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written by Nick Pendar, Ph.D., Iowa State University


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edited by
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Tropic of Cancer


Ph.D., and Atousa Mirzaei




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Copyright @ zcr'1 by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc. Living Language is a member of the Random House InformationGroup Living Language and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Published in the United States by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc. www.livinglanguage. com Editor : Zvlezdana Y rzi(. Production Editor: Lisbeth DYer Production Manager: Thomas Marshall Interior Design: Sophie Ye Chin First Edition I SBN : 978-r- 4ooo-z347-9 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available upon request. This book is available at special discounts for bulk purchases for sales promotions or premiums. Special editions, including personalized covers, excerpts of existing books, and corporate imprints, can be created in large quantities for special needs' For more information, write to Special Markets/Premium Sales, 1745 Broadway, MD 6-2, New York, New York 1oor9 or email specialmarkets@randomhouse.com. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATESOF AMERICA 1098765432r

Thanks to the Living Language team: Tom Russell, Nicole Benhabib, christopher warnasch, zviezdana verzich, suzanne Mceuade, shaina Malkin, Elham shabahat, Denise De Gennaro,Linda K. schmidt, Lisbeth Dyer, Alison skrabek, Tom Marshall, Fabrizio La Rocca,Tigist Getachew, and Sophie Ye Chin.

0utline Course
List of Abbreviations Introduction x ix

How to Use This Course x Farsi or Persian xiii

Farsi Writing System Farsi Alphabet xiv

The Sounds of Farsi Reading Farsi Written vs. Spoken Farsi VOCABUTARY GRAM MAR

Greetings and Introductions

Personal Pronouns PossessiveForms The Present Tense

7 8 8

Kinship Terms

PossessiveConstructions with PossessiveEndings Plurals DefiniteNouns,Indefinite Nouns, and lralll


zo 2L

Home Objects and Colors

Yes/No Questions Questions Using Question Words Adjectives Numerals and Partitives

j2 33

33 34

Course 0utline



, f


Daily Routine

f.,'=$n r _-.tll,,,lJ

tffi.'?-,.l l*,' D0
Verb Forms Numbers 11-2o Telling Time


r #l ia;rM IGp r n $'fiN.rgr ff

ExpressingLikes and Dislikes D o u b l e . . .d i . . . e - : a n d + + Constructions Using .4t i flSayre d1,rnay, might) rrg r2r

45 49 5o 5T 6z 63 65 67


Food and Restaurants


ff;'=f,'$$li$ f "f 5 I T Y
Simple PastTense Negation PrepositionalPhrases Numbers 2r-99


Education and Schools


Hlril ffirs'i#

PresentPerfect Verbs after 0i-13s, (fxast-anf , to want)

ry3 135

Health and Doctors

Hl$# ff-l# liffi tt$l,I',nA M U S E U M .

Around the City and Giving Directions Imperatives and the Subjunctive Mood Comparatives and Superlatives Ordinal Numbers Numbers 1oo-t,ooo

77 79
8o 8z Politics,Media, and the Internet

Questionswith 'tr-i,r ry6 (l&qredrl, how much) and u r+ (/dend ta/, how many)



ffi' wiiil
r48 r+g

Conditional Sentences Embedded Clauseswith eS (/ke/, that)

'[:s=#$oifi i'#.i*ffi 'dfi lN'd p

Travel, Months, and DaYsof the Week

[:,'"1 ,F"'..-'1r'

87 93 94 95
105 107 ro8

Counting Units Future Tense Nationalities

Errands and Money

Polite Past Passive Voice (Present Tense) Middle Voice

16o t6t

Clothing and Shopping


i;=|"=',1,il i,l.,-

The Subjunctive Mood Past Habitual Obfect Endings on Verbs


o,m;fl. # $$ n ft ip;#/r=#ffi $i'

Work and the Office

iii [n

175 176 177

Temporal Clauseswith 45 flveqt-i ke/, when) "$r Expressing Manner The Modal !"1+(&ayedi, must)

vl tarsl

C o u r sO e utline



adjective adverb article auxiliary verb colloquial conjunction formal interiection informal literally noun numeral preposition plural pronoun singular verb 189 adv. art. aux. colloq, conj.

Interests and Recreation

Adverbial Clauseswith d al+ Uja-V,ket/, where) Using; (/por/, full), # (A*-/,little), and

c.l .0s+ I (hil,/bedun-e/,

without) to MakeAdiectives Emphatic.S (4"0


Nature, Weather, and Sports

Reflexive Pronouns Exclamatory Sentences Impersonal Construction

20,4 205 zo6

lit. n. nutn.

Farsi-English Glossary 2rr English-Farsi Glossary 247

p. pl. pro. sg. v.


So you've decidedto learn Farsi.Congratulations! Learning a new language is one of the best and most rewarding decisions you can make in your lifetime. It opens up a door to a whole new world and a window into the minds of the people in that world. There is no better way to understand a nation and communicate with its people than by studying their literature and culture in their native language. At the same time, learning any new language is also a major commitment. It takes time, practice, and a great deal of patience.You learned your native languageduring the first seven or so years of your life through constant exposure to and use of the language' You shouldn't expect to learn a new language fluently in any time shorter than that. However, you can learn the basics of a language, understand everyday conversations,and make yourself understood to a fair degree in a couple of years with consistent practice and the right kind of input. This course is designedto help you take that initial step toward mastering Farsi, the language of Iran. This course covers most major Farsi grammatical concepts and basic vocabulary used in everyday situations' It should give you the head start you need toward becoming a proficient speaker of Farsi.

llrc dialogue.Many will be relatedto the topic of the lesson;some will be rt'latedto the grammar you'll be learning in that particular lesson. I)iulogue 't'he dialogue in each lesson servesthe double purpose of allowing you to read and hear natural Farsi at work and teaching you about Farsi culture as well. Read these dialogues carefully; they'll contain the grammar and key phrasesthat you will be learning later in the lesson. Don't be afraid to read lhem several times, in fact, and to listen to them on the recordings a few times as well. Always go at your own pace,and stick with a section until you're comfortable with it. Vocabulary The vocabulary list contains new words from the dialogue as well as other words related to the overall topic of the lesson.You can refer to this list while reading through the dialogue, but of course the translation of the dialogue is also provided. use the vocabulary lists to build a good foundation for your Farsivocabulary one topic at a time. Experiment with different methods of learning vocabulary-spoken or written repetition, flash cards,practice sentences, web searches, etc. Be creative,and find what works for vou. Key Phrases The key phrases section contains more practical words or phrases related to the lesson topic. Don't worry if you don't grasp the grammar behind each phrase right away. Treat the phrasesas extended vocabulary lists; the grammar will be filled in as you progress,and the idiomatic and practical expressionsyou learn in the key phrasessection will come in handy. Culture Notes Each lesson contains two culture notes. These notes are intended to give you a window on Farsi culture. The notes cover such topics as food, clothing, manners, and etiquette, and they also offer practical advice for anyone traveling to the Farsi-speaking region. Grammar Each lesson contains a number of notes on particular aspectsof Farsi grammar. These notes are introduced in a careful sequence,so that they build on one another and explain the key structures you encounter in the lesson,particularly in the dialogue. Each point is explained in plain and simple language,and there are plenty of examplesto help you understand. (lrammar can be tricky for many beginning language learners, especially with a language that looks and sounds so different from English. But lake your time on the grammar notes. Grammar is the nuts-and-boltsof irny language learning; without it, you wouldn't know how to put words Iogether!


This beginner-level course is designed to use both audio and visual instruction to help you master the basics of Farsi. No previous knowledge of Farsi at all is assumed. you everything Following this introduction, you'll find a sectionthat teaches you need to know about Farsi spelling and pronunciation. Use it in conjunction with the audio to become fully acquainted with the sounds of Farsi. Imitate the native speakersthat you hear,but don't be worried if you don't sound quite native yourself; after all, you're not. Good pronunciation will come in time. fust use the pronunciation section enough that you're familiar with the sounds and spelling of Farsi. Then you can begin the fifteen lessons,each of which is dedicated to a particular topic and to a number of structural points. As a general piece of advice,fight the urge to skip ahead or rush over any part of this course. It's designed in a careful sequencerand each section iepresents a building block that adds to everything before it while at the same time preparing you for everything that comes after it. Always move aheadat your own pace; if you don't understand something, or if you don't feel quite comfortable with some point, simply go over it again. That's the best way to make sure your learning experience is painless and effective. Each lesson of this course contains the following sections: VocabularyWarmUp The vocabulary warm-up kicks off the lessonwith key words you'll hear in

**--*-x Farsi I

Howto Use ThisCourse

I i

Exercises The exercisesin each lessonwill give you more opportunities to practice the grammar and vocabulary you ve learned in each lesson.Each lesson includes an answer key at the end so that you can check your progress. Independent Challenge The most important part of learning a language is practice. These challengeactivities are designedto give you ideas for finding contexts in your life where you can practice your Farsi' They're meant as a guide; if you feel inspired to createyour own independent challengeactivities,go right ahead.The more contact you have with a language,the better you'll learn it. And don't forget about the internet. Language learners have an incredible tool at their disposal-they can find newspapers,blogs, travel and tourism sites,and much, much more, all of online references, which can be used to add depth and color to languagelessons. Audio The audio portion of this course is divided into two sets: Set A and Set B. SetAincludes the dialogue,vocabulary,keyphrases,and severalgrammar examplesfrom each lesson.This part of the audio course should be used along with the book, following the order of each lesson and allowing you to hear the words on the page in spoken Farsi. A good approach is to read each section first without the audio, so that you're prepared to get the most out of the audio when you do listen to it. Then, take it stepby-step and listen to each section at a time, always allowing yourself the time and repetition that you need. xHelpful Hint: once you've listened to the dialogue severaltimes while reading along in the book, try listening to it without the help of the book. This will help attune your ear to Farsi, and it will make understanding the spoken languageeasier down the line. Set B is intended to be used on the go to supplement your studies. It contains the dialogue from each lesson, broken down into easily digestible sentenceswith English translations. You'll hear pauses after each line of dialogue; use the pause to repeat the line and practice your pronunciation. Set B also includes several audio-only exercisesthat do not appear in the book but are based on exactly the same grammar points. A good way to make use of Set B is to listen to it following each lesson,once you've comfortably completed reading the text and listening to the Set A audio. Use Set B wherever it's convenient for you-in the car,on the train, at the gym, while you do dishes,in the garden-it's up to you. You can also use Set B as a review of lessonsyou completed long ago to keep you on your toes!

GIossary At the end of this book you'll find a Farsi-English/English-Farsi glossary. It includes all of the words from the vocabulary lists, plus any important vocabulary that's taught in the grammar notes. It also includes a wide range of common and practical words that may not come up in the context of this course. It's not meant as a complete dictionary but it certainly includes enough to be a valuable reference tool for the beginning student of Farsi. As you use this course,keep this in mind: languagelearning is a gradual process; it won't happen overnight. still, with repeated exposure and practice, you'll find yourself becoming a better and better Farsi speaker each time you pick up this course. But languagesaren't used by books; they're used by people. so, if you can, seek out speakersof Farsi where you live or on the internet. That way, you can practice the languageand discover new people while you do.

/moveffeq baS-id!/ Good luck!

The languageyou are about to learn has two names-Farsi and persian. The reasonsfor this are historical. A long time ago,from about 64g BCE, the Persians (a tribe belonging to the people who called themselves Aryans) ruled a vast area including present-dayIran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and even parts of Egypt. They also had many battles with the Greeks.The Greekswould call these people perses.The word then traveled through Europe and ended up in English as persians. The word Persia was used throughout history by Europeans to refer to the country of the Persiansand their language. The people of Persia,however, called their country Iran (from an old Iranian word meaning the land of the Aryansl and their language parsi, and later, Farsi.In 1935,Reza shah, the ruling king of persia at the time, askedthe international community to call the country by its native name, Iran. Thus the words Persiaand persian gradually lost their popularity and gave way to Iran and, Farsi as the names of the country and its official language, respectively.some Iranians still prefer to call their language "Persian"rather than "Farsi"when they are speaking English in order to stay connected to their history. In this book we will call the languageby its native name, Farsi,but from time to time the word "persian" may be used to refer to the people, culture, and languageof Iran.


x i l : Fa rsi

Farsi or Persian?

1..............t... l xlll I

F A R S IW R I T I l { G S Y S T E M
The writing systemof modern Farsi is basedon the Arabic alphabet with a few extra symbols for sounds that do not exist in Standard Arabic. The script differs significantly in several ways from the English writing system. First, the script goes from right to left, which means that Farsi books open from the left. This is something that you should definitely keep in mind, becausereading a mystery novel backwards is no fun. Second, many letters are connected to each other within words. This means that for each letter there could be more than one form, and the form used depends on the letter's position in the word and whether or not it can connect to the following letter. Third, some vowel sounds are not represented in the alphabet. These vowels are shown using diacritics (small markings above and below the letters) only in children's books, but they do not exist in writing for adults. This means that beginners may have difficulty figuring out the pronunciation of a word based on its written form alone. This might sound discouraging at first, but it isn't as hard as you might think, especially considering that the pronunciation of English words isn't exactly predictable from their written forms either. Remember how you learned to pronounce the first f in palient as a sh sound and how you learned not to pronounce the c in indigt, not to mention the difference between the i's in each?In order to facilitate learning the Farsi alphabet, you will be provided with phonetic alphabet pronunciations next to words where necessarv. END MIDDLE
a a



(-.1 & IJ




s J

liiml Itel hel

l*el /daV lzall lrel

4s. 4-s

lrl ht
/xl **''', ldt **_ lzl

ee e _c_

5 n







\ J -;" ) )

;\ ) J )


)i ;- -l ) i .**.;
&i ti




& *lt

..- -'.-_t'_'" _

s .ra



lqeynl '



* -**;-;;***-*3

I' I

There are 32letters in Farsi alphabet. The following table shows the Farsi alphabet.For eachletter, its different forms, its name, and the sound or sounds associatedwith it are also shown. BecauseFarsi is written from right to left, tables containing Farsi text are arranged from right to left, too. Remember to read the following table and other tables like it from the right. FARSI ALPHABET

(---.; (IJ


lg rl




gS .5.



lla l lmiml

K _tr


sl <=


I *.*"":*-**-*
4 J



lal tel u

la-lef I


i BEclll"rNg itl



t: O

j I - j


hl lpl
--l xiv I
Fa rsi

h:l lp:l



J J .3

Farsi Alphabet


J .t



The forms in the column labeled beginning appear at the beginning of the word, those in the column labeled middle come in the middle of the word, and the ones in the column labeled end come at the end of the word. We can also categorize letters based on whether they get attached to their adjacentletters, and on which side or sides,as follows:

symbolsbycomparing producethe actualFarsisoundsrepresentedbythese the pronunciation guides in the vocabulary sections of the book with the pronunciations of the words on the accompanyingCDs.To distinguish the phonetic transcriptionsof the Farsiwords from their English translations, the phonetic symbols are placed between two slanted lines (/ /). Phonetic Symbols for Farsi Consonant Sounds


Forms that attach only to the following letter (the one on their left): A

The table shows the Farsi consonant sounds.The letters that correspond to the sounds representedby the phonetic symbols appear in boldface type in the examples. F A R SC I ONSONANTS E FARS IXAMPLE


Forms that attach only to the preceding letter (the one on their right):

Li r# 3 j ) I I e e e e & c! ? c+ t
Ls4 r O t d.(.S


d Li 6 C &
&, JJ


lbl lr I


Forms that attach to both the preceding and the following letters:

Ita;!1, :*i"s.itl

ibal, with !.1


S + r l * !J.ll SS








l6zl,thing-h screw lp-l(l: $

lda; r l,door ') J tide l-o /-ma_dd/, lfill, elephantd$ lkefl, foam 5i$

ldt lfl lsl thl

door, cord

Forms that don't attach to their adjacent letters:


farm, calf

You may have noticed that for some sounds there are severalletters. For example, the letters L-)a, U and & all represent the /s/ sound, and ! and c3 both representthe /t/ sound. There is a historical reason for that. As mentioned before, the writing system of Farsi was borrowed from Arabic after the adoption of Islam. The older writing systems died out during the period when Arabic was the official language in Iran. The Arabic sound system is more complex than that of Farsi,and when Persians adopted the script that was written for that more complex sound system,they ended up with many letters that, to them, all sounded the same. But instead of dropping those letters from the alphabet, they decided to keep them in words they borrowed from Arabic.


dos1(l lseslr

lgoll, flower gJK


i;il, b;Js;

lholul,peach3lil lmehl,fog 43 ljui"l, chifk 4+j| g-\ lkejl, crooked q-i$ lkifl, bag,purs" lkr'la,kl, trick .5$' llampl,lightbulb ?fY dl lmall,possessiot ,I LE frrrr-,nf lkeml,li11lg f'5 lpuU,-o.,"y cJ-.,:4 ,lightbulb ?.7 llampl
------l--..-I xvll

l^l lnl lpl

lamb man

T H E S O U l I I ' SO F F A R S I
The phonetic alphabet that we will be using is shown below together with a description of what sound each symbol represents and an example of each.Farsi has twenty-two consonant sounds and six vowel sounds.These sounds are listed in the tables below. For each phonetic symbol, at least one illustrative English example (where possible)and one Farsi example are given to show you what sound the symbol represents.You can learn to

pool, map

rsi Fa

of Farsi TheSounds

SYM BO L A P P R OM XI ATE ENGTIS SH OUND ( s e en o t e r below) root, car (see note z below) soon, bass team, bat FARS E IXAMPLE


,lock glri lqofll spoond;^il-{ /qaSoq/, lrahl,road,*ay ol-,1 , head-F f sa-lf

as /ketab/,and the word the word ,=rl5 (book)is transcribed example, (librarv) 4jL: i;;rr.) ir tr.ni.ribed as /xane/.Then,the word 4j\-;ijs the facts highlights Thistranscription as /ketab-xane/. will be transcribed units and is made up of two smallermeaningful that diLsr.l$ (library) house. book means it literally that Phonetic Symbols for Farsi Uowel Sounds

lsl Itl
t l

\f-ry l"upl,soup g*)S , cherry lgilasl

Itiml , team l# j acket.:3 coat, l kotl ,

The table below consistsof the phonetic symbols for Farsivowel sounds' As with the previous table, the letters in the English examples that correspond to the sound representedby the phonetic symbol appear in boldface type.

valley, cave




";l; 3

*,r*" lvelil, but q5J_9 lguul,cow,bull _9lS , good+JA lxubf f rr.ixf, nail S*'



EXAMPTE keep, bean


zebra, maze

friend J$ lroyl: ztncLSJ) beautiful\j lzibal, goutj fb2zl, deit',4llj lzalel, I peL-vakl,".iro .Sl:I , excellent l'alif J!.
l"n'Yl, effort CSLtt


EXAMPLE fAl_sl ,faith gLaJl fimanf /sib/,apple!tt/ali/, excellent JLe

/mewaly', toothbrush t-Sl o^n+ /se/, three 4-.,r fenarf,pomegranat" $1 lpederl, father JJd /sut/, whistle sJ$


cape,bait (see note l below) at

;;;;; uli! ;rn;", 6J;;;1,


i"i;;;;, ;r';';;,
beige ( s e en o t e 4 below)

bowl, coat (see ngte 2 below)


suit, boot

,he,*" :l fuf

Notes: (t)The s o u n d/ q / d o e s n ' e t x i s ti n E n g l i s hl . t sounds l i k ea g b u t p r o n o u n c e d with the backof the tonguetouchingthe very backof the soft part of the r o o fo f y o u rm o u t h ,t h e s a m ep l a c e w h e r et h e F r e n c h ris produced. ( z )T h es o u n d/ r / i s r o l l e d , almost similar t o t h e l t a l i a no r S p a n i s h r. (l) /x/ doesn'texistin English either.lt is the soft frictionsoundthat one pronunciation hearsin the German of ch in the word Bach.Thissound is produced by lightlytouchingthe soft part of the roof of your mouth with t h e b a c ko f y o u rt o n g u e . ( + ) T h e s o u n d / ' / d o e s n o t t y p i c a l l ya p p e a ri n s t a n d a r dE n g l i s h l .t i s , h o w e v e rf,o u n d i n c e r t a i n d i a l e c t sF . o re x a m p l ey , ou can hearit in the pronunciation Cocl<ney of t in the word bottle, lba'll. You will also noticethat the phonetictranscriptions of the words may (-). Hyphens c o n t a i nh y p h e n s w i l l b e u s e dt o s e p a r a t e the meaningful partsof words (e.9., suffixesand prefixes) from each other to facilitate p r o n u n c i a t i oa ns w e l l a s u n d e r s t a n d i no gf t h e m e a n i n g s o f w o r d s .F o r x v i i [ , rr si Notes:

, coat, fkatf ,ti.i;, + loose 1 u!




'l^bl,*u,",q.rl harl,load -,fu

t-i-r lbabal,dad

b y t h e / y / s o u n d ,a s i n t h e followed is always ( 1 ) T h e/ e / s o u n di n E n g l i s h on the other hand, resembles (capeand boit). Farsi, aboveexamples /e/ is not followedby the /y/ sound' in this respect; French b y t h e / w / s o u n d ,a s i n c o o f , followed isalways (z) Similarly /o , / in English the case. not this is bowl, or boot, but in Farsi

-J-----of Farsi TheSounds




The letter (9 is also pronounced lyl,when it is precededor followed by another vowel.

The Uowel lal Let us -now try to make some words with these letters. consider the letters | (l"l), + (bn, 4 (th, J (/d/), and O (nll. we can make several words with these. For example,r-.,J is pronounced labland means water. Rememberto read from righf to left. what do you think this word rorrrrd, tik t0l+iIf you said /aban/, you are right. gl-lj name of the eighth month in 1r.trr," the Persiancalendar. Now try this,gf .lLrl Yes,it is /abadan/ Ohl+i is the name of a city in southern Iran. Usually, if lis the first letterin thL word, it appearsas iand is pronoun ced lal.The same letter may appear as I at the beginning of a word, but it will sound like lnl,lel,or lol. Now try this word: Jlq It is pronounced /bad/ and means wind. How about this? r..:JE This one is pronoun ced ftabf , and it means swing. Now take a look at this word:gt-r It is pronounced fnanf, and it means bread. And this: clU what do you think this one sounds like? Did you say lnabl? yes! This word meansgenuine. Now try this: Uh This should be easy now. It is pronounced fdanal, and it means knowledgeable. Let'stry a longer word: tJlJtJ This one is the opposite or l-rlr. It is pronounced fnadanl,and it means ignorant.

g;Y eqglj t-,;l; t!

The abovewords, for example,are,from right to left, lyal @rl,lyarf ,(companion, friend), lvayl (wow), and /ay/ (dirt). (Notice that when d and I are put together,they show up as Y /l"/ ) The Uowel lul So far the vowels we have been using in our words have been lal and lil. Here's another one: fuf,which is written with J. But you must be careful with this one. This letter stands for fulas well as loland even the consonant fvf . Let's look at some examplesof J used for lul. Our first example is:j This word is pronounced fbuf, and it means smell or scent. Now try this: J-.! This time the consonant J /r/ is also used. This word is pronounced lnurland means light, as in sunlight. Here'sanother word:J.!i This one is pronounced lburland means blonde. Now try these:)J) 6JJJ , )-S,J-6 ,J3i 6JJ*{

They are pronounced, from right to left, /sur/ (banquet), /5uri (salty), /kur/ (blind), lgurl (grave),/dur/ (far), andfzurf (force). d fvf , as in 313 fvavf J is also pronounce ,the name of the letter J; this pronunciation is usually found when J is preceded or followed by another vowel. Look at these examples:

clls erJl3 .3L .,-913

From right to left, the abovewords aref gavf(cow/bull), lnavl $avy ship), lvanl pathtub), and /vaf (whale). The Uowel fof

The Uowel t,l This vowel is also written in the Farsi script. The letter for it is c9 and all its variants. Let's look at some examples of its use.

As mentioned before, sometimes J is also used for the vowel lol.Here are some examples of its use as lol. 3J e3i c_9'r These words aref nof (new), ltol (you, sg.),and /do/ (two). J is often used as lol when it's at the end of a syllable, and the vowel is pronounced lowl (kind of like the English word row). Other times, /o/ is not written. To help beginners, elementary textbooks may use diacritics Reading Farsi



e;-,; e;J ecJ# 6!rr.r

Thesewords are, from right to left, lsibl(apple), /bif (shovel), ldirl(late), I zirI (under),I tizI (sharp), and /bist/ (twenty).

1---:--i XXI

to clarify which vowel follows a consonant. This diacritic, which we will also use sometimes,is', a little J placed above a consonant. See these examples:


The Uowel lal

.LljS ,3i ,J-1]

Thesewords are,from right to left, lbordl (took), ldoml (tail),/5of (loose), and/pof (bridge),

1"." f-;;*'^-; f-;.;;---f;;;-;;;;;,--i ----" j_/yl_ * r i_L_, _l


[:,r-] k-j---i

This vowel is not written either. The diacritic used for it is -, a small slanted line placed above the consonant that precedes it in pronunciation. Look at these examples:

Note: Fromnow on, wherever we want to show a diacritic alone,we will placeit overor undera smallhorizontal line (J, as in the table above, for convenience.


cp- e.l_!,pi ,p,;,+

Farsi uses geminate consonants especially in words that have been borrowed from Arabic. A geminate consonant is pronounced twice as long as a simple consonant. Look at the following words, for example, from right to left. In all of these pairs, the first word uses simple consonants and the secondone contains a geminate consonant.In beginners'books, geminates are shown with the diacritic symbol - above the letter.

These words are, from right to left, lbedl pad), hn l (bass), ldeml (breath), ldr-rdl (pain),/sremm/ (poison),and /serd/ (cold). lrel may also follow l, as in these examples:

_,pl ,_,;rl 6qbrl ed.r.'u1

Thesewords are,from right to left, f estf (is),/esb/ (horse), lebrl (cloud), and I a'mrI (order, decree). The Uowel lef This vowel is not represented by a letter of the alphabet either. The diacritic used for it to help learners is -, a little slanted line placedunder the consonant that carries it. Look at these examples:

,valleyoji fderref lbetel,child {"; lgellel,herd 41ff,

lderldoor -,1i /del,what $ 4( lgelel,complaint

+t$ elrr rjl

Thesewords are, from right to left,ldei,l (fortress), lsedal(sound,voice), and/ketab/ (book). lf lel is at the beginning of a word, then the letter lis used to show it.

This should get you started. Other rules about reading the Farsi script will follow as we progress through the course. Diacritics will be used in this book, but as the course progresses,their use will be gradually reduced,especiallyfor known words.

o_;l"rJ ,dttj! e,r'ju!

These words are, from right to Ieft, /estep/ (steppe), lesbatl (proof), and ledarel(office). If lel is at the end of a word, then it is written with o, as in these examples.

W R I T T E l I U S . S P O K E I IF A R S I
Spoken Farsi deviates from written Farsi in many respects.This is of course true of all languages,but in Farsi it is more noticeable. |ust to give you an idea of the differences that can exist between words in speech and in writing, note that in English the form going fo is usually pronounced gonna, and want fo and got toare pronounced wanna and gotta, respectively. In Farsi, especially in the dialect of Tehran, many lal sounds turn into /u/ before lml and lnl in spoken language. Also, many common verb stems get reduced to a single consonant, and many endings change. These differences will be pointed out as we go along.

o++ co_;l.tle4r,rc4.r
These words are, from right to teft, lbel (to), /se/ (three), ledarel (office), and /pedide/ (phenomenon). The following table summarizes the discussion of vowels and their symbols in Farsi.

Written Farsi vs.Spoken


In this lesson, we will learn about basic greetings and introductions in Farsi. We will also learn about personal pronouns, the possessive construction, and using some simple verbs. But let's warm up with some common phrases. In order to get a head start with reading and writing and not get entangled in the alphabet, it is a good idea to learn the shape of each new word as a whole and not try to break words up into letters in the first place. Get a pack of index cards, and write each word you learn on one side of a card and its pronuncialion and meaning on the other side. Review the cards frequently until you can recognize the words and their meanings iust by looking at their Farsi written form. Then, as you accumulate more cards, you can take out the ones that you know and go back to them from time to time for review. As you build up vocabulary and review the alphabet, you will notice that you are also picking up how the alphabet works. Also remember that Farsi goes from right to left. First read the Farsi column on the right, then check the pronunciation in the middle, and only after that should you look at the English translation on the left.

Hello! How are you?

/selam!/ /hale Somade-tor ast?f,/h"le Soma de-torefl /esme Somadist?1, /esme Somaliye?l /bebaxSid.f /bebexSin/ , fxodafez.f /xodahafez.f

!c[ rAt.ii,dL=
f.ii -cjt-cf.',','rl fo-l:l'a' 6f . ", . ", .H. r . e- j

What is your name? Pardon me. / Excuse me. Good-bye.

t++ W.e,-!
.O*.tf+ erl't:.i.t .lil.ri sliL-l,.li

As mentioned earlier, there are consistent differences in Farsi between the written, or formal,language and the spoken, or informal,

language.The pronunciation and spelling of the same words dillt'r depending on the usage style chosen. For instance, the pronurtt i,r tion and spelling of verbs differ depending on the style. In all vo cabulary lists (including the glossaries),both the written/formal :rrtrl spoken/informal pronunciation and spelling will be provided for tlrr' same word, with the formal one coming first. In the dialogues, thr' informal style, pronunciation, and spelling will prevail, as they do irr everyday communication. In order to help the learner, the written/ formal spellings of all verbs appearing in the dialogues will be giverr in parentheses at their first occurrence. In the grammar examples, the spelling will be mainly written/formal unless the example is a direct quote from the dialogue, where an informal spelling and pro nunciation were used.

.cp)Kl.: f( !.r.-lr; dju,ir+ (bebexS-id) ?i /bebexS-in ,',r.NA .g*Xl.l fi+ cgtii oJAi^^,,| fOi*i t-"li tu:.r

:cl^l_l :framinf :d+t.'

/daglas./ :/Sebnem/

/esmebun hest aqaye jim daglas./ :/Sebnem/


/dust-e Soma hest-enf

.,i3*a C;^;A-# fr^.r1.: OJ4l

/iSun dust-e Soher-e mren hest-en./


Shabnam runs into Ramin at Tehran Mehrabad airport. She is picking up an old friend of her husband's, Mr. fim Douglas,who is arriving any minute now from Canada.|im is a Middle East scholar and knows Farsi well, but this is his first visit to Iran in about fifteen years'


CJ*Jd OlJd q,55

:cll^l_,r :framinf

/key be tehran mi-res-en (mi-res-end)/

+fu O_rlg4 cs.::j; rr"t+ .'$_r: cr-15 .(.yS.,.)

/(izi ne-mun-de. bayed be-zud-i peyda-5un be-5-e(be-5ev-ad).i




..Ljl=lii..-,. A ;l1.++
/besiyar xob. xodah afez.f

:framinf :f:$

folA rr.rs I j+li .ori;


l^.'i -dlt=leL .iJr iF rtr"ut;'i3; f("J*i


t=lii .li'-i-

/selam! hale Soma le-tor-e?f

fxodahafez.f :/Sebnem/

:/Sebnem/ Ramin: Shabnam:

Hi! How are you? I am fine. Thank you very much. Is your wife fine? Yes, thanks. Are you waiting for someone here? Yes, our friend is coming to Iran from Canada today. From Canada? How nice!What's his name?

xeyli memnun. xanum xub hestan (hastend)|



t -l .(#-),^ 4li f( rll."n; O+\3;


Ramin: Shabnam:

kesi mersi.Somainja montrezere fba,le, hestin (hestid)f L fuj.t-.1JJ!.4\ r-ll;l e+ bElS -,11


'(+t .s') r\r


Shabnam: Ramin: Shabnam:

Ramin: Ehabnam:

Douglas. Pardon? His name is Mr. |im Douglas.

Is he vour friend? He's my husband's friend.

fbe,le, emruz dust-e ma ez kanada be iran mi-ya-d (mi-a-yed)./

9+1; u *f+*l !..i .i a-sf l.tElSjf

fi-ye?l lezkanada? dexub! esm-e-5un

:.JJ^IJ :framinf

htron t

Ramin: Shabnam: Ramin: Shabnam:

When is he arriving in Tehran? Any time now. He must show up soon. Ail right. Good_bye. Good_bye. to Tehran how what

Itehranl /te-torl /til, ltel [huU fxanomf ,lxanuml lxubl lxeylil ldustl,/dustan/ /Soharl /qedim-il lkasil keyl
/mersi/ /memnun/ fmontezerf

! dl_rd JA+ 5'c+ cjt p3'rti.,trili


o o

Comprehensionpractice flrJ* the fo,owingquestions based on the dialogue you justprac_

(physical) condition lady, wife, Mrs., Ms. good

A.Ramin wants to know how Shabam is. What does he say?

fOi."A + a lli

very a lot



t set Mr'Douglas's name, how does he ask shabnam ,Tl""J"liil: "1fr]}

L,,*, gr'.,,_r.l .y fiJ[r.ii# .y -]$L bjrf l^.i .l fiJ$*a s*,.,s .l;i1.ls.l .f

!p)-, . y

fo ,:ti

l*.i -.JU. f

friend, friends husband old someone when thanks thanks, grateful

arll,UJ 5r,r.,UJ -'j3,.& (4ti ,s-,5

c. How do you sayyes,thanksin Farsi? .s+,y,4li.f !+_n.V D.How do you say good_bye in Farsi? . \ui{ii .\" !+ d E.What does,.)-, mean?





l. a,t


These are the new words used in the diarogue. Note that they are in order.

ID. KEYPHRASES Hello. ffint.)

Good day. Goodmorning. Goodafternoon/evening. /selam eleykom./ /ruzbe-xeyr./ /sobh be-xeyr.f f asr be-xeyr.f /5eb be-xeyr./ /hal-etan(,e-tor_e? f, /haletun te-tor_e?f /hal-etde-tor-e/ /hal-et xub-e?l lxub-i?l /5oher-etan xub-end?l lhal-eSoher-etun ft-tor-e?f


laqul lerl lesm/

to readthese tabres from right l_il jl

f5.+J.e fX* .-*i+ i_l_.r .Jli+ e*.JH'A+),-L .Jr*i+ s:i foJr4. OL]Il.s foJr.Li crjt-r. !+.;i cdt.r f.+A ! rtl o.rOlSy+,.i OIJA-d -cjL=

sir, mister,Mr. from/of name today Iran must soon very well, all right yes

Goodnight. How are you? (fmt.) How are you? (infinl.) Are you well? (infmt.) Are you well? (infinl) Is you husbandwell? VmL) How is your husband? (infmt.)


/emruzf liranl lbaya,dl lbe-zudil /besiyar xob/ lbale/

+l+ csr_ri+
tJJi Jt+.,+



What is your name?

What is your name?

/esm-eSomati-ye?l /esm-etanli-ye?/, /esm-etun lJ'-ye?l /esm-et ti-ye?l /esm-e5anli-ye?1, /esm-ebunti-ye?l

/esm-eb &ye?l /esm-e men Sebnem-e./



I F. GRAMMAR Farsi Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns are words that are used to refer to people or things without using their names. subject pronouns are used in the subject position of the sentence-i.e., the beginning of the sentence-to refer to the person who performs the action described in the sentence.In English, personal subject pronouns are the words I, you, he, she, it, we, you, and they. English also has a set of object pronouns- me,yott, him, her, it, tts,yott, and them-and a set of possessive pronouns- mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours,yours, and theirs.There is also a set of possessive determiners in English-my, your, his, her, its, our, your, and their. The pronoun system in Farsi is far simpler; it only includes the pronouns listed in the table below. FARS P I E R S O NP AR LONOUNS


Whatis yourname? (infmt.l
What is his/her name?

UJt*.tl/UE ..,l !a-s ..3

fqJ= dt d!or.,,l

What is his/her/its name?(infml.l My name is Shabnam. His name is Ramin. lf*L) His name is Ramin. (infmt.l

Uj^if-l/6LS.^.,1 f't;;
fqJs., fi.o-l
t.C v '

4.1+.i g* .ill
.4+lJ OJr$4$l .4+lJ Uif-l

ramin-e./ /esme-Sun ramin-e./ /esm-eb

I, mg, my



Greetingsin the PersianCulture
Greetings are very important in the Iranian culture. Family members and colleagues always greet each other when they meet. It is also very important to greet people before you start talking to them. Greeting in the Persian culture is almost a ritual, and it might take longer than it does in Western societies.During a family or a formal gathering, it is common to see the same two people asking each other how they are more than once.This is a form of acknowledging the person's presence and letting him or her know that you care. )ust starting talking to someonebefore greeting him or her is considered rude. Using plural pronouns (e.g.,plural youl and plural forms of verbs to refer to individuals, especiallyelders,is a sign of respectand is used in formal and semiformal situations. This would be like referring to someone you respect as they, and say things like They are here to mean that he or she is here. Friends use singular pronouns and verbs to refer to each other. Farsi does not have gender,which means that there is no distinction between he and she.This is in fact a source of confusion for Farsi speakerslearning a languagelike English, which has this distinction.

you, your (sg.)

ful,lanl l^l
lSornal lan-hal; li{anl

he/ehe1it, him,rhea
his/her/its we, us, our you, your (pl.) th"y, them, their; he/she, hisyher

ol r J )



lrl \ \.0


Ol4l .t*.1

Notice that there are two forms for the third person singular (he/she/it), namely,Jl Vun and gi (1""1).The first of thesi formg (:li ir used to refer to people (male or female), and the second form (gl1 is used for nonhumans. Also note that there are two forms for the third person plural, rhey-tgii (lan-hall and ULU fli5an/). The first one ($i) is used to refer to more than one person (they).The secondone (Ut4l) is used to refer to r single person in a more formal, respectful way; while the meaning of Ot4lis singular, it is listed as a plural pronoun becauseit is used with a plural,form of the verb. In spoken language,Ol4l is often pronounced

Look at these examples that use personal pronouns.

?rL.J d OlJd e.;.,J Ol4l

/llan key be tehran mi-res-end/ When does he arrive in Tehran?
---------t- - - --- --"'

brron t


f lJ --r dfr

,):-'li'ol++l l;;

/5oma inja montezer-e kas-i hrest-idf Are you waiting for someone here?

Vbud-anl,to be). THE ( / b u d a n / , VERB p R E S E N t o b e ) t N T H E Oi-X TT ENSE (I) am (you) are (sg)
'*r:*.. ..t^.*;-. ";-**-..,*--'

Here are the present tense forms of the verb gJj



..',.r1 ij+-l' Jl
/u Sebnem rest./ She is Shabnam.

ftast-arnl ftest-il

t -


2 G) c 'E

Construction Possessive
Possessive constructions,like my book,her name,or fohn's bag, arethose that tell us who something belongs to. In Farsi, the possessoris mentioned last in a possessiveconstruction (literally, "book my"). The noun group that expresseswhat belongs to the possessoris mentioned first and is connectedto the possessorwith the vowel /e/, which is roughly equivalent to the English ol This vowel does not normally show up in writing, but it is marked in the examples below ON POSSESSIVE CONSTRUCTI

(he/.she/it) is (we) are

,lastl fhestf

CrJ-rA -d""ll1i-i *:;d


(you) are (p/. and, sg.fmt,l




at c

(thuy) are / (he /she) is (sg.fr"t.l


my name your name {sg.}

/esm-e mren/ /esm-e to/

U^ -f*l

Note:The infinitiveformsof verbsin Farsi are madewith the paststem of the verb. That is why the verb LJiJ,t is conjugatedas 13"1, etc., in the table above-that is, usinga very differentroot form. verb forms and the present and paststemsare discussed in lessons 4 and 5. lt"r" can seerthe stem cr^.6 (/hest/) is given a suffix based on per-


our name

his/her na(ne,

/esm-e uf , f esrn-eanf /esm-e ma/

/esm-e Soma/

,p-l c.li.l*l c-91

tt L. _e.rl

your name (pl. or sg.tfml,l

their name, his/her nirme


The verbs,''' Jr! (lha.stfi and dr.,rl (restll both mean js, but the former has an existential meaning-that is, it is used in the same situations where English speakersuse there is/are. For example:

.,',*i q,rl.is.! t+ll

/inja yek ketab hest./ There is a book here. But: .r'r..,f ,,,j1 crrLjS

The Present Tense

/esm-e anha/, /esm-e iSan/

djl&l .p*l r$i.p*l

/ketab xub est./ The book is good. You may have noticed that word order in Farsi is different from English. ln Farsi, the verb usually appears at the end of a sentenceand follows the object,whereas in English it usually appearsearlier and precedesthe obiect, as in the examples below:

Verbs are words that talk about actions.For example,in the sentenceShe talked to him, the word talked is the verb. Verbs in Farsi are inflected for tense and person. This means that depending on the time of the action and the person who performed it, we add prefixes and suffixes to the verb. Prefixesare meaningful units that are attachedto the beginning of words, and suffixes are those that are attached to the end of words. The present tense of the verb gi31 (/bud-en/, to be) is conjugated as follows. (When we list all the possible forms of a verb in a certain tense for all persons,we say that we are conjugating that verb.)

.J1r lJ cl.lt


flebnem ramin ra did./ Shabnam saw Ramin.

.d*i i$,,r.
/men Sebnem hestem./ lrm Shabnam.

lilon r


I i


cl.l: -i

/to ramin hesti./ You are Ramin.

.,',ul d+ Jl
/u jim est/ He is |im.

This is a very useful verb becausemany verbs in Farsi are created by combining this verb (and a few other verbs likeJhis) with another word. For example, the verb fo live inFarsi is OUS JS-,1'7"endegi krerdan/), which, if translated literally, would mean to do living or to do life in English. UsageNote: In spokenlanguage, the third personsingularf6r6 JS .rr ajS ,r-o (/mi-kon-e/).Thesameis true of all (/mi-kon-ed/) is pronounced verbs,i.e., the suffix/-ad/ in writtenform turns into /-e/ in spoken form. Alsonotethat when a word endsin the vowel/-e/, it is writtenwith e. This ls notthe sameas the suffix4, which is the spoken form of the verbdr-,|. In Farsi, it is also possible to completely drop the subject of a sentence, becausethe verb already carries information about the subject. For example, instead of saying:


..'r:jlb+l t/ma inja hestim./ We are here.

.+$-i OlJi Ji l.',.i'

/5oma der tehran hrestid./ You are in Tehran. . ri'i..,i [ElS Ji 141l /anha dar kanada hrestend./ They are in Canada. Note:Theword JJ (/dar/) meansin or at. Vocabulary We is an objectmarker. Note:TheworOlJ (/ra/)in the first example Usage later. w i l l t a l k a b o u tt h i s m a r k e r The verb.',,.r1 (/rest/,is). in spoken language turns into the suffix 4 men ramin-e/,My name is Ramin),as tJ^ -e.^,lflesm-e V.h,".g.,4+lJ opposed to.'t!Nl Cl*^l-,; Ll .e-,1 (/esm-e men ravmin est/, My name is Ramin). The present tense of verbs other than cJij (/bud-en/, to be) is a little different. Like Uljr, the present stem of other verbs takes a suffix based on person; unlike cJU, the gresent stem also takes the prefix cs' (/mill.,Fo, example,the verb OJ'F (/kerd-ren/, to do), with the present stem cls (Aon/), has the following forms. Thke a look at the present tense forms of the verb cli-lS (/kerd-ery', to do). TE TNSE THE VERB i J . J S ( / k a r d - a n / , t o d o ) l N T H EP R E S E N

.eK.r *Ss-l OlJi Jr rJ

/mren drer tehran zende-gi mi-kon-em./ I live in Tehran. we can say:

.f'6.r #s-t cll-li-,1:

/der tehran zende-gimi-kon-em./ I live in Tehran. Dropping the subject is quite common in Farsi.

Read the following sentencesabout Shabnam. Try to get comfortable with the way the words look. As mentioned at the beginning of the lesEon,when learning the Farsi alphabet, it helps to recognize words as a whole, in addition to knowing how to put the letters together, to figure out how to pronounce the words.


g.ofur3.r(.rp"f-).i*,j| # t1*+.d-r^,,|

dr .P-'

i1.o-F-'.i .dr..l g.e -FJ-

(I) do


"'g; jjs;


(he/shelit) does
(we) do

/mi-kon-i/ /mi kon-ed/ /rni;korr-im/ /mi-kon-id/


Hello. I am Shabnam.Ramin is my friend. fim is my husband's frlend. My husbandis Mani.

f*"lor d;ss.fui.l ' t*"rt i", trr"lrrr"l


F+; ',ir"

EO P I C2 I I I . C U T T U RT
At the airports in Iran, it is quite common to seegroups of family membrrs or friends carrying flowers and waiting to greet their guests.Probrbly the most notable difference for a Western visitor on arrival is how


hron r

women dress.According to the dress code enforced since the ry79Iqlamic revolution in Iran, women must fully cover their hair and bodies. Depending on their beliefs.and social class, women wearra range of styles of clothing, from the traditional black sheet called -!$ (/dador/) to a shorter overall-called 3SL. (lmantol, from the French word manteaul-together with a colorful scarf. You will probably find most Iranians friendly and yet formal. Men often shake hands and sometimes lightly kiss their male friends and relatives on the cheeks. Women do the same with other women. Women don't typically shake hands with men or kiss them in public. Some women, depending on their religious beliefs, do shake hands with men, but usually only in a private setting. People often introduce themselves by their last names. When introducing other people, individuals tend to say that person's title before his or her last name. SaFng one's own title is unusual. You can learn more about Iran and Iranian culture by visiting http://persia.org/.


L,,i dl.- -



.D o-'

.5s; otJ(i

' (o)

L-i .,1j1,.. .C.F 0^ -.ill f0irls .,.o


i)^ ,,, .i, .+\ -+ -.ill .+F Jt+.r+ ..Lit-ls, -c.r


C. Use the words in parenthesesto state individuals'names. The first one is done for you as an example. cr-,| ,pl; g,o p*l s1. e.!nl_; glo f-'l (Cl+l: ,g") .\

The exercisesare enumerated using Hindi numerals, which are used in Farsi. Unlike the alphabet, numerals go from left to right, iust like they do in English. Here is a list to help you remember what they are:


(d+ 6rl) .f

(;u 6ou+l). t


Vocabulary ilote:3 (/va/) meansond.

A. Complete the following sentenceswith the correct present tense form of the verb oJ-#.

t-sJ.tl,.1. . \

Look back at the first dialogue in this lesson. Ramin wants to know when |im will arrive in Tehran. He asks,f.ti*,,;X^ OlJ6j 4+ .'$ (/key be tehran mi-res-end|). Can you conjugate the verb g !"t by comparing it to the verb gJ-.f discussed above? we arrive--(t)-you arrive they arrive ti'oJ (o) crf I arrive you arrive he/she/it arrives (f) -

olJi -,PL.6 .t c.rl-1..1 Jr t4.li .f ir" iti. tl .t

O.. db'JJ ji .o

li.ilS Jr l- .1 A]ISWERKEY
B. Complete the following dialogue using the words below. There are more words in the list than required.

Practice Comprehension A. r. B.z. C.3. D.r.

E. hello

4r.F t

oJ.lh (Y)

pL.$ dt* !



!jl+ _.p lil-l.ri -,-il1


r'r,"f . f

$i*rA Y
tji'"t '\

.j.^,O .o

ft$'*A '1

Jl .o


qL? . f' .,*,,,J^ .f

!F.\ liit=lri .V

t\\ lt

In this lesson,we will learn about kinship terms in Farsi. We will also learn more about possessive constructions.The other grammatical terms that we cover are plurals of nouns and the object marker l; (lrall.



/ .a..5 rl p-ll .f
.d$l ^J+ -ol .*.'l

/ .4-it$ t^.$ f-l .Y Ge-l .d-,1 p'r.l.$

1-o jl / .4^i+.i: Cr*"I-,r d-,1 p.r'r'.i:Cl^l-,rLf-l


/ .4$l- Otfol.*l .1
c!,,,1 .,jU Otll fl


boy, son suitcase

lpesarl l(a-medanl, /demedun/

v J ' . c v



D. ei--l G^ .t
.|rr-,1 ,r.o . o


c /xanevade/, /xunevade/ o.ll-9,r-gs o.llg-ls

e-,J d


home, house girl, daughter company work, job

, fxunef fxanef ldoxterl lEerketl katl kojal kifl /maiin/

4iJA sa.lli
'a ' l'

g.o . \


r-'-,1 art .Y

cisJ$ -,11s b3
, i,(

For this section,you need to prepare and maintain a language journal. At the end of each lesson,you are instructed to perform an independent task and write the results in the iournal. These tasks are deslgned to give you more exposure to Farsi as used in real-world contexts,and completing them can be extremely rewarding and fun. To start, take another look at the introduction to the Farsi alphabet, and also visit http://www.omniglot.com/writing/persian.htm for an alternative introduction to the alphabet. Then try writing a greeting dialogue of your own using the words and phrasesyou learned in this lesson.Seeif you can spell your own name in Farsi.

where bag, briefcase, purse, wallet car, vehicle, machine




|im has arrived in Tehran and Shabnam will be driving him home. They have already met and are now walking toward Shabnam's car. Listen to their conversation that is taking place on the way to the

Drl1iJi-dL:, .cgr,ol dF

OlJi ar efi,r+ fo-1A*l

ljim,be tehran xoi amad-i. hal-e xunevade-et :/Sebnem/ de-tor-e?/

-*-l 14i

rsi Fa

,.sl*i t rrg


a^i .UJ,i^.,r-tf
,Jt*l ,',rcri

:tl+ :ljiml

Shabnam: fim: Shabnam:

How about your wife? Where is she? Susan works at a'high school. What does your son do? My son goes to the university. His name's Farhad, isn't it? Yeah. Well, here's the car. put your suitcase in the back.


o o


lxeyli mamnun. heme xub-end. xanum-em xeyli be-het selam mi-res-un-e (mi-res-an-ad) /

= =

9(.1S.,. Jq 4jS G- JtS + Oyf cuiiS

/doxter-et el'an de kar mi-kon-e (kar mikon-ed)/



fim: Shabnam:

.{iS (J-o JtS clsJj fdd+3

g .,s:: iJyl dJ|(+ gjl f-r:t+ c+jjt'i.

:fi}+ :liiml

fim: Shabnam.

/nikol el'an tu-ye ye Serket kar mi-kon-e./

It's so heavy! I,ll put my briefcasein the back,too. Very well. Let,sgo home.


. ! t

Comprehension practice A.What doesthis phrase mean? crJ.oiLiF

r. thanks
z. welcome

/xanum-et de-tor-e?un koja-stf

-Jq .{S c/ JIS Oli".lr"i a; _! Ol_l_r* f6.r JLS4" l.ii

f suzan der ye drebir-estan kar mi-kon-e. peser-

:ir+ :ljiml

3. very well

B. Where does fim's daughter work?

/peser-em mi-r-e (mi-rev-ed) daneb-gah/



-,1.r .l

olK,i:fr Jr .y .ol3.i:l.roJ (t' .Y

e5,;_;.t. \ c.lE--r+.r OE-,r*.).! +t . \ .6.r -iS

C. What does Shabnam's son do?

fd eoja_j Uitr-l /esm-ebferhad-e, na-?l cjl$.g+.iL * gpl ,41 qrF.oJi .,.,.i-. JIK+ (l_l) :_,,

:fuj+ :ljiml

dsJ"i * -1. ,I .+iS.f _,,tS

D. How does fim say /f's so heavylin Farsi?


*Jt iS .r .+t eJlis:t^

.4iJA eJj .f

.dq..+Lt_y .y

I4rS! J.l5 .t

/are. xob dige, in ham ma5in. demedun-et

E. How does Shabnamsay Let,sgo homein Farsi?

ro (ra)be-gozar' e.qa,b.f

.0ruiL *

,.lll .f

.r.,r .s Jl+.+ . \

.' . '-i-' rJfK cr^* JJ iS lrisi

J' i,i

:d+ :ljiml

/de-qedr seng-in-e! kif-em ro hem mi-gozar -am'eqab./

Remember that the words are arphabeticallyorganized basedon the Far_ si alphabet and that you should read these tables from right to left. Also note that the irregular Farsi verbs are followed by their piesent stems in parentheses (seelesson4). yeah now university to attend a university/ to go to a university

.dJA (t"-ry) d-D .+F Jl+..^+

/besiyar xob. be-r-im (be-rrev-im) xune./



Shabnam: |im: Shabnam:

Welcome to Tehran, fim. How's your family? Thanks a lot. Everybody's fine. My wife sends you her warmest regards. What does your daughter do now? Nicole works at a company now.

larel f'reI'anf /daneS-gah/

/danelgah racftaenf


olK.qf.r iliit ol3;if.r





lesson z



to go (lrolis the present stem) to send regards/ to say hello heavy back to work (/kon/ is the present stem) to put (lgozarl is the present stem)

(lrol\ lrreft-anl
/selam resand-ren/, /selam resund-ren/ lsalng-inl

eg.rrl*^r.; p)-, rJJrj-J 6\

uncle (father's brother) mother grandmother grandchild spouse

f'a,muf lmaderl /mader bozorgf lnevel /hemser/

-* ;oL .K-,1; -;.rL


o n o



= =.

, .,-t-.

l'e,qa-bl (lkonll /kar kerd-acnl


(O5) oi-F -.rts

4i 4r c r-5-r

l-ri are pronounced Spelling Note: ln mostcases, the letters /xa/,the letter-r beingsilent.Forexample, the worO-}AlF (sister) is pronounced /xahar/.

(lgozarll (ttK) fgozait-renf lna,l

2 E . C U T T U RT EO P I CI FarsiKinshipTerms
As you can see in the vocabulary sections above,kinship terms in Farsi are quite descriptive and detailed. Farsi speakersdistinguish between relatives on the father's side and those on the mother's side. In particular, where English usesonly one word, cousin,to describea group of relatives, Farsi uses eight. You can see four of them in the previous section: ,r;lr -r.*d (/peser"dayi/), ,r;l: -Jiil fldoxter d,ayill,all-:, -r.+.r (/peser xale/), and +JLi _Jii3 (/doxtar xale/). Now.trl to guesswhat these terms mean: J^c-I.*-i flpeser'emu/), -fc ;iif (/doxter'emu/), arc u+rr (/peser'emme/), and 4-ee Jiii (/doxtar'emme/). Right! These are the cousins on your father's side, whereas the first four terms refer to the cousins on your mother's side. In-laws each have their own term, too. For example, where English has the single word father-in-law, Farsi has two, Oj Jld ilpeder zenfl and -rA:i Jld ilpeder Sohrer/), to refer to wife's father and the husband's father, respectively. What do you think (/barader zenll means? Yes,you guessedit. It means wife's UJ Jllj brother, a brother-inlaw. But be careful. Order matters. If you switch the order of the words, the meaning changes.-,yJl-,,p 91 (lzaln berader/) means brother's wife, a sister-in-law. It should be mentioned that the use of the word c.tj to mean wife is colloquial and informal. The more formal form is p-:li flxanom/), as used in lesson r. Therefore, in all of the above expressions,Oj can be replaced with r'JA.

one, a



niece, nephew (brother's child, sister's child) large, great, big, grand father grandfather father-inlaw (wife's father), mother-in-law (wife's mother) father-in-law (husband's father), mother-in-law (husband's mother) cousin (mother's brother's son, mother's brother's daughter) cousin (mother's sister's son, mother's sister's daughter) aunt (mother's sister) uncle (mother's brother) woman, wife (infmll aunt (father's sister)

, /berader zadef /xaher zadef lbozorgl lpederl /peder bozorgf /pedar znnf , fmader zenf /peder Soher/, /mader Sohar/ /pesar dayil, /doxter dayil /peser xalef, /doxter xale/ lxalel ldayil lzenl f'errrrr'ef

eo)l-,y Jilj ortl-,;.pljA

4 t.t

J+i ..(-l:-l! crj -liL ,ttj -t\


s,r+l.t h
,r;ll +ii.l


4Jta .;il'i
4lti cs+h J')

2F. c RAM MAR Possessive Construction with Possessive Endings

In lesson 1, we talked about the possessiveconstruction in Farsi. We learned that Farsi speakers can say tF )+l flpesar-e man/) for my son or ii!.& ->A-fi(/5ohar-e Sebnem/) for Shabnam'shusband.There is a shorter way to form possessiveconstructions in Farsi if the possessoris mentioned as a pronoun. Look at the following examples. Lesson z


my son your (sg.) son his son/her son our son your (p/. or

/peser-em/ fpesar-ntf , /pesar et/ /peser-re5/, /pesrer ei/ /peser emarr/ /pesrer-etan/

d,f r-+-l



/ Ul


,like child/children. We call them. There are, however, some exceptions these exceptional nouns irregular. Farsi is similar. Most nouns can be made plural by adding the suffix ta (A"D to them. Most nouns referring to human beings .urr.-ulrobe made plural by adding the suffix gl ganl) to them. The irregular plural forms in Farsi usually come from Arabic. Look at the following examples of regular plurals' FL ORMS PLURA THEIR N O U NA SN D SOME SINGULAR spouse fha,msarl ;*laA

.D al

3 I




v 4

l i
1' 7 D

PLU RAL spouses /hamser-ha/, ell-,P.ca /hremseer-an/ Ol Ji-'r^A fpeser-haf, /pesrer anI lxane-haf lrnard-hal, /mard-an/ lkif-hal frnada;r-haf, frnadar-anf ,\Y* OIY* lA +.lli etl't;'o UlJ;,r tA dS cla_;lL gl.;.tL

,'rti r-.rr-r

sg. full.l son

their son, his son/her (sg.fml.l son



boys, sons houses men

son houie man

fxanef lrrrerdl

a:U. a;^

perAs you can see,in this construction, instead of using the complete and (/Soma/)' L"l (/ma/), L sl (luh, ,on'ul pronouns c-F (lmenl), i 11to11, directly attach which versions, shortened their uulng 1*.rr v""n"r, we are endings and to the ends of nouns. These short forms are called possessive below are listed separatelY EI N POSSESS VD EINGS

bags mothers


k|f I



SINGULAR my your (rg.) |arnl l-a;tl, l-etl



and Indefinite

llouns 3n6 l-,; lral

your lpt. or sg.fml.l their, his/her (sg.fml)

i 6Ob : , c)-9^: f-elrnanf l-mrnl tJ-il t 6OU , f-etanf " l-etunl cJF t 6cJH t

d.r - rcLl -

, l-eftanf /-e5un/

his/ her/it

'6'l-a:(|, cfi = l-uil

A definite noun is a noun that is supposed to be known to both the speaker and the hearer at the time of the conversation; an indefinite noun isn't. For example,when a speakersays"'I met a man,"the speaker is mentioning the man for the first time and therefore usesthe indefinite article o before man, treatirrg man as an indefinite noun. The speaker This time, becausethe may then say,"Themanwas my old math teacher." as a definite noun is treated man before man the , speakerhas mentioned and takes the definite article thebefore it. Farsi is similar. An indefinite noun is followed by the indefinite suffix C9.For example, the word J-i (lmnrdll means man, so if you want to say that a man came,you say: ..ul qgr-;,. /merd-i amed./ A man came. In written Farsi, definite nouns don't have any markers. In spoken o; (l ell' language, a definite noun ends with the definite suffix oJ1n noieximple, in spoken and informal Farsi, the man would be ':-.2' (/merd/)' be (/merd-e/), but in formal written Farsi, it would iust 'iherefore, the sentence The man came in spoken Farsi would be:


,;.;;; ;.,,; ;;;


." ;';';';



i n e a c hc a s e . spelling Plurals

The word building is a singular noun that has a plural form, buildings, typically referring to more than one building. A noun is a word that In a sentence. of subject the be can and refers to a person,place,or thing -s or -esto suffix the adding by plural made be can English, most nouns

1---rsi Fa
2 I r,550n


.fe3l ol-,p /merd-e umed./ and in written language it would be: ..r.ol .r-.2o /merd amed./ Recall that many /a/ sounds turn into lulbefore lml and /n/ in spoken Farsi. If a noun is the obiect of a sentence (the person or thing that undergoes the action in the sentence), then it must be followed by the object marker, t) (lrall.In written language,using the object marker, l-1, after indefinite nouns is optional. In spoken language, l-1 is pronouncedJ) (lroll. Look at the following examples:

to have

/dabren/ (ldarll

(tl.) ,!.1'lr

= o
n o

in l, then we only N o t e :l f t h e w o r d b e f o r e the word,',."f gp6l5 Spelling write dr^1. Forexample, instead of writing: .,''",1 L +-p fr-,:.1 3l /u duts-e xub-e ma est./ He's our good friend. we write: .CJ-IU HJs fr^,,jJ -91



and we say: /u dust-e xub-e mast./

.e+ d sil-t csr.l.

