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Assignment 3/25/2013 Submitted by : Rodica Lenuta Moga, id no 20981 Submitted to : Dr.Sam Hazra

Rodica Lenuta Moga

Table of Contents


"Food & Beverage which is the sector / industry that specializes in the conceptualization, making, and delivery of foods. Most F & B employees are in restaurants and bars, including hotels, resorts, and casinos
Food can be: a substance or material e which can provide nutritional support

or fuel to the body

Food is plant or comes from animal origin and contains essential nutrients,: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals

Food is assimilated by the body and becomes energy

Beside the need of nutrition, food and drink are a part of the culture of people Beverages refers to tea, coffee and alcohol and they are part of festive social and other occasions. Everyone has to eat and drink, so it is an industry that does not lose much money because it is a necessity.

LO1.Understand different food and beverage production and service systems:

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1.1 Discuss the characteristics of food production and food &beverage service systems (P1)

There are 5 food production methods:

Traditional method Cook-Freeze method Sous vide method Centralised distribution Cook-Chill method Traditional method which is used in kitchen establishments and has the

following process:

Goods into kitchen Refrigeration Freezing Dry store Preparation or mise en place Ordered from customer Cooking Serving

Miser en place means that everything is in place, it is used in professional kitchens and it refers to organising and arranging ingredients. Cook-Freeze method is similar to cook chill the difference is the temperatures

are others.

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Current food legislation requires all food must be cooked as quickly as possible, that means they are in Danger zone, so food is chilled or frozen between +8 and +68 degrees C. To minimise the time spent in Danger Zone is required Blast Chiller or Freezer because standard equipment degrees C. In Blast Chill food temperature is reduced from +70 to +3 degrees in 90 minutes, on the other hand in Blast Thawing the air needs to be warmer than the food, not too warm and not too cold, it is continuously introduced heat thats why thawing cabinets have excellent results. is not capable of extracting enough heat .It is -18 recommended that temperature should be reduced from +70degrees C to

Sous Vide method has a specific temperature of 138 degrees , has the less wastage as food is used only when ordered, food can be

advantage of

produced and accurately portioned ,individual pouches are labelled for easy stock rotation ,pouches also retains freshness, ,inexpensive regeneration ; the disadvantages are that it is required capital investment in equipment and storage , is not able to adjust customer requirements, is not as fresh as traditional method.

Centralised distribution is when food is produced in bulk-off site , has the

advantage of specialised food production, prices are cheaper for buyers, exists a high level of hygiene, the disadvantages are that sends the control to a different company and can occur delays while delivering products.

Cook Chill method is based on catering system on normal preparation and

cooking of food, it requires low capital investment and minimum of staff. Cook Chill method has various service systems, includes factors like size of operation, quantity of customers ,nature of the menu, budget of customers, customer needs, availability of resources , but also service systems differs in relation to the

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required : quantity of personnel , their skills level , the level interaction customer, level of involvement by the customer.


Cook chill method include 9 service systems:

Table/Plate Service Buffer Service A la carte Table dhtel Silver/Russian Service Family /English service Guerdon/ Flamb service Specialise food service

1. Table /Plate Service, has quality presentation and portion control

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2. Counter /Buffet service means that food is prepared in advance and food is served from a table in restaurant. The advantages are that can feed a much bigger amount of people, customers have a choice, not so much staff is needed and also skills are not so important.

3. A al carte is used in hotel or restaurant, meal dishes are cooked usually when ordered from a menu, this is a way restaurant earn high profit on inexpensive items, and the most typical approach is to price each item separately.

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It allows each guest to order as much or as little food as desired, the menu rarely changes, but is more expensive and is difficult to find seasonal ingredients.

4. Table dhtel is a restaurant meal, the amount of dishes is numbered and the price is fix, price change is simply and could increase turnover.

5. Silver /Russian Service means that food is cooked and placed on a hot silver platter and is sent to the restaurant , food is transferred with a large spoon , is a
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highly personalised service , but has the disadvantage of high labour cost , service can be slow and sometimes dangerous .

