   @ 1 K 1 S  e +6158, +6157,

E|A '

Rq shxw doruv gqlu ohv suglfwhxuv dmxvwdeohv d sulrul hw d srvwhulrul hw ohv huuhxuv gh suglfwlrq dvvrflhv srxu ohv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv w E| frpph vxlw  xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d sulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw + J E|* wE| ' A E| wE| hw 0J E| ' +E|  E|A wE|  xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d srvwhulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw wE| n  hw 0E| ' +E|  E|A wE| n  + E|* w E| n  ' A E| r oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq E| hvw rewhqx sduwlu gx yhfwhxu E| hq uhpsoddqw ohv ?S! + E| huuhxuv gh suglfwlrq owuhv 4 .S E4  sdu ohv huuhxuv gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul owuhv/ vrlw  ?@!  4 +E| 1 4?K! E| 1 4?S! 0E| A 1 1 E| ' 1 1 .@E4 .K E4 .S E4 O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv hvw doruv rewhqx sduwlu gh fhoxl ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ vrlw 4 w E| ' 46E| '

bE|

bE| n A E|A 6E|E| >E| + e


 

6E|E|

l + E|  E|A wE| ,

+6159, +615:,

 bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| n +E| 6E|  bE| A Ae >E| n Ae E| 6E|E|

txl kulwh gh wrxwhv ohv prglfdwlrqv uhtxlvhv srxu lqfrusruhu xqh erqqh fdsdflw gh srxuvxlwh ghv sdudpwuhv yduldeohv gdqv oh whpsv frpph lo d w idlw dx sdudjudskh 618141

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

96

Sursulwv Ohv sursulwv gh vwdelolw hw gh frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv vrqw grqqhv sdu oh uvxowdw vxlydqw Wkruph 615 Frqvlgurqv o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh +6159,0+615:, dyhf bE| ' hw +E| ' f hw vxssrvrqv txh od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu d srvwhulrul 0E| hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh  wE| n  ' w E| n   w J hvw grqqh sdu w E| n  n E| 0E| ' PE4A E| r od vtxhqfh iE|j hvw xqh pduwlqjdoh/ l1h1 H dE|mI|! o ' f   H 2E|mI|! ' j2 d1v1 d1v1

 <"

*4 tT

 [ 2  E| 4  |'

dyhf I|3 o*hqvhpeoh uhjurxsdqw wrxwhv ohv revhuydwlrqv jquhv mxvtx* |  lqfoxv/ hw PE  hvw xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw vwdeoh/ doruv vl > J E  ' PE   2 dyhf 4@ d>E|o  > 2 hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh/ hw vl   H E|A E| h{lvwh hw hvw gqlh srvlwlyh doruv   H E0E|  E|2 ' f  2  A  H  E|wE| n  ' f hLME *4 wE| ' wJ  '

d1v1 d1v1

|<"



Od gprqvwudwlrq gh fh uvxowdw d w idlwh sduwlu gh fhoohv gyhorsshv dyhf o*rs0 udwhxu uhwdug gdqv +Jrrgzlq hw Vlq 4<;7, hw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Hooh hvw grqqh gdqv o*dqqh{h D17 Gdqv oh fdv ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv/ od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu d srvwhulrul hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh hvw grqqh sdu 0E| ' +E|  E|A wE| n  ' J E|A w J  E|A wE| n  n eE| A A A 0E| ' E| wJ  E| wE| n  n J E| w J  E|A wJ n eE| eE|  0E| 0E| ' A E| w E| n  n E E4  .SE4 n eE| .S E4

97

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

fh txl grqqh 0E| '  rq d grqf

.S E4 A   E|wE| n  n eE|  E4 PE  ' .S E   E 

Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh hvw uhpsolh vl od irqfwlrq .S E  >  hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh1  E  2 Oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv KE  grlw wuh doruv lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh> l1h  E4 hvw xq sro|qph g*Kxuzlw}1 Pwkrgh gx pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh gx wkruph 615 shxw wuh uhofkh sdu xq owudjh dssur0 sul1 Hq hhw/ o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul   .S E4 A A E| wJ  wE| n  n eE| 0E| ' + E|  E| wE| n  '  E4 shxw vh gfrpsrvhu frpph vxlw 0E| '   CE4 .S E4 E|A wJ  wE| n  n eE|  E4 CE4   CE4 ' s E|A wJ  w E| n  n eE|  E4

O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh fruuhvsrqgdqw shxw wuh rewhqx sduwlu gx yhf0 whxu g*revhuydwlrq owu CE4s E| ' .S E4E| frpph vxlw 4 w E| ' k l 6E|s E| A + E |    E |  w E |  n Ae s E|A 6E|s E|

6E|s E|s E|A 6E| 46E| '  n Ae s E|A 6E|s E|

Oh uvxowdw gh vwdelolw hw frqyhujhqfh dvvrfl hvw wrxmrxuv grqq sdu oh wkruph 615 hq uhpsoddqw oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq E| sdu oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq owu s E|/ od irqfwlrq PE  ghylhqw doruv CE  PE  '  E 

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

98

Uhpdutxh 615 Vl oh sro|qph CE4 hvw fkrlvl CE4 '  E4 doruv od frqglwlrq hvw wrxmrxuv yulh1 CE  >  gqlh uhooh vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh  E  2 

Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh shxw grqf wuh uhofkh hq fkrlvlvvdqw srxu oh sro|qph CE4 xqh erqqh hvwlph gx sro|qph  E41 Srxu fh idluh/ xqh lghqwlfdwlrq lwudwlyh hvw hhfwxh sduwlu gh od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv dyhf xq owudjh ghv grqqhv udolv frpph vxlw C& E4 ' &3 E4c w dyhf CJ E4 ' r C& E4 hw &3 E4c w gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw oh owuh ghv grqqhv o*lwudwlrq & hw o*hvwlph gx sro|qph  E4 rewhqxh o*lwudwlrq &  1 Frpph oh owuh lqlwldo hvw fkrlvl CJ E4 ' / oh v|vwph vh wurxyh lqlwldolv dyhf xqh pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv vdqv owudjh ghv grqqhv1 Fhwwh surfgxuh shuphw hq idlw gh udolvhu g*xqh pdqluh lwudwlyh od pwkrgh gx pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh1

61816

Pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh

Fhwwh pwkrgh d w sulqflsdohphqw gyhorssh sduwlu ghv v|vwphv dgdswdwliv dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh +Odqgdx 4<:<, srxu sdoolhu oh sureoph ghv shuwxuedwlrqv1 Hooh frqvlvwh fkhufkhu xq hvwlpdwhxu frqvlvwdqw gx v|vwph lqgshqgdpphqw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw vrq irqfwlrqqhphqw hq plqlplvdqw o*fduw hqwuh od vruwlh gx prgoh + E| hw fhooh gx v|vwph +E| +yrlu jxuh 6146,1 Srxu fh idluh rq xwlolvh oh prgoh RH +61:, txl frqvlvwh dssur{lphu oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph sdu o*txdwlrq +E| ' e E4c w E| n  E| 8e E4c w +615;,

txh o*rq shxw ufuluh vrxv od iruph ujuhvvlyh svhxgr0olqdluh + E| ' E|A w n  E| dyhf  ?K3  4 E| 1 4?s 3 / E| 1 1 .K E4 .s E4   1 s wA ' K 1 1 e  s /E| ' e E4c w E| 8e E4c w +615<,

E|A '

hw

99

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

!
E|

V|vwph lghqwlhu

+E|

! !

A6
 E w E|c4 8 E w E|c4

n 0E|  + E|

  & .) 

DDS

66 6
Iljxuh 6146 =

Huuhxu gh vruwlh

Rq shxw doruv gqlu ohv suglfwhxuv dmxvwdeohv hw ohv huuhxuv gh suglfwlrq dvvrflhv dlqvl txh ghv huuhxuv g*dgdswdwlrq srxu ohv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv wE| frpph vxlw  xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d sulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw + J E|* wE| ' A E| wE| hw 0J E| ' +E|  E|A wE|  xq suglfwhxu dmxvwdeoh d srvwhulrul hw vrq huuhxu gh suglfwlrq frpph vxlw wE| n  hw 0E| ' +E|  E|A + E|* w E| n  ' A E| wE| n   ohv huuhxuv g*dgdswdwlrq d sulrul hw d srvwhulrul grqqhv uhvshfwlyhphqw sdu # J E| ' 0J E| n dCe E4  o 0E| hw # E| ' Ce E40E| r Ce E4 hvw xqh iudfwlrq udwlrqqhooh vwdeoh hw lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh grqqh sdu Ce E4 ' 4?} n }4?}! n    n }?}!4 n }?} CE4  ?} ' .} E4 4n A A

Oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq E| hvw rewhqx sduwlu gx yhfwhxu E| hq uhpsoddqw ohv ?s ! / E| vruwlhv owuhv gx prgoh 4 .s E4  sdu ohv vruwlhv owuhv gx suglfwhxu d srvwhulrul/ vrlw % E|A '
?s ! 4 ! E| 1 + E|* wE| n  14 ?K

&

.K E4

.s E4

6181 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq whpsv uho

9:

O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh gh od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh hvw doruv rewhqx sduwlu gh fhoxl ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ vrlw #J E| n Ae E|A 6E|E| , +   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 6E|  bE| n +E| 46E| ' bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|
bE| >E| >E|

4 w E| '

6E|E|

+6163, +6164,

txl kulwh gh wrxwhv ohv prglfdwlrqv uhtxlvhv srxu lqfrusruhu xqh erqqh fdsdflw gh srxuvxlwh ghv sdudpwuhv yduldeohv gdqv oh whpsv frpph lo d w idlw dx sdudjudskh 618141 Oh uvxowdw gh vwdelolw hw frqyhujhqfh gh fhw dojrulwkph hvw grqq sdu oh wkruph 6151 Gdqv fh fdv o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul hvw uhpsodfh sdu o*huuhxu g*dgdswdwlrq d srvwhulrul txl hvw grqqh sdu k l # E| ' CeE4 +E|  E|A wE| n    + E|  + E| A  n eE| # E| ' CeE4  E|wE| n  n E.s E4  8 E4 .s E4 fh txl grqqh srxu ?} ' ?s / od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh #E| '  dyhf oh vljqdo E| ' CE4 A   E|wE| n  n E| 8 E4 CE4 eE| 8 E4 CE  8 E 

txl grlw yulhu ohv sursulwv g*xqh pduwlqjdoh1 Rq d grqf PE  '

Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh hvw uhpsolh vl od irqfwlrq CE  >  hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh 8 E  2 oh sro|qph 8 E4 grlw grqf wuh dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh1 Uhpdutxh 616 Ohv sursulwv gh frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph +6163,0+6164, shxyhqw dxvvl vh gprqwuhu sdu od pwkrgh gh pr|hqqdjh +Omxqj 4<;:,/ +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Fhwwh p0 wkrgh frqvlvwh wxglhu od frqyhujhqfh gh o*txdwlrq gluhqwlhooh ruglqdluh +rx RGH, dv0 vrflh o*dojrulwkph +6163,0+6164,1 Gdqv fh fdv od frqglwlrq vxu oh vljqdo h{whuqh E| ghylhqw   H A E|E| n  ' f 

9;

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Uhpdutxh 617 Vl oh sro|qph CE4 hvw fkrlvl CE4 ' 8 E4 doruv od frqglwlrq CE  >  gqlh uhooh vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh 8 E  2 

hvw wrxmrxuv yulh1

Od frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw uhooh shxw grqf wuh uhofkh hq fkrlvlvvdqw srxu oh sro|qph CE4 xqh erqqh hvwlph gx sro|qph 8 E41 Srxu fh idluh/ xqh lghqwlfdwlrq lwudwlyh hvw hhfwxh sduwlu gh od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh dyhf xq owudjh ghv grqqhv udolv frpph vxlw C& E4 ' 8&! E4c w dyhf CJ E4 ' 7 E4 r C& E4 hw &! E4c w gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw oh owuh ghv grqqhv o*lwudwlrq & hw o*hvwlph gx sro|qph 8 E4 rewhqxh o*lwudwlrq &  1 Oh v|vwph hvw lqlwldolv dyhf xqh pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv/ l1h 7 E41

619

Ydolgdwlrq

Xqh wdsh lpsruwdqwh gdqv od surfgxuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hvw fhooh gh od ydolgd0 wlrq1 Hooh shuphw gh yulhu txh oh prgoh lghqwl gfulw frqyhqdeohphqw oh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph hw shxw wuh hhfwxh gh ghx{ pdqluhv =  xqh ydolgdwlrq sdu udssruw dx{ frqqdlvvdqfhv grqw rq glvsrvh sulrul vxu oh v|vwph hq surfgdqw xqh dqdo|vh gx prgoh lghqwl  xqh ydolgdwlrq sdu udssruw od udolvdwlrq gh o*remhfwli g*lghqwlfdwlrq1

61914

Dqdo|vh gx prgoh

Rq shxw frpsduhu ohv glyhuvhv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv whpsruhoohv hw iutxhqwlhoohv gx prgoh dyhf fhoohv glvsrqleohv vxu oh v|vwph> qrwdpphqw od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh hw od usrqvh lqglflhooh1 Hq hhw fh w|sh g*lqirupdwlrqv shxyhqw wuh sudodeohphqw rewhqxhv gdqv o*wdsh g*dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh gh fruuodwlrq hw xqh dqdo|vh iutxhqwlhooh1 Fhwwh frpsdudlvrq shuphw xqh yulfdwlrq vlpsoh hw lppgldwh gh od frqfrugdqfh ghv slfv gh uvrqdqfh/ gh od skdvh rx gx jdlq vwdwltxh1 Fhwwh suhpluh yulfdwlrq hvw sulprugldoh gdqv od phvxuh r xq prgoh txl uhsurgxlw frqyhqdeohphqw oh frpsruwh0 phqw iutxhqwlho gx v|vwph hvw irqgdphqwdo srxu xqh erqqh v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Od frqjxudwlrq sohv hw }urv gx prgoh dlqvl txh vhv ydohxuv vlqjxoluhv shuphw0 whqw g*wxglhu od frpsoh{lw gh od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh1 Od vlpsolfdwlrq yhqwxhooh g*xqh sdluh soh0}ur rx xqh ydohxu vlqjxoluh uhodwlyhphqw shwlwh grqqh od srvvlelolw gh ugxluh o*ruguh gx prgoh1 Sdu dloohxuv/ xqh dqdo|vh gluhfwh ghv ydohxuv uhodwlyhv ghv sdudpwuhv

6191 Ydolgdwlrq

9<

gx prgoh shuphw dxvvl gh frquphu vrq ghju uhodwli1 Hq hhw/ vl ohv suhplhuv frh!flhqwv gx qxpudwhxu  E4c w  ' KJ 4?K n K 4?K! n    n K?K!4 n K?K vrqw wuv idleohv sdu udssruw dx{ dxwuhv frh!flhqwv/ oh ghju gx qxpudwhxu shxw wuh ugxlw/ vrlw KJ K ', ?K G' ?K  Sdu frqwuh/ xq frh!flhqw K?K rx @?@ wuv idleoh qh yhxw sdv gluh txh fhoxl0fl grlw wuh vxssulp +frpph srxu oh fdv gh o*rsudwhxu uhwdug,/ pdlv lo lqgltxh od suvhqfh g*xq gulydwhxu rx g*xq lqwjudwhxu $

61915

Dqdo|vh gx fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq


0r E| ' + E|  +r E|

Xqh suhpluh ydolgdwlrq frqvlvwh wxglhu o*huuhxu gh vruwlh rx gh vlpxodwlrq/ vrlw

dyhf

w E| +r E| ' S E4c

r oh yhfwhxu w uhsuvhqwh oh yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv rewhqx hq q g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Oh prgoh lghqwl hvw vlpxo sduwlu g*xq mhx gh grqqhv iE|c + E|j|Mdfc o gluhqw gh fhoxl txl d vhuyl srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq srxu shuphwwuh xqh ydolgdwlrq furlvh1 Xqh ylvxdolvdwlrq gh fhwwh huuhxu gh vruwlh phw lppgldwhphqw hq oxpluh od frkuhqfh gx prgoh dyhf ohv grqqhv gx v|vwph uho1 Fhshqgdqw/ fhwwh huuhxu gshqg ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq pdlv dxvvl ghv shuwxuedwlrqv/ xqh gluhqfh lpsruwdqwh hqwuh od vruwlh uhooh + E| hw od vruwlh gx prgoh +rE| shxw wuh xqltxhphqw gh xq frpsruwhphqw wuv euxlw gx v|vwph1 Xqh wxgh soxv dssurirqglh hvw grqf qfhvvdluh srxu glvwlqjxhu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq/ srxu fh idluh xqh huuhxu gh suglfwlrq rx xq uvlgx hvw gql sdu 0E| ' +E|  E|A w Qrwrqv txh gdqv oh fdv gh o*xwlolvdwlrq gh od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh/ o*huuhxu gh vruwlh 0rE| hw oh uvlgx 0E| vrqw lghqwltxhv1 Ohv pwkrghv gh ydolgdwlrq vrqw edvhv vxu o*dqdo|vh gh o*huuhxu gh vruwlh rx gx uvlgx1 Xqh suhpluh dssurfkh glwh fodvvltxh wxglh ohv sursulwv vwdwlvwltxhv gx uvlgx doruv tx*xqh dssurfkh soxv ufhqwh gyhorssh gdqv +Omxqj hw Jxr 4<<:, xwlolvh o*huuhxu gh vruwlh srxu lghqwlhu xq prgoh gh o*huuhxu gh prgolvdwlrq1 Dqdo|vh vwdwlvwltxh gx uvlgx Gdqv fhwwh dssurfkh/ oh uvlgx hvw xwlolv srxu frquphu ohv k|srwkvhv idlwhv vxu od qdwxuh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv oruv gx fkrl{ gh od pwkrgh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Hq hhw/ rq glvwlqjxh ghx{ judqghv idploohv gh pwkrghv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh ghv v|vwphv  ghv pwkrghv txl vrqw edvhv vxu oh eodqfklphqw dv|pswrwltxh gh o*huuhxu gh su0 glfwlrq frpph ohv prlqguhv fduuv whqgxv/ ohv prlqguhv fduuv jqudolvv hw oh pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh1

:3

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

 ghv pwkrghv txl vrqw edvhv vxu od gfruuodwlrq dv|pswrwltxh hqwuh o*huuhxu gh su0 glfwlrq hw oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq frpph ohv yduldeohv lqvwuxphqwdohv hw od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh1 D fhv ghx{ idploohv vrqw dvvrflhv ghx{ pwkrghv gh ydolgdwlrq/ vdyrlu  xq whvw vxu od eodqfkhxu gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq srxu od suhpluh idplooh1  xq whvw vxu od gfruuodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq hw ohv revhuydwlrqv srxu od vhfrqgh idplooh1 Eodqfkhxu gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq Gdqv oh fdv gh od suhpluh idplooh gh pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq/ o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq rewhqxh grlw wuh xq euxlw eodqf1 Od ydolgdwlrq shxw wuh hhfwxh sdu xq whvw xwlolvdqw od irqfwlrq g*dxwrfruuodwlrq/ vrlw o*dxwrfruuodwlrq qrupdolvh gx uvlgx 0E|  S 0E|0E| n   |' ? -0 E  '  S 0E|2 
|'

r  hvw oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv1 Oh uvlgx 0E| hvw xq euxlw eodqf vl vrq dxwrfruuodwlrq qrupdolvh fruuhvsrqg xqh lpsxovlrq xqlwdluh/ f*hvw gluh vl
? ? -0 Ef ' hw -0 E  ' f srxu wrxw 9' f

Fhwwh frqglwlrq hvw udolvh srxu xq euxlw eodqf sduidlw oruvtxh oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv  $ 41 Xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh hvw grqf gql srxu whqlu frpswh gh fhv frqvlgudwlrqv sudwltxhv/ lo idxw bS ? m-0 E m s srxu wrxw 9' f srxu xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh bDI/  2D.DH ? m-0 E m s srxu wrxw 9' f srxu xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh bbI 
? E  dssduwlhqqh o*lq0 +rx hq g*dxwuhv whuphv/ lo h{lvwh xqh suredelolw gh bDI txh -0 bS ( bS o, I I whuydooh d   Gh qrpeuhx{ whvwv vwdwlvwltxhv h{lvwhqw gdqv od olwwudwxuh srxu dqdo|vhu od eodqfkhxu g*xq vljqdo frpph od frpsdudlvrq gh vrq klvwrjudpph xqh orl qrupdoh rx oh uhohy gx qrpeuh gh furlvhphqwv gh o*d{h f +Mrkdqvvrq 4<<6,1

Uhpdutxh 618 Vl ohv grqqhv qh frqwlhqqhqw sdv gh euxlw +hoohv surylhqqhqw sdu h{hpsoh g*xq vlpxodwhxu,/ o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq uvxowdqwh shxw wuh wuv idleoh/ hooh qh frqwlhqw txh ohv huuhxuv qxpultxhv g*duurqglv rx gh fdofxo1 Oh uvlgx dlqvl rewhqx q*hvw sdv xq euxlw eodqf hw oh whvw gh ydolgdwlrq sufghqw q*d soxv dxfxq vhqv1 

6191 Ydolgdwlrq

:4

Gfruuodwlrq hqwuh ohv revhuydwlrqv hw o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq Od ghx{lph id0 plooh gh pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq/ grqw od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh/ hvw edvh vxu od gfruuodwlrq hqwuh oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrqv hw o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq1 Ohv revhuydwlrqv vrqw frqvwlwxhv gh od vruwlh gx prgoh + E| hw gh o*hqwuh E|1 Frpph od vruwlh gx prgoh gshqg xqltxhphqw gx vljqdo g*hqwuh/ lo vx!w txh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq vrlw lqgshq0 gdqwh gx vljqdo g*hqwuh E|1 Hq g*dxwuhv whuphv/ o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq qh grlw soxv frqwhqlu g*lqirupdwlrqv gshqgdqw gx vljqdo g*hqwuh/ fhwwh lqirupdwlrq hvw doruv gfulwh hqwluhphqw gdqv oh prgoh lghqwl1 Xq whvw dgtxdw shxw wuh idlw sdu od irqfwlrq g*lqwhufruuodwlrq qrupdolvh hqwuh oh vljqdo g*hqwuh E| hw oh uvlgx 0E|/ vrlw
? -0 E 

S 0E|E| n  ' t S |'  0E|2 S E|2 |' |'  




O*lqgshqgdqfh gh fhv ghx{ vljqdx{ hvw udolvh vl od irqfwlrq g*lqwhufruuodwlrq -? 0 E  ' f srxu wrxw Srxu whqlu frpswh gh od gxuh olplwh ghv vljqdx{/ xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh hvw xwlolv/ vrlw bS m-? 0 E m s srxu wrxw srxu xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh bDI/  2  D.DH s srxu wrxw srxu xq lqwhuydooh gh frqdqfh bbI m-? 0 E m  Hvwlpdwlrq g*xq prgoh gh o*huuhxu gh prgolvdwlrq O*huuhxu gh vruwlh 0r E| shxw vh gfrpsrvhu hq ghx{ sduwlhv/ o*xqh lqyduldqwh sdu udssruw dx vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq E| gshqgdqwh xqltxhphqw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv h{whuqhv dx v|vwph/ hw o*dxwuh irqfwlrq gx vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq uhsuvhqwdqw ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq/ vrlw 0rE| ' S{ E4c wE| n E| Oh wudqvihuw S{ E4c w uhsuvhqwh oh prgoh ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq hqwuh oh prgoh S E4c w  hw oh v|vwph SJ E41 Hq hhw 0rE| ' +E|  S E4c wE| ' dSJ Ew  S E4c wo E| n  E| Fh prgoh shxw wuh lghqwl sduwlu ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh iE|c 0r E|j|MdfcA o hq xwlolvdqw od pwkrgrorjlh suvhqwh hq gexw gh fh fkdslwuh +sdudjudskh 615,1 Xqh eruqh vxu fh prgoh {S{ E4c w  hvw dxvvl hvwlph g*dsuv o*dssurfkh suvhqwh gdqv +Omxqj hw Jxr 4<<:,1 Oh whvw gh ydolgdwlrq frqvlvwh doruv yulhu txh oh prgoh lghqwl S{ E4c w hvw surfkh gh }ur/ srxu fh idluh o*lqwhuydooh irup sdu {S{ E4c w grlw frqwhqlu }ur1

:5

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Fkrl{ gh od frpsoh{lw gx prgoh Xqh xwlolvdwlrq ghv pwkrghv gh ydolgdwlrq hvw dxvvl gh vohfwlrqqhu od phloohxuh vwuxf0 wxuh gx prgoh lghqwl1 Qrxv udsshorqv tx*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw h{sulph gdqv oh irupdolvph xql hvw grqqh sdu S E  ' ,Ec   KJ  ?K n K  ?K3 n       n K?K3  n K?K  E  ' ,Ec   ?@ E   n @  ?@3 n       n @?@3 n @?@

Gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv/ oh uhwdug frqwlhqw oh uhwdug g o*fkdqwloorq0 qdjh hw oh uhwdug sxu _ gx v|vwph/ vrlw ' E_ n Ae hw lo v*h{sulph gh od idrq vxlydqwh ,Ec   ' E n Ae  3_3 Od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh hvw grqf frpsrvh gx ghju gx gqrplqdwhxu ?@/ gx ghju gx qxpudwhxu ?K hw gx uhwdug _1 Frpph oh prgoh lghqwl hvw ghvwlq od v|qwkvh g*xqh orl gh frppdqgh/ lo grlw wuh oh soxv vlpsoh srvvleoh1 Qdqprlqv/ g*dxwuhv dssurfkhv shxyhqw wuh dgrswhv = sdu h{hpsoh/ o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq prgoh frpsoh{h grqqhud xq ujxodwhxu frpsoh{h txl vhud hqvxlwh dssur{lp sdu ujxodwhxu g*ruguh ugxlw1 Ghx{ dssurfkhv shxyhqw wuh xwlolvhv srxu rewhqlu od vwuxfwxuh gx v|vwph lghqwl0 hu =  xqh dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh1  xqh hvwlpdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh sduwlu ghv grqqhv1 Dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh = Hooh frqvlvwh idluh ydulhu oh qrpeuh ? gh sdudpwuhv hvwlphu/ xqh phvxuh gh ydolglw srxu fkdtxh prgoh lghqwl hvw hqvxlwh fdofxoh1 Soxvlhxuv fulwuhv gh ydolglw h{lvwhqw gdqv od olwwudwxuh +Vrghuvwurp hw Vwrlfd 4<;<,/ sdu h{hpsoh xqh phvxuh gx prgoh S hvw grqqh sdu oh fulwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq qdoh +ISH, vxlydqw ? n  a ES E?c w?  ' +6165, ? T Ew ? c     r  hvw oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv hw T Ec w oh fulwuh xwlolv srxu o*hvwlpdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv dyhf w? oh yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv/ vdyrlu T E w? c   ' 2 AA  A 5 + E|  E| w ? _| Ae f +6166,

Fhwwh phvxuh +6165, uhsuvhqwh od yduldqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq rewhqxh hq pr|hqqh oruvtxh oh prgoh S hvw dssoltx vxu xq hqvhpeoh gh grqqhv gluhqw gh fhoxl xwlolv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq +Omxqj 4<;:,1

6191 Ydolgdwlrq

:6

Gdqv oh fdv gh od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ oh fulwuh +6166, ghylhqw xqh phvxuh eldlvh gh o*fduw hqwuh oh v|vwph uho hw oh prgoh hq suvhqfh gh euxlw lpsruwdqw1 Gdqv +Gxrqj hw Odqgdx 4<<7, hw +Gxrqj hw Odqgdx 4<<9,/ fhwwh phvxuh +6166, hvw uhpsodfh sdu oh fulwuh vxlydqw 2 AA  A T E w? c   ' w ? _| +6167, 5 + E|  ~ E| Ae f r oh yhfwhxu ~ E| frqwlhqw ghv yduldeohv lqvwuxphqwdohv qrq fruuohv dyhf ohv shuwxued0 wlrqv hq vruwlh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ ohv vljqdx{ gh od vruwlh frqwhqxv gdqv oh yhfwhxu g*revhuydwlrq E| vrqw uhpsodfv sdu ghv vljqdx{ uhwdugv gh od frppdqgh E|  u srxu u : ? Od surfgxuh suvhqwh gdqv +Vrghuvwurp hw Vwrlfd 4<;<, dq gh gwhuplqhu ?@/ ?K hw _ d w dgdswh dx{ prgohv irupxov dyhf o*rsudwhxu gluhqwlho jqudolv =  Uhfkhufkh gh o*ruguh joredo = O*ruguh joredo gh S E  hvw grqq sdu ? ' ?@ n _ n Srxu gwhuplqhu o*ruguh joredo gx v|vwph/ lghqwlhu xq prgoh g*ruguh ?@ ' ?K ' ? hw _ ' f srxu ? ' f Wudfhu od yduldqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq a E? +fulwuh 6165, hq irqfwlrq gh ?/ o*ruguh joredo rswlpdo hvw rewhqx oruvtxh od gfurlvvdqfh uhodwlyh gx fulwuh q*hvw soxv vljqlfdwlyh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ vl a E? n  : fHa E? doruv ?JR| ' ?  Uhfkhufkh gx uhwdug = Xqh irlv o*ruguh joredo ?JR| rewhqx/ lghqwlhu xq prgoh g*ruguh ?@ ' ?K ' ?JR|  _  srxu _ ' ?JR|  f Wudfhu od yduldqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq +fulwuh 6165, hq irqfwlrq gh _/ oh uh0 wdug rswlpdo hvw rewhqx oruvtxh od gfurlvvdqfh uhodwlyh gx fulwuh 8  . q*hvw soxv vljqlfdwlyh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ vl a E_ n  : fHa E_ doruv _JR| ' _ Oh ghju gx gqrplqdwhxu shxw doruv wuh fkrlvl frpph ?@JR| ' ?JR|  _JR|   Uhfkhufkh gx ghju gx qxpudwhxu = Lghqwlhu xq prgoh g*ruguh _ ' _JR| ?@ ' ?@JR| hw idluh ydulhu ?K hqwuh f hw ?@JR| 1 Wudfhu od yduldqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq +fulwuh 6165, hq irqfwlrq gh ?K/ oh ghju ?K rswlpdo hvw rewhqx oruvtxh od gfurlvvdqfh uhodwlyh gx fulwuh 8  . q*hvw soxv vljqlfdwlyh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ vl a E?K n  : fHa E?K doruv ?KJR| ' ?K

:7

61 Lghqwlfdwlrq

Lghqwlfdwlrq vwuxfwxuhooh = Fhwwh dssurfkh shuphw g*rewhqlu gluhfwhphqw/ sdu od plqlplvdwlrq g*xq fulwuh/ od phloohxuh vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh lghqwl1 Srxu whqlu frpswh gh od frpsoh{lw gx prgoh/ ghv sqdolwv hq irqfwlrq gx qrpeuh ghv sdudpwuhv rqw w dmrxwhv dx fulwuh +6166, rx +6167,/ vrlw ? w?c   n a ES E?c w?  ' T E  rx +6168,

*L}  a ES E?c w?  ' T E w? c   n ? +6169,  fhwwh ghuqluh phvxuh sqdolvh gdydqwdjh oh qrpeuh gh sdudpwuhv1 Hooh hvw xwlolvhu oruvtxh o*rq fkhufkh ghv prgohv g*ruguh ugxlw1 Oh qrpeuh rswlpdo ghv sdudpwuhv hvwlphu srxuud wuh rewhqx sdu plqlplvdwlrq gh fhv phvxuhv/ ?W ' 4? a ES E?c w?  +616:,
?

Xq frpsurplv hvw dlqvl udolv hqwuh od frpsoh{lw gx prgoh hw od uhsuvhqwdwlrq goh gx v|vwph1 Gh od pph pdqluh txh yxh sufghpphqw/ xqh irlv o*ruguh joredo hvwlp/ fhwwh plqlplvdwlrq shxw v*dssoltxhu srxu rewhqlu ?@/ ?K hw _1 Xqh wxgh soxv dssurirqglh vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq vwuxfwxuhooh g*xq prgoh hvw grqqh gdqv +Gxrqj 4<<6,1

61:

Frqfoxvlrq

Xqh surfgxuh frpsowh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv uvxph sdu oh vfkpd 6143 d w suvhqwh1 Oh irupdolvph xql d w xwlolv srxu gfuluh ohv dojrulwkphv fodvvltxhv gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ufxuvlyh gglh od frppdqgh1 O*wxgh gh od frqyhujhqfh gh fhv dojr0 ulwkphv d dxvvl w derugh dyhf fh irupdolvph1 Frpph xqh surfgxuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq v|vwph hvw idlwh gdqv oh exw g*dpolruhu od frppdqgh gh fhoxl0fl/ oh surfkdlq fkdslwuh hvw ggl od v|qwkvh g*xqh frppdqgh xwlolvdqw fh prgoh lghqwl1

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh +Fodunh/ Prkwdgl hw Wxv 4<;:,/ +Fodunh 4<<7, hvw suvhqwh dyhf o*rsudwhxu gulyh jqudolvh1 Oh qrpeuh gh sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh d w vlpsol hq v*lqvsludqw gh od surfgxuh sdu od pwkrgh gx sodfhphqw gh sohv urexvwh +gh Oduplqdw 4<<6,/ +gh Oduplqdw 4<<;,1 Xqh pwkrgrorjlh edvh vxu xq d!qhphqw ghv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw doruv sursrvh1 Srxu fh idluh/ ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv uhsuvhqwv sdu ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolwv xvxhoohv vrqw gqlv1

714

Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh

Od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh vh idlw jqudohphqw hq wurlv wdshv frpph o*lq0 gltxh od jxuh 7141  Od suhpluh wdsh frqvlvwh oderuhu xq prgoh gh frppdqgh/ txl uhsuvhqwh dx plhx{ oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx surfg sdu udssruw dx{ shuirupdqfhv uh0 txlvhv/ sduwlu gh od wkrulh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv +Omxqj 4<;:,/ +Vrghuvwurp hw Vwrlfd 4<;<, hw +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Srxu ohv pwkrghv gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh/ ohv prgohv gh frppdqgh dvvrflv vrqw irqgdphqwdohphqw xwlolvv srxu od v|qwkvh gh erqv suglfwhxuv gh od vruwlh gx v|vwph hw q*rqw jqudohphqw dxfxq vhqv sk|0 vltxh sduwlfxolhu1  Od vhfrqgh wdsh frqvlvwh gwhuplqhu ohv sdudpwuhv g*xq ujxodwhxu hq irqfwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv sduwlu ghv pwkrghv gh v|qwkvh rhuwhv sdu od wkrulh gh od frppdqgh +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,/ +Dqghuvrq hw Prruh 4<<3,/ +Elwphdg hw do1 4<<3, hw +Juhhq hw Olphehhu 4<<8,1 Od vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv frqvwlwxh od wfkh hvvhqwlhooh gx frqfhswhxu/ txl xwlolvhudlw dyhf sodlvlu wrxwh erqqh frqfhswlrq dvvlvwh sdu ruglqdwhxu1 Qrxv dyrqv gyhorss srxu fhod oh orjlflho VLPDUW +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<:, shuphwwdqw gh udolvhu wrxwhv ohv wdshv uhtxlvhv +yrlu fkdslwuh 9,1 Od v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu vh idlw gh pdqluh lwudwlyh frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 715 41 oh ujxodwhxu hvw v|qwkwlv sduwlu g*xq fkrl{ gh sdudpwuhv gh ujodjh/

:9

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

51 ohv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv gx ujxodwhxu vrqw dqdo|vhv sdu o*lqwhupgldluh g*lqglfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv shuwlqhqwv who txh sdu h{hpsoh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d,1 61 vl ohv shuirupdqfhv qh vrqw sdv vdwlvidlvdqwhv/ uhwrxu o*wdsh r xq qrxyhdx mhx gh sdudpwuhv grlw wuh fkrlvl1  Od ghuqluh wdsh frqvlvwh phwwuh hq xyuh o*dojrulwkph gh frppdqgh hq whpsv uho1 Srxu fh idluh/ oh vxssruw pdwulho udolvdqw o*h{fxwlrq gh o*dojrulwkph gh frp0 pdqgh d xqh lpsruwdqfh fdslwdoh srxu vrq erq gurxohphqw hq whpsv uho1 Hq hhw/ vxlydqw txh o*dojrulwkph gh frppdqgh hvw lpsophqw vxu xq fdofxodwhxu whpsv uho/ vxu xq plfurfrqwuohxu rx vxu xq dxwrpdwh surjudppdeoh +Fkhedvvlhu/ P*Vddg hw ]dqror 4<<:,/ ohv rxwlov glvsrqleohv hq pdwluh g*dqdo|vh qxpultxh vrqw soxv rx prlqv shuirupdqwv1 Lo hvw qdwxuhoohphqw soxv gl!floh gh phwwuh hq rhxyuh xqh orl gh frppdqgh oderuh vxu xq dxwrpdwh surjudppdeoh qh glvsrvdqw sdv g*xqh ol0 eudlulh srxu oh fdofxo rwwdqw txh vxu xqh vwdwlrq gh wudydlo wudydloodqw xqh ylwhvvh ohyh hw xqh wuv erqqh suflvlrq1 Gdqv fhv gluhqwv fdv/ od uhsuvhqwdwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd xwlolvdqw prlqv gh fkluhv vljqlfdwliv shxw v*dyuhu wuv xwloh1 Ohv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh vrqw jqudohphqw uhsuvhqwv frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 717 r  iE|j hw i+ E|j gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph frp0 pdqghu/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh o*hqvhpeoh frqyhuwlvvhxu qxpultxh dqdorjltxh/ dfwlrqqhxu/ surfg sursuhphqw glw/ fdswhxu/ owuh dqwl0uhfrxyuhphqw hw frqyhuwlvvhxu dqdor0 jltxh qxpultxh frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 7161  iE|j uhsuvhqwh o*hqvhpeoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu/ hq sduwlfxolhu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh hw ohv euxlwv gh phvxuh hq hqwuh hw hq vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu1  i+WE|j gvljqh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh txh o*rq shxw hqjhqguhu sduwlu gh od vtxhqfh ghv srlqwv gh frqvljqh iWE|j frpph vxlw WE4+W E| '  W E4W E| r oh prgoh gh uiuhqfh S WE  '  WE  WE  +714,

uhsuvhqwh jqudohphqw od g|qdpltxh gh srxuvxlwh grplqdqwh vrxkdlwh1  Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh gh od jxuh 717 shxw wuh uhsuvhqw gh idrq idluh dssdudwuh ohv owuhv Z E  ' (E `? E  `+? E  hw Z+ E  ' `_E  `+_E 

7141 Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh

::

frpph vxu od jxuh 718 r Z E  grlw wuh xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw sursuh hw Z+ E  sursuh rx vwulfwhphqw sursuh1 Fhv owuhv vrqw ghv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv jqudohphqw xwlolvhv srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh1 Ohv yduldeohv owuhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv vrqw gqlhv frpph vxlw `+_E4+s E| ' `+?E4+E| `_E4s E| ' (E4`? E4E| W E| ' ` E4+WE| `+_E4+s +? +715, +716, +717,

r `? E4/ `_ E4/ `+?E4 hw `+_E4 vrqw ghv sro|qphv g*Kxuzlw} +Juhhq hw Ol0 phehhu 4<<8,1 Oh sro|qph (E4 uhsuvhqwh od qdwxuh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx surfg1 Oh fdv (E4 ' 4 shuphw g*lqfrusr0 uhu xqh dfwlrq lqwjudoh h{solflwh gdqv oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh lqgshqgdpphqw gh od pwkrgh gh v|qwkvh frqvlguhu1 Rq dvvxuh dlqvl xqh huuhxu vwdwltxh qxooh srxu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gx w|sh fkhorq vdwlvidlvdqw dlqvl od sursulw irqgdphqwdoh g*xqh txhofrqtxh frppdqgh SLG wrxw hq ylwdqw ohv olplwdwlrqv gh fhwwh ghuqluh +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d,1 Oh fdv (E4 ' 42 shuphw gh gfuluh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gh w|sh udpsh1 Ohv shuwxuedwlrqv kduprqltxhv gh sxovdwlrq / shxyhqw wuh sulvhv hq frqvlgudwlrq dyhf (E4 ' 42 n /21 Uhpdutxh 714 Xq h{hpsoh xvxho gh od srqgudwlrq iutxhqwlhooh hq hqwuh hvw grqq sdu (E4 Z E4 '   ?_ 4n A A  ?_ r oh gqrplqdwhxu `_E4 ' 4 n AA d w lqwurgxlw srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh fdx0 vdolw1 

:;

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

WKHRULH GH OD FRPPDQGH

; A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ? A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A =

VSHFLILFDWLRQV GHV " SHUIRUPDQFHV PHWKRGH GH V\QWKHVH

! FDKLHU GH  

FKDUJHV

< A A A A A A A A A A A A A A @PRGHOLVDWLRQ A LGHQWLILFDWLRQ A A A A A A A A A A A A A >


HW2RX

PRGHOH GH FRPPDQGH

HQYLURQQHPHQW

+9 E|

   UHJXODWHXU

 E|

E|

~} hw

PLFUR0LQIRUPDWLTXH LQIRUPDWLTXH LQGXVWULHOOH

V\VWHPH ! D FRPPDQGHU


+E|

Iljxuh 714 = V|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh hq wurlv wdshv =


Plvh hq rhxyuh

Prgolvdwlrq/ Frppdqgh/

7141

Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh

:<

Lqlwldolvdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gx ujxodwhxu

" 

&  # 
Dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

V|qwkvh gx ujxodwhxu

D!qhphqw ghv sdudpwuhv gx ujxodwhxu

Lqvx!vdqwhv

Erqqhv 

Iljxuh 715 = Lwudwlrqv hqwuh v|qwkvh hw dqdo|vh g*xq ujxodwhxu srxu oh ujodjh gh fhv sdudpwuhv

;3

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

SHUWXUEDWLRQV

! 
DFWLRQQHXU

V\VWHPH D FRPPDQGHU

! 
FDSWHXU

 

ILOWUH DU


FQD

"

KRUORJH

FDQ


HQWUHH VRUWLH

DOJRULWKPH GH

FRPPDQGH QXPHULTXH

"

FDOFXODWHXU QXPHULTXH

Iljxuh 716 = Vfkpd gh frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv

7151

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh =

dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

;4

E| +9E|

! !

