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LOGARITHMIC SCALE

Decibel (dB) is a convenient


unit for expressing the ratio
of two quantities.

x = 10 log
10
( P / P
o
)

where:
x is in dB
dB has no dimension
20 dB means 100:1

0 dB [ 1 / 1 ]
10 dB [ 10 / 1 ]
20 dB [ 100 / 1 ]
- 3 dB [ 0.5 / 1 ]
3 dB [ 2 / 1 ]
Review of Related Topics
dBm
dBm =
Decibel unit in reference to
a power unit which is 1mW.

x = 10 log
10
( P / 1mW )

where:
x is in dBm

0 dBm [ 1mW / 1mW ]
10 dBm [ 10mW / 1mW ]
20 dBm [ 0.1W / 1mW ]
- 3 dBm [ 0.5mW / 1mW ]
3 dBm [ 2mW / 1mW ]
30 dBm [ 1W / 1mW ]
- 50 dBm [ 0.01W / 1mW ]
- 75 dBm [ 0.032nW / 1mW ]
- 110 dBm [ 0.01pW / 1mW ]
Review of Related Topics
dBi vs dBd
dBi is a unit to measure antenna gain
in reference to an isotropic antenna.
An isotropic antenna has a power gain
of unity; i.e., O dBi.

dBd is a unit to measure antenna gain in
reference to a lossless half-wave dipole
antenna. A lossless half-wave dipole
antenna has a power gain of 0 dBd.

CONVERSION FACTOR:

dBi = dBd + 2.15 dB
id
Review of Related Topics
EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER
ERP vs EiRP
ERP (Effective Radiated Power): is the radiated power (transmit power
times antenna gain) with respect to a dipole antenna within a given
geographic area.
EiRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power): is the radiated power from
an isotropic antenna.
EiRP = ERP + 2.15 (dB)
EiRP
Lp
SSdesign
Review of Related Topics
OBJECTIVES
OF
LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS

to estimate the maximum allowable path loss
to compute the required BS transmitter power
for a balanced path
to estimate the coverage design threshold
to evaluate technology performance
Tx Combiner Feeder
Feeder
Rx Tx
Rx
Receiver
Divider
Feeder
Feeder
Gd
BTS
Lc
BTS
Lf
BTS
Ga
BTS
Lp
Lp
Ga
MS
Lf
MS
Pin
BTS
Pout
BTS
Lf
BTS
Ga
BTS
Pout
MS
Pin
MS
RF PATH
WHY BALANCED PATH?
BS does not
hear the MS
MS hears the BS
Strong Signal
Weak Signal
UPLINK LIMITED:
DOWNLINK LIMITED:
BS hears the MS
MS does not
hear the BS
Weak Signal
Strong Signal
HOW TO BALANCE PATH?
Coverage in a two-way radio communication system is decided
by the weakest transmission direction.
Assume
Uplink
Limited
Balance Path
Compute BS
Tx Power Output
Path Loss in Uplink = Path Loss in Downlink
Balanced Path:
LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS
LBA Processor
Engineer
INPUT OUTPUT
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
Equipment /
Technology
Maximum
Path Loss
Coverage
Threshold
BS TX Power
Output - Balanced
Path
Gain Loss
Antenna
PA
Diversity
Combiner
Feeder
Connector
etc
Cell Radius
and Count
INPUT TO LBA
LBA Processor
Engineer
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
Equipment /
Technology
Gain Loss
Antenna
PA
Diversity
Combiner
Feeder
Connector
etc
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
MS RX SENSITIVITY and BTS RX SENSITIVITY
Sensitivity
GSM900 MS RX SENSITIVITY

MS TYPE Sensitivity Value
Ericsson MS - 104 dBm
GSM900 Recommendation - 102 dBm
GSM900 BTS RX SENSITIVITY

BTS TYPE Sensitivity Value
Ericsson RBS 2000/2301/200 - 107 dBm
GSM900 Recommendation - 104 dBm
Nokia
LCC
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
MS RX SENSITIVITY and BTS RX SENSITIVITY

V to dBm
Sensitivity
In the conversion of V to dBm, a terminal impedance should be known.

