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Peru: Fashion and Textiles

PER: MODA Y TEXTILES

Crditos | Credits Direccin general | General management: Sandra Lpez V. - Grupo Editorial Mesa Redonda S.A.C. Direccin editorial | Editorial direction: Juan Miguel Marthans B. Investigacin y redaccin | Research and writing: Enrique Planas Asesor de investigacin | Research adviser: Jos Miguel Valdivia Colaboradores | Collaborators: Meche Correa, Luca Cuba, Sergio Dvila Traduccin | Translation: Isabel L. de Vendramini Diseo y diagramacin | Design and layout: Lucho Chumpitazi - Lingo Fotografa | Photo: Enrique Snchez. Archivo fotogrfico de PromPer | PromPers photographic archive: Mylene DAuriol, Yayo Lpez, Ins Menacho, Luis Miguel Otayza, Joaqun Rubio, Margit Sage - Fiber Fiend, Walter Wust Sesin fotogrfica | Photo shoot Fotografa | Photo : Hans Neumann Productoras | Producers: Bridget Fleming, Veronica Leone Modelos | Models: New York Models: Caitlin Carlyle, Robin Schenk, Lucy Petroucheva Maquillaje | Make up: The Wall Group: Cyndle Komarovski Estilismo | Styling: The Wall Group: Lindsay Grosswendt, Estilista de cabello | Hair Styling: Adrian Clark Asistente de fotografa | Photo assistant: Joe Lee Agradecimientos | Acknowledgements: Ftima Arrieta, Luca Cuba, Meche Correa, Sitka Semsch, Titi Guiulfo, Andrea Llosa, Giuliana Testino, Harumi Momota, Sumy Kujn, Jos Miguel Valdivia, Pepe Corzo, Jorge Luis Salinas, Sergio Dvila, Ester Ventura, Rochi Kahn, Karen Mitre, Vanessa Dellepiane, Viviane Fiedler, Jessica Butrich, Meche Salem, Gonzalo Palma, Patricia Zamora, Guillermo Queirolo, Cochy Garca Martnez, Jimena Mujica, Martn Orbegoso y Herman Schwartz por la labor de bsqueda de las fotos de Lima Antigua. Archivo revista Caretas; Museo Nacional de Antropologa, Arqueologa e Historia; Asociacin Hermanos Vargas; Archivo de imgenes del Banco Continental BBVA, Gonzalo Lujn, Michael Michell Stafford. Pre prensa e impresin | Pre press & printing: Punto & Grafia S.A.C. - Av. Del Ro 113 - Pueblo libre Hecho el Depsito Legal en la Biblioteca Nacional del Per N 2013-02840.

PER: MODA Y TEXTILES Peru: Fashion and Textiles Una publicacin de la Comisin de Promocin del Per para la Exportacin y el Turismo PromPer A publication by the Peru Export and Tourism Promotion Board PromPer Av. Repblica de Panam N 3647, San Isidro, Lima - Per Telfono | Phone: (51-1) 616-7300 Fax: (51-1) 421-3938 postmaster@promperu.gob.pe www.promperu.gob.pe PromPer. Todos los derechos reservados | All rights reserved Primera edicin | First edition Lima, enero 2013 | Lima, January 2013 Distribucin gratuita | Free distribution Prohibida la reproduccin parcial o total de las caractersticas grficas de este libro. Ningn fragmento de texto o imagen contenido en este libro puede ser reproducido, copiado o transmitido sin autorizacin expresa de PromPer. Cualquier acto ilcito cometido contra los derechos de propiedad intelectual que corresponden a esta publicacin ser denunciado de acuerdo al D.L. 822 (Ley sobre el derecho de autor) segn las leyes que protegen internacionalmente la propiedad intelectual. It is forbidden without prior written authorization from PromPer to copy, modify, alter, publish, disseminate, distribute, sell or transfer, either wholly or in part, any component of this book or any other file present within it. Any unlawful act committed against intellectual property rights that relate to this book will be reported according to DL 822 (Law on copyright) under the laws that protect intellectual property internationally.

EL FUTURO EST POR TEJERSE


El Per tiene una rica herencia de arte, historia, tradiciones, obras y el sector textil no escapa de ella. Nuestros antepasados nos dejaron muestras de sus habilidades y de sus conocimientos que hoy son admirados por propios y extraos. Hoy tenemos el compromiso de promocionar la industria peruana de las confecciones, la cual ha evolucionado y es merecedora de elogios en el mundo entero. A travs de Per: moda y textiles el Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo quiere expresar su confianza en la industria local de la moda, actividad que ofrece un enorme valor agregado a nuestras maravillosas fibras, como el algodn y las distintas lanas, que genera miles de puestos de trabajo. La industria de la moda y la confeccin enfrenta grandes retos: la investigacin en los tejidos y sus posibles mezclas, la defensa de los tintes naturales, la mejora en la calidad fabril, as como la mejora de las tcnicas de produccin de acuerdo con criterios de desarrollo sostenibles, que adems mantengan el saber tradicional sin perder competitividad en los mercados internacionales. Con la voluntad conjunta de los sectores pblico y privado, podemos superarlos. Con este libro, queremos expresar nuestro compromiso y rendir tributo al esfuerzo de los empresarios del sector textil peruano as como a nuestros artistas del diseo. Estamos seguros de que nuestro pas se puede convertir en referencia mundial de la moda. Nuestra apuesta es por el Per y por quienes con su trabajo tejen nuestro futuro.

Jos Luis Silva Martinot Ministro de Comercio Exterior y Turismo

We weave our future with great effort

Peru has a rich heritage in art, history, and traditions, which include the handicraft and textile sectors. Our ancestors left us samples of their skills and knowledge, which today are admired at home and abroad alike. We are now committed to promoting the Peruvian garment industry, which has evolved greatly over time, and is undoubtedly worthy of praise worldwide. Through Peru: Fashion and Textiles, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism wishes to express its confidence in the local fashion industry. This occupational field offers enormous added value to our extraordinary fibers, like cotton and different types of wool, all of which generate thousands of jobs for the people of Peru. The fashion and clothing industry faces great challenges today. For example, before even starting a project, research on fabrics and their possible mixtures needs to occur, and natural dyes need to be protected. Furthermore, one needs to understand that manufacturing quality and production techniques are constantly improving and changing. The industry must also maintain a traditional knowledge base, without losing competitiveness in the international markets. With this shared commitment of the public and private sectors, we can meet these challenges. With this book, we want to express our dedication and pay tribute to the efforts of the Peruvian textile sector entrepreneurs and to our design artists. We are convinced that our country can become a world fashion reference. We have confidence in Peru and for those who weave our future by working hard within the fashion industry.

Jos Luis Silva Martinot Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism

LA HISTORIA EN LA PASARELA
Los primeros pasos han sido dados. El mercado extranjero y sus ms importantes representantes, como Karl Lagerfeld, Marc Jacobs, Stefano Tisci o Carolina Herrera, reconocen el valor en calidad e historia de nuestras fibras de bandera: la alpaca, la vicua, el algodn Pima y nuestros sorprendentes algodones orgnicos. Ahora, el siguiente movimiento es respaldar la proyeccin internacional de nuestros diseadores de moda. Desde hace ms de una dcada, ellos vienen impulsando una revolucin silenciosa con su capacidad innovadora, siempre conectada con nuestro pasado milenario. Sabemos que su sello es la calidad y un trabajo manual que no se encuentra en otros lugares. Es tiempo de que esta verdad sea reconocida allende nuestras fronteras. Per: moda y textiles es una pasarela para la historia de nuestras materias primas, nuestras confecciones y los diseadores que mejor representan nuestras fuerzas y posibilidades. Por ella desfilan tambin los modelos que llevan las creaciones de Meche Correa, Sergio Dvila, Ftima Arrieta, Andrea Llosa, Titi Guiulfo, Sumy Kujn, Giuliana Testino, Sitka Semsch, Jos Miguel Valdivia, Harumi Momota, Jorge Luis Salinas, Luca Cuba y Pepe Corzo, artistas que nos confan adems sus certezas y sueos. Todos compartimos esos sueos.

Direccin de Promocin de Imagen Pas PromPer

History of the runway


First steps have already been taken. The foreign market and its major representatives, such as Karl Lagerfeld, Marc Jacobs, Stefano Tisci or Carolina Herrera, all recognize the value in quality and the history of our flagship fibers: alpaca, vicuna, Pima cotton and our amazing organic cottons. The next step is to support the international expansion of our fashion designers work. For over a decade, they have been promoting a silent revolution with their innovative measures, always connected with our ancient past. We know that their label is quality and a craft not found elsewhere. It is time that this truth is recognized beyond our borders. Peru: Fashion and Textiles is a gateway to the history of our raw materials, clothing and designers that best represents our strengths and possibilities. Models walk down the fashion runway wearing creations by Meche Correa, Sergio Dvila, Ftima Arrieta, Andrea Llosa, Titi Guiulfo, Sumy Kujn, Giuliana Testino, Sitka Semsch, Jos Miguel Valdivia, Harumi Momota, Jorge Luis Salinas, Luca Cuba and Pepe Corzo, artists who also entrust their certainties and dreams. We all share this dream.

Direction of Promotion for Country Image PromPer

ndice

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Index

PRESENTACIN / PRESENTATION

El Per siempre fue, es y ser un potente productor de textiles


Peru has always been, is and will continue to be a powerful textile poducer

17
60
El algodn Cotton

Un pas que teje su historia

A country weaving its history

59
62
La alpaca The alpaca

Fibras peruanas de bandera


Peruvian Flagship Fibers

64
La vicua The vicua

67

68

110

147
Joyera contempornea peruana
Andrea Llosa Ftima Arrieta

Diseadores

Designers

116

Contemporary Peruvian Jewelry

74
Meche Correa

Harumi Momota

80

122 128

Accesorios
Jorge Luis Salinas Pepe Corzo

Accessories

86
Luca Cuba

Sitka Semsch

92

134

Per Moda

Giuliana Testino

Sergio Dvila

98

140

153 159 161


Jos Miguel Valdivia Titi Guiulfo

Per produciendo para el mundo


Peru producing for the world

104
Sumy Kujn

Per: moda y textiles Peru: Fashion and Textiles

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EL PER SIEMPRE FUE, ES Y SER UN POTENTE PRODUCTOR DE TEXTILES

La naturaleza de la moda y de la industria textil se transforma cada temporada. Sin embargo, en el Per, la tradicin propia de un pueblo de tejedores hace que los cambios mantengan un eje: la slida conexin con nuestros materiales, las tradiciones del telar conservadas hasta hoy, as como la iconografa del diseo prehispnico, colonial, republicano y contemporneo. Si la historia es un tejido siempre cambiante, donde son inevitables las rupturas, los remiendos y los parches, la del tejido peruano tambin es un ejemplo de continuidades y de olvidos. La conquista espaola fue la primera fusin cultural, encuentro y conflicto de culturas que en el tejido qued reflejada con el obligado abandono de la vestimenta prehispnica y la adopcin del tejido de punto. As, por orden de la Corona Espaola, las mujeres debieron dejar la tnica para adoptar las modas peninsulares de la saya, la blusa y la chaqueta, mientras los hombres asuman el pantaln, la camisa y el saco. Los actuales trajes regionales peruanos tienen en su mayora una base espaola, influenciada a su vez por la moda francesa de entonces. Las grandes polleras andinas son herederas de la antigua saya, propia de las cortes europeas, seala el diseador Jos Miguel Valdivia, un apasionado de la historia de la moda. Sin embargo, las herencias jams se mantienen puras. Poco despus, las prendas tradas de ultramar se replicaron aqu con otras telas, aplicaciones de color, adems de cintas, grecas y bordados que enriquecieron sus usos y generaron las diversidades regionales que apreciamos hasta hoy. El Per siempre fue, es y ser un potente productor de textiles. Pero fue en el cambio de milenio que el comportamiento del mercado internacional empez a ensear a los creadores locales la necesidad de encontrar una valoracin propia para distinguirse de la competencia. Entendieron que el Per no poda salir a competir con lo mismo que ofrecen los mercados establecidos, como el europeo o el estadounidense. Reconocidos como productores de alpaca y algodn, nuestros diseadores an no encontraban su inspiracin. Hasta que miraron hacia adentro. Encontraron el rumbo en esa herencia ancestral, en el arte textil de las culturas prehispnicas. Empezaron a visitar los museos especializados, estudiaron sus formas, diseos, iconografa, tcnicas de teido. Encontraron que la influencia prehispnica no haba desaparecido. Sus huellas permanecan en los textiles elaborados por las actuales poblaciones andinas. As, esta tradicin contina hoy desarrollndose, adquiriendo diferentes caractersticas de acuerdo al pueblo que la elabora. Los diseadores advirtieron que todo ese legado poda convertirse en el factor que construyera la identidad de la propuesta peruana para el mundo.

El antiguo peruano era una persona que saba vestir muy bien y se adornaba mucho. Creo que mantenemos esa herencia antigua del buen vestir, seala Titi Guiulfo, diseadora y profunda investigadora de nuestras fibras y tcnicas populares. Su testimonio personal refleja bien el salto cualitativo de todo su gremio en busca de restablecer la continuidad histrica: Estuve muchos aos haciendo ropa a medida, ropa para gente joven, luego ropa masiva, despus alta costura. Hasta que lleg un momento en que sent un llamado. Entonces empec a investigar qu pasaba con los telares, con los tejidos, los hilos y los tintes, recuerda. Hace 15 aos que Guiulfo viaja adonde ningn otro diseador haba llegado antes. Trabajando con comunidades andinas de tejedores, ella no solo ha descubierto el hilo que nos borda con nuestro pasado, sino tambin la necesidad de rescatar lo que permanece hasta hoy, como es su firme defensa del telar tradicional. No quiero que el telar se pierda. Nos ofrece un tejido maravilloso, puedes jugar con mil texturas, seala. Como en pocas precolombinas, el hilo vertical de la urdimbre marca la estructura del tejido. Luego, con la trama, empieza el juego. De acuerdo a las pasadas del tejedor y a la cantidad de hilos aplicados, va saliendo el dibujo. Yo hasta ahora no entiendo mucho. Los veo tejer, hablan quechua y se ren entre ellos. Trabajan, discuten, se apasionan. Hasta que no sacan el tejido del telar no descansan, dice una de nuestras principales diseadoras sin perder su capacidad de sorpresa. Los diseos de la moda artesanal varan segn las comunidades y sus especialidades. Guiulfo entr a trabajar intensamente al sur del pas, en el departamento de Puno, al lado del maestro tejedor Alfredo Rojas. De l aprendi el trabajo con tintes naturales y el hilado hecho con rueca, una tradicin casi olvidada por el uso del hilo industrial. Posteriormente ha trabajado con artesanos de los pueblos de Aymaraes, en Apurmac, especficamente en las comunidades de Pampamarca, Iscahuaca y Huayunca. Tambin desarrolla sus proyectos con tejedores de San Pedro de Cajas y en Huarhuas, en la regin de Huancavelica. Muchos de los artesanos que trabajaron con ella hoy son empresarios que proveen de las ms finas fibras y tejidos a los talleres limeos. Hoy el diseador peruano ha dejado de mirar hacia afuera para reencontrarse con su esencia. Haba que dejar de mirar la moda francesa o italiana, dejar en el cajn los patrones importados listos para recortar. Nuestros creadores impulsaron desde la segunda mitad de la dcada del noventa una nueva etapa de revaloracin, de la cual ya no hay retorno. Su discurso fue proponer la innovacin sobre la imitacin, la autenticidad vinculada con nuestra tradicin textil y, con ello, una nueva conciencia tica. Por fin, la moda nos sirve para comunicar quines somos.

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PERU HAS ALWAYS BEEN, IS AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE A POWERFUL TEXTILE PRODUCER.

The nature of the fashion and textile industry transforms itself every season. However, in Peru the tradition inherent to a village of weavers makes changes to maintain an axis: the strong connection with our materials, weaving preserved traditions, as well as the iconography of pre-Hispanic, Colonial, Republican and Contemporary design. If history is an ever-changing fabric, where breaks, mends and patches are unavoidable, the Peruvian fabric history is also an example of continuities and forgetfulness. The Spanish conquest was the first cultural fusion, encounter and conflict of cultures that was reflected in fabric with the forced abandonment of pre-Hispanic clothing and adoption of knitting. Thus, by order of the Spanish Crown, women had to abandon wearing the tunic and replace it with the Spanish fashion skirt, blouse and jacket, while men took the pants, shirt and jacket. As a result, current Peruvian costumes are mostly based on Spanish colonial dress, which were influenced by French fashion. The great Andean skirts are heirs of the old skirt, typical of European courts, says the designer Jos Miguel Valdivia, who is passionate about fashion history. However, the legacy never remains pure. Shortly after, the clothes brought from overseas were replicated here with other fabrics, color applications, as well as ribbons, borders and embroidery, which enriched their uses and generated regional diversity that we still cherish today. Peru has always been, is and will continue to be a powerful textile producer. But it was at the turn of the millennium that the international market behavior began teaching local creators the necessity for finding a self-image to distinguish themselves from their competitors. They understood that Peru could not simply go out and compete in the established markets of Europe or the U.S. Recognized as alpaca and cotton producers, our designers had not yet found their inspiration. These designers turned inward. They found their path in this ancestral heritage, in the textile art of pre-Hispanic cultures. They began visiting specialized museums; they studied their shape, design, iconography, and dyeing techniques. They found that Hispanic influence had not disappeared. Its prints were in the textiles produced by current Andean populations. Thus, this tradition continues developing today, acquiring different characteristics according to the people that make it. The designers realized that this entire legacy could become the factory, building the identity of the Peruvian proposal for the world to see.

The old Peruvian was a person who knew how to dress well and adorned himself with plenty of items. I think we keep this ancient heritage of dressing well, says Titi Guiulfo, designer and deep researcher of our fibers and popular techniques. Her personal testimony reflects well the qualitative leap of her entire profession looking to restore historical continuity: For many years I made madeto-measure clothes, clothes for young people, then massive clothing, later haute couture. Then came a time when I felt a calling. So I started to investigate what was happening with the looms, with fabrics, yarns and dyes, she recalls. Over the last 15 years, Ms. Guiulfo has traveled where no designer has gone before. Working with Andean communities of weavers, she not only discovered the thread she uses to embroider with, but also the need to rescue what remains today, as her strong defense of the traditional loom. I do not want the loom to disappear. It offers a wonderful fabric, you can play with thousand of textures, she says. As in pre-Columbian era, the vertical warp thread set the fabric structure. Then, with the weft, the game begins. According to weavers number of passes and yarns applied, the design/drawing comes out. I did not understand much until now. I see them weaving, speaking Quechua and laughing among themselves. They work, they argue, they really like what they do. They do not rest until they take the fabric out of the loom, says one of our top designers, without losing her ability to surprise. Artisan fashion designs vary according to communities and their specialties. Ms. Guiulfo started working intensely in southern Peru, in the department of Puno, next to the master weaver Alfredo Rojas. From him she learned to work with natural dyes and spinning made by distaff, a tradition almost forgotten by the use of industrial thread. Later, she worked with artisans from Aymaraes province in Apurmac, specifically in the Pampamarca and Huayunca Iscahuaca communities. She also develops her projects with weavers from San Pedro de Cajas and Huarhuas, in the region of Huancavelica. Many of the craftsmen who worked with her are today entrepreneurs who provide the finest fibers and fabrics to workshops in Lima. Today the Peruvian designer has stopped looking outward to reconnect with his essence. We had to stop looking to French or Italian fashion, leaving in the drawer, imported, ready-to-cut patterns. Our designers promoted, from the second half of the nineties, a new stage of rediscovery, with no return. Their aim was innovation over imitation, authenticity associated with our textile tradition, and with this a new ethical awareness. Finally, fashion serves to communicate who we are.

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Per: Moda y Textiles

Per: moda y textiles Peru: Fashion and Textiles

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After cotton domestication in 2500 BC, this fabric became a vital element of daily life in ancient Peru. These cotton clothes were not only to protect oneself from cold weather; they had a great ritualistic background as well. In pre-Columbian society, garments could denote rank, occupation, and even its origin, from clothing (tunics, headbands, skirts and blankets) to fishing nets, bags and slings, as well as tapestries, dolls and burial shrouds. Their major developments at the technical and artistic levels are expressed in the beautiful mantles of the Paracas culture, developed 2 200 years ago in the valley of Ica, 300 kilometers south of Lima; Wari textiles, in the southern Andes, 1 300 years ago, or the sublime Chancay muslins, tapestries and brocades, typical of Perus central coast, eight centuries ago.