/merd-i ra/ro mi-bin-am./ I see a man. ry .eJ# d l_,1 /merd ra mi-bin-em./ I see the man. (written) JJ ori /merd-e ro mi-bin-a-m.l I see the man. (spoken) .f+ d Pronunciation Note:/-e/ turns into /-a/ before/ro/. For instance, in the (/merd-e/) is pronounced o)-.,pc lastexample above, /mard-a/ because it l-,1(/ra/). precedes

2 H . C U T T U RT EO P I C2
As mentioned in Lesson r, it is important for Farsi speakersto use people's titles when speaking to or about them. The most common titles are these:

Pfof3ssor Mr. Ms.,Mrs.,Miss Dr., _doctol engineer

luqayel ix11om e/ /doktoy' /mohendes/

rti*f l -- :'--: cgl,il .

,'" t.t .'. -! .




Read the following passage about Shabnam, her husband, and their friend )im. Are there any words that you don't recognize? Underline The most common titles are agtil Taqa-ye/,Mr.) and $s (xanom-ef , Ms.), which can be used before a-nyman's or woman's name. For example, if someone'slast name is -,lE (beharll,you can addressthat person as Jh 6L!l yaqa-ye behar/) or Jh p.ils. flxanom-e behar/), depending on whether that person is a man or a woman. .lE-l (/ostad/,professor, master) is a title given to professors as well as to any skilled craftsperson or artist. Ui,rJlF (/mohendes/, engineer) is a title for people who have an engineering degree, and JrlS.l fldoktor/, doctor) is for people who have a doctorate degree.One can also use gl-51or iB bufote these titles. For example, if Jkl iB nur a doctoral degree,you can refer to and if her as Jk+ J3SJ p.rLr (/xanom-e doktor behar/, Dr. Ms. B_ahar), Jk+ cgl3l is an engineer,you can call him-.1Q CJ,,\ieo .gtil yaqa-yemohandes behar/, Engineer Mr. Bahar). It's also common in Farsi to address or refer to relatives by naming their relationship to us. For example, one might refer to his or her uncle or aunt as ,r.rL -5r"c (/amu mani/, Uncle Mani) or irr-,i aJLs Txale Sebnem/, Aunt Shabnam). z Lesson

: .eJlJ ir .#./ #$j OlJi )J A.,',.*l r+.,irJ. -e-l -,;'a-ejl )Jyl .''''"f .lL e 'la-e--e-,1i e.F-r.cr*"i.t.1E-,-lJ c.s5+ :u-l-il Jl #+..',.r1 eJ+Jl .e-l ..r.,J ctl;l +r lrElSjI cs+
.&*t-o -gF.rI;A ..',.uJJJl .JlS./ J$j :

My name is Shabnam. I live in Tehran. I have a husband. My husband's name is Mani. Today one of my husband's old friends is coming to Iran from Canada. His name is |im. fim lives in Toronto. He is a very good friend of ours.




ll yilrr Lililrr


wr.ll ttl wrilll

lrl tr.lr.t lo sonleone


love, you

r rrn \rrf tlrr.;x.rrtfn'rn.unr,rrrrrl lolkrw it with the word c.lb fljanf. for rfr\f ,rn(f ', Ob ./t- ()r ULF p$ ."., roughly be translated as d,earMani ,rrrrfrlrrrr Shtilnvtm,but it's not quite as formal as "dear" sounds in English. You usually use g$ in an informal conversation, not as the opening of a letter.

(ql- rJlK.4

eglrns) .Y sill

.D n


(.* .-r. e _.fAr) .r ,-i1l

=. =

A. Use the short version of possessivepronouns in the following phrases.

;jl -UJ'.iL.\ :kJ --.r! .t :-f .-riL .1

:0^ -Ol*


;t-1i.dlL- .f ;L -_Fi3 .o

coniugate the present tense form of theaerb q+a fldiden/, to see).Recalt ihit the present stem of the verb OliJ is L)# (/bini, see).Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb. The first one is done for you'

\..-l o

.f+cr't-rn .\

rl .f

B. Fill in the blanks using the words given. There are more words in the list than required. This is a vocabulary exercise,so you need to make sure that your selectionsyield meaningful sentences.

Ul .1
KEY AlISTIIIER Practice Comprehension A.z. B.3. C.z. D .r . E '3

ptlsK .r

le glr,^'r



l-1 (.,til







_! f.J-t .1

OtiILr .f c!_,!L .1

rj,iif,iil- 91 Ui,!J.$L.Y fll+.1 gL-:ii.r.o O1',,S-2{.1 4" .1 l-l .Y Ol.r"c;.Y Lr gl.t"; . \

C. For each of the items below, use the words in parenthesesto make two sentences, one with a singular indefinite object on the line labeled lill and one with a plural definite obiect on the line labeled $. Follow the example.

rJlK d


'f+# c/ lJ csit''iL 'r.ill b UrdL .e.l "l .er# cr. l-,2 .\ .qJ- eJlK c*l-tuil+.'-iJl l't gl4 .+ .qrit fJlK cr l-l

:(f+i.r^ .er# is+ lJ rr45 .sijl .er# cr' lJ Ll LigS .tf


(e++ .r 6dc"'iu)' \


.o f*rr.r^ . r+.r .Y ci+ c/ .Y

tx# .,4 .1 +p*.f

z Lesson

t r'

. . i


to reading papsager,in this lesson about Shabnam and her l"ftl the fu-ily. Then take your language iournal and,try to write a sirnilar paragraph in Farsi'about your own family. Be patient and creativ-e, and try to include as marrf femily rnernbers as you c;ut in your paragraph. Alternatively, you may draw your family tree and write eaeh persorCsname beside his or her relationship to you.

bedroom kitchen

Wherels My Room?

In this lesson,we will learn some names of rooms, some basic obiects, and colors. We also go over yes/no questions, demonstratives, and adfectives, and work a little with numbers.

lotaqxabl , f a6-pnz-xanef /a5-pez-xune/ lan-jal, lun-ial lin-ial /beferma-ydl, fbefa,rma-yinl Ita':ndtal /hemmam/, /hemum/ /drest-5u-yi/ /tabeqe-ye balal, /tebaqe-ye payin/ lqa:ia:ngl


c;l3A $Ef 6+:tijf..li

there here After you, Here you are. how many bathroom restroom upstairs, downstairs pretty

t+r:l ,t+rl


t' fit='l'ts'


ir#L/YU,.6 aiaL


Shabnam and fim have arrived home. |im will stay at the Payamis's house during his visit. Listen to their conversation as Shabnam shows |im around the house.


Lr 4iri * OJI.+Ji O*Jt^-,1rr1.\.


/xob. in hrem xune-ye ma. befermayrn (befermayid)./

6El E S .(+rt.r) uriJlr,r5oi! cg+.,_r= f (.r1l.t)o;l.r., ,lri.

/xune-ye qeireng-i dar-in (dar_id). dend ta otaq xab dar-e (dar_ed)f

:d+ :liiml

Shabnam: fim: Shabnam:

Three. The bedrooms are upstairs. What do you have downstairs? There is the restroom on the right. And here are the living room and the reception room. Where's the kitchen? On the left. And the dining room is in front. Where's the bathroom? Upstairs, at the end of the corridor.

= rD rD


.di*A Yl+ cs 4Et lA cJlJ: .!tjl .E e-,

/se ta. otaq xab-ha bala hest_en./


fim: Shabnam: fim: Shabnam: fim: Shabnam:

/tebeqe-ye payin di dar-in/ J clA * 1;.r1l .a*$J,ei-J ,',. olJ fr^.^r.l


:/Sabnem/ :lJ.': :ljiml


.a+ll++ Ct^,,

Where do I sleep? This room is yours. It's a largeroom! Yes.It has a beautiful view, too. The window is on that side.

/dest-e rast dest-bu-yi-e. inja hem hal o salon-e pezir a-yi-ye.f

|im: Shabnam:

fd.r-l+S 4iJi-;.,3'i
f al-prez-xune koia-st/


CL- g -9l_r_,r .15 gr^r.r

:tJ+ :liiml :i$

Comprehension Practice Answerthe followingquestions based the above dialogue. A. Wherearethe bedrooms?

/dest-e dap. ru-be-ruhem salon_e :/Sebnem/ nahar-xor-iye./ t9.s /hremmum koia-stf fC-l+S

.f ?? g:rs.:

Cl+"!cS4i+t . Y

Yt+cs4i+t. \

.:-Al-,r-Fl ,Yt+6 +iJ"

B. When |im wants to know where he sleeps, what does he ask?

Itebeqe-ye bala, ;rxer-e rah_ro.f :linbnemf

fe+lr- .,. l+3 ir

/men koja mi-xab-a-m?l .g$t^.-i -dt$L:l cJ"jf

.,,"b3 gr .r rele
J}.JJ .T

9d-,t+S lL"- . Y fo_,11"1 qrl3i 6til E +


C. How does Shabnam say on the right?


r',r,,1_,; f.l,.,.lJ.y




:il+'aJ.S. 'l ,.


D. Where is the bathroom in Shabnam'shouse?

/in otaq mal-e Soma-st./ :/Sebnem/


,Yq cs4fot .Y
:-Sl-,; -r-l

rCl+"!cS4iil" . \
,'r,"f-,; dlr.rj

tlSJ! clEl
/otaq-e bozorg-i-yelf

:liiml :$.&

E. How does fim say that his room is large?

1.. ci oJrla!. s .l

.4eJt U3l o+ .olll * a"t+;_,r 6 o_,4,^.tL

lbe.le. manzare-ye zlba-yi hem dar_e. :/Sabnem/ penjere un teref-e./


.,Jt-.lElOJI .Y

!tS-r-rl-dul . \

Shabnam: |im: Well, this is our house. After you. You have a pretty house. How many bedrooms does it have? room end

lotaql laxerl

J.l t I

Lesson 3

that this window to have (ldarlis the present stem) you have he/she/it has (on the) left (on the) right corridor beautiful reception room dining room

lanl, lunl linl lpa-nierel /da5t-en/(ldarl\ ldar-idl, ldar-inl ldar-el lda;-a"dl, /dest-e dep/ /dest-e rast/ lrahrol lzibal /salon-epezir-a-yif /salon-enahar xorif , /otaq-e nahar xori/ Itaeracfl /mal-e Soma/ fma,nzacref lhall

g3le gl ,'Ul

building chair kitchen cabinet furniture

/saxt-eman/ /sendeli/ /kabinete abpaz xanef flnvazern-emenzelf , /resas-e menzelf , /resas-e xane/ /ma5in-e zerf Suyi/ /maSin-e lebas Suyi/ /malafe, melhrefe/ fmrcnzelf lrrrizl fmiz-e nahar xori/

gLii- t-

(D .D 6

0 r-s,-lj
J " I

Ji,-' 4ilij+,il g+ls .clJn- -rjlj 4iti/dji. +81 ,-i-JrJi .gb!.it^

sJJ.d;"'it Or,Ll sJJ4i1,t ,+iX u.y jt^ qe-l-lijaE j;^


(tlr) 6i,'ilr c.rUlr c q-;l-r o_;lr, .:_;l.l

i-.s f.t^.r.1 '"'*lJ gJ^rJ

o o

dishwasher washing machine


sheet home, domicile table dining table


,-iJ$ \-.'i -dlL ';1JLL dt^
About the Persian Home Iranians revere elders and guests.When going through a door, for example, they always stop and let guests or elders go through first. Men also give way to women. The term that is equivalent to after you in Farsi and is used in a situation like this is.tpJ-A fbe-frerma-yid/). When two people are entering a house or a room, you will probably often see both of them stop and say +.t-J+ to the other. Elders also say this out of politeness to younger persons.When entering a home with a guest, Iranians usually open the door for the guest and let their guest enter first. Most Iranians cover the floors of their homes with hand-knotted Persian rugs, which they like to keep very clean, so be prepared to take off your shoes when entering an Iranian home. Iranians usually keep slippers around for entering bathrooms and kitchens. In most houses,people receivetheir guestsin a specialgreat room or area called Cf;{ .Cl* -,!El flotaq-e pezir-a1i/, reception roo1l),,r+l-l\ (lpazir-a-yif , re(/salon-e pezir-a-yif , reception hall), or simply (rflJi+ ception), where everybody sits on the nicest chairs in the house.This is different from a living room, which is called dl+l+ -q!El flotaq-e neSimen/). The reception room is reserved for receiving guests, and the living room is for the family' and casual gatherings. In some traditional or rural places,everybody sits on the floor, which is usually covered with hand-woven Persian rugs, too.

side yours view hall,living room

Now concentrate on some additional key phrases related to the topic of the lesson.

3 D . K E YP H R A S E S
apartment stove pillow blanket bed mattress toilet light,lamp yard door
**--*-i--- i

/aparteman/ loj"ql lbalell lpetul

ftextf , ftext-e xabf +l3i frrl

Ot4-,r\l 6l;f 1+ "Fliq


/tosek/ Itovaletl lbrasl lhnyall lderl

.5::,,3 cllj3 Ll;4 l1+Jr


Fa rsi

lcsson 3



UsingQuestionWords Questions
Questionswith questionwords are thosethat cannot be answeredwith yes or no.In English,most of thesequestionsstart with a word like what,who, why, where, when, or how. Unlike English, question words in Farsi don't have to come at the beginning of the sentence. They can appearwhere the answer would appear in a statement,at the end of the sentence.

f .D rD

Yesfllo Questions Yes/no questions are those that require a yes or no answer. These questions are the easiest to make in Farsi. In spoken language, you can make a yes/no question by changing only the intonafion (melody) of the sentence.A statement in Farsi ends with a falling intonation (i.e.,you lower your pitch at the end of the sentence),but a yes/ no question ends with a rising intonation (i.e.,you end the sentence with a higher tone). Look at the following examples: a.jt-;,t&i .d-,t;il f alpez-xane inja-st./ Here is the kitchen. fd.r.',,t+i;l 4ilAj:r,Si f alpaz-xane inja-st?/ Is the kitchen here?


o o

3 .{

fd'.,I+S csJ3ijnU _Olt*,,

/salon-e nahar-xor-i koja-stI Where is the dining room?

.c'-l++l csJJ:jAE _Ct^,,

/salon-e nahar-xor-i inja-st./ The dining room is here. f,"''"t+S,r.r rrfi-.) /dest-5u-yi koja-stf Where is the restroom? .4i-lJ f$rr ar.lE^ii-rJ61 .,',.u1 ("rvrlJ fr-r.l ,; c&i-rr /dest-5u-yi dest-e rast est./ or /dest 5u-yi dest-e rast-e./ The restroom is on the right. Ottor fc-r..,'*i ggl /in di-st| or /in c"-ye?l What is this? jf +l .r+_l_li'_,rLlEj+^ g,rl or .,',. g_.13s._,1b1-i /in miz-e nahar-xor-i-st./or fin miz-e nahar-xor-i-ye./ This is the/a dining table. fsl g;$3lor f rii,ol 4+ 1.61l /an-ha de hrest-end?l or /un-ha di-rend?/ What are they? f

.d"^,Yl+ ct 4i+t iJ^ -dtil

/otaq-e men trebeqe-ye bala-st./ My room is upstairs. c, a-ilJa dF -6Ul /otaq-e man tebeqe-ye bala-stf Is my room upstairs? In written or formal language,you should add the question particle, l:J (layall, to the beginning of the sentencein addition to using the rising intonation. Look at the following examples: .&r1+1 t^.,i L9 a.Js /xane-ye Somaanja-st./ Your house is there. fd!.,I-rii 1-.S g 4iLi. Lj /aya xane-ye Soma anja-st?/ Is your house there? . l$."{ ;l_,pl La$ /5oma iran-i hest-id./ You are lranian. fd!,,}+

, rrf Jrt.

/an-ha sendmli hast-end.l or lun-ha sendali-end./ They are chairs. /hal-e Soma de-tor est/ or /hal-e Soma (e-tor-e?l llow are you? c+ oS,dF dLr .{+J- dJ. .(-l[s, or. cLr^"1 /lraf-e mren xub est./ or lhal-e men xub-e./ l'm fine.

k :lor.J.ri*,rA J.:.-


?oJj$ L.,i -dlt or f ,',..,,,1 J,t'

t^^1, dL

f !t'"n al.xl 1..i tj

/aya Soma iran-i hest-id?/ Are you Iranian? The only difference between these questions and the previous set of questions is that the latter are formal and are used in writing.

Arfjectives are words that modify nouns. They are words like big, vnall, and round that help describe the properties of objects. In Engllsh, adjectivesprecedethe noun they modify. Farsi is the opposite. l,ike possessive adjectives, other adjectivesin Farsi follow the noun

hron 3

they are modifying, and they are linked together and to the noun with the vowel , (lell.For example, a large room in Farsi is

.3-,r: -dtll .!
/yek otaq-ebozorgf . When the preceding word ends in a vowel (e.g.,+rlA lxanell,then l-el appears as E (lyefi. For instance, a beautiful house in Farsi is h_l .,g +lLi'.! /yek xane-ye zibaf, and o beautiful big house is

saythe number and then mentionthe object. For object, Farsispeakers that, unlike in English, example,three tablesis Xrar (/se miz/). Notice y o u d o n ' t h a v et o p l u r a l i z e r h a n o n e ;t h a t t h e n o u n a f t e ra n u m b e rl a r g e t is, you say: J*".5* lyekrrrizl one table and jd^ 4^'.r lse rrlizl three tables and not tA-;^ 4.,, lsemiz-haf. Often, after the numeral, Farsi speakersuse the word.lrl (/aded/) or ti (ltafi as a counting unit for the object they are mentioning. For instance, Ji.e JJe 4-\t lse a,da,dmizl and jf. ti 4*^, f se ta mizf

f rD .D 6


o o

t+j f_1r.(., 4j1A.!

/yek xane-ye bozorg-e zibal. The ordering of adiectives is not fixed in Farsi. Therefore, when there is more than one adjective present, they can be ordered in a number of different ways.

l{umeralsand Partitives
Like adjectives,numerals can modify nouns. For example, instead of just talking about one table, we can mention two, three, or more tables. In Farsi, numerals come at the beginning of a noun phrase, iust like in English. OS -IO NUMBER



f j



both mean three tableq but literally they could be translated as three units of table. The word ti is informal, and JJs is more formal. The following is a summary of all this.


' i

/yek ketab/ one/a book ur.liJ _9.t /do ketab/ two books r-rEJ E 3.t /do ta ketab/ two books (infuLl cr.tl$ J'{c aJ /do aded ketab/ two books (frnl.) and not for people, Note::.ls (/edad/) is only usedfor non-livingobjects a n i m a l so , r plants.


lEeEl heftl lha,xtl lno}al ldre}al




eight . i rune

,'.,'i6 4.3


j ten a, . i.-****'




are written from leftto right,just like in English; in Farsi Note: Numerals to is written as \ .. When talking about more than one of any therefore, Fa rsi


Partitives are expressionsthat contain one of, two of, part of, some of, or the like. In Farsi,they are constructed as follows:

3G. READtilG
Read the following passageabout Shabnam and Mani's house

= .D .D

n o o


part of a number of a few of two of

lbaxl-i ezl fte'dad-i nzf /dend ta rezf

.r l *. Jl (5-uts.+ i jl

jl u+


one of

ldo taazl lqadr-i azl

il /ss\ E cJ ---jill.!

4*,' J +irt 3t k l-.S +rl-: .S_,;hhj _c,4.,L: .! dt^ J iS ,.,fl-.;g+C1*.',LJIA e.,+efi-,r.r;lJ c;lri1.3El UIl*^, JJ^ .! .rX$A dJ-""!g; +irt -.2r4jlsjtr.il J crJFJLaLr -d-r.t^-rjlJ .'''',+-,;yiJLaUCl^., -,rrl:: -csJJiJLaE Y\ cs +lJa -;.: t-l +l:= cjEl .$3-,A .<j^i! .,J;i GrL^J i+$ -dEl .,',.r1:-Sl-,r.,pl -,2-rel4r.$3."A .,+hj a; o-.;.LLeJ+ .r;lr * -t!=.! dL J i+^l .9 a1l-.r_2lr
Shabnam and Mani have a beautiful house. Their house has two floors and three bedrooms. The restroom, living room, reception room, dining room, and kitchen are downstairs. There is a large dining table in the dining room. Shabnam and Mani's furniture is very pretty. The bedrooms are upstairs. The bathroom is at the end of the corridor. |im's room has a beautiful view. Shabnam and Mani's house has a yard, too.

riiti" "i*

lkr:m-i ezl




$: x

Study the following examples:

.d-,'l+ll ta 6El jl .*
lyek-i ez otaq-hain-ja-st./ One of the rooms is here. . rii..,{ Yl{ Lajr jl E 3.: /do ta ez miz-habala hest-end./ TWo of the tables are upstairs.

EO P T C 2 ! H . C U T T U RT
Architecture in lran

.$i$A .3t:

jl E + ta gt-o3-.;tr.i

/dend ta ez aparteman-habozorg hest-and./ Some (a number) of the apartments are large. .eJ,r#./ lJ Ll Ul-ii[-, jl grlrri /te'dad-i ez saxt-eman-hara mi-bin-im./ We see a few of the buildings. .d!.1 .t+JU dlA jl ,r,lf+ /bex5-i ez xan-e tarik est./ Part of the house is dark. Note:e!-,18 (/tarik/)meansdork. Vocabulary

There is archaeologicalevidence that architecture and urban planning date back ten thousand years in Persia.Persians, who used mathematics and geometry in architecture, had a great and widespread architectural influence on the ancient world. The two original designers of the city of Baghdad,for instance, were both Persian.Iran is among the top ten nations in the world in terms of its number of ancient architectural sites and has been labeled one of the "cradles of civilization" bv the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

A. Make questions using the question markers or question words given. TWo are done for you as examples. Examples: 9db'l+S .,.r Eii-J :(l;S e.r.r "$i-.t)

f$."A l;4l Ltr61-:l (Lj) :(l+41 61^ JUI)

:(1;S eta.rJrt. ) . \


rsi Fa

Lesson 3


f f f

:(l*-j.l .c-9-D-JtaUjJ^) . Y :(r.5; su."l) .f

Comprehension practice A.r B.3 C.z D.z E.r

.D 6

= -

:(u+'tdl) 't
:(1;S eb ,.rlrA 6Ul) .o

o o

f f

:(t++l'rL".) .1 gll^^, ,ta-,*^) .V :(.r+l;+ -2.t

Exercises A.
f rii. o l.,-SlA Jl,. .\

B. Change the second sentencein the example below using the phrase givThe first one is done as an example. en in parentheses. Examples:

9c!,I+irl r.s_)JiJnE_rr (t-,) .t !o+ +ts1!.',.",,r. .f OJI

fJlii 1.6-rjlor! ri'i,,,..r t4.ii . t f$iaA l+S 14 r=rl-9icrtil .o 9dr.,I+-i;l d-- (LlD .l f ri1.-{ c;l:* B. r-rlt*,_! te;p. (l+D .V

.-,, iltr*fffii$
:(#) :(H)

:('+i) . ' l :(et+) . Y

.o .1 V

:(til.,.) . t

.d-,1 #

gi . \ .dl- l+j _,381 .dul p5 -cj- t+j -citjl ui . Y .dr^.'l p;; -dL Uj _j*. Oi .f .'"'"'l l*+ -dl- $l+ -.;,'OI .t .d&il4.i.cJ- Jtl+ -jJ^ OI .o 4fuS .d!,14^i-dt_j;.oOi .1

:(J.'t' )
C. Write these numerals in words.
/t( a

.C!.'t4^i.dt +td -t.:i.C.

Oi .V


D. How would you say these sentencesin Farsi? r. Two of the girls are here.



4+.'.f , " ' . ? . i. I

j.Y clii .v

1 Lrllrl

'l t

oi.\ . D.

43 1


z. A number of the chairs are old.

3. A few of the rooms are dark. 4. Part of the building is new. 5. Three of the tables are large.

. rii."{ l+ll LA-$.: jl E 3l . \ . rii."{ 4ig(lA J,',. jl g.:l.rri .y tA 6El jl ti + .f . ri'i."{ .!Ji .cr-l -i gt cit.l jl (J*i3+ . t rii,,,'r .(_l-,1 ta;g. jl E a*,,.o .




lnron 3



What's He Doing?
In this lesson you will learn about daily routines, some verb forms, the present progressive tense, and how to tell time. You will also learn a little bit about Mani and how he spends his days. But first, let's warm up a little.

my dear What time is it? It's eight o'clock. f'aziz-emf /sa'et dend-ef haSt-e./ f sa'a-t

!s ri-d!l-, I

.4i.&i d6l^.' f.jS What are you doing? /de kar dar-imi-kon-i/ c/ 6Jlr JtS 4? to make tea to have breakfast iJrJS c*']3 .gb ''F 4jts|.a /sobh-anexord-an/ (-le) Ol /day dorost kerd-en/

It's the morning after fim has arrived in Tehran. Shabnam is in the kitchen as Mani walks in. Listen to them talking about fim and Farhad.

!-r*i+ e*

:/5ebnrem/ :clt.c

f'$i s;l*,, .#i,d;

a,ziz-em. sa'etdand-e/ /srelam, fd.b't+3 p5 .eii6 crcl*.'
/sa'et hreSt-e.jim koja-st/

:lrr'anil :i$

.(.r;$,;"cFlr.l_21.r) o-# r_;c-Flr o_;hi,r+ fd3 (r' 13Jh JIS 4+ -^---"t40i



rsi Fa

/jim dar-e (dar-ed) du5 mi-gir-e (mi-gir-ed). de kar dar-i mi-kon-if


Shabnam: Mani:

What time does he have class? At half past ten. Here's fim. He's coming. Practice

= 5 J

OJ -!

fcg-.1-l-./ .i3

.r" d-,,']3 cs$ p-2b

:il+:/Sebnam/ :dl:lmanil





/dar-rem day dorost mi-kon-em. mi-xor-i/


(*t;=.r) el_n a .6i:;,r:

.e; ei+ dLsri-

'J+ l+

Com prehension

fel'an ne, mremnun. mi-xa-m (mi-xah-am) ba jim sobh-ane be-xor-em./

Answer the following questions based on the dialogue that you just heard. A.At what time is the conversation between shabnam and Mani taking place?


JIS4+ rby

:d+:/Sebnem/ :dl-


lferhaddekar mi-kon-ef .r-;l-r)4'-s e.Sl ..r+ o-,1lr .q;-9''3'3-i33

.(S-l .r-.Sl o^""o

a# _roi gtil*^' .f
B. What is ]im doing?



,',.1i ti;l-


t.Sl .."f o-,1l_.r p5.y .+r-,1 cf

o rl.l .:Ll 'l I .$j ;.sl -};
D.Where is Farhad? .d!.1 4jt.i,jd.&l Ji.f

cfi:r o_;lrd+ .1 .o-15 c+

p;; .y ci_lr o-,1!r o H5. /

c9$ o_2h al+ .\ .4K .,- d"..,]3 6+tiJYl .l

/tu dest-5u-yi-ye. dar-e (dar-ed) mesvak mi-zen-e (mi-zen-ed)./


c. what does Mani say when shabnam asks him if he wants some tea?

fo_21.t LJ")S + "rrU

/de sa'eti kelas dar-e?/

:t.t+:/Sebnem :crt-c :lmanil


.e# : oi g3tl^^,
/sa'at-e deh o nim./

.4-cl.^r 3ll .Y


Ji . \

E. When Shabnam sees|im coming, what does she say?

.fri+ * OJI .(r"!" r_;lr) .r!^ o_,11.r

/5in hrem lim. dar-e mi-yad (mi-ay-ad)./


c9$ o-;1.: i"+ .r .oJ c's'cs-c

.$^ o-2lr d+ .y

o_2b e+ . \ .SlJ,^". .4!_,1 c+

/tu/, and it's a preposition meaning l{ote:TheworOi hereis pronounced person t h e s a m ea st h e s e c o n d F a r s il.t i s s p e l l e d i n t h a t i s u s e di n s p o k e n different singularpronoun-ri (ttol, you), but they are two completely words.

' { - c .U o c A B U t A R Y
tea to want (want)

lhyl (lxahl) fxast-enf (lxorll lxord-enl /dasran/(ldarl)

cab ("lri) dF-lF

(-l:-) c.l.r-l-r-

Shabnam: Mani: Shabnam: Mani: Shabnam:

Good morning! Hello, my dear. What time is it? It's eight o'clock.Where's fim? fim is taking a shower. What are you doing? I'm making tea. Would you like some? (Ilr., Do you eat?) Not now, thanks. I want to have breakfast with fim. What's Farhad doing? He's in the restroom. He's brushing his teeth.

to eat (eatl (colloq., a/so to drink) to have (present progressive marker) (have) clock, watch morning breakfast dear toothbrush

(Jh) o$l-)

fsa'a-tf lsobhl
/sobhane/ f'nzizf /mesvak/



Mani: Shabnam: Mani: 42 rsi Fa

.51 ...y.

lcsson 4

ItlliTt r'-




to brush (one's teeth) to have lunch

/mesvak kerd-ren/, /mesvak za'.d-a;nf /nahar xord-an/ /negah kerd-an/ /nuSid-en/

OijlO-:_.F.Sl ..-^+ UJJJs' -rlaU g.r;S otS;

gt*1.?ri )il9


v! (D I


news to wake up (/1t.,to rise from sleep) (become) to go to work to shave television to watch to have tea, to drink tea to take a bath lexbarl f ez xab bolend 5od-en/ (/5o/) /(be) sar-e kar reft-en/ /tera5-id-en/ Iteleviziyunl /temaba kard-en/ /day nuS-id-an/, /day xord-en/ /hemmam kardacnf, fhnrnmam gereft-ren/ /xo5k/ /xo5k kerd-en/ lxab-id-enl fxand-a:nf (lxanl)

to look, to watch

o. oq

JliI slj +l:- -ll

to drink every day


fhr- ruzf

OJT}"JJ OrJSLil-I O.r-l-F/O+ "-r,csb

T O P I CI r-E. CUtTURE Affinity Expressions

Farsi is full of idioms expressingcontentment, or one's love or fondness for another.We've already ,u"r i couple of those-i-lt+ (liunldear), as in Ol+ i.d flSebnem jan/), and 3-r*f (leziz-nml, my dear/my darling). like If you're around Farsi speakersa lot, you probably.hear exgSessions d.,i-l+;fi Tqoruan-et be-r-emfl ani pg tj,li ,Ol+j3 flqorban-e e; Soma be-r-am/). These expressions,if translated literally, mean something close to May I get sacrificed for you, which may sound a little extreme. These are very old expressions,and nobody really means them that way. Their use, depending on the situation, has a wide range of meanings, from a simple greeting to an expressionof deep love. If a person says.to an lcquaintance, at the beginning or end of a conversation, ta-l -Ot+-lJ (/qorban-e Somabe-r-am/), and mixes it with the rest of lJ:+ his or her greetings,the expression will simply serve the same purpose as Nfce to see you does in English. But if a parent walks by his or her child, who is doing 91 sayjng something cute, and says to the child in (/qorbun-et be-r-em/), then that expression a loving tone, p-)* ctJ-)l servesthe same purpose as I love you does in English. Another very common Farsi term is a+ a+ Ub*tt beh/). This is a general term of contentment. If you walk into the kitchen and smell the appetizing scent of a home-cooked meal and you'fe hungry you might say 4i a{ (&ah beh/) or sometimes just a single ) (lbehll.If you go outside in the morning and feel the fresh air, you're likely to do the same. If you see someoneyou like and you are happy to seethat person, you will also say t t, and so on. This term is very widely used to express that you like what you see,hear, smell, touch, or taste.

o"3o.-,rS rL".5,1'3. Or-,1S.S,fA o+lF (Ol:=)O$lF



to dry
to sleep to read (read) hand shower to take a shower newspaper dinner to have dinner night to wash to have breakfast face to shave (one's face) noon afternoon

ldestl /du5/ /du5 gereft-en/ f rtznamef l(taml /Samxord-en/ lY;a"bl /5ost-en/

/sobhane xord-en/

ci-lr O"-F ,-F-1. a-.Lij_l_l

c.r.:-l:i fB I$
)?' .* CJ|J.'Ju.t


cJJ tJs 4it-+',a

ls;.na;tl /suret treraSid-en/ lzohrl f'esrf

6-si,'-. O+$l-i d.r rJ*-a -t+L

ItF. GRAMIIAR Uerb Forms

aspects, The Farsi verb comes in several forms indicating different tenses, and moods.The tense of a verb corresponds to the time of the action (i.e., past, present, or future). The aspectof a verb refers to the completenessor incompleteness of the action. For example,I am reading this book is in the


Lesson 4



progressiveospect,meaning that it refers to an action that is in progress, whereas I have read this book is in the perfect aspect, meaning that it refers to a completed action. I read the paper every day is in the habitual aspectbecatseit refers to an action that habitually takes place' In this lesson we look at the present, past, and infinitival forms of verbs. All verbs in Farsi have a stem, and all of the different verb forms are made by adding plefixes and suffixes to the stem. For example, the stem of jump is )t (lperll. You can change this stem into the past tense by adding the suffix +- (/-id/) to it. (Note the resemblanceto the English -ed.llumped in Farsi is then'tf-){ (/prer-id/). In lesson r, we talked about the present tense. Let's look at it again. we said that present habitual is made with c/ (l^"fi plus the present stem j.lpa':rl,j.t-p) and the personalendings' of the verb (e.g., PL RESENTTENSE HABITUA VERB THE O+Ji (/par-id-an/, to jump)lNTHE

ilote: The pronunciation of JJ changes from /do/ in the present tenseto /dav/ in the past tense in formal language. ln colloquialspeech, {3J (/dev-id/) is pronounced /do-id/. IRRE6ULA PR RESEN T DP A SV AN TE R B STEMS


t1 fD


.1rS do lkalrd,l io-1.s-.T:::r**..,.............................................:...**-----**r^-::_:r::** ; eaid lgoftl dris

', '*



j r i,r*p L:""'you (sgJiump




rst person znd person 3rd person

it 6f c



i t'"/tl"# iyryps
we iump

6iti ' J;4 ase

It is interesting to see that all of these Farsi irregular verbs are also irregular in English. I NF I N ITIVE

E e



znd person 3rd person

i ttrey;ump

lnri-pa;r-alnd,l $+.f

The infinitive form of the verb, like tg iump or to do, is made with the gasJ$ery of the verb plus the suffix ti (-anll.Therefore, to jumpwould be u*J-r (/par-id-en/). Here is a list of the infinitive forms of the verbs mentioned above. SOME INFINITIVES /per-id-en/ lxar-id-alnl

As explained before, past verbs are made by adding the suffix J5 fl-id/) to the end of the present stem in a manner similar to the English formation of iumpedfrom jump. Also as in English and in other languages,Farsi has a number of irregular verbs, which don't follow this nice and simple general rule. What's the past tense form of do in English? It's did, not doed. In Farsi,too, the past tense of 03 (konl, do) is irregular. It's .t iS (lkerdl, did). Here are some examples of regular and irregular verb stems. VERBSTEMS AND PAST PRESENT REGULAR

ldav-id-rlnl lralft-alnl l6od-alnl




i -9::rlt' /**'-id-/
tatt i i-ldav-id,l lruy-id,l lmal-id I : gew , rubbed
i :




!"JA-_*-__-" **-T*i*t-*-'** |yy_

i"t ; i *"'






Jlote:In the vocabulary listsand the glossary, the present stems of irregular verbsare providedin parentheses besidethe infinitiveform of the verb to that you know you are dealingwith an irregular verb and can learnits presentstem form.


PRESEN PR T OGRESSIVE As mentioned above, the progressive aspect refers to an action or processin progress.The present progressiveis used to talk about an action that is in progress at the time of speaking. The present progressiye in spoken Farsi is made with the present form of the auxiliary verb ,.F$lr (/dait-ren/) plus the present habitual form of the main verb. Both the auxiliary verb +i-&lr and the main verb inflect for tense and person. See the following example: eJJ- d eJlJ y'dar-em mi-xor-em/ I am eating/I am having ciJF c/ cgJlr ldar-i mi-xor-i/ you are eating/you are having .r- r-,1l.l .r-o o-1lr I {Sf /dar-ed mi-xor-ed/, f dar-emi-xor-e/ he/she/it is eating; he/she/it is having oJF eUF c5^ dJlr /dar-im mi-xor-im/ we are eating/we are having OJ 'F c/ UJJII /+-l-l- cf r;-.lb /dar-id mi-xor-id/, /dar-in mi-xor-in/ yott (pl. or sg.fml.l are eating/you (p/. or sg.fml.) are having S-,;b O-l-l- d UJh /S-,r'9i.r/dar-end mi-xor-end/, /dar-ren mi-xor-en/ they (p/. or sg.fmll are eating/they (p/. or sg.fml.l are having Notice that the vslf gJJJa means both to eat and to have,as in to have breakfast or to have some tea.In the beginning dialogue of this lesson, we hear Shabnam say /dar-rem cay oorost ml-Kon-am./ I am making tea. Let's conjugate the compound verb giJS d-.]'a (/dorost kerd-an/, to make) with the object O\ (lUVl, tea). Recall that we can drop the subject in Farsi; therefore, all of the following forms are also complete sentencesin Farsi.

THE VERB dorost oils c-,]i csL; (reay kard-an/, to make tea)rN THE PRESE N T P R O6RESSIVE
i l



r I am making tea.

-1 You (sg.)are
making tea. ; He/She is : making tea.

lhy dar-am dorost mi-kon-am./ /day dar-i dorost mikon-i./ fday dar-red dorost mi-kon-ed.l, ltay dar-e dorost mi-kon-e./ /day dar-im dorost mi kon-im./


fJlr cgb
. . . . . . ....1 ..\



o. 3

,r-r cLru_2.t cSllJ cgb , _'g r'r."_.1J.t;l.t qrLr o_;l.rqgtr / .S .*

.4jS .,. r'r.n;J


We are making .Iea: You (pl.) are making tea. They are making tea.


dJh cab


r',.rr_,;J /day dar-id dorost arr -JUh Crl+ mi-kon-id.l, ltay daru-,rl.r 19b/ .+ps in dorosl lqi-kon in./ .d;iriS s- dru_;J ftay dar-end dorost mi-kon-and.l, ltay dar-aen dorost mi -kon-en./
t'r."_,;J .rr_;b 1.9L:

clJl.r13b /..ir( .r i : .c6 ar """-,;J

N o t e :I n t h i s s e n t e n c e t, h e o b j e c tm a y a l s oa p p e a r between the auxiliary verb, o3.ih (/dait-en/), and the main verb, oJJs.-'.,rJr (/dorostkerden/), asin the following example: llumbers tr-2o

The numbers eleven through twenty in Farsi are as follows: NUMBER r tS -r_1-

-.l5 .r

S*,ilce$ p;l.r

elew-en twelve

lya;z!,reh1 ldavazdahl -

:ijrd o.l_,1fri

ll 1Y

fourtegn fifteen sixtggn sevp _tgen eighteen nineteen

7t*ft"tJ*ft7 lV,arlzda;h.l /Sanzdehl /hefdahl lheidahl lnuzdre}l'l


rlr\ oi;1"i fret oJ+t ;1jj

ltt It

\9 i

t t





----t-** L8 i uti



Farsi hsson 4


Telling Time
we are going to learn how to tell time in Farsi' In the first In this section, dialogue of this lesson, we heard Shabnam and Mani talk about time' We heard them say eight o'clock and half past ten. Let's now learn how we can tell other times. Exact hours areeasy.If it's one o'clock,you iust say: .4'Y d6t-, fsa'etyek-e/ or, in written language,You write:

can say: .e-+ _l oJ_,;ljJ."'e 111 fsa'at devazdeh o nim-e./ and you can write: .d-,1 #3oJ_,;l3JC.lc1.,, /sa'et devazdeh o nim ast./ Quarteris $) say: ftob'l) in Farsi.Therefore, if it's a quarter after one, you

OJ .t

E 5

rD I o. f oc|

.qi r.!
and so on.


.d-'l .!


f sa'at yek o rob'-e.f

/sa'et yek ast./ If it's two o'clock,you say: .03.: dllt ^' /sa'et do-e.l or you write: ..',.',rl JJ f sa'at do est./ The same system is used until twelve o'clock, at which time you say: g;l*.,

If it's a quarter to one, you say:

.+r; + 6;l.!


/sa'et yek rob'be yek-e./ and if it's a quarter to four, you say: crc,l*,, .oJ14;.+ g].! /sa'et yek rob'be dehar-e./ and so on. Minute in Farsi is +ilsi (/deqiqe/). If it's ten after one, you say: .."r."14f$.1 oJ 3 el; .',e14.1 /sa'et yek o dah deqiqe ast./ and if it's ten to one, you say: .d-.,1 .5+ q +i$.t oJ clrcl*.' fsa'et deh daqiqe be yek est./ and so on. Look at the following examples: .C-'l .5+ d6t-, f sa'etyek ast./ It's one o'clock. .g-l f# 3 oljl3.l d.rc1t,, fsa'at devazdah o nim ast./ It's half past twelve.

.4^ijlri &al.,.
/sa'et devazdeh-e./ or you write: .cul oijl3i d6l*,, /sa'et devazdeh est'/ Hatf inFarsi is p# (/nim/). If it's half past one, you should say:

.e.+ -1.! d-t-

/sa'at yek o nim-e./ and you should write: .d-'l #J4dreLf sa'ntyek o nim ast./ If it's half past two, You say: .+.+ -l j.: dsl^.r f sa'etdo o nim-e./ and you write: .C*l #j3Jdret-r /sa'et'do va nim est./ You continue in the same way until half past twelve, at which time you

.Cr.,t E+i 3 -9.rd.lcL /sa'et do vo rob'est./ It's a quarter after two. 4^r144 C-l*.r .r'rr,,ul e_1.! yek rob'be se ast./ /sa'et It's a quarter to three.

lesson 4

4i$i oi 3 ar..",al*,1 .C!,,,1 /sa'et se vo deh deqiqe est./ It's ten after three. .C-,1 _,rb q +i$,',...jt C.lct/sa'et bist deqiqe be dahar est./ It's twenty to four. When you want to say something like at four o'clock or at half pastfive in Farsi,you should say: major Iranian cities that are inland are built on the edge of desertsnear rivers. This dry climate has made water extremely important in the Iranian culture, more so than in European cultures. water symbolizes life. That is why the English expression a rainy day doesnot translate well into Farsi. Iranians would consider a rainy day a good day becauserain produces an abundanceof water. The word for waierin Farsi is!J 1/ab/), and you can seethe importance of water in the culture when you look all of the words that are derived from r_ri. For exampl", j+l (ab_adfi refers to a thriving and prosperous place, and the wor_d 19.rtrjiTut-ua-i/;*.urm town or village. Another good example is ;hlal flab-ad-an-i/),which refers to civic development and prosperity. All of these words hint at how significant water has been in persian history and culture.

l d

ll o I IE lo

ioq i.{

_lk- f-L_li
/der sa'et-e dehar/ at four o'clock or:

f# r ei g-l*.r -li
penj o nim/ /der sa'ret-e at half past five The preposition -,yi in spoken language is optional.

A. Make sentencesin the present progressivetense using the words in parentheses.The first one is done for you as an example. Example: .rJF s. 4il.rlo erf.: cl^ (oi-lF :(d$lF arr- 1. ega)

Readthe following paragraph about Mani's daily routine. How different is it from vours?

uEj3_,1 cg,e) . l

cjf) . Y :(cli-t-r- -.feE eL) :(F-5.i:.r

rJA -drJJ'^a:l.lF .,. Jl+ di grlL- j _lsl>n ;U .UJi .,- 4jl-:+L i$ l.,'J US cr cFlr e-r^il_.!,e l_l jl + .i:_l ,+ JtS -j* a..: Sj s^ .51 0..,,.o jl &+ e41Lr.r*o r-lh ;L d}l .rjlJA c/ 4-t jJJ J !j tuLi' +r. e .'. _,;tS ,lr( ./ Lil-i OJ"TJJJ,
Every day Mani wakes up at six o'clock. He shaves (his face), . takes a shower, and has breakfast with Shabnam. After breakfast, he brushes (his teeth) and goes to work. After work, he comes i home and reads the newspaper. Right noq Mani is watching television. l

:(OJJS ,''.'JJ.9b

.-1ll) f .

:(O+ri 6l-'t) . o :(dliJ,bD . 1

:(Oi-l-l- eB ,.1 ) V

B. Ask what each person is doing by changing the last sentence,using the words in parentheses. The first one is done for you as an example.

ExamPle: 9+i5:r JtS .,Jrr Jts + -il 6-) f#.r g_;l.rtai 01 f rJr(cr .:ul.: JIS 4t L...i

1 1 H . C U T T U RT EO P I C2
The Significance of Water in the lranian Culture Mostof Iran hasa dry climate. NorthernIran meets the Caspian Sea, and the southis bordered by the Persian Gulf and the Arabian sea.These two areas arehumid,but most of centralIran is arid.That is why most


(sD .,t

r--rf lesson 4

(e$) .r
(iF) .t
(rl) .o

Fa rsi

C. Write what time it is using the information provided in parentheses, as in the example below. Example: .dr^.,l4i$i,',.,!,, J .! dri,l*^' (. \ :Y . )

L.i .o ..tr._lr cs. q_21.: l.6,l'i ri-;lr .1 .JIJJ,rr .p-lJ= c/ lL& p;ll.: 6 .V B. ! rii'( cr' JtS l; .rt-;l.rt+ry frufu^ $-,11.: -,fS bl .l

o, t

.D g


( ' \ " : Y ' ) .\ .1:\o).Y \Y:..) .o:fo)

(. A.o.)

.f .f

fr$s (r' Jls ,*r'. L/ ffrS cr' ppl.tJls L .Y fiis d JISe= .r;1.: JIS+ i,'.i .f i+V tS,r.c .:_;l.r fiis cr' JIS ett. i,1./ faS cr' p.,;lr JtS gr .t
f \-r< d Jll fJtS .r.c .r_;1.: JIS r= .:_21.r JLSrl Jl .o

(.1;\Y) .1 ( . |\ ' o o ) . v
D. Complete the following dialogue using the words listed below.


rrJri.r" (o) rls .r (1) p*(r) .r (Y) OrL. (l ) "5 q'iS.r (v) 'tS .r. (1) lilb

.d-,1 # -9t*,, cGL* . .c-'t 6li J uiri draL . oijlJi d;L- .' ..",."1 4+ d.6L- . .dr.,| r&i e.t.! ..',."f4-l a++irll ai d.rtL .
.dl-l 4i$i o.r_,113.r J J1-3; dlil*.^, .

.cr^,'loijl_ei4+4$i i

crirL^" .

eptl" -eill

a-e_;l.r _115 -,-.ilf ,',.UJ gl$ p-1l.t -r-r

lil.',- cPtl"-r-il|

9_(Y)_ ._(t)_ f_(v)_ q -eill csJlr _;tS r",.._,;J cr$ p:h -+ o_;l.t _,fS # -.Jl
cJiJ.t o_;ll -.,.

f_4ils+.cil.: o-lll -r.,.r -Lill e,+\ -qr


A]ISWER KEY prehension Com Practice

A.r B.z C.r D.r

!-(".f (-rT".i

Exercises A.
.-lJi cf a,oEj_l_f pJb rF . \

. I.ID D E I IlT L G { EPEN C A 1 {E I |H 'tL LL L fIt E lrL

i;:1,--' -,:---lf


..]S cs- d:l

.l_;l-r 3l .Y

,hrrrO of fo,r, own daily routine and how it differs from Mani's. , Write a pararaphin your language iournal in Farsidescribingyour

.IJJJ= c/ JlnU 6-rh L .f ."+S .f ,',. "]'J 19b 19JlJJi . t

dailyrll tr".



Today,Farhad, Mani and Shabnam'sson, is at the university. This gives us a chance to learn a few school-related terms. We will also learn how to negate verbs and use simple past tense and prepositional phrases in Farsi. Are you ready?

to take (a course), to pick up let's go instead of it semester, term How about you? to know (know) course,lesson Farsi language and literature class Me, too.

/ber dadt-ren/ fbe-rav-imf, lbe-r-iml

Oj^tll; d-l+ 6tCJ-t+

lbeja-ya:El, lbeja-51
Iterml Ito te-tor?l /danest-an/(/dan/) ldersl f zeban o edabiyat-e farsi/ /kelas/ fmelnhem hamintor./

,-rtt+q ,r.$l+ +.,


gJrt+ ri (Ot) Oi^,il-:

(}Ji (#Jti $it#rl J Ol+j 1;r")$ .J-J"ir"A * Ct

58. DtAtOGUE
Farhad is waiting in a hallway at school for his classto begin. He is talking to an old classmateof his. Listen to them catching up. f,r-CS cr. JIS +; l;j;l !4j.i-.19cp)*' :rtAj :lferhadl

/srelam, fere5teh! in-ja de kar mi-kon-if

-f .+"i e*)$ .,;}nLir ..rleJ ep)-,

f6_;l.r gn)S * /salam, ferhad. men montzer_e kelas_em hest-rem.to hem kelas dar-i?l fJrAi -f ..+_lLi t+lif : r_,rt+j .o_li fare.zaban o edabiyat_efars_i. to de_torfl f1$ giji-f 1.r.itl .r.).++r .,- lJJL_tr.A * cl. lmen hem hamin_tor! mi_dun_i (mi_dan_i) ostad_eb kr_ye?l


Farhad: Fereshteh: Farhad: Fereshteh: Farhad:


Yeah.-Farsi language and literature. How about you? it? (/it., Do you Me, too! Do you know who teaches know who its professoris?) No, I don't know. What other coursesdo you have this semester? and English.How aboutyou? History mathematics, I havehistory too. I don't have English this semester. I took biology.
How about math? Don't you have math? No, I took an engineering course instead. Okay, the class is starting. Let's go in. Yeah,let's go.

a+ rD G 5 fD

:fereEte/ :JAJS :lferhadl :{uS-.19 :lfere{tef :ie-p :lferhadl :43eJ9 :fereSte/


4. ej d;l . (ptr.+)l:.r *"$ ,i I6_;t.r,Jerrui b

/ne, ne-mi-dun-em(ne_mi_dan_m). in term dige deders-ha-p dar_i?l

Farhad: Fereshteh: Farhad:

lJJh rt .**;tfuJ J cil+,,:l+J,e,Jtj

ftarix, riyaziyat o engelisi. to de_tor?/

.rJli,r*,Jfuf e-udjt .a_;f.r g+_tE * ir^

.efih_r'd"Li d$gj fmen hem tarix dar-em. in term engelis_i ne-dar_am. zist_ienas_ibar da5t]em./ 919_21.r-,r -;l-p tl &f ,r*a!_1

Practice Comprehension
Answer the questions based on the dialogue above. A. How does Fereshtehtell Farhad that she'swaiting for her class?

:45.i; :ffere{tef :tLA-,1s

t_s$ oJlruJS.y

+)S - Jr:.r-;,p.r
.aJ.d for?

. 'At"l

P iF .\

f riyazi de_tor? riyazi ne_dar_i/ .#f.j 1.5+"16-o -1-rJr 4+ Lil+ { .al

B. What class are Fereshteh and Farhad waiting

Crt*.bl+J .f

g*,lE .r c#JU +t++rlJ Ol+j . \

fne.,beja-b ye ders_e mohendes_i ber_daSt_em./


C. What other academic subject do Farhad and Fereshtehhave in common this semester?

6-)E .r
d^Jti .f

.Y s-,U.i,',,,Uj
,-'jful .t

,*jfut .t
c"""$A ,g,.'Jl .-f+ . \


di 1,t:-,lii o_;hg,)S 6+ri

D. What course has Farhad taken instead of math?

.y c-x.(.s."^
to-21 'P;-')t1 f are,be_r_im.l

fxob, kelas dar-e boru,mi_be (Ioru, mi_iev_ed). be_r_imtu./


literature English history


lednb-iyatl /engelis-i/ Itarixl ldigerl,ldigel lriyazil lriyaziyatl



. l .

Farhad: Fereshteh:

Hi, Fereshteh! What are you doing here? Hi, Farhad. I'm waiting for my class. Do you have class,too?

other math mathematics

eSJu a31r ,-;$r ,r..-!-,1 C.l+,':l+-l

Lesson 5

language, tongue biology to begin natural sciences Farsi, Persian engineering too, also the same

lze.banl /zist Senasi/ /Soru'5od-en/ /olum-e tabi'i/ lfars-il /mohendes-i/ lhacml /hemin-tor/
.'.li -

.,*,,ti.& d!l;j

bachelor's degree

/isans/, /kar5enas-i/

r,O-L";l c#l+i-iS

J (D

u.'lrl' cJJ$

teacher trigonometry engineer unit, credit unit geometry What university do you go to? I go to the University of Tehran.

/mo'rellem/ /mosellesat/ /mohrendes/ lvahedl /hendese/ /be kodam dane5gah mi- rev-id (mi-rev-in)?/ fmenbe daneSgah-e tehran mirav-em (mir-am)./ /daneSju-ye de re5teyi hest-idf /de re5te-yi mixan-id?/


ID vl




dr$a *

.r-ool5liih rlr5 a+ f(cr":J.r) t"-l-l olK,illr 4r ,'r

5 t t . K E V P HR A S E S
algebra geography

ist e oljij
.(p-l cr) csj+-l'if') ! ul'"t s9la-i'-i; cgl aj.,i", f+rl;= .f

ljabrl lioqrafiyal, ljoqrafil /taxte siyah/ ldaneil /daneS amuzf /dane5-ju/ /dane5-kede/ /dane5-gah/ ldalfta'rl /doktora/ lreitel /zist Senas/ lsimil /olum-e ejtema'i/ /olum-e ensani/ lfoq-elisans/, /karSenasi-ye er5red/ lfizikl /ketab-xane/ jj"l


o!- 4ii3 cfilr uijlr _n l'llr o.l'5,.i9l.r ot3.gl.l J-iii

blackboard, chalkboard knowledge grade school student university student college university office doctorate field of study, major biologist chemistry social sciences humanities (lit., human sciences) master's degree

What's your major? (/ir.,Studentof what field are you?) What's your major? (/ir.,What field do you study?) I study engineering.

/man mohendesi mi-xan-em./

'..E-.+e. dr

I 5 E . C U t T U R ET O P T C About Higher EducationTerminologyin lran

The first Persian university, which was also one of the first universities in the world, was built during the Sassanidera in around AD z7t in the ancient city of Jy"l.i qgrK (/gondi Sapur/,Gondi Shapur). However, the first modern airi=Weitern-style higher education institute in Iran was established in r85r. Before that, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many people received higher education in Europe, especially in France.The modern Iranian education system is largely based on the French education system. Becauseof that, many Farsi education terms are words that have been borrowed from French, for example, g'ort*J (/isans/ bachelor's degree)and ll3Si fldoktora/, doctorate).Other such words are ibr (/diplom/), which refers solely to a high school diploma, and -! (ltezfi,which means thesis.Many other borrowed French words were also used until recently, but they have been replaced with Farsi (or borrowed Arabic) terms. For example, if someone failed a grade in (frofuzef, f.rom grade school thirty years ago, he or she became e;9] -""-f *Lesson 5
I I !