6. Family /English service refers to food which is cooked and placed in bowls and where customers can help themselves and customers have the control.

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7. Guerdon / Flamb service means the food is prepared but not cooked , is a highly personalised service , is visual and aromatic , customer feels more involved in the process , it demands high labour costs .

8. Specialist Food Service includes a variety of foods: starters, main courses, pudding, staff should have knowledge for basic food handling and other preparation techniques. Has the advantage of food being prepared according customer request, but can be very dangerous.

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1.2 Discuss factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems (P2)

a) Buffet Service This is also called self-service and is normally used in banquet functions and I n some restaurants. Food is attractively arranged on a long table, classified and arranged according to proper sequence, from appetizers to desserts. Soup is placed on a soup tureen and the hot entrees in chaffing dishes to keep them warm. Some equipment like dinner plates and saucers are laid down right on the buffet table. Instead of the waiter serving the guests, the guests go to the buffet table pick up plates, china, cutlery and napkin and all other items and serve themselves of their own choice.

* Advantages: 1. It is a fast service. 2. It requires less staff to render the service needed, 3. Can be served a large number of people 5. Customers have a choice fewer 6. Staff require less skills 7. The presentation of the different dishes can be appetizing.

* Disadvantages: 1. It may result in shortage of food especially when the early ones may serve themselves more; thus very little food is left for the latecomers.

b) Family/ English service This type of service is also known as "family style" service. In this service, the soup tureen is placed before the host alongside with preheated soup plates and hands them to the waiter, indicating the person to be served. The same procedure is
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followed with the main entree. If so desired, the partly filled dinner plate is presented to the hostess who serves the vegetables from large serving dishes placed before her. Then the waiter places the plate before the guests. This type of service is usually found in coffee shops, family restaurants, Counter service. * Advantages: 1. It is fast. Plates of food are served immediately at the proper Temperature. 2. It is inexpensive. 3. It requires no special equipment. 4. Less staff required

* Disadvantages: 1. Less showmanship. 2. Reduced personalized attention to the customer.

1.3 Compare the cost and staffing implications for different systems (P3)

Food - Beverage control tends to be more difficult than the control of materials of other industries. Therefor in order to start calculating cost of labour and equipment it is necessary to find out what kind of equipment is needed, type, amount, size of equipment used and needed and how many employees are needed. No matter the process used it is important to use the easiest working conditions, but we have to be sure that food hygiene regulations are complied. Regarding cost implications the facilities that are used depends of the production process: dry areas, wet areas, hot wet areas; hot dry areas, dirty areas.
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The costs include:

Material cost Labour cost Overhead cost


Staff should have certain skills, knowledge, experience and requirements. There are a range of roles for which staff is needed: food production, beverage, food service, marketing, sales production, merchandising, supervisory management, people management. As most catering operations are subject to changes in the volume of business done, it is normal practice to express the elements of costs and net profit as a percentage of sales.

No matter buffet service or family /English service the cost measurement has the same formula:

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Gross Profit %

sales revenue costs of sales*100 Sales

Net Profit%

sales revenue-total costs*100 Sales

Material Cost %

sales*100.. Costs of materials

Labour costs%

sales *100. Cost of labour

Staff has a critical influence on the success of food service operations. Productivity is about how customers feel. The quality of the feedback we get from customers in terms of positive comments and tips. Communication between customers and staff observation of their relationships tells me about the level of quality, and therefore, productivity.

1.4 Justify suitability of systems for particular food and beverage outlets (P4)

Russian service Food is fully prepared in the kitchen. All courses are served either from platters or an Escoffier dish. Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salads. The server places the proper plate in front of the guest. After the plates are placed, the server returns with a tray of food and moving counter-clockwise around the table, serves the food from the guest's left with the
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right hand. With this style of service, the server controls the amount served to each guest and has the opportunity to please guests by giving them the portion they want. For "restaurant Russian" foods are cooked at table-side. Servers put the food on platters and present platters to guests seated at dining tables. Guests serve themselves. Russian service requires sufficient space between tables for servers to move about freely. The food is prearranged in a platter with enough serving for one table, then the waiter dishes it out from the platter to the individual plates to guest from the left side. Russian service is usually done for banquet functions it guarantees equal portioning of food because the food served are pre portioned over plated service when they are no heaters for individual plates.