E|
UHJXODWHXU

V\VWHPH D FRPPDQGHU

+E|

Iljxuh 717 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh

 E| +9 E|

Z+ E 

9 E| +s

 

s E|
UHJXODWHXU

ZN E 

E|

V\VWHPH D

+ E|

FRPPDQGHU

+s E|

Z+ E 

Iljxuh 718 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh olqdluh dyhf srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv1

715

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh = dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

Gdqv vd iruph vwdqgdug/ od v|qwkvh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh hvw idlwh dyhf xqh dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh/ hooh uhtxlhuw srxu fhod oh fdofxo g*xqh suglfwlrq gh od vruwlh gx v|vwph vxu xq krul}rq grqq1 Qrxv dyrqv wudlw fhwwh dssurfkh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh dyhf o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh gdqv +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d, hw +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<;,1 Hq frqwlqx/ +Jdzwkurs hw Ghpluflr
jox 4<;<, xwlolvhqw ohv gulyhv vxffhvvlyhv gh od vruwlh gx v|vwph srxu frqqdwuh vrq yroxwlrq ixwxuh1 Dyhf o*rsudwhxu B / xqh dssurfkh vlplodluh d w xwlolvh gdqv +Qhxpdqq/ Gxpxu hw Erxfkhu 4<<5, hw +Urvwjddug/ Srxovhq hw Udyq 4<<6, srxu gwhuplqhu od suglfwlrq gh od vruwlh1

;5

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

71514

Ohv prgohv gh frppdqgh olqdluh1

Oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu hvw jqudohphqw dssur{lp sdu ohv txdwlrqv vxlydqwhv E4+E| '  E4E| n  E| n E| (E4 E| '  E4eE| dyhf E4  E4  E4 (E4 ' ' ' ' 4?@ n @ 4?@3 n    n @?@ KJ 4?K n K4?K3 n    n K?K 4?S n S4?S3 n    n S?S 4?_ n _ 4?_3 n    n _?_ +718, +719,

+71:, +71;, +71<, +7143,

r i E|j hw iE|j uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqf0 wlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu hw ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq lqoxfwdeohv/ ieE|j hvw xqh vtxhqfh g*lpsxovlrqv grqw ohv dpsolwxghv hw ohv lqvwdqwv g*rffxuuhqfh vrqw lq0 frqqxv +frqwh{wh gwhuplqlvwh , rx xqh vtxhqfh gh yduldeohv dodwrluhv gh pr|hqqh qxooh hw gh yduldqfh qlh +frqwh{wh vwrfkdvwltxh ,1 Oh prgoh gh frppdqgh +718,0+719, shxw wuh fdudfwulv sdu ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw S E  '  E   E  hw KE  ' E  E (E 

txl uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od g|qdpltxh grplqdqwh gx v|vwph frppdqghu hw oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv h{whuqhv od oxpluh gx sulqflsh gx prgoh lqwhuqh1 Od v|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw idlwh sduwlu g*xq prgoh txl uholh o*hqwuh owuh od vruwlh owuh hw txh o*rq shxw rewhqlu uhodwlyhphqw idflohphqw dsuv gh vlpsohv pdqlsxodwlrqv dojeultxhv hhfwxhv vxu oh prgoh gh frppdqgh +718,0+719, hq vxssrvdqw txh ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq vrqw lghqwltxhphqw qxoohv/ vrlw @E4+s E| ' @ E4s E| n @E4eE| dyhf @ E4 ' E4`+_E4`? E4(E4 @ E4 '  E4`+? E4`_E4 @ E4 '  E4`+?E4`? E4 +7145, +7146, +7147, +7144,

Xq who prgoh hvw xwlolv srxu gwhuplqhu xq suglfwhxu gh od vruwlh owuh sduwlu ghv lqirupdwlrqv glvsrqleohv o*lqvwdqw | dyhf xqh g|qdpltxh gx suglfwhxu fdudfwulvh sdu xq sro|qph grqq R E4 gh ghju ?R ' ?S@1 Fh suglfwhxu hvw gwhuplq sduwlu g*xqh uhsdudpwulvdwlrq gx prgoh gh frppdqgh +7144,0+7147,1 Hq hhw/ oh prgoh gh frppdqgh shxw vh ufuluh frpph vxlw 4 +s E| ' 4 @E4 R E4 @ E4 s E| n 4 eE| @ E4 @ E4 R E4

7151

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh =

dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

;6

Frpph oh wudqvihuw  

R E  shxw wuh qrq0sursuh +ghju gx qxpudwhxu  n ?R vxsulhxu @E  dx ghju gx gqrplqdwhxu ?@@,/ qrxv oh gfrpsrvrqv hq xq uhvwh qrq0sursuh hw xqh sduwlh vwulfwhphqw sursuh/ vrlw R E  8 E   ' . 3oR E  n +7148, @ E  @ E 

r oh ghju gh .3oR hvw grqq sdu   oR dyhf oR oh ghju uhodwli ?@@  ?R hw oh ghju gh 8 hvw ?@@  1 Rq rewlhqw grqf 4 +s E| ' 4 frpph . 3oRE4 @ E4 8 E4 @ E4 @ E4 s E| n eE| n . 3oR E4 eE| @ E4 @ E4 R E4 RE4

@ E4 eE| uhsuvhqwh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv ixwxuhv qrq suglfwleohv/ od phlo0 RE4 ohxuh suglfwlrq gh od gulyh gh od vruwlh owu hvw grqq sdu s E| ' 4 4 + 8 E4 @ E4 @ E4 s E| n eE| @ E4 @ E4 R E4

rx 4 + s E| '

.3oR E4@ E4 8 E4 s E| n +s E| R E4 R E4 . 3oR E @ E  shxw wuh qrq0sursuh/ R E 

Gh pph/ frpph vxlydqw ohv ydohxuv gh  / oh wudqvihuw hq xwlolvdqw od glylvlrq sro|qrpldoh vxlydqwh

. 3oR E @ E  M E  ' C3oK E  n R E  R E 

+7149,

oh wudqvihuw hvw dxvvl gfrpsrv hq xqh sduwlh qrq0sursuh C3oK gh ghju   oK dyhf oK M E  oh ghju uhodwli ?@@  ?K@ hw xqh sduwlh vwulfwhphqw sursuh r oh ghju gh M hvw R E  ?R  1 O*h{suhvvlrq ghv suglfwlrqv ghv gulyhv gh od vruwlh owuh hvw gfulwh doruv sdu od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh 4 + s E| ' C3oK E4s E| n 4 + sJ E| dyhf 4 + sJ E| ' M E4 8 E4 s E| n +s E| R E4 R E4 +714:,

Ohv uhpdutxhv vxlydqwhv vrqw uhodwlyhphqw lpsruwdqwhv srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh v|qwkvh ghv orlv gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh1 U41 Od gwhuplqdwlrq ghv vroxwlrqv E.3oR E4c 8 E4 hw EC 3oK E4c M E4 srxu  5 dc Ro ghv glylvlrqv hxfolglhqqhv +7148, hw +7149, shxw vh idluh g*xqh pdqluh ufxuvlyh +oh gwdlo ghv fdofxov vh wurxyh hq dqqh{h D1:,1

;7

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

U51 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq hvw grqqh sdu o*txdwlrq .3oR E4@E4 4 +s E|  4 + eE| s E| ' RE4

+714;,

txl idlw dssdudwuh fodluhphqw txh oh suglfwhxu hvw rswlpdo/ dx vhqv gh od pl0 qlplvdwlrq gh od yduldqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq/ vl ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhq0 wlhoohv Z E  hw Z+ E  vrqw fkrlvlhv whoohv txh @ E4eE| ' R E4/ E| r i/E|j hvw xqh vtxhqfh gh yduldeohv dodwrluhv lqgshqgdqwhv gh pr|hqqh qxooh hw gh yduldqfh qlh j21 Hq hhw/ o*txdwlrq gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq dvvr0 flh hvw grqqh sdu o*txdwlrq 4 +s E|  4 + s E| ' .3oRE4/ E| ' ef4 3oR /E| n e43oR3/ E| n    n e3oR /E| rx hq uhyhqdqw o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh sdu xqh wudqvirupdwlrq gx sro|qph .3oRE4 hq xq sro|qph 73oR E^  ' e 7f^  3oR n e 7 ^ 3oR3 n    n e 7 3oR . +vh uhsruwhu od uhodwlrq 51<,/ sdu o*txdwlrq 4 +s E|  4 + s E| ' e 7f/ E| n   oR n e 7/ E| n   oR   n       n e 73oR /E| hw vd yduldqfh hvw grqqh sdu HiE4 +s E|  4 + s E|2j ' #3oR [
'f

$
2 e 72  j

U61 Vxu xq krul}rq gh suglfwlrq R/ ohv gulyhv vxffhvvlyhv gh od vruwlh owuh shxyhqw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph yhfwrulhooh ERE| ' CL ER3oK n t ER E| t +714<, s s sJ dyhf ERE| ' d t +s E|                4R+ s E|oA s ERE| ' d +sJ E|             4R+ sJ E|oA t sJ

Ls

ER

3oK E|


' ds E|                4R3oK s E|oA

dyhf }J }R3oK ohv frh!flhqwv gx sro|qphv C 3oK E41 +yrlu dqqh{h D1:,1


r C hvw xqh pdwulfh gh glphqvlrq ER n   ER  oK n  gqlh frpph vxlw 5 6 f f   f 1 1 : 9 1 1    1 1 : 9 : 9 } f       f 9 : J 9 : }J       f : } C'9 +7153, : 9 1 1 1 9 1 1    11    1 1 : 9 : 7 }R3oK3       }J f 8 }R3oK          }J

7151

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh =

dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

;8

71515

Uhodwlrq hqwuh suglfwlrq hw gulyhv

Od v|qwkvh gx ujxodwhxu uhtxlhuw od suglfwlrq gh od vruwlh gx v|vwph vxu xq krul}rq grqq hw qrq sdv gh od suglfwlrq ghv gulyhv gh od vruwlh1 O*wdeolvvhphqw g*xq suglf0 whxu gh od vruwlh hvw grqf oh srlqw fuxfldo gh fhwwh dssurfkh1 Hq glvfuhw/ dyhf o*rsudwhxu vwdqgdug ^/ lo h{lvwh xqh uhodwlrq gluhfwh hqwuh o*yroxwlrq ixwxuh g*xq vljqdo hw od ydohxu gh fh vljqdo o*lqvwdqw suvhqw %EE& n  Ae  ' ^  %E&Ae  Hq frqwlqx/ hq xwlolvdqw oh gyhorsshphqw hq vulh gh Wd|oru/ rq rewlhqw xqh uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv gulyhv gx vljqdo o*lqvwdqw | hw o*yroxwlrq ixwxuh gh fh vljqdo vxu xq krul}rq A +Jdzwkurs hw Ghpluflr
jox 4<;<, %E| n A  '

" A [
'f

-

%E E|

Dyhf o*rsudwhxu B / hq xwlolvdqw oh gyhorsshphqw gx elqph gh Qhzwrq/ rq rewlhqw %E| n A  ' E n BAe qrwrqv txh 
A*AA

%E| '

A*A A  [ 'f

  Ae B  %E| A *Ae

  A  Ae $ A <f A *Ae
A

rq uhwurxyh dlqvl oh gyhorsshphqw gx fdv frqwlqx1 O*xwlolvdwlrq gh o*fulwxuh vxlydqwh shuphw gh wudlwhu xqltxhphqw ohv lqvwdqwv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh
   [  %EE& n  Ae  ' Ae B  %E&Ae  'f

+7154,

sxlv sdu fkdqjhphqw gh qrwdwlrq


   [  %E| n   ' Ae B  %E|  'f

Rq d grqf dxvvl gdqv fh fdv xqh uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv gulyhv vxffhvvlyhv gx vljqdo o*lqvwdqw | hw od ixwxuh ydohxu gx vljqdo1 Oh suglfwhxu gh od vruwlh owuh v*rewlhqw hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq +7154,/ srvrqv s E| n R*| ' d t +s E| n oK*|                + s E| n R*|oA Ls E| n R  oK ' ds E|                   s E| n R  oKoA rq d s E| n R*| ' A+ t ER E| t s Ls E| n R  oK ' A Ls
ER

3oK

;9

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

dyhf od pdwulfh gh wudqvirupdwlrq A+ gh glphqvlrq ER  oK n   ER n  grqqh sdu    n oK  3 A+ ' d| o hw | ' Ae  hw od pdwulfh gh wudqvirupdwlrq A gh glphqvlrq ER  oK n   ER  oK n  grqqh sdu     3 A ' d| o hw | ' A  e Xq h{hpsoh looxvudwli ghv iruphv ghv pdwulfhv gh wudqvirupdwlrq hvw grqq hq dqqh{h D19 Dlqvl/ od iruph yhfwrulhooh ghv suglfwhxuv shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph s E| n R*| ' CL 7 s E| n R  oK n A+ t ER E| t sJ 7 gh glphqvlrq ER  oK n   ER  oK n  dyhf od pdwulfh C

3 7 ' A+ CA C

Oh suglfwhxu + s E| n *| hvw frpsowhphqw glvsrqleoh o*lqvwdqw | srxu  oK1 Srxu   oK/ lo gshqg gh od vtxhqfh gh frppdqghv is E| n jMd|c |n!oKo txh o*rq shxw gwhuplqhu sduwlu g*xq remhfwli gh frppdqgh grqq1

71516

V|qwkvh

Ohv remhfwliv gh frppdqgh xwlolvv gdqv fhwwh wkvh vrqw fhx{ gh od frppdqgh olqdluh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh oh sodfhphqw ghv sohv hw hyhqwxhoohphqw ghv }urv rx od plqlplvdwlrq g*xq fulwuh txdgudwltxh1 Frpph qrxv oh yhuurqv gdqv oh sdudjudskh 71817/ wrxv fhv remhfwliv gh frppdqgh shxyhqw wuh rewhqxv sduwlu gh od plqlplvdwlrq dx vhqv g*xq krul}rq ix|dqw/ sdu udssruw dx yhfwhxu gh frppdqgh Ls E| n S   ' ds E|             s E| n S  oA / gx fulwuh txdgudwltxh vxlydqw + R , [ 9 E| n  o2 n bd E| n   o2 a ELs E| n S   ' H d+s E| n    +s +7155, s
 '

hq vxssrvdqw txh

s E| n  ' f srxu  5 dSc R  oK n o

+7156,

r  hvw xq hqwlhu ql who txh   oK/ R hw S vrqw ghv hqwlhuv qlv rx lqqlv hw b hvw xq vfdodluh srvlwli txl shuphw gh srqguhu o*hhw gh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh owuh is E|j1 Od udolvdwlrq gh o*remhfwli gh frppdqgh rswlpdoh krul}rq ix|dqw +7155,0+7156, shxw wuh idlwh hq dgrswdqw xqh dssurfkh gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh jqudolvh oruvtxh ohv kr0 ul}rqv gh suglfwlrq hw gh frppdqgh vrqw qlv +Fodunh hw do1 4<;:,/ +P*Vddg hw Fkhedv0 vlhu 4<<9d, rx xqh dssurfkh gh frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh jdxvvlhqqh oruvtxh fhv krul}rqv vrqw lqqlv +Dqghuvrq hw Prruh 4<<3,1 Od v|qwkvh idlwh sduwlu g*xqh dssurfkh gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh/ hvw edvh vxu oh sulqflsh g*txlydohqfh txl vwlsxoh txh od plqlplvdwlrq gx fulwuh +7155, hvw txlydohqwh od plqlplvdwlrq gx fulwuh txdgudwltxh

7151

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh =

dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

;:

a ELs E| n S   '

 '

R [  9 E| n  2 n b E E| n   2 + es E| n *|  +s s

+7157,

r + s E| n *| gvljqh oh suglfwhxu rswlpdo  sdv gh od vruwlh owuh gx v|vwph o*lqvwdqw | n  sduwlu ghv lqirupdwlrqv glvsrqleohv o*lqvwdqw |1 Hq xwlolvdqw ohv txdwlrqv gx suglfwhxu/ rq shxw ufuluh oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh +7157, vrxv od frqwudlqwh +7156, vrxv od iruph yhfwrulhooh vxlydqwh   2 7  ER 9 ER a ELs E| n S   ' CLs E| n S   n A+  tsJ E|  ts E|  nb nLs E| n S  n2 dyhf ts +7158,

9ER E| ' d+9 E|                      4R +9 E|oA s s ! 7 C ' A CA


+ 

r od pdwulfh gh wudqvirupdwlrq A+ hvw gh glphqvlrq ER   n   ER n  grqqh sdu    n   ! Ae A+ ' d| o hw | ' 

! gh glphqvlrq ER  oK n   ES grqqh sdu hw od pdwulfh gh wudqvirupdwlrq A   n   ! A ' d| o hw | ' E A !n  e
7 hvw ER   n   S> hooh d w ugxlwh Qrwrqv txh od glphqvlrq gh od pdwulfh C 7 sdu udssruw fhooh gh od pdwulfh C txl dssdudw gdqv ohv h{suhvvlrqv +714<,0+7153, ghv suglfwhxuv rswlpdx{/ vrlw ER  oK n   ER  oK n 1 Ohv suhpluhv   oK oljqhv gh od pdwulfh A+ rqw w vxssulphv fdu rq xwlolvh xq krul}rq g*lqlwldolvdwlrq   oK/ doruv txh ! rqw w vxssulphv sdufh tx*rq xwlolvh xq krul}rq ohv ghuqluhv frorqqhv gh od pdwulfh A 9 E| n S   txl plqlplvh oh gh frppdqgh S 5 dc R  oKo1 Oh yhfwhxu gh frppdqgh Ls fulwuh +7158,/ vrlw ELs E| n S   Ya 'f YLs E| n S   hvw rewhqx sduwlu gh o*txdwlrq   9E| n S   ' C 7A C 7 n bUS oLs 7 A A+  t ER E|  t 9ER E| dC sJ s

9E| n S   frqvlvwh uvrxguh xq Oh fdofxo gh od vtxhqfh gh frppdqgh rswlpdoh Ls v|vwph g*txdwlrqv olqdluhv gh glphqvlrq S1 Rq xwlolvhud srxu fh idluh o*xqh ghv p0 wkrghv qxpultxhv glvsrqleohv gdqv wrxwhv ohv oleudlulhv vflhqwltxhv gdqv od phvxuh rx

;;

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

o*rq shxw rewhqlu xqh erqqh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh hq vsfldqw frqyhqdeohphqw od srqg0 udwlrq b> h1j1 lo vx!w gh suhqguh b ojuhphqw vxsulhxu dx }ur gh od pdfklqh xwlolvh1 Oh frqfhsw g*krul}rq ix|dqw frqvlvwh qh suhqguh hq frqvlgudwlrq txh od suhpluh 9 E| n S  / vrlw s E|/ hw uhfrpphqfhu frpsrvdqwh gx yhfwhxu gh frppdqgh rswlpdo Ls oh surfhvvxv g*rswlplvdwlrq fkdtxh sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh srxu pdlqwhqlu oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh hq erxfoh ihuph dx{ lqvwdqwv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Od orl gh frppdqgh krul}rq ix|dqw txl hq uvxowh hvw doruv grqqh sdu s E| ' 
R [  'f

k

  9 E| 4+ sJ E|  4 +s

+7159,

r ohv frh!flhqwv k srxu  5 dfc Ro qh vrqw dxwuhv txh ohv frpsrvdqwhv gh od suhpluh 7A C 7 n bUS o!C 7 A A+  Hq whqdqw frpswh gh o*h{suhvvlrq +714:, gx oljqh gh od pdwulfh dC suglfwhxu  sdv/ rq shxw ufuluh fhwwh orl gh frppdqgh frpph vxlw [ [ M E4 8 E4 9 E| k s E|  k +s E| n k 4 +s s E| '   E 4   E 4  R R  'f  'f  'f rx g*xqh pdqluh txlydohqwh vrxv od iruph gvrupdlv xvxhooh -@ E4 A@ E4 9 7@ E4 s E| '  +s E| n + E| R E4 RE4 R E4 s dyhf 7@ E4 ' RE4 n -@ E4 '
R [  'f R [  'f R [ R R

+715:,

k M E4

+715;, +715<, +7163,

k 8 E4
R [  'f

A@ E4 ' RE4

k 4

Qrwrqv txh oh ghju gx sro|qph 7@E4 hvw jdo ?R/ doruv txh fhoxl gx sro|qph -@ E4 hvw { sdu fhoxl gx sro|qph 8 E4 f*hvw gluh ?@@  1 Oh fkrl{ srxu oh ghju gx sro|qph R E4 vh uhwurxyh dlqvl uhvwuhlqw dx{ ydohxuv vxlydqwhv ?@@   ?R  ?@@ Vl oh ghju ?R gh R E4 hvw fkrlvl who txh ?R ' ?@@  / oh ujxodwhxu vhud vhxohphqw xq wudqvihuw sursuh/ fh txl hvw shx vrxkdlwdeoh srxu ghv udlvrqv gh urexvwhvvh1 Oh fkrl{ frqvhloo srxu oh ghju gh R E4 hvw grqf ?R ' ?@@ / fh txl grqqh srxu oh ghju uhodwli oR xqh ydohxu qxooh1 Od qrq fdxvdolw rewhqxh dyhf oh sro|qph A@ E4 vxssrvh txh od vtxhqfh gh 9 E| hvw frqqxh vxu wrxw o*lqwhuydooh d|c | n Ro1 uiuhqfh +s

7151

V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh =

dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh

;<

 E| + 9E|

A E4

! &  . ) 
S

4 V +,G+,

E|

V\VWHPH ! D FRPPDQGHU

+E|

-E4

"

Iljxuh 719 =

Ujxodwhxu UVW

Hq whqdqw frpswh ghv gqlwlrqv ghv yduldeohv owuhv +715,0+717,/ od orl gh frppdqgh +715:,0+7163, shxw vh ufuluh vrxv od iruph gvrupdlv xvxhooh 7 E4(E4E| n -E4+E| ' A E4+9 E| dyhf 7 E4 ' 7@ E4`+_ E4`? E4 -E4 ' -@E4`+? E4`_E4 A E4 ' A@ E4`+? E4`_E4 +7165, +7166, +7167, +7164,

Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw grqf frqvwlwx g*xq ujxodwhxu gh iruph UVW hw gx surfg frppdqghu frpph vxu od jxuh 7191

71517

Frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho

Oh frqfhsw gh prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho +PUHS, hvw suvhqw dq gh srxyrlu vsflhu g*xqh pdqluh lqgshqgdqwh ohv g|qdpltxhv gh srxuvxlwh hw gh ujxodwlrq1 Hq hhw/ od srxuvxlwh gqlh sdu oh wudqvihuw hqwuh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh +9 E| hw od vruwlh +E|/ vrlw  E4A E4 +E| ' +9E| E4(E47 E4 n  E4-E4 ghylhqw sduidlwh oruvtxh od orl gh frppdqgh E-E4c 7 E4c A E4 vdwlvidlw E4(E47 E4 n  E4-E4 '  E4A E4 lqgshqgdpphqw gx prgoh gh frppdqgh EE4c  E41 Oh v|vwph frppdqghu grlw wuh doruv lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh/ vrlw  E  ' f ,  5 (r

<3

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

Xqh whooh frqglwlrq hvw soxww xqh h{fhswlrq tx*xqh ujoh gdqv od sudwltxh gh od frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv/ o*rsudwlrq g*fkdqwloorqqdjh lqwurgxlvdqw gdqv oh prgoh gh frppdqgh ghv }urv lqvwdeohv gdqv oh fdv gh fdghqfh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh ohyh +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,1 Fhwwh fdudfwulvwltxh jqdqwh ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv hvw wrxwhirlv dprlqgulh dyhf o*xwlolvdwlrq gh o*rsudwhxu B +Khuvk 4<<6,1 Vl oh sro|qph A E4 hvw fkrlvl frpph vxlw A E4 ' q dE4(E47 E4 n  E4-E4o dyhf q '  Ef +7168,

doruv od g|qdpltxh gh srxuvxlwh shxw wuh vsflh lqgshqgdpphqw ghv g|qdpltxhv gh ujxodwlrq wudyhuv od g|qdpltxh gx jqudwhxu gh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh1 Hq hhw od g|qdpltxh gh srxuvxlwh txl hq uvxowh hvw grqqh sdu q E  rx q E   9 E  9 E 

rq qrwhud txh oh vfdodluh q d w lqwurgxlw srxu dyrlu xq jdlq vwdwltxh xqlwdluh1 D sduwlu gh fhv uhpdutxhv/ ohv vtxhqfhv vxlydqwhv vrqw gqlhv e+ E| ' +E|   E4q+9E| e E| ' E|  E4q+9E| +7169, +716:,

Ohv vtxhqfhv i(E4e E|j hw ie+ E|j shxyhqw wuh doruv frqvlguhv frpph ghv lqglfhv gh shuirupdqfh1 Hoohv uhsuvhqwhqw soxv suflvphqw ohv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh hw gh vruwlh sdu udssruw dx{ wudmhfwrluhv gh uiuhqfh gh o*hqwuh hw gh od vruwlh/ gqlhv sdu ohv vtxhqfhv iE4q+9E|j hw i E4q+ 9E|j1 F*hvw oh fdv g*xqh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho txl hvw prwlyh sdu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh vlpsolflw gh vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv +Jruh}/ Zhuw} hw ]kx 4<;:,/ +P*Vddg 4<;:,/ +P*Vddg hw Vdqfkh} 4<<5,1 Rq shxw doruv rewhqlu uhodwlyhphqw dlvphqw xqh frppdqgh rswlpdoh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho hq plqlplvdqw dx vhqv g*xq krul}rq ix|dqw/ hw sdu udssruw dx yhfwhxu .s E| n S   ' des E|          es E| n S  oA / oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh vxlydqw , + R [ a E.s E| n S   ' H Ee+s E| n   n b Ees E| n    +716;,
 

hq vxssrvdqw txh dyhf

es E| n  ' f srxu  5 dSc R  o `_E4es E| ' (E4`? E4e E| `+_E4e+s E| ' `+? E4e+ E|

+716<, +7173, +7174,

Qrwrqv txh od frqwudlqwh +716<, hvw qdwxuhoohphqw soxv frpsdwleoh dyhf o*remhfwli gh frp0 pdqgh txh fhooh idlwh gdqv oh fdv g*xqh frppdqgh suglfwlyh +7156,1 Hq hhw od frqwudlqwh s E| n  ' f srxu  5 dSc R  o

7161

Dssurfkh g*wdw

<4

qh vhpeoh sdv udlvrqqdeoh gdqv oh fdv g*xqh vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh grqw oh prgoh lq0 whuqh hvw gluhqw gh fhoxl ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh prgoh gh frppdqgh +7144, hw +7147, shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph @E4e+s E| ' @ E4es E| n @ E4/s E| +7175, txl wdeolw xqh uhodwlrq g|qdpltxh hqwuh ohv lqglfhv gh shuirupdqfhv ies E|j hw ie+s E|j hw txh o*rq shxw dsshohu prgoh dx{ shuirupdqfhv1 Od orl gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho hvw doruv grqqh sdu o*txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv 7 E4(E4e E| n -E4e+ E| ' f +7176,

r ohv sro|qphv 7 E4 hw -E4 vrqw ohv pphv txh fhx{ gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh dvvr0 flh +7165, hw +7166,1

716

Dssurfkh g*wdw

Xqh dxwuh pwkrgh gh v|qwkvh srxu od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho frqvlvwh h{sorlwhu od vlplolwxgh hqwuh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh hw od frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh krul}rq ix|dqw +Elwphdg hw do1 4<<3,/ +Erxvolpdql 4<<6,1 Od uh0 suvhqwdwlrq g*wdw hvw dlqvl xwlolvh shuphwwdqw xqh wxgh soxv srxvvh gh od vwdelolw gh fhwwh frppdqgh sduwlu ghv qrpeuhx{ uvxowdwv gm h{lvwdqwv gdqv fh grpdlqh1 Xqh uhodwlrq iruphooh shxw wuh gyhorssh hqwuh od irupxodwlrq gx sureoph gh od frp0 pdqgh PUHS +716;,0+716<, hw fhooh gx sureoph OT +Elwphdg hw do1 4<<3,1 Soxv suflv0 phqw/ od frppdqgh PUHS shxw wuh vsflh frpph xqh frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh krul}rq ix|dqw dyhf ghv pdwulfhv gh srqgudwlrq sduwlfxoluhv1 Hq hhw/ frqvlgurqv oh prgoh g*wdw vxlydqw=  4 E| ' @ E| n @es E| n ,@ /s E| e+s E| ' @ E| n / s E| r E| 5LU? hvw o*wdw gx v|vwph hw E@c @c ,@c @  hvw xqh udolvdwlrq revhuydeoh gx prgoh dxjphqw @E4e+s E| ' @ E4es E| n @ E4/s E| Oh fulwuh dvvrfl od frppdqgh PUHS +716;,0+716<, shxw wuh ufulw frpph oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh vxlydqw a E.s E| n S   ' H + R [
 B

, E| n  A "ER    E| n   n bER    Ees E| n    +7177,

<5

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

r od pdwulfh "E| hw oh vfdodluh bE| vrqw ghv srqgudwlrqv qrq vwdwlrqqdluhv gqlhv frpph vxlw=  A   vl | ' fc    c R   "E| ' f vl | ' R   n c    c 4 ; ? 4 vl | ' fc    c R  S   b vl | ' R  S   n c    c R   bE| ' = f vl | ' R   n c    c 4 Fhw remhfwli shxw wuh udolv sdu xqh orl gh frppdqgh dyhf uhwrxu g*wdw hvwlp es E| ' k E| dyhf 4 E| ' @ E| n @ es E| n  Ee+s E|  @ E| +7178,

r ohv pdwulfhv k hw  gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv jdlqv gx uhwrxu g*wdw hw gx suglf0 whxu1 Oh jdlq gx uhwrxu g*wdw hvw fhoxl rewhqx sdu od plqlplvdwlrq gx fulwuh +7177, oruvtxh wrxwhv ohv yduldeohv g*wdw vrqw dffhvvleohv od phvxuh/ vrlw

!Q A k ' Eb n Ae A @ ER@  @ EREW n Ae @ 


r od pdwulfh ER hvw rewhqxh frpph vxlw  Ef ' A 1  Srxu  |  R  S  
A 4E| ' A @ E| n E|@ n Ae @ E|@ n "E|

+7179,

+717:,

 Srxu R  S   n  |  R 
A 4E| ' A @ E| n E|@ n Ae @ E|@ n "E| !Q A EAe@ n WA E|@ db n Ae A @ E|@ o @ E|EAe @ n W +717;,

Lo hvw qrwhu txh o*rq uvrxw g*derug xqh txdwlrq gh O|dsxqry wdqw txh od srqgudwlrq vxu od frppdqgh hvw lqqlh1 Od vroxwlrq uvxowdqwh hvw xwlolvh hqvxlwh frpph frqglwlrq lqlwldoh g*xqh txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv gh Ulffdwl txh o*rq lwuh vxu wrxw o*krul}rq g*rswl0 plvdwlrq1 Oh jdlq gx suglfwhxu shxw wuh rewhqx sduwlu ghv uvxowdwv glvsrqleohv vxu oh owudjh rswlpdo rx hq vsfldqw gluhfwhphqw od g|qdpltxh frpph lo d w idlw srxu o*dssurfkh sro|qrpldoh1 O*wxgh gh od vwdelolw qrplqdoh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh krul}rq whqgx d w idlwh sduwlu gh od vwdelolw gh od frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh krul}rq ix|dqw gdqv +Elwphdg hw do1 4<<3,1 Hooh hvw edvh vxu oh frqfhsw gh Svhxgr Htxdwlrqv Dojeultxhv gh Ulffdwl txl frqvlvwh ufuluh o*txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv gh Ulffdwl vrxv od iruph g*xqh

7171

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

<6

 E| D  E| +9E|

+ E|

A E4

! & ! .) 
S

V +,G+,

 ! &   ! & .).)


E| S S

S E4

   & .)
S +E|

-E4

"

" & .)
S

D + E|

Iljxuh 71: =

Vfkpd gh frppdqgh vwdqgdug

txdwlrq dojeultxh gh Ulffdwl srxu xq sureoph prgl hw xwlolvhu wrxv ohv uvxowdwv txl oxl vrqw dvvrflv1 G*dxwuhv uvxowdwv lpsruwdqwv vxu od vwdelolw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh vrqw glvsr0 qleohv gdqv +Fodunh hw Vfdwroolql 4<<4,/ +gh Qlfrodr hw Vfdwroolql 4<<7, hw +Prvfd hw ]kdqj 4<<;,1 Srxu fh idluh/ oh fulwuh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh +7155,0+7156, d w whqgx dq g*lqwurgxluh ghv frqwudlqwhv qdohv vxu ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh hw gh vruwlh1

717

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

Qrxv suvhqwrqv gdqv fh sdudjudskh ohv rxwlov g*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv hw gh od urexv0 whvvh hq vwdelolw1 O*xwlolvdwlrq ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfh txh vrqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv shuphw vlpsohphqw/ gh idrq ylvxhooh/ gh grqqhu xqh fduwh g*lghqwlw g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d,1

71714

Shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

Od jxuh 71: prqwuh oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo dvvrfl r +i E|j hw iD  E|j, hw +i+ E|j hw iD + E|j, uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh hw ohv euxlwv gh phvxuh o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu grqw od g|qdpltxh hvw vxs0 srvh wuh sduidlwhphqw gfulwh sdu od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw gx prgoh gx v|vwph S E 1 Oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh g*xq who v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw rewhqx hq olplqdqw vxf0 fhvvlyhphqw o*hqwuh iE|j hw od vruwlh i+ E|j hqwuh ohv txdwlrqv gx v|vwph frppdqghu g*xqh sduw hw gh od orl gh frppdqgh +7164,0+7167, g*dxwuh sduw/ vrlw SE4+ E| '  E4A E4+9E| n E47 E4(E4+ E|

<7

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

 E4-E4D + E| n  E47 E4(E4d E| n D  E|o S E4E| ' E4A E4+9E| n E47 E4(E4 E|  E4-E4D  E|  E4-E4d+ E| n D + E|o dyhf S E4 ' E4(E47 E4 n  E4-E4

+717<, +7183,

Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh vl hw vhxohphqw vl SE4 hvw xq sro|qph g*Kxuzlw}/ vrlw SE  ' f ,  5 (r Fhwwh frqglwlrq qfhvvlwh txh oh soxv judqg glylvhxu frppxq +sjfg, ghv sro|qphv E4(E4 hw  E4 vrlw xq sro|qph g*Kxuzlw}/ vrlw T}U_EE (E c  E  ' f ,  5 (r Rq uhwurxyh dlqvl ohv frqglwlrqv xvxhoohv gh vwdelolvdelolw rx gh gwhfwdelolw ghv prgohv gh frppdqgh1 Qrwrqv txh ohv txdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh +717<,0+7183, shxyhqw v*fuluh hq irqfwlrq ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh g*xqh frppdqgh PUHS +7169,0+716:, S E4e+ E| ' E47 E4(E4+ E|   E4-E4D + E| n E47 E4(E4d E| n D  E|o S E4e E| ' E47 E4(E4 E|   E4-E4D  E| E4-E4d+ E| n D + E|o

+7184, +7185,

71715

Txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv

Ohv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh vrqw frpsowhphqw fdudfwulvhv sdu vl{ irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw/ frpph oh prqwuhqw ohv jxuhv 71; hw 71</ hq o*rffxuuhqfh ohv g|qdpltxhv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh grqqhv uhvshfwlyhphqw sdu ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw UV 9 E  ' hw W 9 E  ' E A E   9E E A E  rx S 9 E UV 9E  ' SE  9E S E 

 E A E   9E  E A E  rx S 9 E W 9 E  ' SE  9E S E  hw ohv glyhuvhv g|qdpltxhv gh ujxodwlrq ylv ylv gh o*hqvhpeoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu = ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh gqlhv sdu ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw V E  c W E  c UE V E  hw S E V E 

7171

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

<8

r V E  hw W E  gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hw gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdoh/ vrlw V E  ' E (E 7 E   E -E  hw W E  ' S E  S E 

doruv txh UV E  hw SV E  gvljqhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od irqfwlrq ujxodwhxu pxowlsol sdu od vhqvlelolw hw od irqfwlrq surfg pxowlsol sdu od vhqvlelolw/ vrlw UV E  ' UE V E  hw SV E  ' S E V E  r UE  hw S E  vrqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw gx ujxodwhxu hw gx prgoh gh frppdqgh/ vrlw -E   E  UE  ' hw S E  ' 7 E (E  E  Rq udsshooh ohv uhodwlrqv elhq frqqxhv hqwuh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hw ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw sufghqwhv V E  ' UE S E  hw W E  '  V E  ' n UE S E  n UE S E 

Ghv jdedulwv iutxhqwlhov w|sltxhv ghv g|qdpltxhv gh ujxodwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh grlyhqw wuh rewhqxv srxu udolvhu xq erq frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv0urexvwhvvh hw dvvxuhu dlqvl od prwlydwlrq xowlph g*xq sureoph g*dxwrpdwltxh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh pdlqwhqlu od vtxhqfh gh vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu dx yrlvlqdjh gh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh lqgshqgdpphqw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|vwph1 Xqh ujoh srxydqw wuh dssoltxh gdqv od soxsduw ghv sureophv gh frppdqgh hvw gh whqlu frpswh gx idlw txh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh vrqw grplqdqwhv hq edvvhv iutxhqfhv/ doruv txh ohv euxlwv gh phvxuhv grplqhqw hq kdxwhv iutxhqfhv1 Fhwwh uhfrppdqgdwlrq grlw elhq hqwhqgxh wuh dgdswh dx sureoph gh frppdqgh wudlw1

<9

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

|9 +w,

9 9+,

y +w,

 5 +,8 +,  
P

  +w,

 5 +,8 +,

| +w,

y+ +w,

8 +,

 + +w,

9 +,

Iljxuh 71; =

Shuirupdqfh qrplqdoh hq vruwlh

7171

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

<:

|9 +w,

78 9+,

y +w,

8 +,

  +w,

9 +,

 
P

x+w,

y+ +w,

! 7+,8+,

 + +w,

! 7+,8+,

Iljxuh 71< =

Shuirupdqfh qrplqdoh hq hqwuh

<;

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

5 !


UE 

E|

V\VWHPH D

+E|

FRPPDQGHU

Iljxuh 7143 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh uho

71716

Urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw

Od v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu hvw edvh vxu xq prgoh gh frppdqgh txl uhsuvhqwh dx plhx{ oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx surfg frppdqghu hw o*lq xhqfh gh vrq hqyl0 urqqhphqw1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh vh gjudghqw grqf dx ixu hw phvxuh txh o*fduw hqwuh od g|qdpltxh gx surfg hw fhooh gh vrq prgoh gh frppdqgh furw1 Gdqv fh txl vxlw/ qrxv wxglhurqv od urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw txl frqvlvwh hq od fdsdflw g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh suvhuyhu vd vwdelolw hq suvhqfh ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq lqoxfwdeohv vxu oh surfg frppdqghu1 Srxu fh idluh/ rq vxssrvhud txh oh frpsruwh0 phqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx surfg frppdqghu hvw gfulw sdu xq prgoh qrplqdo S E  hw vhv lqfhuwlwxghv {E 1 Fhv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq vrqw glwhv qrq0vwuxfwxuhv sdu rssr0 vlwlrq dx{ huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq vwuxfwxuhv txl sruwhqw vxu ohv sdudpwuhv gx prgoh gh frppdqgh +Gr|oh/ Iudqflv hw Wdqqhqedxp 4<<5,/ +Juhhq hw Olphehhu 4<<8, hw +]krx hw do1 4<<9,1 Ohv jxuhv 7143 hw 7144 prqwuhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh uho hw oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh gh v|qwkvh txl oxl hvw dvvrfl1 Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh gh v|qwkvh ud0 olvh ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv sdu frqfhswlrq gdqv od phvxuh r oh v|vwph frppdqghu hvw vxssrv wuh sduidlwhphqw gfulw sdu vrq prgoh gh frppdqgh1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh uho gshqghqw ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq1 Qrwrqv txh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh frpph ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hw ohv euxlwv gh phvxuh q*rqw sdv w sulv hq frqvlg0 udwlrq gdqv od phvxuh r lov q*rqw dxfxqh lq xhqfh vxu ohv frqglwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh1 Od uhsuvhqwdwlrq ghv lqfhuwlwxghv gh prgoh gh frppdqgh shxw uhywlu soxvlhxuv iruphv frpph o*lqgltxhqw ohv jxuhv 7145 714: txl uhsuvhqwhqw ohv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh fru0 uhvsrqgdqwv1 Rq glvwlqjxh ohv iruphv dgglwlyhv gluhfwh hw lqyhuvh/ ohv iruphv pxowlsolfdwlyhv gluhfwhv hw lqyhuvhv o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu1

7171

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

<<

UE 

E|

S E 

+E|

Iljxuh 7144 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo

433

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

eE|

! !

{E 

rE|

8 ! FA 
P

UE 

S E 

 ! ! 8 P FA

Iljxuh 7145 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh =

iruph dgglwlyh gluhfwh

rE|

{E 

"eE| !

8 ! FA 
P

UE 

 ! S ! 8 FA

S E 

Iljxuh 7146 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh =

iruph dgglwlyh lqyhuvh

eE|

{E 

rE|

! 

UE 

 !P !

S E 

Iljxuh 7147 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh =

iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh gluhfwh hq hqwuh

7171

Vwdelolw hw shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv

434

eE|

{E 

rE|

! 

UE 

S E 

 !P !

Iljxuh 7148 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh =

iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh gluhfwh hq vruwlh

rE|

{E 

eE| "

! 