4i.,iJ grtl$'"'"Hj ,J.ot.,i

cft4+! -?-b .J*,,iJ-t E, ,cl-U -6js $_ll -cr*"l+iJS


physics library





the French refus6,meaning rejectedl,but nowadays that person is said to have become J:l-f (/merdud/, from Arabic, also meaning rejectedl. You saw two such term substitutions in the vocabularv section above: s*,U.SJlS (/kar-5enas-i/)and cl"L,;l flisans/) mean the same thing; the first word is pure Farsi,and the second is from French. A similar example is .ui_;l -,r^,,tr.,i_,fSfkar-5enas-i-ye er5edfi and g'"rLal _q9g flfoq-e lisans/), except that d:A isn't French; it's from an Arabic word meaning above, so gr.,nL".J -JJg ir a degree above g,Jt+I.

If you know both the present stem and the past stem of a verb, then switching betWeenpresent tense and past tense is easy.Recall that with regular verbs, the past stem is made by adding the suffix + (/ idn to the present stem; for example, .f (/per/) is the present stem of iump, and its past stem is .tl-,r*(/p*"id/). As for irregular verbs, you will have to learn both stems ot aiut"-by-case basis, such as J) (lrol, go) and d.li-,; (lreftl, went). Can you now guess what the past tense of the verb gi9 (/bud-en/, to be) is? It's J-li (pud1, was). Let's look at some examples of past tense sentenceswith gl3'r and other verbs.

r+ r+ 5 .D f

?' (D

5F. GRAMMAR Simple PastTense

We talked about past and present stems of verbs in Lesson 4. Now we will learn how to make sentences in the simple past tense.This is a tense that we use when we talk about events in the past. For example, in the opening dialogue of this lesson,we heard Farhad say: (#l$,'',,Hj Senas-i ber daSt-em./ /zist I took biology. .jill.: This ientence refers to a past event and is in the past tense becauseit uses a verb with a past stem,,''.tll (ida3t/).Making past tenseverbs in Farsi is simple. All we do is take the past stem of the verb and add the appropriate person ending to it, the same person endings-that we use to conjugate verbs in other tenses (i.e.,JL 6+ 6el ( - s(S tp-); the symbol - is for no ending. Let's seehow we can conjugatethe verb Uii-,; (lreft-enl,to go). Can you tell what the past stem of this verb is? Yes,you just take away the infinitive marker ;1- (l-acnl)from the inffnitive form of the verb, and you're done. The past stem of the verb ,#|l is d$_2 (lrr;ftl,went). And here's how we conjugatethis verb in the simple past tense. THE VERB ,#'S(/raft-an/, to go) lNTHE S I M P LP EA S T T E N S E

,'', "lj Ui .Sla-X .,-,t.i.i,

ber-da5t-em./ /mren zist Senas-i I took biology.

.r3p$-!l rtay
/ferhad in-ia bud./ Farhad was here.

t+.r-l+l+ll Lii
/Soma in-fa bud-idf You were here? 4i.':,J .$l3r .Ui, xand./ fizik ferebte Fereshtehstudied physics. llegation Sentencesin Farsi can be made negative by adding the prefix t (lne-ll o, ; (lltp-ll to the verb. j is used before the habitual marker 4 tl^fll: as in IJJ ct' (/mi-rav-rlmf ,I go), which has the negated form p.-lJ cr+'r such as eJ-) (/raft(/ne-mi-rev-amf ,I don't go). i is used in other cases, a:mf ,Iwent), which becomesf, flne-reft-rem/,I didn't go). Here are the negative forms of the verbs OiJS flkerd-an/, to do) and r-ri-l3i. (fxast-anf,to want) in the present and past tenses. First, here are some examples in the simple present tense.

you (sg.)went he/she/it went \Mewent you (pl. or sgl

^h2ft;eml lraftil fraftl lraft-fiyl lreft-idl


iltJ .#-l

rst person znd person 3rd person rst peyso-1 znd person 3rd person

2 =
g D -t


C_ r_

/ ne-mi-xah-em/ /ne-mi-kon I don't do, I don't want !+lJ= c# 6d3 cr.; /ne-mi-kon-if , f ne-mi-xah-i/ you (sg.)don't do, you (sg.)don't want e it'<,4; "il:-,r-; /ne-mi-kon- a.dl, I ne-mi-xah-ad/ he/she/it doesn't do, he/she/it doesn't want

,i:3 u+ *lri u+ -n^1,

ful') w-9nt
they (pl. or sg.fml.l went

-l n+" +$J

!t 7t



Lesson 5

I !

n*l-n *+ ,eis.-+
/ne-mi-kon-iml, I ne-mi-xah-im/ we don't do, we don't want ,r-oi c r..ri'( ,r4; /ne-mi-kon -idl, I ne-mi-xah-id/ you (pl./sg.fr"U don't do, you \pl./sg fr"ll don't want fglF Sil:-,r*i e ri-i'(.-n; , / ne-mi-xah -rendl /ne-mi-kon -rendf they don't do, they don't want Now, here are some examples in the past tense. /ne-kerd-re mf , f ne-xast-em/ I didn't do, I didn't want cqgr_.;,5j ,FlJij /na-kerd-i f , fnre-xast-if you (sg.)didn't do, you didn't want d!,1 .ij e.l-15j I

negation of crfih;g is r,rtj-r-'-; (/bar na-dait-en/, not to pick up), and the negationof UrJS .,SS_,,is rJiJS: #S_,, (/zendegina-t<ardan/, notto live). Note 4: ln English, if the subjectof the sentence is a term like no one, nobody,or no student,or if the verb is modified by a negative adverb like never, then the verb is not negated, as in nobodycomeor l neverget stressed. But in Farsi, the verb in a negative sentence is alwaysnegated, e v e ni f t h e s e n t e n c c e o n t a i n s u c hn e g a t i v e words. The present tense form of the verb clif (/bud -enf, to be) has an irregular negativeform. The forms is) and,.,,.,i (Aest/, there ",."1(lestl, is) when negatedboth becomecra;r (lnistl, isn't, there isn't). All of the negative forms of the verb g.t_9'r are listed in the table below. THE N E G A T IF VO ER M OFTHE VERB tJiJ (IOUd-ANI t, O b C )I N T H E PRESENT TENSE

f, (D




I am not you (sg.) are not he/she/it is not we ale not you (pl.or sg. fml.) are not they are not, he/she is not {sg.fml)

/nist-em/ lnist-il /nist/ /nist-im/ f"irt ia7

r-u*ll d I

rst person

2 =

(## S


/ne-kerd/, fnre-xasI"f he/she/it didn't do, he/she/it didn't want e6.l-15i a$-lJrl /ne-kerd-i mf , f nre-xast-im/ we didn't do, we didn't want +$-lJFi.j , lJr-,,;Sj /ne-kerd-i dl, I na-xast-idl you (pl/sg.f*L) didn't do, you didn't want 6$iJ5: /nre-krerd-e ndf, f ne-xast-end/ they didn't do, they didn't want Note r: The presentprogressive tense doesn't have a negative form. The t rogressiv negation of a sentence i n t h e p r e s e np t e n s et a l < e tsh e s i m p l e present tenseform. Forexample, the negationof 7S': d e-tta(/dar-am mi-rev-am/, I'm going) i sp J J g # ( / n e - m i - r e v - e m / ) . N o t ez : T h en e g a t i o n of an infinitive i s j u s t l i k et h e n e g a t i o n of otherverb forms. For example,the negation of d,iiiJ (/reft-an/, to go) ir O:i_r-, (/na-raft an/, not to go). l e r b sa r e m a d e u p o f m o r e t h a n o n e w o r d N o t e 3 : R e c a ltlh a t p h r a s av the verb plus a particle-e.g.,a,j-,ilr; (/ber da5t-en/, to pick up) or ( / z e n d e - gk i e r d * e n / , t o t i v e ) .U n l i l < p t e r b si n E n g e h r a s av OUS Jl: p r e c e d e s t hv ee r bi n F a r s il.n t h e n e g a l i s h( e . g . , t o c o m eu p ) ,t h e p a r t i c l e t i o n so f t h e s ev e r b s o , n l y t h ev e r b a l element i s n e g a t e dF . o re x a m p l et,h e rr-t..lyij

znd person 3rd person


$ qp

lst person
znd person


3rd person



Prepositions are words that often denoteposition or direction in time or space.In English, the words in, on, over,under, above,below,at, eround, about, through, and across are all prepositions. There are also other words that are prepositionsbut don't necessarily representposition or direction in time or spacersuch as of,for, with, and by. Here is a list of Farsi prepositions with example sentences. some of them you have already encountered; others are new.


Lesson 5

+--*-* l6l


.,.,s.r Js_r OlJd Ji ir

fma-n der tehran zendegi mi-kon-em./ I live in Tehran. .,',',!l ji. -6J) -f --. ES /ketab-e to ru-ye miz est./ Your book is on the desk. .r',.r1.,.lri. .Jfj Jbj _.iS /kif-e ferhad zir-e sendeli rest./ Farhad'sbag is under the chair. /u qebl ez nahar day ne-mi-nu5-red./ He/She does not drink tea before lunch.

d J



rD !!.


i--* i a after f
I J,,
1 l:alle 1i


jou outside

lpi6 nzl


.r-,,,iJi .+ cab JlaU jl ,J$ -rl

urtder, belou'

lzir-el lqabLezl


.'''"'l JJ -JUS -.+,i,il.r.! /yek daneS-ju kenar-eder rest./ There is a student beside the door. .,'r."1 _,;3 r!l-r, -n".iil.: e! dane5-ju nezdik-e drer est./ /yek There is a student near the door. As you can see,most Farsi prepositions are connectedto their following noun phrase with the conjoining vowel l-el $ee Lesson 3). Some aren't, however. The conjoining vowel has been added to the prepositions that take it for your convenience. lfumbers 2r-gg

I before f--

I beside

t "-* L_ _

.tJ .r ol3.iil.r jl .lA-.;s fferhad ez daneS-gahmi-a-yed./ Farhad is coming (comes) from the university'

.d-,1j+^,.9Y! 1lA.!

/yek deraq bala-ye miz est./ There is a light over the desk. r-*otK.i'il.r q eii-19 mi-rev-ed./ /fere5te be daneS-gah Fereshtehis going (goes)to the university. .ij-l q+ ol3"i'll.: jl &+ 4i.,1'J1! .ijl,-7+ili dane5-gahbe xane mi-rev-red./ rez ferebte ba'd Fereshtehgoeshome after school (/ir., university). .r"t..rri Ulr)S -rJJJf+ # /kes-i birun-e kelas'nist./ There is nobody outside the classroom.

The numbers 21 through gg arcquite easyto learn. All you need to do is learn how to say 2c.,3c., . ,90, and then add the numbers r through 9 to them, just as you would in English. So let's do that. NUMBER 20 S- 9 0 l N T E N S

i twenty


dt*{tf '


${tv -{o.Iy.,.




d+:l r# (.'b -jal-i -,11

/u piS ez nahar day ne-mi-nu5-ed/ He/She does not drink tea before lunch. 1g-i f.K Aetab-am tu-ye kif-em est./ My book is in my bag. .d!,,1 -iS

- &s$:al
/haStad/ lna;vredl



tesson 5

i 67 I

2S 1-29 NUMBER

EO P I C 2 5 H . C U T T U RT
;;;;;/ Tbisto$j/
/bist o se/


, -.twentY.two twenty-three ; twenty-four five twenty-five ] twenty I

5 rD

ol r drul 1 J

YT lo Y1

The Significance of Education Among lranians Education is extremely important to Iranians. More than eighty percent of the Iranians over fifteen can read and write. There are more than two hundred public universities and hundreds of private ones. Admission to university requires taking a highly demanding national entrance examination, which almost all high school graduatestake. The exam is extremely competitive, so applicants spend months preparing for it. Only the top five percent of all applicants get admitted to universities. Public universities are extremely popular, and thus harder to get into, because students at these universities pay no tuition. In exchange for the free education, graduates of public universities are required to work inside Iran for a period of time equal to the length of their free higher education. This is a measureto control the country's brain drain problem. For sociopolitical reasons,however, the problem has escalated, and now according to the International Monetary Fund, Iran ranks highest in brain drain among ninety countries measured.This is mainly becauseof the country's inability to absorb and retain this highly qualified workforce.

=' o

4.r.tJ C+#

/bist o taltrarl peni/ /bist o penii



t.ltr*! ei J d et

ii:*v-'ilI -il;tseven

/bisto 5e5/
/bist o haft/

.. ,,!*i-":H

cril I {+t4
,t. C-l (-lltrl


i :-y-::y:i*: 1.

/bi" ohest/
/bist o noh/

ddA J "'"*H

I twenty-nine

Read this passageabout the Iranian school system'

ctl;l -li Ol-l-l^f ulilr ..iJJ d s+lqlsg a*,r-;r,e4+ dt-, i a*,-)L{4r cg ;l[-. a^.,Oi jl Jr+ Ji bl .-rrlJ .,- csr$lJ q*,'JJo -li Oti--r*j.$ilJA cf cgrbJ cgLaryJr,r-r.t-oial-;cg d^.,,.! d1lj-1"i c.rU.r .olK-,iql.ljl uh J: ,c.^^l dll- a*., gl;l .riilJi d (J"Ji,ratK;qtlui,Ji -eh Ji

A. Turn these sentencesfrom simple present tense into simple past tense. The first one is done for you as an example.

rLa-,;s .!sj ,+ otK.iil.l4+ rbj .cdJ olK--iul.:4+

rjf3i d (#lj.&,'',,.Jj ej^i;r.'l

Studentsin Iran go to elementary school for five years.After that, they go to middle school (llr.. guidange lchoot] fo-t three years. They study many subjectsin middle school.High schoolin Iran is three years,but before universiry studentsstudy at the pre- uni' versity level for one yar.
year elementary guidance, advice high school level pre-university

..rF cr sl++l:- jl .ii +et...ujl-.\

. rii."{ gdS J.l Ljr,J+.&il.t jl q9rl.re3.f

L.1 .#lF./ ut'l.l*i. .ig .r ftl:' # 3 .",ii +a\..,O^.o

e 5i^,rAfuLr _;.133.1

/ebteda-yi/ /rahnrema-yi/ /debirestan/

. -rl$.il ,r.il-$l-,1

r+-n d q.v
B. Turn these simple past tense sentences into the present progressive tense (with C'i.,f,lr). The first one is done for you as an example.


/pi5 dane5gah-i/

.ratK.:ijll LJfr+i

9+_l_,r or f+_t_,r tJ c/ t+S q_11.r .r- +_2b

f+$J l+3 .d$lJi -;l;; L. \


tesson 5

dr.&lK jr

T f

pg. V --,rtSlJ r,iiJ6, ..1;S.S13,..* 61iU.f 4+l-. t 4iii .dUS ol5j o!9+$':t e; Lc's 'o fsi"'ilK b3 lJ cr-:l-r.o;.1


C omprehensi on Practice A.z B .r C.3 D .t



A. .$l3i s*,,ti.-i '''"'ij 4i;!,9 .'\

The first one is done for you as an exC. Negatethe following sentences. ample. .$3.^,'AUrJS -,P gl-r,jq'.inlr . ri1.,,.rig*)S _;r gl;.+"$lr

r_l_li c/ llJ ,',.?.-a *al- e-)+. t . ri1..i )Lr i-5.ij! $'r-,fl;r . Y .rJS d-,,]3,.tb ir .;rllF.f t 1i -J*,*i. t .rl.,l3i d (#S 6.o .er*l:- o.l9:61-,.,' o.tl-.;-.plJi.1 ss3,i OE-*r 4+rt.ca-9 .p-lbo-t+l Cl".v
D. Look at the diagram below and finish the sentencesthat follow using the words given.

.$! riri +l:- jl di +;1*.l dl- .Y .si-r+g')S ; gta-n i:h jl sg.tl.t'i.Y .dr3lri jlJni' L .', .riJS et.ll' + r ddi *at^, ir.o.o
lcgrj f.trl a.rLr -.1r3r .1 A q-l V
. i J . l '


,r' ai;$

l- . \ d-ll'r \-oor.Sle'i c/ 6-;l"r .,,d1 or..l-;lK ,r.o .l-21-r j* -ltS lJ ui'i5 i+.i .Y pj'ui ..r-2lKd j*^ -lt6 l-,rr&i$ .t-21.t


,l_;lr p_;"rLor lS ,r-o .:;1.r,-SlJ".* p-,;rL .Y . r-i'( .r.o cSfJ,,,,* o!+ aiii a+L . t or.6pS d o15ip;-,11.: .AS .+ olSi o!- 4iii 4+g-,lb L or f+$-d cr {tl.t + 1-..i .o fr,r-gji d 4" +-,1h t-o.,i' orf6-,11Kd crJlr li'( lJ d-rilr"or .1 tie-.;lK d b3 g;Jlr l-) r:.$lu=


,J eE ,',.1,'as3;[- f-,1+ . t ri-i,,,.ri Y! cgai+t l"tAJil-)+ .Y . .r;5: d-']3 csb (J.o JA|F .Y .Jill3i c+ a*rg+1' 1"L! -'.'.oi . f oi gilt*. iJ." .o .f+l3-j



(lgoU,flower)cJK ..',.u1_,11.o J-JL- d+ . \ '-5..+.Y .d-,1 jf^ ,L9J) .d!,'l j+^ tl*.f D. Jr.o jj .t

..tj's oa OE--r*i ) L;^ Lt orlJJAlJs .1 (J^ .V .eJl$ dt$

.d!,,1 alJ"
vase) (/gol-dan/, ,',,.,,1 Ol$<

dS .t .!3.o

.r ceY!

cJK .t

.-!':-l, .t

Fa rsi



i I I

I N D E P E N D E NC TH A t L E N 6 E
In this activity, you are about to embark on your first Web surfing on Persian sites. In the second culture topic of this lesson,you learned that one of the oldest universities in the world was built by the Persians in Gondi Shapur. Now, you're going to visit a Farsi site and try to find some information about this universiry' First, go to http:/fa.wikipedia.org, On the upper left-hand side of {-ill (/relef - yell, which points to an the screen,you should see dt alphabetical index of all of the Farsi documents on the site. Then, locate the link l.r (/da/) in the index. This will show you all of the documents that begin with l.r. In the dropdown menu toward the top of the page ut d irt front of the phrase pU 691':i (lfaza-ye naml, name space)select aJ-; (/rede/ portal) and click on J-9 { flbe-rev-ad/, go). Now you will see a list of all of the Farsi documents starting with l.r Try to locate the word le otf*liil.: (/dane5-gah-ha/, universities) and click on it. Under the letter r-i, you will find the phrase ;l (ferheng-estan-e gondi-5apur/, Gondi Shapour J3l.Ufori< ;ltlK:l Academy).Follow that link. Try to seeif you can recognizeanywords there. Print out that page if you can, circle the words that you recognize, and write their meanings next to them. Keep the printout and your notes in your language journal.

Jim Visitsa Museum.

In this lesson,you'll learn how to ask for directions. You'll also learn a little about arts and crafts in Iran. The grammar points that we focus on in this lesson are imperative sentences, comparative and superlative adiectives,and ordinal numbers. Now let's warm up!


end first on foot street far second carpet, rug museum near

lentehal f evvalf,lrevval-inl lpiyadel fxiyabanf, lxiyabunl ldurl f dovvornf, /dowom-in/ lfer!;l lmuzel lna.-zdikl lnn-xeyrl

t#l Orlil.,J31
ort+d o}.F 6c)l+F

O+a3J e;3J



.!l-r-, J#

o 'r-r

no (fmll

bll jl c.rl_tl-cij e o)y.elt.a. s ri.?,.r..,r
fo-.13J /bebexSid, xanum. muze-ye ferS-e rran &z inja dur-e/ .4nlj 4i$i oi .rt+ .J+ii



/nre-xeyr. piyade deh daqiqe rah-e./ :frehgoza-rf

fl+rrf i>t ;j.r

.O-r.l+-clll cskSl E (t;y)

+J+ dil

'..llf '1 ' '

fim: Passerby: fim: Passerby: fim: Passerby: |im: Passerby:

Okay. Then, go left. At the secondintersection, turn right. At which intersection? The secondintersection. Is the carpetmuseumcloseror the art museum? The carpet museum is closer.It also has the largest collectionof rugs in Iran. Thanks a lot. You're welcome.

o v! OJ


/de-tor mi-tun-em be-r-em un-ja|



be-rid (be-rav-id) ta enteha-ye in :frehgozerf xiyabun./

.D c

.+A lxob.l .rq ol_l_ll.6; iJJ^i3.t .?i fr^,,.rq-; e gs,i (Ul+r) tlt*t+ .,.....1J


he'd,be-r-iddest-edap.ser-edow-omin :fra-hgozalrf dest-erast./ (be-pid-id) be-pid-in dehar-rah fol-,1'fu6Or'rb --r-,

/ser-e dend-omin dehar-rah|

Comprehension Practice A.Wheredoes|im want to go? Olr.l+i 19l.e$l.f cll-rll cFj c, oj-r .Y B.Is the carpetmuseumfar from wherehe is? d$.t o.to\ e.:gi.f .aAl_,1 r.ll-;f -r.l c9 oj-r . \

:i5 :ljiml

.ol-r-rk+ if"13


/dow-omin dahar-rah./ :frahgozerl :ft+ f-,;,A .g oJJ.l+'i.!r-.1r.r G D)y .-F-,;ls

e-rgi .y .eelt c6t.r e# ,+l+.'t qgk$l _,1i C.Ul 4jlr.l+r .r-,} r'r.-i +:

C.What doesthe passerby tell |im to do first to getto the museum? 6k$l E +; r.!1.\ .O-9.l.t+..''"'lJ +l D.How does|im askat which intersection he hasto turn? dll.t r'r..J {_,p,Ll.Y

fers nrezdik-trer-e t" fmuze-ye ilt;Tli

.o-f!r-,fi.,i-1'r I oE 6 e3.y,-$:.St} gl_,;l Jr * JJ ta rl} .(.r_;lr) o_;1.:



f muze-yefer5 nezdik-trer-e.bozorg-terin :fra,hgozal,rf mejmu'e-ye ferS-ha ro hem der iran dar-e (dar-ed)./ .OJr.c J*f. /xeyli mmmnun./

0J.+ -y.r

ts tg oi-r.Y fo-j!.r-,;i

l*.r!l jl oj_r. \ to_,13J

:d+ ,ljiml

E.What doesthe passerby sayabout the carpetmuseumat the end of the conversation? ta ,-i.,;s a-g a-c r"c+"c gFy ,-soj-f . \ .oJl.r glJ.,rl JJ -9-,1 +-6-,r: .DJJr l*-!l jl cg oj3^. Y "J$ "i-,;s .4r.r$,'J5 ,-F.;o e o)y.Y




/xahe5 mi-kon-em./


|im: Passerby: fim: Passerby:
Excuse me, ma'am. Is the Iranian Carpet Museum far from here? No. It's a ten-minute walk (lit.,lt's ten minutes on foot). How can I get there? First, go to the end of this street.

then to turn to, until can,to be able to

hn'dl /pid-id-ren/ Ital


J+ /'6r.rl .r v

(Olrr) Ol-jl3:

5 lesson

which (in order) intersection You're welcome. / Please. Okay. way, road passerby at collection art

/dend-om-in/ /dehar-rah/ /xaheS mi-kon-em./



gallery straight shop roundabout,circle hotel

lgaleril /mosteqim/ lmeqazel lmeydanl lhotell

Lej'K #fi..oj6


ot_rtki .iK - dtlF


o OJ

= = c
u (D c

lxob.l lrahl lrnh-gozerf lser-el /meimu'e/ lhonerl


olrv .Jla



ToPrc I 6E. cutruRE

Arts and Crafts in Persia
Iran is a land rich in history literature, and arts and crafts. There have been people living in the Iranian plateau since the Stone Age; however, (/sielk/, Siarchaeologistsbelieve that the formation of a town in.t!alk) in central Iran around 4,5oo BC marks the beginnings of civilization in that area. Citizens of this little town knew pottery and metalwork. In the centuries that followed,Iran (Persia)came to play a major role in the ancient world. The Persianswere the innovators of mail and of the banking system.The word check(a bank note) comesfrom the Farsi word al.l, (liahl, king). Persiawas also among the first nations to employ a writing system. Thousands of years of interaction with a variety of world cultures have provided Iranians with a great repertoire of modes of artistic expression.Hand-knotted Persianrugs are known throughout the world. Iran also has a wealth of other art forms, such as music, poetry calligraphy, painting, architecture,and many different kinds of crafts. For more information, visit the website of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization at http ://iranmiras.ir.


6D. KEy pHRAsEs

that side of the street/ this side of the street expressway cul-de-sac,dead end boutique mall iback, behind

f anteraef-e xiyabanf, /in taref-e xiyabanf fbozory-rahf /bon-bast/ lbutikl lpasail /po5t/


Utl1l ol..l-jr

dr^+ i .5.'634
J . t

* l,

lpoU :'i:"'overpass
road traffic light (street) line right (odv.), fust in front of, opposite underpass city pedestrian store side street, lane, alley kiosk

ljaddel /deraq-e rahnama-yi/ /xet kebi/ /dorost/

e-' 'ib
sJt jalJ _t l-r'i ,r.is-Lj. d*']i


6 F . G R A MM A R lmperatives and the SubjunctiueMood

is in essence an order or instruction. Imperatives An imperative sentence in English are made with the base form of the verb in sentenceswith no subject (e.g.,Comel).In Farsi,imperative sentences do not have a subject either, but the verb comes in a special imperative form. An imperative verb in Farsi is made with the prefix ; (h"-h plus the present stem of the verb. For example, recall that the present stem of the verb O$lJi (lxand-a:nf ,to read) is rll-r- \lxanll; the imperative form of this verb will then be gl .-+ (lbe-xanll. Pronunciation Note:Whenthe first vowel in the stem is /o/, e.g.,J) (lrol, go),!h9 vowel in the prefixalsobecomes /o/. Forexample, the imperative of i,iiiJ (/raft-an/, to go) is l1+ (/bo-ro/). SpellingNote: lf the verb stem startswith the vowel /a/, then the prefix stem of 6r,.11tamad-en/, the present turns into +l (/bi-/). Forexample,

fru-be-ru-yef fzir-gozerf li;ehrl f aberepiyadel foruS-gah/

-rK+i -d
t.t 2J-'


4.r, S
4 J

/kiyusk/, /dakke/


[esson 6

: r l i t


form of this verbwill be h (lniy-at). to come)is I (lat),so the imperative s ,h i c hc o n t a i n and i h r a s a l v e r bw b o t ha p a r t i c l e G r a m m aN r o t e :M a n yF a r sp (/ber daSt-en/,to take,to pickup)-especially those a verb-e.g.,Uri.,ilr..,14 the prefix+ (/be-/) in their with the particle starting J (/bar/), do not tal<e (/bar dait-en/), for example, the imperative form. ln the caseof cli--il.r-,p the presentstem of gj.,ilr imperativeform is -,1l.l: (/bar dar/), because (/dait-an/) is -;ll (/dar/). Here are some examples of verbs in their infinitival form (on the right) with their present stem (in the middle) and their secondperson singular imperative form (on the left). VO ER M S V E R BW S ITH THEIR PRESEN ST T E MA SN DI M P E R A T IF SOME









&e-g"-ytn/ (spoken)

i ,,.'',,''i

s g.

Negative imperatives use the prefix i (lnr.-ll before the present stem of the verb instead of the prefix ; (lb"-ll.

c UT (D c

l, /ne-ppar-id./ I na-pp a-r. Don't go. (s9.,pl.) .l*-t., Ji f na-r o.f , I na'-r ev-id. I Don't say.(s9.,pl.) .J#-r"(j t* lnn-W./, lnre-gu-yid.l Don't run. (s9.,p/.)


1 -i *

rNFrNrTrvE srrr'a
.,,, -,, - , - . . , .


/be xab/



/pid-id-an/ O+t?++ /xab-id-an/ O+fF ' '---") "

/xan;d-an/ 6:11-54 lra:t;-a:nl __ .tlAJ gjdK lgoft-nnl

r"11 , __ so_ &"-r_:1* ..

say he-g l

:-1,* /b":*.r"/ olJ*{


/xa-b/ +]F /xan/ OIF J) lrol


.*_lri JJj f ne-do.f , /na-dev-id./ Don't run. (s9.,p/.) Comparatives and Superlatives





The above secondperson singular forms are used in informal settings. To addressone person in a formal setting or to addressmultiple people, the plural form of the imperative is used.You can turn the above forms into plural constructions by adding the second person plural ending S (/-id/) to the end of them. Below you can seethe previous examplesalong with their plural forms. AR N DP L U R A IL MPERATIVES A COMPARIS O O F N SINGULA

Gradableadjectives,adjectivesthat describegradableproperties, such as big or quiet, can come in a comparative and a superlative form in addition to their baseform. For example,the adjective taII in English has the comparative form taller and the superlative form tallest. In Farsi, we make comparative adjectives by adding the suffix i (l-terl\ to the adjective.Superlativesare made by adding the suffix UJy (l-terinll. For example, the adjective -yt (ldurl, far) has the following comparative and superlative forms: ;F-;3.1 (/dur-terf farther) and (/dur-terin/, farthest). Here are some examples. clUj-ll.l ADJECTIVES WITH THEIRCOMPARATIVE AND SUPERTATIVE SOMEGRADABLE FORMS

i /bepid-id/(written),

r'r.llJll vt .l


e \s.llf r q


lbe-pitl lborol lbexabl

2IJI.J lg,-.

i Pgg*i*/l:Pgkg"l .
, /b*rev id/ (written), t, l$:dl(spoken) , pe-xatrid/ (*ritten), _ i -&e-xatFin/ (rp&._+J i &exan-id/ (written), r /be-xan-in/(spoken)
-.*."-+"-' " 78 i I

rl;r; rr*-r+ dJ#lJ+ erltl*F+


j i , bad,worse,worst j j I
i long,longer,

+f r-+ olJ+

i iJi;i"tt;ii'ir"'t;-I---;r:ru1

BASE i SUPERLATTVE i I C0MPARATTVE +;+ + i -,tj{ i i fibad-tarin/) ; (ftmd-tmr/) , (&ad/) --{q :

i (ftoland-tarin/)

i(/bolantrter/) j(/bolend/),



dark, darker,

+-F .!-tl:
(/tarik-tarin/) f


Lesson 6

--.."-**-"**. good,better,best
beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful



! 9J:

c-1. _5rr

"H-'.Ui (lziba-tr;nnll

(/oibtr.rfl -l+;"-l

(/*"b/) hj (ziball

fifth tenth


I /bist-om/

.rk* i
"-- -t-:-': 'l ' i !

r ..5.ll


Jk+ ei

= = s u
+ v! o,


c j


pretty, prettier, prettiest short, shorter, shortest

.....,..-,,.... . :..-.....-.....,.....*...*... .Ki3I O*-1'',.fu-iii Ji.ftJi (/qasang-tarin/) (qariarllrg[) Uqafang{ari) I -


ffu I q.'+*+
twenty-secondi /bist o dow-om/



aj-l .

. ("t..,rr


,-i oti 6

t...... l 1


. ;5r,

3J 3




Vocabulary a; (/beh/),that Note r: Thereis another adjectivein Farsi, meansgood.Thisadjective is now somewhatdated, but its comparative a n d s u p e r l a t i vfe o r m sa r e q u i t e c o m m o na n d a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e da s t h e comparative and superlative formsof r=.rF (/xub/,good),evenmorecommonlythan;F + A (/xub-tar/)and gl.;i ?F (/xub-tarint).theseforms are jie; (/beh-tar/, better)and gg:lj++ (/beh-tarin/, best). Vocabufary Note z: Theword rfu (/bi5/)meansveryot a lot, but,like 4;, it is veryrarein today'sFarsi. lts comparative and superlative forms,-s4+ (/bii-tar/, more)and g,'r-rlit (/bi5-tarin/, most),however, areverywidely used'. -er) and (/-tarin/, -est), acSpellingNote:The suffixes i;fi Ji (t-tert, cording to today'swriting standards, are written separated from the main adjective, as in ;F .!l>,, and UJJF .!-:ji, but you might still seepeople attachthesesuffixesto the adjective,as in -,!5.g.:-,p,r and UUif+lJi. Ordinal llumbers T h e n u m b e r st h a t w e h a v e b e e n s t u d y i n gs o f a r ( i . e . , t,2,3,4...) are called cardinal numbers. When you use terms like -79rsl, second, third, fourth, etc.,to refer to the rank or position of something in a sequence, you are using ordinal numbers. Ordinal numbers in Farsi are made by simply adding the suffix i (l o ll to cardinal numbers, just asyou would add the suffix -th (and -st,-nd, and -rdl to English cardinal numbers (e.g., fourbecomesfourthl. Here is a sample of cardinal numbers. S O MF EA R S OIR D I N A NL UMBERS

Note that the first three cardinal numbers don't follow the rule precisely. The only completely irregular form is -!11flewaf, first), which is actually borrowed f5om Arabic. The word j! t/y"t om/) is used but is not very common. fJJ (/dow-om/, second)and p-l+ (/sew-om/, third) aren't technically irregular. Usually,in Farsi,when a word ends in the vowel /o/ and we want to add a suffix starting with lolto it, we insert a /v/ between the two /o/ vowels. Essentially,the same thing is happening here. Noter: Sometimes the suffix6;.J 1t-omin/)is usedinsteadof i (/om/)in (e.C.,O;^! ,O;.ol'Je4lj1, etc.). more formal language Notez: Whilethereis no difference between the meanings of ordinalnum(/-omin/),there is a majordifferberswith j {f-oml) and thosewith 6"t,cl e n c ei n w h e r et h e y a p p e a r in a nounphrase. Ordinals with i appear after the nouns they modify and are connected to the noun with aiL:l U Examples: "h. ,J3l -Ot-r.!i (/xiyaban-e a'vva:lf,the first street)
6 t

eJr lJta


(/ketab-e dow-om/, the second book)

Ordinals with O# appear before the nouns they modify, and no 4il-^:l is used.Examples: Ol-,.S .$1 Tewelin xiyaban/, the first street)

.+US Cl-1J fldow-omin ketab/, the second book) Farsi also has an interesting question word that is used to inguire about the rank or position of something in a sequence. The word,.rti fldendom/), or iJJ'+ (/drend-omin/),can be roughly translated into English as which, but the difference is that the answer to a question with t+, , or iJJ^$, must be an ordinal number. In the dialogue, we heard the pedestrian tell |im to turn right at the fourth intersection.

: ,1 :------**-..I favva,lf ,lyekornli





iq ' ----: --i-;



.,',*fJ gu'i l*a*+ olJ-rLGL if^13 i

/ser-e dow-omin dehar-rah be-pid-iddest-e rast./ f im, who does not get the entire sentence,asks:




I third





/ser-e dend-omin dehar-rahf At which intersection? and the passerbyanswers: .ol_,1_;165 iLr^:r /dow-omin dehar-rah./ The secondintersection.
| | At

9ol;-,faiO*.rb "p

_, r. 1i+ :V \ o /heft-sed o panzdeh/ seven hundred and fifteen ol;L ;11 . U _f .t^.a4-r /noh-sed o neved/ nine hundred and ninetv

Vr t o, c


(D E

llumbers roo-r,ooo
In the previous lessonswe learned how to count from r to 99 in Farsi. To count to l,ooo, all we need now is to learn the multiples of roo. Here they are: NUMBER 1o So - 1 , o o I oN H U N D R E D S

Read this passageabout the Persianrug.

gl_;l -"i$ d * Jt!,-Si 4+.dr-,Si r.9lA di uuj:e _,11 .! ..rl;l Jr jlJ.J .d!,^,ljt#lt! Jti _O._Fd-,,]3 J3 .+J<
1l;^^+ 6 ttca.o1.a.! .tl;l 1-fiji

j orruh,rndr"d
: two hundred



rtt'..r 6l tJ'

\.. Y.. 1..

ta_2 (.,tAJE jl <_l_x _f3r .r-11.: ceLa rJl_JHl 6i jl ,.sl"a .rrsl+./ Jti
The Iranian carpet is among the best carpets in the world. Carpets are also called rugs. The art of making rugs is rug weaving. Rug weaving is a very old art in Iran. The Carpet Museum of Iran has a very large collection of beautiful rugs. The people of many Iranian cities weave rugs.

6 D)_tn..",*l s+jJi ..l,vi .;li


/si-sed/ /dahar-sad/ lpan-sa,dl

-;- \.+t*

1r"* n-J;;;
n r" h""dr;d I i**-- - *-,
I six hundred


t. .
Or r

is;i-;;q1 .



;-*[r I

eight hundred -:*--_-nine hundred

;; th;;;,,J

r'. rii

A.. ;

,lyek-hezarl fhezarf Jtj,6+

..l ,:i .--ilr T;;

,;lji \ .. .

world rug people

to weave




riY (.iq) ,.;liq


The numbers in between the multiples of loo are made by connecting the above numbers to the smaller numbers with -r (lol, and). .! _1,',,..J j l1 ^-5g ;\ Y\ /yek-sedobist oyekl one hundred and twenty-one ; t oA penjah o hebt/ o /dehar-sed four hundred and fifty-eight _l J.-Jte r'ri{ , \. .i,$il . V /Se5-sed o heft/ six hundred and seven r'r.i.d , ol;i

(hufll lbaft-renl

6H. cutruRE ToPrc 2

Farsi Script and Calligraphy Like English and other languages,Farsi script has many different typefaces. The word for script in Farsi is l-= (lxettl\, which also means llner.\lgscript typeface commonly used in books like this one is called e.*'t '#S (/xett-e nesx/), which is based on a certain Arabic script lL-- flxett-e kuf-i/). During the early post-Islamic periods called j-6 of Iran, a new Farsi script was developed and severalother scripts were lesson6

the development of these scripts predated designed afterwards.Because printing technology,people had to write books by hand, and the most popular books to write were the Koran and literary works. It was common to try to make these books as visually pleasing as possible,and this gave rise to the art of modern calligraphy in lran. TWo of the most common scripts used in Persian calligraphy nowadays are q!trej-j lL (/xett-e naste'liq,/) and 43-5r,i l}':. (lxett-e 5ekrest-e/).The most prominent characteristicof these scripts is that they mostly use curves rather than straight lines. The sharp teeth of letters like cJ" and ci are also avoided; instead, the teeth are smoothed out as curves. You can learn more about Persian calligraphy and see some samples by visiting http://www.persianpaintings.com/caligra.html and the Rumi Gallery website at http ://rumigallery.com/.

C. Use the correct ordinal form of the number given in parentheses. .r=r+ *r^,,i t+lJ+=' (! ll-l-lb .+ .\

= =

.rs e-l! -cI- +ili _(o)


+ o o)
E tn rD e

.iu; l_.,r.s
"J#r .,',."1-(A)
D. Write out these numbers.

(r).r. .r
(Y) dH.it^. t


.rs +


-Otr.F .cskllJi &

A. Complete the following sentencesusing the correct form of the verb in But first, here are two words that you will need to know. parentheses. (l diruzl, yesterday) j-l-l'l (kn, ruzf , everyday) j-U)

:(111;.l :(Y'lA) . Y

: ( Y\ 1 ; .r :(\Y\1).2 : ( 4 .1 ) o
A ] I S W E RK E Y Practice Comprehension A.z B.3
C.r D.3 E.r

(OjliJ) ot(.^i:|.:a; j-r-tr .rLrY. \ (,il--ii) V*l.l .(infml.l gr")S-tr -l-lt:a 4i.$JAJ rtAj.\ (OjliJ) ojLi- .Jr^r- B.Y (tJsJ) ojU. r..r*^, -r E. t (pt) ._(+:..,,.^"r; (fmt. and, nesativel (infml and, negativel. -lLi$lr;r.r) ry)S-l.t . o (Oi-F) d-,]3 cab.l l-,1 ett3S.V

A. d-r.J .\ ri'tj.tj s-o .Y rr,-l).Y

But before you start, in parentheses. form of the adjective B.Usethe correct takea look at a coupleof usefulwords. (yek-il,one)c5* (/asar-e honer-i/, works of art, artisticworks).SJii -Jii d!,1-_ (-. F) c;tiS a;t . \ .,.! Oi -,1f B.

:-i 't
rrir,?.i r O

Jl$j.V _,ri .+.i or Jj(+ . \ U''. r-.rJr o, U,iji# .Y

(+F) r.l*l .Y ES dlar.Es +l s.,. .dr*^,| jl 4S;n itJ.AJi (;rl) .Cr*lt- .f .OFt .d!^,1..r-2lrl-; Ls-;u .:BI ts a-c-F."''"1-($4) .d-,bll
-^-*--i--Bh; I Farsi

#Jj 3:\.t


.eit< irrl . t j;^ oi jl -u' ..ll .o L qedt'r .1

-fs4 .o



1",6 Lesson


dt ly'I

,''r.o5 Y O.lrl .f
-P-9J. r

f3.ii .o c -l .rF J .r1 a^l .l o l i i J r - . J . ". Y dr^,rr;J .Y "ij3r.l 3 dr^,r5.1J JIJA ,-f* . { _9 + 1, r1 r' r' i .o

In this lesson,you will learn about making travel arrangements.We also study counting units, the future tense and nationalities. But first, let's warm up with some new words and phrases.


agency if possible laLansl momken est/, f aegaer /regemomken-e/ /mas'uf /mosaferetf , f saefarf lhnftel d!.1 O$1 #ljl oS';'3t J-(l t

DE I I TC H A L t E6 l 'E l I NDE P E N
Visit the website of Golestan Palace {http ://wwur,golestanpalace.ir/), an old palacethat was converted into a museum. Click on the link entitled Ll ne-;,o;. (which, as you should know, mean-s collections).Yo1 will seea list of the names of the locations in the palace.Visit some of the locations and print out pictures of them for your langrlage lgiilnal if you can. Also write down the name of each location. Then look at the English version of the site and try to visit the samelocations on the English version.See if you can find out what some of the location names mean in English, and write those down in your journal, too.

agent,responsible travel, trip


d-9n I J:# -r'[" ,cry,l..,'l


Mani is calling a travel agent to book a flight for |im and himself. He is planning to take |im to Esfahan,one of the most ancient cities of Iran. Listen to Mani's telephone conversationwith the travel agent. Oiit -l+ .Ui A --fu -.j;n-l* -L,jp'llji .jl :gl,iljl 1J$*

fe,lo. al,ans-e mosaferati-ye sefrer-e xo5. :/mes'ul-e ai.ansf beferma-yin (beferma-yid)./

-p iil3i.t"

.(+$Lli. ) i,S\$ 4i*-i' .tB eL ,"!l,,lJ .# :l;; Ok_i.-j sgl_,;r


/srelam xanom. xeste nebaSin (nebaiid). mi-xast-em do ta belit bera-ye esfehan


rezervkon-rem./ f.,+Jtj 4+ -g;l;+ fbara-yedetarix-if


:gl"lljl -,J:'..,".o :/mes'ul-eai,ansf

86l a

Fa rsi


v , . .

,'u^l5 Y

.Y idll At
'lJJ 'l

D. a-i -l rF J .:i.a 4-i . \
oLif J r', l.o .Y '"'"'JJJ .Y "ij3.l r .t 3 dr.rr.jJ J )l$.q 'i'ti a-3 3 ri .o In this lesson,you will learn about making travel arrangements.We also study counting units, the future tense and nationalities. But first, let's warm up with some new words and phrases.


YA R M - U P W 7 A. UOCABUTAR agency
if possible agent,responsible travel,trip

..i',. Visit th website of Golestan Palace (http://wwwgolestanpalacg.ir/), an old palacethat was converted into amuseum. Click 1l the link_entitled te e-cq.+. (which, as you should know, means collections).You will seea list of the names of the locations in the palace.Visit some of the locations and print out pictures of them for your languageiournal if you can. Also write down the name of each location. Then look at the English version of the site and try to visit the samelocations on the English version. Seeif you can find out what some of the location ,ru*"r"*"un in English, and write those down in your journal, too'

momken est/, f acgacr /ege momken-e/ /mes'ul/ /mosaferatl,lsefrerl lheftel a:;A

a3l t d!^1 O5-: J3l dJn jI J:# ,cl_,fl.-1

Mani is calling a travel agent to book a flight for fim and himself. He is planning to take fim to Esfahan,one of the most ancient cities of Iran. Listen to Mani's telephone conversation with the travel agent.

.dF .-fu _"jy.t "^ -u.,ilji .JI i1rr-J^-,;s;


:u,tljl -ct3j,^.,-

f e.lo. ai,ans-emosaferetiye sefer-e xo5. :/mes'ul-e al.ansf befarma-yin (beferma-yid)./

3r ,:-,16./

.(+$U) dSl+ 4i.*i .CE eL cr;! ti .# sl;s cJWi.-Jigl_.,;r;


/selam xanom. xmste neba5in (nebaSid). mi-xast-rem do ta belit bera-ye esfehan

-.-.....-..-.,...t I


:ddrjr .a-r33*,.

fbara-yedetarix-if :/mes'ul-eaY.ansf
86i I Farsi

.o..irj.S 4iiA 19 ++-,,,_lb -,Slt fb er a-ye dehar-5enbe-ye hefte-ye ayende./

:clL :lmanil :d'ifjl .dsl,,-

Mani: Travel agent: Mani:

For the Wednesday of next week. That is the twentieth of Tir? Yes, the twentieth, if possible.


o, :f

gq AJ


tirI :/mas'ul-eai,ansf fye.'nibist-om-e l(t .4jf-: +* e,a:, :clL"

fba,le, bist-om ege momken-e./ * -l r'rv!,, .r'r,,,ri l+ fj!r+# C9lJ* .dti!ii. fDJ .ti

: rraver asent .ffi; #:::HiTl';;:"tr"T*T:i[i":*::f#:

first? Mani: No, the twenty-first is too late. How about the nineteenth? Are there any seats available? (/ir', Is there room?) Yes, fortunately, the nineteenth is possible. When are you coming back? We will return on Friday.


{ --.

:lmanil :dljl -,J-l'*"^

Travel agent: /mote'ssefane, bera-ye bist-om ia nist. bist o :/mes'ul-eai,ansf yek-om de-tor-e/ !.",."i h t-l4 e^i_l-* .olJ * r'r..d,r 5{ _9 Mani:

:cfL :lmanil

Travel agent:

Very well. What are your names?

Mani Payami and |im Douglas.

/bist o yek-om dir-e. nuzdeh-om de-tor? ia hastf 4jtji+iJA 64Ii Ofr-S s4 J+ ,r.S .45-.1 $i_l-*


:d,ilji Uq""
:/mes'ul-e af.ansf :c/l' :lmanil :dljl ,cj-r:*,,^

Travel agent: Mani:

Where is Mr. Douglasfrom?

He's Canadian.

fbale, xo5bext-anenuzdeh-om momken-e.key ber mi-gerd-in (ber mi-gard-id)| .,,,.i-( i*.Al3i_,+ 4r-'i fjom'eber xah-im gebt/ ,,, A J_L-tt f+;q. O:i*,,| e

/besiyarxob, esm-etundiyef :/mes'ul-eai,ansf .u*)[(fr fi;+ J dh -.,jl-. :cJ' /mani-ye peyami ve iim daglas./ f0l-i c/.l+S c,1")<lr cal-ii daglaskoia-yi hest-enf laqa-ye .,r;1.:lJlS lkanada-yi.l :lmanil :(J,,'iljl .,J_lj* :/mes'ul-eai,ansf :clt' :lmanil

ojtA /hemze/)and its capitalform,U, SpellingNote:The letteri (called s t a n df o r t h e s o u n d/ ' / i n t h e m i d d l ea n d a t t h e e n d o f t h e w o r d s ,r e s p e c when this sound(/'/) is followedby the vowel lu/, it may tively.However, requirethe use of 3 before writing standards be written as -1.NewerFarsi usedj.that is why the word fot ogent the vowel /o/, and older standards (/mas'ul/). Thesamesoundwhen has two spellings-cJ Jj'-"'aanOcl J.,',,.c this form: l. We saw this in the word followed by the vowel /e/ comesIn ne/, unfortunately). 4il4rt$ (/mote'assef-a translationis not proUsagel{ote: You may have noticedthat an English 4:-j. (/xaste That'sbecause ne-ba5-id/). vided for the expression +$l+ would be greetTheclosest for this expression. thereis no goodtranslation (/xaste/) means ings, which isn't really that close.The adjective{.'ri form (/na-ba5-id/) subjunctive negative the is tired, and the verb +$!l personplural. for the second of the verbOJ} (/bud-en/, to be),inflected of the whole Thisverb literallymeansmoy you not be.The literalmeaning verycomis then Mayyou not be tired.lhis is a form of greeting expression who's working. with someone monly usedwhen initiatinga conversation morepowerto your elbowin meaning expression It's closeto the English is quite rareand is never expression The English but is differentin usage. usedas a greeting.

Travel agent: Mani: Travel agent:

Hello! Pleasant Trip Travel Agency. How can I help you? Hello, ma'am. I want to reserve two tickets for Esfahan. For what date?

Lesson 7

Com prehension Practice the day after tomorrow money /pa:s feerda/ A. How many tickets does Mani want to reserve? 4-r.Y Jl .T B. Where does Mani plan to go?

cst,r.'\ .t

/pul dad-en/ /taksii fte.'tllatl /telefon kerd-an/, /telefon zr"d-r-nf Iturl

l.:"1.t+ cJa
Url.r cjjl

: = q9.
:t qa Ot

to pay taxi holidays, vacation

oki.al .Y .'''"$ OlJd -,1r 3l .Y

OI dl.Jij,j .f



,,:i [5

15+,,su cDt*tri 6l: t OiJs O.rJ;

-{ '

C. Why can't he leave on the twentieth?

.olr #^{# .Y
J .",..,Jt.JJij .Y

. \

to make a phone call tour check to give

D. Can he leave on the twenty-first?

.4ll . \

. ij-t*:.r


.o;r i! r+t i++ .

4rLiJk; .\

/dad-en/ /did-en/ /did-en kerd-en/ lfacrdal lqetarl lkerayel /kebti/ /gerd-ebi lmahl /mehrell-e eqamet/


E. What day of the week will Mani return?


4.*^- .y

to see to visit tomorrow

Oi-rS O+.1 l.>i Jt-L! 4+lJs

future, next hello (for telephone conversations) for ticket date fortunately to reserve unfortunately week next week

layar-ndel lr-lol


train fare ship

-tsll J."L / d+l;
. zl


lbara-yel lbelitl Itarixl /xo5-bext-ane/ frezewkerd-en/ /mote'assef-anef lheftel /hefte-ye ayende/

excursion month place to stay, accommodations traveler to take a trip, to travel

t, llJ
. qs

d;13! .tS;
Ji- l-;

. . 1' . l +lt rrrr.n

oiJs r))) 4iutt$

4iii o.rf'rj.9 agi

/mosafer/ /mosaferet kerd-an/, /mosaferet reft-en/ lhr,zinel lheva-peymaf

I ,jr-;Sc,-+S

cost airplane

l^r-rl ..A *.i r


weekend to stay to pay flight to fly 90 i i /oto-bus/ f axar-eheftel /eqamet kerd-an/ /pardaxt kmrd-en/ fparvazf fpewaz kerd-en/


t}i'}f 43rA J'ri oiJs dJ..t!l OrJS eilr_.4
The Persian Calendar Iranians use an ancient calendar that marks the beginning of the year on the first day of spring. The idea is that the rebirth of nature is also the start of a new year. The calendar is very orderly in terms of the number of days in each month-the first six months of the year eachhave thirtyone days; the next five months have thirty days, and the last month has twenty-nine days, except on leap years,when it has thirty days. Seasons Lesson Z

:ls4 oiJs tl:e



change every three months, which means the beginnings of the first, fourth, seventh,and tenth months coincide with the beginning of a new season,so you won't have to keep reminding yourself what the official seasonis all the time. Even though the calendar itself is ancient, the number of the year in the calendar was adjusted after the advent of Islam to the year when prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina (the Hijral.In order to find out what year it is in the Persian calendar, you need to subtracl 6zz from the Common Era year if it is before March zoth, and after March zoth, you should subtract 6zr. For example, from fanuary 1st to March 2oth,2oo7, it is the year 1385 in Iran, and from March ztst to December 3tst, zoo7, it is the year r386. You can convert dates from any common calendar to another at http ://www.calendarhome.com/converter/. Below is the list of months and seasonsin the Persian calendar. THE PERSIA N C ALENDAR


i; :i

: Saturday



= . 3
gq o, -l E


; lunday
I Monday
; ..


' ..' b cr-^J'JJ



/do-5enbe/ t


I frresday i Wednesday ' Thursday : , Friday

/se-5renbe/ /Cahar-5enbe/ /panj-5enbe/

nl-'L * 4+;iJt{+

i i


7 F . G R A MM A R Counting Units

(IMAH-HAt,M0NTHS) tt ol,e

lA d,ai (tFlEsr-HAr, sEAsoNs) giuaeirarlt,rp'i"gj Jh

e; .i iii;.";;;i"7j ar-2 ",''i.,c,iuf .Y i7"'Jiuur'"it1,

(/xordad, jljJ'i .f

(/mordad/) rlr-,f .o (/Sahrivar/) -.13p-X-,,i .1

( l t i r 1 \ . $. t -.

(/tabestan/,summer) OE.!r-.U

In the dialogue,when Mani wants to refer to two tickets,he doesn't iust say dr;! jl (/do belit/); he says ''ul,J E 3.1 (/do ta belit/). The word E (/ta/) here is not a preposition meaning until or to; it is a counting word that means unit or number. Even though it is correct to say '" lll -9.:fldo belit/), it is more common, especiallyin spoken language,to use a counting unit after numbers greater than one (and sometimeseven with one). In informal spoken language,the most common counting unit is E, but in written or more formal language,several others are used depending on the type of noun that is counted. Another common counting unit is .:rL (/redred/,number). This counting unit is used in both spoken and written language. Counting units are also used in English with mass nouns (nouns that don't have a plural form, e.g.,water or sandl.For example,in English we have expressions like o glassof milk or a cup of coffee, and not, typically, amilkor a coffee.Farsi uses counting units with all nouns. The counting unit E is used with count nouns (those that do have a plural form), and other words describing the container are used with many mass nouns.

(l a z e tl l -,Pr.1 ' Udevflcei ' lI


(/esfand/) \t-i'"i .\ Y

11t :l]

(/zemestan/, winter)OE"rj

l ;

Here are some examples of count nouns used without any counting units and with E and lii>. (/do belit/)c+l+ j.) (/do ta belit/),'u1,.I j3 (/do edred belit/)d,g! two tickets (/se maSin/)CSln*,, .:.rc a"r

The first day of the week, and also the first workday, is Saturday,and the last day of the week, the weekend, is Friday. Here is a list of the days of the week.

-*--l e2i

Fa rsi


(/se ta maSin/) gtr'i,L U a-.,' (/se redad madin/) Orr.it.oJJe 4-e, three cars (/dahar otaq/)1.!El _,,k+ (/dahar ta otad) 6Ul U Jt+" (/dahar edad otad).!til four rooms sc -.fa;

rr_U cf

6+JJ d cetJJ ,r.c cJ3_,1 (f s6J) d ?J) d -i mi-r av df , f mi-r ev-im/, /mi-rav-id/, /mi-rev/mi-rev-em/, f f , /mi-rev-e a:,ndl Noter: Just like other verbs,the auxiliaryand main verbstogethercome $lF fnlJi gllJI L,1l(/ after the object. For example,in the sentence m e n d a r s x a h - a m x a n d / ,l w i l l s t u d y 1 l i.t . , l w i l l r e a dl e s s o n st)h , e object the verbal group JllJi fnlF is c.t"-li (/ders/, lesson), and it precedes ( / x a h - a m x a n d / ,w i l l s t u d y ) . i . e . ,a v e r bw i t h a p a r t i c l e ) N o t ez : l f t h e v e r bi s a p h r a s a l v e r(b s,u c ha st h e Farsi verb(,j'i31;^(/ber geit-en/, to return)or uri.ifr; (/bar daSt-en/, verb ol3i (/xah/)can comeeither to pick up, to tal<e), then the auxiliary (/ber xah-im gait/) before orafter the particlei .g., 5s16 "'$-( F*alJi;l; and dr$Sj e+AlF (/xah-im bar gait/) are correctfor Wewilt return.The (/xah-im bar geit/) is, however, moreoften usedin f616,',$-(:'Cpl:= l peech. f o r m a ll a n g u a g e a n d i n w r i t i n gt h a n i n i n f o r m as it to place N o t e3 : W h e nu s i n ga d v e r b s in a sentence , is common the adverb either immediately after the subjector at the very beginningof the below. sentence, as in the examples .,.,.?,'( enl3i-,,;; lr-rr al frna,n frerda ber xah-rem ge5t./ I will return tomorrow. .,',,i'( eil .j. + d" cl-rJi fferda, men ber xah-em geit./ Tomorrow, I will return. To negate a future tense sentence,you only need to negatethe auxiliary ol-lA,not the main verb, as in the examplesbelow. l.-,1oi.r" .c.ri_,lplJij /men ferda nre-xah-em ra-ft.l I won't go tomorrow. .,',,1-( rjll3sr_.p 4-r-cs. -JJJ |*1l jom'e ruz-e ne-xah-end geSt.i anhra ber f They won't return on Friday.

= q9.

5 ga cu

-{ =.