Guerdon Service Guerdon Service is where a dish is prepared, portioned, carved or cooked on a trolley or small table (guerdon) close to the customers table. Preparation and serving of dishes at the table is seen service and one which markets the establishment and the food extremely well. The demand for cooking to be done in the sight of the customer is increasing rapidly from the small hamburger, chicken rotisserie operations to the more exclusive flamb guerdon service, restaurants offer. During the preparation of the dish at the table, the waiter/waitress can always give some background comment on what he/she is actually doing, the ingredients he/she is using and, the proposed end results. This is a specialised form of service which is generally only used in formal or fine dining rooms. It involves a disciplined skill which comes from practice and experience.

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LO2Understand the financial controls used in food and beverage operations 2.1Discuss the use of financial statements in food and beverage operations (P5)

Financial statements includes various operations like: dish costing sheet, cost statements, operating statements, variance analysis. Usually food service manager constantly checks for food costs which are associated with producing item for the menu. A cost related to sale of alcoholic beverage is called beverage cost. And include she cost of all ingredients needed to produce drinks: olives, lemons, oranges. Labour costs are the costs with employees, including taxes and benefits. Overhead costs include expenses like utility bill, rent.
Cost percentage:

Food costs = food costs % Food sales

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Labour costs=labour costs% Total sales

Beverage costs =beverage costs % Beverage sales

Profit is calculated as following:

Food and Beverage costs =Food and Beverage % Revenue

Labour costs= labour % Revenue

Overhead costs =overhead costs% Revenue

Profit = profit % Revenue

Financial statements include also financial accounts which are the records of the financial dealings or day to day transactions. Their role is to record financial transactions, to collect money form sales, salaries, and wages and to help managers
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to manage properly the business by preparing financial information which shows the sales, costs and profits against budgets. However financial statements provide important information for stakeholders, about investments, to suppliers about trade credit, to bank repayments of loans risk of loaning money from business, to Inland Revenue: tax returns.

2.2Demonstrate the use of cost and pricing process (P6)

Financial statements are a formal record of financial activities and include: balance sheet with reports about assets liabilities, statements of cash flows, about how company invests and financing activities. Balance sheet can show the income for all year, starts from revenue until deducts expenses from income. Cash flows show from where money are coming from: operations, investing or financing .An income statement shows income, expenses, profit for a specific period. Profit and loss account shows information on operations of company like sales, expenses, in processing state. Statement of retained earning explain all changes to retained earnings on the reported period. Dish costing sheet helps to calculate the cost for each portion, is used to calculate the selling price or menu price. Ingredient Quantity Cost

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Cost statements shows all costs involved, is used to calculate the cost of a dish or beverage. Sales records show all information a company has about customers: their personal information, how often they buy a product, how they use to pay bills, amounts, and returns. Companies analyse this information to see what they like most and to find out which are their best customers. Variance analysis help management to see which presents costs are and which are the future ones, are also used to explain which the difference between actual sales and budgeted sales is. Financial statements provide information most used to predict investments and credit decisions, they show financial position of a company and what are the operating results, changes to financial position, also provide information required by authoritative and regulatory groups, information directly from sales.

2.3 Analyse the purchasing process

There are various costs and pricing like:

Sales mix Dishes menu and beverage list Net and gross profit VAT Indirect cost, fixed, variable Cost elements

The amount of money needed to buy a product or service is called PRICE. The total spent for items, money, and time, labour is called COST.