Per: moda y textiles Peru: Fashion and Textiles

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A country weaving its history

Un pas que teje su historia


Concluida la domesticacin del algodn en el 2500 a.C., el tejido se convirti en un elemento capital para la vida cotidiana en el Antiguo Per. No eran solo prendas para protegerse del frO; tenan una gran carga ritual. En la sociedad precolombina podan denotar rango, oficio, incluso procedencia. Se produca desde vestimenta (tnicas, vinchas, faldellines y mantos), hasta redes de pesca, bolsas y hondas, adems de tapices, muecas y mortajas funerarias. Sus mayores desarrollos a niveles tcnicos y artsticos se expresan en los bellos mantos de la cultura Paracas, desarrollados hace 2 200 aos en el valle de Ica, a 300 kilmetros al sur de Lima; en los tejidos Wari, en los andes del sur, hace 1 300 aos; o en las sublimes gasas, tapices y brocados Chancay, de la costa central peruana, ocho siglos atrs.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

Escondido en un barrio residencial del distrito limeo de Miraflores, el Museo Amano guarda una de las colecciones de textiles prehispnicos ms importantes del pas. Doris Robles, encargada del manejo de la coleccin, ha visto pasar a muchos de los diseadores contemporneos a lo largo de los 20 aos que lleva en la institucin. A ella le divierte ver sus rostros de sorpresa cuando aprecian tejidos que, de no ser por su manufactura antigua en extremo, podran creerse actuales. Para ella, aquellas milenarias confecciones no son solo un filn de inspiracin para el diseo contemporneo. En verdad, toda manifestacin cultural en el Antiguo Per se remiti al tejido. As, inspir la arquitectura y la cermica; instituy una ntima relacin entre sacerdotes y tejedores; revolucion las sociedades de su tiempo cuando, cinco milenios atrs, grandes redes de pesca tejidas con fibras de algodn permitieron aumentar el consumo de protenas y, con la buena salud y el bienestar conseguido, fortalecer la economa. El algodn es nuestro primer producto industrial, nos explica la experta. Para procurarse de la fibra, el antiguo tejedor costeo tena a su alcance el producto del cultivo del algodn, mientras que en los Andes dispona de las fibras de lana y alpaca que trasquilaba en verano. Adems, se recolectaba tambin fibras silvestres de plantas cactceas como el maguey, plumas de las aves provenientes de la selva, incluso el cabello humano. Despus de limpiar y cardar las fibras, el tejedor proceda a teirlas, utilizando pigmentos minerales y tintes vegetales. Cochinilla para los rojos, ndigo para conseguir el azul, semillas de molle para el amarillo. Asimismo, tara y semillas de algarrobo para lograr tonos marrones, la chilca para el verde, mientras que para dar con el naranja se mola la semilla del achiote. Tambin usaban tintas de mariscos. Para hilarlas, las fibras eran enrolladas en un huso, y con dos piruros de cermica o madera se sostena el hilo en el fuste. Cogido el huso con la mano izquierda, con la derecha se estiraba y torca la fibra para adelgazarla. Luego se iba enrollando progresivamente el hilo.
Tradicin del tejido de cintura segn dibujo del cronista Guamn Poma de Ayala en Nueva cornica y buen gobierno, escrito entre 1600 y 1615. Tradition of waist weaving from its drawing by chronist Guamn Poma de Ayala in "Nueva cornica y buen gobierno", written between 1600 and 1615.

"To obtain the fiber, the coasts old weaver had the product available from cotton crop, while in the Andes he had available wool and alpaca fibers sheared in the summer."

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Para procurarse de la fibra el antiguo tejedor costeo tena a su alcance el producto del cultivo del algodn, mientras que en los andes dispona de las fibras de lana y alpaca que trasquilaba en verano.

Tintes naturales andinos. Andean natural dye.

Hidden in a residential neighborhood of the district of Miraflores in Lima, Amano Museum houses one of the most important collections of pre-Hispanic textiles in the country. Doris Robles, responsible for managing the collection, has seen many of the contemporary designers during the 20 years she has been leading this institution. She enjoys seeing their faces fill with surprise, when they appreciate fabrics that, had they not been manufactured in ancient times, could have been manufactured in the present. For her, those ancient garments are not only a vein of inspiration for contemporary design, but every cultural event in Ancient Peru was referred to on the fabric. Therefore, it inspired architecture and ceramics; it established a close relationship between priests and weavers; it revolutionized societies during a time when, five millennia ago, large fishing nets woven from cotton fibers allowed increased protein intake, and with good health and welfare achieved, strengthened the economy. Cotton is our first industrial product, explains the expert.

To obtain the fiber, the coasts old weaver had the product available from cotton crop, while in the Andes he had available wool and alpaca fibers sheared in the summer. In addition, he also collected wild fibers from cactaceae plants as maguey, feathers from jungle birds, and even human hair. The fibers were first cleaned and carded, then weavers dyed them, using mineral pigments and vegetable dyes. Cochineal for red, True indigo for blue, Molle (Peruvian pepper) seeds for yellow. Also, Tara (small leguminous tree) and carob seeds for brown tones, Chilca (a native medicinal bush whose biological name is Baccharis polyantha) for green, while annatto seed was grounded for orange. He also used dyes from shellfish. To spin them, the fibers were wound on a spindle, and with two piruros (spindle whorls) in ceramic or wood, and the thread was held in the shaft. Spindle was held with the left hand, and with the right hand the fiber was rolled up and twisted to thin it. Then yarn was gradually wound up.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

Detalle de tejido Inca. Detail from Incan weave.

Gasa Chancay. Muslin from Chancay.

Tradicionalmente, para la confeccin de tejidos, se utilizaban las estructuras del telar de cintura, amarradas a un poste en la parte superior y a las caderas de un tejedor sentado. Tambin fue extendido el uso del telar horizontal, ideal para grandes telas de uso domstico, compuesto de cuatro estacas clavadas en el suelo donde se dispone la estructura textil; el telar de marco, cuya estructura de madera fija en el suelo se usaba para la confeccin de unkus (tnicas) y el telar vertical, con cuatro estacas dispuestas en una pared, usado durante el incario para los tejidos ms finos. En todos los casos, luego del trabajo en el telar, las telas llanas podan recibir otras tcnicas decorativas, como diseos bordados, bordes anillados, estampados, aplicaciones de plumas y metales, pintado manual, entre otras.

Nos explica la responsable del Museo Amano: En el Antiguo Per, el diseo, el color, probablemente la forma del tejido y la tcnica de la vestimenta, estaban subordinados a lo teocrtico. Quiz las ropas comunes no tenan estos parmetros, pero s la que te acompaara a la otra vida. Asimismo, su diseo era determinado por cada grupo o etnia. Por ejemplo, los pescadores no se podan atrever a vertirse con representaciones de felinos o bhos, destinados para otra clase social. Quizs a ellos les tocaba usar diseos de olas, peces o aves marinas. En la vestimenta de los hombres, los cuellos se disean en posicin vertical, mientras que en la de las mujeres son horizontales: lneas verticales para ellos, horizontales para ellas, reforzando el smbolo femenino de la fertilidad.

En el Antiguo Per, el diseo, el color, probablemente la forma del tejido y la tcnica de la vestimenta, estaban subordinados a lo teocrtico. Quiz las ropas comunes no tenan estos parmetros, pero s la que te acompaara a la otra vida.

"In ancient Peru, design, color, probably the fabric form and cloth technique were subordinated to the theocratic aspect. Maybe common clothes did not have these parameters, but burial clothes, which will accompany a person to the afterlife, did."

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Detalle de tejido de Cultura Paracas. Detail from Paracas Culture weave.

Mueca de cultura Chancay. Doll from Chancay Culture.

Traditionally, for weaving, back strap loom structures were used. They were tied to a pole at the top and to the hips of a weaver sitting at the bottom. Horizontal loom, which had two parallel beams held in place with four stakes set in the ground were also widely used because they were ideal for large, household fabrics. Frame looms, whose wooden structure at the ground was used for making unkus (tunics) and the vertical loom, with four stakes set in a wall, was used during the Inca Empire for finer fabrics. They were both widely used. In all cases, after work on the loom, plain fabrics could receive other decorative techniques such as embroidery designs, looped edges, prints, feathers and metal applications, and hand painting, among others. The Amano museums executive explains to us: In ancient Peru, design, color, probably the fabric form and cloth technique were subordinated to the theocratic aspect. Maybe common clothes did not have these parameters, but burial clothes, which will accompany a person to the afterlife, did. Also, their design was determined by each group or ethnicity. For example, fishermen could not venture to dress with representations of felines or owls, destined for another social class. Possibly they got to use waves, fish and seabird designs. Collars of mens dress are designed vertically, while womens are horizontal. Vertical lines for men, horizontal for women, reinforced the feminine symbol of fertility.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

Con un estupendo sentido de la simetra, sus diseos se basan en la repeticin de figuras estilizadas, dispuestas con orden matemtico. Las formas ms habituales eran las estrellas de ocho puntas, los rombos y diversos tipos de cruces.

La coleccin de textiles Chancay ocupa el mayor espacio del museo fundado en 1964 por Yoshitaro Amano, un ingeniero japons enamorado del Per Antiguo. No hay registros de tejidos ms sofisticados y bellos como las gasas encontradas en las tumbas de esta cultura. Para Robles, una prueba de la existencia de un organizado gremio de tejedores en esta sociedad la componen sus catlogos, tejidos de muestra donde se presentan entre 70 y 90 diseos diferentes. Son un objeto memoria que el tejedor deba seguir, explica. Por cierto, en Chancay se evidencia una gran cantidad de prendas de alpaca, pero ningn huso que haya hilado una fibra diferente al algodn. Los expertos infieren de ello que la alpaca llegaba de los Andes en rutas de intercambio a lomo de llama, para obtener a cambio productos costeos como el algodn y pescado. Los tejidos de alpaca venan ya procesados, para respetar el equilibrio econmico entre las regiones. Tras asimilar a todas las etnias andinas, heredando principalmente el conocimiento alcanzado por la cultura Wari, durante los casi cien aos de duracin del Tahuantinsuyo (de 1438 a 1532), el apogeo de la cultura Inca sintetiz las tradiciones, tcnicas y tecnologas textiles desarrolladas hasta entonces en el mundo andino. As, lograron producir una gran variedad de prendas de vestir y accesorios de uso cotidiano, caracterizados por sus diseos geomtricos y por la fina tcnica. Con un estupendo sentido de la simetra, sus diseos se basan en la repeticin de figuras estilizadas, dispuestas con orden matemtico. Las formas ms habituales eran las estrellas de ocho puntas, los rombos y diversos tipos de cruces. Algunos investigadores, por la complejidad y variedad de detalles de sus diseos, afirman que cumplan adems una funcin de escritura ideogrfica.

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"With a great sense of symmetry, their designs are based on the repetition of stylized figures, arranged with mathematical order. The most common forms were the eight-pointed stars, diamonds and several types of crosses."

The Chancay textile collection occupies the largest space in the museum, founded in 1964 by Yoshitaro Amano, a Japanese engineer in love with ancient Peru. There are no records of more sophisticated and beautiful fabrics as gauze found in the tombs of this culture. For Ms. Robles, evidence of the existence of an organized guild of weavers in this society are their catalogs, containing fabric samples of 70 to 90 different designs. They are a memory object that the weaver had to follow, she explains. Indeed, in Chancay there are a lot of alpaca garments, but no spindle that had spun other, different fiber, than cotton. Experts thus infer that the alpaca came from the Andes by llama trade routes, in exchange for coastal products like cotton and fish. The alpaca fabrics came already processed, to respect the economic balance between the regions. After assimilating all Andean ethnics, and inheriting mainly the knowledge achieved by the Wari culture, for almost a hundred years of the Tahuantinsuyo (Incas Empire from 1438-1532), the height of the Inca culture synthesized textiles traditions, techniques and technologies developed until the Andean world appeared. Thus, they were able to produce a wide variety of clothing and accessories for everyday use, characterized by geometric designs and fine art. With a great sense of symmetry, their designs are based on the repetition of stylized figures, arranged with mathematical order. The most common forms were the eight-pointed stars, diamonds and several types of crosses. Some researchers state they also fulfill an ideographic script function, due to their design detail, complexity and variety.
Tokapu Inca. Incan Tokapu.

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Palladoras de lana. Foto de los hermanos Vargas. Arequipa. Circa 1920. Women cleaning the wool. Photo from Vargas brothers. Arequipa. Circa 1920.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

Como sus antecesores, para los incas la importancia de los textiles fue ritual, social y poltica. As, por ejemplo, los caractersticos ponchos dameros, de color blanco, negro y rojo, con adornos de oro y plata o mullu solo se destinaban a los orejones o militares de alto estatus cercanos al Inca. Como lo investig la historiadora Mara Rostworowski, para este imperio, los textiles y el arte plumario representaban productos con valor para su tradicin de la reciprocidad y el pago de tributos. Asimismo, los enormes depsitos de textiles descritos por los cronistas revelan el valor de los textiles de alpaca para reforzar las alianzas a travs de regalos del Inca para los ayllus dominados.

Like their predecessors, for the Incas the importance of textiles was ritual, social and political. For example, the typical white, black and red checkerboard ponchos, with gold and silver ornaments or mullu were only used by the Orejones (Inca nobles) or high-ranking military officers close to the Inca. As historian Mara Rostworowski investigated, for this empire, textiles and feather art represented valuable products for their traditions and tribute paying. Also, the huge textile warehouses described by chroniclers reveal the alpaca textiles value to strengthen partnerships through Inca gifts for ayllus (basic political and social units). As raw materials, besides cotton fibers, alpaca and vicuna,

Como materias primas, adems de las fibras de algodn, alpaca y vicua, los tejedores del Tahuantinsuyo utilizaron la cabuya, una derivacin del fique, para la confeccin de cuerdas, redes y sacos de carga. Los hilos eran teidos por los canticamayoc, expertos en preparar anilinas a partir de hierbas y granos, utilizndose adems algodn orgnico, de maravillosos colores de origen natural. En el trabajo del telar, adoptaron y potenciaron las tecnologas anteriores, sean fijas o mviles. Para el tejido usaron diversas tcnicas, de acuerdo a la regin del Imperio. Las prendas de vestir ms populares entre la poblacin del Tahuantinsuyo fueron el unku, un antecesor del actual poncho, y una faja que lo cea a la cintura. Generalmente los acompaaban con gorros y mantos, en telas burdas o finas segn su posicin en la estricta pirmide social inca. La primera ruptura en el tejido de la historia peruana sucede con el arribo de los conquistadores espaoles a las costas del Per, en 1532. An cuando en las comunidades andinas se continu tejiendo con las tcnicas prehispnicas, paralelamente se introduce el telar europeo de pedales. Tanto los diseos prehispnicos, como el uso de telas planas para el vestido sern reemplazados por las modas europeas y el tejido de punto, usado hasta hoy. Es como parte de este proceso cultural lleno de contradicciones entre los antiguos usos incas y las costumbres espaolas que surge un personaje que simbolizara una moda que durara por ms de 300 aos: aquella que vistieron las clebres y audaces tapadas limeas. Las primeras sayas y mantos eran tejidos en Espaa, y transportados en barcos del Viejo Mundo. Pero enseguida fue adaptado y transformado por una poblacin femenina local que, amparada en el anonimato, convocaba las miradas masculinas, a espaldas de un marido receloso.

Tahuantinsuyo weavers used the cabuya, a natural fiber from the Fique plant (Furcraea andina), for making ropes, nets and sacks. The yarns were dyed by the canticamayoc, experts in preparing dyes from herbs and grains, using organic cotton of wonderful, natural colors. In the loom, they adopted and reinforced former technologies, whether fixed or mobile. For weaving they used various techniques, according to the empire region. Some of the most popular garments among the Tahuantinsuyo population were the unku, a predecessor of the current poncho, and a belt to cinch it at the waist. Hats and mantles in coarse or fine fabrics according to their position in the strict Inca social pyramid usually accompanied them. The first break in fabric production in Peruvian history is with the arrival, to the coast of Peru, of the Spanish conquistadors, in 1532. Although Andean communities continued weaving using pre-Hispanic techniques, the European foot pedal loom was introduced concurrently. Both pre-Hispanic designs, and plain fabrics used for clothing, would be replaced by European fashions and knitting, and are still used to this day. This is how this cultural process full of contradictions between the old Incas usage and Spanish customs gives birth to a character symbolizing a fashion that would last for over 300 years: the one dressed by the famous and brave Tapada limea (veil-clad woman). First sayas or skirts and shawls were woven in Spain and transported by ship from the Old World. But immediately they were adapted and transformed by the local female population, who, protected by anonymity, attracted the attention of the opposite sex, to the jealousy of their husbands.

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Inca Roca vistiendo tradicional tocapu. Inca Roca wearing a traditional tocapu.

Como sus antecesores, para los incas la importancia de los textiles fue ritual, social y poltica. As, por ejemplo, los caractersticos ponchos dameros, de color blanco, negro y rojo, con adornos de oro y plata o mullu solo se destinaban a los orejones o militares de alto estatus cercanos al Inca.
"Like their predecessors, for the Incas the importance of textiles was ritual, social and political. For example, the typical white, black and red checkerboard ponchos, with gold and silver ornaments or mullu were only used by the 'Orejones' (Inca nobles) or high-ranking military officers close to the Inca."

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

"Ya oigo yo a nuestras elegantes parisienses lanzar exclamaciones sobre la simplicidad de ese vestido, pero estn muy lejos de pensar en el partido que puede sacar de la coquetera".

Tapada limea. "Tapada" from Lima.

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"I can already hear our elegant Parisian womens exclamations about the simplicity of this dress, but how removed they are from the feminine coquetry that one can take from it."

La escritora francesa Flora Tristn, tras su paso por Lima, no pudo evitar mostrar su sorpresa y admiracin frente a las tapadas. En su libro Peregrinaciones de una paria escribe: Ya oigo yo a nuestras elegantes parisienses lanzar exclamaciones sobre la simplicidad de ese vestido, pero estn muy lejos de pensar en el partido que puede sacar de la coquetera. Para hacer una saya ordinaria, se necesitaban 14 varas de raso, el equivalente de 11 metros y medio de tela. El pintor e historiador Juan Manuel Ugarte Elspuru describa al detalle el diseo de este icnico traje femenino. Haba dos versiones para la falda: una de estilo popular, la ms usada, que consista en una estrecha funda de tela flexible, muy pegada al cuerpo, que dibujaba la silueta femenina. A pesar de sus parches y remiendos, solan llevarla las damas ms nobles para evitar que los pretendientes descubrieran su verdadera condicin social. Sobre la saya, cubriendo el torso, una camisola blanca con mangas cortas dejaba al descubierto los antebrazos. Y con la mano, la mujer sostena la manta que, cruzada sobre el rostro, solo dejaba ver uno de sus ojos misteriosos. Un simple chal completaba el conjunto.

The French writer Flora Tristn, after staying in Lima, could not help but show her admiration and surprise for the veil-clad women in Lima. In her book Peregrinations of a Pariah writes: I can already hear our elegant Parisian womens exclamations about the simplicity of this dress, but how removed they are from the feminine coquetry that one can take from it. To make an ordinary skirt, 14 yards of satin -11 and a half meters of fabric- were used. Painter and historian Juan Manuel Ugarte Elspuru described in detail the design of this iconic female costume. There were two versions of this skirt: a popular style, most widely used, consisting of a tight skirt made of flexible fabric which emphasized the female silhouette. Despite its mends and patches, most noble ladies used to wear them to prevent their suitors from discovering their true social status. Above the skirt, covering the torso, there was a white shirt with short-sleeves, leaving the forearms visible. With her hand, the woman held the manto, which covered her face, leaving only one of her mysterious eyes exposed. A simple shawl completed the outfit.

Acuarelas de tapadas limeas elaboradas por Johann Rugendas. Paintings of "tapadas" from Lima by Johann Rugendas.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

Otra versin, ms elegante, cambiaba la apretada saya por una falda amplia y acampanada, que en lugar de delatar las formas femeninas, las cubra con costosas telas, dejando apenas al descubierto los chapines de raso. Un chal, tejido en Manila, Filipinas, descenda de los hombros sobre la fina blusa de encajes. El manto siempre fue rigurosamente negro y envolva el busto parcialmente, cubriendo la totalidad del rostro salvo el coqueto ojo de la mujer. La saya ms comn de las tapadas era de raso negro, aunque las mujeres ms elegantes se permitieron optar por tonos marrones, verdes y azules. Hubo incluso modelos a rayas. Eso s, jams llevaron colores claros, pues estos haban sido adoptados por las mujeres que ejercan el meretricio. Y aunque fueron muchos los intentos de la Corona para prohibir el uso de esta polmica prenda que les otorgaba libertad a las mujeres e inseguridad a los hombres, ni las amenazas, ni las multas, ni las reformas borbnicas fueron suficientes para que las limeas renunciaran al anonimato y la libertad que les ofreca su vestido. En la Europa post Revolucin francesa, hasta 1820, se vivi un momento increble para la historia de la moda. Fue el periodo en que se mostr ms la piel femenina desde los tiempos de la antigua Grecia y, por primera vez, Inglaterra se converta en el centro de la moda, desplazando a Pars. Fueron cambios espectaculares: las mujeres quisieron vestirse como las estatuas clsicas, con trajes enteros de telas blancas y vaporosas, con el talle bajo el pecho, mangas cortas y zapatos bajos, sin tacn. Una elegancia que la britnica Jane Austen supo registrar con detalle en sus novelas romnticas. Cubiertas con delicadas y sugerentes gasas, para escapar del duro fro europeo utilizaban clidos chales fabricados con cachemir, el pelo de un tipo de cabra que se importaba de la India. En tiempos sin calefaccin, ese fue un periodo de alta mortandad por resfro, comenta el diseador Jos Miguel Valdivia. La aparicin de esta moda neoclsica coincidi con el florecimiento de la prensa escrita, que publicitaba los nuevos trajes y tendencias, facilitando los rpidos cambios.