Future Tense
The future tense is most often used to refer to future events.In English, we make future tense sentencesby using the modal auxiliary verb will and the baseform of the main verb, e.g.,I will get a haircut tomorrow.We also use the expression fo be going fo for this purpose, .$.,I'm going to get a haircut tomorrow. In spoken English, we even use the simple present tense or the present progressivetense to refer to future events,as in, I'm getting a haircut tomorrow, or, I'm out of town tomorrow. In Farsi, the proper future tense is almost exclusively used in writing' In spoken Farsi, the simple present tense is the more common tense used to refer to future events.We make the proper future tense by using the present stem of the verb Oj-,15 (/xast-an/)-i.e., ol-5A(/xah/)-itflected for person and number, plus the past stem of the main verb with no inflection. For example, let's coniugate the verb r.tji-,; (lrqfy-enl, t9 go) in the future tense. Recall that the past stem of the verb g3-,1 is dri-,; (lraftll. VERB THE 'Sj I will go (/raft-en/, to go) lNTHE TE ENSE FUTUR

/xah-rem rreftl {xan-t::nl /xah ed rattl /xah-im reftl

y*ou(sg.)will go , he/she/it Yqil g,:_ we will you (pL or sg. ful.l will go they (pl. or sg. ful.l will go

llationalities Words that refer to people's nationalities and places of origin or residence are extremely easyto make in Farsi.All you need to do is add the suffix tS V-ill to the place name. For example, ii someone is from OIJ# (ltehranl,Tehran), then that person is.jl Xi lltehran-il,Tehrani). Here are some other examples. (/alman-i/, German)1,ilJi ? (lalmanl. Germany) 6Lli (/su'ed-i/,Swedish) cg$J* e flsu'ed7, Sweden)$--l(/niyu yorhi/ from New York) ,-F-,r:*-l+ e flniyu yorly',New York) .5-,1y,-l+

/;;h-iA.;i't i;;h-;; lin/

As mentioned above,in spoken language,we can simply use the present habitual form to refer to future events,as in:

Fa rsi


ioE I


i ..{

(/esfehan-i/, Esfahani),jjl-d,al


plcnlc celebration time to begin child to name, to call Persian New Year (lit., new dayl all, everyone each other, one another

/ piknik/ ljreinl f ze.manf


,-srig5rr rr

N o t et : l f t h e p l a c en a m e e n d s i n a v o w e l s o u n do t h e rt h a n l i l a n d l e l , csl (/-yi/) or, according to oldergrammar then the suffixc9 (/-i/) becomes that follow. standards, sl (/-'i/). Lookat the examples (/amrika-yi/,American) cfJs+yl e flamrika/, America) 5+-rl (/kanada-yi/, Canadian) cr;hl-ilS - fkanada/, Canada) l$lS ? (lperul, Peru)J.l*r (lperu'yil, Peruvian)dJli L-,| e flespania/, Spain)tJ,L!,,| (/espania-yi/, Spanish)G/,1n, (ftongo-yi/, Congolesel,r.,t"jK:3 e (/kongo/, Congo) -ft3 Note z: lf the placename ends in the vowel /i/, then the suffixL9 (l-il) / - a ' i / ) ,a s i n g o o l d e rs t a n d a r d s , . r - i(L b e c o m ed s I ( t - a y i t )o r , a c c o r d i n t below. the examples (l malezi-ayi/, M alaysia" ),r+!-j! ? -Ll\l malezi/, Malaysia) c.9 e

* .l '.


o, f

oq OJ -.1

/5oru'5od-en/ /kudek/ /nam-id-en/ lno-ruzf lhemel /yek-diger/

U.r*l tJ-tst

t b


u.Jr.rJ )J)9



(/endonezi-ayi/,Indonesian) c;!>-lSI (f endonezif , I ndonesia) cS )_r$l

EO P r C 2 7 H . C U L T U RT
The Persian llew Year The biggest Persian celebration is Noruz, which you read a little about in the preceding passage. Because it is an ancient celebration,Noruz has a lot of mythology around it, and no one exactly knows when and how it started. However, it is now one of the most important celebrations in western Asia. Noruz has always been celebratedat the beginning of spring, and in Iran and Afghanistan it marks the official beginning of a new year. At Noruz, people set a special symbolic table, called +* dlii (/haft sin/, the seven ss), with seven items, the name of each of which starts with the letter cJ" (cJJ-') Each item symbolizes something. This setting also includes a bowl of water, symbolizing light, and a fishbowl containing a goldfish. There is often a Koran or a book of poetry present, depending on the religious beliefs of the family celebrating. There are two other celebrationsin Iran that occur closeto Noruz and are considered parts of, or at least very close to, the same ancient tradition. The first one is called L9)_y +i*_,rb /drehar_benbesur_i/).The word )-9A (lsurl) in Farsi means banquet,feast, or festival. 6)y ++-._lb is a celebration that happens on the eve of the last wednesday of the Persian year (i.e., mid-March). During Lg)-t-)+$-lb, p"opi" make bonfires and jump over them. They play games,and children sometimes dress up and engage in an activity similar to the Halloween tradition of trick-or-treating. The second celebration that is close to Noruz, and was mentioned in the preceding passage,is called Jt ! oJ rJ-r (lsizde be derf , outdoor thirteen). This celebration happens on the thirteenth day of the month of Farvadin, +;ls$ (/farverdinf ,the first month of the Persiancalendar). The idea behind it is that people should leavethe house on the thirteenth day of the year to take bad luck away from the Lesson 7

and n a m ee n d si n t h e v o w e l/ e / ,t h e n t h e / e / i s d e l e t e d N o t e3 : l f t h e p l a c e the example below. 6 ( t - i t ) b e c o m e6 sy U - a v i l ) . S e e the suffix (/ferans-evi/, French) sgjr-^rl-.p e (/feranse/, France) 4*if;rJ

is about the Persian New Year. The following passage


.-- .- |

-Oi+ cl$l;l ,J5 -0.s|.! j-r-l-tr ..i.13.r )r)j l-2-r. -cjl^^, ,cJl^^, i-l-,rt-.rJ:l -,rrJ d!"1 c/J$ d ?:fi,t-ll.l-,r-l-l-i -dJlcsi+ jfurtl O+r q OLj cll -rr dy .""u1 jrJ \ I j-r-.rv -O.i+ .13'6 i ejr -,JL -*i-ll- -)J) )r..JJJ .,- gJFl*,;' a+l+ i .f$ .S+ q a.cA a+-,1-l-l oi 'l* cll -,lrdisi-6 .I':'t,q J. J: s-l-l ,r-e;a-.,.;r," i
i Noruz .,',.L-( Sil_,5:4*,,JJo { 4-oAcjl^.r--l-l-l Ol-i-,,ki

i i l i i

. Iranians call their New Year's celebrati on Noruz (lnoruzll. Noruz is l I a very old celebration and begins on the first day of the year-that is, Farvardin r. Noruz celebrations take thirteen days. During this time, people visit each other or Bo on trips. On the thirteenth day, everyone goes on a picnic. Children do not go to school on these thirteen days, but on the fourteenth day, everyone returns (/if., wiil l return) to school.


l I


house.This custom has now turned into a national picnic day when people will have a picnic pretty much anywhere a little grass can be found. Another important and old Persian celebration called h[ -I.d fl5eb-e yalda/) happens at the winter solstice. On this night, families gather together, play games,and eat a lot of pomegranates,nuts, watermelon, and fish. They try to stay up as long as they can and have fun. For more information about Noruz and other Persian celebrations, visit http.ll en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noruz. pakistan) :(/pakestan/,

Olj.$! .

qq oq


:(lmekzikl, Mexico) .!54 ;l.tLtS

lrA :(lh,endl,India)
:(/holend/, fi 6llnnd) ri-l't


OJ -.1

I a

A. Fill in the blanks using the words given.

A ] I S W E RK E Y rlrA cllr_l_r-.;s .frf_F.-r.ES



t^.$ .\ t- . y .f . t, .o

practice Comprehension
A.z B.3 C.r D.z E.3

4- its

.#JJ ,r- 6lai^al o+-.9L f.gl_n ct' ,"!li ..o + _ .,',,,,1_ cJt^,l EL tJJiJ-r r'r"''rj j-l-,r Wl .:''x'<i-,r'r & ,
B.Write the properfuture tenseof thesesentences.

Exercises A. .lr,rl_6 .o B. .&iJ rAl:s olK.iih e+ ll-.;s.rb_,f . \ fei_,, rialJi rj.ei.-l ) Ols:++ eS J srl- .y 61.,''.i,1.1 o+i _fj U .f #lrii #.+_tU .r',.?.13_,p i$lJi.j cs_JLi"+-t -e> U ..r^i .utj,i t++l a+e+ -c.,rt,.. tj *$ .f .JllJ. *l-n )Jl,l lt cr_,1.r .o dJJl C. .rl.rA . {, t^.$.f o-$ul .Y til

.r3_.1 .r.cr olK.illr a+ l"ry .:Ll;i . \ fr,_l_l ,r- Uki^-l ) .d-.ll: (+.x cSlsla; e+ J ."1L .Y r5-,ji D$J -fJi U .Y

(/amed-en/,to come:Or"D .rri .+ l++l e+i -o;1*., U ;+-i . t .-fF (e )J;'lrl lt ty-,;.tOil .o

C.Write the correct tenseof the verb for thesesentences. (orJS) i,FIt .l ilji ! j:_,r;.r L . \ (rJ3J) a."Jro a+ l.ly fJr,; . Y ''lli E e.,,orrrJ (O+F).SJy.*ltr-sl-x cs +iil .-r .f f_(uiJJ-) f_(or_Js) L*i .2 _,;teU .jeL a+ _l_r_l-,;a d;l-ll .!i atss ; o.rirjel- l<Jl .o

tts c/ or {5

Pl-n .f

.r_rJc/ or.d.ri_,pllJA .y drJS .l tii( ,r-cor.l_,f rolji .o *_l:i s^ .t



GjU,SL .f
ca$lA .V

."*"tfuf .V
crJrA .1

.r;hl-rlS .o

D.Write the nationality of a personfrom eachof the followingcountries.

:15+yl . \

i Fa rsi Lesson 7

^-*--t--i oo : t r

Imagine that you are planning a trip to or around lran. Visit http:1/www.hotelbooking.ir/ and start searching for a hotel. Under the

ff;ilT::f"?YJJJ:; .f;Y'-n'#'K":t'tSft l:lTfl

Print out yorrr hotel search results for your language iournal if you can. Then pick a few hotels that you like and start circling the words that you can recognize in their descriptions. Finally, selectyour favorite hotel description and try to look up some of the unknowrx words in the onliire dictionary http://www.farsidic.com/. On this website, you will see a virtual Farsi keyboard that ailows you to enter Falsi text. Bookmark this website; you will find it very useful' In this lesson we will learn about shopping for clothes,store types, and prices. We will also learn about subjunctives and first person imperatives, as well as the past habitual tense and object clitics.


Does it fit me?

, /be men mi-ay-a,d?f /be-hem mi-yadf /puS-id-en/ /xer-id kard-an/ lra'ngl /fekr krerd-en/ /kot o Selvar/

, f.Il cs^ c.1*4+

to wear (clothes) to shop color to think suit (/it., coat and trousers)

f.!" C'H o+$-l*

OiJs +J3 3i3 oiJs Jrj JIJ*.', '"'(

Mani and Shabnam are out shopping. Mani wants to go to his favorite boutique to buy a suit. Listen to his conversationwith Shabnam,who is being a little playful today. .fg .f +Jr djl4,lFn aS Cul .rfrA_5qr gal :cll:lmanil

/in butik-i est ke hemiSe auz-alixer-id mi-kon-rem./

jl -il 45 riJS .,- Jfj 4,i;.e dJ. fd!,,,l++l

.cgUS c/ +J.: o_,yti- .,l; O_ll /in-ja-st? men hamiSe fekr mi-kerd-em ke to ez un yek-i maqaze xer-id mi-krerd-i./


e-,1; .p td Lrr:l c:ll'ri+A 6;" .+: un-iane.mi-rem. be-r-im tufl /na. men hid-veqt


:clL^ :lmanil {

b+l 4s (#1.



34 .r.r,,,-{ .S-r3.


Mani: Shabnam:

Let me try this one, too. No, that doesn't suit you. Put it back (/ir., Put it back at its place). But you always liked the blue color. I like the blue color, but I don't like blue suit at all. You mean I shouldn't wear it?

a o
-l 5


/berim. m&n ne-mi-dun-est-em (ne-mi-danest-em) ke in-ia butik hest./ ir 4..) ltf1* ,fi fo-2 &+ o-,11 , '""( i.;l

6' f!


= rD

:cJU :lmanil :di:/5rebnem/


Shabnam: Mani: Shabnam:


beh-em mi-a-d /in kot o Selvar-e de-tor-e? (be men mi-aY-ed)?/

.,.64 iift

.4<jiii!.J$' .o-.;i +l Jl$

/are' xeYli qe5eng-e be-xar-e5'/

gLri.l c^ -r-l.*


No, don't wear it. That red one was much better. ').^-ol (test-ant, at all), which is a borrowed SpellingNote: The word w o r d f r o mA r a b i ch , a sa n u n e x p e c t ep dr o n u n c i a t i o n A.l t h o u g h it isspelled w i t h L ( / a / ) ,t h e / a / i s p r o n o u n c e/d a n / . T h ed i a c r i t i l c when placed over I signals this pronunciation. In everyday writing, however, the diacritic 1, l i k e o t h e rd i a c r i t i c s d,o e sn o t t y p i c a l l y s h o wu p . Com prehension Practice

in yek-i ro hem emtehanbe-kon-rem'/ fbe-gozar jl'1^3'"r'e c4'3 .(t'-F -i 4't) .,-Fb j-,j;fK+ "' lnn,beh-et ne-mi-a-d(be to ne-mi-ay-ed)' ser-e ia-5./ be-gozar-eb drrr-9J.tt JJ-,;4^l*"A -f J-l .,.,j,,1,11 daSt-i'/ /vali to hemiSe rang-e abi dust
.p-2lri d.ur3J'),..o1

:tr+:/Sebnem/ :cll:lmanil

. l

Now answer the following questions based on the dialogue. A. At what type of store does Mani usually shop for clothes?



.5..ri. g .Y

otK;r_;3 . t
J+-F.\ .4fu3i sl*i, .l

B. What color is the suit that Mani tries on first?

ai..js-? ' .+j .ll-ili r di5 Jl ,e-,;lj.9-r.

ccl .Y

+i/,. .Y
..:l;.ci , ',re ,l . Y

C. What does Shabnam say about the blue suit? :/Sebnem/

u* *::ffi*:::ii:]J:::*) dust abi /reng-e

fu[!i$l .Jjri f ya-'nine-Pu5-em-e5f

.rj 6J

.l, .r

.CgJh dr^.r-9.1



D. How does Shabnam tell Mani, Don'twear it?


.rg jje+ (.J+ ";,,+ O"l-j5.; xeyli un qermez-e f nn,n*-pu5-e5.

O:l .d.,sJ# 641



ciic .f

.lirt'i-1p .Y

v . J C

E. What does Shabnam say about blue suits?

.,1l -_,rl:ftr,','( ')r-ol .f .eJlrj .',*JJ

.Jl-9Lir,','( .t .:!.g .f a+;J

4fu.{l .rt$.+j

,Jl9fr , '""( .l

Mani: Shabnam: Mani: Shabnam: Mani: Shabnam: rsl Fa

This is the boutique that I always shop at' Is it here? I always thought that you shopped at that other store. No. I never go there. Should we go in? Let's go. I didn't know there was a boutique here' How's this suit? Does it fit me? Yeah. [t's reallY PrettY. BuY it.

blue boutique yellow green white

labil /butiki lzerdl lsebzl


.f"r331 l-,rj J+.*t lir"'


Lesson 8


black trousers,pants grey red brown coat always never

lsiyahl l(r.lvarl


clothes Can I look at that skirt? llebasl /mi-tevan-a-ml an damen ra bebin-em|, /mi-tunem un damen ro be-bin-amI

l-lu.r- ffi,tl lJ 3-,1 U.-olr631 9"irrr \ '..

q2 o

,/xakestrer-i/ crJi-'fli,s+"Jt ftusif f qermezf lqehveil kotl /hemiSe/ /hid-veqt/ ,"8 o .d c-91 dJs 4.&;"-l d$J#A





8 E . c U L T U RT Eo p t c I
lranian Currency The official Iranian currency is the rial (cJ!_;) lriyall. At this time, each American dollar can buy about nine thousand rials. In everyday conversatior, however,people don't use the term cJt;-),r"ty often. Instead, Farsi speakersusually use the term gLSj fltuman/ or, colloquially, /tomen/), which refers to ten rials. so you might hear peopl" ,uy, io, example, that an American dollar is uLJl r-. g-r (/noh-sed tuman/, nine hundred tumans), as opposed to ci+_,rJl-)l d ynoh heza'iyuil,nine thousand rials). The term oLy is gradually coming into use in official language as well.

8 D . K E YP H R A S E S
These blouses are twenty percent off. How much is this? Are these clothes on sale? raincoat child blouse winter coat boot shirt /in boluz-ha bist der-sad texfif dar-end./ /in dend-e/ /in lebas-ha hreraj hast-and (herajend)/ fbaran-if , fbarun-il d!r# t"jA Oll , :Ui:.-l r-. Ji ..tr_;|.: forj..s.,'ul tv.

Cl> te .r$ ul

.t-r-i+ ,crl-A "?+ iJ+


8 F . G R A MM A R The Subjunctiye Mood

In Lesson6 we talked about imperatives. We learned that imperatives in Farsi are inflected for second person singular and plural and that they are made by adding the prefix ; (h4 to the present stem of the verb (e.g.,cliii lbe-binl for Look!), and in the case of second person plural, we also add the second person plural ending (/ idfi to the ste--".g., -rr tii*rtrl /be-bin-idf, Look (you,p/.)/ sentencesthat are inflected like this are said to be in the imperative mood. In Farsi,the subjunctive mood, which refers to hypothetical situations, is very close to the imperative mood in its form. English uses the subjunctive in limited contexts. For example, when you say something like, The judge demanded that he stay in prison, you are using the veib stayin the subjunctive mood (note that you are not saying . .-. that he stays ..., which shows that the verb is not in the declarative mood). In Farsi, subjunctives are used in a variety of contexts: in conditional sentences (Lessonrr), in embeddedclausesand with modal auxiliaries (Lessonr3), and in first person imperatives (this lesson).The subjunctive mood in Farsi is simply made with the prefix ; (h*h plus the pres_ ent stem of the verb plus thesesubjectendings: .r{,+,pr,i (; sLS

lbe(tel lboluzl lpaltol

/putin/ fpirahenf , lpirhenl Itexfifl liurabl ldama-nl lder-sedl ldem-pa-yil /kapSen/ lkafsl /kolah/ lknm-il

rlt ..!lJ

ilAJil clel-;;
, ijii-i .Jf t_l+ il l.:

discount sock, stocking skirt percent slipper jacket shoe hat, cap some, a little

,"JFl ,'"iris (.Jifi o)3 ./S

1 0 4i

1, l-il, l-red1, l-iml,l-idl,l-nndl



Lesson 8

: 1o5

As an example,let's seethe verb d1+l (/did-renf , to see)with the present stem U# (lbi"l, see)conjugatedin the subjunctive mood. S U B J U N C TM IV 0E 0D THE VERB O + J ( / d i d - a n / , t o s e e )l N T H E


q u'i! G.,1^

/be mani telefon be-zan-im?f Shall we phone Mani?

o rD


.#j; cr"$.lt'^t
/be mani telefon be-zan-im./ Let's phone Mani. Past Habitual The past habitual tense is used to talk about events that used to happen habitually in the past but no longer occur. In English, simple past tense verbs and the modal idiom used to are used for this purpose. For example, when passing by a school you might hear your friend say,I went to school here when I was a kid, or,I used to go to school here when I was a kid. Your friend is referring to a past habitual event. In Farsi, the past habitual is just like the simple present except that the verb is in its past form. That is, we make past habitual verbs by adding the habitual prefix cf (lrnr-ll to the beginning of the past stem of the verb. of course,subject endings also need to be added based on person and number. Here is the coniugation of the verb g{Jri (/xer-id-ren/,to buy) in the past habitual tense. THE VERB O+JA I used to buy you (sg.)used (/xer d an/, to buy) tN THEPAST HABTTUAL TENSE

6' f! +

3 (D

llyR$ fte-bin-im/
lb,e-binildl /be-bin-end/

tY *

./besin-ftm/ #,r:tperson :tt, 'zndPerson 1 /be--bin-i/

, fte-bin-ed/ t-ijiri i 3rd person

Look especiallyat the first person singular and plural. The first person subjunctive in Farsi is used for first person imperatives; thus, the verbs p# (/be bin-em/) and p.ill*i (/be-bin-im/) can be translated to Let me see/I should see and Let us seeftVeshould see,respectively. Pronunciation Note: lf the first vowel in the verb stem is /o/, then the 't p r e f i x+ ( / b e - / )s o m e t i m e b . or s e c o m e s ( / b o - / ) i n c o l l o q u i alla n g u a g eF the imperative form of the verb O3-1 (/raft-en/, to go) is proexample, . h i sp h e n o m e n o i n s less nounced a sJ ; ( / b o - r o / , 6 o ! ) a n d n o t ( / b e - r o / )T speech. f r e q u e n itn e d u c a t e d verbs,as in Oi.$l.r-.,p(lUar Oa5tGrammarNote: In the caseof phrasal en/, to pickup, to ta[e), the prefixt is not used-e.g.,,+-,1lrl (/ber darim/) and not 6-,11.!-){ (/ber be-dar-im/). In the opening dialogue of this lesson,we hear Mani and Slabnam say (/be-r-im/), which is the spoken form of the.verb dJ-ti (/be-rrevS) im/). When you use this verb as a question, as in :S.)| fbe-r-im/), you are saying Shall we go? And when you say it as a response,as in fi')i (/be-r-im/),you are saying Let's go. Now here are some more examples: f,+-l-.ll-+ JLAU /nahar be-xor-imf Shall we have lunch? .CJJ-ls+ JLaU /nahar be-xor-im./ Let's have lunch.

/mi-xar-id-aoml /mi-xer-id-i/



rst person znd person


to buy
he/she/it used to buy we used to buy you (pl. or sg. fnl.) used to buy they (pl. or sg. fnl.) used to buy

Cr+Js (r'


l-i**. iil
/mi xer id-im/ /mi-xar-id-id/

dliF gc

il p".,o.
rst person znd person

f"l.!_.;.s ar-c .$.:;_,1r..r ,r.c


n /mixar-id-alnd,l 3rd person

EJ f#tr.+ c-r.
/ketab be-xan-im/ Shall we read a book? Here are some sample sentencesin the past habitual.

.f#lri+ uti5
/ketab be-xan-im./ Let'sread a book.

* *

.f"J ,r-c ar_;J.o ! e-,1+ L 4ii^i dF /men hremi5e ba peder-em be medrese mi-reft-em./ I always went/used to go to school with my father.



Lesson B

1*107 I

.$tl c/ l;al ) _l_s_l -'^ tdl hrer ruz an-ha inja mi-amed-end./ be f They came/usedto come here every day. $r.l oi , -o Ll +1,/badde-ha mi-dev-id- a'nd.l The children ran/used to run.
. . J \ J

endingin a sentence for emphasis, e.g.,arir.o-,i.r. cl-) ;L (/manirar nadid-am-ei/). This is roughryequivarent to saying,Mani, r hoven,t seen him. Here are some examplesof sentences containing object endings.

cf o

.uli+ ts/mi-bin-em-eb./ I seeit.


-{ ;' n r+ =

Object Endings on Uerbs Farsiverbs carry a lot of information. We know that verbs in Farsi are inflected for person using subject endings, as in p-i-91 c/ (/mi-nevis-am/, I write-from cli.&;/nevebt-en/, to write) with the present stem rli-# (/nevis/). This allows us to drop the subject of the sentence if it is known. You can also use object endings for known objects and do away with object pronouns. For example, in the opening dialogue of this lessonwe heard Shabnam tell Mani,



.JLa-,;s+r gt-$rc.:l.l /dad-em-eian be farhad./ I gave them to Farhad. ))^ L9J) cJU+g,,ifK /gozabt-im-eianruy-e miz./ We put them on the table.

.#rJS O+r djl



(instead of d + l-,,ui)



f ez-a.3 did-en kerd-im./ We visited it. (lit.,We did visiting from it.)

/ne-pu5-e5./ Don't wear it. As you can see,sometimes a single Farsi verb carries as much information as a sentencedoes-for example, the verb c# (instead of p'J$ o*r ,r^r l-2 OI iJ ) "Fr+$:* /ne-mi-pu5-id-em-e5./ I didn't use to wear it. The table below lists the obiect endings of Farsi. ET NDINGS OBJEC

/ne-xar-id-em-ei/ I didn't buy it.

i, nJt tL

Read this ad for a clothing manufacturer.

cfr; ;d*fJ:.,.$ ..,-$-* j +:tr! -.rni+ i+rs r jJ+ e+rLj ,&ir, cf ,jF: k-,iA
Lreml,|eml l-*tl, l-e:tl

.lll .:.,-,1.,.r1+lti jt *ft Hjl fiH crtl;-rr<{ +lj 9rr c,+;rt $iYJr,-r.-.rIS o:Ui,
cllJdJi di..r c#+ r,.,..1 ir-""!t iyr^-:;b .^$;;
'd-rlr r . . E O L f . c & l i J U J i\ o r A.... jl t--cgta_JlliJcrSgl.c$ .ri'i.,,d Ot--il o r r r .E y. . . . jl Lsgta gr"l.l


l-emanl I etanl

OLe Ol4




(? ? c+ t,cr-

first second third

t-'.lt, l ;;t


Grammar Note:These objectendings can alsobe attached to prepositions. Forexample, to 6;6; (/beh-em/, O 4+ (/be man/, to me) can be changed t o m e ) . I n t h e d i a l o g u ey , o u h e a r dM a n i a s kS h a b n a mf,a ! ^ e * + ( / b e h . h i sl i t e r a l l y e m m i - y a d ? / )T m e a n sD o e s i t c o m et o m e ?w h i c h i s a n i d i o m for Does it fit me? Usage Notet: Asin the restof the course, wheretherearetwo formsin the table above, the first form (with /e/) is formal. Usage Note z: lt is also possible to name both the objectand the object

Arian Clothing clothing"isone of the oldestclothing manufacturers in Iran. 1..i"" This companyproducesmen,sand women,sclothes. O";;;;d;; include-suits (/ir.,iacketand trousers), skirt suits (/ir.,jacketand skirt), shirts, dresses, and iackets.The prices of our products are low, and we have several boutiquesin Tehran. The prices of our suits are from go,oooto 15o,ooo tumans.our skirts are from 2o,ooo to 5o,ooo tumans.

1o8 i Farsi
Lesson B

manufacturer, producer to manufacture, to produce several to include product, products

/tolid kon-ende/ /tolid krerd-en/ /dendini /5amelbud-an/ /mahsuf, /mahsulat/

5 ri'i'< 5!;

A. Use the subjunctive form of the verb in these sentences.

o rD
f 6

a+ (D

dirs +l-i 0i+

,cJ or.a-.o

(pI).-(Oi-l:') (pr)r_((-F!i<Ji) ('g').('g ) t(pt)t-

' ' eli A: drtL-.'! Olji 4+(J'i+JUq. Y c-.ES.l (O+) l-,1 (O+>) l-1gel;; cll. t (dili-r) oJr. 4+l.t-;i. o


8 H . c u t r u R ET o P l c 2
What Do lranians Typically Wear? The way Iranians dress has changed dramatically and frequently i" jltg last two centuries. During the Qajar (-lt-. E lqaiarll and Pahlavi (cr;& /prehlevi/) dynasties (the last two monarchic regimes before rhe ry79 revolution), the country underwent a remarkable modernization period. During this time, Western education and values gradually became a sign of social status.Peopledressedmore and more like Europeans,and many women stopped wearing the traditional Islamic veil (albeit many by force during Reza Shah Pahlavi'sreign, ry25-t94rl. Since the ry79 revolution, however, the government has been trying to replace Western values with traditional Islamic ones. This clash of ideals has created a wide range of opinions among individuals about what people should wear. For example, wearing a tie may be considered a sign of etiquette, elegance,and professionalism by modernists, but it might be regarded as a sign of blind submission to Western values by fundamentalists. Wearing jeans and T-shirts may be viewed similarly. Younger, more liberal people like to dress in jeans and T-shirts, while traditionalists avoid that. Nowadays,many men wear a shirt, a pair of long pants, and, if it's cold, a sports jacket.Government officials wear suits, but they don't wear ties. Wearing short-sleevedshirts by men is frowned on by the government, but many men do it anyway. Women, by law, have to cover all their bodies and hair. Liberal and younger women wear tight and short manteaustogether with jeans and colorful scarves.Women who work for the government have to wear loose and long manteaus, and they must cover their hair with larger scaryesrcalled 4rii1 (frrrrcqnr-'ef), that fit around the face. More traditional women *"u. iu.g" ttact sheets called -!l; Ttudor/) and only show their faces.You can learn more about such cultural issues athttp:ll www. cultureofi ran.com.

B. Use the correct form of the verb in parenthesesin the following sentences.

(Orj) csl or# Ci^ .e-r str c;fis . \ (O+>) Cref*.! ,clt OJJ'"ij-r-tr Y "iJil;-+

(cis-r) .s-A q $j L ,+,i.'i.K -cJt-, .f (Or_t)0i$ L.,i a+p+ f.y . t

(J$lF) crJr.JS s" .o

C. Turn the objects of verbs and objects of prepositions in these sentences into object pronouns. The first one is done as an example.

.pih .;L

e.pl-,1 Ll r-r. tiS 'd# 61'"it'il:

l++l -,1l4 lJ ,',oJ(. \ .P+.ll-l -rl.Y ,',.,r1L l-) "F*l+l.Y

.o-,14 irsllk l 4+.t


cs- lJ a.cl.t-,;3-; . o

D. Fill in the blanks using the following words. ul3i ,.lJ"-U G.itK ;r,ai


JJJJ+S . \

.,',..f dil.- 91J.rl.r.c

-,rl:li +l . Y


rbj .d!,1 ei+,i jl ; ot5.-,litl.l &ia iret* Jl . t sj3,r,.i

.dts d jl lJ t'iiS


qal o.JA ,',c1,^r1,'r.tl . o J q o Y a

110 i
I t


Lesson 8

A I I S W E RK E Y Comprehension Practice A.z B .r

C.z D.


A. dJJ.O

J i m i n a P e r s i a nR e s t a u r a n t
In this lesson, you will learn about persian food and restaurants.you will also learn to expresslikes and dislikes, as well as the equivalents of both . . . and and neither . . . nor constructions in Farsi. Finally, you will also learn how to use the subiunctive mood with the auxiliary verb rj-S (l(ayedl, may).







.rj raljri, .1

#-,, .* .f

+-F .Y

.ri:*l . t

.oJ+oslJrrtii+ . f


.",i,-o.1.1 .Y .lrrJl



to recommend

i5ro .o

/pi5nehad krerd-en/ lxorell

OIJS lta;.^iA cFr->

D. .Jt6.1 JIS .o $lJA.f *^'*.Y OE6;.Y ip.^fi.\

a (usually) meat sauce served over steamed rice fesenjan (a sauce made with chicken or beef, crushed walnuts, and pomegranate paste, served over rice) a drink made with yogurt, water, salt, and sometimes dried mint salad How about you? a rice dish with dill and broad beans, often served with beef

/xore5-e fesenjan/

ubir,4 -cF"t_l-

Make a list of **u articles of clothing that haven't been listed in this lesson. Try to look them up in the online Farsi dictionary vvww farsidic.com. Write the words and the Farsi equivalents:that you find in your language iournal. Another online dictionary you can use can be found at-www.aryarrpo,rr..o*. This is also a very good dicti'onary that you might want to bookmark.



/5oma de-tor| /Bevid baqela/

JYL.r !r^L-L^',.?. ).i.11l"_yi

food yogurt specialoccasion

Fa rsi

lqnzal lmastl
/monasebet-e xass/


uroti f{,-l.i

A ] I S W E RK E Y Practice Comprehension A.z B .r

C.z D.


A. djj .o

eJ-l-lrr+. t

a P e r s i a nR e s t a u r a n t

e J S + .{

fi ;+ + .f


B. fllF (4.o

rj .uljrL .l





JX'"A . \

C. .O-.11 il.l3 gtia; . .Uil-,lX .f .si-qr .Y

In this lesson, you will learn about persian food and restaurants. you will also learn to expresslikes and dislikes, as well as the equivalents of both . . . and and neither . . . nor constructions in Farsi. rinilly, you will also learn how to use the subjunctive mood with the auxiliaryveru rr.Li (litaya"dl, may).





to recommend

/piSnehad kerd-en/ lxorell

OIJS lta:-4 ci",r-n


,,.llis .1

JIS .o

.ulyA .t



Oi!,".i,.i . \

a (usually) meat sauce served over steamed rice fesenian (a sauce made with chicken or beef crushed walnuts, and pomegranate paste, served over rice) a drink made with yogurt, water, salt, and sometimes dried mint salad How about you? a rice dish with dill and broad beans, often served with beef food yogurt special occasion

/xored-e fesenian/


Make a list of some articles of clothing that haven't been listed in this lesson. Try to look them up in the online Farsi dictionary www. farsidic.com. Write the words and the Farsi equivalents that you find in your language journal. Another online dictionary you can use can This is also a very good dictionary be found ui*."ryunpour.com. that you might want to bookmark.



lsaladl /5oma lr_tor?l /5evidbaqela/

JYl*,, frtL-Loli


lqazal lmastl xass/ /monasebet-e

,',uuL 1;roti g++.U:

_--.--.. I.-..........


i I


Listen to their conversashabnam has taken |im to a Persianrestaurant' menu' tion as they choose food from the

/inja duq darand?men duq xt'ylitltrstdar am./ .(*t-n ' L{.s' .f) el:- c/ * rYL- '-'- .rrlb i1r,Al:= .f dr*rl,cl; r)t- f-,, 4 C





10 (D

b+l $j \^^i I,rtLXi -cll-l-f--2 iJ#J+.


t1+*l:- c+)

9. CU 5
.D ttr r+ OJ c o, :t


ziyad inia mi-ya/de resturan-e qaSeng-i! Soma in (miYa-id)|

mi-xam /hetmen dar-end. mn salad hem (mi-xah-em)' Soma de-tor?salad ya mast mi-xah-in (mi-xah-id) ?/ .dr-,|^ +r cp l-9n' .r- .:YL 4r iJ. /men ne salad mi-xah-em, ne mast'/ 'r !' ' ".ti d.l;-.p.',r1--i .a-i-)'^" b4l i nist?/ /men inia serd-em-e. Soma serd-et


.b.lA Lrta d+r"Li. ^9li


.+l lUj



:liiml .* :t'+:/5rebnam/

monasebetI ziyadne. bi5ter bera-ye ha-Ye xass'/

.ni. ;\:-;;



d,;J+ J';L
f &ramen

O:l d-x .a,.ci-.,1'*" rA iF .l-l+


'\ , '

mi-kon-if /xob, de qeza-yipi5-nehad U*l3l Ul+i,"g .,-F-l-l'ji'Jf




hem serd-em-e. be-rim un teref be-5in-im (be-ne5in-im)./


ewelin pi5/elbette xoreS-efesenian nehad-e men-e'/

r4r (u"i-i) di
di-Ye/ /tu-5(tu-Ye5) .o-;1.:3.r-,13 * "i-1l, .drif Ll a.,,$-r-r JF t
fdJlJ d.tr.r3J JJ-S


[im: Shabnam:

What a pretty restaurant! Do you come here often? Not often. Mostly for special occasions. Okay, what (food) do You recommend? Fesenjan is my first recommendation, of course' What's in it? It's a sort of sauce with meat. It also has walnuts in it. Do you like walnuts? Of course. What are You having? I may have shevid baqela. That's good too. I like both walnuts and broad beans. What drink would You like? Do they have duqhere? I like duq very much' They must. I also want salad. How about you? Do you want salad or Yogurt? I want neither salad nor Yogurt. I'm cold here. Aren't You cold?




fim: Shabnam: fim: Shabnam:

ba guSt'tu-Shem /Yek iur xor-e5-e gerdu dust dar-if gerdu dar-e. fcgJ3- cr^ c+ l^i^i !45+11 /elbettel Somadi mi-xor-if .pJ++ )!la 'rr.-Yi' +Le iF


fim: Shabnam: fim: Shabnam: |im:

:/Sebnem/ /men SayedSevidbaqelabe-xor-em'/ 'tl} . \, . pa .p-,llr,','r:l )[i! * iJ- .4+F # OJ


baqela dust dar/un hem xub-e. men hem em, hem gerdu'/

't-15' .l r.
. i


fu+l-n t/ cf .r+$-il
/nu5-id-ren-i di mi-xa-hiI f'tr-;l': f-lr b4l .pJlJ ,"'"'J: '.rl+;. L:J c,t Farsl

fim: Shabnam: )im: Lesson 9

t,a.:l! "":_

too,Let'sgo sit on

otherside l_|e

**+*--*.ii 1 1 5

UsageNote: The word l- ft.erafi here mean s yes,but the difference l;p and al.r(lUetei)ii tnat lJF is usedas a response between to a negative q u e s t i o nN . otice thatShabnam asks Jim, !r'r,,$i g)! 1-'$ /5oma serd-et nist| Aren't you cold? This is a negative question, to which |im responds, .AJ.p,' 3t cfo el-> f(era, men hem serd-em-e./ Yes,I'm cold, too. If Shabnam had asked,f4$P L .i flioma serd-et-ef, Are you cold?), a positive question, then |im would have answered with +I+ (iuete/). Comprehension Practice

cool (not warm) hot napkin to like restaurant sandwich cold perhaps, maybe, may dill spoon knife walnut warm meat

lxonekl lduql /dest-maf /dust da5t-en/ /resturan/ /sandevid/ lserdl lEayredl /5evid/ lqaiod lkardl lger&tl lgerml lgu(;tl flivanl lmahil lmorql lmivel /nu5-id-en-i/


E rD q,

,lr.j,,ilr C&rJJ

rU :?.


ol.l.f-; C;$l*,.

F (D g o, c o f

lJ"t i

dlit-{ l-,;ls JJ.6 -, EF dr^tJ olril ,31-

Now answer the following questions based on the dialogue you iust practiced. A. How often does Shabnam come to this restaurant?

crs*A+l .1"

ci*;nl.rl _cglf .t crl.s. rgtA


-.,1rl .l

glass fish chicken, hen

B. What food does Shabnam recommend to |im?

-cF::- .r Ot+i,.,g
dl$U .f

Xl+ +_ry.Y



fruit soft drink

C. Which one of these items is in fesenjan?

fu+ "F-l.t
fs9_;1.: !+ . \


D. How does |im ask what's in fesenjan?

fc.g_,;ji .,- c+ .f


E. Which of the following does |im like?

lai-pnzl /amadehest-id sefareS be-dehid?1,famadehastin sefareS be-d-idI

jFi^i1 rii"'-t git'i

Xt++ 6rri rA .r 9c. uocABUIARY

broad bean plate recommendation yes (answer to a negative question) fork certainly 'n6i


rr-f . \

Are you ready to order?

U$-'A oJLI fq"rl UiJU^,


lbaqelal lboiqabl /pi5-nehad/ l&ral Ita,ngall lha-trn-a,nl


Excuse me, where's the restroom?

rice waiter, waitress


dest- rs+J-$3-i 5 rJ'ii'-.r-r /be-bax5-id, 5u-yi koja-st?f , fbe- ccf*&ig efcr^.,L.S bax5-in,drest-5u- !d-,l+S ,r.rjr$i-.t yi koia-stf lberenil /pi5 xedmat/, fgarsonf

sdj,o.:-i, , ti.r.r . v . l

Li'Lesson 9


Fa rsi

What appetizer would you like?

/pi5 qeza di meyl dar-id/, lpii qeza di meyl dar-inf /delo kebab/

fcJiJl.r,J,.o .+ ,-rt-r3 "LJ /4i

a dish made with steamed rice, beef kabob, and often grilled tomatoes How many people are you?, Party of how many? What would you like? dessert chef to order to take an order main course Can you bring the bill, please?

their elders and gueststoo, but they rriay do so differently. This also applies to etiquette at the dining table.When they want to sit at a dining table to eat, Iranians usually wait for the oldest person in the group or for any gueststo (/be-ferma-id/, after you). sit first. You might hear a lot of q;LA Except for restaurantswhere the food comesin portions, the food is usually set in the middle of the table in large dishes, and everyone serves himself or herself the desired amount. Here, again, everyone waits for the oldest person or the gueststo serve their food and start. When people compliment the person who has made the food, that person usually responds by sayng, OL+ -s$jlr (/nu5-ejan/), which can roughly be translated as bon appdtit.If you want to thank the person who has made (/mersi/, thanks) or OJi^ (''l*i the food, you can use the usual tdy (/*eyli memnun/, much appreciated). You can also use the more formal I am ^thankfulI Alternaterm for thanking, ?:-#'1t3t flmoto5ekk "rEryt/, tively, you can.m" ih" very common idiom 4j5i .:-,1iL& fi^'!J (/dest-e Somaderd nekon-e/). This idiom literally means May your hand not hurt, but it is just another way of sayrng thank you. This way, you are wishing someone well who has just done something for you. The expression is most suitable in the context of manual work, but it's by no means limited to such a situation. You can use the term in almost all situations.

3 5'

:3. q,
f F .D r+ Ot c o,

/dend neferid?l,ldrend nefrer-inI /di meyl dar-idf ldeserl lser al-pezl /sefareS dad-en/ /sefareS gereft-en/ fqeza-ye eslif /momken est lotfen suret hesab ra bi-yavaridf, /momken-e lotfan suret hesab ro biar-idf /momken est lotfen suret qe.za ra bi-yaver-id?f , /momken-e lotfen suret-e qe,zaro bi-ar-idf /men yek delokebab mi-xor-rem ba yek nu5abe./ lnanl

fq_;l.r,Jy u+
eT JhlJ:t_t*,

gil.r ,j.,;ti.*,, c#-S ci.lti+ ,J^-l -calt; [iXl ,",,,.t 05,I J JrJ c-i."r (-3'r c^.a
oJJ ..


cf.u r J:r
d.t;-o.o [il.'l

P F . G R A MM A R Expressing Likesand Dislikes

To say that they like or dislike something, Farsi speakersoften use the verb rJi.i'|.1,',, t J (/dust dabt-en/).This is a phrasalverb; that is, it is made up of a noun plus a "light" verb (seelesson r). The noun part i5 dr*l3J (/dust/ friend, fondness), and the verb part is OSll flda5t-en/, to have). ,ii,,ilr (ldarl, have). is an irregular verb, and the present stem of this verb is -.1l.l Therefore, O;til.: r'r. rJJ literally means to have a fondnessfor. This verb does not appear in the habitual or progressiveforms, but it can come in all other tenses.Here are two examples of the verb 0i^ll.: dru-9J, conjugated for all personsand for the present and past tenses. 'r PRESENTTENSE THE V E R B , . . l ' i ,r ,i l ..t, . J J( / d u s td a i t - a n / , t o l i k e ) l N T H E

f+:l+ 3_,y c-r. t "; ffi,',."1 aJS-l-,1ls fi_l_l4if-L.f .t*-l:h tiLl l.r; gi_13Hf+-,,h l-l
J . l - o v

Can you bring the menu, please?

I'll have a chelo-kabob and a soda.

^l - .S-r,'i.o

.t; ltJF



bread ice



I like rice.
i t

/man bereni dust dar-em./

g* .p-,ll.t,-,"'-lJ er-,,14

EO P T C t 9 E . C U T T U RT
P er s ian T ab l e Ma n n e rs Youlearned arevery particularabouthow they show earlierthat Persians respect respect towardelders andguests. People of othernations, of course,
I -----'-t^-

I t'".:: "*oul:g] 1



d.u.'r3r dustd11i/ q*t :.9J1. ftg_berenj

/u berenj dust dar-ad./

He/She/It likes 1' i rice.

.tlJ r*,."jJ er
r'r..,JJ e:

, rt .

We like rice.

/ma bereni dust dar-im./


r r8|

rsi Fa

Lesson 9

You (p/. or sg. f*I.l like rice. They (pl. or sg. f^l.l like rice.

/5oma berenj dust dar-id./

.tr rlJ ,',v! J qJ \zrj r,r [.o.ri a r : J .

(which means nice or Pleasantl. In order to expressdislikes,one can either negateOJ.l g'iF as in the fbllowing examples: or use O!"1 + -,;1, jl

.' ='


berenjdust .Jj[ /an-ha




.+l .r Cr+e:

Jl rr


fmen ez berenj bed-em mi-aY-ed'/ I hate rice.


r ' r . U J ( / d u s td a i t - a n / , t o l i k e ) t N T H E THE VERB PASTTENSE Oi,,il.t

* +


I liked rice. You (sg.)liked rice. He/She/It liked rice. We liked rice. You (pl. or sg.frnl.l liked rice. in"y (pI. or sg. fml) liked rice.

fmelnbereni da5t-rem./ $3st

/to bereni dust daSt-i./ /u bereni d u s t d a i i .I /ma bereni dust daSt-im./ /5oma bereni dust daSt-id./ /un-nr bereni dust daSt- a:nd.l

.ij.,il.t r*r..,JJ AUj r.1.c

dr-,L jl Jl .r"Ff+ mi-aY-ad'/ bed-eb mast ez fr He/She/It hates yogurt. .lj

L" .+l .r O14+X14-11

..j,el.r.",.Ut eJ .lr
.Cdlr r'ru' JeJ 25l-.1; e J ' J Jl fma ez baqla bred-emanmi-aY-ad./ We hate broad beans.

l.^ .e$.'Xlr r'r.,,JeJ e.r-.;; 'r' \i' .!i.th r'r.',JJ L-&

Doubleil . .. i3 llna . . . naf) and (fhem . . . heml) Constructions

r" .. r"


'. ri;i.113i'r..JJ J FJ_.;; \: r 1.6;l

"hem/) Thedouble4-j . . . aj(/ne... ne/) andpa . . . *(&-rn. constructions in Farsi are equivalent to neither . . . nor and both . . . and in English, respectively.For example, we heard fim say in the dialogue that he liked both walnuts and broad beans; he said cp-,ll'r dru3J )!! e-l .l^ .JUS i /mren hem baqela dust dar-am, hem gerdu./ I like both broad beans and walnuts. We also heard him say that he wanted neither salad nor yogurt; he said .dr.,,,t-ed eelyi i; r)lt,. 4.l O^ /men ne saladmi-xam, ne mast./ I want neither salad nor Yogurt. As in English neither. . . nor construction,the verb usedwith a 4j . . . 4j construction is not negated' Look at the examplesbelow:

To negateCfil.: r'r' "JJ, as with all other verbs, we only add the negative prefix : (lna-ll to the verb. For example, to say I dtdn't like rice, you say r'r."3J O^ (/men berenj dust na-dait-em/). #l.j ej There are two other commonly used terms to express likes and dislikes, namely, uil . . . jl (lnt .. . xob amed-en/, to like) and dF dJJ-l .+ . . . 1l (lez. . . bed amed-en/, to dislike, to hate). The best way to explain these terms is through examples:

..rj cr #r-


Jl rJ^

..s+-tr pa dr.$lr-.p.r*:l+J aAaj.$-,;o

/fere5te hem riyazi bar daSthem fizik'/ Fereshtehtook both math and physics.

/mren ez berenjxoS-em mi-ay-ed./ I like rice. .+l .r- Ury.,Ui dr-,l- jt Jl mi-ay-red./ fu ez mast xo5-e5 He/She/It likes yogurt.

.jlJ#i 4+fA siiJ Uki^-l 4+* d+ -l r.:rL .+-J9 d p r$lF c/ c#Jti p H

/mani vre jim hem be esfehan raft-and, hem be Siraz'f Mani and |im went to both Esfahan and Shiraz. /5oma hem farsi mi-xan-id hem mi-nevis-id./ You both read and write Farsi.

.+l .+ Ol-#F )!l+ jl lfma ez baqela xo5-emanmi-ay-ed./ We like broad beans. As you can see,the expression 6-J,ol dF . . . jl is used to express likes, just like Oi-,ilr'*'',rJJ. ttre difference is that we have to use the ,|ti ,OLs cgi' edr ,i-after personal endings-Ol4 the word dF Farsi

.OU+l riUF

*--t_120 |

/jim vre Sebnem nre kebab xord-end ne nan./ |im and Shabnam had neither kabob nor bread'

.i!S 4j e$ , e+

Lesson 9

| 121 I I

= .l.p +r .rrq_p ,-.tiS +: k l

/an-ha ne ketab xer-id-end na-.qa..za.f They bought neither books nor food. .lt .'rL +i 6{.t l_; p5 +i L /ma ne jim ra did-im ne mani ra./ We saw neither fim nor Mani.

rice' The following passageis a simple recipe for cooking Persian-style

o) '9 rD



Fi# e>t th :p;Y ")13(jt3 rr crl-x cu\+ii rJ) e.x (.gJr=t.i 6lili rr) arerJ (c-s-rAb -dlil'i 3':) Jl-''i

.D r+ cu E o, :l r+

Usingi$J (l5ayedr, niV, might)

The word.uJ.i liSayad/) is a modal auxiliary verb that means maybe, perhaps,may, or might.It is used before the verb, and when it is present, the verb comes in the subjunctive mood (seeLesson8). This modal auxiliary isn't inflected for tense or person; only the main verb is. Look at these examples: .fJJ-+,-r. !6 -tJ.i O. fman Sayed kebab be-xor-em./ I may eat kabob. .1.9JJr+ qJtS qLi -i /to Sayed kebab be-xor-i./ You (sg.)may eat kabob.

.d^isc/ sJ l-; 6i qJjl,ej -_03+jl,J*, j l'. '?ri q.ri d.y.-l:t 4^tr.l-i .drli3 *W*,e ' "lf Y i

ory\u*.r;"f ,g-o+r.r
How to Cook Rice Ingredients: l Rice (two cups, for two PeoPIe) Oil (two tablespoons) Salt (two teaspoons)


i E 6-,llK cr^6l+1 6il1) ,-i-l+4+,J.

;;"':*T.* 3r::

.UJi+ r.pLS.r;t-& _el

/u Sayad kebab be-xor-ed./ He/She/It may eat kabob. .dJJs+ /ma Sayad kebab be-xor-im./ We may eat kabob. r-tl;S qLi L

Before cooking the rice, we first rinse it'

l-.S .*-rA +l$ +1,$

/5oma Sayed kebab be-xor-id./ You (p/. or sg.fml.l may eat kabob.

Then we put it in a medium pot yith- water' We put the pot "i :l]" stoveuntil the water starts to boil. After a few minutes, we put the lid on. Ten to fifteen minutes later, the rice is ready.Bon app6tit.
material, materials necessary required cup person tablespoon (/it., meal-eating sPoon) teaspoon (Iit., teadrinking spoon) to rinse cooking pot medium ready prepared Lesson 9 /madde/, /mevadd/ flazeml lfenjanl lna:ferl /qa5oq-e qaza-xor-if /qaSoq-e daY-xor-i/ /ab ke5-id-en/ lqablnmel /motevesset/ lamadel

3l3neoiL TJY obii

.$JJi+ +!S +t i Le.l

/an-ha Sayed kabab be-xor-end./ They may eat kabob.

gJrilr-; .6lit! caJr!"b -6:ili

'-J u-+ss
t ]"-l,t o


EO P T C 2 $ H . C U T T U RT
Persian Food Persian food is heavily rice-based.Most dishes consist of a rich sauce called.4-$ (xor-e5)served on a bed of steamed white long-grain rice. The gF-)JF almost always contains red meat or chicken togelher with vegetables.Fesenjan(Ot+-'l;, which was mentioned in the opening dialogue of this lesson,is very popular, especiallyamong westerners. There are also some dishes in which meat and vegetablesare mixed directly into the rice, and therefore, no cF-t_li is served with them. The most popular Persianside dishes are plain yogurt, bread, and fresh vegetables. The blend of fresh vegetablesthat Persianshave alongside theii food is called ui-rF (sabzi xord-en/, lit., eating.r"j"t"bl"r) tjjand consists of red and green basil, radish, green onions, leek, mint, tarragon, and sometimes pennyroyal. It tastesgreat and is very healthy.

C. Answer these questions with double t' structions.


. ..


(* . . . p) f'-r*" ! +;b r.lrusJ Le-t- u !i . \

t.61l Li .t a.1 (4i . . . 4j) f4jtiJ.ES+1! .:i_l_,r g. 4*,.,Jro f6lai^-l Jr ! rrs ."","<$j jlJ#i Jr pl,r.i!i .Y
(4i . . .4i)

(4i .

l+ +lJi cr' +US t^^i l+l .t . *) fa-Lij_e_,; {) tj* 6rJ ! d!.,14jE j*ii -p l.re l-rj .o

D. Fill in the blanks using the following words.


A. change the last sentenceusing the cue words given. start with this sentence: . rrj.r un$ ci. _)r-i jl i,uJ+i

.rJl-rs 6;:riLo)3 ?-;< f+ltn .UF Ul+j-i,cF_,rF L9IJH udJd.&. \ 'fo-,1.ljJJ,.lL.Y .p;'l; o: l'tri
.e-l-ls-. CJ^.l-c l+ ,-f" .f

r-J+ _

rJ.i Jl . t .fa OE S cSl1^ "^ ,J#.4LiK .gl:,.rfi .o

-tl-1fS.",.oJJ .\"

Practice Comprehension
A.z B.3 C .r D.z E.3

.tll cf rj.r


Ul*n+ . t l _ .o Ol^iF 1
.V ,',.uJJ

.t i



B. Turn these sentencesin various tenses into subjunctive constructions with Jr-1..i.

.r_l_li,e Ly.:_;f.l .jL

a1ld o_,11i-o .+$i_,r -rollii;l a; u" 19altiJ*i

.y B'

.",...rJ x^rl OiJ#i . \ .J_.;lJ r'r.rrJJ .s-;l.f -;ur.:.:ley J OJJ#i .\l dur3J .s-.;l-rr -;ul .:ley J O"rJ+e.f .lj .r- rJl.i+ -,1*Jjl Jtaj J OJJrti . t L .o .rj cf OL+ -.;-r.l-,11 .+l .f L .1 dJHJ- -.1r-,.1 -,11 t'r'"-9J L .V .d;llr -,p,r.t

.y $rJS d,l^Ef cjil ;.l la1t t .

_.nr:.l,lrr,r4tfut U .o

+l.l uiL .\ .rU-,11o_,fi.o4+ +Li l-"^i .Y l+ll a; rt"Li oa G a.lti_;r-+ .f .+b .rll5+ dl.ot5l cjie _! r,"U l.61l. t .riJlrj ,s+Jlful rj-^i L . o ..:-136;ty


Fa rsi


C. r'r."JJ crJ+-r or.oJJ^ * e-,11. * dJ .'! .o_*^ * d_,ll.l ,',.uJ cgJ+-r 6a L .4ilir.lS a1 a, .rr:_,1,=a a-u;Jo ! 4j l.6.ll . Y


.6lai--l Jr +r $( .,^ J.r_l jlJ$ Jr +.ri+& .f o, a-l"j:J * ilJs d c,;tjS* iJ^ .{ .a-Uj:t * #lJi .,- stis pl t+.lLi..!,si .-EaL;J)+l ,',.,r1 JJ +.rl.:s .o
In this lesson you will learn the names of major body parts. You will also learn about visiting a doctor and expressing pains and some illnesses. The grammar points that we will cover in this lesson include the present perfect tense, using subjunctives after the verb dJi$lJA (/xast-en/, to want), and asking questions with how much and how many.

D. D)S.t dlii.f

,sj:-rs @:.lit-


.\ _,1taU e-6.o


INDEPENDENT CHALTENGE body Visit wmry.aghaghi.com. Click on the c*j-f* tub. (,-"s1*" /ser-grm-i/ means entertainmenr.)Then click on the link entitled crj$f J *:-J fldestur-e ai.-paez-if , recipe).You will see a list of types of food. Click on cfi_,1_l=and then on Ul+i$i cfi_l_l-. Print out the recipe for your language journal. Read through it and highlight the words that you know. See how much of the recipe you can follow Also try printing out some of the the pizza recipes and seeif you can follow those.Write down in your journal the meanings of any words you look up. to go away (said of a problem), to get resolved fever medicine pain, ache to cough pill throat to use, to take What seems to be the problem? (lit., What is your problem?)