UE 

 !P

S E 

Iljxuh 7149 = V|vwph gh frppdqgh =

iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh lqyhuvh hq hqwuh

rE|

{E 

eE| "

! UE


5 +
,

 !P

Iljxuh 714: =

V|vwph gh frppdqgh = iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh lqyhuvh hq vruwlh

435

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

{E  rE|

"
eE|

PE 

Iljxuh 714; =

V|vwph gh frppdqgh = iruph jqudoh


Irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw PE  UE V E  S E V E  W E  V E 

Iruph g*lqfhuwlwxgh Iruph dgglwlyh gluhfwh Iruph dgglwlyh lqyhuvh Iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh gluhfwh Iruph pxowlsolfdwlyh lqyhuvh
Wdeohdx 714 =

Txdqwlfdwhxuv gh urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw

Oh fkrl{ g*xqh iruph rx g*xqh dxwuh gshqg gh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx v|vwph frppdqghu hw ghv sursulwv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh txh o*rq vrxkdlwh phwwuh hq ylghqfh1 Ohv iruphv dgglwlyhv vrqw jqudohphqw xwlolvhv srxu uhsuvhqwhu ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq vxu wrxwh od edqgh gh iutxhqfhv1 Ohv iruphv pxowlsolfdwlyhv gluhfwhv vrqw jqudohphqw xwlolvhv srxu uhsuvhqwhu ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq vxu ohv dfwlrqqhxuv hw ohv fdswhxuv/ doruv txh ohv iruphv pxowlsolfdwlyhv lqyhuvhv vrqw jqudohphqw xwlolvhv srxu uhsuvhqwhu ohv yduldwlrqv ghv sdudpwuhv gx prgoh gh frppdqgh1 Gdqv fh txl vxlw/ rq grqqhud ohv frqglwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw srxu ohv glyhuv w|shv g*lqfhuwlwxghv1 Srxu fh idluh/ qrwrqv wrxw g*derug txh wrxv ohv v|vwphv gh frp0 pdqgh hq txhvwlrq shxyhqw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph gh od jxuh 714; r PE  hvw od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw txl uholh od vruwlh gx eorf g*lqfhuwlwxgh rE| vrq hqwuh eE|1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw PE  shxyhqw wuh gwhuplqhv dsuv txhotxhv vlpsohv pdqlsxod0 wlrqv dojeultxhv1 Od wdeoh 714 grqqh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw PE  srxu fkdtxh iruph g*lqfhuwlwxgh1

Ohv frqglwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw shxyhqw doruv wuh rewhqxhv sduwlu gx wkruph gx shwlw jdlq +Nkdolo 4<<9, grqq fl0ghvvrxv1 Wkruph 714 Frqvlgurqv oh v|vwph erxfo gh od jxuh 714; hw vxssrvrqv txh od irqf0

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

436

wlrq gh wudqvihuw {E  hvw sursuh/ dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh hw whooh txh m{E e!/A e  Z m k srxu wrxw / 5 dfc  Ae Ae

Doruv oh v|vwph erxfo hq txhvwlrq hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh vl hw vhxohphqw vl od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw PE  hvw sursuh/ dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh hw whooh txh Z e!/A e  m k!Q srxu wrxw / 5 dfc  mPE Ae Ae  Fh uvxowdw suflvh od fodvvh ghv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq dgplvvleohv hq vxssrvdqw txh ohv lqfhuwlwxghv gx prgoh gh frppdqgh {E  vrqw ghv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw sursuhv hw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeohv hw irxuqlw od ydohxu pd{lpdoh dgplvvleoh vxu ohxu prgxoh1 Qrwrqv wrxwhirlv txh o*k|srwkvh gh vwdelolw shxw wuh uhofkh vl o*rq xwlolvh oh wkruph gh Q|txlvw dx olhx gx wkruph gx shwlw jdlq +Nkdolo 4<<9,/ +]krx hw do1 4<<9,1 Od frqgl0 wlrq gh vwdelolw dv|pswrwltxh ghylhqw xqh frqglwlrq g*jdolw hqwuh ohv sohv lqvwdeohv gx v|vwph frppdqghu hw fhx{ gx prgoh qrplqdo1 Sdu dloohxuv/ fh wkruph prqwuh txh ohv frqglwlrqv gh shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv shxyhqw wuh lqwhusuwhv frpph ghv frqglwlrqv gh vwdelolw urexvwh1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv qh uhsuvhqwhqw grqf sdv xqltxhphqw ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv qrpl0 qdohv/ pdlv dxvvl ghv phvxuhv gh urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw1

718

Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

Gdqv fh sdudjudskh/ qrxv sursrvrqv xqh pwkrgrorjlh srxu od v|qwkvh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh1 Od vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh hvw idlwh sduwlu gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh Vplwk hw ghv whfkqltxhv gh uhvwdxudwlrq gx wudqvihuw gh od erxfoh g*xqh frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh +OTJ2OWU,1

71814

Sulqflsh gh vsdudwlrq

Hq whqdqw frpswh ghv h{suhvvlrqv +715;,0+715<, ghv sro|qphv 7@ E4 hw -@ E4 g*xqh sduw/ hw g*dxwuh sduw ghv glylvlrqv hxfolglhqqhv +7148,0+7149,/ rq shxw ufuluh oh sro|qph fd0 udfwulvwltxh vrxv od iruph S E4 ' @ E47@E4 n @ E4-@ E4 R [ k d@ E4M E4 n @E48 E4o ' @ E4RE4 n # ' RE4 @ E4 n
 B R [  B

  k 4 @ E4  @E4C !oK E4

437

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

txl hvw frqiruph dx wkruph gh vsdudwlrq g*xqh txhofrqtxh frppdqgh dyhf uhwrxu g*wdw hvwlp/ vrlw SE4 ' RE4s E4 r s E4 ' @ E4 n
R [  B

  k 4 @ E4  @ E4C!oK E4

+7186,

Frpph oh sro|qph R E4 uhsuvhqwh od g|qdpltxh gx suglfwhxu txl hvw qdwxuhoohphqw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh/ od frqglwlrq gh vwdelolw qrplqdoh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw dvvxuh vl hw vhxohphqw vl s E4 hvw xq sro|qph g*Kxuzlw}1

71815

Sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx fulwuh

Ohv sursulwv vxlydqwhv grqqhqw ohv sro|qphv s E4 srxu xq hqvhpeoh gh vsflfdwlrqv ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh R/ S/  hw b +Fodunh hw Prkwdgl 4<;<,/ +P*Vddg hw Fkhedv0 vlhu 4<<;,   Q oK @E4 S41 Vl  ' oK/ S R '  n S  hw b ' f/ doruv s E4 ' q J 4 n A A   Q oK @E4 S51 Vl R '  ' oK/ S ' hw b 9' f/ doruv s E4 ' kJ @ E4 n  J 4 n A A   Q ?@@ S61 Vl  ' ?@@ / S ' ?@@ / R   n S hw b ' f/ doruv s E4 ' 4 n A A

  Q S71 Vl  ' oK/ S ' / R $ 4/ b ' f hw (E4 ' 4/ doruv s E4 ' E4`+_ E4`? E4 4 n A e r kJ / q J hw  J vrqw ghv vfdodluhv txl gshqghqw gx frh!flhqw K@J gx sro|qph @E4 hw gh od srqgudwlrq gh od frppdqgh b frpph vxlw c qJ ' c kJ ' b K n K @J oK @J A
e

b Ae oK

K@J hw  J ' b A oK n K@J


e

Fhv sursulwv shuphwwhqw hqwuh dxwuhv gh suflvhu oh sodfhphqw ghv sohv hhfwx sdu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh srxu ohv vsflfdwlrqv frqvlguhv1 Gh soxv/ qrxv udsshorqv ohv frqwudlqwhv wkrultxhv gh fhv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh F41 oK    R dyhf oK ' ?@@  ?K@ F51 S  R  oK F61 b  f

71816

Vsflfdwlrq gh od g|qdpltxh gh suglfwlrq

Od vsflfdwlrq gh od g|qdpltxh gh suglfwlrq shxw wuh hhfwxh sduwlu gh fhooh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh Vplwk rx gx frqfhsw OTJ2OWU srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh1 Gdqv oh suhplhu fdv hooh hvw idlwh sduwlu ghv sohv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh/

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh


^ Im ^

438
Im

Re >

Re >

Vohfwlrq ghv sohv lqvwdeohv1

Uvxowdw gh od surmhfwlrq1

Iljxuh 714< = Surmhfwlrq ghv sohv lqvwdeohv1

doruv txh gdqv oh vhfrqg fdv hooh hvw idlwh sduwlu ghv }urv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh1 Fhwwh vwudwjlh d w xwlolvh srxu od frppdqgh sdu sodfhphqw gh sohv urexvwh gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv frqwlqxv +gh Oduplqdw 4<<;,1 Udsshorqv txh oh sro|qph fdudfwulvwltxh gx suglfwhxu shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph R E4 ' E4  oQ     E4  o?R Lqvhuwlrq ghv sohv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh Oh sulqflsh gh fhwwh pwkrgh frqvlvwh sodfhu ohv udflqhv o& gx sro|qph R E4 sduwlu ghv sohv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh gfulwv sdu oh sro|qph @ E4 ' E4  o 7Q     E4  o 7?@@  hw ghv vsflfdwlrqv grqqhv sdu xq uho srvlwli J +revhuydwlrq krul}rq , shuphwwdqw g*dffouhu od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph hw xq qrpeuh uho l J frpsulv hqwuh f hw +revhuydwlrq gdpslqj , dq g*dwwqxhu ohv prghv rvfloodwrluhv gx v|vwph1 Oh sro|qph RE4 hvw doruv frqvwuxlw vxlydqw fhv wdshv =  Ohv sohv lqvwdeohv o 7& vrqw uhpsodfv sdu ohxuv uflsurtxhv/ vl Ae mo 7& m n 2 +i E7 o&  : f doruv o 7& '  frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 714<1 o 7& n Ae o 7&

Q hw  Ohv sohv ohqwv o 7& / f*hvw gluh vh wurxydqw o*h{wulhxu gx fhufoh gh fhqwuh  A e gh ud|rq oJ vsfl sdu oh sdudpwuh gh v|qwkvh J vrqw surmhwv vxu fh fhufoh/
vl Ae Ae mo 7& m n +i E7 o&  : oJ doruv mo 7& m n +i E7 o&  ' oJ 2 2

439

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh


^ Im ^ Im

Re >

Re >

Vohfwlrq ghv sohv wurs ohqw1

Uvxowdw gh od surmhfwlrq1

Iljxuh 7153 = Surmhfwlrq ghv sohv wurs ohqwv1

!Q e J  oJ ' Ae Hq srvdqw AJ ' JAe / o*fulwxuh vxlydqwh shuphw gh idluh dssdudwuh h{solflwhphqw o*lqwhusuwdwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh frqwlqx txh o*rq rewlhqw oruvtxh Ae ' f   ?! Ae Ae mo 7& m n +i E7 vl o&  :  n Ae n  n n  2 AJ 2AJ ?- EAJ ?   ?! Ae Ae mo 7& m n +i E7 doruv o&  '  n Ae n  n n  2 AJ 2AJ ?- EAJ ?

r oh ud|rq oJ hvw gql sdu

frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 71531

Q q*rqw sdv g*lqwhusuwdwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh frqwlqx/  Ohv sohv uhov o 7& lqiulhxuv  A e  Q n oJ c f 1 Fh fdv shxw vhxohphqw vh surgxluh vl lov grqf vrqw sodfv dx srlqw  A e o*rq fkrlvlw ghv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv frqwhqdqw gh whov sohv frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 71541
 Oh frh!flhqw g*dpruwlvvhphqw hvw { fhoxl vsfl sdu l J srxu ohv prghv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh d|dqw xq frh!flhqw g*dpruwlvvhphqw l & soxv shwlw txh l J vl l & l J doruv l & ' l J +srxu xqh sxovdwlrq qdwxuhooh frqvwdqwh, frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 71551 Rq shxw uhwurxyhu o*dssurfkh sursrvh gdqv +gh Oduplqdw 4<<;, srxu ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv hq srvdqw Ae ' f1

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh


^ Im ^

43:
Im

Re >

Re >

Vohfwlrq ghv sohv uhov qjdwliv1

Uvxowdw gx gsodfhphqw1
+uH > 3,1

Iljxuh 7154 = Ohv sohv vdqv lqwhusuwdwlrq frqwlqx vrqw sodfv dx srlqw

Qrwrqv txh vl oh v|vwph hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh/ vrlw @ E  ' f ,  5 (r hw vl l J ' f/ doruv srxu xq krul}rq J vx!vdpphqw judqg/ ohv sohv gx v|vwph hq erxfoh rxyhuwh @ E4 vrqw vxffhvvlyhphqw lqfrusruv gdqv oh sro|qph R E4/ rq d od uhodwlrq
J n

*4 R E4 ' @ E4

<"

txl udsshooh ohv shuirupdqfhv g*xqh frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh Vplwk1 Pdlv dwwhqwlrq/ gdqv fh fdv od glylvlrq sro|qrpldoh +7148, 4 ghylhqw R E4 8 E4 ' . 3oR E4 n @ E4 @E4 4 ' . E4 n 8 E4 @ E4

hw dxud xqh vroxwlrq plqlpdoh ylghqwh . E4 ' 4 hw 8 E4 ' f Od orl gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh txl hq uvxowh +715;,0+7163, hvw whooh txh -@ E4 ' f fh txl lqgxlw xq frpsruwhphqw hq erxfoh rxyhuwh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh gdqv oh fdv olplwh J $ n41

43;

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh


^ Im ^ Im

Re >

Re >

Vohfwlrq ghv sohv wurs rvfloodqwv1

Uvxowdw gh od surmhfwlrq1

Iljxuh 7155 = Surmhfwlrq ghv sohv wurs rvfloodqwv1

Lqvhuwlrq ghv }urv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh Gdqv fhwwh dssurfkh/ ohv udflqhv o& gx sro|qph RE4 vrqw sodfhv sduwlu ghv }urv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh @E4 ' K@J E4  o 7     E4  o 7?K@  hw ghv vsflfdwlrqv grqqhv sdu xq uho srvlwli J shuphwwdqw gh udohqwlu od g|qdpltxh ghv }urv gx v|vwph hw xq qrpeuh uho l J frpsulv hqwuh }ur hw xq dq g*dwwqxhu ohv prghv rvfloodwrluhv1 Oh sro|qph R E4 hvw doruv frqvwuxlw vxlydqw fhv wdshv =  Ohv }urv lqvwdeohv o 7& vrqw uhpsodfv sdu ohxuv uflsurtxhv/ 7& m2 n 2 +i E7 o&  : f doruv o 7& '  vl Ae mo o 7& n Ae o 7&

 Ohv }urv udslghv o 7& / f*hvw gluh vh wurxydqw o*lqwulhxu gx fhufoh gh fhqwuh  A hw e gh ud|rq vsfl sdu oh sdudpwuh gh v|qwkvh J vrqw surmhwv vxu fh fhufoh/

vl

Ae Ae mo 7& m2 n +i E7 o&  oJ doruv mo 7& m2 n +i E7 o&  ' oJ 2 2 oJ '


!Q e J  Ae

r oh ud|rq oJ hvw gql sdu

 Ohv }urv uhov o 7& lqiulhxuv  A q*rqw sdv g*lqwhusuwdwlrq gdqv oh grpdlqh frqwlqx/  e  lov grqf vrqw sodfv dx srlqw  Ae n oJ c f 1 Fh w|sh gh }urv hvw hvvhqwlhoohphqw g o*fkdqwloorqqdjh1

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

43<

 Oh frh!flhqw g*dpruwlvvhphqw hvw { fhoxl vsfl sdu l J srxu ohv prghv rvflood0 wrluhv d|dqw xq frh!flhqw g*dpruwlvvhphqw l & soxv shwlw txh l J vl l & l J doruv l & ' l J +srxu xqh sxovdwlrq qdwxuhooh frqvwdqwh,  Srxu frpsowhu   oh sro|qph R E4/ rq dmrxwh oK ' ?@@  ?K@ udflqhv dx srlqw Q A n oJ c f 1 A Qrwrqv txh vl oh prgoh gh v|qwkvh hvw lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh/ vrlw @E  ' f ,  5 (r hw vl l J ' f/ doruv dx ixu hw phvxuh txh o*rq glplqxh o*krul}rq J/ oh sro|qph RE4 devrueh vxffhvvlyhphqw wrxv ohv }urv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh/ vrlw od uhodwlrq  oK WE4 *4 R E4 ' 4 @E4 ' @ J<f @ Ef Ae txl udsshooh oh frqfhsw OWU +P*Vddg hw Wdgmlqh 4<<9,1 Frpph oh sro|qph fdudfwulvwltxh hvw grqq sdu

WE4s E4 S E4 ' @E47@E4 n @E4-@E4 ' @


oh ujxodwhxu vdwlvidlw ohv uhodwlrqv vxlydqwhv

WE4 hw -@E4 ' 7@ E4 ' @

 oK Es E4  @ E4 4  @Ef Ae

fh txl grqqh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv olplwhv @ E4 J<f s E4 @E4 *4 W E  '  J<f s E4 @ E4 *4 SV E  ' J<f s E4 @ E4 Es E4  @ E4 *4 UV E  ' J<f @ E4s E4 *4 V E  ' txh o*rq prgoh dlvphqw sdu xqh vsflfdwlrq dssursulh ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx fulwuh1

71817

Xqlyhuvdolw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh

Xq judqg qrpeuh ghv pwkrghv gh v|qwkvh glvsrqleohv gdqv od olwwudwxuh vxu od frp0 pdqgh shxyhqw wuh rewhqxhv hq fkrlvlvvdqw frqyhqdeohphqw ohv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh sduwlu ghv sursulwv S40S7 +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<;,1 Rq glvwlqjxh =

443

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

 Od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:, hw od frppdqgh yduldqfh plqlpdoh +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<8,/ +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:, txl rqw w xwlolvhv gdqv ohv suhplhuv gyhorsshphqwv gh frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh vrqw rewhqxhv hq fkrlvlvvdqw R '  ' oK hw b ' f1 Oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh plqlplvhu +7155,0+7156, ghylhqw doruv  W E| n oK2 ' + a s E| n oK*|  +s

Od g|qdpltxh gh srxuvxlwh hvw doruv fhooh gx prgoh gh uiuhqfh S WE  doruv txh od g|qdpltxh gh ujxodwlrq hvw fdudfwulvh sdu fhooh gx suglfwhxu1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh prgoh gh frppdqgh shxw wuh ufulw vrxv xqh iruph olqdluh hq ohv sdudpwuhv gx ujxodwhxu shuphwwdqw dlqvl xqh dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh gluhfwh dx eqfh gh od skdvh gh gwhuplqdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gx ujxodwhxu sduwlu gh fhx{ gx prgoh hvwlp1 Fhv sursulwv gh vlpsolflw gh vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv hw gh plvh hq rhxyuh uhsuvhqwhqw o*xowlph prwlydwlrq gh od frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh yduldqfh plqlpdoh rx od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh grqw o*txlydohqfh d w plvh hq ylghqfh gdqv +Odqgdx 4<;4, hw +Hjdugw 4<:<,1 Qrwrqv wrxwhirlv txh oh prgoh gh frppdqgh grlw wuh lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh = xqh frqglwlrq txl hvw uhvwulfwlyh gdqv od sudwltxh gh od frppdqgh qxpultxh r o*fkdqwloorqqdjh frqgxlw jqudohphqw ghv }urv o*h{wulhxu gx grpdlqh gh vwdelolw +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,1  Od frppdqgh yduldqfh plqlpdoh jqudolvh hvw rewhqxh hq fkrlvlvvdqw R '  ' oK hw b : f1 Oh fulwuh +7155,0+7156, plqlplvhu ghylhqw  W E| n oK2 n b Es E|2 eE' + a s E| n oK*|  +s Hooh d w lqwurgxlwh srxu uhofkhu od frqglwlrq gh vwdelolw dv|pswrwltxh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh yduldqfh plqlpdoh +Fodunh hw Jdzwkurs 4<:8,/ +Fodunh hw Jdz0 wkurs 4<:<,1 Hq hhw/ oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh fruuhvsrqgdqw hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh vl hw vhxohphqw vl oh prgoh gh frppdqgh hw ohv srqgudwlrqv frqvlguhv y0 ulhqw od frqglwlrq Z Ef bE Z+ E  n  E Z E  hvw lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh Z+ Ef Ef Od soxsduw ghv suhpluhv dssolfdwlrqv gh frppdqgh dxwr0dmxvwdeoh rqw w idlwhv dyhf od frppdqgh yduldqfh plqlpdoh jqudolvh txh o*rq shxw dlvphqw lqwhusu0 whu frpph xqh frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh Vplwk uhodwlyhphqw elhq oderuh gdqv od phvxuh r od g|qdpltxh gx suglfwhxu shxw wuh vsflh sdu oh frqfhswhxu hw qrq sulvh sdu gidxw jdoh fhooh gx prgoh gh frppdqgh +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d,1 Rq qrwhud txh o*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh shxw wuh hhfwxh gluhfwhphqw srxu dyrlu od suglfwlrq uhtxlvh vdqv dowuhu ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh vrxv0 mdfhqw1  Od frppdqgh dyhf sodfhphqw ghv sohv hvw rewhqxh hq fkrlvlvvdqw ohv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh vxlydqw od sursulw S6/ vrlw  ' ?@@ / S ' ?@@/ R   n S hw b ' f1

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

444

Soxv suflvphqw/ ohv sohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh vhurqw fhx{ gx suglfwhxu soxv oK sohv hq  A 1 G*xq srlqw gh yxh urexvwhvvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh/ lo A 1 Od v|qwkvh g*xq hvw soxv vdjh g*ylwhu gh sodfhu ghv sohv wuv udslghv hq  A A v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf sodfhphqw duelwudluh ghv sohv hvw srvvleoh vl oh prgoh gh frppdqgh xwlolv srxu fh idluh hvw frpsowhphqw frppdqgdeoh hw revhuydeoh> f*hvw gluh @E4 hw @ E4 vrqw suhplhuv hqwuh hx{1 Xqh whooh frqglwlrq q*hvw sdv dxvvl uhvwulfwlyh txh fhooh gh od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh rx yduldqfh plqlpdoh txl qfhvvlwh txh ohv }urv gx v|vwph frppdqghu vrlhqw o*lqwulhxu gx grpdlqh gh vwdelolw1 Od soxsduw ghv uvxowdwv wkrultxhv glvsrqleohv vxu od vwdelolw/ od frqyhujhqfh hw od urexvwhvvh ghv dojrulwkphv gh frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh lqgluhfwv rqw w rewhqxv dyhf xqh frppdqgh dyhf sodfhphqw ghv sohv ++P*Vddg/ Ruwhjd hw Odqgdx 4<;8, hw +P*Vddg/ Jlul/ Glrq hw Gxjdug 4<<6,,1 Rq qrwhud wrxwhirlv txh od frqglwlrq gh vwdelolw fulwltxh hvw od frppdqgdelolw hw o*revhuydelolw xqliruphv gx prgoh hvwlp1 Xqh whooh sursulw q*hvw jqudohphqw sdv vdwlvidlwh vl ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh qh yulhqw sdv od frqglwlrq g*h{flwdwlrq shuvlvwdqwh rx vl od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh hvwlp q*hvw sdv uhodwlyhphqw dssursulh1  Od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh shxw wuh rewhqxh dyhf xq suglfwhxu grqw od g|qdpltxh hvw fdudfwulvh sdu R E4 ' E48_E4 hw grqw oh prgoh lqwhuqh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw grqq sdu (E4 ' 4 hq fkrlvlvvdqw R ' whpsv g*wdeolvvhphqw hq sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh/ S ' /  ' oK hw b ' f +sursulw S7,1 Fh fkrl{ hvw idlw sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv gh od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh grqw oh sro|qph 8_E4 uhsuvhqwh ohv sohv gx owuh gh urexvwlfdwlrq +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9d,1 Qrwrqv txh o*rq shxw ufuluh oh prgoh gh frppdqgh vrxv xqh iruph olqdluh hq ohv sdudpwuhv gx ujxodwhxu txh o*rq shxw dgdswhu gluhfwhphqw vl ehvrlq hvw +Jlul/ P*Vddg/ Gxjdug hw Glrq 4<;<,1  Od frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh jdxvvlhqqh shxw wuh rewhqxh hq idlvdqw whqguh ohv krul}rqv gh suglfwlrq hw gh frppdqgh yhuv o*lqql +Dqghuvrq hw Prruh 4<<3,1 Oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh plqlplvhu hvw doruv grqq sdu + , A  [ 2 W E| n   n b Es E| n   2 a ELs E| n S   ' *4 H +s E| n    +s A <" A ' Od frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh jdxvvlhqqh dgdswdwlyh d w prwlyh sdu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh vrxv0mdfhqw hw gh vlpsolflw gh plvh hq rhxyuh1 Od frppdqgh rswlpdoh hvw hq hhw uhodwlyhphqw lqvhqvleoh dx{ huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq ++Dqghuvrq hw Prruh 4<<3,/ +P*Vddg hw Wdgmlqh 4<<9,, hw rq shxw wrxmrxuv xwlolvhu o*txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv gh Ulffdwl srxu od v|qwkvh gh od orl gh frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh fruuhvsrqgdqwh ++Vdpvrq 4<;5, hw +Vdpvrq 4<;6,,1 Od frqglwlrq gh vwdelolw fulwltxh frqvlvwh hq od vwdelolvdelolw xqliruph gx prgoh hvwlp txl hvw gwhfwdeoh sdu frqvwuxfwlrq1 Xqh whooh sursulw shxw wuh vdwlvidlwh uhodwlyhphqw idflohphqw sdu udssruw od frqglwlrq gh frppdqgdelolw xqliruph/ uhtxlvh srxu od frppdqgh dyhf sodfhphqw ghv sohv/ txl q*hvw jqudohphqw sdv vdwlvidlwh vl od vwuxfwxuh gx prgoh g*hvwlpdwlrq hvw vxusdudpwulvh pph vl ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh yulhqw od frqglwlrq g*h{flwdwlrq shuvlvwdqwh1

445

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

71818

Srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv

Fh sdudjudskh d srxu remhfwli gh prwlyhu oh fkrl{ ghv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv sdu xqh lqwhusuwdwlrq iutxhqwlhooh gx fulwuh gh od frppdqgh PUHS +716;,0+716<, lqvsluh gh od frppdqgh urexvwh1 Hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq gh Sduvhydo srxu xq krul}rq gh suglfwlrq vx!vdpphqw judqg srxu hqjorehu oh whpsv g*wdeolvvhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu/ oh fulwuh shxw v*fuluh vrxv od iruph a' 2Z ]Ae
Z

3 AZe

mZ+ E/m2 xe+ E/ n b mZ E/m2 xe E/_/

Ohv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh gh od frppdqgh PUHS gdqv oh fdv qrplqdo vrqw grqqhv sdu ohv uhodwlrqv +7184, hw +7185, txl shxyhqw v*fuluh frpph vxlw e+ E| ' V E4+ E|  W E4D + E| n SV E4d E| n D  E|o e E| ' V E4 E|  W E4D  E|  UV E4d+ E| n D + E|o Qrwrqv txh gdqv fhv h{suhvvlrqv wrxv ohv vljqdx{ vrqw lqgshqgdqwv/ ohv vshfwuhv ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw doruv grqqv sdu   xe+ E/ ' mV E/m2 x+ E/ n mSV E/ m2 xD  E/ n mS E/ m2 mUV E/m2 xD + E/ n mV E/m2 x E/    xe E/ ' mUE/ m2 mV E/ m2 x+ E/ n mSV E/m2 xD  E/  n mUV E/ m2 xD + E/  n mV E/ m2 x E/ Fhv h{suhvvlrqv shuphwwhqw g*dssukhqghu soxv idflohphqw oh uoh ghv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv gdqv oh prghodjh ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw1 Hq hhw/ vxlydqw oh w|sh gh shuwxuedwlrqv susrqgudqwhv/ rq glvwlqjxh  oh fdv r vhxoh od shuwxuedwlrq + E| hvw suvhqwh/ ohv vshfwuhv ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh ghylhqqhqw xe+ E/ ' mV E/m2 x+ E/  hw xe E/ ' mUV E/ m2 x+ E/ hw oh fulwuh ghylhqw a' 2Z ]Ae
Z

3 AZe

mZ+ E/V E/m2 x+ E/ n b mZ E/UV E/ m2 x+ E/_/

Ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv Z+ E4 hw Z E4 shuphwwhqw dlqvl gh prghohu uhvshf0 wlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw V E4 hw UV E41  oh fdv r vhxoh od shuwxuedwlrq D + E| hvw suvhqwh/ ohv vshfwuhv ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh ghylhqqhqw xe+ E/ ' mW E/ m2 xD + E/  hw xe E/ ' mUV E/ m2 xD + E/ 

7181 Vsflfdwlrqv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

446

hw oh fulwuh ghylhqw a' 2Z ]Ae


Z

3 AZe

mZ+ E/W E/m2 x+ E/ n b mZ E/UV E/ m2 x+ E/_/

Ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv Z+ E4 hw Z E4 shuphwwhqw dlqvl gh prghohu uhvshf0 wlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw W E4 hw UV E41  oh fdv r vhxoh od shuwxuedwlrq  E| hvw suvhqwh/ ohv vshfwuhv ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh ghylhqqhqw xe+ E/  ' mSV E/m2 x E/  hw xe E/ ' mV E/m2 x E/ hw oh fulwuh ghylhqw a' 2Z ]Ae
Z

3 AZe

mZ+ E/SV E/ m2 x E/ n b mZ E/V E/m2 x E/_/

Ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv Z+ E4 hw Z E4 shuphwwhqw dlqvl gh prghohu uhvshf0 wlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw SV E4 hw V E41  oh fdv r vhxoh od shuwxuedwlrq D  E| hvw suvhqwh/ ohv vshfwuhv ghv huuhxuv gh srxuvxlwh g*hqwuh0vruwlh ghylhqqhqw xe+ E/ ' mSV E/m2 xD  E/  hw xe E/ ' mW E/m2 xD  E/  hw oh fulwuh ghylhqw a' 2Z ]Ae
Z

3 AZe

mZ+ E/ SV E/m2 xD  E/ n b mZ E/W E/m2 xD  E/ _/

Ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv Z+ E4 hw Z E4 shuphwwhqw dlqvl gh prghohu uhvshf0 wlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw SV E4 hw W E41

71819

Pwkrgrorjlh

Rq sursrvh xqh dssurfkh h{sulphqwdoh srxu od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh1 Hooh frqvlvwh xwlolvhu xqh surfgxuh lwudwlyh srxu udolvhu ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv frqirupphqw dx vfkpd gh od jxuh 7151 41 Oh surfhvvxv gh v|qwkvh hvw lqlwldolv sduwlu g*xq suhplhu fkrl{ gh sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh/ fh fkrl{ hvw jxlg sdu ohv sursulwv gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh hw ohv ujohv jqudohv gyhorsshv wudyhuv od sudwltxh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh

447

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

 Oh prgoh lqwhuqh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw fkrlvl gdqv xq judqg qrpeuh gh fdv frpph vxlw (E4 ' 41 Lo shuphw g*lqfrusruhu xqh dfwlrq lqwjudoh gdqv od orl gh frppdqgh hw gh jdudqwlu dlqvl xqh huuhxu vwdwltxh qxooh srxu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv gx w|sh fkhorq txl vrqw frppxqphqw uhqfrqwuhv gdqv od sudwltxh1  Ohv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx fulwuh +7157, =  O*krul}rq g*lqlwldolvdwlrq  hvw sulv sdu gidxw hvw jdo dx ghju uhod0 wli gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh oK ' ?@@  ?K@1 Vl oh v|vwph frppdq0 ghu h{kleh xq frpsruwhphqw gskdvdjh qrq0plqlpdo/ doruv o*krul}rq  ghyudlw hqjorehu xq who frpsruwhphqw1  O*krul}rq gh suglfwlrq R hvw grqq sdu oh whpsv gh prqwh gx v|vwph h{sulp hq qrpeuh gh sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Fhwwh ydohxu lqlwldoh shxw yhqwxhoohphqw wuh glplqxh hq irqfwlrq gh od edqgh sdvvdqwh gvluh1 O*krul}rq gh suglfwlrq shxw wuh gql frqirupphqw od sur0 sulw S7 txl vwlsxoh txh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh vh frpsruwh frpph xqh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh oruvtxh R hvw judqg1 Fhwwh vs0 flfdwlrq shuphw g*dxjphqwhu ohv pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh dx gwulphqw elhq vxu ghv shuirupdqfhv hq ujxodwlrq1  O*krul}rq gh frppdqgh S h{sulph oh ghju gh frpsoh{lw gx v|vwph frppdqghu = soxv S hvw lpsruwdqw/ soxv od frppdqgh d ghv ghjuv gh olehuw1 Xqh ujoh srxu fkrlvlu fh sdudpwuh hvw gh oh suhqguh jdo dx qrpeuh gh sohv cgl!flohv* gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh qrwdpphqw ohv sohv surfkhv gh od iurqwluh gh vwdelolw hw ohv sohv lqvwdeohv1 Qrwrqv txh od vsflfdwlrq S ' vlpsolh judqghphqw oh fdofxo gh od orl gh frppdqgh hq udphqdqw dx fdv vfdodluh o*lqyhuvlrq gh od pdwulfh 7A C 7 n bUS 1 C  Od srqgudwlrq vxu od frppdqgh b hvw jqudohphqw fkrlvlh ojuh0 phqw vxsulhxuh dx }ur gh od pdfklqh xwlolvh dq gh jdudqwlu xqh erqqh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh1 Fh sdudpwuh shuphw hqwuh dxwuhv gh ol0 plwhu o*qhujlh gx vljqdo gh frppdqgh qrwdpphqw oruv gh vdwxudwlrqv frqwudljqdqwhv vxu ohv dfwlrqqhxuv1  Ohv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx suglfwhxu vrqw jqudohphqw fkrlvlv sduwlu g*xqh prglfdwlrq ghv sohv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh1 Hq hhw/ oh frqfhsw OWU hvw soxww ggl dx{ v|vwphv lqyhuvhphqw vwdeohv txl qh vrqw sdv od ujoh gdqv od sudwltxh ghv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqqv1  O*krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq J shuphw gh udolvhu xq erq frpsurplv hqwuh od urexvwhvvh hw ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 J ' S hvw xqh vsflfdwlrq sdu gidxw gm dssoltxh vxu soxvlhxuv fodvvhv gh v|vwphv srxuyx txh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh vrlw frqyhqdeohphqw fkrlvlh1  Oh frh!flhqw g*dpruwlvvhphqw sdu gidxw hvw l J ' f.f.1 Fh sdudpwuh hvw sduwlfxoluhphqw xwloh srxu ohv v|vwphv wuv h{leohv grqw ohv prghv rvfloodwrluhv grlyhqw wuh qfhvvdluhphqw dpruwlv1

7191 Plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

448

 Vl ehvrlq hvw/ ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv Z E  hw Z+ E  shxyhqw wuh xwlolvhv srxu d!qhu oh prghodjh ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv frpph lo d w prqwu gdqv oh sdudjudskh 718181 51 V|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh frqirupphqw dx sdudjudskh 7151 61 Ohv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv gx ujxodwhxu vrqw dqdo|vhv sdu o*lqwhupgldluh ghv sohv hq erxfoh ihuph hw ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv/ vdyrlu V E  c W E  c SV E  ' S E V E  hw UV E  ' UE V E  Xqh dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv whpsruhoohv hvw dxvvl hhfwxh sdu o*lqwhupgldluh gh vlpxodwlrqv1 71 Vl ohv shuirupdqfhv qh vrqw sdv gdqv xq yrlvlqdjh dgplvvleoh ghv vsflfdwlrqv uhtxlvhv/ xq uhwrxu o*wdsh v*lpsrvh srxu d!qhu ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Ohv sulqflsdx{ sdudpwuhv dmxvwhu vrqw dx qrpeuh gh wurlv/ vdyrlu = o*krul}rq gh suglfwlrq R/ od srqgudwlrq vxu od frppdqgh b hw o*krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq J1

719

Plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

Od plvh hq rhxyuh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh grlw whqlu frpswh ghv hhwv gh od su0 vhqfh gh sohv yhqwxhoohphqw lqvwdeohv gdqv od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw gx ujxodwhxu1 Fhv sohv shxyhqw suryrtxhu ghv wudqvlwrluhv uhodwlyhphqw lpsruwdqwv srxu frqgxluh o*lq0 vwdelolw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hq suvhqfh gh vdwxudwlrqv vxu od frppdqgh +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:,/ +Uqqefn/ Zdojdpd hw Vwhuqe| 4<<5,1 Srxu sdoolhu fhv sureophv lqfrqwrxuqdeohv gh vdwxudwlrq ghv dfwlrqqhxuv/ rq lqfrusruh xq prgoh gh vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu gdqv od orl gh frppdqgh frpph vxlw E| ' r@| dE|o rx hq g*dxwuh whuphv ; ? 4@ vl E| : 4@ E| vl 4?  E|  4@ E| ' = 4? vl E| 4?

r ohv eruqhv 4? hw 4@ vrqw vsflhv hq irqfwlrq ghv vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu1 Ghv prgohv soxv frpsohwv suhqdqw hq frpswh sdu h{hpsoh ohv olplwdwlrqv gh od ylwhvvh gh o*dfwlrqqhxu shxyhqw elhq hqwhqgx wuh lqfrusruv1 Oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh hqjhqgu sdu xq dojrulwkph gh frppdqgh hvw hqvxlwh frqyhuwl hq xq vljqdo dqdorjltxh sdu o*lqwhupgldluh g*xq frqyhuwlvvhxu qxpultxh0dqdorjltxh1 Fhv frqyhuwlvvhxuv srvvghqw hq jqudo prlqv gh fkluhv vljqlfdwliv txh oh fdofxodwhxu +oh soxv vrxyhqw 2 elwv frqwuh 2 rx Se elwv,1 Oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh fdofxo gluh dlqvl gx vljqdo uhoohphqw dssoltx/ xq euxlw gh txdqwlfdwlrq hvw lqwurgxlw sdu fhwwh frqyhuvlrq1 Lo hvw grqf qfhvvdluh g*duurqglu oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh gh idrq xwlolvhu fhv judqghxuv srxu oh fdofxo ghv frppdqghv ixwxuhv1 Xqh irqfwlrq duurqglh hvw dlqvl lqfrusruh gdqv oh prgoh ghv vdwxudwlrqv +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1

449

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

Dq gh suflvhu oh frpsruwhphqw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh idfh dx{ vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu/ od gluhqfh  E| ' E|  E| hqwuh oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh vdwxu iE|j hw fhoxl qrq vdwxu iE|j hvw yxh frpph xqh shuwxuedwlrq vxu od frppdqgh1 Gh pph txh oruvtxh oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh txlwwh ohv vdwxudwlrqv +gvdwxudwlrq,/ xq fduw i0E|j hqwuh od vruwlh dfwxhooh i+E|j hw od vruwlh qrplqdoh i+? E|j txh o*rq rewlhqw vdqv ohv vdwxudwlrqv hvw gql sdu 0E| ' +E|  +? E| Ohv shuirupdqfhv rewhqxhv hq vdwxudwlrq hw gvdwxudwlrq gdqv oh fdv g*xq ujxodwhxu UVW vlpsoh vrqw doruv grqqhv sdu ohv uhodwlrqv vxlydqwhv   S E4  E4-E4 W E|  A E4+ E| n -E4+ E| n  E|  E| ' +7187, 7 E4(E4 E4 E4 hw 0E| '  E47 E4(E4  E| S E4 +7188,

Gdqv o*h{suhvvlrq +7187,/ oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh E| hvw frqvwdqw +vrlw 4? / vrlw 4@ , oruvtxh o*dfwlrqqhxu hvw vdwxu/ od suvhqfh gh o*lqwjudwhxu (E4 suryrtxh doruv xq vljqdo  E| qrq eruq $ Srxu srxyrlu prglhu ohv g|qdpltxhv ghv h{suhvvlrqv +7187, hw +7188,/ xq sro|qph E4 hvw dmrxw frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 7156/ od orl gh frppdqgh hvw doruv ufulwh frpph vxlw +vwup hw Zlwwhqpdun 4<<:, E| ' r oh sro|qph E4 E4  7 E4(E4 -E4 A E4 W E|  +E| n + E| E4 E4 E4 E4 ' 4?J n J 4?J3 n    n J?J +7189,

gh ghju ?J ' ?r n ?_ shxw wuh fkrlvl sduwlu gh od g|qdpltxh gx sro|qph fdudfwulv0 wltxh1 Qrwrqv txh ohv ghjuv ghv sro|qphv gx ujxodwhxu -E4 hw A E4 grlyhqw uhvshfwhu ohv frqglwlrqv vxlydqwhv ?o  ?J hw ?|  ?J Ohv h{suhvvlrqv +7187, hw +7188, ghylhqqhqw doruv    E4-E4 SE4 W  E| ' E|  A E4+ E| n -E4+ E| n  E| E4 E4 E4 hw 0E| '  E4E4  E| S E4

+718:,

+718;,

Oh frpsruwhphqw lqwjudo gh +7187, hvw uhpsodf sdu od g|qdpltxh vsflh sdu oh sr0 o|qph E41 Fh sro|qph shuphw hq soxv gh prghohu oh wudqvihuw hqwuh  E| hw 0E| hq shuphwwdqw gh vlpsolhu xqh sduwlh ghv udflqhv gx sro|qph fdudfwulvwltxh1

7191 Plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh

44:

+9 E|

A E4 E4

+E|

-E4  E4

E|  &   ! ! P . )  

E|

E47 E4(E4 E4

"

Iljxuh 7156 = Ujxodwhxu UVW dyhf sulvh hq frpswh ghv vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu

Xq ghju gh olehuw vxssophqwdluh shxw wuh lqwurgxlw sdu o*lqwhupgldluh g*xq qrx0 yhdx sro|qph  E4 gh ghju ?R +Uqqefn hw do1 4<<5, frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 71571 Od orl gh frppdqgh ghylhqw E| ' E4   E47 E4(E4  E4-E4  E4A E4 9 E|  +E| n + E| E4 E4 E4 +718<,

Qrwrqv txh ohv frqglwlrqv vxu ohv ghjuv ghv gluhqwv sro|qphv ghylhqqhqw ?J ' ?r n ?_ n ?R hw srxu ghv udlvrqv gh fdxvdolw ?J  ?o n ?R hw ?J  ?| n ?R Ohv h{suhvvlrqv +7187, hw +7188, ghylhqqhqw gdqv fh fdv    E4 SE4  E4-E4 9  E| ' E|  A E4+ E| n -E4+ E| n  E| E4 E4 E4 hw 0E| '  E4E4  E| SE4 E4

+7193,

+7194,

Fhv qrxyhoohv h{suhvvlrqv ruhqw xqh judqgh h{lelolw srxu oh prghodjh ghv wudqvlwlrqv vdwxudwlrq0gvdwxudwlrq1 Oh fkrl{ E4 ' S E4

44;

71

Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

+9 E|

 E4A E4 E4

+E|

E|   !   E4-E4 ! & ! P  .) E4  


E4 E47 E4(E4 E4

E|

"