En las costas de un Per entonces independiente de la Corona Espaola, la saya y el manto haban seguido usndose hasta mitad del siglo. Sin embargo, tras 300 aos de reinado, las pesadas faldas pronto cederan su lugar en el guardarropa a las faldas sobre miriaques, y las mujeres empezaron a ceir sus cinturas con rudos corss y a envolverse en crinolina. Son los tiempos de la Revolucin Industrial y el Per recibe una fuerte ola migratoria. Siendo la procedente de oriente la ms numerosa y estudiada, tambin llegaron por barco al puerto del Callao numerosos europeos, trayendo consigo las ltimas producciones de la moda francesa e italiana. En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, no habiendo an grandes fbricas de confecciones, la importacin de telas europeas inund el mercado local de un pas que viva su mayor tiempo de prosperidad gracias a la venta del guano y el salitre, utilizados en Europa como fertilizante. Asimismo, gran parte de los sastres y costureras que se asentaron en el Per provenan de Italia. En sus talleres ofrecan a sus clientes los ltimos figurines de las modas parisinas, patrones de tamao natural, as como modelos de trabajos a la aguja y crochet. En sus pginas, al lado de las ilustraciones de vestidos de raso, gasas de seda y encajes, y de corss de tela de hilo o satn, que prometan prestar a las mujeres aire de diosas, destacan los avisos para el tratamiento de la anemia y la histeria femenina, males que sus madres y abuelas enfundadas en sus sayas no conocieron.

En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, no habiendo an grandes fbricas de confecciones, la importacin de telas europeas inund el mercado local de un pas que viva su mayor tiempo de prosperidad gracias a la venta del guano y el salitre.

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A more elegant version exchanged the tight skirt for a flared skirt, which instead of exposing the female silhouette, covered it with expensive fabrics, leaving only satin slippers visible. To complete the outfit, a shawl, woven in Manila, Philippines, from the shoulders down, over a fine lace blouse, was worn. The mantle was always black and partially wrapped, covering the entire face except the coquettish womans eye. The most common skirt was in black satin, but most elegant women also wore shades of brown, green and blue. Some of them even had striped patterns. However, they never used light colors, because these had been adopted by women engaged in prostitution. Even though the Crown attempted several times to prohibit the use of this controversial garment, that gave women freedom and men insecurity, no threats, nor fines, nor the Bourbon reforms were enough for the Lima women to quit the anonymity and freedom offered by this style of dress. In Europe, after the French Revolution, until 1820, the history of fashion lived through an incredible era. It was the period where more female skin was exposed since the days of ancient Greece and, for the first time, England became the center of fashion, replacing Paris. Dramatic changes took place: women wanted to dress like classical statues, with white and flowing long dresses, with the waistline below the bust, short-sleeves and low-heeled shoes. An elegance described in detail by British author Jane Austen, in her romance novels. Covered with delicate and suggestive gauze, women wore warm shawls made of cashmere hair of a type of goat that was imported from India to escape from the severe European cold winter weather. In times without heat, this was a high mortality period because of a cold, says the designer Jos Miguel Valdivia. The emergence of the neoclassical style coincided with the start of the writing press, which advertised the new outfits and trends, facilitating rapid changes.

On Peruvian coasts, then independent from the Spanish Crown, the skirt and the manto were still used until mid-century. However, after 300 years of rule, the heavy skirts soon would give way in the wardrobe to crinoline skirts, and women began to constrict their waists with rough corsets and to wrap themselves up in crinoline. These were the times of the Industrial Revolution and Peru received a wave of great migration, mainly from the Far East the largest and most documented migration. Europeans also arrived by ship to Callao port, bringing the latest French and Italian fashions. In the second half of the nineteenth century, not yet having large clothing factories, imported European fabrics flooded the local market of a country that was enjoying great prosperity thanks to the sale of guano and saltpeter, used as fertilizer in Europe. Also, much of the tailors and seamstresses who settled in Peru came from Italy. In their workshops they offered their customers the latest in Parisian fashions, illustrations, life size patterns and models to work with crochet and needle. In those fashion magazines, next to the pictures of satin, laces and silk chiffon dresses, and linen or satin corsets, which promised to give women goddesses air, there were ads for the treatment of anemia and female hysteria, evils that their mothers and grandmothers, wearing sayas, did not have to worry about.

"In the second half of the nineteenth century, not yet having large clothing factories, imported European fabrics flooded the local market of a country that was enjoying great prosperity thanks to the sale of guano and saltpeter."

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Historia singular es la del britnico Frank Michell, fundador en 1931 de la compaa peruana Michell & Ca, actualmente principal productora y exportadora mundial de tops e hilados de alpaca.

Hacia mediados del siglo XIX, empiezan las inversiones britnicas en la explotacin de la fibra de alpaca para su importacin a Inglaterra, buscando competir con el cachemir de la India. Sin embargo, su uso en la poca victoriana se dedic, bsicamente, a frazadas, ropa interior burda y forros de abrigos. Considerada solo un material para abrigo, no se le tuvo en cuenta como tejido para lucir. Pasaran dcadas para que una ms refinada fibra de alpaca entrara al mercado europeo en mltiples aplicaciones. Historia singular es la del britnico Frank Michell, fundador en 1931 de la compaa peruana Michell & Ca, actualmente principal productora y exportadora mundial de tops e hilados de alpaca. Haba llegado una dcada antes al Per, tras una brillante carrera como piloto comandante de la Real Fuerza Area. Al terminar la I Guerra Mundial, Michell tena claro que su destino no estaba en el aire. Su ambicin era viajar a Sudamrica y buscar pieles de chinchilla en las alturas andinas del Per. Para la poca, no se trataba de un proyecto excntrico: provenientes de Puno, las pieles de chinchilla eran especialmente codiciadas por las mujeres britnicas de clase alta, quienes pagaban altos precios por lucirlas con orgullo sobre sus hombros. La travesa martima lo llev al puerto de Buenos Aires, luego a Valparaso y, finalmente, desembarc en Mollendo. En trenes de la Peruvian Corporation llegara a las orillas del lago Titicaca dispuesto a conseguir la piel de aquellos codiciados roedores. Sin embargo, nunca pudo ver el dinero de esa primera cacera. Otro piloto, compaero suyo de la guerra, le rob no solo su cargamento de chinchilla sino casi todas sus pertenencias. Mi padre se qued sin nada. Se qued varado en Juliaca, recuerda Michael W. Michell, su hijo y actual presidente del directorio de la empresa. El joven emprendedor empe una cigarrera de oro, obsequio de su madre, y con el dinero del prstamo invirti en un nuevo negocio: la compra de fibra de alpaca

en la localidad de Santa Rosa de Juli. La gente de la localidad le tena confianza. Le entregaban la fibra, y l embarcaba la alpaca a Puno en lancha, y de all a Arequipa por ferrocarril. Su comprador en la Ciudad Blanca era su paisano Regis Stadford quien, aos despus, se convertira en su suegro, nos cuenta. En efecto, a partir del negocio de la alpaca, ambos hombres estrecharon relaciones. Paseaban a mi mam en el coche, cuando tena 9 meses. Cuando pap cumpli 44 aos y mam 20, se casaron, recuerda el empresario alpaquero ms importante del pas. Entonces el negocio se basaba en la clasificacin y exportacin de fibra grasienta de alpaca como materia prima. Procedentes de Huancavelica y del alto Puno, las fibras llegaban a Arequipa, donde los lavaderos escogan las calidades para producir fardos de calidad pareja, los cuales se exportaran luego en vapor al puerto de Liverpool. En ese tiempo, la alpaca no era conocida. El principal comprador entonces era el industrial, poltico y filntropo britnico sir Titus Salt, muy conocido en las casas de remates de Bradford, donde la fibra era enviada en consignacin. Entonces la alpaca se sentaba all hasta que la compraran. Los hilanderos la usaban para mezclarla en diversas aplicaciones, quiz la ms conocida sea el tradicional tweed, prenda de vestir de tipo sport confeccionada con lanas suaves y flexibles.

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"Frank Michell, from England, who in 1931 founded the Peruvian company Michell & Co., is currently the largest producer and exporter in the world of alpaca tops and yarns."

By the middle of the XIX Century, British investors began looking at exporting alpaca fiber from Peru to England, looking to compete with Indias cashmere. However, its use in the Victorian era was devoted mainly to blankets, rough underwear and coats inner linings. This fiber was not considered as a fabric to wear, but only to keep warm. Many decades later, a more refined alpaca fleece entered the European market in multiple applications. Frank Michell, from England, who in 1931 founded the Peruvian company Michell & Co., currently the largest producer and exporter in the world of alpaca tops and yarns, came to Peru a decade earlier. After a brilliant career as a pilot in command in the Royal Air Force, at the end of World War I, Michell knew that his fate was not in the air. His ambition was to travel to South America and find chinchilla fur in the Andean highlands of Peru. At the time, it was not an eccentric project: from Puno, chinchilla furs were especially coveted by the upper-class British women who paid high prices for proudly showing them off on their shoulders. The sea journey took him to the port of Buenos Aires, then Valparaiso and finally he landed in Mollendo, Peru. He then arrived on the shore of the lake Titicaca by the Peruvian Corporation trains willing to get the coveted fur of those rodents. However, he never saw the money of that first hunt. Another pilot, a war companion, not only stole his cargo of chinchilla, but most of his belongings. My father lost everything. He was stranded in Juliaca, recalls Michael W. Michell, his son and current chairman of the company. The young entrepreneur pawned a gold cigarette case, a gift from his mother, and invested this money in a new business: alpaca fiber in the town of Santa Rosa de Juli. The local people trusted him. He bought the fiber and shipped it to Puno by boat, then by rail to Arequipa. His buyer in this White City was his

countryman Regis Stadford, who, years later, would become his fatherin-law, he says. Indeed, from the alpaca business, both men developed closer links. They walked with my mom in the baby carriage, she was 9 months. When dad turned 44 and mother 20, they got married, says the most important alpaca businessman in the country. The business then was based on classifying and exporting greasy Alpaca fiber as raw material. From Huancavelica and Puno, the fiber reached Arequipa where washers selected qualities to produce even quality bales, which were then exported to the port of Liverpool by steamboat. At that time, the alpaca was unknown. The main buyer was the industrial, politician and philanthropist British Sir Titus Salt, well-known at auction houses in Bradford, where fiber was sent on consignment. Then the alpaca sat there until it was bought. The spinners used it to mix in various applications, perhaps best known was traditional tweed, casual clothing made of soft and flexible wool.

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Cartel de las tiendas Le Bon March Francia, 1898. Le Bon March advertisement France, 1898.

A lo largo del siglo XX se mantuvo la tradicin de mandarse a hacer la ropa con sastres y costureras, quienes cubrieron la demanda de toda la sociedad limea. Antes de que la industrializacin arrinconara a este tradicional gremio, sus figurines, con seis meses o un ao de atraso con respecto a Europa, definan los gustos locales. Para el mercado masivo, se viva el boom de los grand magasins o departament stores, que siguieron el concepto de la parisina Le Bon March, la primera macrotienda de la historia, fundada en 1838 como un pequeo comercio en Pars, y cuya gran tienda abri sus puertas en 1867. Estas ofrecan diseos importados en su mayora de Estados Unidos, mientras la produccin local de confecciones no ofreca an cifras de importancia.

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A lo largo del siglo XX se mantuvo la tradicin de mandarse a "hacer la ropa" con sastres y costureras, quienes cubrieron la demanda de toda la sociedad limea.

Sombreros de 1910. Hats from 1910.

"Over the twentieth century, the tradition of having tailors and seamstresses make clothing was still used, covering the entire demand of Lima society."

Over the twentieth century, the tradition of having tailors and seamstresses make clothing was still used, covering the entire demand of Lima society. Before industrialization cornered this traditional guild, their fashion illustrations, six months or one year behind Europe, defined local trends. For the mass market, the Department Store boom started following the concept of the Parisian Le Bon March, the first megastore in history, founded in 1832 as a small boutique in Paris until the really big store opened for business in 1867. These magasins offered designs mostly imported from the United States, while local production of garments offered no further significant figures.

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Reynaldo Luza

En la Lima de los aos treinta, Elena Izcue (1889-1970) desempe un papel decisivo en el redescubrimiento de los diseos del arte precolombino aplicado en las artes decorativas.
"In Lima in the 1930s, Elena Izcue (1889-1970) played a key role in rediscovering pre-Columbian art designs applied on decorative arts."

En la Lima de los aos treinta, Elena Izcue (1889-1970) desempe un papel decisivo en el redescubrimiento de los diseos del arte precolombino aplicado en las artes decorativas. Mujer adelantada a su poca, fue pionera en la recuperacin del enorme repertorio de imgenes y smbolos prehispnicos provenientes de piezas Moche y Chim, descubiertas y estudiadas en las excavaciones arqueolgicas emprendidas en la dcada de 1920 en el norte del pas. Su obra marc as un hito en la apropiacin del diseo moderno de la esttica prehispnica, consiguiendo con ello un rpido xito en las casas de moda de Europa. Si bien ni Elena ni su hermana Victoria, quien sigui el concepto de sus diseos, llegaron a disear vestidos, el trabajo de ambas tuvo un impacto notable en futuras aplicaciones. Elena Izcue debe estar en la historia de la moda por haber intervenido en la iconografa precolombina y ponerla al servicio de todos. Ella es la madre del motivo decorativo peruano moderno, seala Jos Miguel Valdivia. Desgraciadamente, sus motivos decorativos no tuvieron el impacto que merecan en su propio pas. Debi pasar ms de medio siglo para que los diseadores actuales reconocieran su trabajo. Contemporneo a Izcue, su amigo Reynaldo Luza (1893-1978), artista central del grupo literario Colnida, se instal en Nueva York entre la dcada del veinte y los aos cincuenta, tras convertirse en el ilustrador principal de la revista Harpers Bazaar, adems de solicitado fotgrafo para Vogue y Vanity Fair. Nacido en el popular distrito de Barrios Altos, el trabajo de este artista extico para los ojos de la metrpoli atraa por un estilo que, entre la caricatura y un minimalismo casi oriental, sintetizaba la imagen femenina hasta convertirla en un diseo Art Nouveau. En los aos treinta, se dedica a viajar por China, la India y toda Latinoamrica, investigando en el vestuario y los colores de estas regiones. Asimismo, Luza llev los diseos del Antiguo Per y los colores andinos al corazn de la industria de la moda. Tal como hiciera Izcue, actualiz el arte precolombino e impuso el cholapink, como bautiz al encendido color rosa andino, en la paleta de los diseadores del mundo. Como sucede hoy con el fotgrafo Mario Testino, Luza fue el mayor jet setter peruano de la poca. Amigo de reyes, princesas y magnates, fue el retratista de las celebridades y toda una personalidad del mundo de la moda. Sin embargo, cuando el estilo del Art Nouveau decay en los ms realistas aos cincuenta, Luza volvi a Lima y se dedic a la decoracin, la pintura paisajstica y el retrato de las damas de la sociedad limea.
Elena Izcue

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Telas estampadas con diseos de Elena Izcue. Patterned fabrics with desings of Elena Izcue.

In Lima in the 1930s, Elena Izcue (1889-1970) played a key role in rediscovering pre-Columbian art designs applied on decorative arts. Ahead of her time, this woman was a pioneer in recovering the huge repertoire of images and symbols from pre-Hispanic Moche and Chimu pieces, discovered and studied in the archaeological excavations in the twenties, in northern Peru. Therefore, her work was a landmark in the appropriation of modern design of Hispanic aesthetics, thereby achieving rapid success in the fashion houses of Europe. While neither Elena nor her sister Victoria, who followed her designs concepts, design clothes, their work had a major impact on future applications. Elena Izcue should be in a fashion history book for having rediscovered preColumbian iconography and making it available to everyone. She is the mother of modern Peruvian decorative motif, said Jos Miguel Valdivia. Unfortunately, her motifs did not have the impact they deserved in her own country. More than half a century had to elapse before current designers started recognizing her work.

Contemporary to Izcue, her friend Reynaldo Luza (1893-1978), a key artist of the Colnida literary group, settled in New York between the twenties and the fifties, after becoming the chief illustrator of Harpers Bazaar magazine and requested photographer for Vogue and Vanity Fair. Born in the popular district of Barrios Altos, work of this exotic artist attracted the metropolis for his caricature and almost oriental minimalism style, which synthesized female image until turning it into an Art Nouveau. In the thirties, he traveled to China, India and Latin America, doing research on the costumes and colors of these regions. Mr. Luza also introduced designs from ancient Peru and the Andean colors to the heart of the fashion industry. As Ms. Izcue did, he updated pre-Columbian art and imposed the cholapink color, as he baptized the Andean lit pink in the palette of world designers. As today with photographer Mario Testino, Luza was the most popular Peruvian jet setter at the time. Friend of kings, princesses and aristrocrats, he was the portrait of celebrities and a personality within the world of fashion. However, when the Art Nouveau style declined in the more realistic fifties, Mr. Luza returned to Lima and worked in design, landscape painting and portraits of the ladies of Lima society.

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Quien destacar como una rara avis en el medio del diseo local ser una seora que recorre la sociedad limea diseando ropa de teatro. Se trata de Rosa Graa (1909-2003), "Mocha" para sus amigos.

En el Per de entonces, la moda sigue siendo pauteada por las revistas de moda, el cine de Hollywood y la naciente televisin. Quien destacar como una rara avis en el medio del diseo local ser una seora que recorre la sociedad limea diseando ropa para el teatro. Se trata de Rosa Graa (1909-2003), Mocha para sus amigos, legendaria vestuarista y couturier de la sociedad limea de la poca. Apasionada de la ropa, la msica criolla y los figurines con patrones, ella entreg su vida a vestir a los actores desde que su ta Corina Garland le descubriera la magia del Teatro Municipal cuando era una adolescente. Ingres al diseo profesional en los aos cuarenta, responsable del vestuario para las piezas de teatro y ballet de la entonces naciente Asociacin de Artistas Aficionados. Orgullosamente autodidacta, Mocha investig

Mocha Graa, Lima dcada de 1980. Mocha Graa, Lima 1980s.

en la historia de la moda peruana, recopilando a lo largo de su carrera una enorme coleccin de diseos de poca. Diseadora del clsico uniforme escolar que generaciones de peruanos han vestido desde los aos setenta, Mocha siempre repeta: la moda no es ms que buen gusto y un poco de audacia. Hasta fines de los aos cincuenta, en el discurso de la moda internacional solo exista la alta costura. Quienes no podan agendar una cita con Chanel, Dior o Saint Laurent, deban resignarse al gris limbo de la ropa sin categora, fabricada en serie. La concesin ms grande al vulgo la haba hecho Dior, cuando firm licencias para reproducir sus clebres y tan copiadas faldas en Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la llamada generacin del baby boom transformara esa realidad en la segunda mitad de los aos sesenta. Una cantidad de gente joven, que buscaba acceder a los mercados con sus lneas de ropa, se vea frustrada ante la exigente reglamentacin de la alta costura francesa para ingresar a una corte de pocos elegidos. Esa nueva generacin propona una moda radicalmente nueva, opuesta a la que vistieron sus padres. Las suyas eran series pequeas, pero de excelente factura y muy fashion. Es la llamada revolucin del prt--porter. Aparecen entonces pequeas galeras con colecciones listas para llevar. El pblico entraba a una tienda ready to wear, se probaba una prenda ya confeccionada, y se la llevaba sin medidas ni ajustes. Con propuestas ms divertidas y atrevidas, los recin llegados empezaron a llevarse a las clientas de las grandes casas de alta costura. Aquellas muchachas que sus madres llevaban del brazo para ver los modelos de Dior y Saint Laurent, de pronto, empezaron a comprar por su cuenta en las tiendas de Saint-Germain-des-Prs en Pars o Carnaby Street, en Londres, seala Jos Miguel Valdivia. Como no caban en los reglamentos ni en las convenciones de la alta moda, esos jvenes no podan ser considerados couturiers. Nombres como Jean Cacharel, Sonia Rykiel o Paco Rabanne fueron llamados entonces diseadores, estilistas o creadores de moda. Ninguno de ellos venda barato, pero estaban abiertos a todo el mundo.