,ltenl lbeda,nf /ber teref 5od-en/

Oii.i-rt r

Ita"bl ldarul lderdl

/sorfe kerd-an/

OiJS 4!Ji* ,.

lqorsl lga-luf
/mesref kerd-en/

OlJs rj;A
f,',.*.-,'rljl(*!a I4.r=-,O-J35.i:

/moSkel-etan di-st|, /moSkel-etun di-ye|

I O B. DIATOGUE .J3s3 piti sp\

/selam, xanom doktor./ tz6:


Fa rsi

t+r; ur$t*t^ .dq -6til 'p)-'

/selam, aqa-ye peyami. mo5kel-etun li,-ye?l

:/doktor/ :cCl' :frrranif

fim: Doctor:

Hello, Doctor (/ft., Madam Doctor). Hello, Mr. Payami. What seems to be the problem? (/it., What's your problem?) IVe had a fever and sore throat morning. Do you cough, too? Very little. But I have a bodY ache. Have you taken any medicine? Ive only taken fever medication. (lit.,I have only eaten fever-cutting Pills. ) How many pills have you taken (/if., eaten)? One. At nine o'clock. How much fever did you have? Thirty-eight and a half degrees. Open your mouth please. I want to look inside your throat. Ahhhhh. Yeah. Your throat is a little red. Do you have a runny nose, too? I had last night. But today it's gone. today since


= =.

g: r|

ei-,- ll -ls-t^l ez sobhteb o gelu derd dar-em./ femruz +cJ*) iJrtis.,' f" 4i! S(+IS cr .p-,llr.:-,ri -# ttl3 (mi-kon-id)fl hem mi-kon-in /sorfe

|im: Doctor: fim: Doctor: fim: Doctor: fim: Doctor: fim: Doctor:


.p_;t.r.r_,;i cf ,)r.# .J5

l"eylikam. veli ten derd dar-em./


*f(+l o.r_.fr-i_

-a) +rJS .i't;


:/doktor/ :clL :fmanil :Jjsi :/doktor/

/ /daru-yi mesref kerd-id (kerd-e-'id) 'i:i I *.(pl o.: r:i) q=i3.o--f dJJ-; lfe,qerqors-eteb bor xord-em (xord-e-am)./


.l;.r-l-r-F-rall r+ ".r-.r-F)
.4: fr-L^' .,,5g

/dend ta qors xord-id (xord-e-'id)?/

:lrnanil :Jjs3 :/doktor/

)im: Doctor:

lyeki. sa'et-e noh./





/deqedr teb daSt-in (da5t-id)| .4+Ji#J,'''tiA Jc#


/si o haSt o nim da-raje.l

jt+ rl:= cr .rirI (+$ jt+) d#S :J OfLr.t :i+x :s ct-j-F 6-,3
/dehan-etun ro baz-konin (baz kon-id) Iotfren. mi-xa-m tu-ye gelu-tun ro be-bin-em./

:/doktor/ :cCL :lmanil

and the written the spoken between the difference Note:Notice Grammar gJ r A. ln spokenFarsi' exceptforthe form of theverbsg.l-,,[ ei-,;.-o"o3n6 of the pronunciation between thereis no distinction singular, third person perfect present pronunciation its of the verb and the simplepastform of a 1l + that you hearthe doctorsayJ,rJ-)F Utj form. lt is for this reason when she wants to learn how many pills Mani has taken.You will learn perfect tensein this lesson. aboutthe written form of the present usage Note r: The verb oi_l_li (/xord-en/, to eat) is also used in the contextof taking medication.For example,to tokepills is Oi-l-lt cr ls (/daruxord-an/). (/qorsxord-an/), and to takemedicineis gi-,1-9A3-)1-: thirty-eight 5o when Manisays the metricsystem. l{ote z: lran uses Usage w' h i c h C e lsius h a l f d e g r e e s a a n d t h i r t y e i g h t m e a n s h e d e g r e e s , anda half is 37 degrees Normalbody temperature Fahrenheit. is about tot degrees Celsius. (/bar teref 5od-an/, to get Usage Note 3: The verb O'-f;.i'p) going unpleasant is usedwhen we want to talk aboutsomething resolved) say to wants lvlani When example, For problem resolved. being away or a (lUer r-i-l$: or1i, he says anymore, nose runny a have he doesn't that taref 5od-e/,it's gone). to Lesson

f aaaaaa.f

..j+-x ./s .! rdrfJS ,.,r#,crl-!ri


/are Eeru-tun ff'lr# JTliiT;

.or,i'Li'JS >+ ):yl J-l ,;3.&t: q+,i,i.)
teref 5od-e./ /di5eb da5t-em, vreli emruzber

:clt^ :fmanif

Usage Note 4: The question fq; g3il5,,1'^, op its written variant, f,",,,!? rjj5.,i,. (/moikel-etan rist?/), literally means Whot is your problem?but it doesnot havethe condescending tone that this question has in English.ln the contextof a doctor'svisit and said with the right to be the problem? tone, it is equivalenttoWhotseems Practice tooth mouth thigh knee tongue, language forearm shin head

rrlirn/,/rlaendun/ /cla'r ,ld,rhenl f<la:hanf

/ran c 1la/

O:rri rgl.li rJAi cgtAi

oJ -j 6


h -t-'l-r
.t .

f zanul f zebanf, lzebunl f sa'edf pal lsaq-e lsa-rl lsinel llr'stl /5ekem/ lkef-e pal

_ft )



Now answer the following questions based on the dialogue you just practiced. A. What is Mani complaining about most?


B. What has he done about his fever? .o r;il9r thumb .Y qj -rF tl .5J Y

-LFi-rrj.f "r"r1

+i-,1*, .Y

qj _, .r;.r 3l( .l
o.l-.15j 19JlS . \

r'r, ','ul

chest, breast

.".; -i

stomach, abdomen


C. How does the doctor ask if Mani has a cough, too?

f0rtis c/ * +t-*.r +r-,t-r-07..,{.:B .Y

f,.g.,il.r q$ J-\t .f

.t+t+-utJJjl . \ fgs_;l.t pi

wrist, ankle hair past, last huppy

le El
/mod-edast/, lrnol-epal


tv.J -C.o ! _G. 6(

D. What does the doctor say after she looks inside Mani's throat?

.4+r- O-ilj<


# o;it( .t

l^ul lp'il
/xo5-haf /gol foru5-i/

cJt*ri .+-l-tt.JK

E. When did Mani have a runny nose? JJJJJ.T


g+.- j:-rl


flower shop


lrez in qors ruz-i Ls)J) F1s ,.ij;^+t+ sebar bayed mesref kon-id./ furi.anskoia-stI lbimarl lmnrizl /bimar-estan/ /perestar/ lpezebkl /de5m pezeSk/
v 4

elbow finger toe arm buttocks nose foot heel eye hand

larnnjlor farenil
/engoSt/ /engoSt-e pa/



You should take this pill three times a day. Where's the emergency room? patient ill

c^,, _rl+

#l jl

tr dr^X5il


fd!,1+3 cplj_,r:l Jl'# gA)^

. tr r rur,rt t !t-41,J

lbazul fbasa,nf lbinil lpul

/pa5ne-ye pa/

i t l g t .


! cs+*!
*' ffi ,-,.,,i

nurse physician ophthalmologist

Jtf""J* 6.ij'i

l(elml,l t&ml ldestl

Lesson to

| 1 1 1I ' J

I feel nauseous.

/halet-e tehewo'dar-em./ /hal-em xub n-ist./ /xanom-am pa dard dar-e./ /daru-xane/ fdaru-sazf /derd kerd-en/ /dandan peze5k/ /ser dard dar-em./ /ser-em derd mi-kon-e./ /serma xord-egi/ /suxt-en/ /5oher-em hal-ei ba,d-e.l /etse kerd-an/ /koja-yetan derd mi-kon-adf fka-mr-r derd/ /gelu derdl /metebb-e doktor/ /mo'ayene kerd-en/ /mi-xah-em in nosxe ra be-pid-em./

.p;l.r glai


I don't feel well. My wife's foot hurts.

.,'r,.ui q,rF dl.-

-r_,;i .o_;l.r h f"lLr tuLr3-;1.: jL*3-11.t

pharmacy pharmacist to hurt dentist I have a headache.

for that person. It is also common to take a food item that is believed to b9 Sogd for the patient. When greeting a sick person, people often say D.r.i+ l.t'i flxoda bad nede/), which Iiterally means May God notgive you bad. This is basically a way of saying I'm sorry to hear about your illness.If, on the other hand, the person who is being visited has given birth, it is common to congratulate the person by saying.SJl+l "a;-,_,;jj -aS (/qedem-e no-rres-id-e mobarrek/), which can roughly be translated as May the newborn be blessed.

gi-.f r-,f
6 . i ' r r424 , ' t l JVl J



Present Perfect
The present perfect tense is used in English and Farsi to refer to an action or a situation that started at some point in the past and continues to the present or the effects of which are still relevant at the present time. For example, your friend asks you to go see a movie with her, but you saw that movie only last night and it's still quite fresh in your mind, so you say,Ive already seen that movie. You say have already seen because the event occurred in the past and its effect (the fact that you still remember the movie vividly) still exists. Farsi is almost exactly like English in this respect.Farsi speakersuse the present perfect in the same situations as English speakersdo-that is, when they want to talk about events that occurred in the past but the effects of which persist at the present time. They also form the present perfect similarly to the way English speakersdo. The present perfect in Farsi is made with the past participle of the verb plus the normal subject endings. However,with the exception of the third person singular, there is no auxiliary verb. In the third person singular, the verb is followed by the auxiliary .',..,1(/est/, is). The past participle form of the verb is made with the past stem of the verb plus the suffix L Unh. Let's look at some examplesof past participles: SOME E X A M P LO ES FT H EP R E S E N S T E MP , A SS TT E M , N DP A S P A TARTICIPLE F O R MO SFV E R B S I

.1-ll.l .l-li;l*.^'

My head hurts.

.4-dS,r.:-)i p!

common cold to burn My husband is sick.


l-{} dji.J*,

ls. alA-t .o;r i-fr,J-

to sneeze Where does it hurt?

OiJS 4-^"Xc c+ :-,1iOEr.,t+3

f l-i'(

(lower) backache sore throat doctor's office to examine

Ur ).c3 .l:13 JSsi ii!O1J5 4jJ"1r:

I d like to fill this prescription.


+l *l-q


Uisiting Sick Family Membersor Friends
When somebody is sick, it is common practice for family and friends to go visit that person either in the hospital or at home. This is called OiJ5 dii$ fleyadet kerd-en/, to visit an ill person) or ! ilb" reyadet-e kesi raft-en/). people who go Ci:A'5"*;S tliF visit a sick person usually buy a bouquet of flowers or a box of sweets


nnsr PARTtctpLE I-'::**T*'!''"' ',



. Y1n1'-"1'-go"";:fJ ii;;;lrl,;i;;";l&il
(lgoft-el,said) ...1a'(



(i,ot,s'yr; i
: (hilal,see)Ll#

: (a*il,ru""y"+r:
(/xorr&e/,eaten) oJ.13s.

(/goft/, said)cd3

i (ldidl,saw)qr f

r us"t,;;tij<


(lxordl, ate).1_;3;

ti#iLiiri;5 i

Let's now look at some examples of present perfect sentences.

Lesson ro

.pl o$l3A l-,1,-rS OI cl fma'n an ketab ra xand-e-em./ I have read that book. l_2r-r1iS ij -i .qgl o-rrl_eA an ketab ra xand-e-i./ /to You (sg.) have read that book. r-r1:Sgi 3l ..',."1 oslF l-.1 /u an ketab ra xand-e est./ He/She has read that book.

.{l ot.r l-,1 #

l-c.& O"rl


/5oma in film ra did-e-id./ You have seen this movie. .61 ol-13A llJ L /ma Sam xord-e-im./ We have had dinner.

-j o at

Uerbs after #^"11. (lxast-enr, to want)

In English, the verb that appears after the verb want cones as an infinitive, e.g., I want to go or She wants to see. Farsi is a little different. In Farsi]the verb thit appears after the verb Oi-lF flxast-en/, to want) comes in the subjunctive form and ig also inflected for per(/mixah-rem son. For example, I want io gowillbe TJlfolf..f be-rrev-rem/), and He wants to go will be r:-ti ulJi c/ (/mi-xahed be-rev-ed/). Let's see the phrase want to go conjugated for all persons. gp L,j-'lJA (/xast-en/, to want) wtfn A sEcoND VERB CoNJUGAT|0N

ciis OI t.61 osl3i l_2

/ma an ketab ra xand-e-im./ We have read that book.

l_.r .ql o.:jl_5A +ES Oi 1..'l

/5oma an ketab ra xand-e-id./ You (p/. or sg.fml.l have read that book. L:S di l-6.il ..$l o.$l;A l-; c-r. /an-ha an ketab ra xand-e-end./ They have read that book. As you can see, we are using the same subiect endings, ? l-aeml, LS l-il, -,d 1-im1,4l-idl, and.ri l-a:ndl,with the verb in the present perfect, except that in the case of the third person singular, we are also using the verb."'.J (/est/). The use of the verb,",."l with the third person singular in the present perfect tense is obligatory only in written Farsi; in the spoken language it is hardly ever used. Therefore, in spoken language you will hear .oJ.t3,r JJ r_.ltis t l:l :l /u un ketab ro xund-e./ He/She has read that book. as opposed to ..',..1 o.rrlji lJ ,-rajSUI 3l /u an ketab ra xand-e ast./ He/She has read that book. Here are some other examples of present perfect: .pf or-13A Vj.! dF frr'enyek qors xord-e-am./ I have taken one pill. ..",*l oJ-F cJ+.: ojJi. jl -rl fu ez muze did-en kerd-e est./ He has visited the museum.

;;;";;";; you (sg.J'want -," t0 go,

he/she/it rMants to go

/mi-xah-rem be-rrev-am/ /mi-xah-i be-rav-i/ /mi-xah-ad be-rev-ad/ /mi-xah-im be-rav-rm/ /mi-xah-id be -rav-id/ /mi-xah-end rev-rend/ be-

.;; +'* Lt'





ii-a$G; er> e^irr;

r+ll:= i+ .fr--l--X
$-.-.;;1 $-AlF gc

w.ewant to go


want to go

'i "* fa.l

they (pl.* sg.fml.l ; wEult to go


Here are some more examples: .llJii.+ l-;,;ES g;l S.elj+ c/ terf /anha mi-xah-end in ketab ra be-xer-end.l They want to buy this book. c,.o iaJ-i G+-l*J ulJi riyazi bar dar-ed./ /ferhad mi-xah-ed Farhad wants to take math. ..t-,;ll;


to Lesson

.fit+*# l-l -FS'' frlal3i s-o 1/ma mi-xah-im doktor ra be-bin-im'/ We want to see the doctor. jlJ#i q $alJi cr^ cft^ J i$ .rl3-.1p+ be-rev-end'/ /Sebnem ve mani mi-xah-end be Siraz Shabnam and Mani want to go to Shiraz' t..-i l-,ri fr;-,1j4 pt i gYl rJalF./ be-xor-id?f /aya Soma mi-xah-id el'an 5am Do you want to have dinner now? apIf the sentence is in the past tense, the main verb (i'e'' Oi-'l3A) its subiunctive in remains verb second fttu pears in the past tense. tense io.*. Here are the same examples as above, turned into past constructions. tr-r"'lJi c/ bl .$JA+ l-.1r-iiS UJI /anha mi-xast-end in ketab ra be-xer-end'l They wanted to buY this book. cr' lLly ..1-.1l:-.p ,r;l;-,1 rl*l3r dar-ed'/ bar /ferhad mi-xast riyazi math. take to wanted Farhad

fcsr)i LF_#LI +
/dend ta qors xord-if How many pills did you take'/ .ei-,r.i 1FJS r! /yek qors xord-am./ I took one pill.


= =.


f.r+elF.,-.Jli.ii E +
/dend ta boSqab mi-xah-idf How many plates do you (p/.) want? -r. ti^ii ti q^., .i+AlJi.r/se ta bo5qab mi-xah-im./ We want three plates. /mani dand ta pirahen xer-idf How many shirts did Mani buy?

fg-.;s.Clrl;* ti + dU

.+-,1s. Clrl;* E 3.:;L

/mani do ta pirahen xer-id./ Mani bought two shirts.

f,*r._,11.: eD JJi+ U
/ma deqedr berenj dar-im| How much rice do we have? /ma yek kilu berenj dar-im./ We have a kilo of rice.

l-l -.F'#-t:= .fi}+t#

.,' L

/ma mi-xast-im doktor ra be-bin-im'/ We wanted to see the doctor. jlJ+l4+ $3-,lJA d c#t- J # .t -l-,11 be-rrev-end'/ /Sebnem ve mani mi-xast-end be Siraz Shiraz' to to go Shabnam and Mani wanted

.d-,rlr ej



fc.g_)J= .'. cgb J+

/deqedr day mi-xor-i/ How much tea do you have?

Li fr;-,13q pl',i gYl +$-lF ./ 1.^$

be-xot-ild?l /aya Soma mi-xast-id rel'an 5am Did you want to have dinner now?

.eJri cr' crb Ob+r.5g

/yek fenjan day mi-xor-em./ I have a cup of tea.

and lJ 'r(1 Questionswith ."q+ (lEeqadrf , how much) (lEand taf, how manY)
\ii and E are used to inquire about the quantities of mass J + ask nouns and count nouns' ,erp"ciit ely' That is, we use -,pi; to sand, much how water, much how in as mass, a of about the quantity things or how *uih air, andwe use E + to ask about the quantity of how or cars' many how that can be counted, as in how many books, many pills. nouns The difference between English and Farsi here is that in Farsi, \tq (l(andtal, E with used when even fo.ms appear in their singular forms nf* -uny), wherJas in English, nouns come in their plural with how many. Let's look at some examples: 136 i Farsi

9#,,ilr Ol_,r! J+ tk+ _li

/der brehar deqedr baran dabt-im/ How much rain did we have in the spring?

.r*filr Ol-rl+ t,l+i i{+ Ji

/drer behar xeyli baran daSt-im./ We had a lot of rain in the spring. In written or formal language, we only use $, and not E $". Counting units other than E are also used with rs. ps1 example, you can say ULIIE*JJ jl J:t3 .1+ {/drend nafer ez dust-an-eman/, how .:rs l+ (/dend 'eded qa5od, how many of our friends) and Sti many spoons). Lesson to i137



Read the following excerpt from an information sheet about cold and flu.

Social Security Organization. You can learn more about lran's healthcare system by visiting the website of the F<xrdand Drug Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education at http://www.fdo.ir/.

OJ f. 5


A. Turn these sentencesinto present perfect constructions.

r,! aq.$lFuj* ff+j6+


'"i-l 'i-,1 4ili Ji rrrr!lrr-,l3sL-* -efu .9qj-- $--r-.1- J rr*fu gji#l-i prrll3F.t".dJ+ d .fi$J+ oj.j^ FJ ! ,sb e,-rJ $j +S A .e!fo o.rlrl-l i + csb u-J:i jl + -ct$ -i>t: cslr f^ 'jE +q,Jj1- J or-j...fUjA'1 ,et .JSJ-r_;_nL* t;F .r.& ulji u3A glJl.s. j-U e* ! :r -ll rr-+ .J-i3..ra What should we do during a cold? During a cold, we must rest at home and drink a lot of fluids. We can drink water, tea, or fruit iuice. To relieve fever, we can use fever pills. But we must not take too many pills. Freshfruits and veget;bles are very good for colds, too. We will feel better after two or three days. during, at the time to rest fluid, fluids fruit juice fresh

.',.XlU OlJil.!

u;l- . t

r-,;l.tCi+.i . Y .r._,1c+.Sl q.^".o .eJJ-* o-,lLi-o Jr L


$lJS &-.;st"^..Uf-

! Hi

.#r* (t' -1r -clt+l.-! cl


lrJ .1 ,r- .re6:.il1. ,_i;* rtA-,;s !++-r-c-r.LiSE+t^.&.V

B. Answer thesequestionsusing the verb ctj-,lF

UxasLad), * in the o<ample.

fLgl aiiJ glai.-l


/hengam/ /esterahat krerda-nl fmaye'f, fmaye'atf /ab-e mive/ Itazel

OiJS ,"i-lJj-rJ drlr-r-J-r,g;U oJJ^ i+i

fJ'E Cnl-l= tt' 9.1-,1sl-,1.-*ll Ui ej+,i, . \

961o.$f;A l_r_r:yl a +"V)sS .o

C. Usel-: + (lf.endll or Jq fldeqedr/)to form questions based on the sentences given,asin the example.

EO P I C2 I O H . C U T T U RT
Pharmacies in lran Pharmaciesin Iran are mn slightly differently from those in North America. First, there are no aisleswhere you can pick over-the-counterdrugs. All drugs are kept behind the counter, and you need a prescription for most. The other difference is that drugs do not have trade names.They are all recognized by their generic names. So if you need a painkiller, you should ask for acetaminophen or ibuprofen, and not Tylenolru or AdvilrM' Drugs are generally not too expensivein Iran unless they are imports. Sometimes,imported and rare drugs can only be purchased in a handful of governmentrun pharmacies. People who have medical and drug insurance through their employers do not pay for medical servicesor prescription drugs. Selfemployed individuals can also insure themselves through the country's
I -.----" --".-----1

.*lF (r' erJ OlC.5*


r-lJ J.li1

I f

.ei+F o-5$ -il'63': . \ .riJS cJ- q rta;fu.! .f

.t-,1 e.tlF +E it""rr jl -)ri 4t.'4+ .f

to fall (said of rain or snow) snow to Lesson

lbar-id-nnl lberfl


13e I

138 i



D. Fill in the blanks in the following text using the words provided.

,',.-f C.






a+p-,E-3r jl .,5; _(\ )_ ! il.

erJh qeaiiA

._(f)_ .i$_r_(Y)_ el:r+O. f-,rr r-,1 ,B;r1j:+ d3:l usl: _(t)_,r" sJ-r-n
3l .p{F _(1)_ rl csll uLl,} a+._(o)_ .r:i dlJrr ,rl** 0.^ _(v)_

fcsrJs dt- e; -:lai-;; (ll) + frj -al3A ib e:ti*:r jl Jri $* q 9,',*l o.r_,,9 gq.r .ejK G) + _,11 $a_j 9t"_,,1+ .i: _,r$ cji.."^J JJ

9++-n"_X, .\ _,r$+
.Y .f .t .o




i-t+ o^.1

,',.". 1f

OE*_IL+ .\
o-l,l.c .1

+rl+r ..l t+J.l'o

Comprehension Practice A .r B.z C.3 D.r E.z I N D E P E N D E NC T HATLENGE


.(d-,1) qi.&l.l-1a Olr;l .!

uil- .\

Here are the beginning lines of a food safety and health note. The note-hassomewhat been simplified, but it still contains severalwords that have not been introduced yet. Read this passageand try to guess the meanings of the unknown words. Then, visit wwrv.farsidic.com and double-check your guesses.Record the words in your language journal.

.(d*,1) oJ_,;,-Slj*nc i*.t .Y L .\" .p;l o.lg ojE- -,1.1


-,! .J-.;h L Cs)*,

a.1 l4.lt . f ..rrl o.:_.fc.rlt*" .!5o*$4 .el -r, .cr1+1.! Cr .o f(c!,|) o.rrl_9A,r.rt5l.S'it.l uh .Lny lrJ .1 fql t^.$ .V "q_,6 +US + .\ o...yi.+ l_,, ,-*bl gl .u13,-."" # .r + $lri ,elt.r$ OIi$ gl-.134--l lre l-n or .fiJJsi -l.l n$ c/ l- .Y .pJJJ.+l.te a;el-lScf Ol-r-i-J Jr U dl.otll cjb _l.r$AlF d l.61l or..rrr5+ .f cjil Jr la.ll .rl${ dr"otilrlAlJi o..$ drrl .:-l *lJi "+d )Jyl .t .iS+ *t:- Gi drrlJri-l _,1:yl lS or.pl + ls-t^l cSn.,l5Ssl d .o *lr .ilJ+ eAl3i ,-'.ll )J;l,l cr 4-tijJJ

..t3,i .f cJ-fts b .S_rL# jl rsj+4 CU _,eJ* csars l+ .J.$L o$jJI L Crd., gglJ+$lJi d rf!. Lll o.:L.,,=.tt" iJJl q 4-.-il 4+{: jl lJ '.i -OU-i .+3*i; fr,l c.5 "l+-I .f#J*t [ {- U3J .,J *i,i-i jl rri lJ !- OE*i jf^i J +,J& crll a+ l_2la , ;-J. g 4-cA .+i! t4. g:rEt3p, .crt_lj,l. Jr.:i -;t tJ +rtaj*ii,td otSj -,;j.r .+_,rl.l

-;J,r-qe+ U,iii s;hi



Lesson ro


i 1t+t


P ar l i a m e n t ar y E l e c t i o n s
This lesson covers the basic vocabulary about computers, mass media, and elections. The grammatical structures that we discuss in this lesson are conditional sentences,the past progressive tense, and embedded clausesin reporting constructions using the subordinating coniunction

eS(/k"4. I I A. UOCABUTAR YA R M - U P W
parliamentary elections economic plans /entexabat-e mejles/ /bername-ha-ye

,J4+{ t:rl+lA}! 6lt -,SJ .6te +.Li_,p

eqtesad-i/ because last night to vote that (subordinating conjunctionl It's obvious. I don't know. result to enter ltonl /di-5ab/ lre'y dad-en/ k"l
/me'lum-e./ fma-n xeber ne-dar-em./

';'-$UJ 6ib 6l_,1

.'" Jl;




/vared 5od-en/

4i+\31 g.r-i r_;lj



Shabnamand Farhadare discussing the latestparliamentaryelections. f,gr_F .t5; JJ Jt5I ,..-.!J e.rby ffarhad, diSab exbar ro negahkardif :i$ :/Sabnam/

Farhad: I don't know, lrrrt it will be really good if Hosseini gets into the parrliarrtt'rtt.

9-2-:t+ s+r fna,,te-tor?f

:JLaj :lfa.:rhadl

rD a+ o, rTl @ n d.

45 (ihr) -if +L!.iil .5 4+",3i

e-,le. ut'

:lEa-bna,ml :JLt-,1s :lferhadl


Shabnam: Farhad:

Because I was reading on the internet yesterday that he had very good economic plans. Did you vote for him? It's obvious. Then you'll be happy if I tell you that I voted for him, too. Are vou serious?! How nice! i

.J-$ ij+

ke netii /mi-xast-em be-dun-em (be-dan-em) e-ye entexabat-e meiles di Sod'/

Shabnam: Farhad: Shabnam: Farhad:


(jl) {t J:,t?ls. ji;.ir ;-,l3.irA " -."^l,J^ .i;'.J*r ;(.4) 4.r'+ ui,]+/men xebar ne-dar-em, veli ege (eger) hoseyni vared-e meiles be-Se(be-5ev-ed) xeyli xub mi-5e./

f lJ+




Itera?l :/Sebnem/ :rb-}9 c/ e.rjrAl cs1ji3..il. JrJir tJ3; qgLl e-U; .,+',,s. 45 (e$lJir5-) .o-;l.l,r.r3'..-Lrrl*.ojlJ :lferhadl

UsageNote r: The word J-:ltr+i (/te-tort) literallymeanshow, but in this is $:,^ J-.t+ context it means Why do you osk? A similar expression (/ee-tormegar/),or,initsspokenform,45_oJ4(/te-tormege/). UsageNote2.TheexpressionrJlf.#c,(/manxebar form of na-dar-em/) literally meansI hoveno news(-)+ is the singular just ideo t hove meaning news\, and it can be used like t hove no or _,fAl, no clue. Usage Note3: Thestemsof the verbsg-ii(/iod-an/, to become) and,j.ii3 (/goft-an/, to say, to tell) get reduced to-cF(il anO 3 (/g/)in spoken l2ng-uage. (/mi-iav-i/, you become) That's why, instead of 6-#*zc anOp-tJ5# (/Uegu-yem/, I shouldtell), Shabnam says ,e .r- (/mi-5-i/) anOj(+ (/be-gem/). Practice

/don diruz da5t-emtu-ye internet mi-xund-em (mi-xand-em)ke hoseynibername-ha-ye xub-i dar-e.f eqtesad-i-ye tqerl.: 61-s t;:'x+ ; re'y dad-if /to be-heb .a-:lt/me'lum-e./

:t'+:/Sabnem/ :JLA-,1e :lferhadl



- +(l (r-e-r ./) i c+ cJt-,s:=c,l*+ & I .r** ..it.t.9i-,1 ,i;'"*fa ir^ oS(e&)
be/pes xo5-hal mi-5i (mi-5ev-i) ege be-het re'y be-heb hem men ke (be-gu-yem) grem dad-em./


Now answer these questions based on the dialogue you just practiced. A.Why does Shabnam ask Farhad if he watched the news? .*_,r1+r.lfJi i-i; l-r;+ !i eS .r-il+ .ile csic U3; .\

.{-r! ral3i Ol-,r\l.:-;'s $ aS.ul+ .lal3i c/ uJi .Y .l*., q ,J"J+- +Ltiiil g; 4+i3iaS .ljl,,i ul1li c/ c.l-:p.l
B. What does Farhad think about the election results?

!-.-ri !f(*+f ./) ,F d cri+

/jeddi mi-gi (mi-guY-i)?! de xub!/

:lLa;s :lferhadl

Shabnam: Farhad: Shabnam:

Farhad, did you watch the news last night? No, whY? I wanted to know what the parliamentary election sults were.

.r3-,S c/ c;F AA. cr-i.fu ,J"J+- ;-,113 .jrt.,,- -Ft . t ..:3-i .,- r;.J,l.i ,r-i,,i'+ ,J..J+.;-,1l-9 .crt"L -,,3t .V c.l'*.&+ ,J"J+- ;-;13.jrr'',-= -,3t .f ..:j.,,i ,r+ cJul* .r..rL
C.What type of plans does Hosseinihave? ei3s. ,6 -;f\ 9F tiF -6$-,--i!l -6.:1,'-,:!! J (-, iiA sgLl a-lj.,p . \ qgLl a-ol-r_.p. Y crLA a-UJ+ .Y



D. How does Farhad know about Hosseini's good plans? drlAI Jl .f .,.,."1oJ.rlJA .'"''"1 s-93 Jlrrl JJ .Y a-cL_.p_1-.1J oslli .,",."1

to look

/negah krcrd-an/


E a,


to get elected, to get selected to elect, to select /entexab Sod-en/ /entexab kard-en/ /entexab-at-e riyasete jomhuri/ limeyl za"d-renf limeyll,/post-e elekteronik/ fbazka-rd-a-nf lder sedl jomhur/ fra-.'is'e


E. How does Farhad ask Shabnam if she is serious?

9a--9Ju . \

internet program, plan to ask post, mail message to watch republic to speak government head, boss, chief radio leader to count to hear to talk box, chest to send fax candidate who to listen magazine (magazines) to review article, essay



Ol'.$ +tilj OiJs.iijj!

t r I I r *rl

rTl fD n

ar. o

/internet/ fbernarr.ef /pors-id-en/ /post/ lpalyalr'l /temaSakerd-en/ /iomhur-i/ lherf za..d-a.-nf ldolatl frer-'Lsf lradiyol lre,h-berl /Semord-en/ /5en-id-an/ /sohbet kerd-en/ /sendud /ferest-ad-en/ lfeksl, fnema-brerf /kandida/, fnamzedf k"l (kill,lr.ekesil /gubdad-enl,lgui kerd-en/ ,",riJj+l 4-U-.14 O'l+-.}i *r.-t

presidential elections to e-mail e-mail to open percent president (of a country) vote, ballot medium (media)




CgJJ&J+ Oi-t cj++l 46di*,.J1

iriJs jl+
t'' JJ

oiJs Lelj (.9J.(A Oij.i-;
,"ilJ.t cl+-l :+:l-,t

fresan-ef(/resane-ha/) /Serket kerd-ren/ liehrl /Sehr-dar/ /sanduq-ern'yl /kampiyuter/, frayanef
/meqam-e doleti/, (/mreqam-at-e doleti/) fmeqamf , (/meqam-at/) lvebsaytl

J . ; .c#--s csl't
(ta 4jl*"J) 4jl*',J OijS dlS_Jrl, -l4-i -,;l:_X-.i cSl'l -Gst-. dU-l ei3g#ls

to take part, to participate city mayor ballot box computer

j+-t ui-;j o-++l

OiJS '''-J-'' 6JJl-4 OiE--1; -,11t^l ,U.'(i rj^U ctq.rr\S ,rJ.(;) os

government official (officials)

.+j3.:.et-i. .;13.1t!l-U.) (sltL) rtL

official (n.), (officials) website

d.,l*.,, -. .l

oiJS/uih d-6



4J-1/meielle/ (/maialle- 6ta4l-.-) ha, meiallat/) ($[+.^ /morur kerd-en/ lmaqalel O1JS )J-t^ 4lli;

The lranian

, Iran has had an Islamic theocraticgovernment sincethe country's rg79 revolution. The head of state is 4-tis ;J flvaliyye faqihl, Supreme Leader),who is appointed by rJt<ji i flrnailes-exebre-gan/,As;h Lesson tt

sembly of Experts).The members of O\<J+i. ,J+^ are electedthrough public ballot. The job of a;ii iJ: ir to coordinate the three main branches of the state-the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The president, J-.(A Ly$j (/re'is-e jomhur/), is the head of the executive branch of the government and !s elected by public vote. The legislative whose members are elected branch is the parliament 1rJ*Tmajles/), by public vote. The head of the judiciary, however, is appointed by the Supreme Leader,who also appoints six members of another assembly, called O!#S OIS-fi flSura-yenegeh-ban/, the Guardian Council). The job of the Guardian Council is to approve all of the bills passedby the parliament, as well as all of the candidatesfor public elections.


he/shewas reading we were reading you (pl. or sg.fml.l were reading they (pI.or sg.frnl.l were reading

/dadt mi-xand/ /daSt-im mi-xandiml /da5t-id mi-xand-id/ /da5t-end mixand-and/


.,,c ,''..l'lJ

OJ .D f

+$lJi sii3o cs- 'Ji'$|.) *-.,fj..if.

OJ rTl (D I

1IF. GRAMMAR Past Progressiue

In lesson4, we talked about the present progressivetense.We learned that the present progressiveis typically used to refer to an action that is in progressat the presenttime, e.g., I am reading this book now.The past progresin the sense that it refersto an sivetenseis similar to the presentprogressive action in progress.The only difference is that the action was in progressat some point in the past,e.g.,I was reading a magazine yesterdayafiernoon. In Farsi,we learnedthat the pres,ent progressiveis made with the present tense of the auxiliary verb i-ifilJ fldabt-en/) plus the present form of the main verb, as in the following example.

Note: As with the presentprogressive, the past progressive is most comm o n l yu s e di n s p o k e n language a n d n o t i n w r i t t e nl a n g u a g e . Here are some more examples: ,'i.,-1 iAj .J_JIS,r.c ! ,",.?,f3 e.ir,3' dabt ba Sebnem sohbet mi-kerd./ /ferhad Farhad was talking with Shabnam. r-i_.;l-r ri-1.113 j.l1-i J iAJ-i ..i.j,rr /ferhad o Sabnem dabt-end herf mi-zed-end./ Farhad and Shabnam were speaking.


.r^ 4ltii.5g di.&tl U

/ma dabt-im yek meqale mi-nevebt-im./ We were writing an article. ..rril.r .f OIS ri-i.xl3 l4ii lanha dabt-end re'y mi-dad-end./ They were voting (casting their votes). .'- LJ'"f-i dL" 4+ f^ill /da5t-em be mani feks mi-ferest-ad-em./ I was sending a fax to Mani. .fiti--,;s Conditional Sentences


,r. aJ-. p;l.r

/dar-em mejalle mi-xan-em./ I'm reading a magazine. is very easy. With this knowledgein mind, forming the past progressive Instead of the present form of the verb 0i'Slr and the main verb, we use the past form, as in the example below.

.eJ,lJ- .'- 4l+^ i:,,3,1.:

/da5t-em majalle mi-xand-em./ I was reading a magazine. The following is the verb J$lJi gressive. THE VERB o$lji I was reading (/xan-d-en/) conjugated for past pro-

( / x a n - d - a n / ,t o r e a d )t N T H E P A SP T R 0 6 R E S ST |V EE NSE /da5t-am mi xand-rem/

Conditional sentences are those sentences that contain a clause that starts with f or unless.we call this clausethe fclause. conditional sentences come in a variety of types depending on their meaning and the tensesof their clauses. The most basic type of conditional sentenceis the kind that talks about a possible situation in the present or at a future time, as in, It'll be very good if he gets into the parliament. In Farsi, conditional sentencesof this type have their fclauses in the subjunctive mood and their main clausesin the simple present tense. Look at this example: ,.:-r-,!;,j,1+.." ;:ls -#l .JF .,rc Li.F.J$ f a;ga;rvared-emajels be-bev-ed, xeyli xub mi-5ev-ed./ If he gets into the parliament,it'll be very good.



y;; i;;.i;;,;




Fa rsi

Lesson rr


The following is another example,conjugatedfor all persons. .l-+ c/ l1 jl e 7s'-,+ a. Jro 4+ -Sl legrer be medrese be-rev-em, u ra mi-bin-em./ If I go to school,I'll seehim/her.


a-=L-J+a +Lliiil


mejles de 5od./ /mi-xast-em be-dan-am ke natiic yt,r'rrlcxabat-e I wanted to know what the resultso1'theparliamentaryelectionswere. In Farsi when we need to place a clause inside a larger clause as we report someone'sspeech, we can use the subordinating conjunction aS (/ke/) to connect the subordinated clause to the main clause. Here are some examples:

d a.rt+ p-.r^,13s ,r-

'0 a

o + o,


4*,lJJ.4+ Jl .G,J# c/ l-1 jl sag_11'_Sr4 f acgerbe medrese be-rev-i, u ra mi-bin-i./ If you (sg.)go to school,you'll seehim/her. ..r++ cf l_2jl cl3.p 4*rJJ. ! -Sl laugal be medrese be-rev-ed, u ra mi-bin-ed./ If he/she goesto school,he/she will seehim/her. .#ll+ c/ l1 3l c6S-84*,,JJo 4+ -Sl be mredresebe-rev-im, u ra mi-bin-im./ f augr',r If we go to school,we'll seehim/her. .+1.l1; cf l-2 3f c.rr;-.;,;4*,,J1^ 4+ -Sl legr'r be medrese be-rev-id, u ra mi-bin-id./ If you (pl. or sg.fmll go to school,you'll seehim/her. q -Sl r.uj-; a-ur-;J.o ."Lt# c* l:jl f a.gr.'rbe medrese be-rev-end, u ra mi-bin-end./ If they go to school,they'll seehim/her. usagel{ote:lt is common for the if clause to appear first in Farsi. ln a more formalstyle,the r/-clause can alsocomelast. Example: 4*,,JJo 4+ -61 .lJj er* .+ l-,r :l /u ra mi-bin-em agrer be medrese be-rev-em./ I'll seehim/her if I go to school. Here are some more examples of conditional sentences. le.gr-r mani telefon be-zen-ed, payam-e Somara be u mi-dah-em./ If Mani calls,I will give him your message. jl .JF,rcJ-,i_;S e.:-iii+ l-,1_,ps ggl # Sabnam in xebar ra be-5enev-ad, xo5-hal mi-5ev-ed./ la;gr-r If Shabnam hears this (news),she'll get happy. .r-d cf ,-iJFt j C,l 4."to 619J + l_Set &l -Sl f a,gar in qors ra be-xor-i,etse-et ber taref mi-5av-ed./ If you take this pill, your sneezewill go away. 6eJJ;,r gJil,.,,,- 4+ -Sl .J-q-^i d +-F be mosaferat be-rev-im, xub mi-5ev-ed./ lacga-r If we take a trip, it will be good. Embedded Clauses with +S (tket, thatl

rTl .D n al.

.rii i),]j d; 4s-&;u

/be mani be-gu ke men telefon zrcd-a-m.f Tell Mani that I phoned. 45 .o:l.r .9i_.1,j+-,s 4+ i$ i6 d -6j /fekr mi-kon-em ke Sebnem be hoseyni re'y dad-e./ I think that Shabnamhas voted for Hosseini. f exbar goft ke ferda baran mi-a-yred./ The news said that it is raining tomorrow. l.ejl . rii..,d li ijl ,.,.?,r grc,l*,,aS "$K habt inja hest-and./ /anha goft-end ke sa'ret-e They said that they'd be here at 8:oo. (lit.,They said that they are here at 8:oo.) As in English, using the subordinating conjunction in the above context is optional.

h_f eScK ,ts.t .+l .f .-tl_.rl+

Read the following newspaper report about parliamentary elections.

l*-l fh ,r.,j# CfJ3 .*r cr- :l ! l_,r ;U


..jils dr.SJri rrJ+- !iL!.iil Ji cgru -dy ,ai.&.r3 q9+iii jf r'; .$rJS jtr a.u.,.ijr )J) )rll ,Sllc;la g1r,'i. C:r +l-tl orl:..gi_,;rj.;. ;.oJr rEil 45 r-j e9t-,Ll cgjJ -.JiJl^_i U$l+.i )_,tt_1.:*lij J-,;h cgJl;..,; cSLl cSlJ ,,+J..,s45 +-F .r+ drLG.o a-lr: .,4$r -.98i aS G^ 4-J ta +rL_2 J e3-;-o..r-..,i; "I+_6 ..tr-.;ftcCF -igrL-iil qgla Last week many people participated in the parliamentary elections. Governmentofficials opened the ballot boxes on Monday. After counting the votes,it was clear that seventypercentof the peoplehad voted.officials saythat Hosseinihas a lot of votesand that he may enter the parliament. Peopleand the media all say that Mr. Hosseinihas very good economicplans.

In the opening dialogue of this lesson,shabnam tells Farhad that she wanted to know what the election results were. She says,
---*--l 1 5 oi

Fa rsi

Lesson tt

1*- I t st I



Uoting in lran
Any Iranian citizen, male or female, over the age of fifteen can vote in Iran. In order to vote, voters need to take their birth certificate to a ballot station near their residenceand cast their vote in a ballot box. Iranian birth certificatesare little booklets with multiple pages,a couple of pages of which are reserved for election stamps. When people vote, they get a stamp in their birth certificate to record that they have voted. The Iranian parliament and the president are elected every four years. The president can hold office for up to two terms. Elections at the municipal level are also held in Iran.

qfpJ} oJJ^'^+ b+l jl J:ti>> :tJ-j uit^ .\ (.eJJ,r. Llki.-l q l.r-;iipv "''i( &J#i .Y (f . d # u"3all) :+-+ U^ OI .f (f.\g*y U jl rtAJi . t +l> :.r+--,1g .,^ b3 ! l; e-eU
(.Jj Pl:l.ly; "ps ',",i( p.r.sJr$^a .o

! q,


a+ OJ


rD at d.

D. Match the sentencesin the first column with those in the second column to form a dialogue. You will need to rearrange the lines in both columns.

A. Complete the sentencesbelow using the past progressive form of the verb in parentheses.

.p.:l.r LrlJ el_lia; &

4-i.5- rJ--



f6.rl.: 6lJ .,S a4 -f .'\ JJ JirU !+.ii.l 3ri c.jL .Y fLerJS "F-6


laj-i .q,


(O1J5 '',-.,-i ; OJiJJJ. -;.:,r+lgr


.J$K: j$it*.t+. .L.t



(Oi-t' O+r) oki^-l jl Jrre++ r)+J . Y (d)-^,9)oltL'l; ir .r


. .9 +;;ii d ,'l.r+ p.r"t:= G^ .t r:s G+ ceJ.c++g;!-; +LiAiil

(ustF) c!.rl + uil- t

(O.t-l:-) -1taEL .o

Practice Comprehension

B. Complete the following sentences using the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses.Remember that in conditional sentencesreferring to possible situations in the present or at a future time, the verb in the fclause is in the subiunctive mood, and the verb in the then-clauseis in the present tense.


B .r




A. l_lS cf g.r;.r Cr,il.t .Y $lJi .',c ,",'il.t . { .r-F af ,','J-'' ,",,Ll.1 .\

(dIK) ;l r ,
(Os) cJt.',$ri.+L ,
(o+S; l-1+gii e

l-2aLU st .\ (..,+t;
-rl-61 -r 1cr-l) ,J+^ 4+ l-,l (or$ -,r!al; -St .r "i-6)
Ol-j+-Jrj td -St .t


o d3"il'l .

(og) u,:+-r 6-(Osu;

\-:-$.r.c .. . .t-l;


+-# d...
Turn these sentencesinto reported speechconstructions with aS (/t "/), as in the example.





--___f.__-15zl i Fa

*i-S:l'rl-l a+ *l-P si u'> :cK # $l3i .,- 45cri< p;^t .ra+ d-6 :+rl_,1a;


oj_r ! \'+l jl J-lLi 45 r+-Ji uil- .\

Lesson tt


.J, d Uki^al e+l.ly 4! ,',i( &J#i .Y .rrj .r cr-*-fl 45 ti*-,11r-JFe Oi .f "5 .firr^.,.F .,. t+S ! l-,lerE OJI45 f;-Ji U jl rtaJi . { 4! ,',i( p;; .l*.{.a .o .r-.f .ul-5i ,jll l.l-,1o


Mailing a Package
In this lesson,you will learn some common terms used at post offices and banks. You will also learn to use the polite past construction, as well as the passive and middle voices. But first, let's practice a few new words.



i '.

-*-::*^---.nKi Jl5I .;',r?!J.i-r

i"- --*:;

i-.fitJJr etJi,q 6,*..iti

to let, to allow extra,addition express leiazedad-an/ lezafel /eksperes/ lbest-el lbimel /daxeli/ /tul keS-id-en/ /kar-mand/ lgereml lvaznf

6ih o'f;l 4d-.:!

, t l4'1.4"<l

In your language journal, write about the last time you or somgone you know voted. Try to use as many of the words you learned in this lesson as possible l

package insurance local,domestic to last,to take (time) employee,clerk gram (o.o353 ounces) weight


.Jil'r d:t cl-l'?''< .LJS


z 4 l

.ij.tl-!^J9+ .r-+ Jrt a+#--ti*


be d. be-ferma-yin./ :ft.ar-mande post/ fna;f.a:-e li-i :i$ .EI ,pL OJI JJ #-lJ..t" .jlJ$

/selam, aqa.mi-xast-Emin beste ro be-ferest-

r(+us or.,s *;t::fl c*i-r)


/besiyarxob.vezn-e5kard-in (vezn-ei :/kar-mend-e post/ krerd-id)f
.or'.?.-i O)J ({


:,3",i li.-,K

3 g.
gq Ot ! OJ 11

:e.t+:l(a-.bna,mf :'''"'i li"-lK


lxoda-hafez.f :/kar-mande post/

fna-,vezn na-5od-e./ erl-H",SJ3il5 '''"'.Ur J iS.5.; 9d.f o.tE-;i

Postal employee:The next person.How can I help you?

Shabnam: Hello, sir. I d like to send this package to Shiraz.

OJ gq fD

/yek kilu o devist gerem-e. eksperes ferest-ad-e :/kar-mend-e post/ mi-5-e/ fo_l$ tJ" '#"Sl (, 4+JA .49-"i" +(t ,+! :'+'i :/Sebnem/

Postal employee: Very well. Have you weighed it? Shabnam: No, it hasn't been weighed.


fbr-.le,rege momken-e. hezine-ye eksperes de-qedr-eI 4rLu O+AIA fn 4^# +Kt .OU; oJ 3 ,",...*UJ .4..i (s- l-iL:l Ot^j ,$q .(+el_n+)

Postal employee: It's a kilo and two hundred grams. Is it to be sent express? Shabnam: Yes,if possible. (post)? What's the costof express

:,.,."'i li"_lK

Postal employee: It's two hundred and ten tumans. If you want insurancetoo, it'll be fifty tumans extra.
Shabnam: No, insurance isn't necessary.How long will it take for the package to get to Shiraz?

/mi-5-e devist o deh tuman. ege bime hem :/kar-mend-e post/ be-xah-in (be-xah-id),penjah tuman ezafe mi-5-e./ d3t) 4,i'5 .r" jA f(-y.) ar; Jq jlJ$ * ., r,,.JipjY e.g ,+: 4++i; d (S .r^

Postal employee: Local express takes two to three days. Shabnam: Good. I'll send it express.


/ne, bime lazem nist. de-qedr tul mi-ke5-e (mike5-ed) ke breste be biraz be-res-e (be-res-ed)/ d d3t j_l_f a* E 3.r .Jil.l _,_l*_l+."Sl .4.is /eksperes-edaxel-i do ta se ruz tul mi-ke5-e./ .ciri-JA c/ g,"J*."S| .q.i

Postal employee: Very well. It'll be two hundred and ten tumans. Shabnam: There you go. Here's three hundred tumans.

Postal employee: Ninety tumans is your change. :,.,,"'o.t li._lK :/kar-mand-e post/ Shabnam: Thank you very much. Good-bye.

Postal employee: Good-bye.

:t-tr''oJ l-.-,rK

Practice Comprehension
Now answer these questions based on the dialogue you just practiced. A. How does the postal employee call on the next person in line?

/xub-e. eksperes mi-ferest-em-eb./ .4.i .,- Ot-jl lJ 3.',.,rr_rJ .,r,.i._,;tu4r

/besiyar xob. devist o deh tuman mi-be./

:/kar-mend-e post/

4!,+.f+ .f

.,i jij.Y


.Ot--i \-, .r.,, .irrl""t eA i.,1,,lf -,+

/be-ferma-yin. in hem si-sad tuman./


B. What is Shabnam sending to Shiraz?


rfu .\ +1+5 r JS.!

p,# c43. Ol--f ol++

.Oyl* seqti Ot--f r-lj

/neved tuman beqiye-ye pul-etun./ .OJj4. .,l+t xeyli mamnun . xo da-hafez. I I

:/kar-mend-e post/

C. How much does the packageweigh?

eJs'1+i .r

rJS 'i 3 '''"'UJ.Y

cJ!-,;dr-';3r. Y

L*lii, .Ji!_


D. How much does insurance on the packagecost? J..,.,,.,JJ.Y ,'tLo oLtr-r "i




Lesson tz

E.How longdoes it takefor a package to getto Shiraz by express mail? dreL^,., 3t E .S-r.Y j:-,r +- E :J. Y 4j{A JJ U ,-5.J . \

banknote international /eskenas/ /beyn-ol-melrel-i/ /post-xane/ /post-e za'rnin-if /post-e ha;va-yil /hesab baz kerd-an/ /hesab-e pes endaz baz kard-en/ /hesab-e iaribaz kerd-en/ /der saf istad-en/ /sekke/ lqebz-e abl


q'1*15*,! gs; "ll+Jl dLi, ,',.,.1

CU E o, ,'l o, qq rD

water address province bank electricity envelope stamp check account savings account checking account foreign, international checkbook village ground, earth,land surface (adj., as in surface mail) line, queue mailbox P. O. box sender postal code country receiver letter air (adj., as in airmail)

l"bl ,lnelan-il fadresf lostanl lbankl herql

/paket-e name/ Itembrl

,-rl ./tij cg*;.li

. . | t,' I LJ' "l

post office surface mail airmail to open an account to open a savings account to open a checking account to stand in line coin water bill electricity bill telephone bill gas bill bill bank teller


r ' r . . . tr

, -ll J a


OrJS jt+ +t"+


a,oLl,'i(Lr -)+4J

,-.rtl= il$l , t*r v .r 2'

oiJs j!
L,; 19Jb e-r.

oiJs j!
' i'

lhesabl pes-endaz/ /h.esab-e jari/ /hesab-e lxarej-il /deste dek/ lrustal lzeminl f zemin-il lsafl /senduq-e post/ /senduq-e post-i/ /ferest-ende/ /kod-epost-i/ lkelva,rl lgir-endel lnarrrel lhreva-yil
l ' v J r \ t t 1 ' v J I
J V e - .

d-: 9L"rilsl , r-,J-*=


-,1J 45*^

.Jj -,Ji+l-E

cgJb Ft">
c'+J'.r e5-i

lqebz-eberql lqebz-etelefon/ lqebz-egazl lqabzl,/suret hesab/ /kar-mend-e bank/

/pul-e xord/




v 6 J

OjF -Oz$ jK .olo,G g.1-l-,o,:.rG i-r. L,'; .-Sjt{ lL-,rK

. t. I

coins or small bills (/1r., small money)
r i-.

i -tJ}

,',,'1 ,io\i-.- . '

large bills (/ir., large money) price What's the price of this?

/pul-e doroSt/
lqeymetl /qeymret-e in deqedr-e/
J -l

* btl '.J$JJ





5 ri'i. u;1

fo ,r-t - ,'gl.',-^, i
V0 ' .2

, 1,,: r5 \t



I 2 E . C U T T U RT EO P I C I
lranian Coins and Banknotes
Currently, the smallest Iranian coin is the five-rial coin. Coins with larger denominations are lo, 50, roo, and z5o rials. Banknotes start at 1oo rials (ro tumans) and go up in these denominations: 2oo, 5oo, r,ooo, 2,ooo,5,ooo, 1o,ooo,and zo,ooo rials. You can seethese coins and

4-oU rsJlJ-{



tz Lesson

banknotes at http ://www.iranchamber.com/geography/iranian_currency /iranian_currency.php.You can also see some Iranian stamps on the Iranian Post Company website at http://wwwpost.ir/. e x a m p l ei)s f o r m a l e i t h a v e r b( a si n t h e s e c o n d t h a t e n d i n g t h es e n t e n c w i n w r i t t e nl a n g u a g e . a n d m o r ec o m m o n The use of the polite past isn't limited to first person singular.You can use it with all persons and numbers.
3 g.
oe tu E' o, n

I 2 F . G R A MM A R Polite Past
In English, speakerssometimes use the past tense as a form of social distancing or politeness,as in Did you have a question?as opposed to Do you have a question?or I wanted to ask you somethingas opposed to I want to askyou something.The past tense in these examples does not refer to past events; rather, it has an extralinguistic function. It helps the speakerto not sound too forward or blunt. The same thing happens in Farsi as well. Speakersoften use the past tense for politeness or social distancing. For example, Shabnam in the opening dialogue of this lesson tells the postal employee,

.#,,,ilrcjl_l-+ U

OJ gq rD

/ma dend so'al dadt-im./ We had a few questions.

f !l;it l: Cy +$-l3i .'^ t^3

/5oma mi-xast-id mn ra be-bin-id?i Did you want to see me?

..rt'S,:r'iC c!,,,lJ5 .,- 4i."+ tl J+ fJ+

/peder-em dend ta brestemi-xast post kon-ed./ My father wanted to mail a few packages. f r o m m a n yn o u n sb y a d d i n g th r a t w e c a n m a k en e wv e r b s N o r e :R e m e m b e r). The light verbs like g'i-i ec.ti-l-l= ,Oij ,OJj to the nouns (lesson s to mail. verb gi-,;S a..-i (tpostkard-an/) then mean Passive Uoice (Present Tense) Voice is a grammatical term that refers to the relationship between the action or the state expressedby the verb and its arguments (subject,obiect, etc.).All of the sentencesthat we have used in this book up to this point have been in the active voice, which means the syntactic subiects have also of these sentences(the noun phrasesbeginning the sentences) been the logical subjects of those sentences(the person or thing that performed or caused the action) and that the syntactic obiects of the sentenceshave also been the logical objects (the person or thing upon which the action took place).For example,[ohn saw Mary is in the active voice because lohn (the syntactic subject of the sentence)is also the logical subiect (it is the person that does the seeing) and Mary (the syntactic object of the sentence)is also the logical object (the person being seen). including English and There are, however, sentencesin most languages, Farsi,in which the syntactic subject of the sentenceis the logical object, as in Mary was seen by lohn.In such sentencesthe logical subject is either missing or mentioned in a prepositional phrase with by, as in our example (".g., by lohn). Such sentencesare in the passive voice. If you look at English passive sentencesa little more carefully, you will notice that in all of them there is a form of the auxiliary verb fo be followed by the past participle of a transitive verb, as in was seen,is written, will be eaten,etc. A transitive verb is a verb that requires the presenceof an object. The passivevoice in Farsi is similar. We make passivesentencesin Farsi by using the past participial form of a transitive verb followed by the verb gili inflected for tense,person, and number. 12 Lesson


/mi-xast-em in beste ro be-ferest-em be 6iraz.f I d like (Lit.,I wanted) to send this packageto Shiraz. This sentenceis in the past tense,but it refers to the present time. She wants to send the package now not yesterday. We call this use of the past tense the polite past. Here are some more examples of using the polite past. /mi-xast-em yek hesab-ejaribaz kon-en./ I d like (Lit.,I wanted) to open a checking account. UsageNote: With some commonverbs like gi-.,$ (/kard-en/), we can form without addingthe prefixi (/be-/).Thisis espemakea subjunctive Forexample, herewe have-iS (lkon-em/) language. cially true in spoken saying instead ot6,Jfu (/be-kon-am/).0f courser ifu is not wrong.

4+C--,;q JJ 45"ar-l*li-l_n.r

.fis _ll+ csJl+ej*,e.!


.ilib dlj'.,'.!
/yek so'al daSt-em./ I had a question. Note:TheletterJ is usedfor the /'/ soundafteran /o/ vowel,as in Spelling (/so'al/, question) in the aboveexample. ,Jl3L


/mi-xast-remin name ra be esfahan be-ferest-em./ I d like (Lit.,l wanted) to send this letter to Esfahan. is fairlyfree in Farsi, so Note:Recall that orderof phrases Usage

ji-,lF a-ol-i cJ",rl Oki.al a+l-,1


+-"UrJ,'il +-,1q Uki^-l a+l-,1 f-,,t+ cy' and 4+ remember l-,1a-E areidentical. Just Oil C-lJi ,=-c Uki"-l e.t--)+ ----l160 |


The past participial form of verbs is made with the past stem of the verb followed by the suffix L Vnh.For example, the past participle of the verb g{J (/did-en/, to see) is o{J (ldid-el, seen). We talked about the past participial form of verbs in lesson ro. Here is the verb gJJJ conjugated in the present tense passivevoice for all persons. THE VERB l NT H E PRESEN HT ABITUA TE L NSE, O + l ( / d i d - e n / ,t o s e e ) PASSIV VE OICE

Mi ddl e U oi ce
Middle voice is form between a('tivt'ancl passivevoice in function. In active voice, the syntacticsubjet:tis the logical subjectas well, and the verb is in its active form. In passivevoice,the syntactic subject is the logical object, and the verb is in the passiveform (i.e.,past participle plus g.t$). In middle voice, the verb looks like an active verb (no past participle), but the syntactic subject of the sentenceis the logical object. Here are some sentencesin the active voice together with their middle voice versions. M I D D LV EO I C E .t- O_lj 4l^-+ /beste vmzn 5od./ The package got weighed.

