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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources Abraham Lincoln. 1862. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of Abraham Lincoln that we used on our Timeline page. Adams, John Elder. Robert E. Lee Portrait. N.d. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of Robert E. Lee that we used on our A Country Divided page to help the reader identify a quote. Battle of Fort Sumter. 1861. Library of Congress, Charleston. This is a painting of the beginning of the Civil War, the Battle of Fort Sumter. We use this painting on our Timeline page. Bell, John W. Memoirs of Governor William Smith, of Virginia. By William Smith. New York: Moss Engraving, 1889. N. page. Print. This book was very useful. We found lots of information from both perspectives in the civil war. The quote we decided to use from this novel explains this senators opinion on slavery which is slavery and freedom cannot coexist in a country the country must either be entirely free or entirely enslaved. "Colored" Gets Three Years - "White" Thirty Days." Cleveland Advocate [Cleveland] 2 Feb. 1918: n. page. Print. We were looking at different newspaper articles during the time after the war and we found this quote regarding the racial differences in the early 1900s in a newspaper called the Cleveland Advocate. The quote explains that whites got different treatment from black people in court. Company E of the 4th US Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln. 1863. Photograph. The Library of Congress, Maryland. This document is a picture of an all black infantry taken during the Civil War. This picture shows and demonstrates how proud black soldiers were to fight for the Union during the Civil War. "Confederacy Approves Black Soldiers." Interview by Robert E. Lee. n.d.: n. page. Print. Creating a citation for this was difficult because it was said in a conversation between General Lee and a group of Senators right when The Civil War began. The south had been considering enlisting black soldiers but concluded that white soldiers wouldnt treat them well and most of them would die from friendly fire. Douglass, Frederick. Washington. D.C. 15 Jan. 2013.

In this quote a famous and respected black man named Frederick Douglass tells us Blacks that

joined the Union army would fight as hard as they possibly could to unite the country. Blacks deserved to be citizens if they helped fight for the unity and freedom of America. Ellison, Ralph. Juneteenth. N.p.: n.p., 1999. Print. This is a book that Ralph Ellison (born-1994) wrote over the course of his life. He wrote and collected the information in a very unorganized manner. After he died his close friend collected the information and organized it the way he thought his friend Ralph would want it to be written. The book was published in 1999, 5 years after the death of Ralph Ellison. Ferrier. Surrender of General Lee - at Appomattox, C.H. Va. April 9th 1865. 1873. Library of Congress, Appomattox. This is a painting of the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox. We used this picture on our Timeline page. Horace Greeley. N.d. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of Horace Greeley that he sent to a friend in a letter, the author and they year the painting was created are unknown. We used this picture on our States Secede Page to help the reader identify a quote.

Horydczak, Theodor. U.S. Capitol Paintings. Emancipation Proclamation, 1862. 1863. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of the people who signed authorized and signed the Emancipation Proclamation. We used the painting on our Timeline page. Lincoln, Abraham. "EXECUTIVE MANSTON." Letter to Horace Greeley. 22 Aug. 1862. MS. N.p. Abraham Lincoln is replying to a letter sent by Horace Greeley in this quote. The letter expresses Lincolns emotion a few short months before the end of the Emancipation Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation proclamation as a war measure to unify the separated country. Abraham Lincoln believed in a unified country before he believed in the freedom of slavery. Malvasi, Mark G., and Carey M. Roberts. "U. S. Civil War: Did Slavery Cause the Civil War the answer is no?" History in Dispute. Ed. Mark G. Malvasi. Vol. 13: Slavery in the Western Hemisphere, circa 1500-1888. Detroit: St. James Press, 2003. 276-284. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. This source gave us insight on other factors that caused the civil war. We used a quotation from this website to support the start of the civil war.

Mandela, Nelson. "Part Eleven." Long Walk to Freedom. New York City: Macdonald Purnell, 1994. N. pag. Print. We found a great quote in this book regarding the importance of the document of the Emancipation Proclamation and how it affected racial equality in our country today. Murray, Charles. "Losing Ground: American Social Policy 19501980." Social Policy: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 285-289. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. Nicolay, John G. "Union Is Dissolved." Charleston Mercury Extra [Charleston] 20 Dec. 1860: n. page. Print. This is a newspaper article that tells the people of Charleston, South Carolina that they have succeeded from the Union. We use this article on our Timeline page. Obama, Barack. "Presidential Proclamation." 150th Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. Washington D.C, Washington D.C. 5 Apr. 2013. Speech. On the last day of the year in 2012 our country celebrated the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. Barack Obama presented a speech on this day celebrating the Emancipation and how important it is in American history. In the speech Obama wanted to address the importance of the Emancipation proclamation being the first step to achieving equality and true freedom for blacks. Obama hopes we can continue this path towards racial equality that we are so close to achieving. Portrait of Secretary of State William H. Seward, Officer of the United States Government. 1863. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of William Seward, we used this picture on our A Country Divided page to help the reader identify a quote. "President Johnson Signs Civil Rights Act." UCLA Film & Television Archive. UCLA, 2011. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://www.cinema.ucla.edu/la-rebellion/timeline/president-johnson-signs-civilrights-act>. This site was helpful as it displayed a newspaper clipping and gave me a good grasp on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Proclamation of Emancipation by the President of the United States of America. 1864. Photograph. Washington D.C. By Abraham Lincoln. This is a picture of the Emancipation Proclamation that we used as our banner on our Thesis page. Slavery in the U.S. 1830. Library of Congress, n.p. This is a painting of slaves carrying baskets on their heads that we used as a banner on our Context page.