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In Peru, then, fashion trends were still set by fashion magazines, Hollywood films and emerging television. A theater clothing designer will stand out as a rare bird in the middle of the local designers. Her name was Rosa Graa (1909-2003), Mocha to her friends, a legendary costume designer and couturier of Lima society of the time. Passionate about clothes, creole music and costumes with patterns, she dedicated her life to dress the actors since her aunt Corina Garland introduced her to the magic of the Municipal Theatre when she was a teenager. She joined the professional design team in the 40s, responsible for the costumes for plays and ballets for the new Amateur Artists Association. Proudly autodidact, Mocha investigated in Peruvian fashion history, collecting along her career a huge collection of vintage designs. A designer of the classic school uniform that generations of Peruvians have worn since the seventies, Mocha always said: Fashion is only "A theater clothing designer will stand out as a rare bird in the middle of the local designers. Her name was Rosa Graa (19092003), "Mocha" to her friends." good taste and a bit of daring. Until the late 50s, in the discourse of international fashion, only Haute Couture existed. Those who could not schedule an appointment with Chanel, Dior and Saint Laurent, had to resign themselves to the gray limbo of mass-production clothing. The biggest concession to common people had been made by Dior when he signed licenses to reproduce his famous skirts in United States. However, the baby boom generation transformed this reality in the second half of the 60s. A number of young people seeking access to markets with their clothing lines, felt frustrated with the strict regulations of the French Haute Couture, making it hard to enter into a selected group. This new generation proposed a fashion radically new, completely opposed to their parents views. They launched small series, but of excellent quality and very fashionable. This revolution was called prt--porter. Small stores with ready-to-wear collections appeared. People walked into a ready-to-wear store, tried on a ready-made garment, and took it without alterations or adjustments. With more fun and daring proposals, the newcomers began to move away from the Haute couture houses clients. Those girls that their mothers used to take to see Dior and Saint Laurent models suddenly started buying by themselves in stores in Saint-Germain-des-Prs in Paris or Carnaby Street in London, says Jos Miguel Valdivia. As they did not fit into the regulations or into the conventions of high fashion, these young people could not be considered couturiers. Names like Jean Cacharel, Sonia Rykiel and Paco Rabanne were then called designers, stylists or fashion designers. None of them sold cheap clothes, but they were open to everyone.

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Desfile coleccin Casa Geraldine. Runway: Casa Geraldine collection.

Temerosos de la nueva competencia, muchos de los grandes divos de la alta costura se sumaron a esta nueva tendencia, e incluso algunos, como Yves Saint Laurent, optaron por abrir boutiques que ofrecieran esa otra lnea paralela a sus creaciones ms sofisticadas. Sin embargo, era solo cuestin de tiempo para que todos los grandes salones tuvieran que replantear su oferta. Asimismo, todas esas casas empiezan a firmar licencias con industrias de confecciones, que producan en serie y barato lo que antes era exclusivo y caro. Con la calidad y el diseo supervisados por ellos, marcas como Saint Laurent, Dior o Givenchy, aparecieron entonces en todas las tiendas de departamentos, al alcance de la gente comn. Una dcada ms tarde, nuevos diseadores aadirn mayor locura con la irrupcin de revolucionarios como Jean Paul Gaultier. En lo que a la industria de alpaca se refiere, hasta el ao sesenta, el modelo de negocio haba permanecido sin mayor cambio: el Per exportaba materia prima desde Arequipa, comprada en las alturas andinas. De una produccin constante de entre los 4 y 5 millones de kilos al ao, se escogan las calidades y se vendan lotes de 100 fardos cada uno. Las tres cuartas partes de la fibra comprada eran de color. Situacin distinta a la actual, en la cual casi la totalidad de la fibra exportable es blanca o de muy suaves tonos beige, para facilitar una siguiente fase de teido. Tras la venta, la alpaca era utilizada en el exterior para la confeccin de telas, mezclada generalmente con lana. Entonces no haba mayor conocimiento de las caractersticas nicas de la alpaca. Pasaba desapercibida como un comodity ms, seala Michael W. Michell.

Con el cierre de las importaciones decretado por el gobierno militar, la industria local de textiles y confecciones, especialmente en algodn, experiment a partir de los aos setenta un crecimiento, con lneas de ropa lanzadas por los propios comerciantes que reinventaban productos ya existentes. Como pioneras del diseo de modas de entonces, aparecen Geraldine, la primera casa de costura formal limea, y Mercedes Mrquez, la primera designer jeans, que a la manera de Calvin Klein, colocaba su firma en el derrire de los famosos jeans Kansas hechos en el Per. Para los exportadores, en cambio, fue una etapa difcil. Durante la dictadura, las empresas exportadoras de alpaca debieron enfrentar la abierta desconfianza del rgimen, recuerda Michell. En efecto, adems de los diferentes controles y licencias exigidas a los privados, el Gobierno entr a competir con Incolana y Alpaca Per, agencias oficiales dedicadas a la compra de lana de oveja y la fibra de alpaca. Asimismo, el Estado invirti en su propia planta textil.

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Fearful of new competition, many of the haute couture great divas joined this new trend, and some, such as Yves Saint Laurent, decided to open boutiques offering another line parallel to their most sophisticated creations. However, it was only a matter of time before all these fashion houses had to redefine their items. Also, all these houses began to sign licenses with cheaper and mass-producing garment industries, which were exclusive and more expensive in the past. With the quality and design supervised by them, brands like Saint Laurent, Dior, and Givenchy, then appeared in all department stores, within reach of ordinary people. A decade later, new designers added craziness to their designs with the emergence of revolutionaries like Jean Paul Gaultier. Concerning the alpaca industry, up until the 60s, the business model had remained unchanged: Peru exported raw materials from Arequipa, which were purchased in the Andean highlands. From a steady output of about 4 to 5 million kilos per year, quality standards were chosen and many 100 bales each were sold. Three quarters of the fiber purchased was colored, quite different from the current market, where almost all exportable fiber is white or very soft beige, to help facilitate the next dyeing phase. After the sale, the alpaca was used abroad for making fabrics, usually mixed with wool. Then there was no further awareness of the unique characteristics of the alpaca. It was unnoticed as a simple commodity, said Michael W. Michell.
Geraldine

When imports were ended by the military government, textiles and garments (especially cotton) in the local industry started to grow, during the seventies, with clothing lines launched by the merchants themselves who reinvented existing products. As pioneers of fashion design at the time,

Como pioneras del diseo de modas de entonces, aparecen Geraldine, la primera casa de costura formal limea, y Mercedes Mrquez, la primera "designer jeans", que a la manera de Calvin Klein, colocaba su firma en el derrire de los famosos jeans Kansas.

Geraldine, the first formal couture house in Lima, and Mercedes Marquez, the first jeans designer that, like Calvin Klein, placed her signature on the derrire of her famous Kansas jeans made in Peru, arrived on the scene. For exporters, however, it was a difficult period. During the dictatorship, alpaca exporting firms faced the open distrust of the regime, says Mr. Michell. In effect, in addition to various controls and licensing requirements for private companies, the government began to compete with Incolana and Alpaca Peru, government agencies engaged in buying sheeps wool and alpaca fiber. The State also invested in its own textile factory.

"As pioneers of fashion design at the time, Geraldine, the first formal couture house in Lima, and Mercedes Marquez, the first jeans designer that, like Calvin Klein, placed her signature on the derrire of her famous Kansas jeans made in Peru, arrived on the scene."

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La fuerza popular de la industria de confecciones peruana empieza a gestarse con el desarrollo de lo que, aos despus, se convertira en un millonario emporio comercial: Gamarra. Ubicado en el popular y cntrico distrito limeo de La Victoria, lo que comenz siendo una especie de mercado persa, con las calles saturadas por el comercio ambulatorio, ahora es el escenario de cientos de historias de esfuerzo, persistencia y xito. Gamarra es el ejemplo del desarrollo de la mediana y micro empresa textil en el pas, el cual concentra en sus calles ms de 10 mil empresarios en 17 mil tiendas distribuidas en ms de 144 galeras. Con los aos, ha logrado diversificar su oferta de servicios, insumos y productos relacionados a la industria de confecciones y de moda, aunque despus de cuarenta aos, an permanece a la espera de estrategias integrales que optimicen su crecimiento. As como la ciudad de Pars tiene su Sentier, o Nueva York y Los ngeles su Garment District, Lima tambin tiene su distrito de la ropa. Su reto es convertirse tambin en el distrito de la moda. Al otro lado de la ciudad, en su taller en el bohemio distrito de Barranco, Olga Zaferson es una de las primeras artistas del medio
Revista Burda Ao 1985. Burda magazine, 1985.

que propone un diseo tnico. Nacida en Juliaca, ella destaca hasta hoy como una reconocida diseadora que aplica en sus creaciones elementos recogidos de sus viajes al interior del pas, desde comunidades altoandinas hasta poblaciones amaznicas machiguengas. Al interior de los hogares tambin se viven transformaciones. Al declive de los negocios de los sastres y las costureras, se suma la gradual desaparicin de una prctica familiar: hacer ropa en casa, cuando la mquina de coser y una coleccin de revistas de patrones como la alemana Burda tenan un lugar destacado en cada hogar. En la currcula escolar tambin se eliminan los cursos de corte y confeccin para las nias, mientras que las clases de costura a cargo de monjas son solo recuerdos de madres y abuelas. Al sumarse las mujeres con cada vez mayor fuerza al mercado laboral, aejas tradiciones hogareas como la confeccin empiezan a desaparecer. No hay tiempo para ellas.

La fuerza popular de la industria de confecciones peruana empieza a gestarse con el desarrollo de lo que, aos despus, se convertira en un millonario emporio comercial: Gamarra.
"The strength of the popular Peruvian garment industry began to excel with the development of what, years later, would become a millionaire commercial emporium: Gamarra."

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The strength of the popular Peruvian garment industry began to excel with the development of what, years later, would become a millionaire commercial emporium: Gamarra. Located in the popular and central Lima district of La Victoria, what began as a kind of Persian market, with street saturated by informal commerce, now is the scenery of hundreds of stories of effort, persistence and success. Gamarra is an example of the medium and small textile enterprises developed in the country, which has, on these streets, more than 10 000 employers in 17 000 stores in more than 144 stores. Over the years, it has been able to diversify its range of services, supplies and products related to the clothing and fashion industry, even when forty years later, it is still waiting for comprehensive strategies to optimize its growth. Just as the city of Paris has its Sentier, or New York and Los Angeles the Garment District, Lima also has its clothing district. Its challenge is to also become the fashion district.

Across town, in her atelier in the bohemian district of Barranco, Olga Zaferson is one of the first artists who proposed an ethnic design. Born in Juliaca, she stands out today as a renowned designer who applies in her creations items collected from her travels within the country, from highland communities to Amazonian Machiguenga populations. Within households there were also transformations. The decline of the tailors and seamstresses business joins the gradual disappearance of a family practice: making clothes at home, when the sewing machine and a collection of patterns magazine like the German Burda magazine played a major role within each household. In the school curriculum, dressmaking courses for girls are also eliminated, while sewing classes run by nuns are just memories of mothers and grandmothers. In joining women with increasing force to the labor market, household ancient traditions such as clothing started to disappear. There is no time for them.

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A fines de los aos ochenta, los peruanos viven una de sus ms profundas crisis econmicas. Campeando de forma impune la evasin de impuestos, hasta las galeras de moda ms exclusivas de la ciudad vivan de la maleta, es decir, del contrabando hormiga de prendas compradas en Miami.
"In the late eighties, the Peruvian population lived during one of the deepest economic crises. Completely avoiding paying taxes with impunity, even the most exclusive fashion stores in the city lived from the suitcase, i.e. a small-scale contraband of items purchased in Miami."

A fines de los aos ochenta, los peruanos viven una de sus ms profundas crisis econmicas. Campeando de forma impune la evasin de impuestos, hasta las galeras de moda ms exclusivas de la ciudad vivan de la maleta, es decir, del contrabando hormiga de prendas compradas en Miami. Para las industrias textiles fueron tambin aos difciles. Como seala Michael W. Michell, a las empresas enfocadas en la exportacin, lo que ms les afect en el primer gobierno de Alan Garca fue la diferencia del tipo de cambio con respecto al dlar. Muchos no pudieron sobrevivir, afirma. En efecto, todas las materias primas que compraban estaban en dlares y todo lo que se venda era en devaluada moneda nacional, lo que representaba una doble desventaja para los productores, obligados a cerrar sus tiendas o vivir de la exportacin. Sin embargo, en medio de la inestabilidad del mercado cambiario, el sector exportador tena un marco legal ciertamente favorable: exoneracin de aranceles, contratacin de personal a plazo fijo, lneas de financiamiento para las exportaciones con un tipo de cambio preferencial. Una legislacin que incentivaba la creacin de empresas fuera de la capital permiti descentralizar parte de la industria textil, que se asent principalmente en la ciudad de Chincha, al sur de Lima. El empresario textil Ramn Vliz recuerda aquellos aos como una poca de bonanza que se fren bruscamente con las reformas econmicas aplicadas por el gobierno del presidente Alberto Fujimori, las cuales eliminaron una serie de beneficios al sector exportador. El cambio brusco sorprendi a muchas empresas que no haban llegado a una etapa de madurez. Empresas de ms de mil trabajadores desaparecieron por su incapacidad para mantenerse, dice.

In the late eighties, the Peruvian population lived during one of the deepest economic crises. Completely avoiding paying taxes with impunity, even the most exclusive fashion stores in the city lived from the suitcase, i.e. a small-scale contraband of items purchased in Miami. For the textile industries these years were also difficult. As Michael W. Michell indicates, exporting companies were most affected in the first government of Alan Garca by the difference in the exchange rate against the dollar. Many companies could not survive, he says. Indeed, all raw materials were bought in dollars and everything sold was in devalued local currency, representing a double disadvantage for producers forced to close their shops or stop exporting. But amid exchange market instability, the export sector had a favorable legal framework: tariff exemption, recruitment under a fixedterm contract, credit lines for exports with a preferential exchange rate. A law that encouraged entrepreneurship outside the capital city, permitted decentralization of textile industry, who settled mainly in the city of Chincha, south of Lima. Textile businessman Ramn Vliz recalls those years as a time of prosperity that abruptly ended with economic reforms implemented by the government of President Alberto Fujimori, which eliminated a number of benefits to the export sector. The sudden change surprised many companies that had not yet reached maturity. Companies with over a thousand workers simply disappeared for failing to keep up, he says.

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Un pas que teje su historia A country weaving its history

a inicios de la dcada del noventa el diseo peruano emergi como smbolo de la recuperacin econmica del pas. Aparecen ms diseadores que investigan en sus races y se lanzan a la creacin ms original. Sin complacencias con el mercado, considerando toda copia como una aberracin, nutrindose de las diferentes artes.
"at the beginning of the nineties, Peruvian design emerged as a symbol of the countrys economic recovery. Designers appeared researching their roots and plunging into their most original creations. There was no room for complacency within the market. Every copy was considered an aberration. The arts nourished them."

Las empresas exportadoras haban empezado a crecer de forma vertiginosa desde la segunda mitad de la dcada del ochenta. Pero al inicio de los noventa, las condiciones cambiaron totalmente. Se eliminaron todas las ventajas que tena el sector exportador, e incluso se destin un impuesto del 10 por ciento a las exportaciones. De un mes al otro, las empresas apoyadas en aquellos incentivos dejaron de tener supervits y empezaron a tener millonarias prdidas. Se vinieron aos muy difciles, recuerda Vliz. La industria en esos aos no estaba preparada para competir internacionalmente. La falta de competitividad en el sector textil no viene necesariamente del aspecto industrial, sino que nace en su base agraria: el precio de la fibra de algodn en el Per resulta 50 por ciento ms caro que en el mercado externo, pues los agricultores no tienen financiamiento, no hay economas de escala, falta implementacin en tecnologa y, adems, actualmente el cultivo de algodn no resulta rentable frente a otros productos de agroexportacin ms atractivos, seala el especialista. As, el ajuste econmico del nuevo gobierno oblig a liquidar empresas, implementar fusiones, reducir personal para reducir el nivel de gastos. Adems, con la desaparicin de la Unin Sovitica, los empresarios perdieron uno de sus ms importantes mercados. Los jvenes diseadores que aparecen entonces lo tienen todo por hacer: nombres como Jack Abugattas, Jos Miguel Valdivia o Lizzy Bobadilla, cada uno empujando diferentes estilos identificados siempre con los materiales peruanos. En un medio en que todos se enorgullecan de comprar sus telas en Nueva York o Italia, una generacin emergente de diseadores reafirmaba su confianza en el algodn peruano y la alpaca para lucirlos en una gala.

Con la crisis econmica como un cercano recuerdo, a inicios de la dcada del noventa el diseo peruano emergi como smbolo de la recuperacin econmica del pas. Aparecen diseadores investigando en sus races y lanzndose a la creacin ms original. Sin complacencias con el mercado, considerando toda copia como una aberracin, nutrindose de las diferentes artes. La primera vitrina para esa efervescencia la constituy la Alianza Francesa, institucin que acogi desde 1993 a 1997 la fundamental Fiesta de la Moda, evento promovido por Jos Miguel Valdivia, y en el que participaron diseadores como Jack Abugattas, Rosario de Armenteras, Pepe Corzo, Arturo Vera, Ricardo Dvila, entre otros. Asimismo, a fines de la dcada, empiezan a retornar al pas jvenes y brillantes diseadores locales, tras aos de formacin y prcticas en los Estados Unidos: Ani lvarez Caldern, Sitka Semsch y Jorge Luis Salinas. Con todo el respaldo del gobierno del presidente Alejandro Toledo, en el ao 2005, por primera vez una delegacin oficial de diseadores peruanos sale a una feria. La pasarela latinoamericana de la Semana de la Moda de Madrid ser la primera gran oportunidad para que diseadores como Norka Peralta, Sonia Lozada, Sumy Kujn, Paul Evans y Jos Miguel Valdivia, puedan medirse frente al mundo. Dos aos despus, durante la gestin del presidente Alan Garca, la moda peruana desfil en la feria Prt--porter en Pars. Tambin el Ethical Fashion Show, realizado en la Ciudad Luz, nos hizo despertar la conciencia por un diseo vinculado con un comercio justo. Retomando la tradicin de un pas de tejedores, una generacin de diseadores construy un estilo. Con ganas, con fuerza. Diferentes. Nadie quera parecerse al otro. Todos trataban de marcar una pauta propia. Minimalistas, barrocos, artesanales, sofisticados, cosmopolitas, costura a medida y prt--porter: todos manteniendo, sin embargo, su fidelidad a los materiales nativos, a su suave corazn de algodn y alpaca.

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Exporting companies had started to grow really fast since the second half of the eighties. But at the beginning of the nineties, conditions completely changed. All export sector advantages were eliminated, and even a 10 percent export tax was imposed. From month to month, companies supported by those incentives stopped having surpluses and started having huge losses. It was such a hard period, Vliz recalls. The industry in those years was not ready to compete internationally. The lack of competitiveness in textile sector was not necessarily related to the industrial aspect, but to its agricultural base: price of raw cotton in Peru was 50 percent more expensive than in foreign markets, farmers had no access to financing systems, there were no economies of scale, lack in technology implementation and also cotton growing was not profitable compared to other more attractive agricultural exports, says the specialist. Thus, the new governments economic adjustment forced companies to liquidate, implement mergers and cut staff to reduce the level of expenditures. As with the Soviet Union disappearance, entrepreneurs lost one of the most important markets. New Young designers had to do everything: Jack Abugattas, Jos Miguel Valdivia or Lizzy Bobadilla, each one forging different styles, but all of them used Peruvian materials. In an environment where everybody felt proud for buying fabrics in New York and Italy, an emerging generation of designers reaffirmed their confidence in the Peruvian cotton and alpaca fleece, and showed them off at a gala. With the economic crisis at the beginning of the nineties, Peruvian design emerged as a symbol of the countrys economic recovery. Designers appeared researching their roots and plunging into their most original creations. There was no room for complacency within the market. Every copy was considered an aberration. The arts nourished them. The first showcase for this euphoric period was at the Alliance Franaise language institute, which hosted from 1993 to 1997 the fundamental Fashion Festival, an event sponsored by Jos Miguel Valdivia, where designers like Jack Abugattas, Rosario de Armenteras, Pepe Corzo, Arturo Vera, Ricardo Dvila, among others, participated. Also, at the end of the decade, bright young local designers began to return to the country, after years of training and apprenticeship in United States: Ani lvarez Caldern, Sitka Semsch or Jorge Luis Salinas.