= ='

0q OJ OJ -r OJ gq o

I am seen you (sg.) are seen

/did e mi 5ev-em/ /did-e mi-5av-i/

he/she/it is seen
we are seen

/did-e mi-5av-ad/
/did-e mi5av-im/

lF rs'o+r i c9-d cr' o+r . td./ -o-{r,

f.-J*i cs4:)"Jtti d D+J : oJ,rJ


..1_f c,p:l_t4L*+ #
/5rebnam breste ra vazrr krerd./ Sha-bnam werghed the package. l-; I't .3r ''t-' di-ti.q ..i1JS jl{ /maqam-at sanduqha ra baz kard-a;nd.l Officials opened the boxes, /manl mrz ra rang Kard./ Mani painted the table.

mi-#v-id/ yi" 1pi. is.fuii.1 /did-e are seen"i

they (pl. or sg.fml.) /did-e miSev-end/

.$'r*i jq b c3:,i-.
/senduq-h a baz 5od-end./ The boxes got open.


Passivevoice is used for a variety of reasons, the most important of which are (i) that the logical subject of the sentence is unknown (e.9., The bag was stolen, when we don't know who stole the bag) or (ii) that the logical subject of the sentence is not relevant to the message or is obvious (e.g.,The bookwill be published in April, when what we care about most is the book itself and not the publisher). There are times that we do mention the logical subject but only in a by-phrase (e.g., The roads are taken care of by the city\. The preposition that is used in Farsi in the place of by in passive sentences ir J^'."F (/tavessot-e/). Here are some examples of passive sentences with by-phrases.

) .t- &-,, *" /miz reng 5od./ Thetablegot plinted:

.$JArr cs^ dJ-,^t 1.0a-t: /name-ha post mi-Srev-and./ The letters get mailed.

, .rJSS-t l-.,i.Jl

.afs .+ C.r.'r lJ Ll q-U L

l^u name-ha ra post mi-kon-im./ We mail the letters. l-) drti-iiil





/entexab-at Soru' miSev-red./ The elections begin.

/maqam-at entexab-at ra Soru'mi-kon-and./

.$6 u^ arfi

.$Jpi ,r-oorli--,yi p"l.r,& tr-3j

b a-t-r

/name-ha tvessot-e Sebnem ferest-ad-emi-5ev-end.r The letters are sent by Shabnam.


.rJ-i .4 ciill-.;1 .sjt+ l.-lK

J^'."F cJ*

/pul tevessot-e kar-mend-e bank perdaxt mi-5ev-ed./ Money is paid by the bank teller.

.$-1,i.r-" o.:-/aj crl-LL Y-^";3ta .gl-)

f r e.'y-ha teves sot-e maqam-at Semord-e mi-5ev-and./ The votes are counted by the officials. /qanun tevessot-e mejles neveSt-emi-5av-ed./ Law is written by the parliament.

Notice that in all of the above examples,the verb is a phrasal one. A phrasal verb is a multi-word verb. For example, in English verbs like look out, call up, go on, and lock up are consideredphrasal verbs because they are made up of a verbal element, namely, Iook,call, go, andlock, and another word. Farsi phrasal verbs are typically made with an adjective or noun and the verb 6i,5 in the active voice or the verb gi'.l in the middle voice. But, as mentioned before, there is no past participle as there is in the caseof the passivevoice.Middle voice is very common in Farsi,even more common than the passive.



Lesson rz



The following is a simplified excerpt from a bank brochure about opening an account.

Iran's secondlargest city is ri ,j,- o (/rrrir'5heed/, Mashad).Mashad is the most religiously significant city ol I ran, as it is where the Shiites'eighth imam is buried. It is estimated th:rt twelve million pilgrims visit Mashad wery year. g\-.1^ol flesfehan/, Esfahan,also spelled Isfahan) and JU.J!t (l\irazl, Shiraz) are arguably the cultural capitals of Iran. Esfahan has been designateda World Heritagecity by UNESCO. The city is even older than Persia itself, and today a great many historical sites are still standing for visitors to enjoy. Shiraz is also older than the Persian Empire. Both cities have been capitals of the country at some point during their history and they house the tombs of many prominent literary, scientific, philosophical, and religious figures.

= ='


t-} gcl rD


jt+ gt-,.r.q.iJs "JJl+ .S+45cs,l .-,1Y .S+ .Oi-lS -2l;.csU ,J]l ,,Ft, e.rl-^"= jl+l:, .r l-.1 1.ll .+$S cu,ljA_,;i-p;* .r--,rlS i ey .Sjt++l.f1^,,lji+_1K.fu ! l-,1 .+-1;(4Jiit-r cet^ a-,;s .sjl+ .Lp13j!.'-f t-.,j,(!,lF_,rJ a_,ri .Sjl+ -t.1 .rr# la t+ L-i .j*,'-o .! +., rF cL:"oJ g+ +t+ -d _jS _l Cr-,rlS L3.13-,,,i Ji! orlr 1Sll + ..Ul_ll+lJ, .,,rr csl.r-,;; -,-u"r'! .+t'S orl,ii-l jK U Olij .,c3; .,..-rj
Opening a Bank Account To open a bank account, you first need to fill out an application form. You can get this form from bank tellers. Take the form and an identification card to the bank. At the bank, your application form is signed by the head of the bank or the accounts officer, and a bank card is given to you. You can use this card to pay water, electricity, telephone, or gas bills.

i ) l : . : : :

A. Rewrite these sentencesin the polite past tense,as in the example.

.d-llr r.Jl-l-'$.. L


i i i i l l '

.#^:,b dl3- + lf_



.elJ#lJ W eol_n .r- . \ *f q_;l.rJtS dr t+ f .

Oi.&l.l JIS .,.."5 L is an idiom for fo want to seesomeoneor to want to talk to someone.

form application full to fill to get signature card


r-tl Cr^r,l_rS-,;r

r.r-ri r-, ..s,,,r .l "i,,}j.HiiT f+1lr l-o.,i _jS.r-h crEI! .o

B. Turn these active sentencesinto passiveconstructions.

/por kerd-en/ lgereft-enl (l1oh f emza'f lkartl

oi-rs-r+ (J$ cfi-S
eL^:."] d.l-,rlS

-r.:- cf lJ OC.'iL dl-



JE t" .+l;l jl cs!^+ .Y

lJ lA +3.,*r .f UJI ..j-^"S

.r1l.r di

-\b _ll. f .J-,,_J+ - cJl*l^'

gl ,r.J cf lS la o_9,C.Turn theseactivesentences into middlevoiceconstructions. .UF ri-i'( ,r- er. LiXl lJ ij+A aiy .o



Major lranian Cities

Iran has severallarge cities, each of which has a certain historical and cultural significance.Tehran, the capital and by far the largest city, is the busiest one of all. It is the second most populous city in the Middle East,after Cairo. In addition to being the seatof the government, Tehran is also the center of most of the socioeconomicactivitv in the countrv.


rJS jt+ lt cD[S Jr .,."S .Y .r15 ul3i,"ri-f3; l_,, +l -cJa.jU .f e-ct-r; JI aiJ^ . t ..jiJS \.il^i l-,1 . ri-i'( ./ +l,,l lJ lA iJ,Alll gil l.eJI .o
Lesson tz

-_-_''''''''''''''.',.'.'.........................'''.''.''''' ,
16h ' li
l i


D. Fill in the blanks using the words given. CSlt_.4 p.l-lr=.f ctj:

4i!i. ,',. ,.', 3 J+-J

(tr.,.!t !a

I.N DE P E lD { E N TC H A t t E 1G {E
tet s go.'online and learn a Iittle bit more about shiraz. visit under the languages witlu o,* artictes, i::l^/.wierlfoo.:t8..u1d, nnd s*UU and click. on it. Then, under a3lc, ..*-L 3 .,.,,..al-r_-,;


.' ii.

= ru ='
gq OJ ! OJ n OJ oEl .D

_(Y )_ .s+ _( I )_ ir^ ,rii. jrJ r+

:.f,-[]r* : -(,)-illd:;.fijs _(V)_ lt e-tY,de Ci"r A]ISWER KEY practice Comprehenslon



you shouldbe'ableto find grr_;1i 119,1 OlJ*.rl Fars]-Ut th: w;i this is *i,"r" Farsiactually.";;;;. lfar,sl,

l"-y."*Fr..*/relatedsearches),r" (/osta1he/,p-rovrnces),

(i'H.illiffiJl?Tf l"iqE*."'1,'f,,d #l$:t1.:'":o'"fr j:'ffil:rr,:1rr"h#;::T-

wilr '"" ii'io'r;;i;;j'' vou " tii|;:;'ff[i1:1ntffiprovince'





Exercises A.

are lookilg the article ,borrt shiraz,let,sseeif you I"Y^.h::you 'can ": fi1d thl answerb the fbllowing questions: 1o ' What is the population,ofShiraz?

.pqg l-; t-l p.r-t-+ g.o .l f !..i1. JL( (j'o l+ . y .pi,,il.r_jScrh 6tii t; .f cAl.rJB lt d.$ Orl#*lri s^ .t .i6 f !r.r13jS .rh .9Uil+l^^i . o ..re.i s- 4i-,1i (;U I*3j) i,St- .l t .-i) ..rj-e cr' dil-, (t^ sjlJdl jl cs_j+.+ Jti .y ..r9-,i,r. +iil.r; ("."S J"-;) lA 4-:.+ i.Hl.f .$,,i (r" 'ff-,i (Jl l--9ll) cjl_l* $; . t
..t3-i sr oJ rF ("."S I.,.1) la o3g.o i1i .o

among lra-

' ,''.i'

uio., r""i fo, th" words,i*Jk+

f{ow ftir is shiraz from Tehian?

ru#$., e,'H.JJs.ILl
;, . eujro&i scpcrir


ip"iolto*the'link tJ 'x1{,1{*iI ,,,wa1t

, llintl Look for the word-;r.c_gJ$ kilometer). ffkilu_metr/, . thesefacts'about sriiryi-d royl ranguage ,Record iournar.you might

,ind print out a picture of it for you, lo,rrnal, too.


persepoiis) ' -Y-svrv{ry/


..r_e-i .r-olJ-lil (f.y !*g) s+rs .l .l.i _A (.r;S,L_j) grDls Ji .Y utri dal.r_.4 ..rli .,J -.J* .f (,.+U l*;)


..r!,,i - *;,[?f;,i*;-;
dLi,.,*1 o
.',i.fj 1] J4. V






In this lesson, you'll learn words and phrases related to iobs and the office environment. You will also learn to use subordinate clauseswith when. Manner adverbs and the use of the modal verb Jr]..r (lbayed,l, must) are other grammar topics that we cover here. Are you ready for some vocabulary warm-up?

enthusiasm international affairs

leltiyagl /omur-e beynol-melef lbexsl /xo5-veqt-a-m?l lfa,qaltl /modir amef /morxes-i/ /mon5i/ /ne5an dad-en/ lvauqtil

.l , ll r Qt$ll v a

dtljl a

s_t^f ,Jiri

part, section, department How do you do? only managing director leave of absence secretary to show when

f#FrI :i-i

&tc _;.r-"

'dLJ. grl.r gl.,,$j




Mani's company has hired a new employee named.p+^ l_*r,$(/5iva milani/, Shiva Milani). She is a foreign affairs manager and it is her first day on the job. Mani is greeting her. Listen to their conversation.


9u$J^.p.3ti. -sjL u .e)t^,, crsJpi.dbte .tl-i


/xanom-e milani? salam. men mani-ye peyami modir amel-e Serket hest-am./

:lmanil :lJ$ :llival

Shiva: Mani:

How do you do'/ Welcome to our company. I will show you to your office. Thank you very much. How many employees does the International Affairs Department have? Six. Your secretary is Ms. Didari. Does this department have only one secretary? Yes, but when Ms. Didari is on leave, Mr. Nuri works in her place (/fr., must work in her place). Very good. Here you are. Here's your office. We were awaitingyour arrival with enthusiasm. Thank you. So was I.

g I OJ o, +




ir" .(+r-"1),-rp"tui cr L *ts-s 4{ otjii)ri.+ o-dj ,i-f+,- rJo-iJ$i


= -

/be Serket-e ma xoS amed-in (amed-id). man dafter-etun ro be-hetun ne5un mi-dem (ne5an mi-deh-em)./


Shiva: Mani:

E $+ 4lrll .r# Jr.f .,Ji+ . .. rri;


:lJ$ :lilval :cCU :lmanil :lJ$ :liival :clU

to-;|.:rL-,fS E omur-e beyn-ollxeylim&mnun.. . baxS-e

melel dand ta kar-mand dar-ef

Shiva: Mani: Shiva:


l^ii,,r.l'i^ .Jj-: rfi'.i

/5eb nefer. monSi-ye Soma xanom-e didari hest-en./

fo-2l.r,rrl't tu I'i'i





/in bexb feqret ye monli dar-e?l

Now answer the following questions based on the dialogue you just practiced. A.What does Mani do at the company? .t'r..,1 dSJr.i J.l LlJJl cJ# JJ^f ..1;J. ciL . \ .t'r.-f IJH^i .,r..i.ji.ouit-" .Y

.o".rJ- 6Jl+r.#lr .,J3,4li "$r 4+ r+t+ e qglil 6)J OJ{f ,ctt+ ui.*e .($is Jts) Oi3 Jls
fbele,veli veqti xanom-edidari morxes-i hast-en, aqa-yenuri bayed be iay-e iSun kar kon-en (kar kon-end)./ .r-.rJr Jl+.+ /besiyar xob.l

B. what does shiva saywhen Mani,",':::*"f"

-'Hrc ciL


:ll$ :liival :c/t.c :lmanil :lJ$ :l1ival

$.-,115 c$i .r



i:!-.i_n .l rt^_ltS A+ . I

c. How many employeesdoes the International Affairs Department have?

t^ .t..i J3i C.t +l -O*L* ret4.i!1+

.eJrj til$ ;y_;] -,J:-ii'o /befrerma-yin. in hem defter-e Soma. ma ba eitiyaq montezer-e vorud-e Soma bud-im./

$^jS ui$.y

D.who is the permanent secretary of the International Affairs Department?

.p+. -.:Li..r
E. How does Shiva say So was I? + cs Jl++ .f

L9)y c;tli.Y
.JJ"LIFA eA il.Y

cgJl+r .#Li. .'l .iJ.""l-J+.l

.Jrt+i # iF.el531
/motbakker-em. men hem hemin-tor./


Ms. Milani? Hello. I am Mani Payami, the managing director of the company.


rzo ! j

Fa rsi

Lesson 13

| 3 c . u o c A BtU AnY
bureau, office market, bazaar archive file folder to decide holiday, vacation meeting to answer accountant among machine again organization

to fire, to get fired

ledarel fbazarf lbayganil lpa;wacndel /pube/ /tesmim gereft-an/ , fte'til-atf ftae'tilf lia,lr,sel ljevab dad-en/ /hesab-dar/ /der miyan-e/ /dest-gah/ ldobarel f sazemanf l(;oqll,/mebaqef ka"sl /kelasor/ fmotaqazif , fmoteqazi-yanl lmodirl fmo'avenf /negeh-dar-i kerd-en/ lyad dad-enl /yad gereft-en/

o-;l{ Jljl+

f exrajkard-en/, lexrai5od-en)/ /eniam dad-en/, /enjam 5od-en/ /ba aram-e5/ lba deqqetl lba aja-lel fbe aram-if /xanom-edidari em-ruzdir kerd-e./ /xanom-emilani al'an der ielese hest-end./ fxerab bud-en/ /dorost bud-an/ /dorost kard-en/, /dorost 5od-an/ /dest-gah-efeks/ /dast-gah-ekopi/ fruz-ekar-i/ /sa'et-e kar-i/ lser-ekarf leiul-anel /morxasi gereft-en/, /morxasi dad-an/ /moStaq-ane/ /moStari/ kerd/mosahebe en/, /mosahebe 5od-en/ bera/mi-xast-rem ye kar der xast kon-em./

to do (a task/job), to get done calmly

,OrJS AIJ:iJ ur.i el>j

euilr pl-jl Or-i 6l+l ci+l-i t+ ctil t+ 4.L+.eL .rf_,ri e+ sgJl-.rrl p'liL. j_t-rl .o.l_;S -.,1g.1 OYf 1,fli^ #U, . ri1*i 4.^,r1l'Ji rJij 9lJ,A Cr-.]3 61i_rrr ,OrJS dt^]3 Or:i cr"]3 Un5-i rKii .r*6 etKii csjs J_r_) 19JLS frcl*,., JLS-t*.,


'.+ I o, OJ

"J3."1+ orl-l-fi
+.i u

= o -

carefully hurriedly slowly, quietly, softly, gently Ms. Didari is late today.

tfiS r*"-'l
dJ*t'-i r,Lltj 4^-q

gilr r.,.llJ,;.
Ms. Milani is at a meeting now. to be out of order to be in order, to be in working condition to fix, to get fixed fax machine copy machine workday working hour at work hastily to get a leave, to grant a leave enthusiastically customer, client

.r-i+^-li olK.Li
o_,f-r.3.: Ol-jLdiLii^ r,cli-,i (J"s JJ-X e.r':tiJa Ut+^-1^i3.

occupation, occupations person binder applicant,applicants director,principal deputy,assistant to hold, to keep to teach to learn


iJiJS 6_,11.+,(j cJih i+

CJJIJ (Jra..:J,-c


| 3 D . K E Y p HR A S E S
to go on leave /(be) morxasi reft-en/

to interview, to get interviewed

4juLi*t: 6 ji'31'^ ,dJUS 4sL-l

g$ a1;l-a.

OjiJ *.;._.;r:1+r.;
I d like to apply for a position.

ii*lF .,-.,. )E -ell


Lesson 13

llames of Some Professions In English, several suffixes are used to create names for professions or occupations. Some of these are -er, as in painter and driver, and -isf, as in artist and pianisf. Persian also has such agent suffixes. Some of them are describedbelow. is used in many names of occupations,such ut ;$,.''-^(/meslv-Sntll (lkar-gerll. -F* is a craftsper6*rll, -S ":-# (lkrne-gerl), and -,,3-,,1S son who makes dishes and pots from copper (W lmes/),a coppersmith. (oj16), a -6 r-i$ is a craftsperson who makes clay or ceramic vases [otte-r. And -6_lK is a laborer, someone who does work,(-jS 4arl). A (lam;' variant of thTsiuffix, ;1K 1l garll, is used in the word JKjJ^l The to teach). stem of is present the flamuxt-en/, Oiij^l Su./). JJ^l word ,K i *i, then, means teacher.Another common word for teacher which has been borrowed from Arabic. i" Jl-(ilo'aellemfi, The suffix -;1.: fl-darfi, which comes from the present stem of the verb fketab-dar/), Oiilr flda5t-en/, to have), is used in words like;l.utiJ Jl-t o-,;tl /meqaze-dar/), and -;lr +rl-= flxane;l.rr.l."; (/hesab-dar/), day').-,;l.tJjSis a librarian (a person who takes care of books). Recallthat grf,..sr means account; therefore,-)l-tJ-^"s'is aperson who takes care of accounts, an accountant. Also recall that ojLia means shop; therefore, refers to a person who takes care of a shop, a shopkeeper.Can _;lr o_,;Li-o you guess what -.;lf 4jLi means? 4!ls, means house, home; therefore, _;l.l +rl- is a person who takes care of the home, a homemaker. The suffix .:i-^ (/mrend/) refers to possession; therefore, rra.&jl.t gijl.l \ldanell,knowledge), a (/dane5-mend/)is someonewho possesses scientist or scholar,and $-cJ'iA (/honrer-mend/) is someonewho possessesart, an artist. This suffix isn't exclusively used for professions, though. For example,the word aL;lS (lniyaz-ma;nd/)refers to a person who has -1$ lTniyazfl, a need The word, then, means needy. Another example is the word JL 4-il-c (/elaqe-mend/), which refers to a person who has a.l)s (leIaqel, interest). The word $^ d).e, then, means interested. There are many other more specific suffixes, as well. For example, the suffix n Vjul),which comes from the present stem of the verb ar.i*.+ university (fiost-en/, to search),is used in words like c+.i+l.t (/dane5-iu/, student) and 3s. iil flhoner-ju/, art student). See if you can find other examples of such suffixes in the Farsi words you know and learn.





Temporal Clauseswith (aS) (tuaqt-i (ke[ when) "Sj

I OJ o, +

il' I'


We have already seen adverbs of time used in Farsi sentences.For example: otgl.,,,iil.rtu _,13_,HJ O.c /man diruz be daneS-gahrreft-am./ I went to the university yesterday. .isJ /anha frerda Ez muze did-en xah-end kerd./ They will visit the muEeum tomorrow lU In the sentencesabove, the words j-l-l.l (diruzl, yesterday) "rrd tomorrow) are adverbs of time. We can also have larger units, \lfrerdal, phrasesor even clauses, that are used to refer to the time when an event takes place. Clausesexpressing time can be introduced by siL il"*qr i/) or aS ,tS (l"nqt-i ke/). These expressions both mean when and, are used just as we use when in English. Look at these examples:

= o

lry la:l .rJS $AlrA O$ oj_r _11

$3-^r;:i' crl+ a; G)9 6tii e _jSOLfol

(.'Jl+r itr 45.5jlr

. rii( .'a

/veqt-i ke xanom-e didar-i morxas-i hrest-end, aqay-e nuri be ja-ye iban kar mi-kon-end./ When Ms. Didari is on leave,Mr. Nuri works in her place.

"Sr ra be u dad-rem./ /veqt-i ferhad ra did-rem, peyam-e to When I saw Farhad,I gave him your message.
When-clausestypically appear at the beginning of the sentence,as in the above examples. If the clause refers to a counterfactual situation, a situation that doesn't hold, or a situation that has not happened at the time of utterance,then the verb in the clause takes the subjunctive mood. Look at these examples:

e+lt -il eli ,p.r$l-r rtA-,;s .p.rl.r _el

/vaqt_l manl bly-a-yct, peyam-e to ra be u xah-rem dad./ When Mani arrives, I will give him your message. oJJ. q ll^i .+l*l cs- crr"hj Jl+.+ crk=$-,;s 6+Jj "$j mi-bin-id./ /vaqri Somabe muze be-rav-id, ferS-ha-ye besyar ziba-yt When you go to the museum, you (will) seevery beautiful rugs. Note that in the first example of this section, 6Jl+J itf ,FJ $3.r$ .,..al,-.;'l (when Ms. Didari is on leave), we have used the declarative mood of the verb, gj^r,A, as opposed to its subjunctive mood, Jiil+. This is possible becausewe are talking about a general rule and not a Lesson t3



l-1-f. eh 5$-l+ c'it4."Jr

single occurrence.Look at these examples: .*J cf _ll ! l_,rLa el+ 6er# d l_,,.+t" ,,.r!_l /veqt-i mani ra mi-bin-em, peyam-ha ra be u mi-deh-em./ When I seeMani,I give him the messages.

(/ba c$tiyaq/, with eagerness)d$.&J! (lba ajelel, with haste){t+; L -,o (/ba samimi-yyeLf,with friendliness),',"*tl t+ (/ba deqqet/, with care)dii; l-r

+ I OJ a, +


! lt l.Ad+ 6iJ# lJ dL,;tlr ljg.i ;ss's.'t3L ..r3a

= -

/vaqt-i mani ra be-bin-rem, peyam-ha ra be u mideh-em./ When I seeMani, I will give him the messages. The first example refers to a general rule, a habitual event: I give Mani the messageswhenever I see him. The second example, on the other hand, may or may not refer to a habitual event; it can refer to a single event.

Here are some examples containing a prepositional phrase expressing manner.

.il$J l+ u;l-

Expressing l{anner
Expressionsof manner are those optional phrases in sentencesthat describe the manner in which an event occurs.In English, as in Farsi,these can be adverbs (e.g.,carefullyl or prepositional phrases (e.g.,with care). In English, adverbs are created by adding the suffix -ly to adjectives \careful + carefully, beautiful + beautfully, etc.l. In Farsi, many adverbs are createdby adding the suffix arL (/-ane/)to the end of adjectives.Here are some examples: (/moitaq-ane/, eagerly) 4jEE-il e- flmoitaq/, eager) 6tl*i':

'. .tJS cr+l_l\ L ;l ,',i ql

fmani ba ebtiyaq montezer-e vorud-e Sivabud./ Mani was awaiting Shiva'sarrival with eagerness. . \','i,l,j 4L-;. t+ f-) la 4-tj kji fanha name-ha ra ba rejele neve5t-end./ They wrote the letters with haste.

! jl

/u ba sremimi-yyet Ez mapazir-ayikerd./ He/She received us with friendliness.

The Modat rJ+ flbayadf, mustl

In lesson 9, /ou were introduced to the modal auxiliary,Lr.L& flBayed/, may).You learned that the verb that follows this modal auxiliary must come in the subjunctive mood, as in .J_f;; r..L$ _ll /u Sayad be-rev-ed./ He may go. In this lesson,we look at another modal verb: li! Vbay-adl,must). This modal verb grammatically behavesexactly 11Ls,ril.i; that is, it precedes the verb, and the verb comes in the subjunctive mood. Here are some examples:

(/ajul-ane/, hastily) a.lY .+c, ? (lalfi'l, hasty) dJ+ (/semim-an{, in a friendly manner) 4iLrlL.. e (/semim-i/, friendly) 4;.^

Note that in the last example,the c9 in c# +.rLis added. Look at some examplesusing these adverbs:

has been dropped before

.r3r lJ*,S;:_t': jL3L+:l-lEiL;L

/mani mo5taq-anemontazer-e vorud-e Sivabud./ Mani was eagerly awaiting Shiva's arrival. .$,iJ'l +.lY_n.c l_; Ll a-l-i lx;l /anha name-ha ra ejul-ane neveSt-end./ They wrote the letters hastily.

.$1SJtS Otfof crL;.4++l+ cgJ-e. 19tEi

laqa-yenuri bayed be ja-ye i5an kar kon-end./ Mr. Nuri must work in his/her place.

.r#lA c.'i.rl+ fJ 4l1i- c*f +l+tlmabayad in meqale ra ba deqqret be-xan-im./ We must read this article carefully. _,11S ;,*^' +1 g.rcl^., .rr.! gl.ria_1tS /kar-mand-an bayed sa'et-e noh srer-ekar bab-end./ Employees must be at work at nine o'clock. .Ji-itJ +rLr +r .l-,j +1+ , .,-.?.ol L emSeb bayed zud be xane be-rev-im./ /ma We have to go home early tonight. .lJJj

+:Q.-.r_JS.r+l_,rt! L _21


/u semim-ane Ez ma pezir-ayi kard./ He/She receivedus in a friendly manner. In many cases,however, Farsi speakersuse a prepositional phrase instead of an adverb. Typically these prepositional phrases contain the preposition \ (h"1, with) followed by a noun describing manner. Look at these examples:

176 i, Fa rsi Lesson 13

I trz lz r

The following is a simple letter of job offer. Read it and try to guessthe meaning of any unknown words. to accept (accept) to recognize /be onvan r'/

-ol:G t



fpa.zir <>ltitnf

(;+) dr$!+

Ef llJ oj r+

/Senaxten/ (/5enas/) (,rt+l;

f onvanf lmotreqazil (/moteqazi-an/)

Jl-f-l 1.gJlajdrS_JFi \ Y ojJ ,.{# Ot-,.!i ,glJd :dJJ \ \/1/Ao :6-.28 ,c/)d^ lr$ il.s 4$J<fit4.a! JlJi-l f6-l- 6 e-1fu 1""'i q Jt-^l:= l+ rr! G 4J ''''"1 dS-JFi -JJ^I .,Ji.i --;rc .OlJio q l-,1 -dllJl aJ#
cJt+.-Ej:. (.'La oSJJ'.i 6 a-rads-jFi -cll.Xro . r-i'( alrii.,.l

title applicant (applicants)






Tehran Grand Bazaar Tehran Grand Bazaar is the pulsating heart of the city, located in the southeastTehran, an area that has been settled for thousands of years. A bazaar is usually a covered marketplace.Tehran's Grand Bazaar is an immense maze of old arcades,all together covering about 6.2 miles (ro kilometers). Most of the standing buildings in the Bazaar date back to the nineteenth century; however, the concept of a bazaar has a much older history. Similar constructions in Iran have been claimed to date back to as early as 4ooo BCE.The current bazaar in Tehran itself seems to have emergedduring the Islamic period. The arcadesin Tehran Grand Bazaarhouse hundreds of shops specializing in trading anything you can think of, from the traditional rugs, jewelry, silk, and precious metals to today's high-tech products. Because it is a very important aspectof lran's economy,history, and culture, Tehran Grand Bazaaris something you should definitely seeor at least know about.

L.,i c; o$JJi J frJS )Jy cr-fu ! l-1 Ol+":tiil .O!r -,1.l l-,r_lK ;ta;fu OJIl.o.,i45 f,$."A -,rl-lr;^fL .r-i 4iifj.$ dJJj<+ Ur. Jliil l+ I Jt_,uJ# #.f,A-d.tS_*a+t^^i 13_,1_9 l; epl_F=l

&L" ;r" ostovar Trading company Address:rz PeykAve.,Tehran Date:Sept.2,2006 Ms. ShivaMilani, With pleasure,I must tell you that Ostovar Company has decided to employ you as the company's Foreign Affairs Manager. The companydirectorsreviewedall the applicants'filescarefully,and your file was recognizedas the best.We hope that you acceptthis offer, and we are eagerlyawaiting your arrival at the company. With regards,

and the information proA. Answer these questions using when-clauses The first one is done for you as an example. vided in the parentheses.

a-ob,# ,*-l$ a+-,1-9;Ji.rJJ$) f.-f ar.-i l-,1 (S.1 a.rLi ,'',.o.r 4.iLi.,'',,,.t a+_l:jf OJJ+i,,.l!_l a-t,rc,',i_,1 .fJS,-',t l-,1 (d{< rLa-,;s !) fr_r5 c-,jl l-,1 *# elK:-r ,rJ -rb_;i . \

respect to employ (to get employed) hopeful
Farsi /ehteram/ /estexdam kardan (5od-en)/ lomid-varf

rlJFs! OI-JS altri''r!

flK .+ -.rlS csJl+r ..,ti -(J'b 4+#


(.:-, c/ ('.as.-,;lc 4+ cgJl+r its)

G)J.etil .Y

tl-l.t+.f *1.---*
t3 lesson i ttg

ljS OJI (il+ lt eu) frlr.ral_5A crt 4+l_;c-r. .J ri .r

(.:,'iplrrt..,l Jlri-f g'S.1r-_2r)fr-"i OlJi aa,J lr$ .1

D. Rearrangethese sentencesto form a dialogue.



JIS jl rl+) fc.tJ e$lri jlJ$ 4+.-S L o

.l;$ cril-Jr LrJlqr cgtil J-r;r To-,f43.r .\ r.?ri .o pl4l elr ! _lK aS sl+ .rr.1+ cS:l+r O-l? .Y .r_,rS _jS 4l+.c l+ .,J5 J; epib .,- .f oi+:r rr"! 1.r,..t .it -r+dl.ll .,&e+ fdj ,/l .4+lJ-:. .r$ e13S-'r. o ,9;K;t -,J"S a+l* .1 drtlS

r+ (f o, OJ +

= o

B. Answer these questions using the adverbs or prepositional phrasesprovided.

j&. ! -,4 f-:-.f,'rr-,4 1-9 (ci^l-li l-r.)

(c'I. t+) tstri

A]ISWERKEY Comprehension Practice A.3 B .r

C.z D .r

6Jl+r its .\
.Y eJ+$ 6Lll .l .:Ll_f . t rl .o

is- l-) 4lti^ JA

(41+- t+) tc.'1, ur-;g 4jti jl J .t? dh (.r-l:l !) f.t , .,- +ll^ +r '-ltt

Exercises A' a; ,J: .r-f cr-,-1.:l-,1 *# el3i:*.:,l ,iK rtA-.;o -r9l+ ) csl3r (.,Ei c.r_r_) c/ (casJa 4+6Jl+r fE,J_r .rrS .,- JtS (rj'41) ,-r. ES 4rl e,:*r l_,r ..tll ;llji :f ! l-,1 .+L #: .\ .Y 3l

(4it-iti^t^) fc.liJ,.,lfiii_er _O+r q _;A

.f a+ ..r^i lJ+i ..ui 9l;6: .,ji: .1 alrri."l Jl'-l frS-.;*,,Jr jtJ$ L e .uJJ .c$_; rpl:{ JK _rteJ* J: .o .J-$ ,',.,-. g;-li,i^ l+ l+ csJl+Jits .\ "F^l-j qlti^ c$r ! .$lJi cf l_,r # .Y +rt.i, jl 4l+.c ! .rh sgLil.Y .&i_,1O_r_u+ .J_rJ cs^+iLi a+.fl_,rl q Jay .1 .dJ-; ,rfi*y.: O+r 4+a.rliE$^ Jl .o

C. Change these sentencesby adding the modal $.! and using the correct form of the main verb.


.$a.l .* eb"f crlr ! ',yi c/ r$l

.eK .r. d.t-,;sl*" jlJ$

l_,1 a-ol . \ cJt-&JS b-jS &l .Y cgr-r-f+

e+ o * lL 1.l .l

.dJJ d Jljl+ 4++-F csll l.t-f L . f

4.oA .r.iA+ p\.il crsr l+ $+ lJ rJt-$JtS .\ g-rji r.,"! Ll_,,lS .$j,i plail OJI.Y oL U .Y .iS cryt "^ jlJ$ ! r,! o.$.rj .errj Jlj! q +-,1s cslt q! l.r;i L . { ..r91,;r'r, "-,;J +! l.iil &l Fl l-:,r"6,91Ki-r .o .a4lJ: ,ro6 e13S-r. o .l_.$ olj^,Jr LrJhir cgEIj_r;l fo_.f.r.j.: .\


1BO i I



..1_,rS _jS4l+t t+ J3 ,pll .,- .f "J5 l"l+,rt .1 o-,[.r.3J .#-ri ir.ll "fu fu"lj.# ir.li 6;$at-,JJ q l* .1 or,in C+l crlr t+JtS45 sl+ +l+6Jl+r O:e .Y


Le t ' s
I}IDEPEilDEilT CHALTENGE for a job at llfi-rl Imagine thatyouareapplying q,JL?j fs-d


Fill out this iob application form. What are the words,that y.ou don't know? Can you guess wtrat they mean? If y.,it can't, feel freb to look them up at http ://www.farsidic.com.

In this lesson, we will learn how to talk about recreation activities. We the emphatic use of as (/ke/), and will also learn about where-clauses, some useful adjective forms.


Jl-f-l .g_rH g6-d -jS Cr.,'l-9i-,rr eJ


at all theater

tlt o

' ;,rl+

'u {5i-,

fte'atrf Itaze-gil Italarl /herf-e diz-i ra zed-aunf /ser o seda/ /sinama/, /sinema/ lelaqe da5t-en/ /futbaf /na-5en-eva/
clij lt 19;;;r-r




recently hall to mention something, to talk about something noise cinema, the movies to be interested in, to be fond of soccer deaf

f-{;ls -;tS lg tuJFj &

;o.l"i Cr-l3iJr


.+$-Jr L,glJ+ar r-1 ffi,9

oi.! jl ..,3.s+ tiLI


i -,1'^.t

U-'1.,. O,i.,ib4il.c
c}"i.-ls lJir'iU





The Payami family is planning on taki.ng |im out this weekend. Shabnam has called fim to ask him where he would like to go. Listen to their conversation as they decide what to do.

jJl u*Xtr eJ+r-rtiit+#-il ,r- .-1.iig e '

f.3 {'t'-

/elo, be-baxS-id. mi-tun-em ba aqa-ye jim daglas sohbet kon-emf r8,




. t d .

/talar-e vhdet,

/xod-em hest-em. be-ferma-in./

:ljiml :fl$

hemun ja-yi ktr di ruz ez :/Sebnem/ jelo-S rartl Sod-im./



.,,.lS -,1lS

-em be-pors-amke in jom'e dust dar-if:Iij 9O+S JIS 4" g|JalF ,r- 1^^i .-Jr

Ul jim. Sebnem hest-rem. za'ng zacd /selam,

.sJl. r'r."3J a.j=


t( rr-r'<./ lll

) OISc+ l>l:-r .,j .i;


'..1S .l r.

6) o + o, t-l o f

/kodam semfoni ro ejra mi-kon-en (mikon-rend)|


.dr.'i3; r3a lj*r'iU d .,J: O-uc! aS cr-lK -.,j-'i^-,' .b O-* d;l; !d" b !a: cs o-,f-o'-i noh! ali-ye;tj"t, /semfoniye Somare-ye il ..Li.t=lii.+F Jl;^a
/besiyar xob. xoda-hafez.I



.\ .D

ikar-i ke betoven veqti na-ben-ava bud neveSt./ :/Sebnem/


:d+ :ljiml
. !

9+pS _jSg t$t_n .r


/ne-mi-dun-em. Soma mi-xah-in id de kar kon-in (mi-xah-id de kar kon-id)|



.Jillj d-.;a ! t"^-iJ,,dj t+(#U.r)


/mi-tun-im (mi-tevan-im) ya be-r-im sinema ya be-r-im te'atr.f

t-lii .li.-ilxoda-hafez.l


-fl.j 4+* .,l*i .ri3p Li1- J;U d u," .fJlrl tile

/men ke taze-gi sinama bud-rem. xeyli hem be te'atr relaqe ne-dar-em./



Hello? Excuse me. Can I speak with Douglas?

Mr. Iim

't3j .j$-d f J:t+

.Jt+-9s i9 +i-r-l^,,l, .,,,+i 9(Js.r

'.J.S, '\ r '


|im: Shabnam:

This is he (/ir., I am myself). What can I do for you? Hi, fim. This is Shabnam (lit., I am Shabnam)' I called to ask you what you'd like to do this Friday. I don't know. What do you want to do? We can either go to the movies or go to the theater. I was at the movies recently, and I'm not very fond of the theater. Well. How about a soccer game? Do you watch soccer? Don't mention sports matches. I don't like noisy places at all. By the way, Tehran's symphony orchestra has a concert this Friday. Do you want us to go there? That's not a bad suggestion. Where are they having the concert? Vahdat Hall, the same place that we passed by yesterday. Which symphony are they performing? The work that Beethoven wrote when he was deaf.

/xob. mosabeqe-ye futbal de-tor? futbal negah mi-kon-if

fim: Shabnam: fim:

ji -crb il .0'i

JJ dJJ3 rl;."t #J=

6 +i11** Fils 1[.-l be 31*,,

/herf-e mosabeqe-yevrerze5-i ro na-2ren. ez iaye por ser o seda eslen xoS-em ne-mi-yad./

:ljiml :et+. i



+l Ol_ri -d3ii Ji.,SJf e.j*l_,y fl-ri. Jl ei;l; c+lJi.r-o .o;ll di 'e.'t'<


/rasti, orkestr-e semfoni-ye tehran in jom'e konsert dar-e. mixah-i be-r-im un-ja?l g-,;h Cr r+:3 l;'( .,*,.,,ri Ut! )l.gj,$#




/pi5-nehad-e bad-i nist. koja konsert dar-en (dar-end)| l-.1 cFA jl j_l_,rlr d ,r+1+ OJ.A ,gri-J JYtj .p;.f.,,i

fim: Shabnam:


)im: Shabnam: t4 Lesson



Shabnam: Symphony number 9! That's great! Let's just go there. Very well. Good-bye. cooking to stand, to stop to take park to watch place thing not busy or crowded, secluded by the way quiet symphony Comprehension Practice traditional busy, crowded, noisy swimming to swim film, movie concert

la{pnz-il I (listll /ist-ad-en /bord-en/ \herl) lparkl /temaSakerd-an/

(c-'Jl) OiE-Jl




.S rL
J . c

GI o + o o, a-'l o f
a.l (D

UsageNote: The verb qlLA (/be-ferma-id/), which we have seen before,is used in a variety of situations.In the initiation stage of a telephone conversation, this expression is usedto invitethe other person to speak. spellingNoter: Recall that the letterj (called ojr"i /hamze/)stands for the sound /'/, which meansthat the woro _.,;i15j is pronounced /te'atr/, meaningtheoter.Thisword has been borrowedfrom French th6atre. Spelling Notez: Theword ")L.ol is pronounced (/aslan/). The diacritic 1 i s u s e di n m a n y w o r d s of Arabic d o r i g i na n d i s p r o n o u n c e / en/. lt isoften usedas a suffixthat creates adverbs from adjectives.

OiJS l,il^i

hal ltizl
lxelva;tf lrcst-il /saket/ /semfoni/ /sonnret-i/ /5oluq/ lSenal /5enakerd-en/ lfiiml /konsert/ lgozar-ell /mosabeqe/ /musiqi/ /moveffeq/ lneqqaSl /neqqaS-i/ /nema-ye5-name/ lhemanl fverueif

'lJS q{rl-s'

d-,lJ d+51-,

c# CH

Now answer these questions based on the dialogue you iust practiced. A.what plans did fim have for Friday before he talked to shabnam?


t r r t


ol gU+ Jl .f .,',,i|r.: 4ri=

,',,"lJA c.f _ll.Y 4+ .J:j _,;ilS

L^iJ,o+.r .Y .t'l|rj 4-6);

d-,lJi (r' Jl . \ .r_U t-L e;

oiJs uii

B. How would you say Let's go to the moviesin Farsi?

{.r !-'iS

Ltr,, .pi_5a

J:u irr .r

Lil- rrj .\

report match music successful painter


C.Why doesn't fim like sportsmatches? .',..JJ cJ .\ 4n1,.* 6le Jl .f _ J ;-" jl O e .Y .J_;ll ,',.,r.t l-1.Jj_,r_l .r.,jar- ,fisl lr,,o 4jtA .J.^l,l+ _;.r.:_,11i D.When does Tehran Symphony Orchestra havea concert? qr^--.f j:-r.l .l orrrJc-g 4ri' E. How does|im askwhich symphony they aregoingto play? lJ Gi3i^..,li< .Y lJ dli"^,, llS .Y fiJfs .,- lJ+l fiJ6 .,- lJ,+l tcpS.r JIS a; .,t d.1;l. \

uit-ij s,iuii


sport, exercise


l 1 1 . C .U O C A B U T A R Y

orchestra cook

/ejra kerd-en/ /Somare/

/orkestr/ lal-pezl

.- rT

to perform number

.JrJS l-.;p.! o-,!-1i


Fa rsi

t4 Lesson


Where should we go today? What should we do this week?

/emruz koja be-r-imf

fe* q3-,1-r-,2.t

/in hefte de kar ffrgs JIS Cii kon-im?/

becue,but they may also go to a restaurant for lunch. It is common for locals in small suburban towns to allow travelers to enioy their gardens for a charge.Owners of such gardens often set up severallarge wooden flatbeds for families to set up their picnics. They are a traditional substitute for picnic tables.Peoplewho don't like the outdoors or would rather spend the day in the city may chooseto watch a soccergame or a movie, go shopping, or iust enioy a quiet day at home. The Iranian film industry has greatly improved in the last few years with the production of many internationally acclaimed movies. You can learn more about Iranian movies and see some samplesby visiting http ://www. i ranianmovies. com/.



o o, o

o !:

What movie should we go see this week? (/1t., What movie should we go to?) Let's go see the movie . . . Farhang Cinema has a good movie. Vahdat Hall is showing a good play (/it., has put a good play). There's a good match/ game this week. noisy not noisy, with little noise spectator (orchestra) conductor reporter to encourage, to urge, to applaud end player (of a musical instrument), players

/in hafte te film-i ro be-r-imf

,,^l;i +; a:ii fp*:

4f -lJ

/be-r-imfilm-e.../ /sinema ferheng film-e xub-i dar-e./ /talar-e vehdet nemaye5-nameye xub-i gozait-e.f /in hafte yek mosabeqe-ye xub hest./ /por ser o seda/ /keser o seda/ ltr. ltr. J -t'r.l, -,;li J -t^r, #

IJIF.6RAMMAR with 6 .r+b (|ia-yi ketf, where) Adverbial Glauses

Recall that we can use adverbs of place (like $-!l lin-ial, here, or l4jl 6J) f ru-ye mizf , on the lan-ial, therel or prepositional phrases (like -)*^ to specify where an the rooml outside otad, table,or qltil UJJ#&irun-e with a simple described be place cannot a Sometimes place. took action adverb or a prepositional phrase, and we need a whole clause. Look at these examples: I saw him there. I saw him outside the room. I saw him where that man is sta In the first example, the place expression is simply an adverb; in the second example, the place expression is a prepositional phrase; and in the third, the place expressionis a whole clause(wherethat man is stand' ing now). In Farsi, such clausesare made with 4S cf"b ,JI I 43 sJb (lia-yikel, examples: lan ja-yike/, the/that place that, where). Lobk at these

/tema5a-ger/ /reh-ber-e orkestr/ fxeber-negarf /teSviq kerd-en/

Ji*SJf -r+) JqJ+3 oiJs &9i.:
Ot"! eosjljj

lpayanl , fnaevaz-rendef OtKljlf

f na.vaz-rende-gan/

.pqr l+ii l-,l-el

/u ra an-ja did-em./ I saw him there.

lJ 3l .p"+.1 .rEl -O-l-tr'tt



/u ra birun-e otaq did-em./ I saw him outside the room'

Weekend Actitivies The workweek in Iran is from Saturday (4+Li) to Thursday (4+i-i eFrJ Iran has a one-day weekend on Friday 1er*;1, when many pdople go hiking or go on a picnic. People who live in large cities like Tehran may take a day trip in the country and enjoy some time with family and friends playing games on a riverside. Often they set up a barFarsi

Oi lJ -rl .pr;i o.:U-tl r:F Oi eSG/,1+.

/u ra an ja-yi ke an merd ist-ad-e did-em/ I saw him where that man is standing. In these sentences,the underlined parts also function as place expressions. The category of the first place adiunct is adverb, the category of t4 Lesson

**"-+.1 8 8t

the second one is a prepositional phrase, and that of the third one is a clause.As you can see,a where-clause comes in the same place as other just before the main verb in the sentence. place expressions: of course, it is also possible to mention the place expression first and then say the main clause,as in these examples: .,"*-r l; Jl [rlJ lan-ja u ra did-em./ I saw him there.

,-fr$ -ll ::-,Xr aS,r+b OL"l el$ s-.1

/heman ja-yi ke di-ruz ez ielo-Srad 5od-im./ The same place where we passedby yesterday' Similarly, fim says,b Ola dJ+ (Let'sfust go there). He could have simply said, h,il aU (Let's go ihere), but with OL^A,his sentenceis more emphatic. He wants to go to that very same place. It is also common to put the place expressionat the end of the sentence, after the main verb. You just saw that in the above examples.This way the verb isn't separatedfrom the rest of the sentence,which makes the sentenceeasierto produce and understand.


-t (,
GI o

o o, ,-r o

n rD r+

l-1Jl 6til -rJJJdi .p.r+.r

/birun-e otaq u ra did-em./ I saw him outside the room.

olti-';l r_X OI aS,r.rS OI .pq.r l-l _el

lan ja-yi ke an merd ist-ad-eu ra did-em./ I saw him where that man is standing. In these sentences, the speakerplaces more emphasis on the place. It's like saying, There,I saw him (not here). qS The difference betwee" d .15 and d"t+ gl is that 45 .rr,!r gl is definite (refers to a known place),but 41, ,.-rl.s. is not necessarilydefinite-that is, it doesn't have to refer to a spilihi place (although it may). For example,if you say: /mi-xah-em be-rev-em ja-yi ke saket ba5-ed./ I want to go where it is quiet. you are not referring to any specific place. Any quiet place will do. But if you say:

beforea noun phra;e to make adiecc;/ ,USJ'r (bedun-el,lbi-/,without, -less) tives. For example, the compound noun phrase l9a j -t*" (/ser o seda/) means noisq andlJ=ra J -t.r.lr ttUW: ser o seda/)means noisyor,literally, Similarly,lJi- J -)-lll - (A** ser o seda/)meanswithlittle of noise. full "nois",and ltr. : -t*,' ,a -UJ+ flbedune sar o seda/)and ltr' J t look at these examples: (/bi s6r o sedy') mean without noiseor noiseless.

Using ti (tpotl, full), # flr*lnr, little), and st/-oJ+l (rbi, bedun-dl, withoutl to Make Adjectives full),# (lkn^l,little), and plenty, often.rr" ! Uporl, Farsispeakers

d-6t^,, d.+"1.=eJ-.;p .r,.it+ *l:-.+

I'r J -^A-O*.$l/mabin-e por srer o seda/ noisy car -l -t*,, f cJ;di+ /bedde-ye krem ser o seda/ quiet child Iti l,r. J -tsr cd --r+-**^K /kampiyuter-e bi ser o seda/ noiselesscomputer Other examples of adjectiveswith 4 and f are:

..ry crSL d.+5

ul e:: eAl_l-.+

/mi-xah-em be-rev-am an ja-yi ke saket bud./ I want to go where it was quiet. you are referring to a specific place that you and your hearer know about. Sometimes,for emphasis,Farsi speakersuse the word Ol; (fhnmanl, same) before many kinds of phrases,including place expressions.Look at these examples: .dJ"l j:_,r;.1 L 45 Cr..l *J; O,,ll lin ja-yi ast ke ma di-ruz amed-im./ This is the place where we came yesterday. .dJ^l JJJ;J L" 45 Cr-,f ,rj; OLa +l /in haman ja-yi est ke ma di-ruz amed-im./ This is the same place where we came yesterday. In the dialogue,we hear Shabnam say,

f por karf , /kett karl, lbi karI unemployed hardworking,slacker, f por barf, /k-- barl, lbibarl with no results fruitful, with few results, loodor result. Note: -,fumeans cl,olii-l ,r; / cr-lii*t ld;tii-! i { ,/k** esteqamet/, /bi esteqamet/ /por esteqametf with (strong), with little strength(weak), with much strength/stamina no strength
i !

_rtSa/ _,;ts # lJts.l1

_Aa/_!# t*:t

-^-i 1eo i

Fa rsi

14 Lesson

! 1cl1
t ' a '


note: dj,clij-rj

meansstrength or stomina.

Here are some more examples of the use of emphatic 45' _rj$, ,',.,-. _;l- l+ rAl_9,r 3-o /mi-xah-em ba mani sohbet kon-em./ I want to speakwith Mani. /mani ke inja nist./ But Mani isn't here. ii


6jjt e I csjit ?$I Le3tt A

enerLif,lbi enerlil fpor enerLif,A** full of energy,with little energy,with no energy Itote: ciilj r.un, energy.

cl o a+ o OJ a-t o

.,",..$bll 45 .,jl.^ -


/por darb-if , fkem (.erb-if , lbi (erb-il full of fat (fatty), will little fat, with no fat (fat-free) Note: cC-.,1r1' meansfat.

cc.r?,e I ah

'J / a-;+

..s-,r! dj -

/be-r-impark.l Let'sgo to the Park. .drs.5-A #-,U 45 \- park bud-im./ /ma ke taze-gi beento the Park. But we'verecentlY l4G. REAIDIIlG

Emphatic eS 0neD
The word aS (4"4 in Farsi has many different uses.You learned earlier that it is sometimes used as a subordinating conjunction, as in reported speechconstructions.


-jS -,.^.,.i1- 45 iS c/ Jfi

fekr mi-kon-em ke mani sar-e kar baS-ed./ I think that Mani is at work. We have also seen this use of aS in many constructions, including 6 .1.l; (li^-yike/, where), discussedabove. We have also seen aS used in other constructions. For example, in the dialogue,fim says,

.;)tI -2r 4i.Si< r$ 615: .,j .ia^,,J+-SJI i1l .,*,.?,lt a-tj:6r-: qd.r-,| ol iS * s # Jt*ll-,r +r+ ..i+'-l .-!-! Ji-SJl J "i-.,IS p o-,f-o'$ e .,: 'i^-^, Of .sj'U-,;a -r-fij,Ki9i.ry-rJJJ$:+

.prja Li;-r #-iU 45 O^

/men ke taze-gisinema bud-em./ I was at the movies recently. In spoken Farsi, sometimes qS is used after a noun phrase or a pronoun for emphasisor for focusing the person or thing to which the noun phrase refers to as opposed to another. For example, the sentenceaS g. pl-ga La-r can be more exactly translated to As for me, I have "SiE recently been to the movies,which implies that the speakerdoesn't wish to go to the movies again,but other people might. Consider another example. A child asks her father if she can take his wallet with her to school.The father says: .G j+ 4.i .,^i aS _l-,1..r:l /un ro ke ne-mi-S-ebe-ber-i.f That, you can't take. The sentencealso implies, You know you can't take that. But the father may continue by saying:

''r-t rJir]3ul^: o-ys g+lcL JIK;J+3 t;t-,*';-.1q-,,. ' jl r*+ 4#i a-Lil gKs-,;li .,!Jfi ! .O1-''l .rr.il.:a-ol.:l g-9,S ' i'i!J , ,#]il.1[1 .d-.i^^,, 'i*,SJlcslJ+.<J.,11

.u irlJi

Tehran Symphony Orchestra had a performance at Vahdat Hall last nieht. The Orchestrahas started its work this year with a new Symphony conduftor, and its first performancewas Beethoven's was very successful no. g. According to our-reporter,,the-concert and the audienie continued applauding the players for minutes 'after the end of the concert.Last night's concertwas a great successfor the Tehran Symphony Orchestra.

to continue new number success

/edame dad-an/

gil.r arlr!

/Somare/ fmovreffaq-iyya-tl

l rt oJ\-6Jl . 4.4.. t

.t9-l# cf-f cr JJ' !< &l JJ

/veli in kif ro mi-tun-i be-ber-i./ But vou can take this wallet. Farsi


t4 Lesson

1e3 1

B. Rewrite thesesentences using adjt't:tives formed with LJJ!./cC ,# as in the example. ,-i
.D -l G) o + o OJ

Music is an integral part of the culture of any country and Iran is no exception. In fact, many of Iran's greatest poets were musicians, too. Iran has severalnative traditional musical instruments. There are also some instruments commonly used in classicalIranian music that are shared by other cultures, as well. Some of Iran's most common musical instruments are JU \ltarl,tar), JE e (/r" tar/, setar), 'J$l /tanbur/, tanbur), and lje (l'udl, ud). These are all stringed instruments played with picks or fingers, like the guitar. The word 1V ltarljust means string. -)-1i+ (/santur/, santur or santour) is anothervery common instrument. J ijJ.l (meaning one hundred stringsl is also known as the Persiandulcimer. It actually has seventy-two strings and is played with two light hammers. cl (lneyl, ney) is a wind instrument made from bamboo (the word c# means strawl,and Lii (l deff l,daf),,-143 /tonbrek/, tonbak), and o;l;l.t (l dayerel,tambourine)are some percussiopinstruments. Stringed instruments played with bows are also ,rr"d. C},-f (lviyolonl,violin) is very common in classicalIranian music. Another more exotic stringed instruLcS ment i, 4sJo Gg"tg" ee/, kamancheh). The word ul-3 l/keman/) means bow, and 4.s.ltjs means little bow. To see pictures of some of these instruments and hear what they sound like, visit thesewebsites: www.dejkam.com/music/iran_ traditionafinstruments vvvvw.santur.com en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_ music

lt. _l -r- O$L +l ..:-,;l.tr .,'r.rl r. J -1.,r .+ CSL" cll gl .'t .Ul$ j5 .r_,;.r1l.l pS lr. : _.pot5S-i9;l .Y .$S G- JtS .,l+i ilU. U"rl.Y ..',.lli 4+jti ,il+r L c; a.-L . t " uii_9.c ...,,?,1.1, .J+i,ff*S .o




C. Answer these questions with the emphatic 45, using the words in the parentheses, as in the example.


.r-l+ l'l +LiSi.uli-l:=.+

.cg-H dl-f .,ii 45 lJ ,-iljS Uil ($l 4iiJ) .p.S,*,.,-'a dh caEI ! i-t:- ,,- . \ ljJi Jjtl) ,'i.":r .Y f6-.r-:r.+ l># c;_,rl.r (lpitzal,pizzal
(prl or_,;jrs.

(r:ls i:+^K) f*#-S l-,rr..r -r.J+.Jl .r

(e:ls ,',''31) fc.s-J3-.,4 d ji crhe . t

A. Combine these pairs of sentencesinto single complex sentencesusing where-clauses. Follow the example.

1^:. I ry gi .pq.r.J+ l-l _ll .orE-r;l ry ,.J aSp+.1.,r5 l_,r .orE^.gl :l frn .dr3r; $il _13;r .dJF h'jl 0,c . \ l.-:J .C-_l_l .J.,iL CrSt^.r d crr"L}t- .Y ."','.nrJJ .r3a drSL l.=ij ..r_;1.: l-1.,.r5 Jl .f j .dK (J^ 4+ .aor l-:J cl .{ .19+ l.,'+l j_l_l*r _i .d-,t+ rj-A Uil .o

.(pl oqrl l: jl_t$) fs91h,',,.rJr l; _llrrrS.o

D.Complete the following sentences using the words provided.

.S_r OlJSLit-i lr.