EXAMPLE:
A receiver has a sensitivity of 0.1 V. What is the equivalent level in
decibels above 1 mW if the terminal impedance is 50O?
(x) dBW = 10 log [ (V
2
/R) / 1 W ]
(x) dBW (y) dBm
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
MS POWER CLASSES
GSM900 MS Power Classes and Corresponding
Maximum Power Levels:
POWER CLASS Maximum Power Level

1 (20 Watts)

2 39 dBm (8 Watts)

3 37 dBm (5 Watts)

4 (handheld) 33 dBm (2 Watts)

5 (handheld) 29 dBm (0.8 Watt)
Original
power &
is now
eliminated.
Class 4
33 dBm / 2 Watts
Power Control Level Peak Output Power (dBm)
0 -
1 -
2 39
3 37
4 35
5 33
6 31
7 29
8 27
9 25
10 23
11 21
12 19
13 17
14 15
15 13
16 11
17 9
18 7
19 5
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
GSM900 MS POWER CONTROL LEVEL
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
CELL COVERAGE
MS
SENS
+ MARGINS
Indoor In-Car Outdoor
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Independent
of the
Environment
Environment
Dependent
Rayleigh
Fading
Margin
Interference
Margin
Body
Loss
Outdoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Car Penetration Loss
Mean Building
Penetration Loss
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Independent
of the
Environment
Rayleigh
Fading
Margin
Interference
Margin
Body
Loss
REQUIRED SIGNAL STRENGTH, SS
req

SS
req
= MS
sens
+ RF
marg
+ IF
marg
+ BL

where MS
sens
= MS Sensitivity
RF
marg
= Rayleigh Fading Margin
IF
marg
= Interference Margin
BL = Body Loss
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Independent
of the
Environment
Rayleigh
Fading
Margin
Interference
Margin
Body
Loss
RAYLEIGH FADING MARGIN

RF
marg
= 3 dB* (slow MSs, no FH)
RF
marg
= 0 dB* (with FH)
*based on Ericsson GSM900 RF Guidelines
FH = Frequency Hopping
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Independent
of the
Environment
Rayleigh
Fading
Margin
Interference
Margin
Body
Loss
INTERFERENCE MARGIN

IF
marg
= 2 dB*
*based on Ericsson GSM900 RF Guidelines

Nokia and LCC define this as Interference
Degradation Margin. LCC uses about 3 dB.
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Independent
of the
Environment
Rayleigh
Fading
Margin
Interference
Margin
Body
Loss
BODY LOSS

BL = 5 dB*
*based on Ericsson GSM900 RF Guidelines

LCC values for Body Loss = 2 - 4 dB
ETSI recommended value is 3 dB
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Environment
Dependent
DESIGN LEVEL, SS
design
SS
design
= SS
req
+ LNF
marg(o)
-MS outdoor
SS
design
= SS
req
+ LNF
marg(o)
+ CPL -MS in-car
SS
design
= SS
req
+ LNF
marg(o+i)
+ BPL
mean
-MS indoor
where SS
req
= Required signal strength
LNF
marg(o)
= Outdoor log normal fading margin
LNF
marg(o+i)
= Outdoor + indoor log normal fading margin
CPL = Car penetration loss
BPL
mean
= Mean building penetration loss
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Environment
Dependent
Outdoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Car Penetration Loss
Mean Building
Penetration Loss
>THRESHOLD
LOG NORMAL FADING MARGIN
% AREA COVERAGE
% BORDER COVERAGE
JAKES
FORMULAS
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
LOG NORMAL FADING MARGINS
90% AREA
COVERAGE
50% BORDER
COVERAGE
threshold
+ 4.5 dB
LNF Margin
at 7 dB
standard
deviation
75% BORDER
COVERAGE
In order to plan for more
than 50% probability of signal
strength above a threshold, a
log normal fading margin is
added to the threshold during
the design process. (Ericsson)
(Nokia)
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
LOG NORMAL FADING MARGINS
Log Normal
Fading Margin
in a Multi-Cell
Environment
Jakes formula does not
take the effect of many
servers into account.
The presence of many servers
at the cell borders will reduce
the required log normal fading
margin. (Ericsson)
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
OUTDOOR LOG NORMAL FADING MARGINS
% AREA COVERAGE