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The perception of choosing a product or service instead of another to satisfy goals is called WORTH. Usually when referring to food cost we talk about menu price of a dish in comparison with the price of food that was used to prepare the food .How much is played for food determine how much is needed to charge for it (30-35 %) This include costs involved to prepare food, to serve it, clean after it, beginning from payroll to electric bills Price is an important selling tool and aid to achieve desired volume in sales, must be considered the departmental profit needed and the different profit margins of sales. Table Dhtel Menu is a restricted one, offers a few courses with a limited choice , with a fixed selling price , one price for any courses chosen. A La Carte is a larger menu and offers many courses and each item is individually priced .The method of pricing is similar to table dhtel except that each item is priced separately using standard recipes .A guest may order what desire they might have and pay for each product separately(meat, vegetable) This type of menu brings high profit from inexpensive side items, the items rarely change and is found in many restaurants. Banqueting menu is a table d hotel menu and dont offer choices, the specific difference in pricing is that all extra items are priced and charged separately: flowers on each table, hire of microphone. Managers sometime offer additions at the same price to run business for a longer period of time Pricing of beverages is similar with pricing for food ,but first departmental profit is target and gross profit percentage and then differential profit margins based on sales mix achievable, this depends on the type of operation and how is detailed the breakdown sales. The gross profit percentage of house brand beverage is higher than other brand beverage when suppliers do it at a discounted rate .The pricing s more accurately.

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2.3 Analyse the purchasing profit

The purchasing process include:

Purchasing is influenced by search, selection, purchase, receipt, storage, final use of commodity. It is than calculated the amount a writing of purchase specification .Orders are purchased using a purchased order which include: amount, size, weight, item required. Has the following procedure:

To seek for a new supplier must be checked the following:

Details of company Copies of recent price list Details of trading terms Samples of products

All purchase specification has description about: quality, size, weight, quantity. Purchase orders have numbers and can be tracked quickly, must be signed by an authorised person. Products are delivered at a specific date. In purchase record we can find what is ordered and the price of service. Purchase specification is an agreement between supplier and caterer, sets limits in order that the product is accepted for delivery, beverage sold and purchase by the brand label.
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Receipt: Quantity inspection shows someone nominated to count and weigh goods, checks quantity and size to match the order. Quantity inspection in perishable foods is done by a senior chef, in food and beverage inspection is done by a cellar man. Clerical procedures involves all documentation that must follow a set of procedure: acknowledgement of receipt, acceptable good, delivery persons signature on a request for a credit note, for returned items and short deliveries. Item principles are important for control to be ready for delivery and receipt of goods checks incoming goods, checks if they are damaged and weigh items separately. Usually supplier is issuing a document which shows when items where supplied and how much was the delivery, they are played once a month, the process is named INVOICING. Must exist an agreement that shows the frequency of deliveries, and conditions must be done in writing. Invoice must contain:
Business identification number Suppliers name, address, contact information Description of what is charged Supply date Date of invoice VAT Amount owed

All equipment must be stored correctly: must be considered space, stock taking and clerical procedures Food storage involves: dry goods, items for refrigeration and freezing

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Beverage storage involves: cellar items, separate area and bar stock area.is highly essential to have a clean food or beverage storekeeping to eliminate the risk of running out of raw materials. Everything must be properly checked to prevent the wastage.

LO 3. Be able to devise menus for hospitability events 3.1 Compile food and beverage menus for a hospitability event (P8)

There are 60 guests, 50 of them are adults, 10 are children, from them 10 are vegetarians, 4 suffer from diabetes.

I have choose a menu that is suitable for both children, vegetarians, on my opinion is an economical menu, which is whiten the budget of 840 pounds.

I included healthy food like: fruits, vegetables that can be consumed both by children, vegetarians and those who suffer from diabetes. My menu will include the following:


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Starters Garlic Pizza Bread Bruschetta

Main course Pizza Vegetarian Grilled salmon with mash potatoes Lasagne

Dessert Ice cream Fruit salad

Drinks Beer Water sparkling/still Coffee

I created a Menu that can be accessible to my guests and have the opportunity to choose. My menu include appetisers that can be served to children as well, a small portion, followed by a main course, where it is served pizza with vegetables, for those interested in eating healthier and with a reduced caloric value, another dish is salmon with mash potatoes which addresses to al guests except those suffering from diabetes and vegetarians, and of course my last dish on main course is lasagne. Than as I dessert I introduced fruit salad, healthy, less calories and ice cream which I think everyone love. In drinks section I added beer which is present at every party, can be consumed by men or women, for kids and diabetics I serve water, and as well coffee for all guests, except kids.

