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WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM Introduction An adequate supply of water is a basic requirement for most building for reasons of personal

hygiene (sanitary), cooking, watering, cleaning and manufacturing for industrial processes. Storage and Distribution of Water Gravitational Distribution Water from upland gathering grounds is impounded in a reservoir. From this point, the water is filtered and chlorinated before serving an inhabited area at lower level. There are no pumping cost. Pumped Distribution o The water from the river is pumped into a settlement tank. o From this point, the water is filtered and chlorinated. o It is more expensive than gravitational distribution due to pumping. Ring Main Distribution The water mains supplying the town or village may be in the form of a grid. This grid provides a ring circuit and each section can be isolated. The water main is drilled and tapped by a special apparatus with the water left on. A plug valve is left on the main and a communication pipe connected to it. Many homes are connected to a metered municipal water system, which forms the entire domestic water cycle outside of the internal Distribution system. Homes further from cities and other populated areas must form the entire cycle independently. Whatever the supply, the water is almost always connected to the home at a single point. Supply of Water Potable Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. water or clean water can be supplied by; Perbadanan Bekalan Air Penang Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Other Potable Water Supplier Self own well (Individual Treatment Plant) Of Supply From treatment plant; Trunk mains (> 300 mm pipes) Secondary mains (200 300 mm ) Service Mains (100 200 mm ) Service Pipes ( 20 50 mm ) Distribution Pipes ( <50 mm )

Types of pipes

Potable Water Potable water after entering the building can be divided into: Cold water Hot Water Cold Water Pipes usually of G.I, HDPE or PVC. of pipes for domestic is 20 mm for main distribution with 12 mm for sanitary distribution. Consist of two system of distribution 1. Direct system 2. Indirect system

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

TYPE OF WATER SUPPLY Normally for water supply system, it is consist of two, which is cold-water supply and hot-water supply. For both water supply systems it can be install whether in direct system or indirect system based of the capacity usage of water. 1. Cold-water supply system 2. Hot-water supply system Cold-water supply system For domestic dwelling, water supplied to kitchen sink that used for cooking shall be direct supply from mains to ensure it cleanliness and high level of freshness. For highrise building or building constructed on high ground where the pressure is low, it is usually necessary to provide pumping equipment with extra water cistern. There are two distinct systems for cold-water supply:-

Indirect system In this system all the sanitary fittings, except drinking water draw-offs at sinks and fountains, are supplied indirectly from a cold-water storage cistern. Since the cistern supplies cold water to baths, showers, etc and also feeds the hotwater cylinder, its capacity in liters will be approximately double that required for the direct system. Requires more pipe work than the direct system More expensive to installed Provides a large reserve of water DISADVANTAGES 1. Only water supply from sink can be used for drinking-direct 2. More pipe work 3. More expensive to install

Direct system Indirect system

ADVANTAGES 1. No risk of stop supply water (storage) - reserve

Direct system

In it all sanitary fittings are supplied with cold water direct from the main, and a cold-water feed cistern is required to feed the hot water storage cylinder. The capacity in liters of the feed cistern is required to be at least equal to the capacity in liters of the hot-water cylinder. Good pressure on the water main is required Pipe work is reduced to a minimum Drinking water is available at every draw-off point
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Pressurized water may be difficult during periods Risk to the stop supply of water due to maintenance work.

1. 2. 3.

Clean water for drink Minimum pipe work Low maintenance

2.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

Hot-water supply system Usually supply through copper or stainless conduct due to higher temperature and thus expansion valve. Central boiler is used when large quantity of hot water or area of heating is needed for longer period. Boiler can be of gas or coal fired to supply heated water to hot water to hot water cylinder and heating ventilation. These are two distinct systems for hotwater supply: Direct system Indirect system Direct system If central heating is not to be combined with the hot-water supply, or if the water is soft, the direct system may be used providing the boiler is rustproof. The system is cheaper will be cheaper to install than the indirect system and the water in the cylinder will be heated quicker, due to direct circulation between the boiler and cylinder. The hot water from the boiler mixes directly with the water in the cylinder If used in a soft water area, the boiler must be rusted proofed Not suited to hard waters, typical of those extracted from boreholes into chalk or limestone strata. When heated the calcium precipitates to line the boiler and primary pipe work, eventually furring up the system to render it ineffective and dangerous. The storage cylinder and associated pipe work should be well insulated to reduce energy losses.

Indirect system An indirect cylinder is used which has an inner heat exchanger. The water from the boiler circulates through this heat exchanger and boiler is not drawn off through the hot-water taps, lime is precipitated only after the initial heating of the water, and afterwards (unless the system is drained) there is no further occurrence and therefore no scaling. This same water also circulates through the steel or cast iron radiators, and after heating the water is freed from carbon dioxide which then reduces corrosion of the radiators. Cost more, less maintenance Boiling temperature may be up to 70C

INDIRECT HOT WATER SUPPLY

DIRECT HOT WATER SUPPLY

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

SANITARY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Wide range of sanitary system is being in use to get an immaculate and precision surrounding in bathrooms. They range to disposal systems, waste & drainage systems, waste water treatment systems, central sewage systems, and incineration systems etc. Plumbing and drainage are the systems of getting water into the building, then removing it and other fluids and fluid wastes after it has been used. Plumbing incorporates services such as sanitary plumbing, cold and hot water services, flusherette systems, gas supplies, fire prevention services, roof work, down pipes and the installation of sanitary fixtures, taps and outlets. A sanitary plumbing system refers to the pipes, fittings, and appliances used to collect and convey sewerage to a sanitary drainage system, the indoor water and fluid removal services. Sanitary drainage systems such as pipe and fitting and appliance collect and convey sewerage from the sanitary plumbing systems directly connected through the drain to the sewer. They usually fitted below ground level. SANITARY APLLIANCES Sanitary appliances are required in building to fulfill variety of specialized functions. Supplied with water either directly from the main or from hot or cold storage vessels. Taps are designed to prevent the risk of back siphonage of the foul water into the supply pipe. Designed with minimum fouling area. Durable, easily cleaned and non-absorbent surfaces.

SANITARY FITMENTS & APPLIANCES

Bidet

Classifies as waste fitting Used for perineal washing and footbath Hot and cold water supply are mixed to the required temperature for the ascending spray

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

Water

Closet Economic, simple and efficient Designed to maintain 50 mm minimum water seal Higher cistern level provides more affective flush Siphonic water closets are more silent and positive in action than the wash down type. Can be used in all types of building with colour variation

Urinals Used in all buildings and public lavatories containing common facilities for male conveniences Reduce the need for a large number of WCs There are three types of urinals : Bowl Flat slab Stall

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THEORY Basin There are many designs, ranging from surgeons basin to small hand rinse basins Can be obtained to fit into a corner of the room and supported on brackets, a pedestal or by a built in corbel. Standard basin for domestic consists of a bowl, soap, trap weir overflow and holes for tap and outlet. Made from color ceramic ware or glazed fireclay Sink

Designed for culinary and other domestic uses A sink is a bowl-shaped fixture that is used for washing hands or small objects. Many modern sinks are made of stainless steel Sinks generally have faucets (taps) that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. Sinks generally include a drain to remove used water; this drain may itself include a strainer and/or shut-off device and an overflow-prevention device. Sinks may also have an integrated soap dispenser

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013