Iljxuh 7157 = Ujxodwhxu UVW dyhf sulvh hq frpswh ghv vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu =

dssurfkh

jqudoh

shuphw gh ugxluh ohv g|qdpltxhv gh vdwxudwlrq0gvdwxudwlrq  E4  E4-E4  E4 E4-E4  E4A E4 9 E|  + E| n + E| n  E| E4 SE4 S E4 SE4E4  E4 hw 0E| '  E|  E4  E| ' Sdu dloohxuv/ oh sro|qph  E4 shxw wuh fkrlvl jdo dx sro|qph E4 gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv vwdeohv hw elhq dpruwlv rx vxlydqw od vwudwjlh gh sodfhphqw gh sohv suvhqwh gdqv oh sdudjudskh 71816 gdqv oh fdv ghv v|vwphv rvfloodqwv1 Qrwrqv txh wrxv fhv vfkpdv qh jdudqwlvvhqw sdv od vwdelolw hq vdwxudwlrq oruvtxh oh v|vwph frppdqghu hvw lqvwdeoh1 Fhv vfkpdv xwlolvv srxu ugxluh ohv hhwv ghv vdwxudwlrqv ghv dfwlrqqhxuv vrqw dxvvl hpsor|v srxu ugxluh ohv wudqvlwrluhv oruv ghv frppxwdwlrqv hqwuh gluhqwv ujxodwhxuv +Wrqd hw P*Vddg 4<<;,1 Od plvh hq rhxyuh gh od orl gh frppdqgh +718<, hvw udolvh vrxv xqh iruph g*wdw frpph sdu h{hpsoh od iruph revhuydeoh suvhqwh fl0ghvvrxv 5 6 JQ    f 9 : 111 9 J :       4 E| ' 9 +7195, : E| 7  f  8 J?J f    f 6 5 6 5 6 5 JQ  Rr_Q RoQ  RoJ JQ R|Q  R|J JQ 9  : 9 : 9 : 9 : E|  9    : +E| n 9    : + E| n9 7  8 7  8 7  8 J?J  Rr_?J Ro?J  RoJ J?J R|?J  R|J J?J

71:1

Frqfoxvlrq

44<

r E| 5LU?J hvw o*wdw gx ujxodwhxu hw ohv frh!flhqwv Rr_ / Ro hw R| vrqw uhvshfwlyh0 phqw ohv frh!flhqwv ghv sro|qphv  E47 E4(E4/  E4-E4 hw  E4A E41 Oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh v*rewlhqw doruv E| ' QE| n R|J +9 E|  RoJ +E| E| ' r@| dE|o Od frqglwlrq vxu oh ghju gx sro|qph A E4 shxw wuh uhofkh hq xwlolvdqw oh prgoh gh uiuhqfh +714,1 Vl ?| n ?R : ?J/ od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh i+9E|j hvw doruv jquh sduwlu gx prgoh gh uiuhqfh frpph vxlw
9 +A E| '

 E4A E4 9E4 9  E| E49E4

+7196,

Od qrxyhooh frqglwlrq vxu oh ghju gx sro|qph A E4 ghylhqw ?|  ?J n ?@9  ?K9  ?R O*txdwlrq g*wdw +7195, vh ufulw frpph vxlw 6 5 5 JQ    f JQ  r_Q : 9 111 9 : 9 J     : E| n 9    4 E| ' 9 7  7  f  8 J?J  r_?J J?J f    f hw
9 E| ' Q E| n +A E|  RoJ +E| E| ' r@| dE|o

6 RoQ  RoJ JQ : 9 : : E|  9    : +E| 8 7  8 Ro?J  RoJ J?J

71:

Frqfoxvlrq

Xqh v|qwkvh frpsowh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh d w suvhqwh dyhf o*rsud0 whxu gulyh jqudolvh srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv g*xqlfdwlrq1 Od g|qdpltxh gh suglfwlrq dvvrflh hvw vsflh sduwlu g*xqh surfgxuh edvh vxu xqh prglfdwlrq dgtxdwh ghv sohv gx prgoh gh v|qwkvh1 Fhwwh surfgxuh lqvsluh sdu od pwkrgh gx sodfhphqw gh sohv urexvwh shuphw gh vlpsolhu oh qrpeuh gh sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh1 Ghv ydohxuv sdu gidxw vrqw doruv sursrvhv srxu wrxv ohv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh/ hoohv ruhqw xqh vroxwlrq lqlwldoh txl v*hvw dyuh vdwlvidlvdqwh gdqv od soxsduw ghv dssolfdwlrqv1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh shxyhqw wuh d!qhv mxvtx* o*rewhqwlrq gx prghodjh uhtxlv srxu ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv txl uhsuvhqwhqw ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv hw gh urexvwhvvh hq vwdelolw1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv ghyurqw doruv wuh dqdo|vhv dq gh yulhu txh oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh uhpsolw frqyhqdeohphqw ohv vsflfdwlrqv uhtxlvhv sdu oh fdklhu ghv fkdujhv1 Srxu fhod xqh hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv udolvhv dlqvl tx*xqh suvhqwdwlrq ghv sulqflsdohv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph vhurqw gyhorssv gdqv oh surfkdlq fkdslwuh1

453

71 Frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ xqh pwkrgh gh ydolgdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv edvh vxu o*hvwlpd0 wlrq vshfwudoh ghv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv hvw suvhqwh1 Fhwwh ydolgdwlrq shuphw gh yulhu d srvwhulrul ohv shuirupdqfhv ghpdqghv dx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Vl fhv shu0 irupdqfhv qh uhpsolvvhqw sdv oh fdklhu ghv fkdujhv/ xqh v|qwkvh shxw wuh uhfrpphqfh sduwlu g*xq prgoh gh frppdqgh lghqwl hq erxfoh ihuph1 D wlwuh gh frpsdudlvrq/ xqh fodvvlfdwlrq ghv sulqflsdohv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hvw suvhqwh gdqv od ghx{lph sduwlh gh fh fkdslwuh +Iruvvhoo hw Omxqj 4<<:,/ +Fkhedvvlhu hw P*Vddg 4<<;,1 Ohv sursulwv vwdwlvwltxhv whoohv txh od glvwulexwlrq gx eldlv hw od yduldqfh dv|pswrwltxh gh fhv glyhuvhv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph vrqw fdofxohv hw shuphwwhqw dlqvl gh grqqhu ghv ophqwv gh frpsdudlvrq srxu fhv pwkrghv1 Oh uoh gx prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw sduwlfxoluhphqw plv hq oxpluh gdqv oh olhq hqwuh ohv pwkrghv gluhfwh hw lqgluhfwh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph1 Gh soxv/ xqh qrxyhooh pwkrgh g*lghqwlfd0 wlrq hq erxfoh ihuph udolvdqw xqh gfruuodwlrq hqwuh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv g*wdw hq vruwlh hw oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh hvw sursrvh1

814

Shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv hw udolvhv

Od plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh v|qwkwlv gdqv oh fkdslwuh 7 hvw udolvh vxlydqw oh vfkpd gh od jxuh 8141 Qrwrqv txh fh vfkpd gh frppdqgh shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph jqudoh g*xq ujxodwhxu ghx{ ghjuv gh olehuw r F E  ' A E  -E  hw UE  ' -E  7 E (E 

Frpph srxu o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh/ rq lqw0 urgxlw ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw udolvhv dq g*dqdo|vhu vhv shuirupdqfhv1 Srxu plhx{ dssukhqghu oh frqfhsw gh irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw udolvhv hw qrplqdohv/ rq glvwlqjxh  Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv r oh v|vwph frppdqghu hvw vxssrv wuh sdu0 idlwhphqw gfulw sdu od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw SJ E  frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 815 Ohv frpsruwhphqwv g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw doruv grqqv sdu E| ' UV 9 E4+ 9E|  UV J E4+ E| J

455

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

 E| + 9E|

A E4

& !  . ) 
S

4 V +,G+,

E|

V\VWHPH ! D FRPPDQGHU

+E|

-E4

"

Iljxuh 814 =

V|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv


+814, +815,

UV J E4D + E| n VJ E4 E|  WJ E4D  E| + E| ' WJ9 E4+9E| n VJ E4+ E| WJ E4D + E| n SV J E4 E| n SV J E4D  E|

r VJ E / UV J E / WJ E  hw SV J E  vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw udolvh/ od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh udolvh/ od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frp0 sophqwdluh udolvh hw od irqfwlrq surfgvhqvlelolw/ vrlw VJ E  ' WJ E  '  VJ E  n UE SJ E  UV J E  ' UE VJ E  SV J E  ' SJ E VJ E 

9 UV 9 J E  hw WJ E  vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw gh srxuvxlwh hq hqwuh hw hq vruwlh/ vrlw 9 UV 9 J E  ' F E UV J E  hw WJ E  ' F E WJ E 

Xqh dxwuh uhsuvhqwdwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv soxv dssursulh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hvw grqqh sdu od jxuh 816 r ohv shuwxuedwlrqv rqw w udphqhv hq vruwlh gx v|vwph hw vrqw prgolvhv sdu od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw KJ E 1 Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw SJ E  hqjorehudlw gdqv fh fdv ohv prgohv lqwhuqhv ghv shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh1 Ohv frpsruwhphqwv g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw doruv gfulwv sdu E| ' UV J E4 EoE|   E| +E| ' WJ E4oE| n VJ E4E| r i E|j uhsuvhqwh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hw ioE|j od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh/ vrlw  E| ' KJ E4eE| hw oE| ' F E4+9E| +816, +817,

8151 Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph

456

 E| D  E|

+ E|

+9 E|

F E4

oE| S

! & ! .) 

UE4

 ! &  ! ! & .).)


E| S S

SJ E4

 ! ! & .)
S +E|

" & .)
S
Iljxuh 815 =

D + E|

V|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv ghx{ ghjuv gh olehuw

 Oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo grqq gdqv oh fkdslwuh 7 sdu od jxuh 71:1 Dq gh vlpsolhu o*dqdo|vh ghv gluhqwhv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph/ rq xwlolvh od uhsuvhqwdwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo gh od jxuh 8171 E| ' UV E4c w EoE|   E| hw +E| ' W E4c woE| n V E4c w  E| V Ec w  ' +818, +819,

/ W Ec w '  V Ec w hw UV Ec w ' UE V Ec w n UE S Ec w

r V Ec w/ W Ec w hw UV Ec w vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw qrpl0 qdoh/ od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh qrplqdoh hw od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh qrplqdoh1

815

Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph

Xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph grqqh od srvvlelolw gh yulhu d srvwhulrul ohv shuirupdqfhv uhoohv rewhqxhv dyhf oh ujxodwhxu frqvlgu1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdohv vrqw frpsduhv dyhf fhoohv rewhqxhv sdu xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hhfwxh sduwlu g*xqh h{sulhqfh hq whpsv uho1 Gh soxv/ frpph srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh/ o*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gx v|vwph shuphw gh ydolghu vrq prgoh rewhqx sdu xqh lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph1 Gdqv oh fdguh gh o*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph/ oh vfkpd 815 hvw xwlolv dq gh gfuluh suflvphqw oh uoh gh wrxv ohv vljqdx{ gh od erxfoh1

457

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

eE|

KJ E4

oE|

& . ! .) 
(

E| UE4

 E| SJ E4

 ! ! & .)
S +E|

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv xwlolvh srxu o*dqdo|vh ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph
Iljxuh 816 =

81514

Hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh ghv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw gh od erxfoh ihuph

Oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh udolv hvw grqq sdu ohv uh0 odwlrqv +814,0+815,1 Frpph wrxv fhv vljqdx{ vrqw lqgshqgdqwv/ oh fdofxo ghv vshfwuhv ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh +xwlolvdwlrq gx ohpph 514, frqgxlw dx uvxowdw vxlydqw +81:, x+ E/ ' mWJ9 ED m x+9 E/ n mVJ ED m x+ E/  n mWJ ED m xD + E/ n mSV J ED m x E/ n mSV J ED m xD  E/

x E/ ' mUV 9 +81;, J ED m x+9 E/  n mUV J ED m x+ E/  n mUV J ED m xD + E/ n mVJ ED m x E/ n mWJ ED m xD  E/ r D ' e Ae !Q 1 D sduwlu gx uhohy ghv wurlv vljqdx{ i+9E|j/iE|j hw i+E|j/ ohv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv vshfw0 9 udohv ghv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw UV 9 J ED  hw WJ ED  vh ggxlvhqw hq fdofxodqw oh vshfwuh x+9 E/ hw ohv vshfwuhv furlvv x+9 E/ hw x++9 E/ sduwlu ghv uhodwlrqv +5149, hw +514:, frpph vxlw x+9 E/ x++9 E/ UV 9 hw WJ9ED  ' J ED  ' x+9 E/ x+9 E/ Frpph lo h{lvwh xqh uhodwlrq hqwuh od uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh gx v|vwph hw fhv ghx{ wudqvihuwv/ rq hq ggxlw W 9 ED  x++9 E/  S ED  ' J 9 ' UV J ED  x+9 E/ Sdu frqwuh/ xq vljqdo vxssophqwdluh hvw qfhvvdluh srxu srxyrlu gwhuplqhu ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv hw oh ujxodwhxu1 Sdu h{hpsoh hq v*lqvsludqw ghv uhodwlrqv +81:, hw +81;,/ xq vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq hq hqwuh gx v|vwph i E|j shuphw g*rewhqlu
/Ae

8151

Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hq erxfoh ihuph

458

eE|

KE4

oE|

& !. ! .) 
(

E| UE4

 E| S E4

   & .)
S +E|

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo xwlolvh srxu o*dqdo|vh ghv p0 wkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph
Iljxuh 817 =

 Od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw VJ ED  '  Od irqfwlrq surfgvhqvlelolw

x E/ x E/ x+ E/ x E/

SV J ED  '

sduwlu gx fdofxo gx vshfwuh x E/ hw ghv vshfwuhv furlvv x E/ hw x+ E/1 Od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh vh ggxlw wrxw qdwxuhoohphqw frpph vxlw WJ ED  '  VJ ED  '  hw fhooh gx ujxodwhxu hvw grqqh sdu UED  ' WJ ED  x E/  x E/  '  SV J ED  x+ E/ x E/ x E/ 

hw shuphw g*rewhqlu od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh   x E/  x E/ x E/  UV J ED  ' UED VJ ED  ' x+ E/ x E/ Vxlydqw od sodfh gx vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq/ ohv uhodwlrqv srxu gwhuplqhu ohv gluhqwhv uhsu0 vhqwdwlrqv vshfwudohv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv vhurqw gluhqwhv pdlv hoohv vh ggxlvhqw wuv idflohphqw sduwlu ghv txdwlrqv +81:,0+81;,1

459

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Uhpdutxh 814 Gdqv oh fdv g*xq ujxodwhxu xq vhxo ghju gh olehuw F E  ' c qrxv dyrqv grqf 9 UV 9 J E  ' UV J E  hw WJ E  ' WJ E  ohv wurlv vljqdx{ i+9E|j/iE|j hw i+E|j vrqw vx!vdqwv srxu hvwlphu ohv irqfwlrqv gh wudqv0 ihuw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1  Od frpsdudlvrq gh fhv hvwlpdwlrqv dyhf ohv uhsuvhqwdwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolwv qrplqdohv shuphw dlqvl gh ydolghu ohv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv1 Revhuyrqv txh fhwwh ydolgdwlrq q*hvw shuwlqhqwh txh vl ohv vljqdx{ xwlolvv srxu fhwwh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh vrqw shx euxlwv1 Od gwulrudwlrq vrxv0mdfhqwh shxw wuh yulh sdu o*wxgh ghv frkuhqfhv1

81515

Hwxgh ghv frkuhqfhv

Soxvlhxuv frkuhqfhv shxyhqw wuh gqlhv srxu oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh sduwlu gh o*h{suhvvlrq jqudoh +6153,1 Fhv frkuhqfhv shuphwwhqw gh gwhuplqhu o*lq xhqfh ghv shu0 wxuedwlrqv vxu o*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh1 Rq glvwlqjxh =  Od frkuhqfh hqwuh oh vljqdo gh uiuhqfh hw oh vljqdo gh vruwlh  ++9 E/  ' r
2 2 2 2 x+  E/  ' mVJ ED m x+ E/  n mWJ ED m xD + E/  n mSV J ED m x E/  n mSV J ED m xD  E/ 

mx++9 E/ m2 mWJ9ED m2 xo E/ ' x+ E/ x+9 E/  mWJ9 ED m2 x+9 E/  n x+  E/ 

txl shuphw gh gwhuplqhu ohv sodjhv gh iutxhqfhv r o*hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh gh od irqfwlrq WJ9ED  hvw uhodwlyhphqw suflvh1  Od frkuhqfh hqwuh oh vljqdo gh uiuhqfh hw oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh  +9 E/ ' r
2 2 2 2 x  E/  ' mUV J ED m x+ E/  n mUV J ED m xD + E/  n mVJ ED m x E/  n mWJ ED m xD  E/  2 mx+9 E/m2 mUV 9 J ED m x+9 E/  ' 2  x E/x+9 E/ mUV 9 J ED m xo E/  n x E/ 

txl shuphw gh gwhuplqhu ohv iutxhqfhv srxu ohvtxhoohv o*lq xhqfh gx euxlw hvw fuxfldoh vxu o*hvwlpdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq UV 9 J ED 1 Oh pph udlvrqqhphqw v*dssoltxh srxu ohv frkuhqfhv   E/ /  + E/  txl shuphwwhqw gh phwwuh hq ylghqfh uhvshfwlyhphqw o*lq xhqfh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv vxu ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw VJ ED  hw SV J ED 1 Uhpdutxh 815 O*wxgh ghv frkuhqfhv shuphw gh suflvhu vl ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw su0 srqgudqwhv hq hqwuh rx hq vruwlh gx v|vwph1 Hq hhw/ vl  ++9 E/  <  +9 E/ vxu ghv sodjhv gh iutxhqfhv doruv ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hq vruwlh srxu fhv iutxhqfhv qh vrqw sdv susrqgudqwhv1 

8161 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh

45:

81516

Sulvh hq frpswh gh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu

Od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu UE  shxw wuh xwlolvh erq hvflhqw srxu o*hvwlpdwlrq ghv vshfwuhv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv1 Hq hhw/ vl o*rq frqvlguh o*h{suhvvlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh W ED  ' UED S ED  n UED S ED 

rq shxw gwhuplqhu xqh hvwlpdwlrq gh vd uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh hq whqdqw frpswh gh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu/ vrlw W ED  '
x++9 E/ n UED  x+ 9 E/ 

++ UED  x+ 9 E/ 

x 9 E/ 

'

UED x++9 E/ x+9 E/ n UED x++9 E/ 

Rq hq ggxlw hqvxlwh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hw oh prgoh gx surfg hq xwlolvdqw ohv uhodwlrqv kdelwxhoohv = V ED  '  W ED  UV ED  ' UED V ED  x++9 E/  S ED  ' x+9 E/ SV ED  ' S ED V ED  Fhwwh gpdufkh grqqh hq jqudo gh phloohxuv uvxowdwv vxu o*hvwlpdwlrq ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw vdqv xwlolvhu xq txhofrqtxh vljqdo vxssophqwdluh/ l1h1 vhxov ohv wurlv vljqdx{ i+9E|j/iE|j hw i+E|j vrqw xwlolvv1 O*dpolrudwlrq hvw g*dxwdqw soxv lpsruwdqwh txh o*hv0 wlpdwlrq gx vshfwuh gx ujxodwhxu hvw pdxydlvh = fh txl hvw oh fdv oruvtxh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv djlvvdqw vxu o*hqwuh gx v|vwph vrqw lpsruwdqwhv1 Qrwrqv txh o*hvwlpdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw gx v|vwph qh shxw wuh dpolruh dyhf od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu1

816

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh

Fhwwh suhpluh dssurfkh gfrxoh qdwxuhoohphqw gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh su0 vhqwh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 6 = ohv pphv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh vrqw xwlolvv gluhfwhphqw srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw grqf oh pph txh fhoxl xwlolv hq erxfoh rx0 yhuwh/ vrlw wEA  ' @h} 4? T Ewc A  dyhf
w

A 2 5 0s E|*w  A f i0s E|*w j gvljqh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh T Ewc A  '     I E4 KE4c w 0s E|*w  ' ESJ E4  S E4c w E| n KJ E4  eE| n eE| KE4c w I E4 +81<,

45;

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

r I E  uhsuvhqwh od g|qdpltxh g*xq owuh g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 Oruvtxh oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv A whqg yhuv o*lqql/ ohv sdudpwuhv hvwlpv w EA  frqyhujhqw yhuv ghv sdudpwuhv w9 vdwlv0 idlvdqw l k w9 ' @h} 4? *4 T Ewc A 
w A

<"

Vrxv o*k|srwkvh txh oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqyhujh


A

*4 T Ewc A  4

<"

od uhodwlrq gh Sduvhydo hvw xwlolvh srxu grqqhu xqh lqwhusuwdwlrq iutxhqwlhooh gx fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq Z ]Ae x0s E/_/ wW ' @h} 4? w 2Z

3 AZe

x0s E/ gvljqh oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh txl hvw grqq gdqv fh fdv sdu    I E/  2  x0s E/ '   KE/c w   k l  m{S E/c wm2 x E/ n m{KE/c wm2 xe E/ n 2 +i {S E/c w{KE/c w  xe E/  nxe E/  dyhf {S E/c w ' SJ E/  S E/c w KE/c w {KE/c w ' KJ E/  I E/ r xe E/ hvw oh vshfwuh furlv hqwuh oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh E| hw od shuwxuedwlrq eE| txh o*rq shxw gwhuplqhu sduwlu gh od uhodwlrq +816, frpph vxlw xeE/  '  +i dUV J E/ KJ E/o xe E/

81614

H{suhvvlrq gx eldlv

Oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh +81<, shxw doruv v*fuluh gh idrq idluh dssd0 udwuh h{solflwhphqw oh eldlv vxu oh prgoh hvwlp +Iruvvhoo hw Omxqj 4<<:, frpph vxlw        I E/ 2 xe 2 2  E/    x0s E/ '  m{S E/c w  Es E/c wm x E/ n m{KE/c w m  xe E/ nxe E/ KE/  x E/  +8143, r Es E/c w hvw xq eldlv gql sdu xe E/ xe  E/  mEs E/c wm ' m{KE/c w m2 x E/ x E/
2

8161 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh

45<

hw xe  E/  gvljqh oh vshfwuh gh od sduwlh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv iE|j udphqh vxu oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh sdu frqwuh udfwlrq
2 xe  E/  ' mUE/ VJ E/ m x E/ 

G*dsuv o*h{suhvvlrq gx eldlv/ rq shxw uhpdutxhu txh o*hvwlpdwlrq shxw wuh idleohphqw eldlvh vl o*rq vh wurxyh gdqv o*xqh ghv frqglwlrqv vxlydqwhv +Iruvvhoo hw Omxqj 4<<:,  Oh prgoh gx euxlw hvw uhodwlyhphqw elhq lghqwl rx elhq frqqx +l1h1 {KE/c w  ' E/cw KJ E/  G 5 E/ shwlw,/  Oh udssruw euxlw vxu vljqdo hvw idleoh +l1h1
xe E/ x E/

shwlw,
xe  E/  x E/ 

 oh udssruw euxlw dssruw sdu od uwurdfwlrq vxu vljqdo hvw idleoh +l1h1

shwlw,1

81615

H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh

Od yduldqfh gx prgoh hvwlp S E/c w hvw rewhqxh hq xwlolvdqw oh uvxowdw 6146 dssoltx od erxfoh ihuph r oh euxlw ieE|j hw o*hqwuh iE|j vrqw fruuov1 Rq d UL S E/c w 9 rx g*xqh pdqluh txlydohqwh UL S E/c w  9 ? x E/  xo  E/  +8144, ? x E/ xe E/  xe E/x E/   mxe E/ m2

r oh vshfwuh xo  E/  gfulw od sduwlh gh o*h{flwdwlrq vh uhwurxydqw vxu o*hqwuh gx v|vwph


2 xo  E/  ' mUV J E/ m xo E/ 

Fhwwh h{suhvvlrq hvw vhpeodeoh fhooh rewhqxh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +6146, gdqv od phvxuh r od vhxoh gluhqfh vwuxfwxuhooh frqvlvwh fkdqjhu oh vshfwuh gx vljqdo g*hqwuh iE|j cvrlw x E/ / hq fhoxl gh od sduwlh gh o*h{flwdwlrq ioE|j txl dhfwh o*hqwuh gx v|vwph/ vrlw xo  E/ 1 Rq qrwhud txh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw shx suflvh gdqv ohv }rqhv gh iutxhqfhv r od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw xvxhooh udolvh UV J E  hvw idleoh1 O*h{suhvvlrq +8144, vrxoljqh oh srlqw lpsruwdqw gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph = od uwurdfwlrq shuphw gh ugxluh od vhqvlelolw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh gdqv ohv }rqhv gh iutxhqfhv r ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw lpsruwdqwhv1 O*lqirupdwlrq dssruwh sdu oh vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq vhud grqf shx lpsruwdqwh gdqv fhv }rqhv gh iutxhqfhv/ oh v|vwph vhud dlqvl wuv pdo lghqwl srxu ohv iutxhqfhv r ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vrqw lpsruwdqwhv1

463

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

81616

Fkrl{ gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq

O*h{suhvvlrq gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq +81<, shxw vh ufuluh hq xwlolvdqw od orl frppdqgh +816,/ fh txl grqqh 0s E|*w  ' I E4 d{S E4c wUV J E4 EoE|  KJ E4eE| n {KE4c w eE|o n eE| KE4c w

Oh vshfwuh gh fhwwh huuhxu gh suglfwlrq v*h{sulph doruv gh od idrq vxlydqwh    I E/  2  x0s E/ '   KE/c w     2 2 m{S E/c wm2 xo E /  n m { S E /c w  UV E /  K E /  m n m { K E /c w  m x E /  n xeE/  J J e  Vl oh prgoh gx euxlw hvw vsfl frpph xq sdudpwuh gh v|qwkvh/ l1h1 KE4c w ' KE4/ o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq ghylhqw 0s E|*w  ' hw grqf 2      I E/ 2   mV E/c wm2 m{S E/c w m2 xo x0s E/ '   E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/  +8145,  KE/  V E/c w Fhwwh txdwlrq shuphw gh idluh dssdudwuh xq fkrl{ gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq srxu uhqguh oh vshfwuh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv lqgshqgdqw gx yhfwhxu ghv sdudpwuhv1 Hq hhw/ vl o*rq vsflh oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frpph vxlw I E  ' KE  V Ec w  Oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq ghylhqw
2 x0s E/ ' mV E/c wm2 m{S E/c wm2 xo  E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/ 

I E4 d{S E4c wUV J E4 EoE|   E| n  E|o KE4

+8146,

+8147,

rx x0s E/ ' m{V E/c wm2 xo E/  n mVJ E/m2 x E/ Fhv h{suhvvlrqv prqwuhqw txh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdoh frqyhujh yhuv od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw udolvh hw txh o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx prgoh hvw frqvlvwdqwh gdqv ohv }rqhv gh iutxhqfhv r oh surgxlw ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hq vruwlh hw hq hqwuh hvw uhodwlyh0 phqw lpsruwdqw1 Od suflvlrq gx prgoh hvw pdqlihvwhphqw phloohxuh gdqv ohv }rqhv gh iutxhqfhv fulwltxhv srxu od urexvwhvvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Frpph oh owudjh hq txhvwlrq qfhvvlwh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx prgoh txh o*rq fkhufkh lghqwlhu/ rq shxw oh fkrlvlu frpph vxlw I E  ' KE Ve E 

8161 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh

464

r Ve E  hvw xqh hvwlpdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw txh o*rq shxw lghqwlhu hq erxfoh rxyhuwh sduwlu gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 O*h{suhvvlrq +8145, ghylhqw doruv 2  VJ E/  x0s E/  ' mVe E/m m{S E/c wm EVe E   V E/c w  x E/ V E/c w +8148, Rq dxud xqh lghqwlfdwlrq uhodwlyhphqw frqvlvwdqwh vl od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw Ve E  hvw dx yrlvlqdjh gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdoh V E/c w1 Od v|qwkvh gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq I E  shxw wuh udolvh sdu o*xwlolvdwlrq g*xqh surfgxuh lwudwlyh dowhuqdqw xqh wdsh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw xqh wdsh gh v|qwkvh gx u0 jxodwhxu hq yxh g*d!qhu ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Fhwwh lgh d w vxjjuh sdu +Vfkudpd 4<<5, hw frqvlvwh hq ohv wdshv vxlydqwhv =
2 2

 xo  E/  n VJ E/  

 

 Lqlwldolvdwlrq gh od surfgxuh sduwlu g*xq prgoh gh frppdqgh S Ec wJ  hw gx ujxodwhxu UJ E  txl oxl hvw dvvrfl1  Wdqw txh ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh qh vrqw sdv vdwlvidlvdqwhv idluh   G'  n  Fdofxo gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq = I E  ' KE  V Ec w3  Lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq qrxyhdx prgoh gh frppdqgh S Ec w  sduwlu ghv grqqhv g*hqwuhv0vruwlhv owuhv1  Fdofxo gx ujxodwhxu U E  sduwlu gx prgoh gh frppdqgh S Ec w   Ilq Wdqw txh1 Rq qrwhud txh vl fhwwh surfgxuh lwudwlyh frqyhujh/ l1h1 V E/c w3 $ V E/c w / doruv oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq yulh od sursulw gh frqvlvwdqfh gh o*hvwlpdwhxu/ vrlw
2 x0s E/  $ mV E/c wm2 m{S E/c wm2 xo  E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/ 

Fhshqgdqw/ od frqyhujhqfh gh od surfgxuh lwudwlyh uhtxlhuw ghv frqglwlrqv dssursulhv1 Lqwhudfwlrq lghqwlfdwlrq0frppdqgh Ohv uvxowdwv ufhqwv vxu o*lqwhudfwlrq hqwuh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh ++vwup 4<<6,/ +Jhyhuv 4<<6,/ +Ydq ghq Kri hw Vfkudpd 4<<8, hw +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9f,, rqw prqwu txh oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw o*remhfwli gh frppdqgh shxyhqw wuh uhqgxv dv|pswrwltxhphqw frpsdwleohv vl o*rq fkrlvlw frqyhqdeohphqw oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Frqvlgurqv o*remhfwli gh frppdqgh txl frqvlvwh plqlplvhu oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh + , A [ ao ' . *4 E+E|  W Ec woE|2 +8149, A <" A |'J txh o*rq shxw ufuluh gdqv oh grpdlqh iutxhqwlho/ oruvtxh A $ 4c vrxv od iruph

465

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph


Z ]

ao ' 2Z

Sdu dloohxuv/ oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph shxw vh ufuluh frpph vxlw Z  2 ]     I E/    m{V E/c wm2 xo E/  n mVJ E/m2 x E/  _/ T Ew ' 2Z  KE/ V E/c w 

3Z

  m{V E/c wm2 xo E/ n mVJ E/m2 x E/ _/

+814:,

3Z

Lo dssdudw fodluhphqw txh ohv ghx{ fulwuhv vrqw dv|pswrwltxhphqw lghqwltxhv vl o*rq fkrlvlw oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frpph vxlw I Ec w  ' KE V Ec w Rq uhwurxyh od vsflfdwlrq +8146, gx owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq txl shuphw g*dvvxuhu od frqvlv0 wdqfh gh o*hvwlpdwhxu1 Xqh whooh dssurfkh d w dgrswh srxu od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh gh uiuhqfh vxu o*wdw sduwlho +Fkhedvvlhu hw P*Vddg 4<<:e, txl frqvlvwh plqlplvhu/ dx vhqv g*xq krul}rq ix|dqw/ oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh + , R [ 2 2 ao Ees E|*w ' H Ee+s E| n *w n b Ees E| n   *w +814;, R  ' hq vxssrvdqw txh dyhf e+s E|*w  ' Z+ E4 E+E|  W E4c woE| es E|*w  ' Z E4 EE|  UV E4c woE| +814<, es E| n *w ' f srxu  5 dSc R  o

Gdqv oh fdv g*xq krul}rq gh suglfwlrq vx!vdpphqw judqg srxu hqjorehu oh whpsv g*wdeolvvhphqw gx v|vwph frppdqghu/ rq dxud ao Ees E|*w  ' 2Z dyhf
Z ]

3Z

  mPE/c w m2 m{V E/c wm2 xo E/ n mVJ E/ m2 x E/ _/

+8153,

mPEc wm2 ' mZ+ E m2 n b mZ E UE m2 Oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq +8145, hw o*remhfwli gh frppdqgh +8153, shxyhqw wuh uhqgxv dv|pswrwltxhphqw txlydohqwv vl o*rq fkrlvlw oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frpph vxlw I Ec w ' KE V Ec w PEc w +8154,

Qrwrqv txh oh owuh +8146, hvw vlpsohphqw rewhqx hq srvdqw oh vfdodluh b }ur hw hq suhqdqw xq owuh xqlwdluh srxu od srqgudwlrq iutxhqwlhooh Z+ E / rq uhwurxyh dlqvl oh fulwuh +8149,1

8171 Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh

466

Lqwhusuwdwlrq gx owudjh Rq shxw udolvhu od frqglwlrq gh frqvlvwdqfh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph I E  ' KE V Ec w hq vsfldqw oh owuh hw oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv frpph vxlw I E  ' hw KE  ' Dlqvl/ oh prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq +E| ' S E4c wE| n KE4eE| shxw vh ufuluh vrxv od iruph +E| ' S E4c wE| n rx hq xwlolvdqw od orl gh frppdqgh + E| ' S E4c wUE4 oE| n eE| n UE4S E4c w +8155, eE| V Ec w V Ec w

Fhwwh qrxyhooh sdudpwulvdwlrq gx prgoh hvw xwlolvh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph lqgluhfwh1 Rq lghqwlh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh sduwlu ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh ioE|c +E|j|Mdfc o / sxlv rq gwhuplqh oh prgoh S Ec w sduwlu gh od frqqdlv0 vdqfh gx ujxodwhxu UE 1

817

Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh

O*lgh frqvlvwh vh uhsodfhu gdqv xq frqwh{wh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh hq udolvdqw xqh gfruuodwlrq hqwuh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hq vruwlh hw oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh1 Srxu fh idluh/ fhv pwkrghv xwlolvhqw oh vljqdo gh uiuhqfh oE| txl hvw lqgshqgdqw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hq vruwlh dlqvl txh od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu UE4 srxu uhyhqlu vxu oh prgoh gx v|vwph1 Hq uvxp/ fhv pwkrghv uhtxlhuhqw  ghv grqqhv ioE|c +E|j vxu xq krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq grqq  od frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu UE4

81714

Od pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh

Fhwwh pwkrgh d w gyhorssh gdqv +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,/ +Odqgdx hw Ndulpl 4<<:, vrxv o*dfurq|ph FORH1 Hooh frqvlvwh xwlolvhu o*txdwlrq gh vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh qrplqdo +E| ' W E4c woE| n V E4c w KE4c weE|

467

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

frpph prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq dyhf V E4c wKE4c w ' Dyhf fhwwh sdudpwulvdwlrq/ oh suglfwhxu dvvrfl hvw doruv grqq sdu + E|*w  ' W E4c w oE|
e E4cw Vl o*rq srvh S E4c w '  e E4cw / oh suglfwhxu xq sdv gh od vruwlh ghylhqw

+8156,

+ E|*w  ' dW E4c w E  eE4c w  n UV E4c we E4c wo oE| ' E  e E4c w + E|*w  n eE4c w o E|c w A ' E|c ww dyhf  ?@3  4?K3 4 1 1 E| ' + E|*w 1 o E|c w .@E4 .K E4   1 s A 1 e  @ 1 K w '
A

+8157,

r oh vljqdo o E|c w hvw frqvwuxlw sduwlu gx vljqdo gh uiuhqfh oE| frpph vxlw o E|c w ' UE4V E4c woE| Dlqvl od frqglwlrq gh gfruuhodwlrq gx vljqdo g*hqwuh hw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw vdwlvidlwh1 D sduwlu gx suglfwhxu +8157,/ rq shxw gqlu ghv suglfwhxuv dmxvwdeohv hw hhfwxhu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph hq whpsv uho dyhf xq dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh frpph fhx{ txh qrxv dyrqv xwlolvv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqwh 0E|*w  ' +E|  + E|*w  shxw vh ufuluh vrxv od iruph 0E|*w  ' ESJ E4  S E4c w o E| n UE4SJ E4 E +E|*w   +E| n E| ' VJ E4 dESJ E4  S E4c w  o E| n  E|o txl shuphw gh gwhuplqhu vrq vshfwuh
2 x0 E/ ' mV E/c wm2 m{S E/c wm2 xo  E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/ 

+8158,

txl hvw lghqwltxh fhoxl rewhqx srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gluhfwh +8147,1 Fhwwh pwkrgh d grqf shuplv gh udolvhu lpsolflwhphqw oh owudjh uhtxlv +8146, I E  ' KE  V Ec w  Hq wdqw txh pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh/ hooh qfhvvlwh od frqglwlrq  hvw vwulfwhphqw uhooh srvlwlyh J E4 n UE4J E4 2

8171 Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh

468

rx g*xqh pdqluh txlydohqwh 7 E4(E4  hvw gqlh vwulfwhphqw uhooh srvlwlyh SJ E4 2 vl UE4 ' -E4 7 E4(E4

SJ E4 gvljqh oh sro|qph fdudfwulvwltxh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SJ E4 ' J E47 E4(E4 n J E4-E4 Od frqglwlrq gh uhooh srvlwlylw shxw wuh uhofkh hq surfgdqw xq owudjh ghv grqqhv sdu 7 E4(E4 E47 E4(E4 n  E4-E4  E4 hw  E4 vrqw ghv hvwlphv ghv sro|qphv J E4 hw J E41 Soxvlhxuv r ohv sro|qphv  yduldqwhv gh fhw dojrulwkph vrqw sursrvhv gdqv +Odqgdx hw Ndulpl 4<<:,1 H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh O*h{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh v*rewlhqw sduwlu ghv uvxowdwv grqqv hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +6146, dssoltxv vxu od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh uhsuvhqwdqw oh prgoh gh od erxfoh ihuph ? mVJ E4m2 x E/  UL W E4c w  9  xo E/ Od irupxoh g*dssur{lpdwlrq gh Jdxvv +Iruvvhoo hw Omxqj 4<<:, shuphw gh uhyhqlu od yduldqfh gx prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh sduwlu gh o*h{suhvvlrq sufghqwh UL S E4c w ' hw frpph _SJ E4 _SJ E4 W UL W E4c w _WJ E4 _WJ E4

_SJ E4 ' _WJ E4 UE4 EVJ E42 ? x E/  xo  E/ 

rq uhwurxyh o*h{suhvvlrq +8144, gh od yduldqfh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh UL S E4c w  9

81715

Sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod

Fhwwh pwkrgh xwlolvh od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod srxu udolvhu od gfruuodwlrq uhtxlvh hqwuh oh vljqdo g*hqwuh hw ohv shuwxuedwlrqv +Kdqvhq/ Iudqnolq hw Nrvxw 4<;<,1 Udsshorqv txh fhwwh sdudpwulvdwlrq frqvlvwh ufuluh oh prgoh qrplqdo hw oh ujxodwhxu frpph vxlw S? E  ' Q E dGE o3 hw UE  ' QS E dGSE o3

469

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

r Q E / G E / QS E  hw GS E  vrqw ghv irqfwlrqv gh wudqvihuw udwlrqqhoohv sursuhv hw vwdeohv1 Od fodvvh ghv v|vwphv vwdelolvdeohv sdu fh ujxodwhxu hvw gfulwh sdu o*txdwlrq dx{ gluhqfhv +E| ' Q E4 n GSE4TJ E4 E| n  E| G E4  QS E4TJ E4 GE4 ESJ E4  S? E4 GSE4 E n UE4SJ E4 +8159,

r TJ E4 hvw xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw udwlrqqhooh sursuh hw vwdeoh grqqh sdu TJ E4 '

Fhwwh vwuxfwxuh gh v|vwphv +8159, vxjjuh gh udolvhu o*lghqwlfdwlrq sduwlu gx prgoh +E| ' Z E4c w Q E4 n GS E4TE4c w E| n eE| G E4  QSE4TE4c w GE4  QS E4TE4c w  +815:,

r TE4c w hvw xqh irqfwlrq udwlrqqhooh sursuh hw vwdeoh hw Z E4c w hvw xqh irqfwlrq udwlrq0 qhooh sursuh vwdeoh hw lqyhuvhphqw vwdeoh1 Od fodvvh ghv v|vwph hw oh prgoh g*lghqwlfdwlrq shxyhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw v*fuluh frpph vxlw 5 E| ' TJ E4%E| n EGE4  QS E4TJ E4  E| hw 5 E| ' TE4c w%E| n Z E4c weE|

r 5 E| hw %E| uhsuvhqwhqw ghv yduldeohv lqvwuxphqwdohv frqvwuxlwhv sduwlu ghv grqqhv frpph vxlw 5 E| ' G E4+E|  Q E4E| %E| ' GS E4E| n QSE4+E| ' QS E4oE| Dlqvl rq shxw hhfwxhu xqh lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlvwdqwh gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw TE4c w  gdqv od phvxuh r i%E|j hw ieE|j vrqw lqgshqgdqwhv1 Frpph od irqfwlrq gh wudqv0 ihuw TE4c w  hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw vwdeoh/ fhwwh lghqwlfdwlrq shxw wuh udolvh dyhf xqh pwkrgh g*huuhxu gh vruwlh hq vsfldqw oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv dvvrfl frpph vxlw = Z E4 ' Oh suglfwhxu hw o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq dvvrflh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu 5 E|*w  ' TE4c w%E| hw   0s E|*w  ' I E4 5 E|  5 E|*w  ' I E4 EETJ E4  TE4c w %E| n EG E4  QS E4TJ E4  E|

8181 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

46:

Vl o*rq fkrlvlw frpph owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq I E4 ' GS E4 Q E4QS E4 n G E4GS E4

doruv o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh ghylhqw 0s E|*w  ' I E4 ETJ E4  TE4c w %E| n VJ E4 E| hw vrq vshfwuh
2 x0s E/ ' mV E/c wm2 m{S E/c wm2 xo  E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/ 

+815;,

hvw lghqwltxh fhoxl grqq sdu od pwkrgh FORH1 Dlqvl/ fhwwh surfgxuh d shuplv gh udolvhu oh owudjh ghv grqqhv sdu ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdoh hw udolvh1 H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh O*h{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh v*rewlhqw sduwlu ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +6146, dssoltxh dx prgoh TE4c w UL TE4c w 9 ? mGE4  QS E4TJ E4m2 x E/  x% E/

Od irupxoh g*dssur{lpdwlrq gh Jdxvv shuphw gh uhyhqlu od yduldqfh gx prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh sduwlu gh o*h{suhvvlrq sufghqwh _SJ E4 _SJ E4 W JTE4c w UL S E4c w ' _TJ E4 _TJ E4 _SJ E4 Q E4QS E4 n GE4GS E4 ' _TJ E4 EGE4  QS E4TJ E42 ? mQ E4QSE4 n GE4GS E4m2 x E/  ? x E/  UL S E4c w 9 ' 2  mGE4  QS E4TJ E4m mQSE4m xo E/  xo  E/  rq uhwurxyh o*h{suhvvlrq +8144, gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh1

ru

grqf od yduldqfh gx prgoh lghqwl ghylhqw

818

Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

O*lgh frqvlvwh hhfwxhu xqh gfruuodwlrq hqwuh ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxu uhfrxyulu oh frqwh{wh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh hq xwlolvdqw ohv vljqdx{ ioE|jc iE|j hw i+E|j1 Rq glvwlqjxh ghx{ dssurfkhv vhorq txh o*rq uhfrqvwuxlw oh vljqdo g*hqwuh rx oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh1