With the full support of President Alejandro Toledos government, in 2005, for the first time an official delegation of Peruvian designers participated in a fashion fair. The Latin American runway of Fashion Week, in Madrid, was the first major opportunity for designers like Norka Peralta, Sonia Lozada, Sumy Kujn, Paul Evans and Jos Miguel Valdivia, to be judged against their international competition. Two years later, during President Alan Garcas government, Peruvian fashion was paraded at the Prt--porter fashion show in Paris. Also, the Ethical Fashion Show, held in the City of Light, helped to raise awareness for design linked to fair trade. Recreating the traditions of a weavers country, built a designers generation with a new style. Looking forward, working hard, being different, no one wanted to resemble the other. These new designers were trying to set a trend of their own. Minimalist, Baroque, handcrafted, sophisticated, cosmopolitan, tailored-clothing and prt--porter: all maintaining, however, their fidelity to the native materials, to their soft cotton and alpaca heart.

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Whoever has taken in their hands balls of alpaca fiber or Pima cotton, recognizes that cultural heritage, for a Peruvian designer, is essentially palpable. Their work material offers an immediate sensual pleasure to the touch. They know that textiles produced with such fibers, not only dress and adorn the person wearing them, they also give pleasure.

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Peruvian Flagship Fibers

FIBRAS PERUANAS DE BANDERA


Quien ha tomado en sus manos ovillos de fibra de alpaca o de algodn Pima reconoce que el patrimonio cultural para un diseador peruano es, por esencia, palpable. Su material de trabajo ofrece al tacto un placer sensual inmediato. Saben que los textiles producidos con esas fibras no solo visten y engalanan a quien los lleve, tambin dan placer.

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Actualmente el Per produce el algodn pima, que a su gran suavidad se suma la extensin de sus hebras, reconocidas como las ms largas y finas del mundo.
"Currently, Peru produces Pima cotton, which in addition to its softness, has an extension of strands that is recognized as the longest and finest in the world."

El algodn. El Per es un pas algodonero por excelencia. Su

gran

cantidad de reas cultivadas, as como el cuidado especial que se sigue desde la siembra hasta la manufactura, han hecho de la industria algodonera una de las ms importantes para la economa nacional. Las ms reconocidas marcas internacionales utilizan actualmente el algodn peruano, sea importando la materia prima o adquiriendo la confeccin local. En tiempos prehispnicos se domestic una de las cuatro especies de algodones del mundo, el algodn sudamericano, de fibra larga, fina y brillante. Este territorio tambin se convirti en centro mundial de la diversidad de algodones de colores, de los que poseemos seis tonalidades. Actualmente, el Per produce el algodn Pima, que a su gran suavidad su suman la extensin de sus hebras, reconocidas como las ms largas y finas del mundo. Con l se confeccionan tejidos de excelente cada, as como de gran brillo y frescura en las telas. Su produccin fabril permite un hilado tan uniforme como resistente, destinado en la elaboracin de las prendas ms delicadas, como ropa para bebs y nios, camisas finas, camisetas y vestidos. Asimismo, se produce el algodn Tangis, que destaca por su fibra larga, su gran capacidad de blanqueo, as como su alta absorcin de tintes. Con una industria textil algodonera en ascenso, aliada del desarrollo sostenible y la proteccin del medio ambiente, hoy se exportan hilos y prendas elaboradas con algodn orgnico, un insumo libre de pesticidas, cuyos colores naturales fueron utilizados en tiempos prehispnicos, y recuperados en el presente luego de aos de investigacin.

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Cotton.

Peru is essentially a cotton-producing country. The large

excellent drape, high brightness and freshness have been made using this type of cotton. During production it is spun in a uniform way, which is designed to develop more delicate garments, such as clothing for babies and children, fine shirts, t-shirts and dresses. It also produces Tangis cotton, notable for its long, fiber bleaching features and high absorption of dyes. With a rising cotton textile industry, comprised of sustainable development and environmental protection, today our industry is developing and growing. Our industry also exports fabrics and garments made with organic cotton which are free of pesticides, and contain only natural colors that were once used in Pre-Hispanic times and recovered today after years of research.

amount of cultivated areas, and the special care that is followed from planting to manufacturing, have made the cotton industry one of the most important for the national economy. The most recognized international brands currently use Peruvian cotton, either by importing raw material or by acquiring local production. In Pre-Hispanic times, one of the four species of cotton in the world was cultivated. This was the South American cotton, with its bright, long, fine fiber. This area also became a world center of the diverse colored cotton, from which we have six colors. Currently, Peru produces Pima cotton, which in addition to its softness, has an extension of strands that is recognized as the longest and finest in the world. Fabrics with

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La alpaca. Sinnimo de exclusividad y elegancia, el pelo de este


extraordinario camlido sudamericano ha sido materia prima para la manufactura de vestimentas que han resistido miles de aos. Hay alrededor de 4 millones de alpacas en Sudamrica y el 95% de estas habitan las regiones del sur del Per, que compite en el mercado internacional con fibras tan exquisitas al tacto como el cachemir de la India y el mohair, tejido hecho con el pelo de la cabra de Angora. Cada una de sus razas posee una particular belleza: la alpaca Suri tiene un pelaje que cae con notoria densidad, lustre y suavidad. Mientras que la Huacaya se caracteriza por su fibra rizada y esponjosa, algo ms corta. En ambos casos, su calidad excepcional se distingue por su gran versatilidad, al ofrecer tonos naturales que van del blanco al negro, pasando del gris, al marrn y el beige. Existe tambin toda una tradicin de tintes naturales que hoy da se revaloriza en el mundo. Mezclada con seda, la alpaca obtiene una mejor cada, mientras que con lana o acrlico, se consigue un material ms econmico para acceder a un consumo masivo. La cadena productiva se inicia con la crianza y reproduccin del animal. Luego de la esquila, la fibra se acopia y comercializa para uso industrial o artesanal. La industria alpaquera, desde mediados del siglo XX, produce codiciados tops, hilados o tejidos, comercializados como insumos para la industria local de la confeccin, as como la exportacin a los ms exigentes mercados europeos y estadounidenses. Segn criterios tcnicos de calidad, las fibras se clasifican como baby

La cadena productiva se inicia con la crianza y reproduccin del animal. Luego de la esquila, la fibra se acopia y comercializa para uso industrial o artesanal.

alpaca, fleece, medium fleece, huarizo, gruesa y corta. Actualmente se desarrollan programas dirigidos a los productores ganaderos, enfocados en optimizar la crianza del animal y mejorar su gentica. Con ello se espera perfeccionar todo el proceso productivo, con el fin de incrementar los ingresos de un sector de la poblacin cuya economa depende de esta actividad.

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"The production chain begins with the raising and breeding of the animal. After shearing, the fiber is collected and sold for handicraft or industrial purposes."

The alpaca. A synonym for exclusivity and elegance, the hair of


this extraordinary South American camelid has been raw material for the manufacture of garments that have stood for thousands of years. There are aproximately 4 million alpacas in South America and 95% live in the South of Peru. It competes in the international market with so many exquisite fibers such as the Indian cashmere and mohair, fabric made with hair from Angora goats. Each of its breeds has a particular beauty: the Suri alpaca has a coat that falls with remarkable density, luster and softness; while Huacaya is characterized by its crimped, fluffy, somewhat shorter fiber. In both cases, their outstanding quality is distinguished by their versatility, offering natural tones ranging from white to black, or from gray to brown and beige. There is also a tradition of natural dyes that has now gained value in the world again. Mixed with silk, alpaca gets a better drape; while a blend with wool or acrylic produces a cheaper material, affordable for mass consumption. The production chain begins with the raising and breeding of the animal. After shearing, the fiber is collected and sold for handicraft or industrial purposes. The alpaca industry, since the mid-twentieth century, produces coveted tops, yarn or fabrics, traded to the local garment industry and also exported to the most demanding European and U.S. markets. Based on technical quality criteria, the fibers are classified as baby alpaca, fleece, medium fleece, huarizo, thick and short. Currently, programs for livestock producers, focused on optimizing and improving animal breeding genetics, have been developed. This is expected to improve the production process, which should then increase the income of a sector of the population whose economy depends on this livelihood.

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La vicua.

Con su grcil elegancia, la vicua es una especie

Protegida por nuestras leyes, las comunidades andinas a cargo de su cuidado practican la ancestral prctica del chaccu para realizar su esquila de forma segura y amable con el animal. En extremo restringida para el mercado local debido a su alto precio, su produccin, cerca de cuatro toneladas al ao, se exporta para crculos muy exclusivos, en confecciones de chales, capas o bufandas.

silvestre que recorre en grupo los Andes del Per, Bolivia, Argentina y Chile. El Per cuenta con el 70 por ciento de su poblacin mundial. El pelo de este delicado y pequeo camlido ofrece la fibra natural ms fina, suave y exclusiva del mundo, superando largamente al cachemir y a la angora. Su velln es ligero, abrigador y brillante, propiedades nicas valoradas desde tiempos prehispnicas. En el Incario fueron usadas solo por la nobleza del imperio, y las nicas autorizadas para su tejido fueron las llamadas vrgenes del Sol.

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Protegida por nuestras leyes, las comunidades andinas a cargo de su cuidado practican la ancestral prctica del chaccu para realizar su esquila de forma segura y amable con el animal.

"Protected by South American laws, Andean communities in charge of its care maintain the ancient tradition called chaccu for shearing the animals safely and kindly."

The vicua. With its graceful elegance, the vicua is a wild species
living in the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. Peru has 70 percent of its population. The hair of this delicate and small camelid offers the finest, unique, natural, soft fiber in the world, surpassing cashmere and angora by far. Its fleece is light, bright and warm, unique properties valued from Pre-Hispanic times. In the Inca Empire, they were used only by the nobility of the Empire, and the only people authorized to weave it were the so-called virgins of the Sun. Protected by our laws, Andean communities in charge of its care maintain the ancient tradition called chaccu for shearing the animals safely and kindly. Extremely restricted for the local market due to its high price, its production, about four tons per year, is exported to very exclusive circles, for the composition of shawls, coats and scarves.

Diseadores

Designers

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Ftima Arrieta

Diseadores Designers

Lo suyo es el glamour de las pasarelas internacionales, pisando fuerte la tierra peruana. Ftima Arrieta prefiere trabajar con telas planas, lisas y de color entero; desde lanas hasta sedas y tafetas, combinando texturas y transformando la tela en algo nico con las ms diversas tcnicas: parches, trenzas, tejidos, panales de abejas, plisados, corrugados o bordados. Sus seas de identidad: las aplicaciones con tejido local, el uso de una muy fuerte paleta de color y el sabio equilibrio entre la comodidad y la elegancia. Acompaada por un experimentado equipo de tejedoras tradicionales, desde sus inicios investig en la cromtica del Per precolombino. Sus influencias tambin son marca Per: la filigrana, la Danza de Tijeras, la cermica cusquea de la familia Mendvil, una larga lista de inspiraciones que esperan para sus siguientes colecciones. Aadiendo juventud, color y una delicada extravagancia, Arrieta conoce bien el arte de la mezcla y la combinacin.

Her focus is the glamour of international runways, on Peruvian soil. Ftima Arrieta prefers to work with plain, smooth and colored fabrics, from wool to silks and taffetas. She enjoys combining textures and transforming fabrics into something unique with the most diverse techniques: patches, plaits, weaves, honeycomb, pleated, ribbed or embroidered. Her works identifying features include: the employment of local weaves, the use of a strong color palette and the perfect balance between comfort and elegance. Accompanied by an experienced team of traditional weavers from the very beginning, she researched the colors of pre-Columbian Peru to use in her work. Her influences are also seen on Peru brand: the filigree, the Scissors Dance, and the Cusco pottery from the Mendivil family. She will have a long list of inspirations for her next collections. By adding youth, color and a delicate extravagance, Ms. Arrieta knows well the art of mixing and combining.

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Diseadores Designers

A designer should also improve in sewing. Fashion design is an art, but its art does not remain on paper: clothing becomes usable, it is pliable and comfortable

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Un diseador tambin debe perfeccionarse en costura. El diseo de moda es un arte, pero su arte no se queda en papel: se convierte en ropa usable, que sea moldeable y cmoda

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Meche Correa

Diseadores Designers

Su mirada es cautivadoramente fresca. Hija de modestos obreros limeos de una fbrica de hilados, hoy sus diseos proyectan al mundo nuestra cultura. Muchos de sus vestidos se inspiran en las polleras andinas con esplndidos bordados sobre tul, mientras que en su joyera en cacho de toro se apoy en artesanos de los talleres de las crceles limeas. Con absoluta libertad, la diseadora ha confeccionado carteras con las mantas que usan las mujeres campesinas para llevar a sus bebs con seguridad sobre su espalda. Igualmente, bas en los gorros de las mujeres de las comunidades altas del Cusco, llamados "chocotos", su reciente lnea de coquetos bolsos "bombn". Hoy son muchsimas mujeres las que continan sus diseos. Fusionando en sus creaciones el algodn con las ms distintas fibras, sean orgnicas o sintticas, Meche Correa rompe esquemas y sus diseos alcanzan una sorprendente sintona popular. Sus creaciones no solo estn presentes en tiendas y boutiques, sino tambin en espacios de arte como el Centro Cultural Matadero, en Madrid. "Estudi diseo de interiores pero creo que me equivoqu de carrera: yo deb estudiar artes plsticas", confiesa.

Her gaze is disarmingly fresh. She is the daughter of modest yarn factory workers from Lima. Today her designs are sold in Europe, and she launches our culture into the world. Many of her dresses are inspired by the splendid Andean skirts embroidered on tulle. For her bull horn jewelry, she relied on artisans of workshops from Lima prisons. With absolute freedom, the designer has made purses with the blankets used by rural women to carry their babies on their backs safely. Similarly, her latest line of bombn (chocolate) flirty handbags was based on the hats of the women in the high communities of Cusco, called chocotos. Today, there are many women who continue her designs. Mixing cotton with the most varied fibers for her creations, either organic or synthetic, Meche Correas designs are groundbreaking, yet surprisingly popular with the general public. Her creations are not only present in stores and boutiques, but also in art spaces like Matadero Cultural Center in Madrid. I studied interior design, but I think I chose the wrong career: I should have studied plastic arts, she says.

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Diseadores Designers

El arte es creatividad, la moda es creatividad. La ropa puede trascender su uso corriente y convertirse en arte

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Art is creativity, fashion is creativity. Clothing can transcend its current use and become art

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Pepe Corzo

Diseadores Designers

Un diseador entra a escena. Su entorno de trabajo es muy dinmico: es diseador de vestuarios y escenarios para teatro, pera y espectculos, as como director de arte publicitario. Su taller de diseo es un departamento moderno ambientado especialmente para su trabajo, pero siempre sale de l para participar en reuniones con agencias de publicidad o con directivos de los principales teatros de Lima y Madrid. Cuando se enfrenta a la mesa de trabajo, coge el algodn o cualquier material y textura que se subordine a su inters. Estampados, bordados, fusionados, lavados industriales, no hay lmite para la experimentacin. Corzo inici su carrera como diseador de modas, presentando sus colecciones en Alemania, Estados Unidos, Argentina, Ecuador, Chile y Per. Como cotizado figurinista, ha diseado el vestuario de un centenar de producciones teatrales, que van desde piezas clsicas a experimentales, sean dramas, comedias, musicales, danza moderna u pera.

A designer enters the picture. His work environment is very dynamic: he designs costumes and scenery for theater, opera and shows; he is also an advertising art director. His design studio is a modern apartment especially created for his work, but he leaves it to participate in meetings with advertising agencies or managers of the main theaters of Lima and Madrid. When facing his work desk, he takes cotton or any other material and texture that pique his interest. Prints, embroidery, and fused, industrial washing, there is no limit for experimentation. Corzo began his career as a fashion designer, presenting his collections in Germany, USA, Argentina, Ecuador, Chile and Peru. As quoted, this costume designer has made costumes for a hundred theatrical productions, ranging from classical to experimental, from drama to comedy, musicals, modern dance or opera.

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Diseadores Designers

Las ideas para mis diseos provienen de la investigacin de nuevas tcnicas y de plantear nuevos conceptos poco comunes en el medio del diseo

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The ideas for my designs come from the research of new techniques, and introducing new concepts uncommon in the design industry

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Luca Cuba

Diseadores Designers

Su inspiracin proviene de momentos y hechos sociales. Diseadora y cientfica social, su trabajo propone convertir el diseo de modas en un agente de cambio. De patrones minimalistas, marcada geometra y gama monocromtica, el concepto es para ella ms gravitante que la mera preferencia esttica. Ms que vestir a la mujer, lo que ella busca es contribuir en el proceso de sensibilizacin, informacin y cambio de comportamiento hacia el desarrollo social. El suyo es un arte que parte de una interpretacin del mundo, y que intenta ser nico, crtico, reflexivo, esttico y comunicativo. Luego de obtener una beca Fulbright, la diseadora realiz una maestra en Parsons The New School for Design en el programa Fashion, Design & Society en Nueva York, donde se gradu presentando la tesis/coleccin "Artculo 6: Narrativas de gnero, fortaleza y poltica". Ha sido seleccionada como diseadora residente en el Textile Arts Center en Nueva York, ciudad donde particip adems en el competitivo Fashion Week.

Her inspiration comes from social moments and events. Luca Cubas work, who apart from being a designer is a Social Scientist with a Masters Degree in Educational Psychology and Doctorate in Public Health, combines the social aspects with fashion, and proposes a costume design as an agent of change. With minimalist patterns, strong geometry and monochromatic range, a concept is, for her, more influential than a mere aesthetic preference. Rather than dressing women, her aim is to contribute in their process of awareness, information and behavior change towards social development. Hers is an art that comes from an interpretation of the world and tries to be unique, critical, reflexive, aesthetic and communicative. After obtaining a Fulbright scholarship, the designer pursued a Masters Degree at Parsons The New School for Design in the Fashion, Design & Society program from New York, where she graduated by presenting her thesis/collection Article 6: Narratives of Gender, Strength and Policy. She has been selected as resident designer in Textile Arts Center in New York, where she also participated in its competitive Fashion Week.

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Diseadores Designers

Uno nunca deja de aprender a disear. El proceso de crecimiento es constante y no existen frmulas o parmetros nicos para crear. Solo visiones y acciones concretas en las que podemos expresar nuestra interpretacin del mundo

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You never stop learning to design. The growth process is constant and there are no unique formulas or guidelines to create. There are only visions and actions in which we can express our interpretation of the world

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Sergio Dvila

Diseadores Designers

Ganador del premio Rising Star 2009, en la categora Mejor Diseador de Ropa para Caballeros, concedido por el Fashion Group International de Nueva York. Nominado al ao siguiente en la misma categora por la Ecco Domani Fashion Foundation. Es el primer diseador peruano que particip en la Semana de la Moda de Nueva York. Su estilo inteligente y elegante, que fusiona el estilo de vida estadounidense con los gneros de punto y los ms suaves textiles peruanos, ubica a Sergio Dvila en el podio de los creadores peruanos de mayor proyeccin internacional. Protagonista de la escena de la moda de Manhattan y habitu de los desfiles en el Bryant Park, lo suyo es la sofisticacin deportiva, sin perder la informalidad y el deseo por la aventura. Sus materiales favoritos son las lanillas y cachemires Barrington ciento por ciento naturales, que utiliza para demostrar el estilo del hombre de las tres Amricas en sus desfiles internacionales. Por cierto, despus de tantos logros, el diseador agradece a los boy scouts del Per el haberle enseado a coser su propia ropa. Dice que ah naci todo.

Winner of the 2009 Rising Star award, for Best Menswear Designer, granted by the Fashion Group International of New York. He was nominated the following year in the same category for the Ecco Domani Fashion Foundation. The first Peruvian Designer who participated in the New York Fashion Week. His smart and elegant style, which fuses American lifestyle with Peruvian types of weaving and the softest textiles, positions Sergio Dvila as one of the most internationally known Peruvian creators. Main part of the fashion scene in Manhattan and habitu of fashion shows at Bryant Park, his theme is sporty sophistication without losing informality and desire for adventure. His favorite materials are flannel and one hundred percent natural cashmere Barrington, which he uses to demonstrate the style of men from the three Americas in his international fashion shows. Furthermore, after all these achievements, the designer thanks the Peruvian Boy Scouts for teaching him how to sew his own clothes. Everything started there.

