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Helen Erickson, Evelyn Tomlin and Mary Ann Swain

Prepared By : Mohammed R . Alharbi

Lead Theorist:

Helen C. Erickson
1937-present Education:
BSN in Nursing 1974 Masters in Psychiatric nursing and medical surgical nursing1976 Doctorate in Educational Psychology 1984

Professional Experience:
Emergency Room Mental Health Director of Health Services Academics

Major Influences of theory

Life experience Inspiration from father-in-law Milton Erickson

Evelyn M. Tomlin
1929-present Background: BSN nursing Masters in Psychiatric Nursing 1976 Clinical instructor Worked in Kabul, Afghanistan Intensive care RN

Mary Ann P. Swain

1941-present Background:
BA, Masters and Doctoral work all in psychology Taught psychology, research methods, and statistics

So theory was borrowed some aspect from other discipline .

Theoretical Sources

Maslows Theory Piagets Theory Selye and Engel Milton H. Erickson (father-in-law)

-The modeling and role-modeling theory was derived inductively from Erickson's clinical and personal life experiences. At the same time, the work of Maslow, Erikson, Piaget, Engel, Selye, and others was integrated to label, articulate, and refine the theory.(Erickson, 201Oa, p. 540) -Erickson's initial theoretical work, called the adaptive potential assessment model, focused on the individual's ability to mobilize resources when confronted with stressors (Erickson & Swain, 1982). -Modeling is "the process used by the nurses as she develops an image and understanding of the client's world, as the client perceives it" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 254) Role-modeling is "the facilitation and nurturance of the individual in attaining, maintaining or promoting health through purposeful interventions" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 254) -the nurse attempts to understand the "client's personal model of his or her world and to appreciate its value and significance for the client from the client's perspective" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 49). -MRM is considered as Middle-rang theory .)Why?)

defining the concept of nurturance: the fusing and integrating of cognitive, physiological, and affective processes with the aim of assisting a client to move toward holistic health" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 254). Each person's model is unique" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 84).

Nursing interventions are designed in cooperation the client, based on the belief that individuals know what has altered their health status and know what they need to improve and optimize their health status, promote their growth and development, and maximize their quality of life, This knowledge is referred to as self-care knowledge (Erickson, 2010b, p. 365),

Human being are seen as holistic person who have including: multiple interacting ,subsystem, biophysical,cognitive,phychological,and social subsystem. Intersecting these subsystem are the genetic base and the spiritual drive(Erickson,Tomlin,Swain,1983/2009,p.44)

Environment: The client's environment consists of internal and external stressors as well as internal and external resources. the environment is viewed in the context of social subsystems and as the interaction between self and other (Erickson, 20l0a, p. 547).

HEALTH: Health is viewed as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely as the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is also viewed as a state of dynamic equilibrium among the various subsystems that make up the person and the environment (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 46).

NURSES: Nursing is assisting persons holistically to use their adaptive strengths to attain and maintain optimum bio-psvcho-social-spiritual functioning (Erickson, Tomlin, a Swain, 1983/2009, p. 50).

.:. The nursing process requires that a trusting and functiona.l relationship exist between the nurse and the client. .:. Affiliated-individuation depends on the individual's perceiving that he or she is an acceptable, respectable, and worthwhile human being . :. Human development depends on the individual's perceiving that he or she has some control over his or her life, while concurrently sensing a state of affiliation . :. There is an innate drive toward holistic health that is facilitated by consistent and systematic nurturance. .:. Human growth depends on satisfaction of basic needs and is facilitated by growth-need satisfaction (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 170).

.:. "The degree to which developmental tasks are resolved is dependent on the degree to which human needs are satisfied" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 87) . :. "The degree to which needs are satisfied by object attachment depends on the availability ?f those objects and the degree to which they provide comfort and security as opposed to threat and anxiety" (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 90) . :. An individual's potential for mobilizing resources-the person's state of coping according to the adaptive potential assessment model-is directly associated with the person's need satisfaction level (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009, p. 91).

Critique of MRM theory

-The modeling and role-modeling theory is presented clearly, and concepts are defined and used consistently throughout theory -The concepts are operationally defined, and the theorists provide guidelines for data collection, analysis, and synthesis as well as guidelines for implementation theory is presented in language that is understandable to the practicing nurse; examples are provided to illustrate its meaning.

Critique of MRM theory

The theory is based on concepts that have a broad range of applicability to : various settings and populations, making it generalizable for professional nursing practice (Erickson, 2010a, p.549-550).

THEORY is presented by the theorists within the framework of the nursing process, thereby emphasizing the importance of the interactive and interpersonal nature of nursing as well as the theoretical and scientific bases of nursing practice (Schultz, 2004, p. 246).

implications of MRM are greatly significant and essential to the field of nursing.

Also of importance is the knowledge of the theorys limitations and strengths before applying the theory to practice, curriculum, and research. The MRM Theory is considered a middle-range theory. Middle-range theories are theories that are both broad enough to be useful in complex situations and appropriate for empirical testing, as well as being more narrow in scope than grand theories thus offering a bridge between grand theories and nursing practice.

Practice: the MRM is presented by the theorists within the
framework of the nursing process ASSESSMENT: During the assessment phase <of-the nursing process, data are collected and organized in a manner consistent with developing an overview of the client's perspective of the situation, determining the client's expectations for the future, determining the internal and external resources available to the client, and determining the client's developmental status and personal model of the world (Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain, 1983/2009).
PLANING Planning occurs in partnership with the client. The theory provides a structure for the general aims of interventions that are associated with the theoretical principles, thereby assisting the nurse in planning for systematic interventions within the framework of the theory (Schultz, 2004, p. 246).

cial-are met only when the individual client perceives that they ace met

IMPLEMENTATION:: During the implementation phase of the nursing process, the nurse's goal is to carry out one intervention that reflects each aim during every contact with the client, although a single intervention can meet more than one of the general aims (Schultz, 2004, p. 246). While the use of standardized

Evaluation is closely tied to the perception of the client .basic need needs whether they are developmental,cognnitive,physiological,phsychosocial are metonly when the individual client perceives that they are met

Research on this theory centers around the applicability of one or a few concepts rather than applying the theory as a whole. For example, instead of tackling each of theory's aims and propositions, Sappington (2003) wrote about the concept of nurturance and how it can be applied to assessing and meeting a patient's needs. If MRM is understood as a grand theory from which more prescriptive mid-range theories may spring, then Sappington's method may make the most sense for research purposes.