46;

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

81814

Uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx vljqdo g*hqwuh

Rq xwlolvh xqh suhpluh wdsh g*lghqwlfdwlrq srxu uhfrqvwuxluh xq vljqdo g*hqwuh qrq fruuo dyhf ohv shuwxuedwlrqv hw xqh vhfrqgh wdsh srxu lghqwlhu oh v|vwph1 Od pwkrgh ghx{ wdshv Fhwwh dssurfkh sursrvh gdqv +Ydq ghq Kri hw Vfkudpd 4<<6, frqvlvwh uhfrqvwuxluh oh vljqdo g*hqwuh sduwlu g*xqh lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh1 Fhwwh yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh hvw xwlolvh dyhf od vruwlh srxu udolvhu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph1 Fhwwh surfgxuh hvw uvxph fl0ghvvrxv  Uhohyhu ohv phvxuhv ioE|c E|c +E|j  Lghqwlhu od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh UV Ec w7  sduwlu ghv grqqhv ioE|j hw iE|j1 Qrwrqv txh od vwuxfwxuh h{dfwh gh fhwwh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw q*hvw sdv sulprugldoh/ lo hvw grqf srvvleoh gh frqvlguhu xq prgoh ILU srxu udolvhu dx plhx{ oh frqwh{wh g*xqh lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlvwdqwh1  Uhfrqvwuxluh oh vljqdo g*hqwuh qrq shuwxue sduwlu gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh hvwlph/ l1h1 o E| ' UV E4c w7 oE|1  Lghqwlhu oh prgoh S Ec w  sduwlu ghv grqqhv io E|j hw i+E|j O*lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh hhfwxh gdqv od suhpluh wdsh hvw udolvh sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw hq hqwuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh E| ' UV J E4 EoE|   E| hq xwlolvdqw oh prgoh hw vrq suglfwhxu E| ' UV E4c w 7 oE| n K7 E4eE|

3E4UV E4c w7 oE| n   K7 3E4 E|  E|*w7  ' K7


r oh yhfwhxu w7 gqrwh ohv sdudpwuhv gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh hw K7 E4 uhsuvhqwh oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv fruuhvsrqgdqw/ h1j1 K7 E4 ' UV J E4KJ E41 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh dvvrflh hw vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu

3E4 E{UV E4c w7 oE|  UV J E4E| 0s E| ' I7 E4 EE|   E|*w 7  ' I7 E4K7
hw    I7 E/ 2    m{UV E/c w 7 m2 xo E/  n mUV J E/m2 x E/ x0s E/ '   K7 E/   {UV E/c w7  ' UV J E/   UV E/c w 7 

dyhf

8181 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

46<

Oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq shxw wuh frqyhqdeohphqw vsfl sduwlu gx prgoh ghv shuwxu0 edwlrqv srxu lghqwlhu hq erxfoh rxyhuwh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh g*xqh pdqluh frqvlvwdqwh1 O*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph hvw idlwh sduwlu gx vljqdo gh vruwlh i+E|j hw gx vljqdo g*hqwuh uhfrqvwuxlw io E|j gql sdu o E| ' UV E4c w 7 oE| Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvh oh prgoh +E| ' S E4c wo E| n KE4eE| hw vrq suglfwhxu dvvrfl   + E|*w ' K3E4S E4c wo E| n  K3E4 +E|

O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh fruuhvsrqgdqwh hw vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu 0s E| ' I E4 E+E|  + E|*w 3 ' I E4K E4 EEWJ E4  S E4c wUV E4c w7  oE| n VJ E4 E| hw    I E/ 2   2 2  x0s E/ '   KE/  mS E/c w{UV E/c w7  n UV J E/{S E/c wm xo E/ n mVJ E/ m x E/ Lo hvw fodlu txh vl o*lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh hvw udolvh dyhf vx!vdpphqw gh suflvlrq/ l1h UV E/c w7  $ UV J E/ doruv oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq ghylhqw    I E/ 2   2   m{S E/c wm2 xo x0s E/ '   E/  n mVJ E/ m x E/   KE/

+815<,

Oh uvxowdw gh fhwwh pwkrgh uhsrvh grqf vxu od txdolw gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh udolvh1 Od pwkrgh sdu idfwhxuv suhplhuv qrupdolvv Fhwwh pwkrgh/ sursrvh sdu +Ydq ghq Kri hw do1 4<<8,/ xwlolvh od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod1 O*lgh sulqflsdoh frqvlvwh hq od v|qwkvh g*xq owuh srxu frqvwuxluh xqh yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh shuphwwdqw g*lghqwlhu ghv prgohv vrxv iruph gh idfwrulvdwlrqv suhpluhv qrupdolvhv sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvh xqh surfgxuh lwudwlyh uhodwlyhphqw oderulhxvh txl frqvlvwh hq od udolvd0 wlrq ghv wdshv vxlydqwhv

473

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

 Fkrlvlu xq prgoh qrplqdo S? E  ' Q? E  dG? E o3 vwdelolvdeoh sdu oh ujxodwhxu UE  ' QS E  dGS E o3  Gwhuplqhu oh owuh I E4 ' dG? E o3 UV ? E4

 Uhfrqvwuxluh od yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh %E| frpph vxlw %E| ' I E4oE| hw lghqwlhu xq prgoh Q Ec w  dGEc w( o3 sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0 vruwlh hw gh od yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh frqirupphqw dx{ txdwlrqv E| ' G E4c w( %E| n ( E| +E| ' Q E4c w  %E| n  E|  Frqvwuxluh od uhsuvhqwdwlrq qrupdolvh S? E  ' Q? E dG? E o3 gx prgoh lghqwl0  Q Ec w  dG Ec w ( o3 hw uhyhqlu o*wdsh 5 vl od qrupdolvdwlrq q*hvw sdv mxjh vdwlvidlvdqwh1  Gwhuplqhu oh owuh I E4 ' dG?E o3 UV ? E4 hw frqvwuxluh od yduldeoh %E| ' I E4oE|  Lghqwlhu ghx{ prgohv sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh hw gh od yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh frqirupphqw dx{ txdwlrqv E| ' E4c w @ %E| n @E| 8 E4c w@   E4c wK  + E| ' %E| n K E| 8 E4c w K 

 Frqvwuxluh oh prgoh gx v|vwph frpph vxlw S E4c w  '  E4c w K  E4c w@ 

Qrwrqv txh od vwuxfwxuh ghv prgohv Q Ec w  hw G Ec w(  shxw wuh vxusdudpwulvh srxu dyrlu xqh phloohxuh suflvlrq hw grqf xqh erqqh v|qwkvh gx owuh doruv txh o*lghq0  E4c wK  E4c w@  wlfdwlrq gx v|vwph sduwlu ghv prgohv hw grlw wuh idlwh dyhf ghv 8 E4c w@  8 E4c w@ vwuxfwxuhv dgtxdwhv1 Oh fulwuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq joredo a' 2Z
Z ]

3Z

  mQJ E/  Q E/c w  m2 x% E/ n mGJ E/  G E/c w( m2 x% E/ n x E/ n x( E/  _/

prqwuh txh o*lghqwlfdwlrq shxw wuh udolvh g*xqh pdqluh frqvlvwdqwh1

8181 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

474

H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh Ohv ghx{ pwkrghv sufghqwhv shxyhqw v*fuluh vrxv od iruph pdwulflhooh vxlydqwh       +E| SJ E4UV J E4 VJ E4 f oE| n  E| ' E| UV J E4 f UE4VJ E4 Frpph rq xwlolvh ohv pphv grqqhv srxu ohv ghx{ wdshv g*lghqwlfdwlrq/ rq d oh pph euxlw iE|j gdqv ohv ghx{ h{sulhqfhv hw sdu frqvtxhqw   ? x E/  S E4c wUV E4c w UL 9 UV E4c w  xo E/ dyhf E| ' grqf UL  S E4c wUV E4c w UV E4c w   VJ E4 f f UE4VJ E4 ? x E/ mVJ E/m2 9  xo E/   E|  UE/W UE/  mUE/m2 

Frpph S E4c w '

S E4c wUV E4c w c od irupxoh g*dssur{lpdwlrq gh Jdxvv grqqh UV E4c w   W   ? x E/ UE/W SJ E/ UL S E4c w 9 SJ E/  UE/ mUE/m2  xo E/  mUE/ m2  2 ? x E/   UL S E4c w 9 2 nUE/ SJ E/   xo E/  mUE/ m ? x E/  UL S E4c w 9  xo  E/ 

Fh txl grqqh o*h{suhvvlrq xvxhooh +8144,1

81815

Uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh

Rq xwlolvh ghx{ wdshv g*lghqwlfdwlrq srxu uhfrqvwuxluh oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh qrq shuwxue1 O*dssruw gh fhwwh wurlvlph wdsh g*lghqwlfdwlrq shuphw g*dpolruhu oh uds0 sruw vljqdo vxu euxlw1 Hq hhw/ oh vljqdo gh vruwlh euxlw hvw uhpsodf sdu fhoxl uhfrqvwuxlw qrq euxlw1 Od pwkrgh wurlv wdshv Fhwwh pwkrgh d w sursrvh gdqv +Hehuw/ P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<:, hw +Fkhedvvlhu hw P*Vddg 4<<:d,1 Hooh xwlolvh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh hw od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh srxu uhfrqvwuxluh oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh qrq shuwxue gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hw hvw udolvh frpph vxlw  Uhohyhu ohv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh ioE|c E|c +E|j

475

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

 Lghqwlhu od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh W Ec wA  sduwlu ghv grqqhv ioE|c +E|j  Lghqwlhu od irqfwlrq vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh UV Ec w 7  sduwlu ghv grqqhv ioE|c E|j  Uhfrqvwuxluh ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh sduwlu ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hvwlphv/ l1h1 o E| ' UV E4c w7 oE| hw +o E| ' W E4c wA oE|  Lghqwlhu oh prgoh S Ec w  sduwlu ghv grqqhv uhfrqvwuxlwhv io E|c +o E|j O*lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh hvw idlwh sduwlu gx frp0 sruwhphqw hq vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh + E| ' WJ E4oE| n VJ E4 E| hq xwlolvdqw oh prgoh hw vrq suglfwhxu dvvrfl +E| ' W E4c wA oE| n KA E4eE|

 3  + E|*wA  ' K3 A E4W E4c wA oE| n  KA E4 + E|

r oh yhfwhxu wA uhsuvhqwh ohv sdudpwuhv gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh hw KA E  uhsuvhqwh oh prgoh gh shuwxuedwlrqv fruuhvsrqgdqw/ h1j1 KA E  ' V E KE 1 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh hw vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqhv sdu

3E4 E{W E4c wA oE| n VJ E4E| 0s E| ' IA E4 E+E|  + E|*wA  ' IA E4KA
   IA E/ 2    m{W E/c w A m2 xo E/ n mVJ E/m2 x E/   x0s E/ '  KA E/  {W E/c wA  ' W E/  W E/c wA 

hw +8163,

dyhf

O*lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh hvw hhfwxh hq vxlydqw ohv pphv rsudwlrqv gfulwhv gdqv od pwkrgh ghx{ wdshv1 Rq rewlhqw doruv oh prgoh lghqwl UV E/c w7 1 O*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph shxw wuh doruv idlwh sduwlu ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh uhfrqvwuxlwv io E|j hw i+o E|j / vrlw o E| ' UV E4c w7 oE| hw +o E| ' W E4c wA oE| Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvh oh prgoh +o E| ' S E4c wo E| n KE4eE| hw vrq suglfwhxu dvvrfl   + o E|*w ' K3E4S E4c wo E| n  K3E4 +o E|

8181 Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

476

O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh fruuhvsrqgdqwh hw vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu 0s E| ' I E4 E+o E|  + o E|*w 3 ' I E4K E4 EW E4c wA   S E4c wUV E4c w7  oE| hw    I E/ 2 2  x0s E/  '   KE/  mS E/c w {UV E/c w7  n UV E/{S E/c w  {W E/c wA m xo E/

Rq uhpdutxh txh vl ohv ghx{ suhpluhv wdshv g*lghqwlfdwlrq vrqw udolvhv dyhf vx!vdp0 phqw gh suflvlrq/ l1h1 W E/c wA  $ W E/  hw UV E/c w7  $ UV E// doruv oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh ghylhqw    I E/ 2  m{S E/c wm2 xo  +8164, x0s E/  $   E/  KE/  Fhwwh h{suhvvlrq q*hvw dxwuh tx*xqh vlpsoh srqgudwlrq sdu od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh udolvh gh o*fduw hqwuh oh v|vwph hw vrq prgoh1 Frqwudluhphqw o*h{suhvvlrq +815<, gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq owuh gh od pwkrgh ghx{ wdshv/ o*lq xhqfh gx euxlw hvw wrwdohphqw vxssulph sdu xqh uhfrqvwuxfwlrq frqvlvwdqwh ghv grqqhv g*hqwuhv0vruwlh1 D!qhphqw gh od pwkrgh ghv idfwhxuv suhplhuv qrupdolvv Rq shxw dssoltxhu oh frqfhsw wurlv wdshv dx{ pwkrghv gh idfwrulvdwlrqv suhpluhv frpph vxlw  Frqvwuxfwlrq gh od yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh %E| ' I E4oE| r I E4 hvw oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlgu gdqv od pwkrgh ghv idfwhxuv suhplhuv qrupdolvv1  Lghqwlfdwlrq gx wudqvihuw G E4c w(  sduwlu ghv grqqhv i%E|c E|j E| ' G E4c w( %E| n ( E|  Lghqwlfdwlrq gx wudqvihuw Q E4c w  sduwlu ghv grqqhv i%E|c +E|j +E| ' Q E4c w %E| n  E|  Uhfrqvwuxfwlrq ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh sduwlu ghv wudqvihuwv hvwlpv gdqv ohv wdshv sufghqwhv o E| ' G E4c w( %E| hw +o E| ' Q E4c w %E|

477

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

 Lghqwlfdwlrq gx prgoh S Ec w sduwlu ghv grqqhv io E|c +o E|j Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvh oh suglfwhxu vxlydqw + E|*w ' S E4c wo E| n 0E| dyhf 0E| ' +o E|  + E|*w 

O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqwh hw vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqv sdu 0s E| ' EQ E4c w   S E4c w GE4c w(  %E| hw x0 E/ ' S E/c w m{G E/c w(  n GJ E/{S E/c w  {Q E/c w  m2 x% E/ Rq uhpdutxh txh vl ohv ghx{ suhpluhv wdshv g*lghqwlfdwlrq vrqw udolvhv dyhf vx!vdp0 phqw gh suflvlrq/ l1h1 G E/c w(  $ GJ E/ hw Q E/c w  $ QJ E/ doruv oh vshfwuh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq ghylhqw x0 E/ $ m{S E/c wm2 mGJ E/I E/ m xo E/  Srxu uhwurxyhu oh uvxowdw +8164, gh od pwkrgh wurlv wdshv/ oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq grlw wuh fkrlvl frpph vxlw 3E/UE/VJ E/ I E/ ' GJ H{suhvvlrq gh od yduldqfh Od pwkrgh wurlv wdshv xwlolvh ohv wurlv uhodwlrqv E| ' UV J E4 EoE|   E| +E| ' WJ E4oE| n VJ E4 E| +o E| ' SJ E4o E| dyhf ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh uhfrqvwuxlwv io E|j hw i+o E|j gqlv frpph vxlw gdqv oh fdv lgdo +o E| ' WJ E4oE| hw o E| ' UV J E4oE| Fhv uhodwlrqv shxyhqw v*fuluh vrxv 5 5 6 WJ E4 +E| 9 UV J E4 7 E| 8 ' 9 7 SJ E4UV J E4 oE| WJ E4 od iruph pdwulflhooh vxlydqwh 6 5 6 VJ E4 f f : : oE| n 7 f UE4VJ E4 f 8 E| 8 f f f

8191 Frqfoxvlrq

478

Gdqv oh fdv r oh pph mhx gh grqqhv hvw xwlolv srxu ohv wurlv wdshv g*lghqwlfdwlrq/ rq d oh pph euxlw gdqv ohv wurlv h{sulhqfhv hw sdu frqvtxhqw 5 6 WJ E4 9 UV J E4 : ? x E/  : UL 9 7 SJ E4UV J E4 8 9  xo E/ WJ E4 dyhf 6 VJ E4 f f UE4VJ E4 f 8 E| E| ' 7 f f f f 5

hw grqf 5

6 6 6 5 5 WJ E/ UE/W f FE/  9 UV J E/ : ? x E/ 27 : 7 8 UL 9 UE/ mUE/m2 f 8 7 SJ E/UV J E/  8 ' UL F2E/  9  xo E/  mVJ E/m F E/  f f f WJ E/ 

Frpph S E4c w '

FE4c wF E4c w / od irupxoh g*dssur{lpdwlrq gh Jdxvv grqqh F2E4c w 5 6W 5 6 F E/   F E/ 9 : F E/F E/ 8 9  F E/F E/ : 7 F F E /   F E /  E /  UL S E4c w ' UL 2 7 8 F2 E/ F2 E/ mF2E/ m2 F E/ FE/ 5 65 6W UE/ W f   ? x E/ 2 UL S E4c w 9 SJ E/  WJ E/ 7 UE/ mUE/ m2 f 8 7 SJ E/  8 2  xo E/ mUE/m W E/ f f f ? x E/  xo E/ mUE/m ? x E/ UL S E4c w 9  xo  E/  UL S E4c w 9    nUE/ SJ E/ 2 2
J

Fh txl grqqh o*h{suhvvlrq +8144,1

819

Frqfoxvlrq

Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ qrxv dyrqv sursrv xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hw suvhqw xqh fodvvlfdwlrq ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph dyhf xqh irupxodwlrq xqlh1 O*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh sursrvh hvw prwlyh sdu od ydolgdwlrq gx frqfhsw g*xwlolvhu ohv irqfwlrqv vhqvlelolw qrplqdohv frpph txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Hooh shxw wuh sdu dloohxuv xwlolvh srxu ydolghu ohv uvxowdwv g*xqh lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph1

479

81 Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Od fodvvlfdwlrq ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph d shuplv gh idluh uhv0 vruwlu oh idlw tx*hoohv vrqw edvhv vxu oh frqfhsw txl shuphw gh uhwurxyhu oh frqwh{wh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1 Fhv pwkrghv frqgxlvhqw od pph yduldqfh gx prgoh gh frppdqgh/ vrlw ? x E/ J S E4c w 9  xo  E/  Ohv sulqflsdx{ dydqwdjhv hw lqfrqyqlhqwv gh fhv pwkrghv shxyhqw wuh uvxphv frpph vxlw =  Dssurfkh gluhfwh dyhf xq owudjh dgtxdw n Vlpsolflw gh plvh hq rhxyuh = xqh vhxoh wdsh hvw qfhvvdluh frpph gdqv xqh lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1  Eldlv vxu oh prgoh lghqwl pdlv txl shxw ghyhqlu qjoljhdeoh srxu fhuwdlqhv frqglwlrqv h{sulphqwdohv1  Dssurfkh lqgluhfwh n Xq prgoh qrq eldlv1  Frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu1  Frqglwlrq gh srvlwlylw srxu od pwkrgh FORH1  Od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod q*hvw sdv sduflprqlhxvh1  Dssurfkh vlpxowdqh n O*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw udolvhv shxw wuh xwlolvh srxu o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv1 n Xq prgoh qrq eldlv1  Od v|qwkvh gx owuh srxu ohv idfwrulvdwlrqv suhpluhv qrupdolvhv hvw oder0 ulhxvh =     Vxusdudpwulvdwlrq1 Soxvlhxuv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh1 Frqqdlvvdqfh gx ujxodwhxu1 Uvroxwlrq g*xqh txdwlrq gh Ulffdwl1

Frpph srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh/ qrxv glvsrvrqv gdqv oh fdv gh od erxfoh ihuph g*xq duvhqdo gh pwkrghv tx*lo idxw frqqdwuh srxu uvrxguh frqyhqdeohphqw xq sureoph g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Rq qh glvsrvh sdv gh pwkrgh pludfoh/ fkdfxqh d vd vsflflw tx*lo idxw xwlolvhu erq hvflhqw1 Ohv frqglwlrqv h{sulphqwdohv grlyhqw grqf wuh dssuflhv dq gh gwhuplqhu od pwkrgh dgtxdwh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ xqh h{sulhqfh wuv shx shuwxueh qh qfhvvlwh sdv o*xwlolvdwlrq gh pwkrghv vrsklvwltxhv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph gx v|vwph/ od pwkrgh gluhfwh vhud vx!vdqwh gdqv fh fdv1

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Od pwkrgrorjlh suvhqwh gdqv ohv fkdslwuhv sufghqwv d w plvh hq rhxyuh gdqv o*hq0 ylurqqhphqw g*xq orjlflho g*dlgh od frqfhswlrq ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh = VLPDUW +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<:,/ +P*Vddg/ Fkhedvvlhu hw Wrqd 4<<:,/ +Fkhedvvlhu hw do1 4<<:, hw +Wrqd/ P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<<,1 Fh ghuqlhu shuphw g*dffghu uhodwlyhphqw idfloh0 phqw dx{ whfkqltxhv gh frppdqgh dydqfhv1 Dsuv od suvhqwdwlrq gh fh orjlflho/ rq grqqh wurlv h{hpsohv srxu looxvwuhu vrq xwlolvdwlrq1 Oh suhplhu h{hpsoh prqwuh od qfhvvlw g*xq wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv dydqw wrxwh surfgxuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Oh vhfrqg shuphw gh prwl0 yhu oh srxutxrl g*xqh frppdqgh suglfwlyh sduwlu g*xq vlpxodwhxu gh udfwhxu fklpltxh1 Oh ghuqlhu h{hpsoh frqfhuqh xq dvvhuylvvhphqw gh srvlwlrq g*xq v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1 Wrxwhv ohv wdshv uhtxlvhv srxu od v|qwkvh frpsowh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh vrqw sduwlfxoluhphqw plvhv hq ylghqfh1

914

Suvhqwdwlrq gx orjlflho

Oh orjlflho VLPDUW +frpph Vlpxodwlrq dqg Uhdo Wlph, uhsuvhqwh xq wdw gh o*duw hq Dxwrpdwltxh1 Vrq gyhorsshphqw d w prwly sdu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh wudqvihuw gh whfkqrorjlh gx prqgh xqlyhuvlwdluh yhuv oh prqgh lqgxvwulho1 Hq hhw/ VLPDUW frqvwlwxh xqh ohfwxuh fulwltxh gh od olwwudwxuh vxu od frppdqgh hw o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv1 VLPDUW d g*ruhv hw gm w xwlolv dyhf vxffv srxu uvrxguh ghv sureophv gh frppdqgh w|shv txl rqw w sursrvv sdu od frppxqdxw lqwhuqdwlrqdoh g*Dxwrpdwltxh hw srxu od frppdqgh urexvwh hw dgdswdwlyh gh vwuxfwxuhv pfdqltxhv h{leohv gx oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh hw ghv udfwhxuv fklpltxhv gx Oderudwrluh ghv Vflhqfhv gx Jqlh Fklpltxh gh Qdqf|1 Lo shuphw gh udolvhu wrxwhv ohv wdshv gh v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh  od vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv frqirupphqw dx fdklhu gh fkdujhv hw od wkrulh gh od frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv1  o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq prgoh gh frppdqgh frpsdwleoh dyhf ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv1 Fhwwh lghqwlfdwlrq shxw vh idluh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh/ sduwlu g*xq fklhu gh grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh rx hq whpsv uho frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 9141  od v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu dyhf wrxwhv ohv pwkrghv glvsrqleohv gdqv od olwwudwxuh frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 9151

47;

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Lghqwlfdwlrq sduwlu ghv grqqhv

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh


Iljxuh 914 =

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh

9141 Suvhqwdwlrq gx orjlflho

47<

V|vwph gh frppdqgh

V|qwkvh g*xqh frppdqgh suglfwlyh


Iljxuh 915 =

Frppdqgh

483

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 916 =

Sulvh hq frpswh ghv vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu

 od plvh hq rhxyuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf od sulvh hq frpswh ghv vdwxudwlrqv gh o*dfwlrqqhxu frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 9161  o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv prgohv gh frppdqgh shxw vh idluh hq erxfoh ihuph srxu dp0 olruhu od urexvwhvvh hq shuirupdqfhv frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 9171 Xqh lghqwl0 fdwlrq shxw dxvvl wuh idlwh sduwlu ghv uvxowdwv ufhqwv vxu o*lqwhudfwlrq hqwuh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh +Jhyhuv 4<<6,/ +]dqj hw do1 4<<8,/ +Ydq ghq Kri hw Vfkudpd 4<<8,1 Wurlv owuhv g*lqwhudfwlrq vrqw glvsrqleohv gdqv VLPDUW1 Oh suhplhu hvw frqvdfu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh jqudolvh/ oh vhfrqg hvw ggl od frppdqgh olqdluh txdgudwltxh jdxvvlhqqh hw oh ghuqlhu shxw wuh xwlolv dyhf q*lpsruwh txhooh pwkrgh gh frppdqgh +P*Vddg hw Fkhedvvlhu 4<<9e,1 Fhv wdshv shxyhqw wuh hhfwxhv hq whpsv uho gdqv o*hvsulw g*xqh frppdqgh dgds0 wdwlyh frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 9181 Frpph wrxw orjlflho g*dlgh od frqfhswlrq ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh txl vh uhvshfwh/ VLPDUW ruh xq hqylurqqhphqw gh wudydlo lqwju r wrxwhv ohv irqfwlrqv v*duwlfxohqw dxwrxu g*xq vxshuylvhxu1 Ghv phqxv dueruhvfhqwv shuphwwhqw g*dffghu dx{ gluhqwhv irqfwlrqqdolwv sdu od vrxulv rx sdu ghv wrxfkhv dffoudwulfhv1 O*kruorjh whpsv uho glvsrqleoh gdqv wrxv ohv SFv hw frpsdwleohv hvw mxglflhxvhphqw h{sorlwh srxu gfohqfkhu ohv dftxlvlwlrqv hw ohv fulwxuhv vxu ohv sruwv g*hqwuh0vruwlh1 Rq glvwlqjxh

9141 Suvhqwdwlrq gx orjlflho

484

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Lqwhudfwlrq lghqwlfdwlrq0frppdqgh
Iljxuh 917 =

Pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

485

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 918 =

Frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh

 Xq hqylurqqhphqw frqylyldo sdu xqh lqwhuidfh xwlolvdwhxu vlpsoh hw sxlvvdqwh/ dyhf ghv judskltxhv g*h{fhoohqwh txdolw1 O*yroxwlrq ghv gluhqwhv yduldeohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh +hqwuhv/ vruwlhv/ vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh/ shuwxuedwlrqv/ sdudpwuhv hv0 wlpv/ huuhxu g*dgdswdwlrq 111, shxw wuh ylvxdolvh dx ixu hw phvxuh gh o*dftxlvlwlrq hw fhv ydudleohv shxyhqw wuh vwrfnhv gdqv ghv fklhu DVFLL vl ehvrlq hvw1  Xqh eleolrwktxh g*Dxwrpdwltxh Olqdluh txl hqjoreh xq judqg qrpeuh ghv dojr0 ulwkphv glvsrqleohv gdqv ohv grpdlqhv gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw gh od frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv prqr0yduldeohv1 Rq glvwlqjxh ohv pwkrghv gh frppdqgh vlpsohv gx w|sh SLG/ suglfwhxu gh Vplwk hw prgoh lqwhuqh/ ohv pwkrghv gh frppdqgh dyhf sodfh0 phqw ghv sohv/ gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh jqudolvh hw gh frppdqgh olqdluh txd0 gudwltxh1 Ohv dojrulwkphv g*lghqwlfdwlrq glvsrqleohv vrqw lvvxv ghv pwkrghv gx judglhqw/ ghv prlqguhv fduuv/ gx pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh hw gh o*huuhxu gh vru0 wlh1 Ohv sureophv gh frppdqgh hw g*lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlguv rqw w irupxov dxvvl elhq dyhf o*rsudwhxu gfdodjh tx*dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd1  Ghv rxwlov yroxv srxu o*dqdo|vh gh od urexvwhvvh gh od vwdelolw hw ghv shuirupdqfhv whov txh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh/ oh jdlq hq erxfoh rxyhuwh/ ohv sohv hq erxfoh ihuph hw ohv ydohxuv vlqjxoluhv1

9151 Wudlwhphqwv gh grqqhv

486

 Od srvvlelolw gh frppxqltxhu ghv grqqhv dyhf ohv orjlflhov Pdwode/ srxu od frp0 pdqgh urexvwh/ hw Vlpxolqn srxu od vlpxodwlrq ghv v|vwphv qrq0olqdluhv1 VLPDUW sursrvh xq hqylurqqhphqw uhodwlyhphqw vrxsoh srxu ylvxdolvhu udslghphqw ohv uvxowdwv ghv pwkrghv gh v|qwkvh glvsrqleohv/ ohv dqdo|vhu ghv srlqwv gh yxh vlpsol0 flw/ urexvwhvvh hw shuirupdqfhv hw lqqryhu vl ehvrlq hvw1 Lo shxw wuh xwlolv frpph xqh edvh g*dssuhqwlvvdjh srxu od irupdwlrq hq Dxwrpdwltxh rx frpph xqh vwdwlrq gh wudydlo srxu od uvroxwlrq ghv sureophv gh frppdqgh gh surfgv1 Hq hhw/ soxvlhxuv sureophv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh rq w oderuv vrxv VLPDUW srxu phwwuh hq ylghqfh ohv frqglwlrqv g*dssolfdelolw ghv pwkrghv glvsrqleohv hw jxlghu o*xwlolvdwhxu gdqv oh fkrl{ gh od pwkrgh dssursulh srxu vrq dssolfdwlrq/ oh fulwuh wdqw od udolvdwlrq g*xq phloohxu frpsurplv hqwuh ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv hw od vlpsolflw gh plvh hq rhxyuh1 Ohv v|vwphv g*lghqwlfdwlrq rx gh frppdqgh vrqw gluhfwhphqw gfulwv sduwlu gh ohxuv frpsrvdqwhv idlvdqw dssdudwuh ghv hqwuhv/ ghv vruwlhv/ ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hw ghv eorfv lqwhufrqqhfwv1 Fhv ghuqlhuv vrqw dvvrflv ghv vlpxodwhxuv ghv v|vwphv frppdqghu hw ghv shuwxuedwlrqv txl dhfwhqw oh irqfwlrqqhphqw gx surfg/ dx jqudwhxu gh od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh/ ghv fduwhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxu oh whpsv uho +Odepdvwhu/ Dooldqfh/ UWL/ SFOde/ Lpsxovlrq,/ dx{ sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gx ujxodwhxu hw dx{ vdwxudwlrqv uhtxlvhv srxu ohv dfwlrqqhxuv1 Ohv vljqdx{ g*h{flwdwlrq dvvrflv shxyhqw wuh gx w|sh fkhorq/ udpsh/ vlqxvrgh/ vtxhqfh elqdluh svhxgr0dodwrluh/ euxlw eodqf rx pph suryhqlu g*xq fklhu gh grqqhv1 Fhv vljqdx{ shxyhqw wuh dxvvl hqjhqguv sduwlu g*xq txhofrqtxh dojrulwkph gh wudlwhphqw gh grqqhv1

915

Wudlwhphqwv gh grqqhv

Fh sdudjudskh grqqh xq h{hpsoh gh wudlwhphqw gh grqqhv wuv shuwxuehv lvvxhv g*xq surfg uho1 Fhv grqqhv surylhqqhqw g*xqh ujxodwlrq hq wuv edvvh whpsudwxuh g*xq fu|rvwdw +Yhugluh 4<<;,1 Od vruwlh gx surfg hvw grqf xqh whpsudwxuh h{sulph hq g doruv txh o*hqwuh gh frppdqgh hvw xqh sxlvvdqfh gh fkdxdjh h{sulph hq I sdu udssruw Df` 1 Fh surfg gulyh wuv ohqwhphqw hw fkdqjh dlqvl gh srlqw gh irqfwlrqqhphqw suryrtxdqw xq frpsruwhphqw qrq0olqdluh1 O*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq who surfg dxwrxu g*xq srlqw gh irqfwlrqqhphqw grlw wuh udolvh hq erxfoh ihuph1 Rq xwlolvh srxu fh idluh xq ujxodwhxu sursruwlrqqho0lqwjudo1 Od jxuh 91: prqwuh ohv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh g*xqh h{sulhqfh hhfwxh hq erxfoh ihuph1 Rq frqvwdwh txh fhv grqqhv euxwhv vrqw qrq0fhqwuv/ gh judqghxuv wuv gluhqwhv/ frqwlhqqhqw soxvlhxuv srlqwv dehuudqwv hw txh oh vljqdo g*hqwuh dgphw xqh gulyh1 Xq wudlwhphqw gh fhv grqqhv hvw grqf lqglvshqvdeoh dydqw g*xwlolvhu xq txhofrqtxh dojrulwkph g*lghqwlfdwlrq $ Vxu od jxuh 919 vrqw uhsruwv ohv gluhqwv sdudpwuhv xwlolvv srxu oh wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv/ vdyrlu  od ydohxu pr|hqqh vxssulphu/ hooh shxw wuh fdofxoh sduwlu gx vljqdo rx vdlvlh sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu  od frqvwdqwh gh whpsv h{sulph hq vhfrqghv gx owuh sdvvh0edv shuphwwdqw g*hqohyhu ohv gulyhv1

487

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Sdudpwuhv srxu oh wudlwhphqw gx vljqdo g*hqwuh

Sdudpwuhv srxu oh wudlwhphqw gx vljqdo gh vruwlh


Iljxuh 919 =

Phqxv gx orjlflho VLPDUW srxu oh wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh

9151 Wudlwhphqwv gh grqqhv

488

Iljxuh 91: =

Grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh euxwhv

 ohv eruqhv vxsulhxuh hw lqiulhxuh shuphwwdqw gh gwhfwhu ohv srlqwv dehuudqwv1  oh idfwhxu g*fkhooh txl shxw wuh gwhuplq sduwlu gx vljqdo rx vdlvl sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1 Ohv gluhqwhv rsudwlrqv hhfwxhv vxu ohv grqqhv frpph od vxssuhvvlrq sdu xq owudjh gh od gulyh suvhqwh gdqv oh vljqdo g*hqwuh/ o*dqqxodwlrq gh od frpsrvdqwh frqwlqxh gx vljqdo gh vruwlh dlqvl txh o*olplqdwlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv sdu lqwhusrodwlrq olqdluh vrqw uhsuvhqwv vxu od jxuh 91;1 O*rsudwlrq gh plvh o*fkhooh gh od jxuh 91< fow oh wudlwhphqw = ohv grqqhv vrqw pdlqwhqdqw suwhv srxu o*dqdo|vh hw o*lghqwlfdwlrq1 Xq prgoh gh frppdqgh d w lghqwl hw xwlolv srxu od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Xqh dssolfdwlrq hq whpsv uho d w idlwh/ hooh hvw suvhqwh gdqv +Yhugluh 4<<;,1

489

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Fhqwudjh hw vxsuhvvlrq ghv gulyhv

Vxssuhvvlrq ghv srlqwv dehuudqwv


Iljxuh 91; =

Wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh1

9151 Wudlwhphqwv gh grqqhv

48:

Iljxuh 91< =

Plvh o*fkhooh ghv grqqhv

48;

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

916

Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh

Fhw h{hpsoh frqfhuqh xqh wxgh gh idlvdelolw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh gh udfwhxuv fklpltxhv rsudqw hq prgh edwfk1 Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvh xq vlpxodwhxu udolvwh gh udfwhxuv fklpltxhv h{rwkhupltxhv sduidlwhphqw djlwv gyhorss sduwlu ghv elodqv gh pdwluhv hw ghv elodqv wkhupltxhv vrxv ghv k|srwkvhv uhodwlyhphqw udlvrqqdeohv1 Xq udfwhxu edwfk vhuw gh vxssruw gh frqyhuvlrq gh udfwliv hq surgxlwv1 Ohv udfwliv dyhf yhqwxhoohphqw xq fdwdo|vhxu vrqw plv hq frqwdfw gdqv od fxyh gx udfwhxu doruv txh o*dssruw rx o*ydfxdwlrq gh od fkdohxu gh od udfwlrq v*hhfwxh sdu od flufxodwlrq g*xq xlgh fdorsruwhxu gdqv xqh grxeoh hqyhorssh1 Oh xlgh fdorsruwhxu surylhqw g*xqh vrxufh g*hdx fkdxgh hw g*xqh vrxufh g*hdx iurlgh wudyhuv xqh ydqqh dvvhuylh hq gelw1 Gdqv oh fdv g*xqh udfwlrq h{rwkhupltxh luuyhuvleoh gx w|sh Udfwli D $ Surgxlwv/ oh prgh rsudwrluh frqvlvwh  sufkdxhu oh vroydqw hw yhqwxhoohphqw xqh sduwlh gx udfwli mxvtx* od whpsudwxuh gh od udfwlrq o*dlgh gx xlgh fdorsruwhxu1  pdlqwhqlu od whpsudwxuh gx plolhx udfwlrqqho frqvwdqwh shqgdqw hw dsuv o*lqwur0 gxfwlrq gx udfwli1  uhiurlglu oh podqjh udfwlrqqho o*dlgh gx xlgh fdorsruwhxu/ dsuv txh od udfwlrq d hx olhx1 Oh fkdqjhphqw gh od g|qdpltxh gx surfhvvxv gh udfwlrq oruv gx sdvvdjh g*xqh wdsh o*dxwuh hvw uhodwlyhphqw lpsruwdqw srxu mxvwlhu o*xwlolvdwlrq ghv whfkqltxhv gh frppdqgh dydqfh dq g*dvvxuhu ohv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv/ qrwdpphqw xqh erqqh srxuvxlwh gx suro gh whpsudwxuh gh udfwlrq1 Fh ghuqlhu shxw wuh sudodeohphqw rewhqx sduwlu g*xqh rswlplvdwlrq dssursulh xwlolvdqw oh prgoh sk|vltxh1 Od gpdufkh txl d w dgrswh srxu od uvroxwlrq gx sureoph gh frppdqgh gx udfwhxu edfk frqvlgu hvw uhodwlyhphqw surjuhvvlyh1 Rq xwlolvh g*derug xqh frppdqgh SLG hw xqh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh srxu phwwuh hq ylghqfh ohxuv olplwhv1 Hqvxlwh/ rq prqwuh txh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh sursuhphqw v|qwkwlvh shuphw gh udolvhu xq phloohxu frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv 2 urexvwhvvh1 Od prwlydwlrq xowlph hvw gh usrqguh od ghpdqgh gh soxv hq soxv furlvvdqwh gh surgxlwv gh erqqh txdolw1 O*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx surfg frppdqghu vrqw doruv uhvshfwlyhphqw o*rxyhuwxuh gh od ydqqh gx xlgh fdorsruwhxu hw od whpsudwxuh gx udfwhxu1 Od fkdohxu gh od udfwlrq hvw frqvlguh frpph xqh shuwxuedwlrq g*wdw1 Rq vh irfdolvhud vxu ohv iruphv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv hw oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv shuphwwhqw gh prqwuhu oh frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv 2 urexvwhvvh udolv doruv txh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh shuphw gh grqqhu xqh lpdjh vxu od txdolw gx surgxlw1 Fhwwh gpdufkh d w hhfwxh frqirupphqw od pwkrgrorjlh gh v|qwkvh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh suvhqwh gdqv ohv fkdslwuhv sufghqwv1 Od jxuh 9143 prqwuh xq frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh gx udfwhxu edwfk frqvlgu1 Qrwrqv txh fh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh hvw vwdeoh/ elhq dpruwl hw vdqv

9161 Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh

48<

Iljxuh 9143 =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh

uhwdug sxu dssduhqw dydqw hw dsuv od udfwlrq txl d olhx o*lqvwdqw ffffr1 Rq shxw doruv xwlolvhu xqh frppdqgh SLG rx xqh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh1 Od v|qwkvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG w idlwh sduwlu g*xqh pwkrgh edvh vxu oh sulqflsh g*rswlpxp v|pwultxh +Yrgd hw Odqgdx 4<<9,1 Oh fkrl{ gh fhwwh pwkrgh d w prwly sdu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh vlpsolflw g*dxwr0fdoleudjh gdqv od phvxuh r vrq prgoh gh v|qwkvh hvw ugxlw dx srlqw gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh grqw oh gskdvdjh hvw gh  DJ 1 Hq hhw/ fh ghuqlhu hvw hhfwx sdu xqh h{sulhqfh dssursulh gh uhodlv txl shuphw g*lghqwlhu ohv srlqwv gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh txl vh wurxyhqw gdqv oh wurlvlph txdgudqw gx sodq frpsoh{h1 Od jxuh 9144 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx udf0 whxu hq frqwuh udfwlrq dyhf oh uhodlv grqw o*dpsolwxgh hw o*k|vwuvlv fkdqjhqw gh pdqluh lghqwlhu oh srlqw gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh grqw oh gskdvdjh hvw gh  DJ 1 Xqh whooh surfgxuh d w sursrvh gdqv +Vfkplgw hw P*Vddg 4<<5,1 Od jxuh 9145 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG hq o*devhqfh g*xq euxlw gh phvxuh1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv vhpeohqw wuh uhodwlyhphqw erqqhv srxu mxvwlhu odujhphqw o*xwlolvdwlrq g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG srxu od udolvdwlrq ghv surov gh whpsudwxuh uhtxlv oruvtxh od suflvlrq gh od phvxuh gh whpsudwxuh gdqv oh udfwhxu hvw lqqlh1 Od jxuh 9146 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG hq suvhqfh g*xq euxlw gh phvxuh gh yduldqfh fff1 Od vhqvlelolw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh xq euxlw gh phvxuh/ dxvvl idleoh txh sxlvvh wuh vd yduldqfh/ hvw uhpdutxdeoh1 Rq prqwuhud fl0ghvvrxv txh fhwwh dpsolfdwlrq gx euxlw gh phvxuh vxu oh

493

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9144 =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh rewhqxh dyhf xq uhodlv

Iljxuh 9145 =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx SLG vdqv euxlw gh phvxuhv

9161 Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh

494

Iljxuh 9146 =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx SLG dyhf xq euxlw gh phvxuh

vljqdo gh frppdqgh hvw lqwulqvtxh od frppdqgh SLG1 Od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh rx g*xq v|vwph gh frp0 pdqgh suglfwlyh hvw edvh vxu xq prgoh gh frppdqgh txl uhsuvhqwh dx plhx{ oh frp0 sruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh1 Od jxuh 9147 prqwuh ohv grqqhv hqwuh0vruwlh txl rqw w xwlolvhv hq o*devhqfh gh udfwlrq srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq prgoh gh frppdqgh1 Fhwwh ghuqluh d w hhfwxh dyhf xqh pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv dyhf xq idfwhxu g*rxeol yduldeoh dq gh udolvhu xqh erqqh lghqwlfdwlrq gh od g|qdpltxh gx udfwhxu gdqv od edqgh sdvvdqwh uhtxlvh srxu oh v|vwph gh frppdqgh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh ohv grqqhv vrqw sudodeohphqw owuhv hw qrupdolvhv1 O*dqdo|vh sdu fruuodwlrq gx uvlgx gh od jxuh 9148/ od vxshusrvl0 wlrq ghv gldjudpphv gh Ergh gx prgoh hw gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw h{sulphqwdoh gx v|vwph gh od jxuh 9149 frquph o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh gx udfwhxu1 Oh prgoh rewhqx shuphw g*derug g*h{soltxhu ohv pdxydlvhv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG1 Od jxuh 914: prqwuh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh SLG/ gh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh hw gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh1 O*dp0 solfdwlrq gx euxlw gh phvxuh vxu oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh hvw gxh dx jdlq uhodwlyhphqw ohy gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh1 Rq qrwhud txh ohv pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG vrqw uhodwlyhphqw erqqhv frpph o*lqgltxhqw od wdeoh 914 rx od jxuh 914; txl prqwuh ohv jdlqv hq erxfoh rxyhuwh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh frqvlguv1

495

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9147 =

Grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq

Od jxuh 914< prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh1 Oh owuh gh urexvwlfdwlrq d w fkrlvl od oxpluh gh od frppdqgh suglf0 wlyh gh Vplwk srxu ugxluh ohv g|qdpltxhv gh srxuvxlwh hw gh ujxodwlrq1 Ohv shuirupdqfhv vrqw uhodwlyhphqw erqqhv dxvvl elhq gx srlqw gh yxh ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv txh gx srlqw gh yxh gx frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh1 Ohv phloohxuv pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh vrqw rewhqxhv dyhf od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh frpph o*lqgltxh od wdeoh 914 rx ohv jdlqv hq erxfoh rxyhuwh gh od jxuh 914;1 F*hvw fh txl mxvwlh xqh fhuwdlqh srsxodulw gh od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh1 Od jxuh 9153 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw hqwuh0vruwlh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh su0 glfwlyh dyhf PUHS1 Oh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh hq vruwlh hvw frpsdudeoh fhoxl gh od frppdqgh SLG/ doruv txh oh frpsruwhphqw g|qdpltxh hq hqwuh hvw frpsdudeoh fhoxl gh Pwkrghv gh frppdqgh Pdujh gh jdlq +_ , Pdujh gh skdvh + , Pdujh gh uhwdug +r, Pdujh gh prgxoh +_ ,
Wdeohdx 914 =

SLG .Se .SbD SH. e.2

FPL 2H SHb 2ebe 2H.