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Garlic pizza bread


Bruschetta(toasted homemade bread topped with sliced fresh tomato, basil, extra virgin olive oil suitable for vegetarians )


Main course:

Pizza vegetarian ( tomato sauce, mozzarella , grilled aubergine ,mushrooms, onions, peppers) 3.10 4.20 3.00

Grilled salmon with mashed potatoes Lasagne ( Bolognese sauce, pasta and bchamel sauce )


Ice cream (vanilla, chocolate, strawberry) Fruit salad (strawberry, bananas, kiwi, apples )

1.50 1.20


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Beer (san Miguel , Corona) Sparkling and Still water Coffee

2.50 0.50 1.20

As a result my Hospitality event was a success , I was within the budget and I spent my money wise offering to my guest a great atmosphere and pleasured environment with a good food . I offered a counter buffet with a minimum of staff only for serving and cleaning where guests served them selves 3.2 Justify the selection and suitability of recipes for menus (P9)

A menu is a list of dishes or the food available to be served, is used in hotel, restaurant, pub. Shows what is offered, is also the first impression, and shows the image, theme, quality. Menu dictates: staffing, organisation, production, service method. Most popular menus are: Table D Hotel, A la Carte, special party of function menu, menus for people at work, menus for children, cyclical menus. Customers have the opportunity to choose depending on the budget and situation. Include:

Appetisers : small portions, served hot or cold(salad, soup) Main course : larger portion , more expensive ,hot or cold (grills, meat, large salads )

Dessert or final course : hot or cold(sweet, ice cream, fruit )

Menu offers: side orders, snacks, and childrens meal depending on the type of menu, type or theme of food.

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Table D Hotel has 3 or more availability of equipment ,courses are available at lunch time, has also lunched themes for Easter, Valentines, Christmas, used in Conference or Banqueting. A la Carte menu is found in commercial food, has a large selection of options items are individually priced, dishes are cooked when ordered It must be taken into consideration:
Food competition Location, target market of customers Analyse or type of customers Estimated customers spend for head Modern trends in food Space and equipment Number and capability of food Availability of suppliers

Usually customers look

To see various dishes To receive what is described Items to be available To be told the ingredients that might be allergic Caloric information

Food and Beverage operators must provide quality ingredients, to be truthful, to inform what items are not available because now a days 6% from UKs population is vegetarian, customers enjoy exotic ingredients, the level obesity is increased, and people like healthy and organic food. Must be also achieved a target customer, food cost, cost of ingredients, food season ability, quantity of food used for each dish, food production methods are adapted.

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Is important to check food availability, also food prices are changing depending on season, the equipment needed (for pizza, pasta). A menu also is done depending on ingredients and methods:
If fresh food is used If is used prepared food The use of cook-chill technique Cooked to order

One factor which influence the menu is portion size, colour balance in order to be more appealing, wording is essential to encourage purchasing, nutritional balance which include protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins.

LO4. Be able to provide food and beverage services for hospitability events 4.1Plan a food and beverage service for hospitability event within an agreed budget (P10)

Counter service is used in bars, pubs and sometimes in restaurants.

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The budget is 840 pounds, there are 60 guests, 50 adults, 10 children, 10 are vegetarians and 4 suffer from diabetes. Generally the dinners serve them-selves, there are used plates, bowls and cutlery .The form of buffet is a table filled with plates and has fixed portions, buffet was created to serve a large number of people. The advantage is that dinners have possibility of choice and ability to inspect the food and then select to it .Is a very popular service because of the limited space in homes. The party food buffet must be well presented and must be a source of pleasure for guests.