oLNF
(o)
(dB) 75 85 90 95 99

6 -3 -1 1 3 7

8 -3 0 2 5 10

10 -3 0 3 6 12

12 -3 1 4 8 15

14 -3 1 4 9 17
Outdoor Log Normal Fading
Margins (LNF
marg(o)
) in dB for
different environments (oLNF
(o)
).
Suburban/Rural
Urban
Dense Urban
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
OUTDOOR + INDOOR
LOG NORMAL FADING MARGINS
% AREA COVERAGE

oLNF
(o+i)
(dB) 75 85 90 95 99

10 -3 1 3 7 13

12 -3 1 4 8 15

14 -3 1 4 9 17
Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal Fading Margins
(LNF
marg(o+i)
) in dB for different
environments (oLNF
(o+i)
).
Suburban
Urban
Dense Urban
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Environment
Dependent
Outdoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Car Penetration Loss
Mean Building
Penetration Loss
CAR PENETRATION LOSS
CPL = 6 dB*
*based on Ericsson GSM900 RF Guidelines
LCC value is 4 to 10 dB CPL (portable)
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
MARGINS
Environment
Dependent
Outdoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal
Fading Margin
Car Penetration Loss
Mean Building
Penetration Loss
BUILDING
PENETRATION
LOSS
BPL
mean
(dB)*


Dense Urban 18
Urban 18
Suburban 12

* based on Ericsson
GSM900 RF Guidelines
LCC value is 10 - 20 dB
Equipment /
Technology
BASE STATION RF COMPONENTS
LNA
PA RX1 RX2
Duplexer
Power Ampifier
Receiver with
sensitivity
Receiver
Multicoupler
Combiner
Bottom Jumper Cables
Main Cable
Feeder
Connector
Lightning Arrestor
Top Jumper
Cables
RX1 TX/RX2
Equipment /
Technology
RF COMPONENTS
GAINS LOSSES

MS BS MS BS

Antenna Antenna Feeder Main Cable/Feeder
Power Amp Power Amp Duplexer
Diversity Combiner
LNA Jumper Cable
Connector
Lightning Arrestor
Gains
Losses
Equipment /
Technology
BASE STATION ANTENNAS
Gains
Omni
Antenna
7- 11 dBi
Directional
Antenna
11- 17 dBi
Antenna gain plays a
very important role in
the maximum allowable
path loss.
Equipment /
Technology
MOBILE AND PORTABLE ANTENNAS
Gains
Portable antennas
typically have
no gain

0 dBi
Mobile antenna gain
1 - 4 dBi
Equipment /
Technology
AMPLIFIERS
TX Power Amplifier & Low Noise Amplifier
Gains
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
TX
Power
Amplifier
Low Noise Amplifier
typical gain up to 20 dB
TX Power Amplifier

System PA Output Range
GSM 2.5 - 32 Watts
TACS 0.5 - 100 Watts
Equipment /
Technology
DIVERSITY
Gains
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
RX RX
Equipment /
Technology
DIVERSITY SCHEMES
Gains
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
SPACE DIVERSITY
d = 10 minimum according to LCC
d = 12 to 18 according to Ericsson

Smart uses 4 meters RX
separation for GSM900/ETACS

POLARIZATION DIVERSITY

For Ericsson, both schemes will give a gain of
3 to 6 dB.