FS . HH b2 Db.

Pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh

9161 Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh

496

Iljxuh 9148 =

Dqdo|vh sdu fruuodwlrq gx uvlgx

Iljxuh 9149 =

Prgoh hw hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh gx udfwhxu

497

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 914: =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv

Iljxuh 914; =

Jdlqv hq erxfoh rxyhuwh

9161 Frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fklpltxh

498

od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh1 Od jxuh 914; uhsuvhqwdqw ohv jdlqv hq erxfoh rxyhuwh prqwuh oh frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv 2 urexvwhvvh udolv sdu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv vrqw uhodwlyhphqw erqqhv sdu udssruw fhoohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh frpph fhoohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG/ frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 914:1 Elhq txh ohv pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh vrlhqw uhodwlyhphqw shwlwhv sdu udssruw fhoohv gh od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh/ hoohv uhvshfwhqw qdqprlqv ohv wroudqfhv gh od sudwltxh1 Od idlvdelolw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh ghv udfwhxuv h{rwkhupltxhv sduidlwhphqw djlwv rsudqw hq prgh edwfk d w gprqwuh1 Rq uhwlhqgud tx*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh SLG hvw wuv vhqvleoh dx{ euxlwv gh phvxuh dxvvl erqqhv txh sxlvvhqw wuh vhv pdujhv gh urexvwhvvh hw txh ohv shuirupdqfhv g*xqh frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh vrqw uhodwlyhphqw olplwhv hq pdwluh gh uhmhw gh shuwxuedwlrqv/ dxvvl erq txh sxlvvh wuh vrq owuh gh urexvwlfdwlrq1

499

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 914< =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxu od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh

Iljxuh 9153 =

Frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

49:

Iljxuh 9154 =

Oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1

917
91714

Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh


Suvhqwdwlrq

Oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh hvw frpsrv gh wurlv srxolhv uholhv sdu ghx{ frxuurlhv pwdooltxhv frpsruwdqw fkdfxqh ghx{ uhvvruwv +jxuh 9154,1 Oh prxyhphqw gh od suhpluh srxolh hvw jqu sdu xq prwhxu frxudqw frqwlqx txl hvw orfdohphqw dvvhuyl hq srvlwlrq hw hq ylwhvvh sdu xq ujxodwhxu SG dqdorjltxh1 Oh ujxodwhxu SG hvw frqx gh pdqluh fh txh od edqgh sdvvdqwh gx v|vwph vrlw uhodwlyhphqw odujh srxu tx*lo sxlvvh wuh frqvlgu frpph xq vlpsoh jdlq vwdwltxh sdu udssruw dx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1 Od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh hvw fkrlvlh srxu wuh frpsdwleoh dyhf fhwwh edqgh sdvvdqwh/ vrlw AA ' Df6r1 O*lqhuwlh gh od wurlvlph srxolh shxw wuh prglh hq | dmrxwdqw ghv pdvvhv1 Ohv srvlwlrqv ghv srxolhv vrqw phvxuhv sdu gh vlpsohv srwhqwlrpwuhv1 Oh sureoph gh frppdqgh frqvlgu hvw fhoxl gh o*dvvhuylvvhphqw hq srvlwlrq gh od wurlvlph srxolh sduwlu gh od srvlwlrq gh od suhpluh srxolh lqgshqgdpphqw gh od h{lelolw gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq hw ghv yduldwlrqv g*lqhuwlh gh od wurlvlph srxolh1 O*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu vrqw grqf uhvshfwlyhphqw od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh gx prwhxu frqwlqx hw od srvlwlrq gh od wurlvlph srxolh1

91715

Lghqwlfdwlrq

O*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh d w idlwh dyhf o*dssurfkh sursrvh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 61 Od qfhvvlw gh od surfgxuh lwudwlyh vrxv0mdfhqwh +yrlu vfkpd 6143, hvw sduwlfxoluhphqw plvh hq ylghqfh1

49;
2

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW
Signal Binaire Pseudo Alatoire

10

1.5

1
10
1

fe/n

2fe/n

0.5

10

0.5
3

10

1.5

X=1

X=1

X=1

X=0

X=0

X=1
10
4

2 0

0.5

10

15

20

1.5 Frquences

2.5

Iljxuh 9155 =

Jqudwlrq g*xqh VESD

Iljxuh 9156 =

Vshfwuh gh od VESD

Idluh oh erq fkrl{ gh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh Ohv grqqhv uhohyhv dyhf oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh wdqw wuv shx euxlwhv/ oh vhxo wudlwhphqw dssoltx dx{ grqqhv hvw od vxssuhvvlrq ghv ydohxuv pr|hqqhv gx vljqdo g*hqwuh hw gh vruwlh1 Xqh vtxhqfh elqdluh svhxgr0dodwrluh +VESD, d w fkrlvlh srxu h{flwhu oh v|vwph gdqv xqh odujh edqgh gh iutxhqfhv1 Od VESD hvw jquh sduwlu gh ghx{ sdudpwuhv = vd sulrgh ?AA hw vrq dpsolwxgh @1 O*lqwurgxfwlrq gx vrxv pxowlsoh ? gh od iutxhqfh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh shuphw g*doorqjhu od odujhxu plqlpdoh gh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh dq rewhqlu xqh erqqh lghqwlfdwlrq gx jdlq vwdwltxh +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,/ fhwwh odujhxu plqlpdoh ghylhqw doruv jdoh ?AA 1 O*dpsolwxgh @ hvw fkrlvlh hq irqfwlrq gx udssruw vljqdo vxu euxlw/ qdqprlqv hooh qh grlw sdv wuh wurs lpsruwdqwh dq gh jdughu oh v|vwph gdqv vd }rqh olqdluh1 Vl oh udssruw vljqdo vxu euxlw uhvwh wurs idleoh/ doruv od vtxhqfh g*h{flwdwlrq grlw wuh doorqjh1 Od vtxhqfh hvw jqudohphqw jquh sduwlu g*xq wludjh dodwrluh f ' f rx udolv fkdtxh sulrgh | ' ?AA frpph vxlw  E|  ?AA vl f ' f E| ' E|  ?AA  vl f ' O*dxwrfruuodwlrq g*xqh whooh VESD hvw grqqh sdu xqh irqfwlrq wuldqjoh gh odujhxu ?AA oruvtxh oh qrpeuh gh grqqhv hvw vx!vdpphqw judqg1 Vl oh vfdodluh ? hvw lpsruwdqw/ o*dxwrfruuodwlrq gh o*hqwuh v*orljqh gh o*lpsxovlrq hw dlqvl od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gx v|vwph qh shxw soxv wuh gluhfwhphqw ggxlwh sduwlu gh o*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh0vruwlh +yrlu sdudjudskh 61714,1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh vshfwuh gh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh hvw grqq sdu  2 t?EZ?AA s  xEs  ' Z?AAs
A hw hvw uhsuvhqw vxu od jxuh 91561 Frpph oh suhplhu fuhx{ dssdudw od iutxhqfh s ? hw txh od iutxhqfh pd{lpdoh shuplvh hvw s2A / frqirupphqw dx wkruph gh Vkdqqrq/ od sulrgh gh od VESD grlw wuh fkrlvlh gh pdqluh ylwhu ohv fuhx{ vxu o*lqwhuydooh ghv

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

49<

iutxhqfhv Efc s2A 1 Fhwwh vsflfdwlrq hvw pdqlihvwhphqw udolvh srxu ? ' 1 Qrwrqv txh fh sureoph uhvwh oh pph vl od VESD hvw jquh sduwlu g*xq uhjlvwuh gfdodjh +Odqgdx hw do1 4<<:,1 Od suhpluh h{sulhqfh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh w idlwh sduwlu gx uhohy ghv grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh gh od jxuh 91571 Ohv usrqvhv iutxhqwlhoohv gx v|vwph uhvshfwlyhphqw rewhqxh sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh hw sdu ohv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh vrqw grqqhv sdu od jxuh 91591 Rq frqvwdwh txh  oh prgoh lghqwl q*h{kleh tx*xq vhxo prgh rvfloodwrluh doruv txh oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh srvvgh ghx{ prghv rvfloodwrluhv1  o*dqdo|vh vshfwudoh shuphw gh phwwuh hq ylghqfh xq ghx{lph prgh rvfloodwrluh dxwrxu gh od iutxhqfh SSM5 1 Fhwwh glvfrugdqfh shxw wuh h{soltxh sduwlu gh o*dqdo|vh gh od VESD grqw ohv sd0 udpwuhv rqw w fkrlvlhv gh od idrq vxlydqwh ? ' hw @ ' f O*dxwrfruuodwlrq gh fhwwh VESD dlqvl txh vrq vshfwuh vrqw uhsuvhqwv vxu od jxuh 91581 Rq frqvwdwh txh fh vljqdo q*hvw sdv xq euxlw eodqf hw txh vrq vshfwuh suvhqwh xq fuhx{ gdqv xq yrlvlqdjh gx ghx{lph prgh gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq1 O*qhujlh gh od VESD hvw grqf wurs idleoh od iutxhqfh gx vhfrqg prgh srxu srxyrlu oh idluh uhvvruwlu1

4:3

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9157 =

Grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4:4

Dxwrfruuodwlrq

Vshfwuh
Iljxuh 9158 =

Dqdo|vh gx vljqdo g*hqwuh

4:5

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9159 =

Prgoh lghqwl hw hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4:6

Iljxuh 915: =

Grqqhv g*hqwuh0vruwlh

Xqh dxwuh h{sulhqfh grlw grqf wuh hhfwxh dyhf xqh VESD gluhqwh +yrlu jxuh 915:,/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh fhooh rewhqxh dyhf ohv qrxyhdx{ sdudpwuhv ? ' hw @ ' f2 Od jxuh 915; frquph txh o*dxwrfruuodwlrq gx vljqdo g*hqwuh hvw elhq xqh lpsxovlrq/ o*lqwhufruuodwlrq hqwuh0vruwlh gfulw elhq od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gx v|vwph1 Qrxv frqvwdwrqv txh od wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh frpsruwh dx prlqv 2 prghv gh uvrqqdqfh +grqf xq ruguh plqlpdo gh e, hw xq uhwdug frpsulv hqwuh hw 21 O*dqdo|vh iutxhqwlhooh ghv grqqhv shuphw gh yulhu txh oh vljqdo g*h{flwdwlrq d w vx!vdpphqw ulfkh sdu udssruw dx{ shuwxuedwlrqv rx dx{ euxlwv gx v|vwph frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 915<1 O*lghqwl0 fdwlrq sdudpwultxh gx v|vwph shxw grqf wuh hhfwxh gdqv gh erqqhv frqglwlrqv h{sulphqwdohv1

4:7

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 915; =

Dqdo|vh sdu ohv fruuodwlrqv

Iljxuh 915< =

Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4:8

Sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh Uhwdug Qxpudwhxu/ ?K ' 2 Kf K K2 Gqrplqdwhxu/ ?@ ' e @f @ @2 @ @e


Wdeohdx 915 =

Ae ' ffDr _'f Frh!flhqwv Hbe2S2. eD fHbHeS HHD2bbeH Frh!flhqwv S.2HDHfbeD bDff DfH 2 22 e 2f..DSS2b

]urv D S S. HDD. Sohv 2..H n .2ebe 2..H  .2ebe DHSHD n 2SeS DHSHD  2SeS

Prgoh sdudpwultxh

Lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh hw ydolgdwlrq O*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gx prgoh d w udolvh sdu xqh pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsoh1 Oh wdeohdx 915 grqqh ohv ydohxuv ghv sdudpwuhv hw od frqjxudwlrq fruuhv0 srqgdqwh ghv sohv hw }urv1 Fhv uvxowdwv vrqw vdwlvidlvdqwv dx yxh gh od vxshusrvlwlrq ghv gldjudpphv gh Ergh gx prgoh hw gh od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw h{sulphqwdoh gx v|vwph frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh 91631 Od ydolgdwlrq gh fhv uvxowdwv hvw frquph sdu o*dqdo|vh gh fruuodwlrq gx uvlgx uhsruwh vxu od jxuh 91641

4:9

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9163 =

Prgoh hw hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh gh od wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

Iljxuh 9164 =

Ydolgdwlrq = dqdo|vh gx uvlgx

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4::

91716

Frppdqgh

Od v|qwkvh gx ujxodwhxu d w idlwh sduwlu gh o*dssurfkh gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh sur0 srvh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 71 Hooh frqvlvwh hq xqh surfgxuh lwudwlyh +vfkpd 715, txl dowhuqh hqwuh od vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh hw o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv1 O*lqlwldolvdwlrq g*xqh whooh surfgxuh hvw idlwh sduwlu g*xq hqvhpeoh gh sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh vsfl sdu gidxw1 Xq d!qhphqw ghv shuirupdqfhv v*hvw dyu qfhvvdluh srxu udolvhu xq prghodjh dgtxdw ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv1 Fkrl{ sdu gidxw gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh Ohv vsflfdwlrqv sdu gidxw vrqw glfwhv sdu ohv ujohv vlpsohv suvhqwhv gdqv oh sdud0 judskh 71819/ vdyrlu  Oh prgoh ghv shuwxuedwlrqv hvw xq lqwjudwhxu/ vrlw (E4 ' 4/  O*krul}rq lqlwldo hvw jdo dx ghju uhodwli gx prgoh/ vrlw  ' ?@  ?K ' 2/  O*krul}rq qdo jdo dx whpsv gh prqwh hq qrpeuh gh sulrghv g*fkdqwloodqjh/ vrlw r $ R ' | AA ' Df6r ' Sf/  O*krul}rq gh frppdqgh hvw jdo dx qrpeuhv gh sohv gl!flohv gx v|vwph odujl/ vdyrlu S ' e sohv rvfloodqwv n lqwjudwhxu ' D/  Oh srlgv vxu od frppdqgh/ o*krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq hw o*dpruwlvvhphqw suhqqhqw uhv0 shfwlyhphqw ohxuv ydohxuv sdu gidxw/ vrlw b ' f/ J ' S hw l J ' f.f.1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv vrqw grqqhv vxu od jxuh 91651 Od vwdelolw gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hvw yulh sdu od ylvxdolvdwlrq ghv sohv gh od erxfoh ihuph vxu od jxuh 91661 Qrxv frqvwdwrqv txh fhv shuirupdqfhv vrqw pglrfuhv/ hq hhw  od irqfwlrq ujxodwhxuvhqvlelolw hvw lpsruwdqwh gdqv ohv kdxwhv iutxhqfhv/ xqh dpsolfdwlrq gx euxlw gh phvxuh vxu od frppdqgh hvw grqf fudlqguh1  Oh pd{lpxp gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hvw vxsulhxuh od ydohxu vrxkdlwdeoh gh S_ 1  Od edqgh g*dwwqxdwlrq hvw idleoh/ fh txl dqqrqfh xq pdxydlv uhmhw hq edvvh iu0 txhqfhv ghv shuwxuedwlrqv vxu od vruwlh1  Od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh ghyudlw wuh soxv idleoh hq kdxwh iutxhqfhv dq gh uhmhwhu ohv huuhxuv gh prgolvdwlrq1 Fhv qrpeuhxvhv uhpdutxhv gprqwuhqw od qfhvvlw g*xq d!qhphqw ghv shuirupdqfhv1

4:;

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9165 =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv = ujodjh sdu gidxw

Iljxuh 9166 =

Sohv hq erxfoh ihuph

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4:<

Sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh Ydohxuv Krul}rq lqlwldo  ' 2 Krul}rq gh suglfwlrq R ' Sf Krul}rq gh frppdqgh S ' D Srlgv vxu od frppdqgh b ' ff Krul}rq g*revhuydwlrq J ' S Dpruwlvvhphqw lJ ' f.f. Prgoh gh shuwxuedwlrq Lqwjudwhxu

Sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh


Wdeohdx 916 =

D!qhphqw ghv shuirupdqfhv Oh sdudpwuh b shuphw gh ugxluh od vhqvlelolw gx vljqdo gh frppdqgh dx{ euxlwv gh phvxuhv hw shuwxuedwlrqv gh fkdujh hq vruwlh hq glplqxdqw oh jdlq gx ujxodwhxu hq kdxwhv iutxhqfhv1 Rq shxw grqf oh idluh ydulhu mxvtx* rewhqwlrq g*xq prghodjh dgtxdw ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv1 Ohv qrxyhdx{ sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh vrqw uhsruwv gdqv oh wdeohdx 9161 Ohv jxuhv 9167 hw 9169 prqwuhqw uhvshfwl0 yhphqw ohv shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv iutxhqwlhoohv hw whpsruhoohv1 Ohv sohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh vrqw grqqv sdu od jxuh 9168/ od frqjxudwlrq gh fhv sohv grqqh xqh lqglfdwlrq vxu od vwdelolw hw od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Qrwrqv txh fh ujodjh hvw urexvwh gdqv oh vhqv r lo vwdelolvh wrxwhv ohv frqjxudwlrqv gh fkdujh srvvleohv vxu od wurlvlph srxolh1

Shuirupdqfhv hq whpsv uho Oh ujxodwhxu rewhqx shxw pdlqwhqdqw wuh dssoltx vxu od wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1 Od jxuh 916; prqwuh ohv shuirupdqfhv whpsruhoohv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh sursrv hq srxuvxlwh hw hq ujxodwlrq1 Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh ohv uvxowdwv rewhqxv vrqw vdwlvidlvdqwv hw vrqw hq dgtxdwlrq dyhf fhx{ rewhqxv hq vlpxodwlrq +jxuh 9169,1 Udsshorqv txh od pwkrgrorjlh dgrswh uhsrvh vxu o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv qrpl0 qdohv sduwlu ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdohv1 Ohv uvxowdwv rewhqxv shxyhqw wuh doruv h{soltxv sdu xqh dqdo|vh d srvwhulrul ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw udolvhv1 Srxu fh idluh/ xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh d w hhfwxh sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh srxu gwhuplqhu xqh hvwlpdwlrq ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw ud0 olvhv1 Od jxuh 916: prqwuh ohv jdlqv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw qrplqdohv hw udolvhv/ od frqfrugdqfh gh fhv txdqwlfdwhxuv gh shuirupdqfhv frquph oh elhq0irqg gh fhwwh dssurfkh1 Qrwrqv txh ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw udolvhv shxyhqw wuh lghqwlhv hq erxfoh rx0 yhuwh sduwlu gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 D sduwlu ghv prgohv ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw/ xqh lghqwlfdwlrq frqvlvwdqwh hq erxfoh ihuph gx v|vwph srxuud hqvxlwh wuh rewhqxh1

4;3

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9167 =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv

Iljxuh 9168 =

Sohv gh od erxfoh ihuph

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4;4

Iljxuh 9169 =

Shuirupdqfhv qrplqdohv hq srxuvxlwh hw ujxodwlrq

4;5

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 916: =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw xvxhoohv hw hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh

Iljxuh 916; =

Shuirupdqfhv udolvhv hq srxuvxlwh hw ujxodwlrq

9171 Frppdqgh g*xqh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh

4;6

Iljxuh 916< =

Prgohv lghqwlv hq erxfoh ihuph sduwlu gh vljqdx{ shx euxlwv

91717

Lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Frpph qrxv o*dyrqv phqwlrqq gdqv o*lqwurgxfwlrq/ o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hvw sulqflsdohphqw prwlyh sdu oh fdoleudjh ghv ujxodwhxuv hq yxh g*dpolruhu ohv shuiru0 pdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh +jxuh 414,1 Hq hhw/ ohv prgohv lghqwlv hq erxfoh ihuph vrqw jqudohphqw frpsdwleohv dyhf o*remhfwli gh frppdqgh1 Sdu dloohxuv/ o*lghqwl0 fdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph shuphw gh yulhu d srvwhulrul ohv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh hw dvvxuhu dlqvl xq uoh gh pdlqwhqdqfh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Fhw dvshfw hvw irqgdphqwdo gdqv od phvxuh r od g|qdpltxh gx v|vwph frppdqghu shxw yroxhu dx frxuv gx whpsv +ylhloolvvhphqw/ fkdqjhphqw gx srlqw gh irqfwlrqqhphqw/111,1 Ghx{ h{sulhqfhv whpsv uho rqw w idlwhv srxu looxvwuhu ohv sureophv gh o*lghqwl0 fdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph hw ohv shuirupdqfhv ghv pwkrghv sursrvhv gdqv oh fkdslwuh 81  Od suhpluh h{sulhqfh d w udolvh gdqv ghv frqglwlrqv gh irqfwlrqqhphqw qrupdo gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq1 Od jxuh 916< prqwuh ohv gldjudpph gh Ergh ghv prgohv lghqwlv dyhf od pwkrgh gluhfwh/ od pwkrgh ghx{ wdshv hw od pwkrghv wurlv wdshv1 Rq frqvwdwh txh wrxwhv fhv pwkrghv frqgxlvhqw dx pph uvxowdw txh o*rq shxw h{soltxhu frpph vxlw = ohv shuwxuedwlrqv vxu od vruwlh vrqw uhodwlyhphqw idleohv srxu lqgxluh xqh fruuodwlrq lpsruwdqwh dyhf oh vljqdo gh frppdqgh1  Od vhfrqgh h{sulhqfh hvw udolvh hq suvhqfh gh qrpeuhxvhv shuwxuedwlrqv gh

4;7

91 Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

fkdujh vxu od wurlvlph srxolh1 O*lghqwlfdwlrq gluhfwh hvw eldlvh frpph o*lqgltxh od jxuh 91731 Oh eldlv hvw uhodwlyhphqw lpsruwdqw srxu uhfrxulu ghv pwkrghv g*lghq0 wlfdwlrq soxv oderuhv1 Srxu fh idluh rq lghqwlh g*derug od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw o*hqwuh +jxuh 9175, hw od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh +jxuh 9176, txl shuphwwhqw gh uhvwdxuhu uhvshfwlyhphqw oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh qrq shu0 wxue gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Hqvxlwh rq d lghqwl xq prgoh gh frppdqgh sduwlu gx vljqdo gh frppdqgh uhfrqvwuxlw hw gh od vruwlh gx v|vwph frpph oh vxjjuh od pwkrgh ghx{ wdshv +yrlu sdudjudskh 81814,1 Oh uvxowdw rewhqx v*dyuh hqfruh lqvx!vdqw sxlvtxh oh vljqdo gh vruwlh q*d sdv w wudlw srxu ugxluh ohv shu0 wxuedwlrqv +jxuh 9174,1 Hqq/ xq prgoh gh frppdqgh d w lghqwl sduwlu ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh uhfrqvwuxlwv frqirupphqw od pwkrgh wurlv wdshv +yrlu sdudjudskh 81815,1 Od jxuh 9174 prqwuh txh oh uvxowdw rewhqx hvw wrxw idlw df0 fhswdeoh sdu udssruw dx prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1 Fhfl prwlyh od uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx vljqdo gh vruwlh dq g*dwwqxhu yrlu gh vxssulphu ohv shuwxuedwlrqv txl o*dhfwhqw1 Uhpdutxh 914 Wrxv ohv prgohv +irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hw surfg, rqw w lghqwlv dyhf od pwkrgh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv1 Qrwrqv txh ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq soxv shuirupdqwhv txh fhooh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv grqqhudlhqw gh phloohxuhv uvxo0 wdwv vdqv dyrlu uhfrxulu dx{ pwkrghv lqgluhfwhv1 Hq hhw/ o*xwlolvdwlrq gh od pwkrgh gx pd{lpxp gh yudlvhpeodqfh dssurfk +yrlu sdudjudskh 61815, vh uyoh wuh xq erq hvwlpdwhxu pph hq suvhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrqv lpsruwdqwhv1 

918

Frqfoxvlrq

Od pwkrgrorjlh gh v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh d w looxvwuh wudyhuv wurlv sureophv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh oh wudlwhphqw ghv grqqhv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq fu|rvwdw glvsrqleoh o*LOO/ od frppdqgh g*xq udfwhxu fkl0 pltxh yld xq vlpxodwhxu udolvwh gyhorss dx OVJF gh Qdqf| hw xq dvvhuylvvhphqw gh srvlwlrq gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh glvsrqleoh dx ODJ1 Qrwrqv txh fhv sureophv hqjorehqw od frpsoh{lw ghv sureophv uhqfrqwuv gdqv od sudwltxh1 Wrxwhv ohv wdshv uhtxlvhv sdu fhwwh pwkrgrorjlh rqw w dlvphqw udolvhv dyhf oh orjlflho VLPDUW/ qrwdpphqw od vsflfdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv uhtxlvhv/ o*lghqwlfdwlrq gx v|vwph frppdqghu/ od v|qwkvh g*xq ujxodwhxu hw o*dqdo|vh ghv shuirupdqfhv gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 VLPDUW shuphw wrxw lqjqlhxu/ txl oh vrxkdlwh/ g*dssukhqghu uhodwlyhphqw vlpsohphqw ohv ufhqwhv whfkqltxhv rhuwhv sdu od wkrulh ghv vljqdx{ hw v|vwphv1 Lo ruh sduwlfxoluhphqw ghx{ dssurfkhv h{sulphqwdohv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hw od frppdqgh suglfwlyh ghv v|vwphv1

9181

Frqfoxvlrq

4;8

Iljxuh 9173 =

Prgoh lghqwl hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh sduwlu gh vljqdx{ wuv euxlwv

Iljxuh 9174 =

Prgohv lghqwlv hq erxfoh ihuph lqgluhfwh sduwlu gh vljqdx{ wuv euxlwv

4;9

91

Oh orjlflho VLPDUW

Iljxuh 9175 =

Lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh

Iljxuh 9176 =

Lghqwlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh

:1 Frqfoxvlrq

Od prwlydwlrq sulqflsdoh gh fh wudydlo d w gh uxqlu ohv frqqdlvvdqfhv rhuwhv sdu o*Dx0 wrpdwltxh hq yxh gh gyhorsshu xqh dssurfkh lqjqlhxu srxu od v|qwkvh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh1 Fhwwh dssurfkh d w plvh hq rhxyuh gdqv o*hqylurqqhphqw gx orjlflho VLPDUW srxu shuphwwuh dx{ lqjqlhxuv g*dssukhqghu uhodwlyhphqw idflohphqw ohv whfk0 qltxhv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv1 Od irupxodwlrq ghv sureophv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hw gh frppdqgh d w idlwh dyhf o*rs0 udwhxu ghowd srxu shuphwwuh gh wudlwhu g*xqh pdqluh xqlh ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv hw ohv v|vwphv fkdqwloorqv1 Fhwwh irupxodwlrq dvvxuh xqh erqqh urexvwhvvh qxpultxh qr0 wdpphqw gdqv oh fdv g*xqh uhsuvhqwdwlrq hq ylujxoh {h1 Hooh hvw soxv sduwlfxoluhphqw dssursulh srxu ghv plvhv hq rhxyuh xwlolvdqw ghv plfurfrqwuohxuv rx ghv dxwrpdwhv sur0 judppdeoh txl qh glvsrvhqw sdv hqfruh gh od sxlvvdqfh gh fdofxo ghv vwdwlrqv gh wudydlo1 Ohv sulqflsdohv frqwulexwlrqv gh qrwuh wudydlo vrqw  Oh gyhorsshphqw gh o*hqylurqqhphqw orjlflho VLPDUW dxvvl elhq dyhf od irupx0 odwlrq vwdqgdug xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu uhwdug tx*dyhf od irupxodwlrq xqlh xwlolvdqw o*rsudwhxu ghowd1  Od uhirupxodwlrq dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh hw ghv sulqflsdohv pwkrghv suglfwlyhv gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv1 Wrxv ohv uvxowdwv irqgdphq0 wdx{ dvvrflv rqw w uhgprqwuv1  Oh gyhorsshphqw g*xqh surfgxuh gh vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh srxu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh txl v*hvw dyuh hvvhqwlhooh srxu od pwkrgrorjlh gh v|qwkvh ghv v|vwphv gh frppdqgh txh qrxv dyrqv sursrvh1  Xqh qrxyhooh pwkrgh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph d w sursrvh/ hooh hvw edvh vxu od uhvwdxudwlrq gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1  Xqh surfgxuh gh ydolgdwlrq ghv shuirupdqfhv udolvhv d w gyhorssh sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gx frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh1  Gh qrpeuhxvhv dssolfdwlrqv hq whpsv uhov rqw w idlwhv srxu ydolghu od pwkrgrorjlh sursrvh hw phwwuh hq ylghqfh txh oh frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv2vlpsolflw uhfkhufk hvw wrxw d idlw udolvdeoh1 Fhv dssolfdwlrqv rqw w idlwhv vxu glyhuv surfgv slorwhv/ qrwdpphqw xq fkdqjhxu wkhupltxh/ xq udfwhxu fklpltxh/ xq v|vwph gh edfv/ xq

4;;

:1

Frqfoxvlrq

v|vwph gh pdqxwhqwlrq/ xqh elooh vxu udlo hw ghv v|vwphv pfdqltxhv h{leoh1 Hoohv rqw sduwlfxoluhphqw shuplv gh mxvwlhu ohv vsflfdwlrqv sdu gidxw ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh1 Xq wudydlo gh uhfkhufkh q*hvw mdpdlv ql111 Hq hhw/  Rq shxw d!qhu od surfgxuh gh vsflfdwlrq ghv sdudpwuhv gh v|qwkvh hq hhf0 wxdqw xqh dqdo|vh gh od urexvwhvvh hq shuirupdqfhv gh od frppdqgh suglfwlyh rx hq xwlolvdqw frqyhqdeohphqw ohv srqgudwlrqv iutxhqwlhoohv1  Rq shxw wxglhu ohv sureophv gh vdwxudwlrqv hw gh frppxwdwlrq ghv ujxodwhxuv grqw o*lpsruwdqfh q*hvw soxv mxvwlhu srxu od sudwltxh gh o*Dxwrpdwltxh1  Rq shxw gyhorsshu xqh pwkrgrorjlh gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv v|vwphv hq erxfoh ihuph/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh oh fkrl{ g*xqh hqwuh shuwlqhqwh srxu o*h{flwdwlrq1  Rq shxw whqguh od pwkrgrorjlh fhuwdlqhv fodvvhv gh v|vwphv pxowlyduldeohv1 Qrxv vrxkdlwrqv txh qrwuh wudydlo sxlvvh prwlyhu o*lqjqlhxu xwlolvhu od frppdqgh suglfwlyh hw udolvhu dlqvl xq phloohxu frpsurplv shuirupdqfhv2urexvwhvvh sdu udssruw od frppdqgh SLG rx od frppdqgh dyhf prgoh lqwhuqh txl vrqw frxudpphqw xwlolvhv gdqv o*lqgxvwulh1 Srxu ohv lqfrqglwlrqqhov/ rq uhpdutxhud txh od v|qwkvh gh od frppdqgh SLG shxw wuh idlwh dyhf xqh dssurfkh gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh sduwlu g*xq prgoh gh vhfrqg ruguh vdqv uhwdug1

D1 Dqqh{hv

D14

Wudqvirupdwlrq gh sro|qphv

Fhwwh dqqh{h d srxu exw g*h{soltxhu wudyhuv xq h{hpsoh vlpsoh ohv wudqvirupdwlrqv hhf0 wxhv srxu oh sdvvdjh g*xq sro|qph h{sulp dyhf o*rsudwhxu ^ xq sro|qph h{sulp dyhf o*rsudwhxu B 1 Fh sdvvdjh gh o*rsudwhxu ^ yhuv o*rsudwhxu B vh idlw sdu xqh vlpsoh wudqvirupdwlrq olqdluh1 Hq hhw/ vrlw oh sro|qph ? [ @ ^?! ^ E^  '
'f

hw oh sro|qph txlydohqw gfulw dyhf o*rsudwhxu B hvw grqq sdu ? [ B EB  ' ^ E^ m^'nAA B ' k B ?!
'f

Sdu h{hpsoh srxu xq wurlvlph ruguh ^ E^  ' @f ^ n @ ^ 2 n @2 ^ n @ doruv B EB  ' ^ E^m^'nAA B ' @f E n Ae B  n @ E n AeB 2 n @2 E n Ae B  n @ ' @f n @f Ae B n @fAe2B 2 n @f Ae B n @ n 2@Ae B n @Ae2B 2 n @2 n @2AeB n @   ' @fAe B n @f Ae2 n @ Ae2 B 2 n E @fAe n 2@ Ae n @2 Ae  B n @f n @ n @2 n @ ' kf B n kB 2 n k2 B n k 5 rq d grqf 6 5 kf Ae f f f 2 2 9 k : 9 Ae Ae f f 9 : 9 7 k2 8 ' 7 Ae 2Ae Ae f k Gdqv oh fdv jqudo/ od uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv frh!flhqwv wuldqjoh gh Sdvfdo/ 5 6 5 kf |ff f    f 9 k : 9 |f |    f 9 : 9 7    8 ' 7    |       k? |?f       |?? 6 @f : 9 @ : :9 : 8 7 @2 8 @ @ hw k v*h{sulph hq xwlolvdqw oh 65 6 @f : 9 @ : :9 : 87  8 @? 65

4<3

D1

Dqqh{hv

 !  ?! & &dyhf | ' ? A vl  :  vlqrq f r ?! e 6 ' &-E&!6! gdqv oh sro|qph Od uhodwlrq lqyhuvh hvw grqqh hq uhpsoddqw o*rsudwhxu B sdu ^A A B EB  ' kfB n k2 B n k2 B n k Vrlw   2   ^ ^ ^ n k n k2 n k ^ E^  ' B EB mB' ^!Q ' kf Ae Ae Ae Ae 2 ' kf^  kf^ 2 n kf ^  kf n 2 k^ 2  2 k^ n 2 k n k2 ^  k2 n k Ae A Ae A Ae Ae A Ae Ae e  e  e 2 ' kf^ n  kf n 2 k ^ 2 n kf  2 k n k2 ^ Ae Ae Ae Ae Ae Ae  kf n 2 k  k2 n k Ae Ae Ae 6 5 @f Ae 9 9 @ : 9  A : e 9 7 @2 8 ' 9 7 A e @  A e Gdqv oh fdv jqudo/ rq rewlhqw 5 6 5 7ff @f | 9 @ : 9 | 7 9 : 9 f 7  8 ' 7  7?f @? | 5 fh txl grqqh f f f f f f 65 6 kf :9 : 9 k : : :7 8 k2 8 k 6 : : 8 

 A22
2 Ae

2 Ae

A e

Ae

f 7 | 7 | 

   

65 f kf 9 k f : :9  87  7?? | k?

  7 ' En ?! Ae!? vl  :  vlqrq f dyhf | ?!

