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DHS AP Biology

Alexis White AP Biology Name __________________________ Guided Reading Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

1. How do Anatomy and Physiology differ?


of biological function.

Anatomy is the study of biological form while physiology is the study

2. Explain how convergent evolution applies to animal form.


Some unrelated animals have forms or body plans that are similar. Convergent evolution reflects different species' independent adaptations to a similar environmental challenge.

3. Compare and contrast diffusion in a single-celled protist to an animal with two cell layers. In a single-celled protist, its complete surface area is in contact with the environment. This allows direct exchange
multi-cellular animals requires an aqueous medium for sufficient exchange with the environment. However, an animal with a two cell layers body plan has a simple organization and lacks internal obstruction, allowing both layers to be exposed to a medium at all times.

4. Label the diagram of the internal exchange surfaces.

Respiratory System

Circulatory System Digestive System

Excretory System

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DHS AP Biology

5. Define the following: a. Tissues- groups of cells relation in form and function b. Epithelial Tissues-

sheets of tightly packed cells that cover the outside of the body and lines the organs and body cavities specialized cells that secrete bodily products moist layer of epithelial tissue that comes in contact with air. Secretes mucus to protect membrane and acts as a barrier

Glandular epitheliaMucus membranesSimple epithelium-

single-layered, plate like cells. Functions in exchange. Found in blood vessels and lungs. founds on surfaces where abrasion occurs ( skin, lining of mouth, digestive tract)

Stratified epithelium-

Cuboidal cells- dice shaped cells. specialized in secretion. Found in kidney tubules and many different glands Columnar cells- Specialized in absorption. found in the lining of the intestine. Squamous cellsc. Connective Tissuesflat epethilial l cells found throughout the body holds tissues and organs in place

Collagenous fibers- provides strength and flexibility Elastic fibersprovides elasticity

Reticular fibers- joins connective tissues to adjacent tissues Fibroblastssecrete fiber proteins engulf foreign particles and any cell debris by phagocytosis

Macrophagesd. Muscle Tissues-

tissue responsible for body movement

e. Nervous Tissue-

functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information.

6. How are the tissues arranged into organs and then into organ systems? Explain this using the digestive system as an example.
Different types of tissues are organized into functional units called organs. groups of organs that work together are organized into organ systems. for example, the digestive system is composed of several organs including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, accessory organs, and anus. Each organ possesses a specific role that aids in digestion. Together, all these organs form a system or step by step assembly line that promotes digestion.

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DHS AP Biology

7. Label the diagram explaining bioenergetics in animals


Organic Molecules in Food

Digestion and Absorption

Nutrient molecules in the body cells

cellular respiration

Biosynthesis: Growth, storage, and reproduction Cellular Work

8. What is metabolic rate and how is it determined?


Metabolic rate is the sum of all energy used in biochemical reactions over a given time interval

9. Explain the three influences on metabolic rate.


Size: larger animals have more body mass and require more energy. So, a large animal will have a large metabolic rate. The relationship of metabolic rate to size is proportional.

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DHS AP Biology

10. Based on figure 40.10, what is an energy budget and how does it vary in four different animals?
Energy budget describes the way in which animals use chemical energy. Energy use is divided into basal metabolism, reproduction, thermo-regulation ( in endotherms), growth (in humans and ectotherms), and activity. In endotherms, annual energy used decreases as size decreases, but energy used for thermo-regulation increases. in ectotherms, no energy is expelled in thermo-regulation. Locomotion seems to be the greatest expenditure of energy in all animals.

11. Define and explain the following: Regulators- animals that use internal mechanisms to control thermal change in the face of external fluctuation.

Conformers-

animals who adapt their internal environment in accordance with external conditions.

Negative feedback-

A control mechanism that reduces the stimulus

Positive feedback- A control mechanism that amplifies the stimulus Thermoregulation- the process by with animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

12. Compare and contrast ectotherms and endotherms.


Endotherms are warmed mostly by the heat generated by metabolism. They can maintain a stable body temperature regardless of external fluctuations. Endotherms can fare well in freezing environments while ectotherms cannot. Endotherms require larger amounts of food. Endotherms also have a process called thermoregulation which allows manitenance of internal temperature. Ectotherms gain most of their heat by external sources. they consume less food that endotherms since their heat source is environmental. Ectotherms are tolerant of large fluctuations in their internal temperature. They do not thermoregulate. However, they can adjust their temperature by behavioral means. Some ectotherms bathe in the sun to heat their bodies or hide in the shade to cool themselves down.

13. There are 5 categories of adaptations that help animals thermoregulate. Describe each one and how they work in your own words. InsulationInsulation keeps heat inside the body by preventing the escape of heat into the external environment. Heat exhange is reduced by hair, fur, feather, and fat.

Circulatory Adaptations- Widening of the blood vessels increases the flow of blood and heat throughout the body. This is called
Vasodilation. Vasoconstriction constricts the blood vessels and decreases blood flow, therefore, decreasing heat transfer.

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DHS AP Biology

Cooling by Evaporative Heat LossWhen animals obtain heat from metabolism and the environment, the body evaporates in order to cool down. Water is released from the body and heat is also expelled. Examples of this is sweating in humans and panting in dogs.

Behavioral responsesAnimals regulate body temperature by seeking heat when cold ( sun bathing or huddling to increase body heat) and avoiding heat when hot. ( hiding in the shade or turning in directions opposite the sun) Some extreme cases include hibernation or migration when temperatures are not suitable.

Adjusting Metabolic Heat ProductionEndotherms maintain a body temperature that is higher than its external environment. Therefore, heat always escapes. Thermogenesis is altered to match changing rates of heat loss. Thermogenesis is increased by shivering and is seen in both endotherms and ectotherms. Metabolic activity in the mitochondria is increased in some mammals, favoring the production of heat instead of ATP. This is called nonshivering thermogenesis.

14. Name three of the organ systems that help with thermoregulation by complex negative feedback mechanisms.

15. Define the following: a. Acclimatization- the gradual process by which an animal adjusts to changes in its external environment. b. Stress-induced proteins- Co-chaperone proteins that aid heat-shock proteins in the refolding of denatured proteins. c. Heat-shock proteins- Functions in the folding of proteins. Expression of these proteins are increased when cells are
exposed to environments with higher temperatures.

d. Torpor- A physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism. Conserves energy during environmental extremes. e. Hibernationf. EstivationLong-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.

Long-term torpor during the summer.

g. Daily torpor- Short-term hibernation- usually during sleep.

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DHS AP Biology

16. Complete the diagram below:


Heating Stops

Room Temperature Decrease

Room Temperature Increase

Heating Starts

decrease 17. Torpor involves a __________ in what metabolic rates. Torpor involves a decrease in thermoregulation and activity.

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