For Nokia, the practical range is 0 to 5 dB
depending on environment and antenna
installation (separation). When BTS RX diversity is used,
the default value is 4 dB for urban areas.
d
Equipment /
Technology
DIVERSITY COMBINERS
Gains
RX RX
RX
Selective
Combining
Switched
Combining
usually used
in Mobiles
RX RX
+
Maximal-Ratio
Combining
RX RX
+
Equal-Gain
Combining
commonly
used in BSs
E (S/N)i
i=1
M
E (Envelope)i
i=1
M
Equipment /
Technology
DIVERSITY GAIN TABLE
Gains
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
Manufacturer Diversity Combining Diversity
(Technology) Scheme Method Gain

Nokia Maximum
GSM/DCS1800 Space Ratio 3.0 dB

Ericsson Maximum
GSM/DCS1800 Space Ratio 3.0 dB
Equipment /
Technology
another DIVERSITY SCHEME
FREQUENCY HOPPING for
Frequency Diversity
Gains
0.5 to 2.5 dB FH Gain
Equipment /
Technology
CABLE LOSSES (BS)
Losses
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
Jumper Cables
LDF4-50
1/2 inch Heliax Foam
2.160 dB loss per 100 ft at 900 MHz
Main Cable / Feeder Cable
LDF5-50
7/8 inch Heliax Foam
1.210 dB loss per 100 ft at 900 MHz
recommended use < 55 meters
Equipment /
Technology
CONNECTOR LOSS (BS)
Losses
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
Connectors connect RF
components and typically
have a loss of 0.1 dB each.
Equipment /
Technology
LIGHTNING ARRESTOR LOSS (BS)
Losses
LNA
RX1 TX/RX2
Lightning
Arrestor
Loss = 0.1 dB
Equipment /
Technology
COMBINER LOSS (BS)
Losses
PA RX1 RX2
Duplexer
Characteristic Cavity Hybrid

Frequency Range 806-960 806-1000
(MHz)

Continuous Input 150 150
Power (Watts)

Insertion Loss (dB) 2 to 4.8 3.8 to 7.4

Maximum VSWR 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1
Combiners
Equipment /
Technology
DUPLEXER LOSS (BS & MS)
Losses
PA RX1 RX2
Duplexer
Duplexer Characteristic Value

Isolation (across all 3 ports, with >60 dB
unused ports terminated at 50O

Insertion Loss (across all ports) 0.5 dB

Power handling 500 W

Maximum Input VSWR 1.5 : 1
OUTPUT OF LBA
LBA Processor
Engineer
Maximum
Path Loss
Coverage
Threshold
BS TX Power
Output - Balanced
Path
Cell Radius
and Count
Maximum
Path Loss
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PATH LOSS (MAPL)
Uplink Path Loss
Uplink Path Loss = MAPL
for uplink limited system
Maximum
Path Loss
UPLINK PATH LOSS
Rx
Receiver
Divider
Feeder
Feeder
Gd
BTS
Pin
BTS
= BTS
SENS
Lf
BTS
Ga
BTS
Feeder
Rx Tx
Ga
MS
Lf
MS
Pout
MS
Pin
MS
PL
UP
+ FM
Ldup
MS
BTS
SENS
= Pout
MS
- Ldup
MS
- Lf
MS
+ Ga
MS
- PL
UP
+ Ga
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Gd
BTS
- FM - others

PL
UP
= Pout
MS
- BTS
SENS
- Ldup
MS
- Lf
MS
+ Ga
MS
+ Ga
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Gd
BTS
- FM - others

Maximum
Path Loss
DOWNLINK PATH LOSS
Feeder
Rx Tx
Ga
MS
Lf
MS
Pout
MS
Pin
MS
= MS
SENS
PL
DOWN
+ FM
Ldup
MS
MS
SENS
= Pout
BTS
- Lc
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Ga
BTS
- PL
DOWN
+ Ga
MS
- Lf
MS
- Ldup
MS
- FM - others

PL
DOWN
= Pout
BTS
- MS
SENS
- Lc
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Ga
BTS
+ Ga
MS
- Lf
MS
- Ldup
MS
- FM - others