D15

Sursulwv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh

Gdqv fhwwh dqqh{h/ ohv sursulwv irqgdphqwdohv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh dlqvl txh ohxuv suhxyhv vrqw gyhorsshv1 Srxu fh idluh/ rq xwlolvhud ghv irqfwlrqv whpsruhoohv frqwl0 qxhv s / } hw  grqw ohv wudqviruphv vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw grqqhv sdu 8 / C hw M 1 Ohv ud|rqv gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 E / CE  hw M E  vhurqw uhvshfwlyhphqw qrwv -s / -} hw -1 41 Olqdulw1 Vrlhqw k hw q ghx{ qrpeuhv frpsoh{hv/ rq d W iks E| n q}E|j ' kW is E|j n q W i} E|j ' k8 E  n qCE  Qrwrqv txh oh ud|rq gh frqyhujhqfh gh k8 E  n qCE  hvw jdo 4@ E-s c -} 1 Suhxyh = W iks E| n q}E|j ' 5 Eks E| n q}E| ,Ec |_| ' k 5 s E|,Ec |_|nq 5 }E|,Ec |_|
f f f

D151

Sursulwv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh

4<4

51 Wudqvodwlrq whpsruhooh1 vrlw xq vfdodluh A  f/ doruv   A W is E| n A j ' ,Ec A  8 E   5 ,Ec |s E|_|
f

hw

W is E|  A j ' ,Ec A 8 E 

Suhxyh =

W is E| n A j ' 5 s E| n A ,Ec |_|


f

' ,Ec A  5 s E| n A ,Ec |  A _| f   A  ' ,Ec A  5 s E|,Ec |_|  5 s E|,Ec |_| f f   A ' ,Ec A  8 E   5 ,Ec |s E|_|
f

hw

W is E|  A j ' 5 s E|  A ,Ec |_|


f

' ,Ec A  5 s E| n A ,Ec | n A _| ' ,Ec A  5 s E|,Ec |_| ' ,Ec A  5 s E|,Ec |_|
f


f

3A "

61 Wudqvodwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1 Lo v*djlw g*xqh wudqvodwlrq frpsoh{h grqqh sdu ohv sursulwv vxlydqwhv/ vrlw @ xq vfdodluh srvlwli rx qjdwli/ doruv W i,E@c |s E|j ' 8 E Suhxyh = W i,E@c |s E|j ' 5 ,E@c |s E|,Ec |_|
f

@  n Ae @

" "
f

' 5 s E|,E 71 Gulydwlrq1

@ @ c |_| ' 8 E  n Ae @ n Ae @

W i4s E|j ' 8 E   s EfE n Ae    ,Ec | n Ae 

Suhxyh = Rq d/ g*dsuv od gqlwlrq gh od pdwulfh h{srqhqwlhooh jqudolvh 4,Ec | '

4<5

D1

Dqqh{hv

hw g*dsuv od gqlwlrq gh od gulyh jqudolvh 4 ds E|}E|o ' 4s E|}E| n E n Ae 4 s E|4} E| doruv W i4s E|j ' 5 4s E|,Ec |_| ' 5 E n Ae  E n Ae4,Ec |4s E|_| ' 5 E n Ae   E4 d,Ec |s E|o  4,Ec |s E| _|
f

" " "


f f

' E n Ae   d,Ec |s E|o" n 5  ,Ec |s E|_| f


f

"

' 8 E   E n Ae s Ef 81 Gulydwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1 _ 8 E  _ Suhxyh = Rq d/ g*dsuv od gqlwlrq gh o*h{srqhqwlho jqudolv W i|s E|j ' E n Ae   _ | ,Ec | ' ,Ec | _ n Ae  grqf _ _ " W is E|j ' 5 s E|,Ec |_| _ _ f  " ' 5 |s E|,Ec |_| n Ae  f fh txl grqqh
"
f

5 |s E|,Ec |_| ' E n Ae 

_ W is E|j _

91 Lqwjudwlrq1

  | W 5 s E _ ' 8 E  f  }E| ' 5 s E _


f

Suhxyh = Vrlw grqf ru

W i4}E|j ' W is E|j ' CE   }EfE n Ae   }Ef ' 5 s E _ ' f


f f

D151

Sursulwv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh

4<6

grqf

  | CE  ' W 5 s E _ ' 8 E  f 

:1 Lqwjudwlrq iutxhqwlhooh1  W Suhxyh = Vrlw }E| ' grqf W i|}E|j ' W is E|j ' E n Ae   _ CE  '  8 E  _ E n Ae  hq lqwjudqw sdu udssruw  gh  o*lqql ]
"

s E| |

 '

"

8 E# _# n Ae #

s E| | _ W i}E|j _


grqf

] " _ 8 E  CE _ ' CE4  CE  '  _ _  n Ae  ] CE  '


"

8 E  _ n Ae 

;1 Gulydwlrq hw lqwjudwlrq sdu udssruw xq sdudpwuh1   Y Y W s E|c @ ' 8 Ec @ Y@ Y@ hw W ] S  ] S s E|c @_@ ' 8 Ec @_@

Suhxyh = Fhv uvxowdwv vrqw qdwxuhoohphqw rewhqxv sduwlu gh od gqlwlrq gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh1 Hq hhw/ rq d   " Y Y Y W s E|c @ ' 5 ,Ec | s E|c @_| ' 8 Ec @ Y@ Y@ Y@ f hw W ] S  ] S  ] S " s E|c @_@ ' 5 ,Ec | s E|c @_@ _| ' 8 Ec @_@
f

4<7

D1

Dqqh{hv

<1 Wkruph gh od ydohxu lqlwldoh1 vl *4 s E| h{lvwh/ doruv od ydohxu lqlwldoh gh s E| |<f hvw grqqh sdu 8 E  *4 s E| ' *4 |<f <" n Ae  Suhxyh = Hq xwlolvdqw od ujoh vxu od gulydwlrq
"
f

5 4s E|

8 E  ,Ec | _| '  s Ef n Ae  n Ae 


"
f

ru

<"

*4 5 4s E|

,Ec | _| ' f n Ae 

fh txl grqqh oh uvxowdw vrxkdlw1 431 Wkruph gh od ydohxu qdoh1 vl *4 s E| h{lvwh/ rq dxud

|<"

|<"
Suhxyh = Rq d ru
" "
f

*4 s E| ' *4 8 E 

<

5 4s E|_| ' *4 s E|  s Ef

|<"

*4 W i4s E|j 5 4s E|_| '  <f f ' *4 i8 E   E n Ae  s Efj ' *4 8 E   s Ef

< <

fh txl grqqh oh uvxowdw vrxkdlw1 441 Surgxlw gh frqyroxwlrq1 Vrlw E| ' Es  }E| ' 5 s E }E|  _
f

| AA
n

doruv/ rq d

W iE|j ' W is E|j W i}E|j

Sdu dloohxuv/ frqvlgurqv oh surgxlw gh ghx{ irqfwlrqv gql sdu E| ' s E|}E| rq d W iE|j ' 2Z L 8 E# CE  3#  nAA #


n Ae #

_# srxu wrxw  o*h{wulhxu gh F

D151

Sursulwv gh od wudqviruph jqudolvh

4<8

Suhxyh = Fh uvxowdw hvw rewhqx hq xwlolvdqw od gqlwlrq gh od wudqviruph frpph vxlw M E  ' W iE|j ' 5 ,Ec | 5 s E }E|  _ _| ' 5 ,Ec | 5 s E } E|  _ _| ' 5 ,Ec  s E  5 ,Ec | n } E|  _ _| ' 5 ,Ec  s E _ 5 ,Ec #} E# _# ' 8 E CE 
f f

"
f

| AA
n f

" " "


f f

"
f

"
f

"

hw

W is E|} E|j ' 5 ,Ec |s E|}E|_|


f

"

hq suhqdqw o*h{suhvvlrq gh od wudqviruph lqyhuvh gh s E|   L " 8 E# ,E#c |  Ae _# }E|_| W is E|}E|j ' 5 ,Ec | f 2Z    L " 8 E#  ' 5 ,Ec |,E#c |}E|_| _# 2Z  n Ae # f ru grqf
"
f

5 ,Ec |,E#c |}E|_| ' W i,E#c |}E|j ' CE W is E|}E|j ' 2Z L


#  n Ae #

8 E#  # CE _# n Ae # n Ae #

451 Wkruph gh Sduvhydo1 D sduwlu gh od uhodwlrq sufghqwh/ rq rewlhqw oh fdv sduwlfxolhu vxlydqw  ]Ae   e/Ae  2 " 2 8 E  5 s E| _| '   _/ f 2Z Ae
Z 3A e Z

od ujlrq gh frqyhujhqfh gh 8 +  lqfoxv m n Ae  m '  Suhxyh = Hq hhw/ hq xwlolvdqw oh uvxowdw sufghqw L 8 E#  # 2 W s E| ' 8E _# 2Z  n Ae # n Ae # dyhf F oh fhufoh gql sdu m n Ae # m ' / doruv W s E|2 ' 2Z ]Ae 8E
Z 3A e Z

e/Ae  e3/Ae  8 Ee3/Ae n _/ Ae Ae

4<9

D1

Dqqh{hv

hw *4 W s E|2 ' *4  <f 2Z <f fh txl grqqh


"

]Ae 8E

Z 3A e

e/Ae  e3/Ae  8 Ee3/Ae n _/ Ae Ae


Z

 ]Ae   e/Ae  2 2   5 s E| _| ' 8 E Ae  _/ 2Z f


Z 3A e

D16

Plvh vrxv iruph ufxuvlyh gx fulwuh ghv prlqguhv fduuv

O*hvwlpdwhxu wE| gx yhfwhxu w ghv sdudpwuhv hvw fhoxl txl plqlplvh oh fulwuh txdgudwltxh srqgu vxlydqw | wE|2 _ a E wE|c | ' 5 q E|c E+E   E A | |J dyhf 3 | 3 4 A e \ q E|c  ' C bEAe D >E 

'

Ae n

f bE|  hw f  >E| 2 Od plqlplvdwlrq g*xq who fulwuh sdu udssruw wE| grqqh od vroxwlrq xqltxh Ya E wE|c | | wE|o_ ' f ' 2 5 q E|c E d+E   E A | |J Y wE|

| |J

A E|_ ' 5 q E|c E + E _ 5 q E|c E E  w


wE| ' 6E| 5 q E|c E +E _

| |J

dyhf

| |J

6E|3 ' 5 q E|c E E A _

| |J

Od gulyh jqudolvh gh fhwwh h{suhvvlrq hvw grqqh sdu   | A 3 46E| ' 4 5 q E|c E E  _ |J   | |nAe A A ' 5 q E| n Ae c E E  _  5 q E|c E E  _ Ae |J |J ru q E| n Ae c  ' q E|c bE| hw q E| n Ae c | ' >E|

D161

Plvh vrxv iruph ufxuvlyh gx fulwuh ghv prlqguhv fduuv

4<:

grqf 46E|3 ' bE|  | |nAe A A 5 q E|c E E  _ n 5 q E| n Ae c E E  _ A Ae | |J  e  bE| '  6E|3 n >E|E|E|A Ae 46E| rx
3

Rq d grqf '

  bE| 6E|3 n >E|E|E|A Ae >E| 4n

6E|3 ' Ru

3bE|

Ae

E|E|A

 3 46E| ' 6E|463 E| 63E|nAe 463E| 3  >E| A 3 3 ' 6E|46 E| 6 E|nAe E|E| bE| bE| Hq xwlolvdqw oh ohpph g*lqyhuvlrq pdwulflhooh elhq frqqx txh o*rq shxw qrqfhu frpph vxlw =

Ohpph D14 Frqvlgurqv ghx{ pdwulfhv ujxoluhv 6 hw + gh glphqvlrq uhvshfwlyhv +?s ?s , hw +?o ?o , hw xqh pdwulfh x gh glphqvlrq +?s ?s , hw gh udqj sohlq1 O*lghqwlw = E63 n x+3xA 3 ' 6  6xE+ n xA 6x3 xA 6 hvw wrxmrxuv yulh1 
E| Vl o*rq srvh 6 ' 6E|/ x ' E|/ + ' >b rq dxud E|Ae

 3  3 >E| bE| A A 3 6 E|nAe E|E| ' 6E|6E|E| n E| 6E|E| E|A 6E| bE| >E|Ae Ae 6E|E|E|A 6E| ' 6E| bE| A >E| n AeE| 6E|E| Dlqvl 46E| ' bE| + ,   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 6E|  bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|

>|

E 

Gh pph/ hq dssoltxdqw od gulyh jqudolvh dx fulwuh

4<;

D1

Dqqh{hv

wE| ' 6E| 5 q E|c E +E _ |  J  | 4wE| ' 4 6E| 5 q E|c E +E _

|J   | | ' 46E| 5 q E|c E + E _ n E6E| n Ae 46E| 4 5 q E|c E +E _ |J |J


  

ru

|  bE| | 4 5 q E|c E +E _ '  5 q E|c E +E _ n >E|E|+E| |J |J Ae | |J


3 w E| 5 q E|c E +E _ ' 6E|

hw

grqf      bE| 3 3 4wE| ' 46E|6E| w E| n E6E| n Ae 46E| >E|E|+E|  6E| wE| Ae Frpph 46E|63 E| '  E6E|nAe 46E| 463E| rq d 4 wE| ' E6E| n Ae 46E| 46E| wE| n >E|+E|E|  ru 46E| fh txl grqqh
3

   bE| 3 6E| wE| Ae

 '

  bE| 6E|3 n >E|E|E|A Ae

l k A 4wE| ' >E| E6E| n Ae 46E| E| +E|  E| w E|

rx hqfruh k l 6E|E| 4 w E| ' bE| +E|  E|A wE| A >E| n Ae E| 6E|E| 46E| ' bE| + ,   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 6E|  bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|

>|

E 

D171

Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh

4<<

D17

Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpw0 ultxh

O*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh hvw udssho sdu ohv txdwlrqv vxlydqwhv l k 6E|E| A 4 wE| ' w E |  + E |    E |  n Ae E|A 6E|E| + ,   bE| 6E|E|E|A 6E| 46E| ' 6E|  bE| n +E| bE| Ae n Ae E|A 6E|E|

>|

E 

Txhotxhv sursulwv suolplqdluhv gh fhw dojrulwkph vrqw uvxphv fl ghvvrxv Sursulw D14 41 Uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv huuhxuv gh suglfwlrq 0E| ' sdu vxlwh 0J E| n Ae E|A 6E|E|

4 wE| ' 6E|E|0E| 463E|  >E|E|E|A

51 H{suhvvlrq gh o*yroxwlrq gh 48 3 E| o*jdolw hvw udolvh gdqv oh fdv bE| ' hw +E| ' f 61 H{suhvvlrq gh o*yroxwlrq gh od irqfwlrq frw vxlydqwh wE| T E| '  w E|63E| dyhf o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh  wE| ' wE|  wJ r oh yhfwhxu w J uhsuvhqwh ohv yudlv sd0 udpwuhv gx v|vwph1 4T E|  >E|K2E|  2KE|0E|  @2 E| r KE| ' A E| wE| n  2 A @ E| ' Ae E| 6E|E|02 E|  Suhxyh1 41 O*huuhxu srvwhulrul hvw gql frpph vxlw E| n  0E| ' + E|  E|A w A 0E| ' + E|  E| w E|  AeE|A 4 wE| 8 E|E| 0E| ' 0J E|  Ae E|A 0J E| n Ae E|A 8 E|E| g*r od uhodwlrq uhfkhufkh1

533

D1

Dqqh{hv

51 O*h{suhvvlrq gh o*yroxwlrq gh 48 3 E| hvw grqqh sdu 46E| frpph  

 '

  bE| 6E|3 n >E|E|E|A Ae

3bE|

Ae

6E|3  f srxu f bE|  / doruv 46E|3  >E|E|E|A

61 Od gulyh jqudolvh gh T E| shxw v*fuluh frpph vxlw = l k A 4T E| ' 4  w E|63 E| wE| k l k l A A A ' 4 w E|63E| wE| n  w E|4 63E| wE| n Ae 4 w E|4 63E| wE| k l A A 3 3     ' 4w E|6 E|wE| n w E| n 4 6 E|w E| k l A A wE| n  w E| n  463E| w E| n 63 E|4 w E| n Ae 463E|4 wE| ' 4 w E|63E|

A A A '  w E| n 463E| wE| n  n 24 w E|63E| wE| n   Ae 4 w E|63 E|4 wE|

Hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq 463E|  >E|E|E|A dlqvl txh od uhodwlrq 4 wE| ' 6E|E|0E|/ rq rewlhqw o*lqjdolw vxlydqwh

A wE| n  n 2A E| wE| n 0E|  AeE|A 8 E|E|02E| 4T E|  >E| w E| n E|E|A 
hq srvdqw KE| ' A E| w E| n  2 A hw @ E| ' Ae E| 8 E|E|02 E| rq rewlhqw 4T E|  >E|K2E|  2KE|0E|  @2 E| rx vl 4@ | d>E|o  > 2 4T E|  >K2 E|  2KE|0E|  @2E| 

D1714

Fdv lgdo

D sduwlu ghv fhv uvxowdwv/ qrxv srxyrqv qxpuhu ohv sursulwv vxlydqwhv wrxw g*derug gdqv oh fdv lgdo f*hvw gluh hq devhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrqv

D171

Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh

534

Wkruph D14 Vl o*rq vxssrvh txh od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu srvwhulrul 0E| hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh srvwhulrul  w E| n  ' w E| n   w J r oh yhfwhxu wJ uhsuvhqwh ohv yudlv sdudpwuhv gx v|vwph hvw grqqh sdu wE| n  0E| ' KE4A E| r KE  hvw xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw vwdeoh/ doruv vl J E  ' KE   r > 2

4@ d>E|o  > 2

hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh/ doruv o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq srvwhulrul hvw dv|pswrwltxhphqw qxooh *4 0E| ' f

|<"



Suhxyh1 ohv uvxowdwv vrqw rewhqxv hvvhqwlhoohphqw dyhf o*dqdo|vh ghv yduldwlrqv od irqfwlrq T E|1 G*dsuv ohv sursulwv sufghqwhv 4T E|  >K2 E|  2KE|0E|  @2E| ru vrlw } E| ' 0E|  grqf 0E| ' KE4KE| KE| ' J E4KE| 2

4T E|  2KE|}E|  @2 E|

hq lqwjudqw fhwwh uhodwlrq rq rewlhqw

|Q
f

2 5 4T E|_| ' T E|   T Ef  2 5 KE|} E|_|  5 @ E|_| f f

|Q

|Q

vl J E4 hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh/ rq d 2 5 }E|KE|_|  k2 n q 5 K2 E|_|
f f

|Q

|Q

sdu vxlwh

|Q |Q
f f

2 2 2 5 K E|_|  k n T Ef  T E|  5 @ E|_| f

|Q

2 2 5 K E|_|  k n T Ef

535

D1

Dqqh{hv

rx hqfruh hq suhqdqw od olplwh

|Q <" |Q
f

*4 5 K2E|_|  g 4
f

|Q

Ru 0E| ' KE4KE| dyhf KE4 vwdeoh/ rx hq g*dxwuhv whuphv


2 2 5 0 E|_|  6 5 K E|_| f

|Q

Fh txl grqqh

|Q <"
Grqf

*4 5 02E|_|  *4 5 K2 E|_|  g 4


f

|Q

|Q<"

|Q
f

 Fh wkruph shxw wuh dssoltx gdqv oh fdv fodvvltxh ghv prlqguhv fduuv vlpsohv1 O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq srvwhulrul hvw doruv grqqh sdu wE| n  0E| ' +E|  A E| ru srxu oh fdv lgdo +vdqv shuwxuedwlrqv,/ oh yudl v|vwph hvw gfulw sdu +E| ' A E|wJ grqf KE| ' 0E| ' A E| wE| n 

|<"

*4 0E| ' f

fh txl grqqh KE4 ' / rq rewlhqw od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh srxu o*yroxwlrq gh od irqfwlrq frw T E| 02 J E| 4T E|   '  02E|  f n Ae E|A 6E|E| dyhf  0E| o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq qrupdolvh/ g*dsuv fhwwh uhodwlrq/ rq hq ggxlw txh T E| hvw xqh irqfwlrq gfurlvvdqwh/ grqf

A A Ef63Ef  w E|63E| wE|  w wEf  2  b4@ 6E|     2 w E |     wEf b4?6E|  2   wE|  gw 4


Gh soxv/ hq lqwjudqw 4T E|/

|Q
f

02 E|_| 5 4T E|_| ' T E|   T Ef '  5 


f

|Q

grqf

|Q
f

02E|_|  T Ef 5

D171

Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh

536

grqf

|Q<" 0J E| *4 |<" d n Ae E|A 6E|E|o *


f

*4 5  02 E|_|  4
2

|Q

' f

Fh txl gprqwuh od frqyhujhqfh gh o*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq qrupdolvh1

D1715

Fdv vwrfkdvwltxh

Pdlqwhqdqw ohv uvxowdwv sufghqwv shxyhqw wuh whqgxv gdqv oh fdv vwrfkdvwltxh/ f*hvw gluh hq suvhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrq1 Wkruph D15 Vl o*rq vxssrvh txh od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*huuhxu srvwhulrul 0E| hw o*huuhxu sdudpwultxh srvwhulrul  wE| n  ' w E| n   w J hvw grqqh sdu 0E| ' KE4A E| wE| n  n E| r od vtxhqfh iE|j grlw vdwlvidluh ohv uhodwlrqv vxlydqwhv H dE|mI|3 o ' f   H 2E|mI|3 ' j2 d1v1 d1v1

 [ 2 *4 tT  E| 4  <"  |'

dyhf I|3 o*hqvhpeoh uhjurxsdqw wrxwhv ohv revhuydwlrqv jquhv mxvtx* |  lqfoxv/ hw KE  hvw xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw vwdeoh/ doruv vl J E  ' KE   dyhf > 2

4@ d>E|o  > 2

hvw xqh irqfwlrq vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh/ hw vl   H E|A E| h{lvwh hw hvw gqlh srvlwlyh doruv   H E0E|  E|2 ' f  2  A H  E| w E| n  ' f hLME *4 wE| ' wJ  ' d1v1 d1v1

|<"



537

D1

Dqqh{hv

Suhxyh1 ohv uvxowdwv vrqw rewhqxv hvvhqwlhoohphqw hq xwlolvdqw oh wkruph Srvlwlyh vxshu0 pduwlqjdoh frqyhujhqfh vxlydqw Wkruph D16 Srvlwlyh vxshupduwlqjdoh frqyhujhqfh = Vl if E|j  f / 5 iI|j furlv0 vdqwh/ H df Efo 4 hw vl H d4f E|mI| o  g 2 4 doruv f E| $ f 4 d1v1  O*huuhxu gh suglfwlrq d srvwhulrul v*fulw frpph vxlw 0E| ' KE4A E| w E| n  n E| ' KE4KE| n E| vrlw ohv vljqdx{ vxlydqw 5 E| ' 0E|  eE| ' KE4KE| > }E| ' 5 E|  KE| ' J E4KE| 2 doruv >K2E|  2KE|0E| ' 2KE|}E|  2KE|E| d1v1

od uhodwlrq gh 4T E| hvw grqqh sdu/ 4T E|  2KE|}E|  2KE|E|  @2E| Hq suhqdqw od pr|hqqh frqglwlrqqhooh   H d4T E|mI|3o  2H dKE|} E|mI|3 o  2H dKE|E|mI|3 o  H @2 E|mI|3 ru KE|E| ' A E| Ae 4 w E| n  wE| E| AeA E|6E|E|0J E| '  E|  A E| wE|E| n AeE|A 6E|E| Ae A E|6E|E| '  E0J E|  E| n E| E|  A E| wE|E| n AeE|A 6E|E| Vl o*rq suhqg od pr|hqqh frqglwlrqqhooh/ ohv vljqdx{ 0J E|  E| hw E| vrqw lqgshq0 gdqwv hw gh soxv H dE|mI|3o ' f grqf Ae A E|6E|E| H dKE|E|mI|3o '  j2 A n Ae E| 6E|E| d1v1 k l

D171

Frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph g*dgdswdwlrq sdudpwultxh

538

Vl od irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw J E  hvw gqlh vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh/ doruv 7 E| ' 2 5 } E KE _  q 5 K2 E _   5 } 2E _ n k2  f
f f f

vrlw od yduldeoh f E| f E| ' T E| n 7 E| n 5 @2E _ n q 5 K2 E _ n  5 }2E _


f f f

+uhpdutxh = wrxv ohv whuphv gh f E| vrqw srvlwliv, Ohv gulyhv jqudolvhv gh f E| hw gh 7 E| vrqw grqqhv sdu ohv h{suhvvlrqv vxlydqwhv 4f E| ' 4T E| n 47 E| n @2E| n qK2E| n } 2E| 47 E| ' 2}E|KE|  qK2E|  }2 E|     H d4f E|mI|3o  H d4T E|mI|3o n H d47 E|mI|3o n H @2 E|mI|3 n H K2E|mI|3 d1v1  2H dKE|E|mI|3 o A 2Ae  E|6E|E| 2  j d1v1 n Ae E|A 6E|E| Grqf H d4f E|mI|3o  g 2 4 f E| $ f 4 Ru Grqf
Q

d1v1

d1v1 d1v1

Grqf +wkruph = Srvlwlyh vxshupduwlqjdoh frqyhujhqfh, =

f E| ' T E| n 7 E| n 5 @2E _ n q 5 K2 E _ n  5 }2E _


f f f

*4 @2E|_| 4 | <" 5

|Q
f

d1v1 d1v1 d1v1 d1v1

|Q <" |Q<"
Rx hqfruh

*4 5 K2E|_| 4

|Q
f

*4 5 }2E|_| 4
f

|Q

|<"

*4 T E| 4

|Q <"
Sdu vxlwh

*4 5 d0E|  E|o2 _| 4


f

|Q

|Q <"

*4 5 5 2E|_| 4
f

|Q

d1v1 d1v1

  H E0E|  eE|2 ' f  2  A H  E| wE| n  ' f

d1v1 d1v1

539

D1

Dqqh{hv

Frpph Rq d grqf

|<"

*4 T E| 4

d1v1

A 63 E|  wE| ' f d1v1 *4  w E| |<" | Vl od frqglwlrq g*h{flwdwlrq shuvlvwdqwh hvw uhvshfwh/ rq d
63E| :f |<" | *4 d1v1

rx g*xqh pdqluh txlydohqwh vl   H E|A E| h{lvwh hw hvw gqlh srvlwlyh Doruv

|<"

A *4  w E| wE| ' f |<"


*4 wE| ' wJ

d1v1 d1v1 

D18

V|vwphv sdvvliv olqdluhv whpsv lqyduldqw


4%E| ' %E| n E| +E| ' %E| n (E| +D14,

Frqvlgurqv oh v|vwph olqdluh whpsv lqyduldqw vxlydqw

rx % hvw oh yhfwhxu g*wdw gh glphqvlrq ?/  hw + vrqw ghv yhfwhxuv gh glphqvlrq 6 hw uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw o*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph hw c c c ( vrqw ghv pdwulfhv gh glphqvlrqv dssursulhv1 Rq vxssrvh txh dc c c (o hvw xqh udolvdwlrq plqlpdoh gx v|vwph1 Oh v|vwph g*txdwlrqv +D14, shxw dxvvl v*fuluh frpph xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  '  EU  3  n ( +D15,

Ohpph D15 Gqlwlrq g*xqh irqfwlrq gh wudqvihuw uhooh srvlwlyh +SU, = KE  hvw SU vl hw vhxohphqw vl  KE  hvw dqdo|wltxh gdqv mAe  n m :
3  KE  n KWE  : f srxu wrxw // rq udsshooh txh  ' e Ae hw txh KW E  ' KA E7  !  dyhf  7 oh frqmxjx gh  1 Rq d  7 ' AA n rx hqfruh  n  7 n Ae   7 ' f1
/

 Ohpph D16 Uho Srvlwli = Ohv sursrvlwlrqv vxlydqwhv frqfhuqdqw oh v|vwph dc c c (o vrqw wrxwhv txlydohqwhv

D181

V|vwphv sdvvliv olqdluhv whpsv lqyduldqw

53:

41 Lo h{lvwh xqh pdwulfh  : f/ hw ghv pdwulfhv g hw u who txh A  n   n Ae A   ' uA u  A  n Ae  A   '   g A u ( n (A  Ae  A   ' g A g hw J E  hvw od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw gx v|vwph gql sdu dc c uc g o J E  ' uEU  ! n g 51 Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw srvlwlyh uhooh1 61 Oh v|vwph gql sdu fhwwh pdwulfh hvw sdvvli 71 Wrxwhv ohv vroxwlrqv gx v|vwph g*txdwlrqv +D14, vdwlvirqw fhwwh lqjdolw =
|Q A
f 2 7A E|7 +E|_| 5 + E|E|_|  k n 5 + f

|Q

r oh vfdodluh k hvw gql frpph vxlw k2 ' %A Ef %Ef hw oh vljqdo + 7E| uhsuvhqwh od vruwlh gx wudqvihuw J E  + 7E| ' J E4E|  Oh ohpph sufghqw shxw wuh whqgx/ vrlw Ohpph D17 +Kloo, Uho Srvlwli Jqudolvh= Frqvlgurqv oh v|vwph +D14, gfulw sdu od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  gql sdu +D15,1 Lo h{lvwh xqh pdwulfh  : f/ ghv pdwulfhv v|pwultxhv 'c  hw  hw ghv pdwulfhv g hw u who txh A  n   n AeA   ' uA u   A '    A  n Ae A   '   g A u  (A ' ( n (A  Ae A   ' g A g n (A '( n  hw J E  hvw od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw gx v|vwph gql sdu dc c uc g o J E  ' uEU  ! n g Doruv 41 Wrxwhv ohv vroxwlrqv gx v|vwph g*txdwlrqv +D14, vdwlvirqw fhwwh lqjdolw =
|Q A
f 2 7A E|7 +E|_|n5 A E|E|_|n5 +A E|'+ E|_|n5 %A E|%E|_| 5 + E|E|_|  k n5 + f f f f

|Q

|Q

|Q

|Q

53;

D1

Dqqh{hv

51 Srxu  ' fc ' ' fc  ' f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw srvlwlyh uhooh1 61 Srxu  ' fc ' ' fc  : f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw o*hqwuh1  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw srvlwlyh uhooh1 71 Srxu   fc ' : fc   f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw od vruwlh1  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw srvlwlyh uhooh1 81 Srxu  : fc '  fc  : f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw o*hqwuh  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw o*wdw  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh1 91 Srxu  : fc ' : fc   f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw od vruwlh  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw o*wdw  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh1 :1 Srxu  : fc ' : fc  : f  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw vwulfwhphqw sdvvli1  Oh v|vwph +D14, hvw sdvvli sdu udssruw o*wdw  Od pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw KE  hvw xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw vwulfwhphqw srvlwlyh uhooh1  Uhpdutxh D14 Oruvtxh od sulrgh g*fkdqwloorqqdjh Ae whqgv yhuv }hur/ rq uhwurxyh ohv uvxowdwv gh fhv ghx{ ohpphv srxu ohv v|vwphv frqwlqxv1 

D181

V|vwphv sdvvliv olqdluhv whpsv lqyduldqw

53<

Suhxyh1 Gprqvwudwlrq gh o*txlydohqfh hqwuh od sursrvlwlrq +4, hw +7, = Vrlw od irqfwlrq vfdodluh T E| ' %A E| %E| 2 Od gulyh jqudolvh gh T E| shxw v*fuluh frpph vxlw = 4T E| ' Ae A 4% E| %E| n %A E| 4%E| n 4%A E| 4%E| 2 2 2   A ' % E|A n A E| A E|  %E| n %A E| E%E| n E| 2 2  Ae  A n % E|A n A E| A E|  E%E| n E| 2    A  A ' % E|   n   n AeA   %E| n %A E|   n AeA   E| 2 2   Ae n A E|  A  n Ae  A   %E| n A E| A  E| 2 2

Hq suhqdqw hq frpswh ohv uhodwlrqv gh od sursrvlwlrq +4, =   Ae 4T E| '  %A E|uA u%E| n A E|   g A u %E| n A E| A  E| 2 2 A Ae '  % E|uA u%E| n A E|+E|  A E|(E|  A E|g A u%E| n A E| A  E| 2 2   A '  % E|uA u%E| n A E|+E|  A E|g A u%E|  A E| ( n (A  Ae  A   E| 2 2 A '  % E|uA u%E| n A E|+E|  A E|g A u%E|  A E|g A gE| 2 2 ' A E|+E|  + 7A E|7 +E| 2 dyhf + 7E| ' u%E| n gE| Hq suhqdqw o*lqwjudoh gh f d |/ rq rewlhqw |Q A 7 E|7 +E|_| 5+ 2f f f |Q |Q A T E|   T Ef ' 5 A E|+E|_|  5 + 7 E|7 +E|_| f 2f |Q A |Q A A A 7 E|7 +E|_| 5  E|+ E|_| ' % E|  %E|  % Ef %Ef n 5 + f 2f
|Q A 5 4T E|_| ' 5  E|+E|_|  |Q

+7, yhuv +4,


|Q
f

5 +A E|E|_| n k2
|Q
f

|Q

5 A E|E|_|

 |f Q 5 A E|E|_|
f

7A E|7 + E|_| 5+

543

D1

Dqqh{hv

suhqrqv oh fdv sduwlfxolhu k2 ' f hw | $ 4/ fhwwh frqglwlrq hvw hqfruh yudlh


f f


Z

5 + A E|E|_|


f f

5 A E|E|_|

7A E|7 +E|_| 5+

5 A E|E|_|
Z

hq xwlolvdqw oh wkruph gh Sduvhydo


2
Ae U

Z Ae

L 9 ED  dKE  n K9E o L ED _/


Z Ae U

Ae U

!
hw frpph
Ae U Z

Z Ae

L 9ED L ED _/

Z Ae

L 9ED J 9E J E L ED _/


Ae U Z

Z Ae

L 9ED L ED _/

Z Ae

L 9 ED J 9 E J E L ED _/  f doruv KE  n K9 E  : f

Gprqvwudwlrq gh o*txlydohqfh hqwuh od sursrvlwlrq +4, hw +5, = +4, yhuv +5, =

M 9 E  n M E  '  A E7  U  A !  A n (A n  EU  !  n (

Hq xwlolvdqw ohv uhodwlrqv gh od sursrvlwlrq +4, =

  M 9E  n M E  ' g A g n Ae  A   n  A E7  U  A !   n Ae A   n uA g   n  A  n Ae  A   n g A u EU  !

 U  A !uA g n g A uEU  ! ' g A g n  A E7  n A E7  U  A ! Ae E7  U  A  EU   n  EU   n E7  U  A    U  A   EU  ! nAe A  EU   n Ae E7   ' g A g n  A E7  U  A !    A   Ae A   EU  ! n A E7  U  A !uA g n g A uEU  !  n  A E7  U  A !   Ae E7  U  A  EU   n  n  7 n Ae A  n Ae E7  U  A   EU  ! ' g A g n  A E7  U  A !uA uEU  !  n  A E7  U  A !uA g n  U  A ! g A uEU  !  n  A E7    U  A  n U n  7 U n Ae A  EU  !  Ae  E7    '  A E7  U  A !u n g A uEU  ! n g n A E7  U  A ! dAe   7U n U n  7U o  EU  ! ' C9 E CE  : f 7 9E C 7 :f M 9E  n M E  ' C

+5, yhuv +4, =

D181

V|vwphv sdvvliv olqdluhv whpsv lqyduldqw

544

7 E  xqh pdwulfh gh wudqvihuw vwdeoh gqlh sdu dyhf C 7 E  ' u 7 EU   7! 7 ng C   7  7 vrlw revhuydeoh doruv lo h{lvwh xqh pdwulfh  7 who txh who txh uc 7A  7n 7 7 n Ae  7A  7 7 ' u 7A u 7  Gh soxv/ rq shxw ufuluh fhwwh h{suhvvlrq frpph vxlw     7A u 7 '  7A  7 7 7  Ae  7A  7 7 n E7 7 n Ae  7A  7 U   7 u  n  n Ae   7  7U       7A  7 U   7 7U   Ae            7A  7 U   7 n 7 U   7 n  7A  7 n Ae  7A  7 7 ' Ae  7U   7U   7U     7A  7 U   7 nAe Doruv 7 9E C 7  ' C    7 E7 7! 7 ng A u 7 ng 7 EU   7!  u U   7 A E7 7! u 7A u 7 EU   7! 7 n 7 A E7 7! u 7A g ' gA g n  U   U   7 EU   7! 7 ng A u 7 A E7 7! u 7A g n gA u 7 EU   7! 7 ' gA g n  U          A A ! 7 E7 7 7  7 U   7 n 7 U   7 n U   Ae  7U         7A  7 n Ae  7A  7 7 n Ae  7A  7 U   7 EU   7! 7 n  7U   7U     7A  7 7 n 7 A E7 7! u 7A g n  7 7 n Ae  7A  7 7 U   ' g A g n Ae    A 7n 7A  7 n Ae  7A  7 7 EU   7!  7 n g u 

Gh soxv 7 9E C 7  ' M 9E  n M E  ' (A n ( n  A E7 C  U  A !  A n  EU  !  g*r hw 7A  7 7 (A n ( ' g A g n Ae    7n 7A  7 n Ae  7A  7 7 EU   7!  7  EU  ! ' g A u 7/ A  '  7 / hw A ! ' g A u 7n 7A  7 n Ae  7A  7 7 A A ! '  Vrlw doruv 7A  7 7 ( A n ( ' g A g n Ae  7 A  ' g A g n Ae  A   ' g A g n Ae  A A A  7 A hw u ' uA 7  ' AA

Lo h{lvwh xqh wudqvirupdwlrq A txl wdeolh oh olhq hqwuh fhv ghx{ uhsuvhqwdwlrqv=

545

D1

Dqqh{hv

hw 7 A uA 7 uA u ' A A u   7A  7n 7 7 n Ae  7A  7 7 A ' AA  7A A !A A A  7A n A A  7 A A ! A 7 n Ae A A  7A A !A A A  7 A A ! A 7 ' AA ' A  n   n Ae A   gh pph 7 n 7A  7 A n Ae  7A  7 A 7  ' g A uA 7 A n Ae  A A A  7 A  ' g A u n  A  n Ae  A   ' g A u n A A A  7 E  ' u 7 EU   7!  7 n g hw CE  ' Sdu od wudqvirupdwlrq A rq rewlhqw oh olhq hqwuh C ! uEU    n g 

D19

Uhodwlrq hqwuh suglfwlrq hw gulyhv

Fh sdudjudskh wdeol ohv uhodwlrqv hqwuh ohv suglfwlrqv  sdv g*xq vljqdo i%E|j hw vhv gulyhv vxffhvvlyhv sduwlu g*h{hpsohv vlpsohv1 Srxu fh idluh/ qrxv xwlolvrqv od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh
   [  %E| n   ' Ae B  %E|  'f

Ohv suglfwlrqv  sdv dlqvl txh ohv gulyhv vxffhvvlyhv gx vljqdo i%E|j srxu xq krul}rq  vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw plvhv vrxv od iruph yhfwrulhooh vxlydqwh f E| n  ' d%E|                %E| n oA hw f EE| ' d%E|                4 %E|oA Dq g*wdeolu od uhodwlrq jqudoh hqwuh fhv ghx{ yhfwhxuv/ suhqrqv xq h{hpsoh srxu  ' / doruv 5 6 5 65 6 %E| %E| f f f 9 %E| n  : 9 Ae 9 B%E| : f f : 9 :'9 : 9 : 2 7 %E| n 2 8 7 2Ae Ae f 8 7 B 2%E| 8 %E| n  Ae Ae2 Ae B %E| Fh txl grqqh gdqv oh fdv jqudo f E| n  ' A% f E E|  ! ! dyhf A% ' d| o r |Ec   '  ! Ae +ohv lqglfhv ghv pdwulfhv ydulhqw gh  '  n hw  '  n , Od surfgxuh lqyhuvh hvw grqqh sdu od uhodwlrq

!f E| n  f EE| ' A%

D1:1

Glylvlrqv sro|qrpldohv

546

Fh txl grqqh srxu oh fdv  ' 5 6 5 f f %E| 9 B%E| : 9  Ae f Ae :'9 9 2 2 7 B %E| 8 7 A 2  A 2 A2 e e e B %E|  A A  A e e e

65 6 f %E| f : 9 %E| n  : :9 : f 8 7 %E| n 2 8 %E| n  Ae  !n ! ' d| o r |Ec   ' En ! Rq rewlhqw gdqv oh fdv jqudo A% ! Ae Vl ohv suglfwlrqv qh gpduuhqw sdv %E| pdlv %E| n o/ vrlw f E| n c o ' d%E| n o                %E| n oA od pdwulfh gh wudqvlwlrq A% ghylhqw qrq fduu1 Sdu h{hpsoh srxu  ' e hw o ' 2/ rq rewlhqw 5 6 %E| 5 6 5 6 2 9 B%E| : %E| n 2 2Ae Ae f f 9 2 : 2 7 %E| n  8 ' 7 Ae Ae Ae B %E| : f 89 9 : %E| n e eAe SAe2 eAe Aee 7 B %E| 8 B e%E| Fh txl grqqh gdqv oh fdv jqudo f E| n c o ' A%f E E|  o!  ! dyhf A% ' d| o r |Ec   ' n  ! Ae

D1:

Glylvlrqv sro|qrpldohv

Rq vh sursrvh gh gwhuplqhu g*xqh pdqluh ufxuvlyh +Fodunh hw do1 4<;:, od vroxwlrq g*ruguh plqlpdo +. !oR E4/ 8 E4, gh o*txdwlrq sro|qrpldoh 4 8 E4 ^ E4 ' . !oR E4 n @ E4 @E4 +D16,

Od vroxwlrq ufxuvlyh gh +D16, frqvlvwh fdofxohu +.!oR E4/ 8 E4, sduwlu gh +. !oR!E4/ 8 ! E4,1 Fhv sdluhv sro|qrpldohv uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv vroxwlrqv g*ruguh plqlpdo ghv txdwlrqv sro|qrpldohv fl0ghvvrxv 4 ^ E4 ' @E4.!oRE4 n 8 E4 4! ^ E4 ' @E4.!oR! E4 n 8! E4 Ohv vroxwlrqv g*ruguh plqlpdo gh +D17,0+D18, rqw ohv iruphv vxlydqwhv= +D17, +D18,

!oR!4!oR! n e!oR!4!oR!2 n    n e!oR! . !oR!E4 ' e f  !oR!


8 E4 ' 8!E4 '
 sf 4 n s 4 n    n s?s  ?s  ?s

!oR4!oR n e !oR4!oR! n    n e!oR .!oRE4 ' e f  !oR


s !4
f

+D19, +D1:, +D1;, +D1<,

 ?s

! n s ! 4 !
 ?s

 n    n s?s

547

D1

Dqqh{hv

dyhf ?s ' ?@@  hw oR ' ?@@  ?R Od vrxvwudfwlrq phpeuh phpeuh ghv txdwlrqv +D17,4+D18, grqqh @E4 d. !oR E4  4.!oR!E4o n d8 E4  48! E4o ' f +D143,

Frpph ohv sro|qphv E4@ hw vrqw suhplhuv hqwuh hx{/ rq shxw ufuluh o*txdwlrq sro|qrpldoh +D143, frpph vxlw

!oR .!oR E4 ' 4.!oR! E4 n e  !oR


hw

+D144, +D145,

Sdu dloohxuv/ hq whqdqw frpswh ghv iruphv ghv sro|qphv .!oR E4 hw . !oR!E4 grqqhv sdu +D19, hw +D1:,/ rq shxw fuluh oh sro|qph . !oR E4 vrxv od iruph .!oRE4 ' ef4!oR n e4!oR! n    n e !oR

!oR 8 E4 ' 48 !E4  e  !oR @ E4

O*dojrulwkph ufxuvli uhfkhufk hvw doruv rewhqx sdu lghqwlfdwlrq whuph sdu whuph ghv phpeuhv ghv txdwlrqv +D144, hw +D145,1 Qrwrqv txh oh ghju uhodwli oR qh shxw suhqguh txh ohv ydohxuv f rx shuphwwdqw g*rewhqlu uhvshfwlyhphqw xq ujxodwhxu vwulfwhphqw sursuh rx vhxohphqw sursuh1 Oh fdv vxlydqw hvw grqf xqltxhphqw udolv gdqv oh fdv rx oR ' +fh txl hvw shx vrxkdlwdeoh srxu ghv frqvlgudwlrqv gh urexvwhvvh ylv ylv gh o*lq xhqfh ghv euxlwv gh phvxuh vxu od frppdqgh, Srxu  oR ' / rq d .! E4 ' f hw 8f E4 ' ^ E4/ frpph gdqv fh fdv ?R ' ?@@  / rq d ?s ' ?R sf ' R c f    ?s Od vroxwlrq hvw ylghqwh srxu  ' oR hw shuphw g*lqlwldolvhu o*dojrulwkph/ vrlw ef ' Rf *@f ' soR ' Rn  ef@n c f    ?s Srxu  : oR/ rq dxud
 !  ! e !oR ' sf *@f ' sf !  e!oR@nc f    ?s dyhf s ! ' f s ' sn ?s n

+D146, +D147,

+D148, +D149,

Rq vh sursrvh gh gwhuplqhu g*xqh pdqluh ufxuvlyh od vroxwlrq g*ruguh plqlpdo EC!oK E4c M E4 gh o*txdwlrq sro|qrpldoh @E4.!oRE4 M E4 ' C!oK E4 n RE4 RE4 +D14:,

D1:1

Glylvlrqv sro|qrpldohv

548

Od vroxwlrq ufxuvlyh gh +D14:, frqvlvwh fdofxohu EC!oK E4c M E4 sduwlu gh od sdluh EC!oK!E4c M ! E41 Fhv sdluhv sro|qrpldohv uhsuvhqwhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv vroxwlrqv g*ruguh plqlpdo ghv txdwlrqv sro|qrpldohv fl0ghvvrxv @E4.!oR E4 ' RE4C !oK E4 n M E4 @E4.!oR! E4 ' RE4C !oK!E4 n M! E4 +D14;, +D14<,

Frpph ohv ghjuv ghv sro|qphv RE4 hw @ E4. !oR E4 vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ?R hw ?K@ n   oR ' ?R n   ?@@ n ?K@/ ohv vroxwlrqv g*ruguh plqlpdo gh +D14;,0+D14<, rqw ohv iruphv vxlydqwhv= C!oK! E4 ' M E4 ' M! E4 ' dyhf
 !oK  !oK  !oK  !oK!  !oK C !oK E4 ' }f 4 n } 4 n    n } !oK

}f! ! 4 ! !

 !oK! n }! ! 4 ! ! 4 n    n } !oK!  ?  ?!  f4 n 4 n    n ?  ! ?  ! ?! ! f 4 n  4 n    n  ?  oK  oK  oK  oK 2

+D153, +D154, +D155, +D156,

? ' ?R  hw oK ' ?@@  ?K@

Od vrxvwudfwlrq phpeuh phpeuh ghv txdwlrqv +D14;,4+D14<, grqqh R E4 dC !oK E4  4C!oK! E4o n M E4  4M!E4  @ E4 d.!oR E4  4. !oR!E4o ' f +D157, Frpph ohv sro|qphv R E4 hw vrqw suhplhuv hqwuh hx{/ rq shxw ufuluh o*txdwlrq sro|qrpldoh +D157, frpph vxlw +D159, ! Sdu dloohxuv/ hq whqdqw frpswh ghv iruphv ghv sro|qphv C!oK E4 hw C!oK!E4 grqqhv sdu +D153, hw +D154,/ rq shxw fuluh oh sro|qph C !oK E4 vrxv od iruph C !oK E4 ' }f4!oK n }4!oK! n    n }!oK M E4 ' O*dojrulwkph ufxuvli uhfkhufk hvw doruv rewhqx sdu lghqwlfdwlrq whuph sdu whuph ghv phpeuhv ghv txdwlrqv +D158, hw +D159,1 Srxu  oR  oK/ rq d . !oR E4 ' f hw C!oK E4 ' f grqf M E4 ' f ?K@ n !oR n K Srxu oR   oK/ rq d C !oK E4 ' f grqf M E4 ' @ E4.!oR E4 ' 7 f4   7 K 4?K@ n!oR! n    n 7 K?K@ n!oR   ' fc 7   ' K!oKn n c f   oK    oK       ?
 !oK C !oK E4 ' 4C !oK! E4 n } !oK  oK 4M E4  } oK R E4 n e oR @ E4

! !