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Mi madre nos vesta con ropa que traa de Buenos Aires, Nueva York y Miami. Combinndola con algunos productos nacionales con el mejor algodn peruano y lanas que eran una maravilla al tacto. Estas lanas cuando eran tejidas por nuestras madres o abuelas siempre han tenido un valor especial

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My mother used to dress us in clothes brought from Buenos Aires, New York and Miami. She used to combine them with some domestic products with the best Peruvian cotton and wool that were wonderful to touch. When this wool was woven by our mothers and grandmothers, it had a very special value

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Titi Guiulfo

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Empez en el diseo haciendo polos publicitarios de cerveza. Luego confeccion costalillos de harina. Se interes en la ropa de nios y consigui las licencias de marcas exclusivas. Trabaj para un importante grupo de manufacturas, luego se dedic a la alta costura. Finalmente, harta de las mujeres que lo nico que buscaban en un vestido era conseguir la figura que la naturaleza no les haba prodigado, se fue a la sierra y entr en comunin con la moda artesanal. Ahora Guiulfo solo utiliza telas para los forros de sus creaciones. Sus abrigos, sus chaquetas, sus vestidos son todos tejidos con palitos o con telar. Sus diseos, sean de fibra de alpaca o algodn, tienen una identidad distinta, profunda, sabia, propia de una artista que recurre a las tcnicas ancestrales, que desarrolla y perfecciona en las mezclas y combinaciones de fibras; que investiga en la historia, la herencia y la tradicin. Recorriendo el pas en camin, en mula o a pie, la diseadora ha recopilado cientos de experiencias maravillosas, rescatando tradiciones de tejedores, empoderando a las mujeres artesanas y capacitando a las familias de comunidades andinas para convertirlas en empresarias. Ha sabido, incluso, convocar a la empresa privada para participar en proyectos de desarrollo en comunidades.

She started designing beer advertising t-shirts. Then, she made flour bags. She became interested in childrens clothing and obtained exclusive trademark licenses. She worked for a leading manufacturing group; then she dedicated her time to the haute couture. Finally, tired of women who were only looking for a dress to get the shape they were not given by nature, she went to the mountains and joined the artisanal fashion. Now, Ms. Guiulfo only uses fabrics for linings of her creations. Her coats, jackets and dresses are all knitted or woven on a loom. Her designs, either made of alpaca fiber or cotton, have a distinct, deep, wise, typical identity of an artist who uses the ancient techniques, develops and masters blends and combinations of fibers, and investigates history, heritage and tradition. Visiting the country by truck, mule or by foot, this designer has collected hundreds of wonderful experiences, rescuing traditions of weavers, empowering craftswomen, and training families from Andean communities to become entrepreneurs. She has even called private enterprises to engage in projects for community development.

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El diseo peruano es muy rico: lo hacen especial sus diseos milenarios, los repasos de finas tramas y urdimbres en telar, los infinitos y caprichosos puntos, las texturas. Adems, los tintes naturales con flores, hojas, semillas, races y tierras barros le dan a las fibras unas tonalidades maravillosas

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The PERUVIAN DESIGN IS VERY RICH: ITS ANCIENT DESIGNS, THE REWORK ON FINE WEFT AND WARP, THE INFINITE POINTS, THE TEXTURES. FURTHERMORE, THE NATURAL DYES WITH FLOWERS, LEAVES, SEEDS AND ROOTS GIVE THE FIBerS WONDERFUL SHADES

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Sumy Kujn

Diseadores Designers

De estilo moderno, resuelto y definido, los diseos de Sumy Kujn son un tnico para todo guardarropa. Ella plasma sus identidades japonesa y peruana en prendas de espritu minimalista, utilizando para ello el algodn Pima, la alpaca, el lino y todas sus mezclas con seda. Para la diseadora, la danza contempornea resulta una influencia muy fuerte en su trabajo, pues entender el cuerpo humano en movimiento le ayuda a reinterpretarlo en la tela y los cortes. Su propuesta se fundamenta en la reinterpretacin, en la bsqueda de siluetas originales pero a la vez accesibles al cuerpo, brindando a quien lleve sus creaciones fantasa, actualidad, comodidad y bienestar. As es su estilo: atemporal, audaz y cosmopolita.

With a determined, defined and modern style, Sumy Kujns designs are a tonic for every wardrobe. She captures her Japanese and Peruvian spirit in minimalist clothing, using Pima cotton, alpaca, and linen, all of which she blends with silk. For this designer, contemporary dance is a strong influence in her work, because understanding a moving human body helps her reinterpret it in the fabric and cuts of her clothes. Her work is based on reinterpretation. The search for original silhouettes accessible to the body, yet also providing one with fantasy, comfort and welfare. Thats her style: timeless, bold and cosmopolitan.

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Un diseador de moda debe ser un buen observador. Ser creativo, curioso, tener amor por el arte en sus diferentes disciplinas. Debe saber trabajar en equipo, tener visin propia, capacidad de reinterpretar, gusto por nuevas culturas Y, claro, saber aceptar crticas

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A fashion designer should be a good observer. Be creative, curious, love art in its various disciplines. They must be a team player, have their own vision, be able to reinterpret and taste new cultures. And of course, know how to accept criticism

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Andrea Llosa

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Personalidad, estilo urbano, lneas geomtricas: Andrea Llosa disea prendas modernas para mujeres de fuerte personalidad que buscan diferenciarse. Diseadora de modas graduada en Barcelona, fund su marca luego de ser elegida entre los diez mejores diseadores de todas las escuelas catalanas. En Londres trabaj para la marca espaola Lavand, mantenindose presente en las ms importantes semanas de la moda de la Pennsula Ibrica. En el 2010 regres a Lima para sorprender en la Semana de la Moda de esta ciudad con una coleccin en negro absoluto. Una oportunidad para mostrar sus sofisticadas mezclas de tejido europeo y fibras peruanas, transparencias de seda y materiales sintticos que definen una sensibilidad urbana entre la rebelda punk y la feminidad gtica. Prendas prcticas y elegantes para el glamour nocturno. Actualmente, los puntos de venta de Andrea Llosa incluyen en el mapa las ciudades de Lima, Barcelona y Riad, en Arabia Saudita.

Personality, urban style, geometric lines: Andrea Llosa designs modern clothes for women with strong personalities, women who want to make a difference. She graduated as a fashion designer in Barcelona, and created her own brand after being chosen as one of the top 10 designers in all of Catalan Schools. In London, she worked for the Spanish brand Lavand, and attended the most important fashion weeks in the Iberian Peninsula. In 2010, she came back to Lima to surprise people during Fashion Week with an all black collection. This was a chance to show the world her sophisticated blends of European fabrics and Peruvian fibers, silk transparencies, and synthetic materials; a style that exemplifies an urban sensitivity between punk rebelliousness and Gothic femininity; practical and elegant garments for evening glamour. Currently, the outlets of Andrea Llosa include cities like Lima, Barcelona and Riyadh, in Arabia Saudi.

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Un diseador de moda debe estar siempre informado de lo que pasa en las capitales ms importantes de la moda. Ver arte, diseo, estar siempre al da

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A fashion designer should always be informed of what is happening in the major capitals of fashion, see art, design, and be up-to-date

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Harumi Momota

Diseadores Designers

Glamour y romanticismo de los aos cincuenta en elegante y verstil fusin con la sencillez natural. El mundo fashion ms elitista y la simplicidad del artesano. Harumi Momota sintetiza ambos mundos aunque, si le dieran a escoger, abandonara los dos ambientes de su oficina limea y pasara la mayor parte de su tiempo al lado de las mujeres artesanas que elaboran prendas a mano o en telar artesanal en talleres productivos en Puno, Ayacucho, Arequipa, Cusco y otras ciudades andinas. Y es que desde los 12 aos, edad en que decidi dedicarse al diseo de modas, a Harumi Momota le apasionaron la alpaca, el algodn Pima y el Tangis, materiales con los que se logran mezclas fantsticas para trabajar. Mezclando tradicin y tendencias actuales, sus diseos se inspiran en la cultura tejedora peruana, utilizando tcnicas tan diversas como el tejido con palitos y a crochet, el bordado a mano y a mquina o los telares de cintura y de pie. Ha participado en el Saln del Prt--porter en Pars, en Intermoda (Mxico), entre otras pasarelas.

Her style embodies glamour and romance of the 50s, an elegant and versatile fusion with natural simplicity, a more exclusive Fashion World and the simplicity of an artisan craftsman. Harumi Momota unites both worlds; however, if given the choice, she would leave her two offices in Lima and spend most of her time with the craftswomen who make their clothes by hand or in artisanal looms in production workshops of Puno, Ayacucho, Arequipa, Cusco and other Andean cities. She was 12 years, when she decided to devote her life to fashion design, Harumi Momota has been passionate for the alpaca, Pima cotton and Tangis, materials that are great blends to work with. Blending tradition and current trends, her designs are inspired by the Peruvian Weaving Culture, using diverse techniques such as crochet, hand or machine embroidery, or waist and foot-powered looms. She has participated in the Prt--Porter Fair in Paris and Intermoda in Mexico, among others.

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La unin de toda la industria y los colegas hace la fuerza. Si queremos ser reconocidos a nivel mundial como un referente textil de moda y diseo de alto nivel, como se reconoce en nuestras materias primas, tenemos que unirnos todos para posicionar nuestro pas como referente textil de moda y diseo de alta gama

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The union of all industry and colleagues is strength. If we want to be recognized worldwide as a leader in highlevel fashion and textile design, as we are with our raw materials, we must all unite to position our country as a leader in high-quality fashion and textile design

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Jorge Luis Salinas

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Su padre venda telas, su madre confeccionaba ropa. Jorge Luis Salinas es hijo del boom industrial del emporio de confecciones de Gamarra. Estudi diseo de modas en la Philadelphia University. En 1998, obtuvo su primer premio en Colonia, Alemania, con la coleccin Avant Garde hecha en patchwork. Cuatro aos despus, fue reconocido en el Gen Art de Nueva York por una coleccin en tejidos hechos a mano, destacando tambin como mejor coleccin segn la revista Vogue en Espaol en el Fashion Week de Miami. l imagina texturas, colores y formas desde que comenz en el emporio victoriano en 1996, a los 25 aos. Sus diseos son nicos cuando se trata de demostrar la versatilidad de la tela ms usada en el mundo. Demostrando que el denim puede convertirse en una segunda piel, Salinas es un creador de tendencias, algunas tan geniales como bordar en sus jeans flores de colores andinos. Ese fue el impulso que necesitaba su marca Emporium, caracterizada por su moda andina y vanguardista.

His father used to sell fabrics, and his mother made clothes. Jorge Luis Salinas is the son of the industrial boom of the Gamarra clothing emporium. He studied fashion design at Philadelphia University. In 1998, he won his first prize in Cologne, Germany, with an Avant Garde Collection made in Patchwork. Four years later, he was recognized at the Gen Art in New York for a collection in handmade fabrics, which, according to the Spanish Magazine Vogue, also excelled as the best collection in the Fashion Week in Miami. He imagines textures, colors and shapes since he began in the La Victoria emporium in 1996, at the age of 25. His designs are unique, and demonstrate the versatility of the most used fabric in the world. He has shown that denim can become a second skin. Salinas is a trendsetter, and has some of his jeans embroidered with Andean colorful flowers. That was the impetus that his brand needed, Emporium, characterized by its Andean and avant garde fashion.

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Mis ideas provienen de la vida diaria, del caminar por las calles, de viajar mucho. Todo eso hace aflorar ideas nuevas para mis prximas colecciones

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MY IDEAS COME FROM DAILY LIFE, FROM WALKING DOWN THE STREET AND TRAVELLING. THIS BRING NEW IDEAS FOR MY NEXT COLLECTIONS

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Sitka Semsch

Diseadores Designers

Verdadero cono del diseo peruano, las creaciones de Sitka van dirigidas a una mujer a la que le gusta y valora lo natural, lo sensual y lo elegante. Tras culminar sus estudios en la Rhode Island School of Design, en la ciudad de Providence, Estados Unidos, y de practicar con Michael Kors, regres al Per para hacer diseo a medida en el garaje de la casa de su madre. Poco despus se volvi un referente en la creacin de vestidos de noche y diseos para novias. Luego incursionara en el prt--porter para su tienda, con chaquetas, chompas, faldas, pantalones, sacos y blusas. En el ao 2003 recibi el premio New Star in Fashion en Miami y ese mismo ao fue invitada a participar en la Semana de la Moda de Mosc, siendo la nica latinoamericana que ha conquistado el mercado ruso. En sus colecciones le encanta combinar texturas, como las aplicaciones de lentejuelas, o la superposicin de telas diferentes. Sus diseos proyectan al Per en su aspecto ms moderno, sutil y cosmopolita. Al final, con sencillez, una de las diseadoras ms exitosas del medio siempre dir que su aspiracin mxima es que las mujeres se sientan hermosas usando su ropa.

She is truly a Peruvian design icon, Sitkas creations are aimed at the woman who loves and appreciates nature, sensuality and elegance. After completing her studies at the Rhode Island School of Design, in the city of Providence in the United States, and practicing with Michael Kors, she returned to Peru to custom design in the garage of her mothers house. Soon after, she became a leader in the creation of evening dresses and bridal designs. Later, she ventured into a prt-porter in her store, offering jackets, sweaters, skirts, pants, jackets and blouses. In 2003, she was awarded with the New Star in Fashion Prize in Miami and that same year she was invited to participate in the Fashion Week in Moscow, the only Latin American who has conquered the Russian Market. In her collections, she loves to combine textures such as the application of sequins, or juxtaposition of different fabrics such as bright fabrics under veils. Her designs catapult Peru into its most modern, subtle and cosmopolitan arena. After all, with simplicity, one of the most successful designers will always say that her highest aspiration is that women feel beautiful wearing her clothes.

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No dejo de aprender todos los das. Pero la leccin ms importante es que ante cada cada, debemos levantarnos rpidamente y seguir con nuestros sueos

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I keep learning every day. But the most important lesson is that with every fall, we should get up quickly and get on with our dreams

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Giuliana Testino

Diseadores Designers

Su tema es el tejido a mano, el knit-wear. Ligera, sensual y romntica, su obra se inspira en la cultura y los colores peruanos, utilizando tcnicas tradicionales como el crochet, el macram y el bordado, a las que aplica un toque de modernidad y elegancia. Sus diseos abrazan el cuerpo de quien los viste, sean hermosos chales, bufandas, pantalones cortos, chaquetas kimono, capas o cinturones, realizados por las excelentes tejedoras de su taller limeo. El material estrella de sus prendas es el algodn, que ella considera el hilo del futuro, adems de sus deliciosas mezclas de alpaca y seda. Giuliana es una mujer fascinada por la mercera, las blondas, los botones, los greviches, las mostacillas y las piedras. En un medio en que escasea la pasamanera, la diseadora ingenia soluciones creando ella misma las blondas y cualquier otro detalle a mano. Hoy sus creaciones son exhibidas en las poderosas tiendas estadounidenses Neiman Marcus y Saks Fifth Avenue, as como la londinense Matches. Adems, hay boutiques en Pars, Italia, Singapur, Grecia y Japn que cuentan con sus productos en vitrina. Su nombre se asocia con moda, excelencia y glamour, pero tambin con perseverancia, dedicacin y trabajo permanente.

Her theme is hand weaving, also called knit-wear. Light, sensual and romantic, her work is inspired by the Peruvian culture and colors. She uses traditional techniques such as crochet, macrame and embroidery, and applies a touch of modernity and elegance to them. Her designs embrace the body of the person who wears them, whether they are beautiful shawls, scarves, shorts, kimono jackets, coats or belts, made by the great weavers of her workshop in Lima. Her garments are mainly made with cotton, which she considers the thread of the future, in addition to her delicious blends of alpaca and silk. Giuliana is a woman fascinated by notions, lace, buttons, studs, beads and stones. In an environment with scarce braids, this designer manages to find solutions by creating lace, or any other detail, by hand. Today, her creations are showcased in upscale U.S. stores such as Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue; as well as in Matches in London. In addition, there are boutiques in Paris, Italy, Singapore, Greece and Japan that have her products on display. Her name is associated with fashion, glamour and excellence, but also with perseverance, dedication and permanent work.

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El diseo no es glamour. Glamour es lo que se vende, pero detrs hay mucho sacrificio y dedicacin. Aunque, si te apasiona, es maravilloso

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Design is not glamour. Glamour is what sells, but behind it there is much sacrifice and dedication. But if you are passionate about it, it's wonderful

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Jos Miguel Valdivia

Diseadores Designers

Uno de los diseadores peruanos que mejor conoce la versatilidad de una fibra tan noble como la alpaca tiene un corazn barroco. No solo por la pasin que plasma en sus diseos, sino porque los conos religiosos son piezas imprescindibles en buena parte de sus creaciones. Las ideas para sus diseos sintonizan directamente con las tradiciones populares peruanas, pero tambin con una profunda investigacin histrica. En efecto, la historia de la moda es su pasin confesa, y ciertas pocas le llaman cada cierto tiempo a investigarlas una y otra vez. En 1990 fue aceptado en el Instituto Francs de la Moda, en Pars, para una especializacin en moda y textiles. Becado por el Gobierno francs y por la casa de modas Yves Saint Laurent, complement dichos estudios con prcticas profesionales en esta casa de alta costura. Al regresar al Per, su trabajo se ha inclinado por el diseo de sus propias lneas, as como en consultoras para la industria de la moda, brindando servicios en desarrollo de producto y diseo de colecciones para empresas textiles y de confecciones. Sus colecciones se han presentado en Madrid, Pars, Sel y Manhattan.

One of the Peruvian designers who best understands the versatility of such a noble fiber as the alpaca, Jos Miguel Valdivia has a baroque heart. Not only because of the passion seen in his designs, but because the religious icons are very important pieces in most of his creations. The ideas for his designs directly match with Peruvian folk traditions, but also with deep historical research. In fact, fashion history is his confessed passion and, from time to time, he is tempted to investigate certain periods over and over again. He was accepted in 1990 into the French Institute of Fashion in Paris for a Specialization in Fashion and Textiles. He was granted a scholarship from the French Government and the Yves Saint Laurent Couture House and complemented such studies with professional practices in this couture house. Back in Peru, he tends to design his own lines, as well as in consultancy offices for the fashion industry, rendering services for product development and design of collections for textile and clothing companies. His collections have been shown in Madrid, Paris, Seoul and Manhattan.

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Mi entorno de trabajo definitivamente no est sOlo en mi oficina ni en mi atelier. Puede estar en un avin o en el jardn de la casa, en la mesa de un caf (en Lima, Pars o el Cusco), en una fbrica de telas, en una curtiembre o en el taller de un artesano. Las ideas se procesan en diferentes lugares y momentos. Unas veces solo, otras con mis chicas en el Atelier. Una vez que se desata el hilo de la madeja, nos ponemos a correr

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My work environment is definitely not only in my office or in my studio. It can be on a plane or in the garden of the house, on a coffee table (in Lima, Paris or Cusco), in a fabric factory, a tannery, or the workshop of an artisan. The ideas are processed in different places at different times, sometimes alone, sometimes with my girls in the studio. Once the thread is unwound, we start to run

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A country of an old mining tradition, Peru also has a long history of craftsmen and jewelers. It is not just a product made with premium quality raw material; the Peruvian jewelry pieces combine artistic talent, the best techniques and unique designs that are drawn from the past, but reinterpreted by contemporary sensibility. As with clothing, Peruvian work with precious metals from the first half of the twentieth century was dedicated to duplicate exactly his two strongest historical references: the icons of pre-Columbian art and baroque images of colonial art; HOWEVER, A REVOLUTION WOULD COME.

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Contemporary Peruvian Jewelry

Joyera contempornea peruana


Un pas de una antigua tradicin minera como el Per tambin tiene una larga historia de artesanos y joyeros. No se trata solo de un producto elaborado con materia prima de primera calidad: las piezas de la joyera peruana combinan el talento artstico, las mejores tcnicas y diseos nicos que se nutren del pasado, pero que han sido reinterpretados por la sensibilidad contempornea. Como sucede con el vestido, la orfebrera peruana de la primera mitad del siglo XX se haba dedicado a copiar literalmente sus dos ms fuertes referentes histricos: los conos del arte precolombino y las imgenes barrocas del arte colonial; SIN EMBARGO, UNA REVOLUCIN LLEGARA DESPUS.

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Piezas de orfebrera Graciela Laffi. Pieces of orfebrery by Graciela Laffi.

La obra de la orfebre italiana Graciela Laffi es una de las primeras que conciliar la evocacin de un Per Antiguo, partiendo de la gran orfebrera preincaica, con una reflexin moderna. Laffi vino al Per en 1947. Pens que su trnsito por el pas sera breve, pero cay cautivada por los restos arqueolgicos prehispnicos, sus ruinas y misteriosas lneas, dibujos y colores. Enamorada de la plata, metal que los antiguos asociaron con la Luna, empez a trabajar empleando la tcnica del orfebre milenario: desde la fundicin del metal, el laminado, el martillado y la soldadura. A mediados de los aos setenta, otra enamorada del Per, Ester Ventura, llevada por el asombro por las artes populares andinas, se lanz a una osada transformacin de la tradicin para cargarla de audacia moderna. Armada con su intuicin y apoyada por artesanos cusqueos, ayacuchanos y huancanos, la diseadora fue explorando diferentes conceptos que contrastaban la antigua platera popular y los engastes modernos. El hombre que habitaba estas tierras tena una conexin no utilitaria sino simblica con los objetos que fabricaba. Nada de lo que se utilizaba como adorno era accesorio, explica la artista.