Tx Combiner Feeder
Lc
BTS
Lf
BTS
Ga
BTS
Pout
BTS
Maximum
Path Loss
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PATH LOSS (MAPL)
UPLINK PATH LOSS
PL
UP
= Pout
MS
- BTS
SENS
- Ldup
MS
- Lf
MS
+ Ga
MS
+ Ga
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Gd
BTS
- FM - others
Note common parameters!!!
DOWNLINK PATH LOSS
PL
DOWN
= Pout
BTS
-MS
SENS
- Lc
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Ga
BTS
+ Ga
MS
- Lf
MS
- Ldup
MS
- FM -others
MAPL = PL
UP
BS TX Power
Output - Balanced
Path
BS TX POWER OUTPUT
UPLINK PATH LOSS
PL
UP
= Pout
MS
- BTS
SENS
- Ldup
MS
- Lf
MS
+ Ga
MS
+ Ga
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Gd
BTS
- FM - others
Note common parameters!!!
DOWNLINK PATH LOSS
PL
DOWN
= Pout
BTS
-MS
SENS
- Lc
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Ga
BTS
+ Ga
MS
- Lf
MS
- Ldup
MS
- FM -others
PL
UP
= PL
DOWN
= MAPL

Pout
BTS
= Pout
MS
+ Gd
BTS
+ Lc
BTS
+ (MS
SENS
- BTS
SENS
)

Balanced Equation
Coverage
Threshold
COVERAGE THRESHOLD
EiRP
(balanced)
Penetration
Loss
MAPL
COVERAGE
TH
Coverage
Threshold
COVERAGE THRESHOLD
COVERAGE
TH
Feeder
Rx Tx
Ga
MS
Lf
MS
Pout
MS
Pin
MS
= MS
SENS
Ldup
MS
COVERAGE
TH
= Pin
MS
+ Ldup
MS
+ Lf
MS
- Ga
MS
+ FM + other

COVERAGE
TH
= EiRP(balanced) - MAPL

EiRP(balanced) = Pout
BTS
- Lc
BTS
- Lf
BTS
+ Ga
BTS
COVERAGE
TH
= SS
DESIGN
Coverage
Threshold
COVERAGE ENVIRONMENTS
with GSM900 Coverage Thresholds
On Street
Portable
- 95 dBm
In Car Portable
- 85 dBm
Vehicle Mounted
Mobile
- 95 to -100 dBm
In Building Portable
- 75 dBm
LBA DATA SHEET
LBA Processor
Engineer
INPUT OUTPUT
Rx Sensitivity
MS Max. Power
Coverage
Threshold
Reliability
Equipment /
Technology
Maximum
Path Loss
Coverage
Threshold
BS TX Power
Output - Balanced
Path
Gain Loss
Antenna
PA
Diversity
Combiner
Feeder
Connector
etc
Cell Radius
and Count
CELL SIZE ESTIMATION
Cell
Radius
Estimate
MAPL
Propagation
Loss Model
Required Input
d
R
PROPAGATION LOSS MODEL
OKUMURA-HATA MODEL

L
p
(urban) = 69.55+ 26.16logf - 13.82logh
b
+
(44.9 - 6.55logh
b
)logR - a(h
m
)
where
L
p
= Path Loss in dB
a(h
m
) = (1.1logf - 0.7)h
m
- (1.56logf - 0.8)
f = carrier frequency in MHz (150-1000 MHz)
h
b
= the base station antenna height in meter (30-200m)
R = distance in km from the base station (1-20 km)
h
m
= mobile antenna height in meter above ground (1-10m)
Cell Radius
and Count
Cell Radius
and Count
CELL RADIUS ESTIMATE
BASED ON OKUMURA-HATA MODEL
d
R
MAPL - 69.55 - 26.16logf + 13.82logh
b
+ a(h
m
)

44.9 - 6.55logh
b
log R =
* urban area
Cell Radius
and Count
CELL COUNT ESTIMATION
Cell
Count
Estimate
Technology
LBA
MAPL
Mobile Type
Environment
Area Boundaries
Type of Coverage
Demographics
Traffic Assumptions
ReUse Pattern
Required Input
d
R
Cell Radius
and Count
CRUDE CELL COUNT ESTIMATION
R
A

2.6 R
2
Cell Count =
Cell Radius, R, from Okumura-Hatas Formula
A = Market Area
LBA Processor
Engineer
CONCLUSION
1. What is receiver sensitivity?
2. What is Fade Margin/Log-Normal Margin?
3. Why do we care about coverage reliability?
4. What is diversity?
5. How many different kinds of diversity exist?
6. Why balanced path?
7. How does the environment affect LBA?