_r1*,, lJ+l 4^l.l&J; c94+L^"^

l-; gLfu-,119i .$rJS d rgJJ.iS l,it-i .Jt$js .drJS .5* 4SK q9a3ir
1,# -d3i^^,, OIJ# c,.r .i^..,, Jn-SJl .f cSo_,;t"o.,i


U rr3r$! ,'l;i Jrr JI .t

i I


Lesson t4

i I




L .o _.!t-r3-,1.t


INDEPENDENC T HALTENGE A ] I S W E RK E Y Comprehension Practice

A.3 B .I C.z D .r E.z The only way to master a language is to get exposedto it, and some of the best ways to get exposedto a languagein natural situations,besides actually being in the country in which it is spoken, are to watch movies, listen to music, and read in that language.you are invited to visit the BBC Persian website at http://www.bbc-co.uk/persian/.
| , I L

a g
G) o

cu r-) o

n rD :-+


or.piU j-U.t d eUr- lS .,.l.l* dr . \ j_l_x.ra5,r+l+r.1 .er_l_li l.l! 6,;.t_9 gSLaS p._lJcr- cC.L+ or.$L t .y JSl, cSl*., 6 .dJJ 6g,^ .-.t+ U tS r;l.l ,'l*JJ f_,, or.J4 CrSL* .J+ Ui :! .Y aS l-,1 .l_;l.t ,',uJJ .tja d.rSl^.' sit+ cli :l o..,rii< cJ. a; ji 45 +.1 .r*t+ OI ,_l . t .fo-,l *$ u" 4+Ji 45 cc.l+ Oi cl j:;.r .ce+ ri 45 tul a.L1 6Lr g;f .o .,-'.,r1 _,flS c+ Uic OI . \ olSj*.1 ..,,.,.1,r.J-)- S i.;;f.y .,','ulJtS -,,1g prti ggf .f ..l3; Jt+-.;| L cs r,l+ . t .J31,-Tile ;4 O *t< .o

This is one of the most informative and up-to-date websites in Farsi. on rhe home page of the site, click on flferheng Jii J .(iaJ-i va honer/, culture and art). Here you ci.t.eid newsind editoriali about arts and entertainment. surf this site and try to find a short article that interests you. Print it out for your language journal and read it, trFrng ,o g.r"r, the meanings of unkno*n"*o?a, i".f.r"g ". them up. Also look for links that say f r . - (/seda/, sound) and _5gJ13 (vidiyol, video), and listen to real-life Farsi. Do this often to g"i'";"a to naturally occurring speechin Farsi.


,rs*'i:;f if,IIil.j
D. +,ctiir.Ll .o

..trl di; lS .rh ielii . \ 45 t- . Y .61 or_l_li t>* "5_,,U .tJl$ -r-l*t K aS 1.l .f

.t Op_g^

lJ+l .f

c94il.t"^ .y

OtJSLit-t . t

t g 6i

Fa rsi

Lesson rk


In this lesson,you will learn some words related to the outdoors. You will also learn about reflexive pronouns, as well as exclamatory and imAre you ready for some vocabulary warm-up? personal sentences.

height sky to climb what tired I don't think so. foot (measurement unitl peak,summit mountain (a pieceof) cloud f ertef.a'f /aseman/ lbalareft-enf

tlrill Ol-+i O3J Yl+


lxestel /fekr ne-kon-am./ lfutl lqollel

, -s



'tfu Jri

flrekke ebr/

451 -.;pl

This is the last week of ]im's visit to lran, and he is on a daylong hiking trip with the Payami family on the mountains in northern Tehran. Listen to him talk to Shabnam about their surroundings.

f+6i-{E )r)a*


:tJ+ :liilnl

femntzderuz-eqeSengi-ye!/ e.i s.i o{.r g3,c..ri.19-i * }1 4}(-1 .! .o-li .(._f ,r.cr o.!.:)



/are vek'*ooi:H,f il*i'ji; il,::nJfr

to+ sL g:Sdr:l .e-,1
un kuh-ebolend ti-ye?l /esm-e .cf_.L,rl _! 4I3 i1,_f$l+4l .s3Li E-9S
/kuh-e damavend. un bolend-terin qoll-e der iran-e./



Then we can't clirrrb it today. (Lit., Then it's not possible to climb it today.) I don't think so. I'll climb this rock instead. Get down. You'll exhaust yourself.

ocl -l

=' =.






foll.l Stsi_l! J$f f,.,';-. la-ja-bldeqadr ertefa' dar-e?l


:frJ+ :liiml

great UsageNote r: The term( r r i . (tajab,)is used to express interest in or surprise justbeen about something thathas said. UsageNote z: In the above dialogue, whenJimwants to knowthe height of Mt. Damavand, heasks: t$-1l Jrl; /de qedr ertefa' dar-e?l fo_;l.r



J J-a.'i;i J Jl} i .C.l3o.t_,-_,;tai _l _,rljl


lpeni hezar o 5e5-sed o dehar metr. teqriben hej-dah hezar o dehar sed fut./

.&sJ Yt+,jjl (.-*

/pas emruz ne-mi-5-e (ne-mi-bevred) ez-eS bala reft./


* (+ )r;,ll u4


which literally means, How much height does it haveT When you want to know about the measurable properties of things, such as height, weight, length, and temperature, this is how you form your questions. For example, to ask about the weight of something, you say: foll.r clj_l;$ /de qedr vazn dar-e?f How heavy is it? (/ir., How much weight does it have?) (rEaimr) Usage Note 3: $i' is used to express a promise or commitment. lt is a common andpolite youto do. wayto agree to do something thatsomeone has asked Comprehension Practice

.i5; Jtu

/be ja5az in saxre mi-r-em bala.l ..,.lS.f 4i.*i JJ d35':i, .irrr""!l+

:ljiml :i$


hi-yapayrn.xod-etro xrestemi-kon-i./ :/Xebnem/

,.ffi lr,-im.l
fim: shabnam: What a nice day it is today!

Now answer these questions based on the dialogue you just practiced. A.What type of day is it today?

:d+ :liiml



etl ._tss.\
$jt-i eJs.lf fo_;l.r oJr Jq.Y

-JJJ . \ .+l-,rl+ $a*'9JS .\ fo_;l.r tf-,;l J.li; .\

B. What is the name of the highest peak in lran? Yeah. There isn't a single cloud in the sky. (rir., Not even a single cloud is seen in the sky.) What's the name of that tall mountain? Mt. Damavand. It's the highest peak in Iran. Interesting! How high is it? Five thousand, six hundred four meters; approximately eighteen thousand, four hundred feet.

.lI CtUsl+ .f

C. How does )im ask about the height of the mountain?

fim: Shabnam: fim: Shabnam:

fo$\ J+


D.What does|im try to do instead of climbingMt. Damavand? .l:-.11Y! o-F.^- jl dr^,,lJA .,- .\ jl dr^,'lJi .,- .\l .r:j )!':S 4i."i. d-,lJi .,- .f ..tyi+ E.What doesfim saywhen agreeing to climb down the rock?
Lesson 15
: 201





', $






{ =.

easy bush

lasanl lbutel lbiyabanl /payin rreft-an/ /pik nik raft-en/ Itnppel l(r.manl f (rlma-n-zarf f derazke5-id-en/ lderaxtl lderrel ldeitl /rah reft-an/ lrudl,/rud-xane/ f zemin xord-en/ lsaxtl lsa;ngl lsr-hral la-miql /qedem zacd-a'nf

weather, climate

lab o heva/ /ez kodam mesir be-ravrm?f , fez kodam mesir be-r-imf /in mesir sext/asan ast./ hnd ab o hava/ /xo5 ab o heva/ f qerar dabt-en/ lgol za;d-a-nl /moraqeb ba5/ /movazeb ba5/ /hava saf/ebri est./


Which route should we take?

lfe :t-J ,fa;-r-.,11 -r*..* pljS jl

9e-* ;,J-,*elrs jl

wilderness to climb down to go on a picnic hill lawn, grass meadow to lie down tree valley field to walk river to fall down hard, difficult stone, rock desert deep to stroll mountain mountaineer mountaineering to go mountaineering/ hiking to walk/drive around path

+:l-,1 Clr""!
This path is hard/easY. with bad weather with good weather to be located to score a goal be careful be careful It's clear/cloudy. It's warm/cold. recreational sPort


ir+Fis JIJ;

Jt,..,.-dil gLI/, ",:.'.', .,',...1 l;-l l.-i +

l-ll :,-'tj dJi. Jl-;+ Ci^&|.:

oij d3 "F!.+Fli .-F!.+Fli

lF .''''rl (.,J+1/'-il.^.o .dr^''l tj*,.lf-i3lfi .r-ilj:

Cr.&l Oiit'l-.,
4Js.J-9-; eJ3-,1

/heva gnrml
serd est./

Os-l-l- U"j

fvarze|-emoreffeh/ e'-,



I C U t r u R ET O P I C


The GeograPhY of lran is Iran has an area of greater than r.6 million square kilometers and main two The world. in the countries mountainous one of the most (t]i.rrt,Alborz) ana u'^fl ) \lzagtosl' jJill mountain chains fi;;;, Zagros),run from east to west and from northwest to southeast,respectively. These mountains almost surround the Iranian Central Plateau, ferwhich contains two large and uninhabited deserts.TWo expansesof north, the in and Gulf, Persian the by southwest, in the lie lowland tile cliby the caspian sea. This geography has afforded Iran a very diverse the by plains coastal the cold, are mate. fhe irigh mountaini in the north Caspian Sea are mild, the Central Plateau is hot and dry, and the south an is htt and humid. Tehran borders the Alborz mountains to the north, capital' the in ideal destination for hiking and picnics for the people

oij es
.l-,r:, o3S

/kuh nrevrerd/ /kuh nevrerd-i/ /kuh navrerd-i krerd-ren/ /gerdeSkard-en/ lmes\rl /miyan bor zaud-ar-nf

csr-lF oS OiJS csr-J3joF O1J5 ul,t-F


Fa rsi

to take a shortcut

oi; i olr
t5 Lesson

I 203

Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used when an object is the same as the subject. For example,who do you seewhen you look straight into a mirror? Usually yourself. Words like myself, yourself, etc. are the English reflexive pronouns. Farsi has the following six reflexive pronouns. R E F L E X IP VR EO N O U I N SF A R S I N

.fJ3+ e3-n Lgli lJ cicL- +l eel:- d A

/man mi-xah-em in sa'retra bara-ye xod-am be-xer-em./ I want to buy this watch for myself.

oq E


.e+{# .,^ e4l _li l-1gL;j*


/ma xod-eman ra der ayene mi-bin-im./ We seeourselvesin the mirror.

Sentences used to expresssurprise or great interest about something are English sentences like What a nice day ! or called exclamatory sentences. It is such afast car!are exclamatory. Farsi exclamatory sentencesare just like regular declarative sentences, (lejebll, as in the following exbut they start with I Ud"/) or,-jr3 amples. t+K.i-i-i ic r4-:, f (e ruz-e qeSeng-i-ye!/
. * 4 J J

nryself yourself


glJ os,

/xod-e5/ /xod-eman/ /xod-etan/




yourself lsg.ful.l
themselves, , himself/herself/




What a nice day it is!

Lo -Ot-#l !tui,
/de aseman-e saf-i-ye!/ What a clear sky it is!

itself !tg.fut.l
As you can see, these pronouns are made with the word .:F /xod/, self) and the possessivesuffixes a fl-rem/|, c3. (l-etl), d (l-nill, tl4 (l-emanll,Ul4 il-etan/), and OL& il-eian/). Pronunciation l'lote: Recall that the possessive suffixes Ci (l-ett) anOd ds (/-et/) and ctl (/-e5/),respectively, (/-e5/) are pronounced in spoken l an g u a g e . In the opening dialogue of this lesson,when |im says that he wants to climb a rock instead of Mt. Damavand, Shabnam iokingly tells him,

!4J$I1 e3S,,,-;'.
I aja-b kuh-e bolrend-i-ye!/ It is such a tall mountain! !4:$1,ceLg o)J,.,-;-. I aia-b derre-ye emiq-i-ye !/ It is such a deep valley! Note that, just like in English, you can drop the verb in the sentence.So all of the following expressionsare also possible in Farsi. !,rKl-{I JJJ 4? f (e ruz-e qeSeng-i!/ Wha.t a nice day!


.,^ 45;i J-; crtF

.iJ--"! h

/biya payin. xod-et ro xaste mi-kon-i./ Get down. You'll exhaust yourself. Here are some more examples of the use of reflexive pronouns. l-.1c1ii:= j_l_,r*r ;l .l_,f .,"Aj /u di-ruz xod-e5 ra zexm-i kerd./ He/She iniured himself/herself yesterday.

!15!t^- -Ol-+l
/de aseman-esaf-i!/ What a clear sky!

lcgrJ.li ers dls

laja"b kuh-e bolend-i!/ Such a tall mountain! L9 1J,.,-i.'. f,j I aja-b derre-ye amiq-i !/ Such a deep valley!

.cr+t d l-2dri3r ,.,js ot3j.+i _1._FI

f r-ga-r drer ab negah kon-i, xod-at ra mi-bin-i./ If you look in the water, you will seeyourself.

t5 Lesson

i 205

It is also possible to explicitly mention the topic of your sentencein tht' beginning, before b or 9+e. But if you do that, then you must use tht' verb in the sentence,as in the following examples. f1fj-fi JJJ a; JrJ^l femrtz de ruz-e qeieng-i-ye!/ What a nice day it is today!

.r_F Ol-f .,^r lJ JtS Orl

/in kar ra ne-mi-tevan kerd./ This (lob) can't be done./ One cannot do this (iob).


.+S-9l+i OlC,'r.1{ csj-rJ Jr.l+

lbayad ruz-i hadt livan ab nu5-id./ One should drink eight glassesof water a day. As you can see,these sentencesdo not have a subject, and their verb is not inflected for any person. Reflexive pronouns in impersonal sentences appear as Jll (/xod/, self, suffixes,as in the following examples. oneself),without the possessive

-{ ='

!r-x jL

-dl-r"l _,r_l_,r*r

f di-ruz de aseman-esaf-i bud!/ What a clear sky there was yesterday!

!q$li erS++;


/damavend ajab kuh-e bolend-i-ye !/ Damavand is such a tall mountain! gl !4$J^e (.9oJi,.i+'. lan reja-bderre-ye emiq-iye!/ Such a deep valley that is!

l-,1 .f+'"r#C.J ,.lll -,1.r OErJi +l-f .+

/mi-tevan-id xod-etan ra der in ayene be-bin-id./ You can seeyourself in this mirror.

.+r 4!j r.ltl -r.l l-,1U. c.rl-fcf

/mi-tevan xod ra der in ayene did./ One can seeoneself in this mirror.

I mpersonalConstruction
Certain sentencesin Farsi do not refer to a particular person as the subject. They mention a general fact. Such sentencesare called impersonal. For example,instead of saying:

| 5c. READiltG
Read this passageabout Mt. Damavand.

.dr-)i !!
lbayed be-rev-im./ We must go. which is very direct, we can, in a more indirect manner, say: .d.i: rr"l+ lbayadra-ft.l One must go. Or instead of directly saying:

clly cf dt - cSIAJ_r_) _,;J..',."1 cll_ll 6 eJ! dJi-ltJi! rr3L.t jllA L9 D5 rfor-rr.rrjL.l 9-6 .{J eA dJlJi -,rl f-,r.rrjL.r al! t+ .gJei .rr3L.r (., .drl'J",! -).r ..r:l.r )l-p cJlJsjL .gE-f -).r ,',.uf qJ J -, cr+..$ .,J,ti. Jd.5.1 S-rUi ;e.i, ..:;l.r J:+l fU 0LA a; d.,-.;sl* Cll OE ^r.ti -,1.l cSr!-.1p.:-;a ..1-,11.: ,r5:3 6lJa .Jr:J ,r.c .tr_9L.: -tr.^,r.J: ,dr."l :rjLt o.ljLi Cr4l! jl CtreJY! q9l_.14 _,1g*.4^A jl dJ.r+ .,',."1Aj


,r^r l-) JIS itl

/in kar ra ne-mi-trevan-i be-kon-i./ You can't do this (job). you can say in a more indirect manner: Damavand is the highest peak in Iran. Damavand can be seen even from Tehran on cleir days. Mt. Damavand is located in Mazandaran Province near Haraz valley. Under Mt. Damavand there is a town with the same name. The town of Damavand is a very old town and has a cool climate. Many people travel to Damavand in the summer. There are sixteen routes for climbing Mt. Damavand, but the southern route is the most beautiful one.

.r_F Ol-f ,r^r l_,1 JtS O"rl

/in kar ra ne-mi-trevankerd./ One can't do this (job). Look at more example sentences. .dri_.; Y! s_9L.:6 ali jl lli,r^r _13;^l f emruz ne-mi-5ev-ed az qolle-ye demavand bala reft./ One cannot climb Mt. Damavand today.

zo 6j


t5 Lesson


l5H. 2 TOPTC CUTTURE Sports in lran
Like citizens of any other country, most Iranians are avid sports fans. The most favorite sport in Iran is soccer.It is not unusual to seechildren playing mini soccerin the streets after school.The Iranian national soccer team is among the best in Asia, and some Iranian soccerplayers play in major European leagues.Iran is also among the world elites in wrestling and weightlifting. The martial arts are also very popular in Iran becauseof their low costs and great individual benefits. Among highly popular recreationalsports,one can mention skiing, cycling, hiking, and climbing. By law, women in Iran are allowed to practice sports only in closed stadiums and without the presenceof men.

D.Fill in the blanksusingthe wordsJrrovitlt'tl. rliiJ cSLaojS 4j,$i< ,jL"^,,I _(\)_ a+6+ ! .rh



6 ortetr _('r)_

gq -l

=' =. E


lr^ .-(D-


16:-,j?;l':"1 "il?'-;
A]ISWERKEY Practice Comprehension
A.3 B.z




A. Fill in the blanks with the correct reflexive pronoun.





.dl+ q+lr^ . \
U sojSqeY\ .\


.iA+ LF-6

jl u6e +

Cgl'r. a4 p;lS ,".,'rJJ O.r


cF.t:i . a


d-n .Y

6Lr3S .Y

srJA .\

.$ij ..J< -.+

-ri.^,^OI jl rr"t4aS cri(


4+.J- .A

B. Rewrite these sentencesas exclamatory sentences.

c-rrc/es j_l_1.:. \ !+_j+ .f .+l_,r1+ !d!,^,1 -f .Y ,s.it-, ,-fi-lSs,; ,i. /!, .Jt :. c;;c,/as !l_21.: Ol-,,.b d;;l .f ,js.i: i9f3o ,..i./ ldr*,,l o3S Oil .f ,j-:l !d*,1 cdfJa J sJ ,jF g;l+.++e/++ t++t .a

.*-! c+ Ol-! j-r-tl't . \ ..''.ul,Ji-.,,,-jlls,j+-9s .Y .r-.1l.r ,rS."ti 6lJA Olr.h OJI.l ."'"'l J-rle-6 &l .f .',.,,1 J sJ dF 19|;.1++l .d rs--rlJA


.6i_.1 cl."l Ot-f c/.i l+il jl . \ r:;il."^ .l_.f +! .\ "rr_9L.:4+ .UF "jtj t!b+j+- +! .r .&i_,1 b+l jl ,jl-i u# .r
.l_.f ,r5^,,1.-d ..+ OE^ltl: JJ .A

C. Turn these sentencesinto impersonals.

D. Ol--l .A

LiL^- .f

.riii: .f

.Y sgte o-5S

a3.,.iK. t

.eirj ir.Il""! #l-f .# b+l jl .\

.d.i5+&1ol*,- .:rjL: q +t+ .Y .cgJq.r+'jE +l++j+- +! .f .Lsrj t++l jl dl-f .,ii .f

Pick a map of a national or state park and label the landmarks and locations on the map with Farsi words.

..,5q ,r5*.1 lJ- .,.i Oti.^r.E JJ .A

-'..'-^-t 208 i

Fa rsi

r5 Lesson


Farsi-Engl sh Glossary
. ' . . . Words are ordered according to the Farsi alphabet (seepagesxiv). Verbs are given in their infinitive form' Nouns are given in their singular form. An irregular present tense stem of a verb is given in parentheses after the infinitive form' An irregular plural form of a noun is given in parenthesesafter the singular form of the noun. Alternative pronunciations of the same word are separated by a The formal comma and uppea. within a single set of forward slashes. pronunciation' informal the precedes pronunciation

T A TI F I I ' T
t I tl

n. v. n.

/ab ke5-id-ren/ /ab-emive/ labanl labil /aparteman/ f axerl f axer-ehefte/ ladresl lazerl

water to rinse fruit juice eighth month of the Persian calendar blue apartment end weekend address ninth month of the persian calendar

oj;.o 9;l

dj OLi-1l.1
adi. n. n. n. n. n.

4$i J-rl (}JJ Jll

P-l-)l rPl-;l oi!4lj

n. n.

arum/ f aram, /aram-e5/ larenil larel laLansl asun/ /asan, lai-pezl f aSpez-xanef lai-pez-il laqul laqa-yel lamadel lamed-enl(lall lamrlkal f amuz-garl lanl la",l f ania,unja/ lan}:.al layr,ndel layenel

calm calmness,peace elbow yeah agency easy cook kitchen cooking sir, mister Mr. ready,prepared to come America teacher that he, she,it there they future, next mirror



lexraj kard-an/ lexrai 5od-an/ ledarel /edame dad-en/ ladebiyatl /ordibeheSt/

to fire (an employee) to get fired office to continue literature secondmonth of the Persiancalendar orchestra of, from, since to wake up Spain professor province to employ

-Tt o,



.l$ Gl-r=J v. o-.1lr!n . gil": a-lr!



!1. I m :f

oJi inter.

ttrljl O_ri ,OL*i adi.

.' *T Urrl J i

sll#iI n. ,' ,.?-e rli.l_,;fn. Ji.+SJf n. jl p. .-Jlr'r jl v. irS $l;

L!iL!,,| r n

n. n.

caJr;ul l-ii t9EI o.rLI

/orkestr/ letl f ezxab bolend 5od-en/ /espaniya/ /ostad/ /ostan/ /estexdam kerda'nl /estexdam Sod-en/ /esterahet kerda,nl /esfend/

n. n. adj. adj.

(Do.,J v.
l4-ri JlSiyl
n. n. art. pro. adv. pro. n. n.



OE-f n. OIJS ,l rri..,l v. UJ,i pl rli, ri v. ,",--l tj*l v.

li t:l el-rJj

to get employed to rest twelfth month of the Persiancalendar banknote name enthusiasm at all extra, addition to stay economy economic express if hello (telephone) today


oJ-tj 4jj

' ri -i ,,,1 n. n.

rl *$f

/eskenas/ lesml /eStiyaq/ lacsla'nl lezaf.el /eqamet kerd-en/ /eqtesad/ /eqtesad-i/ /eksperes/ f e,ga,r, egef lelol femruzf

r-l n'
L9rjt'i{r n.

IAI IET I'I cs+l+l adj'

rl *{

')*ol elementary room bedroom bus to let, to allow stove respect news


lebteda-yil lotaql lotaqxabl /otobus/ fejaze dad-an/ lojaql fehteramf lexbarl



,.rlJA 6El n. u,-q-ff n. g:1.:o_.f;l v. ,-!t+f n. rl.ljsl n. Jl+=l n.

_'*_ ----"-i_"-_-_--_ -

d-:! n. orJs c;13! v.

JLarS! cAi-4riiJ 4<1,j31 JI )J-rt ry 6lossa n. adi.

ur..l--uS1 n. adv. inter. adv'




n. n. n.

f emza'f lomurl lomidl /omid-var/ f a,l'anf /entexab 5od-en/ /entexab krerd-ren/ fentexabatf lentehal /renjam dad-en/ lenjam 5od-en/

signature affairs hope


IBT l+ p. O_rtt+ ,Ol_j+ n. a:_j+ ,Cl_j+ n.

)vl rrl

barun/ fbaran, /baran-i,baruni/ lbar-id-enl fbazknrd-enf fbazarf lbantl lbasenl lbaf-t-anl(h^fll lbaqelal lbala-yel lbaleil lbankl lbaya,dl lbayganil /bebaxSid, bebexSin./ lbetrr-l lbax(tl /bex5-id-en/ lba,da-nl

with rain raincoat to fall (rain or snow) to open market, bazaar arm buttocks to weave broad bean over pillow bank must archive Pardon me, Excuseme. child part, section,department to excuse,to forgive body resolved

-Tl o) g. I m :5 qg

-,1f:*r^f adj.

ovl adv.
cJJ-i elEjij OIJS.JlalJ
, I I

to get elected, to get selected to elect,to select elections end to do (a task/job) to get done (a task/


orjs j!
Jljl+ JJt+
v. n. n.

v. n.


r rl

$,; n. oilr C+l O.3 el+:I v.

C1.ifjl li f$iftl n. n.

+-l+ n. (.il') O3t+ v.

)l-!.l+ n' .cg)t+ p.

iob) lnngoitl /engobt-epa/ /engelis/ finger toe England English he,she,it first question particle
(yes/no) Italy Iran Iranian to stand he, she (fml.l e-mail to e-mail this internet here

.t4 s


U4rlfuJ n. ,r*,ilfuJ OilSl ,,JiI

+l+ aux.
n. d\r+ 6r.t'i..i.r., idiom OHrr,ii.# ^?+ ,Jij.+ n. n.

n., adj. /engelis-i/ l"l ,lrevvalinl fevvalf layul litatiyal /iran, irun/

Jl pro. num. l+i adv. ql LI" UJJJI cgljl d:_ll (c-,il) n. n.

g1*.X--t v.

c.,.Sf;l n.,adj. firani,iruni/ OiLL+l v. /ist-ad-en/(/ist/) /i5an,ibun/ limeytl /imeyl zacd-alnf linl /internet/ linjal

irq n' v. o$i -t';L;

Jil-li o.tlj -,!l; .csll CS,ilt; n. n. p. v. v. n.

/ber tarref 5od-en/ to go away, to get lberaderl fberader zadef lbera-yel /ber dabt-en/ lbord-enl (ha-rll hr-rfl
brother niece,nephew (brother's child) for to take (a course),to pick up to take snow

OJ4l ,OUU pro. dJ/Jl uij 4+tl n.

". lHl art. '''r"Al n. I i iil adv.



OJ-x uI

19.H n. 4-E-.1'; n.

herql fbarnamef lbozorgl fbozorg-rahf lbezudil lbest-el /besiyarxob/ lboiqabl ha'dl

electricity program, plan large, great, big, grand expressway soon package very well, all right plate then, next after After you, Here you are. tall yes blouse ticket cul-de-sac,dead end to as

Jl'# ,-lE-;L*

n. n. n. adi. n.

lbimarl /bimar-estan/ lbimel /beyn-ol-melel-i/ lbinil

patient, ill hospital insurance international nose

-Tl o, 9. I m 5

3:t "l_6_l!




csJ_rj adv. 4l^+ n. c+a jl*+ inter.

n. +tfii &+ adi.

,"ll+ll gru .*t+

(J t


hn. ur! n.
.S r a tL

lpal lpadardl lpurV lpasai.l

pa/ /pa5ne-ye /pakat-ename/ /pakestan/ lpaltol

foot,leg pain in the leg/foot park mall heel envelope Pakistan winter coat fifteen five hundred end fall to go down, to climb down blanket to cook father grandfather father-inlaw (wife's father) father-in-law (husband'sfather) to aicept plenty, full to fill

jl r'+ p. fbe'd nzl ,+l-J+ idiom /befermayid, cl+"t--P: befermayin./ .ili adi. /bolend/

\ Le 4j'iL


4-U (':jsL n. 't n. Olj^,,S-t1

4: JA

inter. n.

lbalel lboluzl lbelitl

'i-!! i--Jt{ num.

L,ll+ e,"ul.., n.


adi.,n. /bon-best/ hel /be onvan-e/ /be morxasireft -a-nl lbeharl lbehmanl lbutel /butik/ lbud-enl(/hest, mst/) lbosnil

num. /pan-sred/
lpayanl lpayizl /payin raft-enf lpautul (lpa-rll lpoxt-renl lpedarl /pedar bozorgf fpeder znnf /peder Soher/ fpeztu-oft-renf (lpeztrll lpotl /por kerd-ren/

q p.

or+! n.
j#b n'
LtsU U#H V. Jri
/ . ' : . . ' o . I

.ol-d'+ p.
-s-r'-,1,.1 fu

v. n. n.
n' n. v.

03J Jh iFd
4j31 ..(-Sg e,-,.u-rr)gi3,r

to go on leave spring eleventh month of the Persian calendar bush boutique to be




Jfd '-5J-!! J+

n' n.

oi lt -p-r -,t

n. n.

(d-,1 tri*-ri n. t_rd+ ,Ol+1+ n.


biyabun/ wilderness fbiyaban,


(++) o3!+ v.
-}i al

.UJ)# p. lbirun-el ,-,.,U|num.



OiJS -.1r* v. 6lossary

OiJS csl.r;


/perdaxt kerd-en/ fparastarf /pors-id-en/ lperul lpawazl fpewaz kerd-en/ /prervende/ lper-id-a'nl lpezeikl /pas ferda/ lpostl /post-e elekteronik/ /post-xane/ /post-e za',min-if /post kerd-an/ /post-e heva-yil lpeserl /peser dayi/

to pay nurse to ask Peru flight to fly file to jump physician day after tomorrow post, mail e-mail post office ground mail to mail airmail boy, son cousin (mother's brother's son) cousin (father's sister'sson) cousin (father's brother's son) cousin (mother's sister'sson) back, behind bridge, overpass five fifty window Thursday boot folder

O-+$* cJ* l-r-.J*

v. n. n'

/Pu5-id-en/ lP"V /Pul-exord/ /Pul-edorobt/ /Pul dad-en/ lPiYadel lPeYaml lPul /Pid-id-en/ /pirahen/ lPli'l lpr6ezl

to wear (clothes) money coins, small bills large bills to pay on foot message curve to turn shirt past, last before pre-universitY recommendation, suggestion to recommend


9. I m

JU-J".r n. t-l{--l+ Jli _ll:sl OiJS tl::l ori-l-li v. n. n. v. n.


c.tS'-li .1.J* n. gils qJig v. oJl;; adv. C# n.

O+-E v.
,.5....ijd n. l.r-,r,1*

eJ* n. v. ,'r'r-.r+* v.4' Cral;* jl ,Jh n.


,-F# adi' p.

..t. qJ'r.f,

g!"i n.
* J.r-J t n.

l - r t


a t

n' v. n. n.

dane6gah-i/ sAlS,.iUlJ Ui,ti adi.,n. ipi5 i.ei,,i# n. /Pi5-nehad/

OiJs cl^"; crj'Ja +t J*i

OiJ5 $4j,if.i v. .fS ..(+i n.

/piSnehad kerd-en/

/piknik reft-nnf

,4ll _.p,; n. e-co _l+ J^e -}'t dEYt

. t)



to 8o on a Prcnrc

n. n. n'

/peser'emme/ /pesar'emu/ /peser xale/ /po5t/

-131.ij n. E P' UJI*+U egE.ai5 n. &-1tr n' adi. .!-1tr adv. #;U oJU adi. s.,SE JYE IJI o1. n. n. n. n.

fte'attf ltal

theater to' until

u^.t p. t, ui n. e!

tabestun/ summer /tabestan, history date ltatixl dark /tarik/ ltaze-gil ltazel /taksi/ ltalarl ltebl lteppel xab/ ftext,trext-e recentlY fresh taxi hall fever hill bed

lp"V num. lpr-nil

num. n.
lpenjahl lpenierel /peni-Senbe/ lpr:trinl lpuiel

"l++ o \++ n. agJi+ iJ#4 n. +&-5gn' .***|*218 i


,',i."i 5,',11 n. +l:i Glossary


ol+* {iii
( iJ;:'1

n. n. v. n. n.

/taxte siyah/ Itnxfifl /teraSid-en/ Iterml Itoiackl

/tebviq kerd-an/

blackboard discount to shave semester, term mattress to encourage, to urge, to applaud decision

J# n'


fourth month of the Persiancalendar

o+$lJj ?-)) .5;i3


ISI ITI t+ n.
o"JL;, n.

= g

'Tl o, g. I rT

oljs &-d-r

t.l-iJ . .

lial liaddel ljan,junl liabrl ljedidl (liull ljost-renl lireEnl ljoqrafiyal ljoqrafil lia-lausel liom'el liomhur-il lionubl,ljant;},l lievab dad-en/ liurabl

place road dear

n. v. n. n.


rl&j ,It+l (c'\H)

/tesmim gereft-en/ to decide Ite'dadl I t a' tilI (I te' til- atl) Itelefonl
/telefon kerd-en/ /telefon ze.d-anf Itelevizi:yunl /tema5a kerd-ren/ /trema5a-gar/ Itambrl Ita'nl Itehranl /tol number, quantity holiday (holidays, vacation) telephone to make a phone call to make a phone call television to watch spectator stamp body Tehran you (s9.) in, inside toilet can, to be able to tour tourist by (in passive sentences) to manufacture, to produce manufacturer, producer

O:+ ,OL= n.
n. adi.

,f/ \ .'o t

lT',to search celebration geography geography meeting Friday republic south to answer sock, stocking




olJs c#lj V, oii iFJ;

O-lr">.-d; n. OIJS l"il^i V.

U.\r,+ n. l$lJ4 n'

4*lf+ 4r.i

n. n.

-Fuw n.
n. n. n.



olJej t y
.'o ,l 'o

qf*+ gil.l crl3,; "'lJ+ ) g,


n. v. n.

pro. p.

Itovaletl /tevan-est-en/ (ltevanll

crll-f n.

IEI -rlb n. crb n.


J} C-.;_l-f +-F

Itaqul lEayl Iteral Iteral Iterad rah/deraq-e nama-yi/

knife tea why yes (to a negative question) light,lamp

n. n. p.

/turist/ /tevessot-e/ /tolid kerd-en/ /tolid kon-ende/




orJs +lj
6 rt-t'( ulri

9l' 4 r..s, n ' L -9f L ' qus, n ' .,rt-iAlJ

traffic light

Fa rsi


.S-i')J4 - t \ rrir-=

n. n. adv. n. n.

l(.r-iml /de5m pezebk/ l&torl Itekl /dek-emosafer-i/ l(emedanl l(a-rna-nl f (emen-zarf Itendtal /dand ta azf /dend-om-in/ ftr-ndinl l(,a-ngall ide kesi/

eye ophthalmologist how check traveler's check suitcase lawn, grass meadow how many a few of which (in order) several fork who

r9-U? rt-rcli-l l-l OJj.i-F ,-1. t OIJS j! jl$I jl$l Ut "; +L*>


fherf.-e diz-i ra za'd-r-nf /herf zr,d-r-nf A"tub/ /hesab baz kerd-en/

to mention something, to talk about something to speak account to open an account savings account

-Tl OJ

= g

9. I rn



t,Jtgt*:-+ Ulu+



l-"; 9-r.


JtjI+ ll+

n. n.



jl E + art. iJ+^+ adi. adi. #+

dH ";
x4 .'

oiJs j!


to open a savings /hesab-epas endaz baz kard-ery' account /hesab-e jari/ /hesab-e jaribaz kerd-en/ /hesab-dar/ /hemmam/ /hemmam kerdr-r'l /hemmam gerefte.nl lhayatl checking account to open a checking account accountant bathroom to take a bath to take a bath

cgJb e+t+


n. pro. num. num.

C,Jb 9JL+ V. O1J5 jt+ -,;l":r.t^^;n.

It cs, n.

a; Jt6 ol-,rk!

f(a-ha4 dehar,dahar/ four /dahardeh, dehardeh, dahardeh/ /dehar-rah/ /dahar-Senbe/ /dehar-sed/ ltehell lbnl tel 1|i,, Itizl ldinl fourteen

o.t5 eb
.rs-,;\ tG


ol:-lki 4+i-iJl{+ LJki cl4 U$ 5 tu+ -J*i ttti

n' n. num. num. coni. pro. n. n.

intersection Wednesday four hundred forty because what thing China

J"1+= n.



\c+JtcJr-ti 4l\i tlLi ,i15

adi. adi. n. n. lxarei-il lxassl lxalel /xanom,xanum/ /xane-dar/ fxanel

foreign, international special aunt (mother's sister) lady, wife, Ms., Mrs., Miss homemaker home, house family reporter Good-bye. to be out of order

\ - l

_;ll arLr n.




n. n.


physical condition present (tense) certainly

lJlJi.ls n.




fxeber-negarf , fxodahafez.f lxodafez.l fxnrab bud-an/

.lil.:i,J.ii-.1$. OiJ+ +lJ'-

inter. v.

222 i


ry lossa G

.llr_.,;A OiJS +ji

/xordad/ /xer-id kerd-en/ lxrer-id-enl /xobk/ /xo5k kerd-en/ lxrettl /xet ke5i/ fxett-eheva-yil lxalva.ltl

third month of the Persiancalendar to shop to buy




lxord-enl (lxorll /xore5/ fesenjan/ /xoreS-e /xo5-bext-ane/ /xo5-haf /xo5-veqt-am?/ /xiyaban, xiyabun/ lxeylil

to eat, to drink (colloq.) meat sauce fesenjan (meat sauce) fortunately h"ppy How do you do? street very a lot


o g. 1

.5..t1 adj. OiJS.S^tA V.
I ',:. n.

cF;-n n. Ol+'iy,i.cfi"l-l= n.
4lEi+iJA cl*ri f-SFF adv. adi. idiom


dry to dry
line, script, handwriting street line airline not busy, not crowded, secluded cool to sleep to want to read sister niece/nephew (sister's child) You're welcome. good okay self myself yourself hi m self/he r seI f/it seI f ourselves yourselves, yourself (fnl.) themselves, h i m self/he r self/i t self

O_rr.!i,u!F n.
.,J5 adj.,


n. n. adj.

.r;l3i 't dUJi,



ID' cjAlr n. ,.Jil.: adi. (o;) 6ilr v.

JJIJ n. +rt-:*9-;l.t n. j\*.,3_21: n. (-)U; O:.$l:
ldaxell /daxel-i/ ldad-enl lldel) ldarul /daru-xane/ f darvsazf inside local, domestic to give medicine pharmacy pharmacist to have,present progressivemarker hot skirt to know knowledge grade school student university student college university scientist,scholar uncle (mother's brother) high school girl, daughter


lxona-kl /xabid-ren/ fxast-enf (lt"hfl fxan&enf (lxanll lxa}lra-rl /xaher zadef /xahe5 mi-kon-em./

(rlJi) Cl-,lJi.

aux., v.

(Ole) ir$lri
o.llj _,pl3i UltlF 9F t.lF tJA


-,;'alF n.
n. idiom adj. inter. n.

v.,aux. /dabt-en/ (ldarll

ld"ql ldama,nl /danest-en/ (ldanll /dane5/ /daneb amuzf /dane5-ju/ /dane5-kede/ /dane5-gah/ /dane5-mend/ ldayil


lxubl lxobl lxodl /xod-em/ lxod-atl lxod-eil /xod-eman, xod-emun/

/xod-etan, xod-etun/ /xod-eban, xod-ebun/

irlr (Ot.; C'i*il.: t''ul' ;e"i 16;1.: '+',U't
oj5.Xil.t olK.Jillr -ti..,!l.l ts+ll



LFiF r,OldJi
UJ^JF cglitJ: O}JF cgl_i..:jA

pro. pro.




OE--11+i n. JiiS n.
ry lossa G

/dabirestan/ ldoxterl

alti -:ii: ,r;1.: _)ji.l .{-.e Jiir 3nc _Fir Ji



/doxter xale/ /doxter dayi/ /doxter'amme/

cousin (mother's sister'sdaughter) cousin (mother's brother's daughter) cousin (father's sister'sdaughter) cousin (father's brother's daughter) in door percent to lie down tree application to apply (to, for) pain, ache to hurt course,lesson right, just to be in order, to be in working condition to get fixed to fix valley

Jiii ctll 4i$i

ldacftr-rl ldeqqetl ideqiqe/ /doktor/ /doktora/ idekke/ ldam-pa-yil /dendan, dendun/ /dandan peze5k/ ldonyal ldehl ldehanl, /dehen/

office care,meticulousness minute doctor, Dr. doctorate kiosk slipper tooth dentist world ten mouth two twelve again far to like friend shower to take a shower Monday yogurt drink government second to run two hundred tenth month of the Persiancalendar to see to visit to be late

-Tl OJ

!!. I qg

lTl f



p. n. n.


-i3s',r tJ3si 45i tCl+'i

UJJIJ egl-rr.l

lda"l lda:,rl /der sed/ f denz ke5-id-en/ lderaxtl /der-xast/ /der xast kerd-ren/ lderdl /derd kerd-an/


1rd3 n. oi num. n. num'



v. gr.r.t'< _,11_,1)

d!,,lJAJi dlrlJAJl

n. n.

1JAJ crjAi jJ

ldevazdehl ldobarel ldurl /dust dabt-en/ idust/ ldu!;l /du5 gereften/ /do-Senbei ld"ql ldoletl /dowom/, /dowomin/ ldev-id-anl /devist/ ldeyl ldid-enl (hi"ll /did-en kerd-en/ /dir kerd-en/

oi_,11;l num. oj+_ll JJr ,.Ji.'il.: d.ur3J ,'t'UJ ci-ll adv. adj. v. n. n'

.l-,t.1 n.

gi-.f .r-,;i
L},Ji n. adi. v.

ldersl /dorost/ /dorost bud-en/ /dorost Sod-en/ /dorost kerd-en/

OiJ* Cr^,']i 6-r-i c-,]'l OiJS d-,]i o)i

O$-S uF$ v.
-rfijJ n.

L:. n.


lderrel ldestl /dest-e Soma derd nekon-ed /nekon-e./


C-t^',,i n. r-,;i L'$ gu'i


hand Thank you.

i,l.tcal cp3J num. Orr,-li v.

r" r,ui3) num.

.4-t'r: /$ti
.43"$i-.t o6*3--: dll-i-i .l+ 4i-i C.d'i
n. n. n. n. n.

/drest5uyi/ /dest-gah/ /dast-maf /deste rek/

restroom machine napkin checkbook field



(u+) o+t v. O+.: v. Oi_;S








ldi-ruzl ldi-Yia,bl ldignrl,ldigel

yesterday last night other


sJ3_,1 n. )J) n.

lrudl,/rud-xane/ lruzl fruz-ekar-i/ fruznamef /rusta/ /ru-sar-i/ lru-yel lnry-id-enl

nver d"y workday newspaper village scarf (women's) on to grow (plant)

'Tt o,


, . i.?,..rJ adv.

a-fu.r .-.fi;.r adj.


csjs J-r-) n. a-Llj_l_,r n.

E-r_l_l G.,AJ) n. N. p. v.


l e -


n. n.

fre'isf /ra'is'-eiomhur/ lradiyol lrast-il lran-epal lruhl frahreft-enf lrahrol /rahnrema-yi/ lra-'yl lre'y dad-ren/ frayanel lrob'l frezewkerd-en/ fresan-ef (/resan-e-ha/)

head, boss,chief president (of a country) radio by the way thigh




(,JJ(.+ s.:l+J d.il+^:l+J

n. n.

/riyaset-eiomhuri/ presidency lriyazil lriyaziyatl

math mathematics

-l;ll-l si-rlJ olJ ojit'l-l :-$l_,r

n. inter.

!.ul_r n.

way, road to walk corridor guidance, advice vote, ballot to vote computer quarter (esp.hours) to reserve medium (media)

-dlj di-'j i:rhil r Oqj
(#Jti rrJ

n. n. n.

f zawl lzabanl fzebano adebiyat-e fars-i/ lzexml lzexm-il lzed-anl (lzanll

knee language, tongue Farsi languageand literature wound wounded, injured to hit, to beat yellow time winter ground, earth,land to fall down surface woman, wife (infml.l beautiful under, below underwear undershirt


csl-t 6il.:6i-,1 +it+l_l

n. adi.

oiJs r)))
(la 4rl^^'J)4jl*,,J cll-t-f-",r
,, & qlrrJ

(oj) oii r-ri

ol^j ULLlrJ

adj. n. n.

lzerdl f zemanl fzemestanf lzaminl fzemin xord-en/ lzemin-il lzenl lzibal lzir-el lzir-puil lzir-p\rahen-il

n. n.

/resturan/ lreitel lreft-anl (lroll lrengl lreh-berl

restaurant field of study, major to go color leader

'-:}-"j n.



(-p) os-r v. .fuJ n. _'+'s n.

Ji.,SJf ..b'l

*3 adi. c;) n.
hj .))) ,i*-l*-l ./el-,lp;;-,l
adj. p. n. n.


orkestr/ conductor (orchestra) /reh-brer-e frah-gozarf /ru-be-ru-ye/

passerby in front of, opposite

-.;r-xA_.1n. .L9J}J) p.

_,,K-uj n.
U"tii cr*Jj .,*,ti.i c*Jj n. n.

/zir-gozerf /zist Senas/ /zist Senasi/

underpass Cbiologist biology


lsethl lsa;fa;rl lsefidl /sekke/ lselaml

level travel, trip white coin hello

-Tl o, :



* J
.,1 t

\:!i,'o adi'



U*U n'

45+" n.



O$L*J e)-, /.1 \


n. adi. n.


ISI ..Jlj* Ul-jiL

dG.tt., t'''l*., CAJTS JgLu

/selam resandren/ to send regards (/resan/) /semfoni/ /sonnet-i/ /sendef lsengl lsanginl lsel /se-5anbe/ lsutiyanl /suxt-en/(lsuzl) fsevv-omf , /sew-omin/ /sv lsiyahl lsizdnhl /si-sred/ /sinema,sinema/ lsinel
symphony traditional sandal stone,rock heavy three Tuesday bra to burn third thirty black thirteen three hundred cinema, movies chest,breast


n. n.

fso'alf /saxteman/ fsazemanf f sa'r-ltf /sa'et-ekar-i/ fsa'edl pal lsaq-e lsall lsaladl /salon-epauzirayil /salon-e/otaq-e naharxori/ /sandevid/ lsebzl lsebz-il(lsebzr-iatl) lsextl lsacrl lser-el /ser derd/ /ser o seda/ lsacrdl /sorfe kerd-en/ /serma xord-egi/

question building organization clock, watch working hour forearm shin year salad entertaining room dining room sandwich green vegetable (vegetables) hard, difficult head at headache noise cold to cough common cold

dig dJi.*
. ?.U[>lrrlr 4r,

i1l-jt-,,..' n.
n. n. n.

.-fu* n.
adi. nUm.

! -ou n.
CJt*, n. JYI*., n.
,;f-)g* -dJ'll*.' n.

qili r.^ n. CS-* (j-r.^^) ,fi-*


n. v.



_dEltgtl.,, n.
6 t.s_.;lal-r @-lfiL*
J .

(# ol;oi-l**
t' **

num. adi. num.


n. adi.

crj+* n. (c.,t++j+*)

L-l* 4ii$

n' n'

adi. n. p. n. n. adi.
v. n.


.r_,f _;.
lt. J#

lr i,r.rt


ftiaml /5am xord aen/ /5amel bud-an/ /Eanzdehl lEaya,dl lia.bl

dinner to have dinner to include sixteen perhaps,maybe, may night

^**^----i '231

6s,rF pti v. Oi-+rdrl-i oi;t^i v. num.

OiJS 4iJi*

Jl-rr- t!

+t i aux. q$ n.

(-r) o.lll d,sJi
OiJS dlSJFi gJ-.l g_r-$

n. v. n.

/Sebnem/ /5od-an/ (/5o/) /Serket/ /Serket kard-en/

dew, female name to become company to take part, to participate to begin thumb to wash six six hundred sixty occupation, occupations stomach,abdomen Pants busY,crowded, noisY sg.fml.) You (P1., How about You? number north to count swimming to swim
. t

+-l'S n'

/5evid/ /5evid baqela/

dill rice dish with broad beans sweet,female name chemistry

x-! +:j

adj., n.


'Tl o, g. I rfl l

/5irin/ /5imi/


/5oru'5od-en/ /5est/ /5ost-an/ (/5"yi) /ses/ /5e5-sed/ liastl lloqll,/mabaqef

,',. ,,1 1 . n.

JJ-;F OiJS 4jl-sr^,',-.,^'ra
t' lJ.S-\.4




v. v.

/sobh/ /sobhane/ /sobhane xord-en/ /sohbret kerd-an/ lsa,hral lsndl lsedal lsa-fl lsefrl /semim-ane/ /sremimii /samimi-yyat/ /sendali/ /sendud /srenduq-epost/ /senduq-e post-i/ /srenduq-era'y/ /suret/ /suret hesab/

morning breakfast to have breakfast to talk desert hundred sound, voice line, queue zero in a friendly manner friendly friendliness chair box, chest mailbox P.O.box ballot box face bill

L!.,r.^| num.

\'. '?.rt num.

,',. . ? , num.

diiLi;^ ,cli-,.i

jrlrr. , i-, 'Pt it^J^.ra

num. n. n. num' adv.


n. n. adj.

/5ekem/ lielvarl /5oluq/ lSomal /5oma detor| fiomaref i5omaf /Semord-ren/ llenal /Senakrerd-en/

9J.+ l-li
o-,f-.3 Jt^:i oi-).j
t' IJJI i

\-.$ pro.
idiom n. n. v. n. v. v.

, . , 1 *- . J-rL
ti: tl-'
. t * ,:'

.,t'J,n'..r.a adi.

n. n.


drUs uj
.-...|. s L|sLrtrt



- . 2


/Senaxt-en/ (/5enasfi to recognize


rru -r9J"'



lSa-nbel /5enid-en/ liehrl /5ehr-dar/ /Sehriver/ liortl lioharl

Saturday to hear city mayor sixth month of the Persiancalendar shorts husband

| \+trr>

*' tJJ


O'+ti+,iiV. J.i -,;f.lx-i jt:e

n. n. n.

Yl+ .194i+t -cSai+t Cl+""! ry G lossa


n., adv. /tebeqe-ye bala/ n', adv' /tabeqe-ye payinl
upstairs downstairs

C,_,rF n.


,_iJbt n.
e,r^rt qt adi. li C9-JF3^'S-

Ita-ra-lfl ftusif,/xakester-i/ /tul ke5-id-en/

side gray

cr+.rJ[i q*^'jlJl l.:,

n' n. adv. v. n. lfars-il ffa,ransef lfardal /ferestad-an/ (/feresti) /ferest-ende/ lfa:ritl lforml lfarhadl farverdin/ Farsi,Persian France tomorrow to send sender carpet, rug form male name first month of the Persiancalendar store only

-Tl OJ

!1. I


dlt oi*.*.,<


to last, to take (time)


n. lzohrl

OJti-j (d-,-09) 6 ri-1',.r!

oJLl uLc 4iYJ+r,

/aber-e piyade/ lejul-anel feraqf, f'eraqf f'azizf f'resrf /etse krerd-en/ l'aqabl leksl /aks gereft-en/ /elaqe daSt-en/ pedestrian hastily Iraq dear evening to sneeze back picture, photograph to take a picture, to photograph to be interested in, to be fond of interested socialsciences humanities natural sciences aunt (father's sister) uncle (father's brother) deep title



ItA-.;s n. c-f+l_l_l-rl n.


.G 4.."t.c OiJS


n. adi.,
adv. v. n. n. n. n. n. n.

/foru5-gah/ lfa,qa:tl /fekr krerd-an/ lfaksl ffenjan, fenjun/ /futbaf foq-e lisans/ lfizlkl lfiiml

oiJs Jtj U'"5:i

O .+ji eg$ei

to think fax cup soccer master's degree physics film, movie

,Jr,fu L8-# udj

Oi.$b 4il; rL 4il; cft4+J -t-lb uil*i! .f3b adi. n. n.

dr$.ls t-y"t+l -6:s

/relaqe-mend/ /olum-e eitema'i/ /olum-e ensani/ /olum-e tabi'i/ f'ammef f'amuf



,d++t .._F n.
4rA -* n. n.

/qablame/, /qableme/ lqaioql /qa5oq-e day-xor-i/ /qa5oq-eqeza-xor-i/ cooking pot

6,-:e adj. Ol3ir n. IQI

n. 234i

lamiql fonvanf

dliti n' -dliE n' crJr+b -dlil-i n'

(J ,Ji.ll..i

spoon teaspoon

tablespoon rug law,laws


lqezal food


lqaril ,lqavaninl fqanunf



u:+j n. jl cJ$ p.
-ll tsJ$ art. lqabzl lqabl ezl lqedri ezl /qedem za,d-a,nf
adj. n. receipt, bill before some of to stroll old pill red pretty train brown price

1+3 iS "'I-.i 4+lJ5

adv. n. n.

kojal &od-e post-i/ lkerayel ldard-anl ka-sl lkesil /kaBti/ /kre5-id-en, ke5-id-en/ /kebver/ lkef-epal /keffas-i/

where postal code fare, rent to do person someone ship to pull, to draw

-Tl OJ

I rTl

qg u 5

,-rij cs


/qadimi/ lqorsl fqermezl /qeSang/ lqatarl lqehve:il lqeymetl

n. pro.

,f-F t -r,, adi. .fu"tl adi.

Jtl*! n. crl o-lr--! adj. ,. i ni! n.

"t"s sLxs oit$-< J-J^ts !I-is (J,iuis uifi

n. v.

n. n. n. n. n. n. n. adi. n. adv.

country sole (foot) shoe store shoe class binder hat, cap little (lower) backache some, a little beside concert Congo that (con7.) who

IKt, oiLrj$i *,i'".ls n. 0+US n' -is n. Oi_F _js v.

dr-,rlS n.
/kabinet-e aSpez xane/ /kapSen/ kitchen cabinet jacket work, job to work card knife laborer employee, clerk bank clerly'teller

ftelas/ /kelasor/ ikolah/ kre*l /kemar dard/ lkalm-il fkenar-ef /konsert/ /kottgo/

JJ-)5 o)3

/kar krerden/ lkartl lkardl lkar-garl /kar-mend/ /kar-mend-e bank/

r-,;i-x3 ./3

rJS n.


p. n. n. conj. conj., pro. adj.

F_;ts .L:lS .sjl+ +._lK .c+l+i-ltS -i-11 i:l*"K



n. n. n. n' n'


4s "5'eS 4k3

kel, kil
/kohne/ lkutahl /kudak/ lkutel /kudak/ fkuze-gerf

/karbenasi-ye erSed/ master's degree computer Canada candidate coat suit library librarian

/kampiyuter/ lkanadal /kandida/

old short small lane, alley child potter mountain


oEJS adj.

lgslS n. dis n'

Jl-91-i, ""( n' 4i1i.,.1$ n.



/kot o Selvar/ /ketab-xane/ /ketab-dar/

-4-JS n. .SJJS n.

f ':-f

n. n.

-,rl+85 n.




uS n.
o1S n. ojS

/kuh neverd/ /kuh nevard-i/ /kuh navard-i kerd-en/

mountaineer, hiker mountaineering, hiking to go mountaineering, to go hiking when bag, briefcase,wallet kilogram kiosk

OiJS,-6-6 v. d!t'J< n' o$JS n.

/gub kerd-en/ /gubt/ lgir-andel

to listen meat receiver

-Tl OJ

g. I




1,5 adv.


kevl kifl lkirul /kiyusk/

+S n.


+:K aii

q . 2 v

tJY adj. crl+J n. , *U n.

n. n. n. n.

flazemf llebasl

necessaryrequired clothes

[ebas-e bedle-gane/ children's clothes /ebas-e zan-anef /lebas-e merd-ane/ /lebas foruS-i/ women's clothes men's clothes clothes store,boutique



IGI jt< n. cr-jt< n.

lgarl lgaleril (lsirll lgereft-enl
gas gallery to get, to take

+rl.l_,2o -g"-U ,+-l-r",rt-l cJ-!- -ejlj

flrevazem-e ma-rrzelf furniture /esas-e mnnzelfxanef furniture [isans/ /karienasi/ livanl bachelor'sdegree bachelor'sdegree glass

(JSJ,J3..S v.
(rt.rK; i,;i;lK v (-$) d3^ii5 v'
4i.irK adj.

(lgozarll to put lgozait-en/ lgozelt-enl (gozarl) to pass lgozaltel lgard-ell kerd-en/ /grerde5 lgerdul /gereft-ren/ ASxh lgerml lgera,rr'l lgozar-e1l lgoft-enl Ue"n
past (tense) excursion to walk around, to drive around walnut to get warm Sram report to say flower flower shop vase, flowerpot throat sore throat ear to listen

4jtj./dji^ +El n. g,"L,;J n. c+l+$_,rlS n.

old n.

OiJS ,-6)J< JJ-S


v. n.


pro. n.

l^ul lmadarl
/mader bozorgf fmadar znnf /madar Soher/

we mother grandmother mother-in-law (wife's mother) mother-inlaw (husband'smother) material, materials yogurt car, vehicle, machine dishwasher


(JSJcF-S v
?i3 -4

eK-,1-,1a'1-:L n.


,i;t# n. (.6) o:L< v.

..J3 n. .+_l;",JS n. Oht< n.


il-9ro roiL


/gol foru5-i/ lgol-danl lgalul /galu derdl

lmaddel, lmavaddl lmastl /maSin/ /ma5in-e zerf Suyi/

dr^,.I,^ n. Ort&L n. ,-i$.iJbr,eU ts+-rl


-# n.
.r-! -9I3 n. n. "F-6 grlr r;i K v.

o"Ul -&"it^

/mabin-e lebas Suyi/ washing machine


/gub dad-an/

dl6lossa ry



t'-il-L o+lljitl-


lmalezil lmal-id-a'nl

Malaysia to rub manteau (women's long overall) male name month, moon fish fluid (fluids) unfortunately Thank you. applicant (applicants) I didn't get ir. medium trigonometry parliament magazine (magazines) collection wrist ankle uJF



lma,rdl lmordadl /ma-rdomf lmersi.l lmorql

/morur kaerd-en/

-tl o,


.rl.r_,f n.


illl,""",n orthe
Persiancalendar people Thanks. chicken,hen to review patient, sick person agent match traveler travel, trip

6 J

I rTt f,





lmanil lmahl lmahil lmaye'f (lmaye'atll /mote'essef-anef /motoSekker-em./


DLc n. 1,4t^ n.