+D158,

Od vroxwlrq hvw ylghqwh srxu  ' oK hw shuphw g*lqlwldolvhu o*dojrulwkph/ frpph ?K@ n oK  oR ' ?R/ rq d 7 E4 '  E4.oK E4 ' 7  Kf4?R n 7 K4?R! n    n 7 K?R

549

D1

Dqqh{hv

Iljxuh D14 =

Oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1

vrlw }f ' 7 Kf oK  ' 7 Kn  }f Rnc srxu f    ? Srxu  : oK/ rq dxud  vl ?K@ ' ?R doruv }!oK '  !  f n e!oR Kf *Rf  ! n  }!oK Rn n e!oR Kn   ' }!oK Rn n e!oRKn srxu f   ? srxu  ' ? +D15:, +D15;,

 vlqrq ?K@ ?R doruv

! }!oK '  f *Rf ;  ! srxu f   ?  ?K@ ? n  }!oK Rn   !  '   }!oK Rn n e!oRKn?K( !? srxu ?  ?K@   ? = n } !oK Rn n e!oRKn?K( !? srxu  ' ?

D1;

Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

Ohv gluhqwhv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq suvhqwhv gdqv oh fkdslwuh 8 rqw w dssoltxhv o*lghqwlfdwlrq g*xq v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh glvsrqleoh dx Oderudwrluh g*Dxwr0 pdwltxh gh Juhqreoh1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

54:

Oh v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh hvw frpsrv gh wurlv srxolhv uholhv sdu ghx{ frxuurlhv pwdooltxhv frpsruwdqw fkdfxqh ghx{ uhvvruwv +jxuh D14,1 Oh prxyhphqw gh od suhpluh srxolh hvw jqu sdu xq prwhxu frxudqw frqwlqx txl hvw orfdohphqw dvvhuyl hq srvlwlrq hw hq ylwhvvh sdu xq ujxodwhxu SG dqdorjltxh1 Oh ujxodwhxu SG hvw frqx gh pdqluh fh txh od edqgh sdvvdqwh gx v|vwph vrlw uhodwlyhphqw odujh srxu tx*lo sxlvvh wuh frqvlgu frpph xq vlpsoh jdlq vwdwltxh sdu udssruw dx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1 Ohv srvlwlrqv ghv srxolhv vrqw phvxuhv sdu gh vlpsohv srwhqwlrpwuhv1 Oh sureoph gh frppdqgh frqvlgu hvw fhoxl gh o*dvvhuylvvhphqw hq srvlwlrq gh od wurl0 vlph srxolh sduwlu gh od srvlwlrq gh od suhpluh srxolh lqgshqgdpphqw gh od h{lelolw gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq hw ghv yduldwlrqv g*lqhuwlh gh od wurlvlph srxolh1 O*hqwuh hw od vruwlh gx v|vwph frppdqghu vrqw grqf uhvshfwlyhphqw od vtxhqfh gh uiuhqfh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh gx prwhxu frqwlqx hw od srvlwlrq gh od wurlvlph srxolh1 Od v|qwkvh d w idlwh sduwlu g*xq prgoh gh frppdqgh lghqwl hq erxfoh rxyhuwh vrxv ghv frqglwlrqv h{sulphqwdohv lgdohv hq xwlolvdqw xqh dssurfkh gh frppdqgh suglfwlyh urexvwh1 Od jxuh D15 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh rewhqx hq vlpxodwlrq1 Gh qrp0 euhxvhv shuwxuedwlrqv rqw w lqwurgxlwhv srxu vh sodfhu gdqv oh sluh0fdv dq gh srxyrlu whvwhu ohv shuirupdqfhv ghv glyhuvhv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph suvhqwhv1

D1;14

Lghqwlfdwlrq gluhfwh

Od jxuh D16 prqwuh ohv gldjudpph gh Ergh gx prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +wudlwv frqwl0 qxv,/ gx prgoh hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh rewhqx dyhf hw vdqv owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq +wudlwv srlqwloov hw wudlwv glvfrqwlqxv,1 Oh owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq hvw gdqv fh fdv lgdo/ rq frqvwdwh doruv xqh lghqwlfdwlrq wuv surfkh gh fhooh rewhqxh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1

D1;15

Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh

Lghqwlfdwlrq sdu od pwkrgh FORH Od jxuh D17 prqwuh ohv gldjudpph gh Ergh gx prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +wudlwv frqwlqxv, hw gx prgoh hq erxfoh ihuph rewhqx dyhf od pwkrgh FORH +wudlwv glvfrqwlqxv,1 Fhwwh pwkrgh shuphw gh uhwurxyhu ohv ghx{ prghv gh uvrqdqfh gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh1 Lghqwlfdwlrq sdu od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod Ohv uvxowdwv gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdu od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod vrqw grqqhv vxu ohv jxuhv D18/ D19 hw D1:1 Od jxuh D18 prqwuh ohv vljqdx{ lqwhuqhv xwlolvv srxu o*lghq0 wlfdwlrq gh od irqfwlrq 'E4c w grqw oh gldjudpph gh Ergh hvw grqq sdu od jxuh D19/ od jxuh D1: grqqh oh prgoh qdo frpsdu fhoxl rewhqx hq erxfoh rxyhuwh1 Fh prgoh uhfrqvwlwxh ohv ghx{ prghv gh uvrqdqfh gx v|vwph gh wudqvplvvlrq h{leoh/ pdlv gx idlw
6e gh od sdudpwulvdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod/ o*ruguh gh fh prgoh vh wurxyh wuv ohy +fe ruguh,1

54;

D1 Dqqh{hv

D1;16

Lghqwlfdwlrq vlpxowdqh

Lghqwlfdwlrq 5 hw 6 wdshv Ohv jxuhv D1; hw D1< prqwuhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh hw ohv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh gx v|vwph gh frppdqgh +wudlwv frqwlqxv, hw fhoohv txl rqw w lghqwlhv +wudlwv glvfrqwlqxv,1 Od jxuh D143 prqwuh oh frpsruwhphqw g*hqwuh0vruwlh uhfrqvwuxlw sduwlu ghv irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw lghqwlhv1 Ohv jxuh D144 hw D145 prqwuhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv gldjudpphv gh Ergh gx prgoh rewhqx dyhf od pwkrgh 2 wdshv hw wdshv1 Od suvhqfh gh qrpeuhxvhv shuwxuedwlrqv hq vruwlh qh shuphw sdv od pwkrgh 2 wdshv gh uhwurxyhu oh ghx{lph prgh gh uvrqdqfh1 Od uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx vljqdo gh vruwlh gdqv od pwkrgh wdshv vxssulph fhv shuwxuedwlrqv/ o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv ghx{ prghv gh uvrqdqfh hvw grqf udolvh1 Lghqwlfdwlrq sdu ohv idfwhxuv suhplhuv qrupdolvv Ohv jxuhv D146/ D147 prqwuh ohv gldjudpphv gh Ergh rewhqx srxu od uhfkhufkh gx owuh gh qrupdolvdwlrq1 Od jxuh D148 prqwuh od yduldeoh lqvwuxphqwdoh %E|1 Ohv jxuh D149 hw D14: prqwuhqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv gldjudpphv gh Ergh gx prgoh rewhqx dyhf od pwkrgh 2 wdshv hw wdshv1 Pph uhpdutxh txh sufghpphqw/ od suvhqfh gh qrpeuhxvhv shuwxuedwlrqv hq vruwlh qfhvvlwh xqh uhfrqvwuxfwlrq gx vljqdo gh vruwlh dq g*rewhqlu o*lghqwlfdwlrq ghv ghx{ prghv gh uvrqdqfh1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

54<

rfrence et sortie 2 1 0 1 2 0

20

40

60

80

100 120 temps (s) commande

140

160

180

200

2 1 0 1 2 0

20

40

60

80

100 120 temps (s)

140

160

180

200

Iljxuh D15 =

Grqqhv xwlolvhv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph1

553

D1 Dqqh{hv
Modle en boucle ferme directe et directe filtre 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D16 =

Prgoh hq erxfoh rxyhuwh +wudlwv frqwlqxv,/ prgoh hq erxfoh ihuph gluhfwh rewhqx dyhf hw vdqv owuh g*lghqwlfdwlrq +wudlwv srlqwloov hw wudlwv glvfrqwlqxv,1

Modle identifi par la mthode FCLOE 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D17 =

Prgoh rewhqx sdu od pwkrgh FORH +wudlwv glvfrqwlqxv,1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph


signal z(t) 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0

554

20

40

60

80

100 signal x(t)

120

140

160

180

200

1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Iljxuh D18 =

Grqqhv xwlolvhv srxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gxdoh gh \rxod1

fonction Q calcule et estime 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

500

1000

1500 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D19 =

Prgoh gh od irqfwlrq T+> , lghqwl srxu od pwkrgh gxdoh gh \rxod1

555

D1 Dqqh{hv
Modle identifi par une paramtrisation de Dual Youla 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D1: =

Prgoh rewhqx sdu od pwkrgh gxdoh gh \rxod1

Fonction de sensibilit complmentaire 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 Frquence (rad/s) 30 35 40 45

0 500

Phase ()

1000 1500 2000 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D1; =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw frpsophqwdluh qrplqdoh hw lghqwlh1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph


Fonction de sensibilit en entre 40

556

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

500

1000

1500 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D1< =

Irqfwlrqv gh vhqvlelolw hq hqwuh qrplqdoh hw lghqwlh1

rfrence et sortie reconstruite 2 1 0 1 2 0

20

40

60

80

100 120 temps (s)

140

160

180

200

commande reconstruite 2 1 0 1 2 0

20

40

60

80

100 120 temps (s)

140

160

180

200

Iljxuh D143 =

Vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh uhfrqvwuxlwv1

557

D1 Dqqh{hv
Modle en boucle ferme 2 tapes 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D144 =

Prgoh lghqwl sdu od pwkrgh 5 wdshv1

Modle en boucle ferme 3 tapes 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D145 =

Prgoh lghqwl sdu od pwkrgh 6 wdshv1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph


D, N et N+D 5

558

Amplitude (dB)

10

15

20

25

30

35 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D146 =

Prgohv

3G+
, hw /G+
,

Modle Px 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D147 =

Prgoh dx{loldluh lghqwl srxu od frqvwuxfwlrq gx owuh1

559

D1 Dqqh{hv
signal x(t) 2

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

2 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Iljxuh D148 =

Vljqdo lqwhuqh xwlolv srxu od pwkrgh g*lghqwlfdwlrq sdu idfwhxuv suhplhuv1

Modle identifi par facteurs premiers normaliss 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D149 =

Prgoh rewhqx sdu od pwkrgh ghv idfwhxuv suhplhuv1

D1;1 Uvxowdwv h{sulphqwdx{ vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph

55:

Modle identifi par facteurs premiers normaliss 3 tapes 40

Amplitude (dB)

20 0 20 40 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Phase ()

200

400

600 0

10

15

20 25 Frquence (rad/s)

30

35

40

45

Iljxuh D14: =

Prgoh rewhqx sdu od pwkrgh ghv idfwhxuv suhplhuv hq wurlv wdshv1

55;

D1 Dqqh{hv

D1<
D1<14

Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv


Dqdo|vh whpsruhooh

Od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh gx v|vwph hvw ggxlwh sduwlu g*xqh dqdo|vh sdu fruuodwlrq ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh srxuyx txh od vtxhqfh g*hqwuh vh frpsruwh frpph xq euxlw eodqf srxu oh v|vwph> h1j1 xqh vtxhqfh elqdluh svhxgr dodwrluh1 Fhwwh usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh shuphw gh gwhuplqhu ohv fdudfwulvwltxhv vxlydqwhv =  oh uhwdug gx v|vwph/  o*ruguh plqlpxp gx v|vwph/  vl oh v|vwph hvw qrq plqlpxp gh skdvh/  od iutxhqfh g*rvfloodwlrq gx v|vwph vl hooh h{lvwh1 Dq gh gwhuplqhu od qdwxuh gx v|vwph/ soxvlhxuv usrqvhv lpsxovlrqqhoohv w|shv vrqw uhsuvhqwhv fl0ghvvrxv V|vwphv gx suhplhu ruguh Od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh gpduuh xqh ydohxu qrq qxooh dsuv oh uhwdug g o*fkdqwloorqqdjh frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D14;1 Oh gfdodjh whpsruho gh od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh shuphw g*rewhqlu xqh hvwlpdwlrq gx uhwdug gx v|vwph1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ vxu od jxuh D14</ rq shxw phvxuhu xq uhwdug gh D n sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Vxu od jxuh D153/ od usrqvh lqyhuvh hvw fdudfwulvwltxh g*xq v|vwph gskdvdjh qrq plqlpdo1 V|vwphv gx vhfrqg ruguh Od usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh hvw fdudfwulvh sdu xq gpduudjh soxv ohqw frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D1541 O*devhqfh g*rvfloodwlrq gh od usrqvh prqwuh txh fh v|vwph frpsruwh ghx{ sohv uhov rx ghx{ sohv frpsoh{hv frqmxjxv wuv dpruwlv +l : fS,1 Od jxuh D155 looxvwuh oh gfdodjh gh od usrqvh suryrtx sdu xq uhwdug gh 7.4 sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1 Vxu od jxuh D156/ od usrqvh lqyhuvh hvw fdudfwulvwltxh g*xq v|vwph gskdvdjh qrq plqlpdo1 Ohv rvfloodwlrqv suvhqwhv vxu od jxuh D157 vrqw fdudfwulvwltxhv g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh srvvgdqw xqh sdluh gh sohv frpsoh{hv frqmxjxv dyhf xq dpruwlvvhphqw idleoh +l f,1 Od sulrgh gh fhwwh rvfloodwlrq shxw wuh phvxuh dq gh yulhu vd judqghxu oruv gh o*lghqwlfdwlrq sdudpwultxh gx v|vwph1

D1<1 Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

55<

Iljxuh D14; =

Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh dyhf xq uhwdug sxu suryrtx sdu o*fkdqwloorqqdjh1

Iljxuh D14< =

Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh dyhf xq uhwdug sxu gh 8.4 sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1

563

D1 Dqqh{hv

Iljxuh D153 =

plqlpdo1

Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh gskdvdjh qrq

V|vwphv g*ruguh vxsulhxu Gdqv oh fdv g*xqh usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh rvfloodqwh/ lo idxw yulhu od v|pwulh gh fhwwh u0 srqvh1 Hq hhw/ xqh dv|pwulh hvw suryrtxh sdu od suvhqfh g*xq soh uho vxssophqwdluh/ oh v|vwph vhud dx prlqv gx wurlvlph ruguh frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D1581 Xqh usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh suvhqwdqw soxvlhxuv iutxhqfhv g*rvfloodwlrq wudgxlw od suvhqfh gh soxvlhxuv sdluhv gh sohv frpsoh{hv frqmxjxv1 O*ruguh gx v|vwph hvw grqf jdo ghx{ irlv oh qrpeuh gh iutxhqfhv g*rvfloodwlrq +lo hvw gl!floh gh yrlu soxv gh ghx{ iutxhqfhv, frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D1591

D1<15

Dqdo|vh iutxhqwlhooh

Oh fdofxo ghv vshfwuhv ghv vljqdx{ g*hqwuh0vruwlh/ gh od frkuhqfh hw o*hvwlpdwlrq gx vshfwuh gx euxlw shuphw gh gwhuplqhu od suvhqfh gh shuwxuedwlrqv frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D15:1 O*hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh gx v|vwph dssruwh xqh frqqdlvvdqfh txdolwdwlyh d sulrul vxu od vwuxfwxuh gx v|vwph/ hq o*rffxuuhqfh od suvhqfh ghv slfv gh u0 vrqdqfh/ oh gfdodjh gh od skdvh hw o*dwwqxdwlrq gx jdlq hq kdxwh iutxhqfh1 Od frkuhqfh lqgltxh oh ghju gh frqdqfh tx*lo idxw dwwulexhu o*hvwlpdwlrq vshfwudoh gh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh gx v|vwph1 Hq hhw/ od frkuhqfh gh jxuh D15: vh gwulruh gdqv ohv kdxwhv

D1<1 Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

564

Iljxuh D154 =

Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh dyhf ghx{ sohv uhov1

Iljxuh D155 = Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh dyhf xq uhwdug sxu gh 7.4 sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh1

565

D1 Dqqh{hv

Iljxuh D156 = Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh dyhf ghx{ sohv uhov/ xq uhwdug sxu gh 7.4 sulrghv g*fkdqwloorqqdjh hw xq gskdvdjh qrq plqlpdo1

frqmxjxv1

Iljxuh D157 =

Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh ghx{ sohv frpsoh{hv

D1<1 Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

566

Iljxuh D158 = Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx wurlvlph ruguh frpsrv g*xq soh uho hw gh ghx{ sohv frpsoh{hv frqmxjxv1

Iljxuh D159 = Usrqvh lpsxovlrqqhooh g*xq v|vwph gx txdwulph ruguh frpsruwdqw ghx{ sdluhv gh sohv frpsoh{hv1

567

D1 Dqqh{hv

iutxhqfhv/ od uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh gx v|vwph vhud grqf prlqv deoh gdqv ohv kdxwhv iutxhqfhv frpph oh prqwuh od jxuh D15;1 Od jxuh D15< prqwuh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh1 Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh  oh prgxoh srvvgh xqh shqwh gh 2f_K*(e S@_er +oruvtxh oh v|vwph qh srvvgh sdv gh }ur,  od skdvh dxjphqwh dyhf oh uhwdug1 Od jxuh D163 prqwuh od usrqvh iutxhqwlhooh g*xq v|vwph gx vhfrqg ruguh1 Lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh  oh prgxoh srvvgh xqh shqwh gh ef_K*(e S@_er +oruvtxh oh v|vwph qh srvvgh sdv gh }ur,  od skdvh dxjphqwh dyhf oh uhwdug1  lo q*| d sdv gh slfv gh uvrqdqfh/ oh v|vwph srvvgh grqf ghx{ sohv uhov rx wuv dpruwlv1 Oh slf gh uvrqdqfh gh od jxuh D164 looxvwuh od suvhqfh g*xqh sdluh gh sohv frpsoh{hv frqmxjxv1 Vxu od jxuh D165/ oh slf gh uvrqdqfh hw od shqwh vxsulhxuh ef_K*(e S@_er shuphw gh gluh txh oh v|vwph hvw gx wurlvlph ruguh1 Od jxuh D166 suvhqwh ghx{ slfv gh uvrqdqfh/ oh v|vwph hvw grqf gx txdwulph ruguh1

D1<1 Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

568

Iljxuh D15: =

Dqdo|vh vshfwudoh = od frkuhqfh idlw dssdudlwuh od suvhqfh gh euxlw1

Iljxuh D15; =

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh qrq euxlw hw euxlw1

569

D1 Dqqh{hv

Iljxuh D15< = Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gx suhplhu ruguh dyhf uhwdug hw gskd0 vdjh qrq plqlpdo1

D1<1 Lghqwlfdwlrq qrq0sdudpwultxh/ dqdo|vh ghv grqqhv

56:

Iljxuh D163 = Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gh vhfrqg ruguh dyhf xq uhwdug hw xq gskdvdjh qrq plqlpdo1

odqw1

Iljxuh D164 =

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gh vhfrqg frpsruwdqw xq prgh rvflo0

56;

D1 Dqqh{hv

Iljxuh D165 = Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gx wurlvlph ruguh frqsruwdqw xq prgh rvfloodqw hw xq soh uho1

Iljxuh D166 =

rvfloodqwv1

Uhsuvhqwdwlrq vshfwudoh g*xq v|vwph gx txdwulph ruguh frpsruwdqw 5 prghv

Eleolrjudsklh

Dqghuvrq/ E1 G1 R1 hw Prruh/ M1 +4<<3,1 Rswlpdo Frqwuro = Olqhdu Txdgudwlf Phwkrgv/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1M1 vwup/ N1 M1 +4<:3,1 Lqwurgxfwlrq wr vwrfkdvwlf frqwuro wkhru|/ Dfdghplf Suhvv1 Orqgrq1 vwup/ N1 M1 +4<<6,1 Pdwfklqj fulwhuld irup lghqwlfdwlrq dqg frqwuro/ Surf1 ri 5qg Hxurshdq Frqwuro Frqihuhqfh/ ss1 57;5841 vwup/ N1 M1 hw Zlwwhqpdun/ E1 +4<<8,1 Dgdswlyh Frqwuro/ Dgglvrq0Zhvoh|1 Qhz \run1 vwup/ N1 M1 hw Zlwwhqpdun/ E1 +4<<:,1 Frpsxwhg Frqwuroohg V|vwhpv= Wkhru| dqg Ghvljq/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1 M1 Ed|dug/ G1 V1/ \dp/ \1 hw Phwwohu/ H1 +4<<5,1 D fulwhulrq iru mrlqw rswlpl}dwlrq ri lghqwl0 fdwlrq dqg urexvw frqwuro/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro 6:= <;9<<41 Elwphdg/ U1 U1/ Jhyhuv/ P1 hw Zhuw}/ Y1 +4<<3,1 Dgdswlyh Rswlpdo Frqwuro = Wkh Wklqnlqj Pdq*v Jhqhudol}hg Suhglfwlyh Frqwuro/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1M1 Erxvolpdql/ P1 D1 +4<<6,1 Frppdqgh OT dgdswdwlyh dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd = pwkrgrorjlh hw dssolfdwlrqv/ Skg wkhvlv/ Lqvwlwxw Qdwlrqdo Sro|whfkqltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<:d,1 Lghqwlfdwlrq lqgluhfwh hq erxfoh ihuph/ Surf1 DJLV/ Dqjhuv/ Iudqfh1 Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<:e,1 Wkh sduwldo vwdwh uhihuhqfh prgho frqwuro uhohydqw lghqwlfdwlrq/ Surf1 ri wkh LIDF0FLV/ Ehoiruw/ Iudqfh1 Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<;,1 Fodvvlfdwlrq ghv pwkrghv g*lghqwlfdwlrq hq erxfoh ihuph/ Whfkqlfdo Uhsruw <;369/ Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Fkhedvvlhu/ M1/ P*Vddg/ P1 hw ]dqror/ H1 +4<<:,1 Dgydqfhg frqwuro xvlqj d surjudppdeoh orjlfdo frqwuroohu/ Surf1 ri wkh LIDF0VLFLFD/ Dqqhf|/ Iudqfh1 Fodunh/ G1 Z1 +4<<7,1 Dgydqfhv lq Prgho0Edvhg Suhglfwlyh Frqwuro/ R{irug Xqlyhuvlw| Suhvv/ fkdswhu Dgydqfhv lq prgho0edvhg suhglfwlyh frqwuro/ ss1 6541

573

Eleolrjudsklh

Fodunh/ G1 Z1 hw Jdzwkurs/ S1 M1 +4<:8,1 Vhoi0wxqlqj frqwuroohu/ Surf1 ri LHH/ Sw1 G 455= <5<<671 Fodunh/ G1 Z1 hw Jdzwkurs/ S1 M1 +4<:<,1 Vhoi0wxqlqj frqwuro/ Surf1 ri LHH/ Sw1 G 459= 9669731 Fodunh/ G1 Z1 hw Prkwdgl/ F1 +4<;<,1 Surshuwlhv ri wkh jhqhudol}hg suhglfwlyh frqwuro/ Dxwrpdwlfd 58+9,= ;8<;:81 Fodunh/ G1 Z1/ Prkwdgl/ F1 hw Wxv/ S1 V1 +4<;:,1 Jhqhudol}hg suhglfwlyh frqwuro/ Dxwr0 pdwlfd 56+5,= 46:4931 Fodunh/ G1 Z1 hw Vfdwroolql/ U1 +4<<4,1 Frqvwudlqhg uhfhglqj krul}rq suhglfwlyh frqwuro/ Surf1 ri LHH/ Sw1 G 46;= 67:6871 gh Oduplqdw/ S1 +4<<6,1 Frppdqgh ghv v|vwphv olqdluhv/ Khupv/ Iudqfh1 gh Oduplqdw/ S1 +4<<;,1 Oh sodfhphqw gh sohv urexvwh/ Whfkqlfdo uhsruw/ Lqvwlwxw gh Uhfkhufkh hq F|ehuqwltxh gh Qdqwhv1 gh Qlfrodr/ J1 hw Vfdwroolql/ U1 +4<<7,1 Dgydqfhv lq Prgho0Edvhg Suhglfwlyh Frqwuro/ R{0 irug Xqlyhuvlw| Suhvv/ fkdswhu Vwdelolw| dqg rxwsxw whuplqdo frqvwudlqwv lq suhglfwlyh frqwuro1 Hglwru = G1 Z1 Fodunh1 Gr|oh/ M1 F1/ Iudqflv/ E1 D1 hw Wdqqhqedxp/ D1 U1 +4<<5,1 Ihhgedfn Frqwuro V|vwhpv/ Pdfploodq Lqf1 Gxrqj/ K1 +4<<6,1 Lghqwlfdwlrq vwuxfwxuhooh hw sdudpwultxh ghv v|vwph olqdluhv prqr0 yduldeohv hw pxowlyduldeohv/ Skg wkhvlv/ Lqvwlwxw Qdwlrqdo Sro|whfkqltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Gxrqj/ K1 hw Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<<7,1 Rq vwdwlvwlfdo surshuwlhv ri whvw iru prgho vwuxfwxuh vhohfwlrq xvlqj wkh h{whqghg lqvwuxphqwdo yduldeoh dssurdfk/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro DF06<= 5445481 Gxrqj/ K1 hw Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<<9,1 Dq lqvwuxphqwdo yduldeoh edvhg fulwhulrq iru prgho rughu vhohfwlrq/ Dxwrpdwlfd 65+9,= <3<<471 Hehuw/ Z1/ P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<:,1 Wkuhh vwdjh surfhgxuh iru forvhg orrs lghqwlfdwlrq/ Surf1 ri wkh Hxurshhq Frqwuro Frqihuhqfh <:/ Euxvvhov/ Ehojlxp1 Hjdugw/ E1 +4<:<,1 Vwdelolw| ri Dgdswlyh Frqwuroohuv/ Vsulqjhu0Yhuodj/ Ehuolq1 Iruvvhoo/ X1 hw Omxqj/ O1 +4<<:,1 Forvhg0orrs lghqwlfdwlrq uhylvlwhg/ Lqwhuqdo uhsruw 1 Jdzwkurs/ S1 hw Ghpluflr
jox/ K1 +4<;<,1 Frqwlqxrxv0wlph jhqhudol}hg suhglfwlyh frqw0 uro/ Srf1 LIDF V|psrvlxp rq Dgdswlyh V|vwhpv lq Frqwuro dqg Vljqdo Surfhvvlqj/ Jodvjrz/ X1N1/ ss1 ss145645;1 Jhyhuv/ P1 +4<<6,1 Hvvd|v rq Frqwuro = Shuvshfwlyhv lq wkh Wkhru| dqg lwv Dssolfdwlrqv/ Elunkdxvhu/ Ervwrq/ fkdswhu Wrzdugv d mrlqw ghvljq ri lghqwlfdwlrq dqg frqwuro/ ss1 4444841

Eleolrjudsklh

574

Jhyhuv/ P1 hw Ehvdqrq0Yrgd/ D1 +hgv, +4<<;,1 Lqwhudfwlrq ehwzhhq lghqwlfdwlrq dqg frqwuro ghvljq/ qxpehu 4; lq Hfroh g*w g*dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh/ Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh/ Juhqreoh1 Jhyhuv/ P1 hw Ol/ J1 +4<<6,1 Sdudphwul}dwlrqv lq Frqwuro/ Hvwlpdwlrq/ dqg Ilowhulqj Sureohpv = Dffxudf| Dvshfwv/ Vsulqjhu0Yhuodj/ Orqgrq1 Jlul/ I1/ P*Vddg/ P1/ Gxjdug hw Glrq/ M1 +4<;<,1 D gluhfw dgdswlyh frqwuroohu iru vwdeoh qrq plqlpxp skdvh dqg wlph0ydu|lqj v|vwhpv/ Surf1 ri wkh wklug LIDF Zrunvkrs rq Dgdswlyh V|vwhpv lq Frqwuro dqg Vljqdo Surfhvvlqj/ Jodvjrz/ Vfrwodqg/ XN1 Jrrgzlq/ J1 F1 hw Vlq/ N1 V1 +4<;7,1 Dgdswlyh Ilowhulqj Suhglfwlrq dqg Frqwuro/ Suhqwlfh0 Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv1 Jruh}/ U1/ Zhuw}/ Y1 hw ]kx/ N1 +4<;:,1 Rq d jhqhudol}hg suhglfwlyh frqwuro dojrulwkp/ V|vwhp dqg Frqwuro Ohwwhuv <= 69<6::1 Juhhq/ P1 hw Olphehhu/ G1 M1 Q1 +4<<8,1 Urexvw Olqhdu Frqwuro/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo/ Hqjohzrrg Folv1 Kdqvhq/ I1/ Iudqnolq/ J1 hw Nrvxw/ U1 +4<;<,1 Forvhg0orrs lghqwlfdwlrq yld wkh iudfwlrqdo uhsuhvhqwdwlrq = h{shulphqwdo ghvljq/ Surf1 ri wkh Dphulfdq Frqwuro Frqihuhqfh/ Slwvexuj/ SD/ ss1 4755475:1 Khuvk/ P1 +4<<6,1 Wkh }hur dqg srohv ri ghowd rshudwru v|vwhpv/ Lqwhuqdwlrqdo Mrxuqdo ri Frqwuro 8:+6,= 88:8:81 Mh}hn/ M1 +4<<3,1 Frqyhuvlrq ri wkh sro|qrpldo frqwlqxrxv0wlph prgho wr wkh ghowd glvfuhwh wlph dqg ylfh yhuvd/ LIDF Frqjuhvv/ Wdoolqq/ Hvwrqld1 Mrkdqvvrq/ U1 +4<<6,1 V|vwhpv prgholqj lghqwlfdwlrq/ Suhqwlfh Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1M1 Nkdolo/ K1 +4<<9,1 Qrqolqhdu V|vwhpv/ Suhqwlfh Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1M1 Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<:<,1 Dgdswlyh Frqwuro = Wkh Prgho uhihuhqfh Dssurdfk/ Yro1 ;/ Pdufho Ghnnhu1 Frqwuro dqg V|vwhpv Wkhru|1 Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<;4,1 Prgho uhihuhqfh dgdswlyh frqwuroohuv dqg vwrfkdvwlf vhoi0wxqlqj uhjxodwruv = d xqlhg dssurdfk/ DVPH1 M1 G|q1 V|vw1 Phdqv1 Frqwuro 436= 7377471 Odqgdx/ L1 G1 hw Ndulpl/ D1 +4<<:,1 Uhfxuvlyh dojrulwkpv iru lghqwlfdwlrq lq forvhg orrs = D xqlhg dssurdfk dqg hydoxdwlrq/ Dxwrpdwlfd 66+;,= 47<<48561 Odqgdx/ L1 G1/ Or}dqr/ U1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<:,1 Dgdswlyh Frqwuro/ Vsulqjhu1 Frppxql0 fdwlrqv dqg Frqwuro Hqjlqhhulqj Vhulhv1 Omxqj/ O1 +4<;:,1 V|vwhp Lghqwlfdwlrq/ Wkhru| iru wkh Xvhu/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo/ Orqgrq1 Omxqj/ O1 hw Jxr/ O1 +4<<:,1 Wkh uroh ri prgho ydolgdwlrq iru dvvhvvlqj wkh vl}h ri wkh xqprghohg g|qdplfv/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro 75= 456345731

575

Eleolrjudsklh

Plggohwrq/ U1 K1 hw Jrrgzlq/ J1 F1 +4<;9,1 Lpsuryhg qlwh zrug ohqjwk fkdudfwhulvwlfv lq gljlwdo frqwuro xvlqj ghowd rshudwruv/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro DF064= 434843541 Plggohwrq/ U1 K1 hw Jrrgzlq/ J1 F1 +4<<3,1 Gljlwdo Frqwuro dqg Hvwlpdwlrq = D Xqlhg Dssurdfk/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo1 Hqjohzrrg Folv/ Q1 M1 Plggohwrq/ U1 K1/ Jrrgzlq/ J1 F1/ Kloo/ G1 M1 hw Pd|qh/ G1 T1 +4<;;,1 Ghvljq lvvxhv lq dgdswlyh frqwuro/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro DF066+4,= 838;1 Prvfd/ H1 hw ]kdqj/ M1 +4<<;,1 Vwdeoh uhghvljq ri suhghlfwlyh frqwuro/ Dxwrpdwlfd 5;+9,= 455<45671 P*Vddg/ P1 +4<;:,1 Vxu o*dssolfdelolw gh od frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh/ Wkvh g*wdw hv vflhqfhv sk|vltxhv/ Lqvwlwxw Qdwlrqdo Sro|whfkqltxh gh Juhqreoh1 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<9d,1 Frppdqgh rswlpdoh/ Glghurw Hglwhxu/ Duwv hw Vflhqfhv/ fkdswhu Frppdqgh suglfwlyh ghv v|vwphv/ ss1 59:1 Frruglqdwhxuv = M1P1 Glrq dqg Y1 Srshvfx1 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<9e,1 Sduwldo vwdwh uhihuhqfh prgho suhglfwlyh frqwuro = lwhudwlyh shuirupdqfh hqkdqfhphqw dqg dq h{shulphqwdo hydoxdwlrq/ Surf1 ri wkh Qlqwk Frqihuhqfh ri \doh/ Qhz Kdyhq/ Frqqhfwlfxw1 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<9f,1 Vxu o*lghqwlfdwlrq gh prgohv gh frppdqgh rswl0 pdoh = d!qhphqw ghv shuirupdqfhv hw ydoxdwlrq h{sulphqwdoh/ Surf1 ghv mrxuqhv g*wxghv vxu od urexvwhvvh/ Dxfk/ Iudqfh1 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<:,1 VLPDUW = xq surjlflho srxu o*dxwrpdwltxh hw vhv dssolfdwlrqv/ Surf1 ghv mrxuqhv g*wxghv vxu ohv orjlflhov/ Qdqf|/ Iudqfh1 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<;,1 Frppdqgh dgdswdwlyh ghv v|vwphv/ Dffhsw srxu od sxeolfdwlrq gdqv Whfkqltxhv gh o*lqjqlhxu1 P*Vddg/ P1/ Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 hw Wrqd/ S1 +4<<:,1 VLPDUW = D FDFVG sdfndjh iru dgydqfhg frqwuro/ Surf1 ri wkh LIDF0FVV <:/ Exfkduhvw/ Urpdqld1 P*Vddg/ P1/ Jlul/ I1/ Glrq/ M1 hw Gxjdug/ O1 +4<<6,1 Frqwuro dqg G|qdplfdo V|vwhpv/ Dfdghplf Suhvv/ Lqf1/ fkdswhu Whfkqltxhv lq glvfuhwh0wlph urexvw dgdswlyh frqwuro1 P*Vddg/ P1/ Ruwhjd/ U1 hw Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<;8,1 Dgdswlyh frqwuroohuv iru glvfuhw0wlph v|vwhpv zlwk duelwudu| }hurv = dq ryhuylhz/ Dxwrpdwlfd 54+7,= 7467561 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Vdqfkh}/ J1 +4<<5,1 Sduwldo vwdwh uhihuhqfh prgho dgdswlyh frqwuro ri pxowlyduldeoh v|vwhphv/ Dxwrpdwlfd 5;= 44;<44<51 P*Vddg/ P1 hw Wdgmlqh/ P1 +4<<9,1 Frppdqgh rswlpdoh/ Glghurw Hglwhxu/ Duwv hw Vflhqfhv/ fkdswhu Frppdqgh OTJ2OWU/ ss1 :34431 Frruglqdwhxuv = M1P1 Glrq dqg Y1 Srshvfx1

Eleolrjudsklh

576

Qhxpdqq/ U1/ Gxpxu/ G1 hw Erxfkhu/ S1 +4<<5,1 Ghowd0rshudwru jhqhudol}hg suhglfwlyh frqwuro/ Surf1 ri wkh 64vw Frqihuhqfh rq Ghflvlrq dqg Frqwuro/ Wxfvrq/ Dul}rqd1 Qlqqhvv/ E1 hw Jph}/ M1 F1 +4<<9,1 Dv|pswrwlf dqdo|vlv ri PLPR v|vwhp hvwlpdwhv e| wkh xvh ri ruwkrqrupdo edvlv/ Surf1 ri wkh 46wk LIDF Zruog Frqjuhvv/ Vdq Iudqflvfr/ XVD/ ss1 69669;1 Uqqefn/ V1/ Zdojdpd/ N1 V1 hw Vwhuqe|/ M1 +4<<5,1 Dq h{whqvlrq wr wkh jhqhudol}hg dqwl0 zlqgxs frpshqvdwru/ lq S1 Eruqh/ V1 J1 W}dihvwdv hw Q1 H1 Udgk| +hgv,/ Pdwkhpdwlfv ri wkh Dqdo|vlv dqg Ghvljq ri Surfhvv Frqwuro/ Hovhylhu Vflhqfh Sxeolvkhuv/ Qruwk0 Kroodqg/ ss1 5:85;81 Vhohfwhg sdshu iurp wkh LPDFV 46wk Zruog Frqjuhvv1 Urvwjddug/ P1/ Srxovhq/ Q1 N1 hw Udyq/ R1 +4<<6,1 Jhqhudo suhglfwlyh frqwuro xvlqj wkh ghowd0rshudwru/ Surf1 ri wkh 65vw Frqihuhqfh rq Ghflvlrq dqg Frqwuro/ Vdq Dqwrqlr/ Wh{dv1 Vdpvrq/ F1 +4<;5,1 Dq dgdswlyh OT frqwuroohu iru qrq0plqlpxp skdvh v|vwhpv/ Lqwhuqd0 wlrqdo Mrxuqdo ri Frqwuro 6= 6;<6<:1 Vdpvrq/ F1 +4<;6,1 Vwdelolw| dqdo|vlv ri dgdswlyho| frqwuroohg v|vwhpv vxemhfw wr erxqghg glvwxuedqfhv/ Dxwrpdwlfd 4<= ;4;91 Vfkplgw/ O1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<5,1 Rq wkh dxwrwxqlqj ri srvlwlrq frqwuro lq kdqgolqj v|vwhpv/ Surf1 ri wkh irxuwk LIDF V|psrvlxp rq Dgdswlyh V|vwhpv lq Frqwuro dqg Vljqdo Surfhvvlqj1 Juhqreoh/ Iudqfh1 Vfkudpd/ U1 M1 S1 +4<<5,1 Dffxudwh prghov iru frqwuro ghvljq= wkh qhfhvvlw| ri dq lwhudwlyh vfkhph/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro DF06:= <<4<<71 Vhurq/ P1 P1/ Eudvodyvn|/ M1 K1 hw Jrrgzlq/ J1 F1 +4<<:,1 Ixqgdphqwdo olplwdwlrqv lq owhulqj dqg frqwuro/ Vsulqjhu/ Orqgrq/ XN1 Vrghuvwurp/ W1 hw Vwrlfd/ S1 +4<;<,1 V|vwhp Lghqwlfdwlrq/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo/ Hqjohzrrg Folv1 Vrk/ F1 +4<<4,1 Urexvw vwdelolw| ri glvfuhwh0wlph v|vwhpv xvlqj ghowd rshudwruv/ LHHH Wudqvdfwlrqv rq Dxwrpdwlf Frqwuro DF069= 6::6;31 Wdgmlqh/ P1 +4<<7,1 Frppdqgh OTJ2OWU hw lghqwlfdwlrq urexvwh = irupxodwlrq dyhf o*rsudwhxu ghowd/ Skg wkhvlv/ Lqvwlwxw Qdwlrqdo Sro|whfkqltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Wrqd/ S1 hw P*Vddg/ P1 +4<<;,1 Plvh hq rhxyuh g*xq v|vwph gh frppdqgh edv vxu od frppxwdwlrq su0surjudpph hw vdqv fkrfv hqwuh ujxodwhxuv UVW/ Whfkqlfdo uhsruw/ Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Wrqd/ S1/ P*Vddg/ P1 hw Fkhedvvlhu/ M1 +4<<<,1 D sodqw fodvv rulhqwhg dssurdfk wr dgydqfhg frqwuro xvlqj wkh FDFVG sdfndjh VLPDUW/ Dffhswhg iru sxeolfdwlrq lq wkh Surf1 ri wkh 47wk LIDF Zruog Frqjuhvv1 Ydq ghq Kri/ S1 P1 M1 hw Vfkudpd/ U1 M1 S1 +4<<6,1 Dq lqgluhfw phwkrg iru wudqvihuw ixqfwlrq hvwlpdwlrq iurp forvhg0orrs gdwd/ Dxwrpdwlfd 5<= 4856485:1

577

Eleolrjudsklh

Ydq ghq Kri/ S1 P1 M1 hw Vfkudpd/ U1 M1 S1 +4<<8,1 Lghqwlfdwlrq dqg frqwuro 0 forvhg0orrs lvvxhv/ Dxwrpdwlfd 64= 4:844::31 Ydq ghq Kri/ S1 P1 M1/ Vfkudpd/ U1 M1 S1/ gh Fdoodirq/ U1 D1 hw Ervjud/ R1 K1 +4<<8,1 Lghqwlfdwlrq ri qrupdolvhg frsulph sodqw idfwruv iurp forvhg0orrs h{shulphqwdo gdwd/ Hxurshdq Mrxuqdo ri Frqwuro 4= 95:71 Yhugluh/ P1 +4<<;,1 Frppdqgh dydqfh gh whpsudwxuh srxu ghv wxghv gh glxvlrq qhxwurqltxh/ Whfkqlfdo Uhsruw <;36</ Oderudwrluh g*Dxwrpdwltxh gh Juhqreoh1 Yrgd/ D1 hw Odqgdx/ L1 G1 +4<<9,1 D phwkrg iru wkh dxwr0fdoleudwlrq ri SLG frqwuroohuv/ Dxwrpdwlfd 64+4,= 74871 ]dqj/ ]1/ Elwphdg/ U1 hw Jhyhuv/ P1 +4<<8,1 Lwhudwlyh zhljqwhg ohdvw vtxduhv lghqwlfdwlrq dqg zhljkwhg OTJ frqwuro ghvljq/ Dxwrpdwlfd 64= 48::48<71 ]krx/ N1/ Gr|oh/ M1 hw Joryhu/ N1 +4<<9,1 Urexvw dqg Rswlpdo Frqwuro/ Suhqwlfh0Kdoo/ Hqjohzrrg Folv1