Nacida en Buenos Aires, antes de emprender en el Cusco su notable e intuitiva carrera como diseadora, Ventura fue pedagoga, estudiante de derecho, psicologa y antropologa. A ello se aade una intensa actividad en el rea de produccin cinematogrfica, carrera que la trajo en 1974 al Per, donde radica desde esa fecha. Por entonces, en el arte de la joyera local destacaban claramente dos corrientes: la reproduccin de los conos precolombinos o coloniales. Por supuesto, copiar lo que vena de Miami o de Italia tambin era la moda. Para Ventura, el reto era romper con esa repeticin de patrones. Como una verdadera artista del readymade, recicl piezas de platera antigua para transformarlas. Los artesanos me consideraban una hereje, recuerda divertida. Sin saberlo, con sus experimentaciones estaba inaugurando una nueva lnea en el diseo de joyera peruana. Ventura debut ante los ojos limeos en una exposicin presentada en la galera Equus en 1983. El entusiasmo crtico y del pblico por su originalidad y eclecticismo respald un trabajo que no dej de evolucionar, y que hoy cuenta con una larga lista de exposiciones en galeras y museos, como el Museo Metropolitano de Arte de Nueva York, el Museo de Quai Branly en Pars, el Today Art Museum de Beijing, el Museo de Arte de Praga, y otras instituciones de So Paulo, Buenos Aires, Madrid, Londres, Mnaco y Roma.

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The work of the Italian goldsmith Graciela Laffi was among the first that reconciled the evocation of ancient Peru, combining the great Inca goldsmithing with a modern reflection. Ms. Laffi came to Peru in 1947. She thought that her passage through the country would be brief, but she was captivated by the archaeological Pre-Hispanic ruins and mysterious lines, patterns and colors. In love with silver, metal that was formerly associated with the Moon, she began to work using the ancient art of the silversmith: from metal smelting, rolling, hammering and welding. In the mid-seventies, another Peru lover, Ester Ventura, taken by surprise by the Andean folk arts, launched a courageous transformation of tradition to give it a modern daring change. Armed with her intuition, and supported by artisans from Cusco, Ayacucho and Huancayo, this designer was exploring different concepts that contrasted the old popular silverware and the modern settings. The man who inhabited these lands had a utilitarian but not symbolic connection with the objects he manufactured. Nothing that was used as adornment was accessory, explains the artist. Born in Buenos Aires, before embarking on her remarkable and intuitive design career in Cusco, Ms. Ventura was a pedagogue, a student of law, psychology and anthropology. This was compounded by intense activity in the area of film production, which brought her in 1974 to Peru, where she has lived ever since. By then, in the art of local jewelry, two streams were clearly outstanding: the reproduction of pre-Columbian or colonial icons. Of course, copying what came from Miami or Italy was also in fashion. For Ventura, the challenge was to break those patterns of repetition. Like a true artist of the readymade, she recycled pieces of old silverware to transform them. Craftsmen saw me as a heretic, she recalls with joy. Unknowingly, her experiments were inaugurating a new line in the Peruvian jewelry design. Ventura debuted before the eyes of Lima in an exhibition at the Equus Gallery in 1983. The critical and public enthusiasm for her originality and eclecticism supported a work that did not stop evolving, and today displays a long list of exhibitions in galleries and museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Museum of Quai Branly in Paris, the Beijing Today Art Museum, the Art Museum of Prague, and other institutions of So Paulo, Buenos Aires, Madrid, London, Monaco and Rome.
Accesorios Ester Ventura. Accesories by Ester Ventura.

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Cochy Garca

Guillermo Queirolo

Ventura ha desarrollado sus principales lneas en oro y plata, pero su trabajo trasciende el dominio del metal. Ella aplica las formas naturales y el arte originario, apreciando la sabidura del objeto natural que convertir en el centro o motivo de su obra. Fusionando fragmentos de tejidos, gasas, conchas de spondylus, plumas, huayruros, chaquiras o caracoles, alas de coleptero incluso, la artista va ms all del concepto clsico de la joyera, convirtiendo sus piezas en prendas de vestir que nos remiten a lo orgnico. De su obsesin por el pasado en los primeros aos, evolucion a una observacin integral de la naturaleza. Sus mallas de plata que nos recuerdan la trama y urdimbre prehispnica son un excelente ejemplo de un arte contemporneo que se nutre de la mstica de la cultura originaria. Ester Ventura traz nuevas lneas de trabajo que revolucionaron la joyera contempornea local, llevndola a un nivel superior. Por ello, sus piezas resultan el mejor regalo ofrecido a nivel oficial para funcionarios extranjeros de alto rango, jefes de gobierno y monarcas como Sofa de Grecia, la actual reina de Espaa. Su trabajo encontr en nuevos diseadores la tan ansiada continuidad artstica. Hoy no se podra hablar de joyas y accesorios sin citar los trabajos de la diseadora de modas Andrea Llosa, quien se inspira en estructuras geomtricas de aires tnicos; o los diseos atrevidos y elegantes siempre en plata del vanguardista Gonzalo Palma; y la libertad de Meche Correa para crear joyas que proyectan la magia y el misticismo de las culturas ancestrales.

Tambin reflejan el salto cualitativo de la joyera contempornea peruana los diseos elegantes, refinados y femeninos de Ilaria Ciabatti, amante de la orfebrera y del arte colonial. Su trabajo funde con armona la plata con elementos naturales como el palo andino, el ncar, la sodalita, la turquesa peruana, el cuarzo y la amatista, entre otros materiales. Su empresa Ideas Aplicadas trabaja con un promedio de cien artesanos y ha desplegado sus tiendas en Lima y las principales ciudades peruanas. Su proyeccin internacional incluye tiendas en Chile y franquicias en Centroamrica. Asimismo, destacan las joyas inspiradas en formas orgnicas, especialmente florales de Patricia Zamora, o los diseos de Cochy Garca Martnez, cuyas joyas combinan la plata con diversas materias como piedras de cuarzo, spondylus, cornalina, vidrio de la India, maces andinos, concha de ncar o fsiles marinos. Tambin investiga en motivos de los textiles de la cultura Chancay. Los suyos son mucho ms que objetos que calzan alrededor del cuello de las usuarias. La nueva joyera peruana se relaciona e interacta con el cuerpo: el cuerpo activa el poder del adorno y este nos recuerda de dnde venimos.

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Gonzalo Palma

Patricia Zamora

Ventura has developed her main artistic lines in gold and silver, but her work transcends the domain of metal. She applies natural forms and original art, appreciating the wisdom of the natural object that she will transform into the center or motive of her work. Merging fragments of fabrics, gauze, spondylus shells, feathers, huayruros, beads or shells, even beetle wings, the artist goes beyond the traditional concept of jewelry, making clothing that evoke the organic. From her obsession with the past in the early years, she evolved into a comprehensive observation of nature. Her silver meshes, which remind us of the PreHispanic warp and woof, are an excellent example of a contemporary art that draws from the mystique of the original culture. Ester Ventura drew new lines of work that revolutionized local contemporary jewelry, leading us to a higher level. Thus, her pieces are the first-rate gifts offered to foreign senior officials, heads of state and monarchs such as Sofia of Greece, the current Queen of Spain. Her work found in new designers the long-awaited artistic continuity. Today, no one could speak of jewelry and accessories without mentioning the work of fashion designer Andrea Llosa, who is inspired by ethnic air geometric structures, or the bold and elegant designs made of silver by the innovator Gonzalo Palma, and the freedom of Meche Correa to create jewelry that casts the magic and mysticism of ancient cultures.

Elegant, refined and feminine designs of Ilaria Ciabatti, lover of jewelry and colonial art, also reflect the qualitative leap of contemporary Peruvian jewelry. Her work harmoniously melt silver with natural elements like the Andean opal, mother-of-pearl, sodalite, Peruvian turquoise, quartz and amethyst, among other materials. Ideas Aplicadas, her company works with about a hundred artisans and has stores in Lima and Perus major cities. Her international projection includes stores and franchises in Chile and Central America. Furthermore, jewels inspired by organic forms, especially floral by Patricia Zamora, or designs by Cochy Garca Martnez, whose jewels combine silver with various materials such as quartz stones, spondylus, carnelian, India glass beads, Andean corn, mother-of-pearl or marine fossils. They also made further research and work with Chancay culture decorative motifs. Theirs are much more than objects that fit around the neck of the user. The new Peruvian jewelry relates and interacts with the body: the body activates the power of adornment and it reminds us where we came from.

There is no fashion without shoes. That is how shoe designers have always felt when working with leather, chamois, and fabrics. Their creations, apart from their great design, have the added value of creativity and dedication. It is amazing that for years Peru was a country where shoes were made, but not designed, until just recently. Jos Luis Gutirrez, Vanessa Dellepiane, Viviane Fiedler, Jessica Butrich, and Meche Salem are some of those rare shoe designers, WHO ARE THE KIND OF ARTISTS THAT CREATE ESSENTIAL PIECES to COMPLETE AN OUTFIT.

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ACCESSORIES

ACCESORIOS
No hay moda sin zapatos. As lo han entendido los diseadores de calzado apoderados de los cueros, las gamuzas y las telas. al buen diseo se agrega el valor de un trabajo hecho con creatividad y dedicacin. Es toda una paradoja que por aos Per haya sido un pas donde se fabricaBAn zapatos, pero no donde se diseaBAn. Hasta ahora. Jos Luis Gutirrez, Vanessa Dellepiane, Viviane Fiedler, Jessica Butrich y Meche Salem son de esos escasos artistas cuyas obras RESULTAN hoy imprescindibles para completar el outfit.

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Los zapatos son una de las prendas preferidas de las mujeres. Eso lo sabe bien Jos Luis Gutirrez, dueo de la empresa de calzado femenino Marcello Toshi Creazioni. Heredero del oficio de los zapateros populares, creci mirando los catlogos italianos que su padre tena en su taller. Aprendi por correspondencia diseo y patronera de zapatos. Su actual xito es un ejemplo de esfuerzo y dedicacin. A los 18 aos ya era confeccionista en un taller donde se segua la escuela italiana, en el popular distrito limeo de Surquillo. Tres aos despus, empez a trabajar por cuenta propia especializado en zapatos de mujer. En el ao 2002 mont su primera tienda en el comercial distrito de Miraflores, pero decidi cerrarla para dedicar todos sus esfuerzos a la exportacin. Su marca se vende hoy en la ciudad de Los ngeles, y tiene presencia en pequeas boutiques y casas de diseo de Nueva York y Pars. Asimismo, represent al Per en el Ethical Fashion Show de Pars. No hay nada ms revelador que un par de zapatos. En ellos se descubre el estado de nimo, las expectativas de quien se monte en sus tacones, la sensualidad de la mujer y sus ganas de conquistar el mundo, como los modelos que disea Vanessa Dellepiane. Elegantes y femeninas, las creaciones que ella presenta en su tienda ubicada en el exclusivo distrito de San Isidro resultan una opcin chic para ocasiones especiales. Inici su zapatera en el ao 1994, aprovechando los saldos de cuero del negocio que haba cerrado su madre, la diseadora Laura Maldonado, despus de 20 aos de trabajo.

Jimena Mujica

Como cenicienta y su zapatito de cristal, las creaciones de Jessica Butrich permiten a las mujeres escapar de la monotona de la vida cotidiana. Sus gustos son los accesorios antiguos, el dorado, los lazos y los encajes. Su estilo vincula lo romntico con lo vintage, especialmente de los aos veinte, cuarenta y cincuenta. Ofrece sus zapatos Butrich en su tienda Sirana, en San Isidro, nombre tambin de su marca de ropa y accesorios. Viviane Fiedler disea zapatos para mujeres que no quieren pasar desapercibidas. Su firma en las botas de vestir y casuales, son los colores atrevidos, las grandes hebillas, la mezcla de texturas y los tacos medianos o ausentes. Una sensibilidad roquera y fuerte, que no resta al calzado comodidad y fuerza femenina. En sus dos boutiques limeas, ella inspira a sus clientas a apostar por la audacia. Antes de nacer la marca que lleva su nombre, la diseadora de calzado Mercedes Salem provea de calzado a diseadores locales como Jack Abugattas, Rosario de Armenteras, Sitka Semsch, Claudia Bertolero, No Bernacelli, Gerardo Privat o Claudia Jimnez. Hoy, a su marca para la mujer exclusiva y elegante, suma su lnea Em by Mercedes Salem, ms casual y comercial. Lo suyo son el nen y el pastel, as como diversos tipos de pieles, como la de serpiente, el estampado animal de tigre o cebra, y el grabado. Asimismo, sus cueros de pescado le abrieron el mercado en Estados Unidos. Aunque se enfoca en crecer a nivel local, no desatiende sus contactos internacionales como proveedora, como lo es de la marca Seyrig de Nueva York.

Jessica Butrich

"There is nothing more reveling than a great pair of shoes. In them, one discovers their mood, expectations, sensuality and even a desire to rule the world."

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No hay nada ms revelador que un par de zapatos. En ellos se descubre el estado de nimo, las expectativas de quien se monte en sus tacones, la sensualidad de la mujer y sus ganas de conquistar el mundo.

Meche Salem

Rochi Kahn

Shoes are womens favorite garment. Jos Luis Gutirrez, owner of womens shoe brand Marcello Toshi Creazioni, knows that well. An heir of the shoemakers trade, he grew up flipping through Italian catalogs that his father had in his workshop. He learned through correspondence courses the art of shoe designing and pattern-cutting. His success is an example of his effort and dedication. At age 18, he was already a shoemaker in a workshop that followed the Italian school of thought, in Limas popular district of Surquillo. Three years later he started working on his own, specializing in womens shoes. In 2002 he opened his first shop in the commercial district of Miraflores, but he decided to close it to devote his efforts to exportation instead. Today his brand has spread from Lima, all the way to the city of Los Angeles, and he has a presence in little boutiques and design houses in New York and Paris. Additionally, he has represented Peru in the Ethical Fashion Show in Paris. There is nothing more reveling than a great pair of shoes. In them, one discovers their mood, expectations, sensuality and even a desire to rule the world, just like the shoe models that Vanessa Dellepiane designs. Elegant and feminine, the creations she presents in her store, in the exclusive district of San Isidro, are a very chic option for special occasions. She started her shoe store in 1994, taking advantage of the leather sales from her mothers closed business. Her mother, the designer Laura Maldonado, closed her store after twenty years of business.

Just like Cinderellas crystal slipper, Jessica Butrichs creations let women escape the monotony of everyday life. She has a taste for vintage accessories, gold color, bows and lace. Her style links romance with vintage pieces, especially from the 20s, 40s, and 50s. She sells her Butrich shoes in her store Sirana, in San Isidro, which is also the name of her clothes and accessories brand. Viviane Fiedler designs shoes for women who want to be noticed. Her firm creates dress and casual boots, in bold colors, with big buckles, a mixture of texture and medium or absent heels. A rocker style with strong sensibility, that doesnt take away the comfort and feminine power of the shoes. In both of her boutiques in Lima, she inspires her clients to be fearless. Before creating the brand that carries her name, shoe designer Mercedes Salem provided shoes to local designers like Jack Abugattas, Rosario de Armenteras, Sitka Semsch, Claudia Bertolero, No Bernacelli, Gerardo Privat and Claudia Jimnez. Today, in addition to her brand for elegant and chic women, she has added the line Em by Mercedes Salem, which is more casual and commercial. Her colors of choice are neon and pastels. She also uses diverse types of skins such as snakeskin or animal print of tigers or zebras, and she enjoys using engraving. Furthermore, her fish leather gave her and in with the United States market. Even though she focuses on growing and expanding at a local level, she doesnt ignore the importance of her international contacts, such as the brand Syrig from New York.

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Zapatos y carteras Shoes and bags

Meche Correa

El auge de las carteras de diseo es indiscutible. En un medio con cada vez mayor oferta, los diseadores peruanos han sabido seguir las tendencias y las paletas de colores de la temporada, pero manteniendo una impronta personal, muchas veces inspirada en la cultura local.

El auge de las carteras de diseo es indiscutible. En un medio con cada vez mayor oferta, diseadores peruanos como Jimena Mujica han sabido seguir las tendencias y las paletas de colores de la temporada, pero manteniendo una impronta personal, muchas veces inspirada en la cultura local. Les interesa vender, pero tambin crear y sorprender. Y de sorprender puede dar fe la diseadora Meche Correa, entre cuya lista de clientes exclusivos destaca el mismo expresidente estadounidense Bill Clinton, quien no pudo evitar llevarse a casa una de sus carteras de plstico transparente con conos de la religin popular. As como sus apreciados vestidos, sus accesorios son producto de sus investigaciones del bordado andino de Ayacucho, la canastera de etnias amaznicas como la shipiba o los tejidos del pueblo de San Miguel de Pallaques, en Cajamarca. Sus creaciones se venden no solo en su propio pas, sino tambin en diversos pases de Europa, Estados Unidos y Latinoamrica. La diseadora Karen Mitre lanz su primera coleccin en el 2003. Al ao siguiente, firmaba las guas de exportacin de su primer envo a Tokio. En su exclusiva boutique en San Isidro, los bolsos, clutches y accesorios que llevan su nombre se exponen como verdaderos objetos de lujo. Al suave cuero, ella aade telares peruanos, mexicanos y rabes, bordados con pedrera y mostacillas, o aplicaciones en plata. Verdaderos acabados de filigrana.
Vanessa Dellepiane

Psicloga de profesin, propietaria de una consultora en recursos humanos, Rosa Mara Kahn admite que recin cumpli sus sueos cuando dise su primera cartera. Su empresa Sisay Per disea, produce y comercializa carteras confeccionadas por artesanos de Puno, Madre de Dios y la Comunidad Urbana Autogestionaria de Huaycn, a las afueras de Lima. Cerca de la mitad de su produccin va a exclusivas boutiques de Dubai, Italia, Holanda, Suiza y Francia. Sus carteras estuvieron en la pasarela del Ethical Fashion Show de Pars.

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Viviane Fiedler

"The rise of designer bags is undisputable. In an environment with more to offer everyday, Peruvian designers have learned how to follow each seasonal trend and color pallets, while still keeping their personal mark and frequently inspiring the local culture in the process."

The rise of designer bags is undisputable. In an environment with more to offer everyday, Peruvian designers like Jimena Mujica have learned how to follow each seasonal trend and color pallets, while still keeping their personal mark and frequently inspiring the local culture in the process. They are interested in selling, but also creating and surprising. One designer, Meche Correa, who likes using the element of surprise, also has an exceptional client list which includes former president of the United States, Bill Clinton. After a visit to Peru, Bill Clinton could not resist taking home one of the transparent plastic bags with icons of this popular religion, created by Meche Correa. Just like her beloved dresses, her accessories are products of her research of the Andean embroidery of Ayacucho, basket weaving of Amazonic ethnicities like Shipiba, or weavings of the town of San Miguel de Pallaques in Cajamarca. Her creations are sold not only in her home country, but also in Europe, the United States and Latin-America. The designer, Karen Mitre, launched her first collection in 2003. The following year, she signed a bill of export for her first shipping to Tokyo. In an exclusive boutique in San Isidro, bags, clutches and accessories with her name are displayed, like the true luxury objects that they are. To soft leather, she adds Peruvian, Mexican and Arab traditional textiles, embroidered with rhinestones and beads, or adorned in silver. She uses real filigree finishes.
Karen Mitre

Psychologist and owner of a Human Resources office, Rosa Mara Kahn admits that she fulfilled her dreams when she designed her first bag. Her company, Sisay Per, designs, produces and markets bags made by artisans from Puno, Madre de Dios and the Self-managed Urban Community of Huaycn, on the outskirts of Lima. Almost half of her production goes to exclusive boutiques in Dubai, Italy, Holland, France and Switzerland. Her bags were on the runway of the Ethical Fashion Show of Paris.