Must be taken into consideration the following:

Number of people, in this case 60 persons, among them 10 children,

depending of this an image can be created with one or 2 dishes and to allow 2 queues.
Plates should be put at the beginning of the buffet where guests can see

them and also to see the staff who will replenish them

the napkins and cutlery at the end of the buffet so that guests dont find it hard to handle them

Levels should be added to the table Hot food should be placed near hot food and cold food should be placed near

cold food ,it will be easier to keep the same temperature and to replenish plates
Vegetable should be placed together Food that can spill should be located more close to guests Must be taken into consideration visual appeal Food must be labelled to indicate the content of a dish including allergens 28 | P a g e

Rodica Lenuta Moga Dishes must be arranged in decreasing order Water must be placed last in buffet settings

Some dishes may be prepared in advance, must be taken into consideration the capacity of the oven. Self-serving party will reduce the number of staff needed, but must be allowed enough staff to replenish and to clean. However a served buffet may speed up the serving and enables the control of portion size. The display depends on: selection of food, table arrangements, decoration, and candles. A peoples space is important together with a space for serving. A menu more economical is to start with:
Breads Appetizers Salads Soups

4.2 Implement the planned service maintaining standards of quality and health, safety and security (P11) Quality standards must be maintained in production and serving planning, food and beverage production, cooking in service levels. Health. Safety and security involve procedures and hygiene practices .All food must come from an approved source, all containers and dishes should be hygienic, temperature should be meet, all food which is not acceptable must be destroyed. Bulk food usually is stored in containers labelled with their names. Should be meet the procedures that prevent contamination. Staff must be healthy, with no wounds, nasal discharges, is important to wash their hands, shouldnt be encouraged to wear jewellery and smoking is forbidden.
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To ensure food production equipment sanitised and clean is needed .Everything must be maintained and cleaned: shelves in storage rooms, refrigerators, walk INS.
For clean utensils must be provided proper storage Food baskets must be lined. Rubbish lids are kept closed must be sufficient number of containers bins shall be empty chemicals should be labelled insecticides and pesticides are kept in and are under observation sink must be checked not to be blocked must exist liquid hand cleansing soap sanitary towel

There are 4 ways to handle raw meat to prevent spread of bacteria, top of the container must be cleaned, separate bowls, platter and cutlery to be used, never put meat on a plate in which was cooked meat before. Hands must be washed constantly, is important to clean juice spills, counter tops must be cleaned with warm soapy water. In order to clean cutting boards mix solution of 2 teaspoon bleaching to a quarter of warm water. For freezing and storing meat must be rewrapped or over wrapped to prevent freezer burn and leakage of juices. To be defrost meat should be placed on a clean plate to prevent leak of juice, must be avoided defrosting in warm water but is recommended in cold water.

4.3 Evaluate factors to determine the success of the service, making recommendations for improvement (P12)

In Food and Beverage service is based on:

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Rodica Lenuta Moga integrity trust quality value consistency

For improvements in food and beverage service is necessary to exist a good

and strong relationship between managers and staff that work and is organised , must be encouraged innovation , is absolutely necessary to invest in people and skills , most important is to measure what really matters :


Comfort and pleasure

The right concept



Meet the customers expectations

Control in operation

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Usually in Food and Beverage labour costs are reduced to maintain sales on this way it can be achieved short term productivity and it will affect long term viability because of erosion on standards of the service. For food and beverage operators price is very important because is related to cost control, if profits are too low this doesnt mean that prices are too low. The price reflects customers view for what they are paying. Food safety regulations continue to change so producers are forced to adjust their products lines to meet the requirements of customers and market variations otherwise they will meet a decline in profit. Successful businesses now a days are those who make profit in progress. Lately food and beverage market has met a growth because of:
customers appetite for pure products which are healthy for their bodies

need new products with special properties

Brand is very important in purchasing process.


Bernard D et al (2012) Food and Beverage Management,5th edition, Usa , Routledge

Dobson R, Hayes K. (2005) Food and Beverage Cost Control , 5th edition ,Wiley &Sons, New Jersey

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Tharakan Y.(2004) A Guide to Food and Beverage ,3 rd edition ,McGraw Hill ,New Delhi

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