The 13th Amendment. N.d. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a picture of the 13th amendment. We used this picture on our Timeline page. "The Emancipation Proclamation." Human and Civil Rights: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and K. Lee Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 107-110. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This webpage gave me a great grasp on the actual proclamation. It showed me what it meant and how it acted. U.S. Congress. "An Act to Establish a Bureau for the Relief of Freedmen and Refugees." Social Policy: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 100-103. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This was another primary source as it had direct passages from congress at the time of the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation This helped me understand how the bill was enforced. Waltman, Harry Franklin. Sec. Howell Cob. 1893. U.S Department of the Treasury, Washington D.C. This is a painting of Howell Cob a secretary of the U.S treasury that we used to identify a quote on our Battle of Gettysburg page.

Secondary Sources "Abolition." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2010. 10-13. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This was a really great source. It gave me a much better understanding of the abolition of slavery in its entirety. Burton, Beatrice. "Emancipation and the Emancipation Proclamation." Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America. Ed. Orville Vernon Burton. Vol. 2. This book was very helpful with quotations and facts regarding proof that the Emancipation proclamation was a war strategy. Cuffee, Jocelyn M. "Slavery in the Border States (DE, Dist. of Columbia, KY, MD, MO)." Gale Library of Daily Life:Slavery in America. Ed. Orville Vernon Burton. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 244246. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This page gave me a much better understanding of slavery in the south.

Detroit: Gale, 2008. 88-92. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This page helped me understand the broad aspects of the civil war. More of the politics not just the actual slavery portion. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Pushes His Way through the Press. 1962. Photograph. Library of Congress, n.p. This is a picture of Martin Luther King Jr. pushing his way through the press. We used this photograph on our Timeline page. "Emancipation Proclamation." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2010. 129-131. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. This site showed an interesting view point into the civil war. "The Emancipation Proclamation." Human and Civil Rights: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and K. Lee Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 107-110. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This page gave me a much better grasp on the whole situation.

Frederick Douglass. 1968. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a painting of Frederick Douglass that he gave to a friend. We use this picture on our Context page to help the reader identify the quote. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. New York: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2005. Print. This is the book Team of Rivals, the same book the Oscar winning movie Lincoln was based on. We used this book for quotations and facts on Lincolns struggle to achieving his goal of racial equality and uniting the country. The book is great and has a lot of information in it. We also went to watch the movie and we cited the movie as a secondary source also. Guelzo, Allen C. LINCOLN Emancipated. Ed. Brian R. Dirck. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 2007. Print. This is a book about Abraham Lincoln and his journey to the freedom of all slaves in America. The book talks about everything from Lincoln being racist to Lincolns troubles with the Supreme Court when getting their approval for the Emancipation Proclamation. We used quotes from the book to prove that Abraham Lincoln truly believed in freeing slaves and that the Emancipation Proclamation was a battle tactic to reunite the Union and the Confederacy. Horace Greeley 1811-1872. N.d. Photograph. Library of Congress, n.p. This is a painting of Horace Greeley that was in a book. Both the author and year created are unknown. We use the painting to help the reader identify the quote on our Context page.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Emancipation Proclamation Centennial Address." Civil War Centennial Commissions Emancipation Proclamation Observance. New York City, New York, New York City. 5 Apr. 2013. Speech. Martin Luther King Jr. presented a speech at New York regarding the Emancipation Proclamation. During the speech King talked about how much the Emancipation Proclamation affected us as humans today. In Kings opinion the two most important documents in U.S history are the declaration of independence and the other document is the Emancipation Proclamation.

Martin Luther King Jr. 1965. Photograph. Selma, Alabama. This is a picture of Martin Luther King Jr. that we used on our Thesis page to help the reader identify the man behind the quote.

Moore, Richard C. Majestic Ship Breaking Waves. 2003. Portland. This is a painting of a ship that we thought would help the reader create a picture of foreign trade.

Photograph of Harriet Tubman. 1911. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. This is a picture of Harriet Tubman that we used on our Thesis page to help the reader identify the quote.

Rorabaugh, William. "Interviewing a Professor at the University of Washington." E-mail interview. 3 Apr. 2013. We interviewed a Professor at the University of Washington for answers and quotations. We asked him questions regarding the battle of Gettysburg and the importance of the Emancipation Proclamation on the Civil War and society today. Rothstein, Edward. "Visions and Voices of a Nation Divided." New York Times 11 Jan. 2013: C33(L). Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. This site helped me with my legacy page.

Slavery by Another Name. Dir. Sam Pollard. Prod. Sam Pollard. By Sheila Curran Bernard. Screenplay by Anne Seidlitz. Perf. Alex Carney and Melvin Cox. PBS, 2009. DVD. This is a documentary that PBS made regarding Chain Gangs. We watched the entire movie on the internet and chose a 10 second clip that we incorporated into our Chain Gangs page to help the reader better understand how horrible Chain Gangs were.

Williams, Robert C. Horace Greeley: Champion of American Freedom. New York City: New York UP, 2006. Print. This is a secondary source biography written about Horace Greeley in 2006. The book is about Horace Greeleys position in freeing the slaves in the confederacy. Horace Greeley played a large part in freeing slaves. The quote shows that we cannot be a free and unified country if slavery continues to exist. We are not one people we are two people