I s,a LJ-

(crtr+U)ert" n. 4jr.i!bx adv. .eJ+'^Lf4 idiom

(s.:I.i:L (Ot+*;i:l)

)Jy L_)4y

v. n.

lmerizl fmres'ulf /mosabeqe/

/mosafer/ fmosaferatl

,J.i; ,cJ,3.. n.
4i,r.li jit-.; crJl'*: OilS crJjl..'l ditiJ c.,jt^^': #tjt"l )s,-rrt
OJJS.SfJ,.., Oij dfj..'r
n. n. n.

fmoteqazif (lmotaqazi-anll /motevajjeh naSodam./ /motevesset/ /mosallresat/ lmeilesl lmeiellel/maialleha, meiallat/) fmaimu'ef /mod-e dast/ lmo(e pal

.oJ*l,i 4+-9':^ idiom

/mosaferet kerd-an/ to travel, to take a trip v. adi., adv. n. /mosaferet reften/ to travel, to take a trip straight

* tt-l(Jll t I $, rt

adi. n. n. n.

/mostaqim/ fmes-garf /mesvak/

/mesvak kerd-en/ /mesvak zaed-a;nf /masirl lmoitaql /moStaq-ane/ /mobteri/ /me{reql

5tA 45-)

Lr"J+' r+;:

coppersmith toothbrush to brush (one,steeth) to brush (one,steeth) path enthusiastic enthusiastically customer,client east


4-c. c.o+-c n. (lt*1 -qn.

! -e* n.
,J_.:r< (crYJ'.-r.c)

/mahsu/ (/mahsulat/) product (products) /mehell-e eqamet/ residence,accommodation director, principal managing director leave of absence to go on leave to grant a leave to get a leave

J+; 68 t'4ititi"s:, cgli.il" iJrJS 4+l;. 6.r,i +51*a^ Oi95 -jj,--

n. adi.
adv. n.

d;t!! -:,J.^


,3-fu n.

n. n. n. v. v.

lmodirl /modir amef /morxes-i/ /morxasi rreft-enf /morxasi dad-an/ /morxasi gereft-en/

/mosahebe krerd-en/ to interview /mosahebe iod-en/ /mesref kard-en/ /metebb-e doktor/ fmo'avenf fmo'ayenekard-anr /mo'rellem/ to get interviewed to use,to take doctor,s office deputy, assistant to examine teacher


v. v. n, n. V.

,#r-.1l c;3\,s..;+^
tJJh s-^-j,Jr*r-,1i

JK3 til*. orE

OiJS {i+Lr:



C'- n .


rJt.c oj6 -;l.r o-;tir

adj. n. n. n. n. n.

/mre'lum/ fmaqazef fmaqaze-darf /maqreb/ lmeqalel lma,qaml (/meqam-at/) lmekzikl fmelaf.e, malhefe/ /momken/ /mamnun/

obvious shop shopkeeper west article, essay official (officials) Mexico (linen) sheet possible grateful, Thanks. I I don't know, I have no idea. Me, too. cS-UiJtAU

JJ' jH^

n' n.

lmizl fmiz-enaharxori/ lmivel

table dining table fruit


g. I


IYI :t



,ll , adi.
n. /na-5en-reva/ lnam-zadl lnamel /nam-id-en/ lnaharl lnetiiel lne-xeyrl lnezdikl deaf candidate, fianc6, fianc6e letter to name, to call lunch result

(clt E^) di^

.!5r. 4r!r,L ,+iX Ut^t

n. n. adj.
inter. L-r Pro'

4-cU n. Oli^U JLIU 4i;lJ v. n. n. inter. adj.,

]Jr.,^ adi.,

lmanl /man xeber ne-dar-em./ /men hem hemin-tor./ /monasebat/ fmontezerf frr.a,nzelf /monSi/ fmrenzeref lmehrl

JJ|J .!.tf

no lfinl.l

.lJl.:-r j*r.

t - .


idiom idiom

.JAI^A * dF d+i"UX
l. *.' -)JalL


/nosxe/ /neSan dad-en/ /neban-i/ lna,ferl /neqqaS/ /neqqabi/ /negah kard-en/ /negah-dar-i kerdE^l fnrema-brerf /nema-ye5-name/ lnal lnohl /noh-sred/ lnol fnavaz-endef (f navaz-ande-gan/) lna.va,dl

prescription to show address person painter painting to look, to watch to hold, to keep

n. adj. n. n. n. n.

occasion waiting home, residence secretary view seventh month of the Persiancalendar engineer engineering hair museum music successful success

6il: gl.i;


(# o-$L

uFljil ,ril5i O1JS "Ki OiJs 13Jl.l65j
-,1.l.1^l n. 4-.U^iJ..l; 4.i 4: t-' c" n. inter. num. num. adi. n. num.

tJ-$a ts*,'$a

n. n.

/mohandes/ /mohandesi/

fax play no nine nine hundred new player (players) (music) ninety

-94 n.

l^ul lmuzel
/musiqi/ /moveffed /moveffeq-iyyetl

n. n. adj. n. v. n.

- 6afr) r-Uo q3-.


oii -r+ot+ ol-tv

fmiyanbor za,d-a'nf to take a shortcut /meydan/ roundabout, circle





)J)i oijj,.r tul.i3r.l

n' num. n.

fnoruzf lnuzdnhl /nuS-abe/ /nu5-e jan!/

PersianNew Year nineteen soft drink Enjoy your meal!



/hebt-sed/ lheftl lhaftadl /heft-sed/ lhaftel /hefdeh/ /holend/

eighty eight hundred seven seventy seven hundred week seventeen Holland too, also spouse all always the same India geometry art art student artist during, at the time of air airplane air (adj.) never

f. 't.r'i num.
.'',ii rEii i. ri 4iii o-ri4
num. num. num. n. num.


-Tl o, g. I r.'1 5

lOb _ut-r. idiom

/ .\ .'. I

(cJ^r"-t'r) L|$.l9


/nevedt-en/ (/nevis/) to write /nu5id-en/ /nu5-id-reni/ lnavel fniyaz-mendf lniml to drink drink grandchild needy half (esp.of an hourl

O+ti.l. v. .r+li-d n'

Dy n.

.L-it+ adi. #n.

$ra n. r^ adv.
J;".i' 4^i
n. art., pro. adv. n. n. n. n. n. n. n.

/hamsar/ lhemel



lval,lol lvahedl /vared5od-en/

and credit unit to enter website sport, physical exercise weight vast when but video


/hemiSe/ /hamin-tor/ lhendl /hendese/ lhonarl /honar-ju/ /honar-mend/ /hengam/ lheval /heva-peyma/ lheva-yil lhlt-ve,qtl

.t>l_r n. g.t-3,.r;13
dtj*l -.1 &.

J J"iFi
J.r| 4^rr)it Jli

n. n.

lveb saytl lverzell fvaznf fvasi'f lveqtil lva-lil lvidiyol



,,li: e"J #J
;J :J!":

n' adi. conj.

conj. n.


lJrA n. \-' .l ;A n. ..sJlJ-a adi.



IHI dlA n. ..J$ n.

o ttA Jl-)l num. num.

lhotell /hejdeh/ fhezarf hntl lhazinel l}l'a;Y;tl

hall,living room hotel eighteen thousand each, every cost eight

IYI gill .tla v. /yad dad-en/

to teach to learn eleven one each other, one another

-tA art.

/yad gereft-ren/ O3-6 .t+ v. num. lyazdrehl "ijU .! num. lyekl

4+Ja n.
r*,.Li num.
i ***---"i"----




244i I


Glossary 1245

4+lr.i5* n. i.J+ num. Jlj,CS+ num.

/yek-5mnbe/ /yek-sed/ lyek-hezarl

Sunday one hundred one thousand

English-Farsi GlossarY
. An irregular present stem of a verb is given in parenthesesafter the infinitive form of the verb. An irregular plural form of a noun is given in parentheses after the singular form of the noun. Alternative pronunciations of the same word are separated by a comma and appear within a single set of forward slashes.The formal pronunciation precedesthe informal pronunciation' . '

abdomen accept (to) accommodation

(;+) os!+
c;ti! .:,J'^ r;t ";


/5ekem/ fpezir-oft-enf (lpnzirll /mehell-e eqamet/ /h"t"b/ /hesab-dar/ lderdl lezafel ,/neSan-i/ f adresf /rahnema-yi/ /dend ta rezf lomurl fbe,'d ezf

n. v.

account accountant ache addition address advice a few of affairs after

n. n. n. n. n. n. art. n. p.


49L:! .ftlj eurnJli ,r.rJ-Ul_l

jl E+ )-r^l
jl r+

.{'+l'.^i5+ n. i.J+ Jlj*f+ num. num.

/yek-5enbe/ /yek-sed/ lyek-hezal

Sunday one hundred one thousand

. ' An irregular present stem of a verb is given in parenthesesafter the infinitive form of the verb. An irregular plural form of a noun is given in parentheses after the singular form of the noun. Alternative pronunciations of the same word are separated by a comma and appear within a single set of forward slashes. The formal pronunciation precedesthe informal pronunciation.


abdomen accept (to) accommodation

(*+) os!\
d;li! .:t;


/5ekem/ fpezir-oft-enf (lpazirll /mehell-e eqamat/ &esaV /hesab-dar/ ldardl lezafel ,/neSan-i/ f adresf /rahnema-yi/ /dend ta azf lomurl fbe'd ezf

n. v. n.

account accountant ache addition address advice a few of affairs after

n. n. n. n. n. n. art. n. p.

tl+t"> .r-li 4il.:! .Cl,ij er.lJ.li sJ-ialJ


if [i ri'-

)vl jl r+

After you.

,+l-J+ .cl+J-Y:

/befermayid, befermayin./ ldobarel


art article artist art student

J$ d1{^

lhonerl lme.qalel /honar-mend/ /honer-ju/ /be onvan-e/ /pors-id-en/ fmo'avenf f srer-el la,sla,nl lhengaml f'emmef lxalel

n. n. n. n. p. v. n. p. adv. n. n. n.



I TI cu vr

again adv. aSency agent air air airline airmail airplane algebra a little all allow (to) all right a lot

dril lJ:*


lai,ansl /mes'uf lhreval lll'r;va-yil /xett-e hreva-yi/ /post-e heva-yi/ /heva-peyma/


r+j.i\ .ol:ri q

n. n. adj. at n. at all n. at the time of n. aunt (father's sister) n. aunt (mother's sister) adv. art., pro.

ask (to) assistant


rs+lJ-a GJIJA 5r


i'4 ."+lrA
[r.*.4 ,lr ;A


-rr+ ./S 4^i 6it.r o_,!;l gr. -lA -!.r"+

liebrl lkem-il lhemel dad-en/ lejaze /besiyarxob/ l*"VIil ha.l /hemiSe/ lamrikal lva-l,lol lmo6e pal lievab dad-en/ /aparteman/


bachelor's degree
e, t ri*t''fl v
g*llt r. e ta tr"JE

flisans/, /karSenasi/ l'aqabl


inter. back adj., adv. adv. adv. n. conj. n.


P ltr !t

n. p. n. n. n. n. n. n.

* 4$J^3 15+_*l srs

back backache (lower) bug ballot ballot box bank bank clerk/teller
t' ct)

/pobt/ /kemar dard/

also always America and ankle answer (to) apartment applaud (to) applicant (applicants)

ui}"s .i5
lLgt) . -.' -J.J.r'l-..a

lra'yl /senduq-e ra'Y/ lbankl /kar-mend-e bank/ /eskenas/ /hremmam/ lbazarl /bud-ren/ (/hest, est/) /tavan-est-en/ (ftnvanll

gil.r 913,;

.Sjt+ .Sjl+ $;K

OiJS ,-hJ^il .r;ti:1" (o!Gli{")
dJ.,,,lJ6.Ji O1JS d!,^,lJE -.,1o

n. banknote bathroom bazaar n.



n. n. n. v.

/teiviq kard-ren/ v. lmote,qazil

(/motaqazi-an/) /der-xast/ /der xast kerda-nl lbayganil lbazul n.

,l il'

application apply (tolfor)

be (to) be able to (to)

(C-,1 cCr,"-l) r-lif

(ol;) o'r-tl3i
(Ol) Oi;

archive arm


n. beat (to) n.

lzed-anl (lzenl\



beautiful because become (to) bed

hj oJ? (-r) ott'

grr-l ed.lri

lzibal ldonl /sod-en/ (/5o/) ftextf,ltexte xab/ lotaqxabl /elaqe dabt-an/

adi. conj.
v. n.

Bosnia boss boutique box boy


/bosni/ fra.'isl /butik/ /sandud lpeserl /sutiyen/ /sobhane/ lsinel lpoU lkifl lbaqelal lberada;l lqehve:il
/mesvak kard-en/, /mesvak za,d-enl /saxteman/ /suxt-ren/ (lsuzl\

n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. adi. v.

I o,


6J$.-r cS-r 4itr+L 4+.r

bedroom be fond of (to) before begin (to) behind be in order (to) be interested in (to) be in working condition (to) be late (to) below be out of order (to) beside big bill bills (large) bills (small) binder biologist biology black blackboard blanket blouse blue body boot

r;l3i $El ,.li.il.r 4il-e jl d$ 6jl ui+i

n. v.

bra breakfast breast bridge briefcase broad bean brother brown brush (one'steeth) (t") building burn (to) bus bush busy but buttocks buy (to) by (in Passive sentences) by the waY

lpii ezl,lqebl azl p. /5oru'5od-an/ /po5t/ /dorost bud-ren/ lalaqedaSt-en/ bud-en/ Tdorost /dir krerd-an/ lzir+l fxarabbud-an/
v. p.
V. v. v.

r il (JrJll

Jilj crl o xj

d-,'Ji d1i-91 O;l'lt 4il-c ui-l+ c-]3 Oi_lS ;r .))) ,-lr-rf qrl-A



t,OJj .SlJ*^t gr; .51 .^^r (i-r) UL.ifLoii-ll-


n' v' n. n. adi. coni. n.


't t.t

fkenar-el lbozoryl
/suret hesab/ /pul-e doroSt/ /pul-e xord/ /kelasor/ /zist Senas/ /zist Senasi/ lsiyahl /taxte siyaV lpetul lboluzl

p. adi. n. n. n. n. n. n. adi. n. n. n. adj. n. n.

cr.1,*"; e'Sta

LP,JP.-if /otobus/ +33a lburel i- .Li /5otuq/


l-r-.cJ* JJ-)5 Ur,l.r.i'''*ij s-'ti.& '''"!j o!o!- 4ii'i

i.r-! o+-F
1d "o

lvel\l lbasa;nl /xar-id-aen/ /tavessot-e/





jq JA
c,+l ,clr+ cF cl+*

call (to) calm calmness can

trj 6rli

/nam-id-en/ f aram,arum/ /aram-e5/ /tavan-est-an/ (/tevan/)

v' adi' n' v'

l^bil lbada:nl,ltenl

(oli) or"iljr


Canada candidate cap car card care carpet celebration certainly chair check checkbook checking account chemistry chest chest (container) chicken chief child children's clothes China cinema circle city class clerk client climb down (to) clock clothes

JJl.tj el.1.rrtS o)3 O*,its-ltS Cirr "F-rs L3-*

/kanada/ /kandida/, fnam-zedf lkolahl /ma5in/ lkartl ldeqqetl lferll

n. n.

clothes store coat coin

.Fr-PcAl d-ds

flebas foruS-i/ lkotl /sekke/ /pul-e xord/ lserdl /mejmu'e/ /dane5-kede/ lrnngl lamed-enl \lal\ /serma xord-egi/ /Serkat/ , lrayanef /kamPiYuter/ /konsert/ /rreh-brer-e orkestr/ &ongo/ /edame dad-an/ lalpezl /poxt-en/ (lParll lalpa,z-il lqablemel, /qableme/ /xonak/ /mes-ger/ lnhrol lhezinel /sorfe kerd-en/ /Semord-en/ /keSver/ ldarsl /doxter'remu/

n' n' n' n. adi' n' n' n' v' n' n' n' n' n'

t, 5 I al o,

lrl :J

n. n. n. n. n. n. adv. n.

coins cold collection college color come (to) common cold company comPuter concert conductor (orchestra)

J-,;rr 4eJ.+4 oiLiigl-:



liasnl lhatma,nl

() orn
drsJ,ri -/-r+K e+1!l-1


lftkl /deste eek/ jari/ /hesab-e liimil /sine/ /srendud lmoryl fra'isf lbettel,/kudak/ beddeflebas-e gane/ ldinl

n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n'

t.5:;' 43-J g;Jb sL">

'.r4l.ri 4it!r ri: ti-'

s-6-lf j+'t

Congo continue (to) cook cook (to) cooking cooking Pot cool coppersmith corridor cost cough (to) count (to) country course cousin (father's brother's daughter)

gilr a-cl.t! jt^t'i

n' v' n' v' n' n'


+ll3 +Li
. a . 2 Y

(iiJ i'3+

, rrbl

.S-3:' #

adi. n.
n' n' v' v' n' n' n'

U-'t,,, /sinema,sinema/ n.


lmeydanl lSahrl /kelas/ /kar-mend/ /mobteri/ /payin racft-alnf f sa'etf flebas/

n. n. n. n. n. v. n. n.

-r-Fl-l 4+-,rl OijS 4i-i"

L, 'i^fl^

JJiS (}Ji
j"ce ir.t

d;L* Lp,l+!


cousin (father's brother's son) cousin (father's sister'sdaughter) cousin (father's sister'sson) cousin (mother's brother's daughter) cousin (mother's brother's son) cousin (mother's sister'sdaughter) cousin (mother's sister'sson) credit unit crowded cul-de-sac




dentist department n.


OIJIJ ,Jiri O;ti | .; i:;-1' ,',i.-v. +j'al

/dendan pezebk/ n. n. lbr;xYtl fmo'avenf lsahral /iebnem/ lsextl /5evid/

/salon-enahar xori/, /otaq-e nahar xori/

qg 6'

4-ca JiiJ Arc xlrl


deputy desert dew

n. n.
n. adi.

I -Tl o,

/pesar,emme/ /doxtar dayi/ /peser dayi/ /doxtrer xale/ /peser xale/ n. adj. n. n. n. n. n.

,r;l.l _)ii.t ,r;lr -xi aJE -,FJ

difficult dill dining room

JLAII .Ct.6Ul cLgJJtr cSJJs,:LAU 6JFJLaU jH^ lLi JHi^ , i.rii.-i ,-iJE -O$\ sJJ",


alli *^t r>l_l

dining table dinner director discount dishwasher do (to) do a task/job (to) doctor doctorate

fmiz-e nahar xori/ n. llaml /modir/ ltexfifl /maSin-e zerf suYV n. n. n. n'

lvahedl /5olud /bon-best/ ff.enian, fenjun/

dr*i di O .+ii cul++i

(os) oiJs
gilr pgl

lkerd-nnl(&o"/) f eniam dad-en/

/doktor/ /doktora/ /matrebb-e doktor/ ldaxel-il ldarl Ite.beqe-ye payinl /kre5-id-en/ /nu5-id-eni/ /nu5id-an/ fxord-rl,nf(lxorll /gerdeb kerd-en/ /xo5k/ /xoSk kerd-ren/ n. n. n.




lJ53 "\;I;-,,3S'r ,l l,r \ Ji a+ Cl+,\,cs oit'x-< .r+Fi-d O+li.r (-l:-) c.ri-r-r=

dark darling date daughter duy day after tomorrow deaf dear decide (to)

tJJ+ 3Ub

doctor's office

Itartkl lian,junl Itarixl ldoxtarl lruzl lpes fa-rdal /na-5en-ava/ f'ezizf /tesmim gereft-en/ Itesmiml lremid

adj. n. n. n. n. adv. adi. adj. draw (to) drink drink (to) drink (to) (colloq.) drive around (to) n. adj. domestic door downstairs

adi. n. n., adv. v. n. v. v. v. adi. v'





la-,",1+ l-i:$ti ji Oli-S iJ^.^l '*


decision deep

dry (to)

OiJS,-6lj3 .S.il Oi-S.5-,11'


254i I

Fa rsi

ry Glossa

i255 I




encourage (to) errd engineer engineering England English

OiJS 6r"J.ii

/teSviq kerd-an/ faxerf , fentehaf, lpayanl /mohandes/ /rrrohendesi/ /engelis/ /engelis-i/

v. n.

each each other ear earth east easy eat (to) economic economy eight eighteen eighth month of the Persiancalendar eight hundred eighty elbow elect (to) elections electricity elementary eleven eleventh month of the Persian calendar e-mail

{J,-\rii ,r-+lii ,J+64 ,s"+I5,1!
lob.d.l, s.r1i r-;l_e ,rclj+ -OIt.r 6SI
l t ,t { n Lrr olo

3tr 5 I OJ



lhrerl lyek-digarl

art. pro. n. n. n. adi. v. adi. n. num. num. n.

n. n. n. n., adi. idiom v.



lzeminl /meSreq/ /asan, asun/

Oj'.,l sgL-i (-l-l=)oi-rF
q9d-^4i! .tL-ril!
,'r.?.i olrti

Enioy your meal! enter (to) entertaining room enthusiasm enthusiastic enthusiastically envelope essay evening every examine (to) excursion excuse(to) Excuseme.

/nu5-e ian!/ /vared 5od-en/

/eqtesad-i/ /eqtesad/ lhaitl lheidahl labanl

/salon-e pa:zirayrl n. leitiyaql /moStad /mobtaq-ane/ /pakat-e name/ lmaqalel f'esrf n. adi. adv. n. n.

+ltiE i'1' 4-U gts! 4lli.



/he5t-sed/ /heStad/ laranil /entexab kerd-en/ /entexabat/ h*tql lebteda-yil lyazdehl /brehmen/

num. num. n. v. n. n. adi. num. n.

lE ii

O.JS4-iJ,1 .il-S
O!'?'-'j .cHnii+f etl$'Llr

halil /mo'ayene kerd-ren/ /gard-e5/ /bax5-id-ary' /bebexSid, bebaxiin./ lvarzell /eksperes/ lbozorgtahl lezafel /daSm/

art. v.

OiJS tJtiiij drL'.l3.jiJ

n. v. idiom

o:-ll+ d,{; f.r^4 6d[.ff .S+_pj5-I Oij dJ/Jf

exercise (physical) express expressway extra


n. n. n. n. n.

(}J+''s! 'li-r}

limeytl,/post-e elekteronik/ /imeyl zad-enf

n. v.


e-mail (to) employ (to) employee


OrJS.l ,ri..,1

kerd_ f;;I:rd"/kar-mand/
face fall


/surat/ lpaVt4

n. n.


fall (to) (rain or snow) fall down (to) family far fare Farsi Farsi languageand literature father father-inlaw (husband'sfather) father-inlaw (wife's father) fax fesenjan (meat dish) fever fianc6(e) field field of study fifteen fifth month of the Persiancalendar fifty file fill (to) film finger fire (to) first first month of the Persiancalendar fish five

Oru! Oi-r:: U"j

o.:19.Li. JJJ

lbar-id-renl f za-minxord-en/

five hundred fix (to) flight flower flowerpot flower shop fluid (fluids) fiy (to) n. n. n. folder food foot for

rri! olJs d-,]i ll:st




lTl :J

/dorostkrerd-en/ v. lpewazl leoV lgol-danl /gol foruS-i/ n. n. n. n.

:t I -tt o,

ldurl lkerayel lfars-il fzebano fars-i/ redebiyat-e lpederl

/pedrer Soher/ fpeder zenf



crt+il r Ot+j

(&b-"u)c/OlJs jl_r*
q.i cr

fmaye'f(/maye'at/)n. fpawazkard-en/ v. lpu(el lqa,zal lpal lbara-yel f sa'edf lxarej-il /bax5-id-en/ Ita,ngall lforml /xo5-brext-ane/ Itehell
/drehaa dehar, dahar/ /dehar-sed/ /dehardah, dehardah, dahardah/ Itirl
n. n. adv. num.

-P-r-lt OJ J+ l,U.,5.i -1+.t O1+!4."F1-n 9J U"Li
d!$i 4i.&J o.:';l-r
J l

n. n.

li-e, \ .elt

n. p.

lfeksl, fnama-berf n. /xore5-efesenjan/ n. Ita-bl f nam-za..df ldestl lreltel lpanzdr-hl /mordad/

n. n. n. n.

forearm foreign forgive (to) fork form fortunately forty four

x4.' CJDU-s.


. ..1..!r rrrrut 4lr ol

num. n.


.tl.l-.;l o$5



lpeniahl lpa-wendel /por kard-en/ lfiiml lengoltl f exrai kerd-en/ f evvalf ,la'vvalinl ferverdin/

num. n.
V. n. n. v. num. n.

four hundred fourteen

num. num.



cr.XKil OIJSclFi

fourth month of the Persiancalendar France fresh Friday friend


.l *

/feranse/ Itazel ljom'el /dust/ /sremimi-yyret/ /samimi/

n. adj. n. n. n. adj.




n. num.

friendliness friendly


-' l




from fruit fruit juice full furniture


lerl lmivel /ab-emive/ lporl

p. n. n. adi.

go away (to) go down (to) go hiking (to) go mountaineering (to) good Good-bye.

Or-i J'-;L

fber talraf 5odEnl

v. v.


q9_ 6'
5 I -Tl

,'.-'ii'L'trilJ v J v a * 4

/payin raft-en/ /kuh neverd-i kerd-ren/ /kuh neverd-i kerd-an/ lxubl fxodahafez. xodafez.l


-}I ,cj_r-.ejlJ
I .. e ilt



cS.lJJ, o3S


4iti &til

n. /evazem-e rr,a-nzelf,/esas-e menzelf ,/resas-e xane/ layendel n.



adj. inter.

.-Lils e-EiL.l,A
t d.4+J'i ,s,.;Lt,O3J t;3\ ,',lii- t .5.i dr
v J r .

go on leave (to) gallery gas geography geometry get (to) get a leave (to) get done (a task/ job) (to) get elected(to) get employed (to) get fired (to) get fixed (to) get interviewed (to) (to) get selected get solved (to) girl give (to) glass go (to)

Gjs jt-<
jl$ 6l-rilJii.

lgaleril lgatl

n. n.
go on a picnic (to) government grade school student gram grand grandchild grandfather grandmother grant a leave (to) grass v. v. grateful Sray great Sreen ground ground mail n. v. n. v. grow (to) (plant) guidance

/be morxasiraften/,/morxasi raft-en/

/piknik reft-en/ ldolretl /daneb amuzf lgeraml lbozorgl


I ioqrafiyal, I ioqrafiI n. /hendese/

lgereft-enl (lgnll /morxasi gerefta'jnl /enjam 5od-en/ /entexab Sod-ren/ /estexdam 5odaf'l f exrai 5od-an/ /dorost Sod-an/


n. n. n. adj. n. n. n.


jJ"i t1ilh

LSSdAi' otrrL?jr
OJ-i cr.lij:! gr^,i altlj",l

4 t.t a oJiJ

lnevel /peder bozorgf /mader bozorgf /morxasi dad-an/ l(.a-ma:nl /memnun/ ftusif, /xakester-i/ lbozorgl lsebzl lza-minl /post-e znmin-if /ruy-id-en/ /rahnema-yi/




n. adj. adj. adi. adi. n. n.

V. n.

rl$ e l_r-!
OJ-i C-.,]3 lr-1 gl$ a.s..

LSJi-ttE e,r*u J" S-tt j+*t

/mosahebe Sod-en/v. /entexab 5od-en/ /bar taref Soda-r'l ldoxterl ldad-anl (ldell flivanl lraft-anl (lrofi v. v.

uS +t:Ii Oi1i.i'Ar
JiiS (o;) g.rl.r


.ir^j 4
U+JJ 6l^bl_,1






half (esp.of an hour) hall hand handwriting h"pPy hard hastily hat have (to) have breakfast (to) have dinner (to) he he (frnl.l head headache hear (to) heavy heel hello hello (telephone) hen here Here you are. herself herself (fnl.) high school hiker hiking hill himself

fi|, LltAeJYti
,', .,,ti L"r cjt-..,'_li
, t,i. -. ..

lniml Italarl,lhall ldrestl lxettl /xo5-haf lsextl laiul-anel lkolahl /daSt-en/ (ldarl) /sobhane xorda-nl /5am xord en/ lanl,ltl /i5an, isun/ fsarf, fre'isf /ser derd/ /5enid-en/ /sengrn/ /paSne-yepa/ lselaml lrelol lmorgl linial /befermayid, befermayin./ /xod-e5/ /xod-eban, xod-e5un/ /debirestan/ /kuh neverd/ /kuh neverd-i/ Iteppel lxod-a6l

n. n. n. n. adj. adi. adv. n. v. v.

himself (fnl.) history hit (to) hold (to) holiday (holidays)

sgLil A iJJ-lF
. lo

/xod-eian, xod-eSun/ Itarixl lzad-anl (lzenll /negreh-dar-i kard-en/

n. v. v.

I -n o,

rTl f


(oj) oi-r
OIJS 15Jl.l65j


4jY .+; o)3

'#41 (cDt+lal) rili e+rt'r d;lr" +iLr _;f.r rl.f -,1l:.r*"f

lte'tillflte'til-at/) /holand/
fxane-darf lomidl /omid-var/ /bimar-estan/ ldaql lhotell lxanef Itetorl /5oma&tor?f /xo5-vaqt-em/ Itandtal /olum-eensani/ lsedl
/derd kerd-en/ lioharl n.

Holland home homemaker hope

(-rl9 O'ir,l.r
UJJF 4jlA+.a

, fmrenzelf n. fxanef
n. n. adj. n. adi. n. n. adv. idiom idiom n. n. num. v. n.

O.t;F ru
,9i _el Or4l ,uL{l
CSt;i.. -l ,;S-t

v. pro. pro. n. n.

hopeful hospital hot hotel house how How about you? How do you do? how many humanities hundred hurt (to) husband



.r_,f_,;*.r Oilt, i

o$l !'s nil!

f r.L - l-,i,i

adi. n. inter. inter. n. adv. idiom pro.



.fL-iJ .?Jb
,t- .

l+j;l elr..L;i1 .Clr*t--pf

UIJS rJi jJ-


o-dJF Oli*.lr"r .t-lF o:S cSrJi o-6

pro. n. n. n. n. pro.

I I didn't get it. I don't know.

.d.ij 4+_il.

lmenl /motevajjeh neSodam./ /man xebrer nadar-em./ faugar,egef

pro. idiom

.rJl$ -# ct +3t,;3t




i ---"i.----------"


i z6J

I have no idea. in in a friendly manner include (to) India in front of injured inside insurance interested international

.l-)t.:-t _ts
* t ,



lma,n xaber nedar-em./ ldarl,ltul /semim-ane/ /5amel bud-an/ lhendl /ru-be-ru-ye/ lzaxm-il Itul,ldaxell lbimel /relaqe-mand/ lxarej-if,/beyn-olmelel-i/



rrl 3

} 4jl4f^-

adv. V.

keep (to) kilogram kiosk kitchen kitchen cabinet knee knife know (to)


/negeh-dar-i krerd-an/ /kilu/ ldekkel,/kiyuski fa(pez-xanef /kabinet-e aSpez xane/ lzanul Itaqul,lkardl /danest-en/ n. n. n. n. n. n. v.

I o,

Oi-r,&LS rb
.GJ)+J) (fy

.S,.,.,J;S ,45i 4jlAj*.il oilaj$i f.4#ls
.l .


p. adi. p. n. adi. adi.

clAl'r ':i

9t) -t rLS e.!tr


rL d)-.c ,r-r. ;Lr .,ll,ollip e

(ulr; ir-iuilr


knowledge n. n.


internet intersection interview (to) Iran Iranian

(-+r )++l
. . d.


ol_,r_,rk+ Itehar-rahl
OJ_JS4.l5.L; UJJ.JI egl;l .f:;l e,r-rl;l /mosahebe krerda-nl firan, irunf firani, iruni/

laborer lady llLi


/xanom, xanum/


n. n., adi. n.

lamp land lane language large last last (to) last night

tl>+ d1t^j di$ OL.j l_13 (Jh Oil,i5 d-+L

, .,-.?,JJ i$lJl .UlE

lteracll lzeminl lku&l lzebanl lbozorgl lpi6l /tul keb-id-an/


n. n. n. n. adi. adi. v.

Iraq it Italy itself

jl ,gl


lanl, ful
litaliyal /xod-a5/

pro. n. pro.

$ql diri

iacket |apan iob jump (to) iust

,'t fulS


n. n. n.

law (laws) lawn leader learn (to)

/qanun/, /qevanin/ n.

c{t-l liaponl -)ts k^rl o+J* lpar-id-enl

d-,]i /dorost/

.4 jil O3j Lr;Aji, .t+

ltremenl lreh-barl /yad gereft-ren/ /morxes-i/

n. n. v. n.


leave of absence l"g lesson







let (to) letter level librarian library lie down (to) light like (to) line listen (to) literature little living room local look (to) lunch

gil.r oj;l

lnamel lsethl /ketab-dar/ /ketab-xane/



n. n. n. n. v. n. v. n. v.

manteau (women's long overall) manufacture (to) manufacturer market master's degree

"l *tlL'

lmantol /tolid kerd-en/ /tolid kon-ande/ lbazarl /foqe lisans/, /karSenasi-ye erSad/ /mosabeqe/ lmaddel (/mevadd/) lriyazil lriyaziyatl /tobek/ lSaya,dl lsaya,dl /5ahr-dar/ f (aman-zarf



vl I Tt q, ul

-ll+liS 4jt3".t5

OiJs +l-f
ori'it +l d Jljl+ ,u'i$.dJ .c#t+S-ltS .l.i-ll 4ir-.1"; (3lrn) Dit s.:l+J Ctl+.:t+-l .S:i3

v. n. n. n.

gir.t-< _,11_,1) fderaz ke5-id-an/

Ciih -Li. drr.rjJ e,-jt-o

/dust da5t-an/ lsafl,lxattl /guS dad-en/, /gu5 kard-en/ ledebiyatl

match material (materials)

n. n.



n. n. n. aux. aux. n. n. n. n. n. n. adj.

n. adi. n. adi.
v. n.

mathematics mattress may maybe mayor meadow meat

dl^ .#lr OUS "lKi

ka,l haV
/daxel-i/ /negah kard-ren/ lnaharl

nj..i +Li

d$i:< ,i"lrla 4iL-J JJIJ 4jt*,,J.5"-9i.

/xore5/ /resan-e-ha/ ldarul /motevesset/, /rasan-e/ lia,lesel

machine magazine (magazines) mail mail (to) mailbox major make a phone call (to) Malaysia mall man managing director
t '-'vi,

meat sauce

OpSt^o6.3-i 6ta{l+-.) 4:l---

n. /dest-gaty',/ma5iry' llrreiellelflmaialle n. ha,mejallat/) lpostl /post kard-en/ /senduq-epost/ lreltel n. v. n. n.

media medicine medium





OiJS a.."i

meeting men's clothes mention (to)


/lebas-e mard-ane/ n. /herf-e diz-i ra za"d-e,nf lpeyaml /deqqet/ /men hem hemin-tor./ /mekzik/ v.


3iriJS o'iB
.tr L9 jv

oii or!;

/telefon kerd-en/, v. /telefon za,d-a,nf lrrralezll lpasai.l lmerdl /modir amef n. n. n. n.

(.,-)+? +-/lJ

message meticulousness Me, too.

*'i Clrr .JJ"+^a * i)^

n. n. idiom





minute mirror mister Monday money month moon morning mother mother-inlaw (husband'smother) mother-inlaw (wife's mother) mountain mountaineer mountaineering mouth movie movies Mr. Mrs. Ms. museum music must myself

4iii1 4r+l lil +rii3.l

ldeqiqel layenel laqal /do-5anbe/

n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n.



llazeml lniyaz-mendl /berader zadef

,rrll l).

t I q,

necessary needy nephew (brother's child) nephew (sister'schild) never new news newspaper next

rjY .L-it+
o.tlj _,pl_,;r lrfj JAIF g!-qle

adi. adi. n. n. adv. adi. n. n. n. n. n. n. num. num. num. num. n.


lmahl lmahl lsobhl lmaderl /mader Soher/ fmadar zrenf k"hl /kuh navard/ /kuh naverd-i/ /dahan, dehen/ lfiiml

oL at"

/xaher zadef /hid-vreqt/ ljadidl,lnol lexbarl fntznamef f ayandef , haldl /berader zadef

Ji'. -$r.i -l.:L

y 6+J-i JBI +.Lij_l_,r -!"+ ,o$rj orfj _,pf_,; lrlj _JAfJA qr;i 4:
t-' 6"

UJ JIU o3s -r_.Jj o:s csUJi oS UA.! eulii


niece (brother's child) niece (sister'schild) night

n. n.

/xahrer zadef lEa'bl lnohl /noh-sed/ lnuzdehl lna.va,dl lazerl

nine n. n. n. ninety ninth month of the persian calendar no no (fml.l noise noisy noon north nose not busy l tr' J$l nine hundred nineteen


'lti l-


/sinema,sinema/ n. laqa-yel /xanom,xanum/ /xanom,xanum/ lmuzel /musiqi/ lbayadl lxod-eml

adj. n. n. n. n. aux. pro.


pjlli,iLi tlLl ,iLi. oi-r {.,l*Jn


lnel lne-xeyrf /ser o seda/ /5oluq/ lzohrl /5omaf lbinil lxalvatl lxelvatl f al'anf fiomaref,lte'dadl /prerestar/

inter. inter. n. adi. n. n. n. adi. adi. adv. n. n.

3 -,1'.^,

+l+ ei-P

h ,a

name name (to) napkin natural sciences

.t+ti dlJLi ,',il-i,

drt#Li dil-3_i ,r-++J" -fJb

lesml lnam-id-enl /dast-maf /olum-e tabi'i/

n. v. n. n.

not crowded now number nurse

JfJ*j ,o_,/-,1i



obvious occasion occupation (occupations) of office official (officials)


,OL)l= UJ^JF -UJ# .q9Yl+

/xod-eman, xod-emun/ /birun-e/ lbala-yel p. p. n.


I 'Tl o,

d4/"U: dlit^X. .cli,Li
jl ;3.r ro-;ll!

/mre'lum/ /monasebet/ /5oql/ lerl ,ldefterl f edaref lmaqaml (/meqam-at/) lxobl lqadimil,/kohne/ lru-yel

adj. n. n.

outside over overpass



p. n. n.
inter. adj. p. num. pro. num. num. adv. adi., adv. v. v. package pain pain in the leg/foot painter painting Pakistan pants Pardon me. 4iui /best-e/ ldardl /pa dard/ /naqqaS/ /naqqaSi/ /pakestan/ l{alvarl /bebrex5id, bebaxSin./ lparkl /mailes/ lbex(tl n. n. n. n. n. n. n. idiom

(ci-ti.) rti^
9F e.r-o;.:l "t6a .GJ)


okay old on one one another one hundred one thousand on foot only open (to) open a checking account (to) open an account (to) open a savings account (to)

r-f !
ui\]ij ,r.i15i



ly"kl lyek-digerl
/yek-sed/ lyek-hezarl lpiyadel lfa,qattl


Jlrti .dl#ir+ e+$i+ .S ttr

J 4

o\ I .;_i

park parliament part participate (to) pass(to)

n. n. n.

L*I+,Jiri OiJS crsJri

orjs jq
L,; 19Jb 9-.r.

fbazkerd-anl /hesab-e jaribaz kerd-ren/ /hesab baz kerda]nl /hesab-e pes endaz baz karda.jr.l /de5m pezeSk/ fru-be-ru-yecf, /moxalef/ /orkestr/ fsazemanf /digea dige/

kerd-an/ v. /5erkret lgozalt-anl (lgozarll lrah-gozarl lpisl lgozeitel lmr-sirl ,lmerizl fbimarf /pardaxt kardan/, /pul dadEil /aram-e5/ piyade/ /aber-e /mardom/ v' n. adi. adi. n. n' v.

(-rK) o3^ii3

oijs j! il"l grt^"r '' jtjs


passerby past



jl$l Un*e-ra.,",r.


past (tense) path

.5.i'tJ4 . t \ ^r.f,= t

6Jh# uHi ,OrJS *ilr;4 6ib jj4 cJir+lJi
tQ 2J"

ophthalmologist opposite orchestra organization other


patient pay (to)

*l E. LgJtJ) Ji"+SJf

p. n. n. adi.
peace pedestrian people

n. n. n.

ot"jt-' +!.r._;5;.r




percent perhaps Persian PersianNew Year person Peru pharmacist pharmacy photograph photograph (to) physical condition physician physics pick up (to) picnic picture pill pillow place plan plate play player (players) (music) -:iij



/dar sed/ lEayadl lfarsil fnoruzf kesl, lna-fa-rl lperul fdaru-sazf /daru-xane/ leksl /eks gereft-ren/ /hal e iesmi/ lpezeikl lfizikl /ber da5t-an/ /piknik/ leksl lqorsl lbaleil lial fba.rnamef &obq"V

n. aux. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. v. n. n. n. v. n. n. n. n. n. n. n.

potter prepared prescription present (tense) presidency

-l3 '-i-6 o.rLi


lkuze-garl lamadel /nosxe/ haU /riyasret-e jomhuri/ /re'is'e jomhur/ /qebeng/ /pi5 daneigah-i/

n. adi. n. n. n.

+t i
s-rJl'i iss-tt


m :I

I o, g.

dl.CSJJS^J+fr*,,l+J JJs.oi .Lyi))

J>i jL*3-,1l.r
dl,r3-.;l.l ,Jlulr

president (country) pretty pre-university

n. adj. adj., n. n. n. v. n.

.ft.ii .retK.gtr gigl

,'i +! ;J-" OiJS rrl" -f 5 rit'< 5ir5 d-..--^ (drY-l..as.) JE-f 4-Ui Oti-f Oil$3 (:t$; 6F.ilg

,fr-S Ur'5Ic s-'"+ dlt-..(*i


price principal produce (to) producer product (products) professor proSram province pull (to) put (to)

lqeymatl /modir/ /tolid kerd-en/ /tolid kon-ende/ /mahsuf flmahsulat/) lostadl fbarnamef /ostan/ /kreB_id_en/ lsozalt-anl (lgozarll


.U*q #"il.r_.; .$.5+


n. n. n. n. v.


r,-r. Li^ii 4iE.$+lj

o.rr-il c.r

/nama-ye5-name/n. f nrevaz-rendef

quantity quarter (esp.of an hour) JlJ.j

(ot<rii )


Ite'dadl lrob'l f so'alf layal lsa:fl

n. n. n. adv. n.

plenty P. O. Box possession possible post postal code post office

,4.c!:.r'. dL


/senduq-e post-i/ lmall /momken/ lpostl /kod-e post-i/ /post-xane/

adi. n. n. adj. n. n. n.

question question particle (yes/no) queue

, i-ra

at* 4
is "14 {!i. ,i,. -'.

radio rain

l$l_l O_l_j+ ,Ol_j+

lradiyol /baran,barun/

n. n.



raincoat read (to) ready receipt receiver recently recognize (to) recommend (to)

ul-r-i+'cll-i+ (Ot:=) O$lri o.rLI u:+G o$-JS

/baran-i, barun-i/ fxand-a-nl (lxanll lamadel lqebzl lgir-endel Itaze-gil /Senaxt-en/ (/5enas/) /piSnehad kerdajr]'l /pi5-nehad/ f qermezf lkerayel lgozar-e{l fxeber-negarf /iomhur-i/ llazeml frezew kerd-en/ fmenzelf , /mehrell-e eqamet/ lehteraml /esterahet kerda.nl /resturan/ /destSuyi/ lnatijel /morur kerd-en/ /5evid baqela/ /dorost/ /ab ke5-id-en/ lrudl,/rud-xane/ liaddel,lrahl


rock room


lsangl lotaql /meydan/ /mal-id-en/ lferil,lqalil /dav-id-an/

n. n. n. v. n. v.

I .n o,

lTl f

adi. n. n. adv. v.

roundabout rub (to) rug run (to)

duf ol++

"5;u (,vS)4F:u;i
OijS rta-:-4

J3.,i-', o$i

salad same n. sandal adi. n. n. savings account n. n. adi. v. n. say (to) scarf (women's) scholar scientist script n. search (to) secluded second n. n. n.


lsaladl /hemin-tor/ /sendaf /sandevid/ 16anbel pes/hesab-e andazf

lgoft-enl (lgoll /ru-ser-i/ /dane5-mend/ /dane5-mend/ lxnttl

n. n. n. n. n. n.

recommendation red rent report reporter republic required reserve (to) residence


d'Ji*, GJJII*,' 4$

sandwich Saturday

,i.i# -"fujir
rsJxrJ+ ejY oiJs r))) -ij-r. ,d-ll d;E! rlJj:! O1JS,'J-l-ri-l
UIJJi-J ,r.tyii-.t 4++ril

tn-l r-rL"s.
1 . .

(-93) o:$K

v. n. n. n. n.

.riJl;lr ll.igl.r

respect rest (to)

(-n) o$^"+

(liull liost-enl
lxalvatl /dowom/, /dowomin/ /ordibehe5t/ /mon5i/ lbalxi;l ldid-enl /entexab karde,rJl lxodl Iterml

adi. num.




restaurant restroom result review (to) rice dish with beans right (odi.) rinse (to) river road

secondmonth of the Persiancalendar secretary

, ",.?.rC riJJ_;f


oiJs )r-h Xt++-#



n. n. v. v.

n. adi.

section see (to) select(to)

uiri (,.r*,.) O+.

OiJS +l+iJ

-'J O'+$S
4rliJy_,; eJ3-,1 ol-,1eo3$

n. n.

self semester

n. n.


send (to)

(d-.-,r9) 5 ri1...;i g.trt-_;

/ferestad-en/ (/ferest/) /ferest-ende/


sir sister

t^il .pfF
i &

l^q l lxaharl
t v w t

n. n. num. num. num. n. num. n.



rYt 5

sender send regards (to)

n. six six hundred sixteen sixth month of the Persian calendar sixty n. skirt

,' ,i i i. r;i o-ri9 )ea rtiia


/selam resandan/ v. (lresanl) lheftl /heft-sed/ /hefdeh/ lmehrl lheftadl Itandinl /teraSid-en/ num. num. num.



ru g.

5 I -Tl

r-. .?,,i. o.r;it i JJIJF^i ,.,. '.i

/Se5_sad/ lianzdahl /Sehrivrer/ l1estl ldamenl /xabid-ren/ /dem-pa-yi/ /kudek/ /etse kerd-en/ lbarfl lfutball

seven seven hundred seventeen seventh month of the Persiancalendar seventy several shave (to) she she (fml.l sheet (linen) shin ship shirt shoe shoe store shop shop (to) shopkeeper short shorts show (to) shower sick person side side street signature since 276i

irl.l O+lF ,"JFl rS-. JS

num. adi.

sleep(to) slipper small sneeze(to) snow soccer social sciences sock soft drink sole (foot) some some of someone son soon sore throat sound south Spain speak (to) special spectator spoon

ilj+ o+$lJj 3l ,si

n. adi.
v. n. n.

/i5an, isun/

pro. pro.

OiJS 4&,

Or+l ,oLfol
4i1.L e+iX

/malafe,melhafe/n. pa/ /saq-e lke(;til lpirahenl ka-fll lkeffai-il lmaqazel

/xer-id kerd-ren/ fmaqaze-darf /kutah/ lSortl /neian dad-en/

,rf^is cref;* uifi ,s-i153

n. n. n. n. n. n.
v. n. adj. n.

dt$j cPf+i -?-b *lJ-r+ tuu-d

/olum-eeitema'i/ n.
ljurabl /nu5-abe/ lkef-epal lkam-il lqedri ezl lkasil lpeserl lbezudil /gelu derd/ lsedal ljonubl,lienubl /espaniya/ lherf zr'd-acnf lxassl /tamaSa-ger/ lqaioql n. n. n. adv. art. pro. n. adv. n. n. n. n. v. adj. n. n.

q ers
jl csJ$ "*"S )-4

OiJs +J-i
_;lr o_,;ti...o

CJ rJr.rt

r-i J3

gil.: gl,i; uFlr

/d"V ,lmrerizl fbimarf Itara:fl lkurel f emza'f letl

n. n. n. n. n. p.

4-: cS 4 J

qrA l$h*l Oij.i>Lr.li

el-,:.j jl


Fa rsi



1 zt7 i

sport spouse spring stamp stand (to) stay (to)


fva,rzeif /hemser/ lbeharl Itambrl /ist-ad-an/ /eqamat kerd -a,nl liurabl /5ekem/ lsengl /foru5-gah/ loiaql /mostaqim/

n. n. table n. tablespoon n. v. v. n. n. n. take a bath (to) n. n. adi., adv. take a picture (to) take a shortcut (to) take a shower (to) take a trip (to) take (a course) (to) take (time) (to) take (to) 19 'Jihi




lmizl qeza/qaSoq-e xor-i/ /bar dalt-ren/ /tul ke5-id-en/ lgereft-anl (lgirl), lbord-anl \hn l\, /masref kerda'nl /hemmam kerden, hemmam gereft-en/ /eks gereft-en/

n. n.

(dr.,JD O$i-Jl O1JS d'^li! 'r'lJJ+


I at o t,

,Fil,r;x dlt Oil'x,<

V. v. v.

stocking stomach stone store stove straight street street line stroll (to) success successful suggestion suit suitcase summer

ilf-irJ:i 6l'+f dfiJ O_*l+=euL.l+i ,r.iS J*i

, ('r) Oi-r+ oiJs Jj'; /o..F eh dr$-S ,f-#,J6i

Oi-l f Ot+"


V, v.

/xiyaban, xiyabun/ n. /xet keSi/ n.

/miyan bor zada-nl /du5 gereft en/ /mosaferat kerden, mosaferat raftren/ /Serkat kerd-en/ fharf-e (iz-i ra za,d-enf,/sohbat kerd-an/ /bolend/ /taksii lhyl lyaddad-enl f amtz-garf, /mo'ellem/

OIi-S cFl.t

v. v.

c.rij es ,.,i;"Go
-U" t c-c Ol

/qadrem zacd-anf v. /moveffeq-iyyatl lmova,ffacd /pi5-nahad/ /kot o Selvar/ /demedan/ /tabestan, tabestun/ /yek-5enbe/ lzremin-il lEirinl /5ena kerd-en/ lSenal /semfoni/ n. adj. n. n. n. n.

tCit-isc.'d c;3a)
OiJS dis_.,;rii (J-F fl-reuij l-) OiJS'"-r-''

Jl-tLi 3 '''t

take part (to) talk (to)

v. v.

6l-rq OA.ll roE-alE 4ii.iS+

tall taxi


adi. n. n' v. n.

Sunday surface sweet


OJJ*-t OiJs tij
l! I ll^r

adi. adi., n,

teach (to) teacher teaspoon

C,b r! 6.tl.r a[l ,-,ptK-,p,.i caJr!"b.dliti olJi

swim (to) swimming symphony

n. Tehran n. telephone television ten

/qa5oq-e day-xor-i/ n. /tehran/ Itelefonl Iteleviziyunl ldahl n. n. n. num.


o:tF 0r^"r"-#


tenth month of the Persian calendar term Thanks.

(Jt ?)) ss*,l)^

ticket ldeyl n. time title to today idiom toe toilet tomorrow tongue

.tc! / d+l+ ot"j

lbelitl fzamanf fonvanf lbel,ltal femruzf pa/ /rengo5t-e /tovalet/ lfardal lzebanl halml

n. n. n. p. adv. n. n. adv. n. adv.

UI I o, ttr

Iterml fmersi.f, /memnun./ /dest-e Soma derd nekon-ed nekon-e./, /moto5akkeraJm.l

n. inter.

E,{ )J-) ! li gr.isll d.ll-il la-r, ol.lj * egl.Ili O_lJr.t .5lJr^"r.


Thank you.

Ui L:i g!"i ,ei3- /$fj .rJ5l'1111:

that that (coni,l theater themselves




art. coni. n. pro.

adj. adv. pro. n. n.

too tooth toothbrush tour tourist traditional traffic light

kel fte'atrf
/xod-e5an, xodeSun/

/dendan, drendun/n.
/mesvak/ Itrnl /turist/ /sonnet-i/ /deraq-e rahnema-yi/ lqretarl , fse,fa.lrf /mosaferret/ /mosaferet karden/, /mosaferet ra,ftalnf /mosafer/ /dek-e mosafer-i/ lderextl n. n. n. adj. n.


.OtitF oir-p
l+ t+rll ,t+iJ


then there they thigh thing think (to) third

ha-'dl fania,unia/ lanhal lran<pal Itizl fekr kerd-an/ /sew-om/,/sewomin/ lxordadl


o6 'l

t+tl ! -.tl-l

si^iAlJ.tl>t _,[Li ,j'ii* cr-.;s-l-d tJ. ,OiJS c,-,;'l, OliJd.,-.1r,s1','x

train travel travel (to)

n. n.

oiJs -*i
Ut J# 3l +u

v. num. n.


third month of the Persian calendar thirteen thirty this thousand three tiiree hundred throat thumb Thursday

.rhjs osjP


n. n. n. n. n. n. v.

lsizdehl lsil linl lhezarl l"el

/si-sed/ lgelul /Srest/

num. num. art. num. num. num. n. n. n.

traveler's check tree trigonometry trip Tuesday turn (to) twelfth month of the Persian calendar

U+A -+ c;>1.
r tt'lgJ\-l-l--l^ t'

ir*l Jljn

/mosallresat/ fsa'ferf, /mosaferet/ /se-5renbe/ /pid-id-ren/ lesfendl

d.-1,9ti,j1, e+ili u' O+Fr-i






twelve twenty two two hundred

o.l_11_9.r fievazdehl r'r,v+i lbistl yJ


num. num. num. num.

very well video view village visit (to) voice

:*.1*-l o_;Li. B--l-l

/besiyar xob/ lvidiyol fmanzeref /rusta/ /did-ren kard-en/ lsedal lra-'yl fra'y dad-anl

inter. n' n. n. v' n. n' v.

m J


I -n o g.

uncle (father's brother) uncle (mother's brother) under underpass undershirt underwear unfortunately university university student until upstairs

O+r Oi_rS


f'emuf ldayil lzir-el fzir-gozerf lzir-piraha'n-il lzir-puil

n. n. p. n. n. n.

vote vote (to)

gilr s1-1

)t) _lK-r..-.1

waiting wake up (to) walk (to) walk around (to) walnut want (to) warm wash (to)
l' *" -J5Jl.

fmontnzerf f ezxab bolend 5od-an/ lrahraft-nnl /gerdeS kerd-en/ lgerdul /xast-mn/ (/*aU

adi. v.

ci_lr.+i 4jti!9. ol3.gl.l _n,il.ll.t

O$ $li qrlF jl

/mote'essef.-anefadv. /dane5-gah/ /dane5-ju/ It^l

n. n. p.

v. v. n. aux., v. adi. v. n.

O1JS,-6tj3 JJ.6 ("lri) Oi-,lF

Yl+ -,g ai.'t OiJS,-!J.lltr: OijS,-iJd.

Itabeqe-yebalal n.,

urge (to) use (to)

/teSviq kard-en/ v. /mesref karda-nl


?i3 (crts) C-3


lgarml /5ost-an/ (/5"Y/) /maSin-elebas Suyi/ f sa'r'ltf /negah kerd-en/, /temaSa kerda-nl

washing machine

vacation (vacations) valley vase vast vegetable(vegetables) vehicle very


dJl"'-l (s\tt.l)

Ita'till flte'til-at/) n. ldarrel lgol-danl fva'si'f lsabz-il(lsnbzi-jatll /ma5in/ lxeylil n. n. adi. n. n. adi.,

watch (to)

sal*,, ,gi-.f 'K;

O1J5 t,iti ,-rj

n. v.

water way we wear (to) (clothes) weave (to) website WednesdaY

l^bl lrahl lmal /pu5-id-en/ lbaf-t-enl(hatfl lveb saytl /dahar-5anbe/

n. n. pro. v.

e".lr cgji(.:rl+""-,11-) Cbr$t-


(.i!) o31+
C+L- *"1 4+fiJt{"

n. n.



week weekend weight west what when when where which (in order) white who why wife wife (infml.l wilderness window winter winter coat with woman women's clothes work work (to) workday working hours world wound wounded wrist write (to)


l}lra'lftel hefte/ f axrer-e lvaznl lmeqrebl lli, &l kyl lva,qtil koial /dend-om-in/ /sefid/ l&ka'sil, k",kil l&ral

n. n. n. n. pro. adv. conj. adv. adi. adi. pro. adv.

yard yeah (yes) year yellow yes yes (to a negative question) yesterdaY yogurt yogurt drink you (p/.) you (sg.)

.Ll+oj d*,t r-li 4!i l_lq JJJiJ

4$i JFri

lheyarl larel lsall lzerdl lbelel Iteral ldi-ruzl /mast/ ld"ql /5oma/ Itol /xahe5mi-kona,m,l lxod-etl xod/xod-etan, etun/ xod/xod-etan, etun/

ll ilrl.'l il

$ ;,


'q+ .;

arl; arlv. inter. adv. n. n. pro. pro. idiom

"Si l+3
+tt+^, +; .-5 ,aS e "."S l-rr+ ,P;ll- tiLi


.tis cr' oi'.tlF

/xanom,xanum/, n. /hemsrer/ lzanl n. n. fbiyaban,biyabun/ lpenjerel fzemestanf lpaltol

n. n. n. p. n.


,OL.l+i O-lr.t+

pro. pro.

(sg.fut) yourself

O-frF ,UUfui





! 0')
4iuj _uqJ _,f5 oi-,r3-iS csJsJ-r-)
6JlS dreL^.r





/ebas-ezan-anef n. kurl /kar krerden/ fnv-e kar-i/ /sa'et-ekar-i/ ldonyal lzexml lzexm-il /mod-edest/

n. n. n. n. adj. n.

cfJ (J.uJ _e.e

(o-":,.) o*U ,ilffi;i"


i 285