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Peru Moda

PER MODA
Es la gran vitrina para la moda peruana y su industria de confecciones. Todo el sector de la vestimenta se rene cada ao, desde el ao 1997, en Per Moda, un verdadero imn que atrae a especialistas, empresarios y fashionistas interesados en descubrir lo ltimo de las propuestas locales de productores, confeccionistas y diseadores. Esta exhibicin comercial no solo apunta a reforzar nuestra industria del vestido, reconocida internacionalmente por el uso de fibras naturales y nobles, sino que busca ubicar al pas en el circuito de las ferias internacionales como una alternativa de produccin para la campaa de invierno y verano de los hemisferios sur y norte, con una oferta elaborada principalmente de algodn y alpaca. Organizado por la Comisin de Promocin del Per para la Exportacin y el Turismo (PromPer), el evento cuenta con el apoyo del Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo (Mincetur), el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, la Asociacin de Exportadores (Adex), la Sociedad Nacional de Industrias (SNI), la Cmara de Comercio de Lima (CCL) y la Sociedad de Comercio Exterior del Per (ComexPer). Per Moda rene alrededor de 400 empresas expositoras y convoca cada ao a 17 000 visitantes. De ellos, 450 compradores provienen de pases con los que Per tiene preferencias arancelarias como Brasil, Mxico y los pases nrdicos. Todos ellos aprecian lo mejor de la oferta exportable peruana en materia de confecciones, calzado, accesorios y joyera.
This is the big opportunity for the Peruvian fashion and clothing industry. All the garment industry gets together every year for Peru Moda, which started in 1997. It has become a real magnet for businessmen and fashionistas interested in discovering the latest local proposals of producers, manufacturers and designers. This commercial exhibition not only aims to reinforce our garment industry, but also aims to help internationally recognize their use of natural and noble fibers. Moreover, it seeks to place the country into the circuit of international fairs, as a production alternative for the winter and summer campaigns of the southern and northern hemispheres, with items principally made of cotton and alpaca. Organized by the Per Explore and Tourism Promotion Board (PromPer), this event is sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (Mincetur), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Peruvian Association of Exporters (Adex), the National Industries Society (SNI), the Lima Chamber of Commerce (CCL) and the Peruvian Foreign Trade Commission (ComexPer). Peru Moda Fashion Week gathers approximately 500 exhibiting companies, and brings together 17 000 visitors. Of these visitors, 450 come from countries which Peru has tariff preferences like Brasil, Mexico and Nordic countries. All of them appreciate the best of the Peruvian exportable items, specifically garments, shoes, accessories and jewelry.

In 2011, Peru exported 1 986 million dollars in products from the textile and clothing sector, for markets known for their high purchasing power and higher standards of living, people who are looking for quality and elegance. The items in cotton, alpaca and vicua fibers, grab the attention of the most prestigious brands and the most exclusive products stores.

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Peru producing for the world

Per produciendo para el mundo


1 986 millones de dlares fue lo que export el Per durante el 2011, en productos del sector textil y confecciones, para mercados caracterizados por el alto nivel adquisitivo y la bsqueda de calidad y excelencia. Las oferta de algodn, fibras de alpaca y de vicua interesan a las marcas ms prestigiosas y a las tiendas de productos exclusivos.

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Las empresas peruanas tambin empiezan a cimentar su proyeccin al mundo. Destacan casos como el del empresario algodonero Ramn Vliz, cuya FIRMA Cotton Project viene trabajando con el grupo Armani desde el ao 2000.

A una feria de carcter internacional como Per Moda arriban firmas tan famosas como Desigual y Custo Barcelona de Espaa, la britnica Ben Sherman, Perry Ellis y Marc Jacobs de Estados Unidos, El Palacio de Hierro de Mxico, Brookfield de Brasil o La Martina de Argentina. Creciendo a una tasa de seis por ciento anual, las exportaciones de textiles peruanos continan incrementndose pese a la desaceleracin mundial, gracias al trabajo en equipo entre el Poder Ejecutivo y el sector privado, siempre a la caza de nuevos mercados. El diseador Sergio Dvila tiene una visin: ver una Amrica unida y conectada por hilos de algodn peruano. Al estadounidense le encanta el algodn Pima. Lo usa durante todo el verano. Es muy suave al tacto y respira, dice. Por ello, no sorprende que la mayora de marcas estadounidenses fabriquen sus camisetas en talleres limeos: Ralph Lauren, Abercrombie & Fitch y Guess son algunas de ellas. Las empresas peruanas tambin empiezan a cimentar su proyeccin al mundo. Destacan casos como el del empresario algodonero Ramn Vliz, cuya firma Cotton Project viene trabajando con el grupo Armani desde el ao 2000. Actualmente exportan con ellos tres millones y medio de dlares, que luego esta prestigiosa marca convertir en 40 millones de dlares en ventas. Proveen confecciones para diversas lneas, como Armani Jeans, Emporio Armani o su lnea deportiva EA7. Somos el primer proveedor para ellos en el mundo. En Armani estn muy satisfechos porque es con nosotros que tienen mejores resultados de venta, explica.

Curiosamente, este destacado ingeniero industrial confiesa que lleg por casualidad al mundo de la industria textil y las confecciones. Reflotando empresas a su cargo, aprendi, en medio de la crisis econmica de mediados de los ochenta, el comportamiento de un sector industrial en permanente movimiento. El negocio de confecciones es nmade. Se desplaza buscando las condiciones de mercado ms propicias: mano de obra barata o disponibilidad de materia prima. El peor error que un empresario de este sector puede hacer es invertir fuertemente en infraestructura y trabajar altos volmenes. Lo nico que te da rentabilidad son las rdenes pequeas, de poco volumen y alto precio. A eso tenemos que orientarnos, explica. Cotton Project empez en el jardn de mi casa, en dos habitaciones desocupadas. Mis activos entonces eran mi escritorio y un lapicero. No tenamos ni un carrete de hilo, recuerda el empresario. Cuando lleg la primera orden por mil piezas, subcontratamos todo. Despus empezamos a contratar gente. Compr las primeras mquinas de coser, buscamos nuevos clientes y empezamos a crecer, explica Vliz, quien actualmente exporta prendas por un total de seis millones de dlares anuales. Y nunca ellos han tenido un problema con nosotros. Todo problema de calidad lo hemos asumido, y solo con la palabra del cliente. Hay una confianza total, sabe que detrs hay una palabra, un compromiso. Adems de Armani, Cotton Project provee al Corte Ingls en Espaa prendas para su marca Emidio Tucci y para el grupo francs Mot Hennessy Louis Vuitton. Actualmente, la empresa tiene agentes de venta en el mercado europeo (Espaa, Italia, Francia y Alemania), adems de Canad y Estados Unidos.

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" Peruvian companies are also starting to show their projections to the world. Some cases stand out, like the cotton businessman Ramn Vliz, whose company Cotton Project has been working with the Armani group since the year 2000.

That is why firms as famous as Desigual and Custo Barcelona from Spain, British Ben Sherman, Perry Ellis and Marc Jacobs from the United States, El Palacio de Hierro from Mexico, Brookfield from Brasil or La Martina from Argentina, come to an international fair like Peru Moda. With a six percent annual growth rate, the Peruvian textile exports continue increasing despite the global slowdown, thanks in part to the teamwork between the Executive Power and the private sector, who are always looking for new markets. The designer Sergio Dvila has a vision: to see an America unified and connected by the threads of Peruvian cotton. Americans love pima cotton. They use it throughout the whole summer. It is very soft to the touch and it breathes, he says. Hence, it is not surprising that most of the main American brands have their shirts made in workshops in Lima: Ralph Lauren, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Guess. Peruvian companies are also starting to show their projections to the world. Some cases stand out, like the cotton businessman Ramn Vliz, whose company Cotton Project has been working with the Armani group since the year 2000. Currently they export with Armani about 3.5 million dollars in sales a year. They manufacture diverse lines for brands such as Armani Jeans, Emporio Armani or its sport line EA7, We are the first supplier for them in the world. Armani is very happy with us because with they have better sales results, he explains.

Interestingly, this outstanding industrial engineer confesses that he arrived by chance to the world of the textile and clothing industry. He was responsible for relaunching companies, but learned in the middle of the economic crisis in the mid eighties, that the behavior of the industrial sector is in permanent movement. The clothing business is a nomad. It moves around searching for the most conducive market conditions: cheap labor force or availability of raw material. The worst error that a businessman from this sector can make is to invest strongly on infrastructure and to work high volumes. The only things that give you profitability are the small orders, of low volume and high prices. We have to point in that direction, he explains. Cotton Project started in my backyard, in two empty rooms. My assets in those days were my desk and a pen. We didnt have even a spool thread, the businessman remembers. When the first order for a thousand pieces arrived, we subcontracted everything. Later we started hiring people. I bought the first sawing machines, we searched for new clients, and we started growing, explains Mr. Vliz, who currently exports garments for a total of six million dollars per year. They never have had a problem with us. We have assumed any quality problem, and only with the clients word. There is total trust, and behind theres a word, a commitment. In addition to Armani, Cotton Project supplies Corte Ingls in Spain, garments for its brand Emidio Tucci and for the French group Mot Hennessy Louis Vuitton. Now the company has sales agents in the European market (Spain, Italy, France and Germany), also in Canada and United States.

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A diferencia de las fbricas concebidas para grandes volmenes, enfocadas principalmente para el mercado estadounidense, su empresa, ms pequea y verstil, tiene como destino el mercado europeo, ms exigente y segmentado, que antepone el estilo a la cantidad. Nosotros recibimos las recomendaciones tcnicas del cliente desde la fabricacin de la tela hasta el acabado de la prenda terminada, lista para entrar al punto de venta. En la medida en que los costos de cada pas en Europa se incrementan, los importadores tratan de que vayas proveyndolos de diseos, desarrollos e innovaciones, para reducir sus propios costos, afirma. Cotton Project no vende colecciones propias, pero s ofrece tcnicas de trabajo originales en diferentes procesos de estampados, bordados o lavados. El cliente mezcla las alternativas que le presentamos y arma su producto. Tambin destaca el huancavelicano Aquilino Flores, director gerente de Topitop, fundado en 1983. Necesit solo una dcada para abrir su primera planta modelo full package, capaz de producir 50 mil prendas diarias, las que se exportan hacia Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brasil y Estados Unidos; es proveedor, adems, de las grandes cadenas Gap y Old Navy. Desde 1999, la marca de este importante empresario textil forma parte del mercado retail y, con 30 tiendas en el pas, satisface a los mercados peruano, venezolano y colombiano; arroja ventas anuales de ms de 200 millones de dlares y emplea a 15 mil personas. Devanlay Per, sociedad annima fundada el ao 2001, se ubica en los primeros lugares del ranking de empresas exportadoras de confecciones. Su mercado se centra en Estados Unidos, al cual dirige el 96 por ciento de sus productos. Su producto estrella: camisas de punto de algodn de la prestigiosa marca Lacoste. Por su parte, Creditex, sociedad annima abierta constituida en los aos noventa, concentra su actividad en la confeccin de prendas de tejido plano de algodn como camisas, blusas y pantalones, para reconocidas marcas y firmas internacionales como L.L. Bean, Charles Tyrwhitt, Giorgio Armani, Ferrioni, Anne Fontaine, Cabela's, F. Schumacher & Co., Swavelle, Mill Creek, Kattan Group, Ike Behar, Nakayama, Schlossberg, Carolina Herrera, Arturo Calle, entre otras. Sus propias marcas, Norman & Taylor y Marc Boehler, con exclusivos diseos y excelente calidad, se ubican entre las mejores marcas del vestir casual.

Unlike the factories designed for large volumes, mainly focused on the American market, his company, smaller and more versatile, has the European market as their destiny, more demanding, more segmented that sets style before quantity. We receive technical recommendations from the client from the fabric making to the finishing of the garment, ready to enter the point-of-sale. As the costs of each country in Europe increase, importers try to get designs, development, and innovations provided to reduce their own expenses, he affirms. Cotton Project doesnt sell its own collections, but offers original work techniques in different stamp processes, embroideries and washings. The client mixes the alternatives that we present and builds their own product. Likewise, Aquilino Flores from Huancavelica stands out. CEO of Topitop, founded in 1983, needed only a decade to open a model factory for exporting garment to Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brasil and United States, so as to supply big chains like Gap and Old Navy. Since 1999, Topitop is part of the retail market and, with thirty stores all over the country, the brand of this important textile businessman has annual sales of more than 200 million dollars and provides work to 15 000 people. Devanlay Per, a public company founded in the year 2001, is in the first place in the ranking of exporters clothing companies. Its market is centered on the United States, to which it directs 96 percent of its products. Its flagship product: cotton knit shirts of the prestigious brand, Lacoste. Meanwhile, Creditex, a join-stock company incorporated in the 1990s, centers its activity in fabric of plain cotton garments like shirts, blouses, and pants, for well-known international brands and firms such as L.L. Bean, Charles Tyrwhitt, Giorgio Armani, Ferrioni, Anne Fontaine, Cabela's, F. Schumacher & Co., Swavelle, Mill Creek, Kattan Group, Ike Behar, Nakayama, Schlossberg, Carolina Herrera, Arturo Calle, among others. Its own brands Norman & Taylor and Marc Boehler, with exclusive designs and excellent quality, are placed among the top brands of casual wear.

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Planta de produccin de empresa textil. Textile factory.

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Otra empresa de exitosos resultados es Nettalco, exportadora de prendas de vestir de tejido de punto de algodn. Constituida en 1965, dos dcadas ms tarde eligi dedicarse exclusivamente al mercado de exportacin. Hoy, entre sus principales clientes se cuentan Lacoste, Lands' End, L.L. Bean, Hanna Andersson, Armani Exchange, Calvin Klein, Spirit of the Andes y American Girl. Estados Unidos es tambin el principal mercado de Textil del Valle, empresa fundada en 1987 cuya planta industrial anima la vida econmica de Chincha, pueblo agricultor al sur de Lima. A travs de prestigiosos clientes como Victorias Secret, Ragman, Ralph Lauren, Nautica o Lacoste, sus prendas de vestir llegan a 24 pases de Europa, Asia, frica, Oceana y Amrica Latina. Asimismo, una tradicional empresa peruana como Universal Textil, tras diversificar sus exportaciones de prendas de vestir, especialmente camisera, pantalones y bermudas, se introdujo en diversos mercados internacionales con marcas y firmas de reconocido prestigio, tales como Tommy Bahama, Peter Millar, Lacoste, La Martina, Timber Creek, Polo Ralph Lauren, Richards, Men's Wearhouse, Dillard's, Brooksfield, Vanity Fair, Zara, Hartmarx, TailorByrd, entre otras. La diseadora Luca Cavero es propietaria de la marca Michlle Belau. Fundada en 1996, sus diseos hiperfemeninos, romnticos y detallistas se ofrecen en sus diversas tiendas abiertas en Lima y provincias, as como en su primera casa internacional en Santiago de Chile. Otra marca peruana, Dunkelvolk, empez hace 15 aos confeccionando pantalones para patinadores y skaters y, desde entonces, no ha dejado de crecer. Pride Corporation, duea de la marca, confecciona y comercializa sus diseos inspirados en la naturaleza, el surf y la cultura urbana. A la altura de competidores internacionales como Billabong, Quiksilver y Rip Curl, actualmente Dunkelvolk exporta a Venezuela, Estados Unidos, Brasil, Austria, Reino Unido, Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia y Puerto Rico. Para Jano Sayn, gerente general de Pride Corporation, el xito de la marca descansa sobre cuatro grandes pilares: Hemos juntado los action sports, con el arte , la cultura y nuestro algodn. Muchas marcas poseen solo dos caractersticas de estos atributos y unas pocas, tres. Creo que dimos en el clavo al ser una de las pocas marcas en el mundo que ofrecen esta combinacin. Por ello, la identificacin del pblico de esos pases ha sido inmediata, explica. Como explica el fundador de la marca, Dunkelvolk es una propuesta nueva desde el nombre y lo que transmite desde su poderoso eslogan Being different is an art (ser diferente es un arte). Para Sayn, el Per tiene un mercado textil y de confecciones para todo tipo de clientes, y esa diversidad es parte de nuestra fuerza: En los ltimos aos, varias empresas del sector han estado cerrando tratos importantes con marcas de renombre, y ese rebote fuera hace que vean al Per como destino para sus productos. Hoy ya nadie se sorprende si en Europa u Oriente encuentras en marcas prestigiosas e intermedias la etiqueta Made in Peru.

"En los ltimos aos, varias empresas del sector han estado cerrando tratos importantes con marcas de renombre, y ese rebote fuera hace que vean al Per como destino para sus productos. Hoy ya nadie se sorprende si en Europa u Oriente encuentras en marcas prestigiosas e intermedias la etiqueta Made in Peru."

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Another successful company is Nettalco, a cotton knit garment exporter. It was incorporated in 1965. Two decades later the company decided to devote itself exclusively to the export market. Today, its principal clients are Lacoste, Lands' End, L.L. Bean, Hanna Andersson, Armani Exchange, Calvin Klein, Spirit of the Andes and American Girl, among others. The United States is also the principal market of Textil del Valle, "In the last years, many corporations from the sector have been closing important deals with well-known brands abroad, and that bounce from outside makes people see Peru as a destiny for their products. Today nobody gets surprised if in Europe or Asia the label Made in Peru is found on prestigious brands." a company incorporated in 1987, which has industrial plants that contribute to Chinchas economic life, helping the agricultural people in the south of Lima. Through prestigious clients such as Victorias Secret, Ragman, Ralph Lauren, Nautica and Lacoste, its garments reach twenty-four countries in Europe, Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. Also, after diversifying its garment exports, especially shirts, pants and Bermuda shorts, a traditional Peruvian company like Universal Textil entered into different international markets with well-known brands and firms, like Tommy Bahama, Peter Millar, Lacoste, La Martina, Timber Creek, Polo Ralph Lauren, Richards, Men's Wearhouse, Dillard's, Brooksfield, Vanity Fair, Zara, Hartmarx, TailorByrd, among others. Designer Luca Cavero is the owner of the brand Michlle Belau. Founded in 1996, her ultra-feminine, romantic and detail-oriented designs are sold in her different stores in Lima and provinces, as well as in her first international store in Santiago de Chile. Another Peruvian brand, Dunkelvolk, started fifteen years ago making pants for skaters, and since then it has not stopped growing. Pride Corporation, owner of the brand, makes and markets its designs inspired by nature, surf and urban culture for use with international competitors such as Billabong, Quiksilver and Rip Curl. Currently, Dunkelvolk exports to Venezuela, United States, Brasil, Austria, United Kingdom, Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia and Puerto Rico. For Jano Sayn, CEO of Pride Corporation, the brands success rests on four big pillars: We have put together action sports, art, culture, and our cotton. Many brands only have two characteristics of these attributes and only some have three. I think we hit the nail on the head to be one of the few brands in the world that offer this combination. Thats why the publics identification in those countries has been immediate, he explains. As the founder of the Dunkelvolk brand explains, it is a new proposal, from the name and what it transmits, with its powerful slogan Being different is an art. For Mr. Sayn, Peru has a textile and clothing market for every type of client, and this diversity is part of our strength: In the last years, many corporations from the sector have been closing important deals with well-known brands abroad, and that bounce from outside makes people see Peru as a destiny for their products. Today nobody gets surprised if in Europe or Asia the label Made in Peru is found on prestigious brands.

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En lo que se refiere a hilados y confecciones de alpaca peruana, uno de los ms importantes proveedores internacionales con 81 aos en el negocio es Michell & Ca. La empresa arequipea compra anualmente unas 3 500 toneladas de fibra de alpaca sin procesar de las comunidades, cooperativas y centros de acopio del sur andino, mayoritariamente las zonas altas de Puno, lo que equivale al 60 por ciento de la produccin mundial. Con ventas que superan los 75 millones de dlares al ao, la empresa vende sus hilados a ms de 35 pases alrededor del mundo, mientras que EE.UU., Japn, Corea e Italia son los destinos ms importantes para sus tops, como se llama a la materia prima ya preparada para los hilanderos. Asimismo, aborda el mercado nacional con su marca Sol Alpaca, con ventas estimadas en siete millones de dlares. Michael W. Michell se inici en la empresa de su padre Frank Michell en 1961. Entonces haba pocos compradores, tres estadounidenses y un par de europeos, todos comerciantes que vendan la alpaca a hilanderos, recuerda. Un comprador de Boston, amigo de su padre, invit al joven empresario a trabajar con l en la capital de Massachusetts, ciudad en la que permaneci dos aos y medio aprendiendo el procesamiento de la materia prima para transformarla en tops de alpaca. Al volver a Arequipa, trajo con l dos mquinas, casi chatarra, recuerda, para transformar un negocio que ya incursionaba, tmidamente, en los hilados. Pocos aos despus, Michell pas de exportar materia prima a producir tops, impulsando una enrgica poltica comercial para abrir nuevos mercados en el extranjero. Recuerdo el primer viaje a Japn. Cmo sufra!, confiesa el empresario. Al presentarte, no sabas si te iban a recibir o te iban a echar. Entonces no haba ferias, avanzabas cliente por cliente, abriendo mercados y conociendo gente. Viajaba solo empujando la alpaca, seala Michell.

Gradualmente Michell & Ca ira disminuyendo sus ventas de materia prima mientras iba aumentando la comercializacin de tops, con mayor valor agregado, teniendo al mercado italiano como uno de sus principales destinos. En un mercado voltil, siempre dependiente de las modas, la empresa iba generando confianza entre sus clientes internacionales. Actualmente, el 78 por ciento de la produccin de la empresa corresponde al hilado, siendo una de sus principales fortalezas. Hacemos todas las mezclas que se puede imaginar. Somos una boutique industrial, afirma su presidente de directorio. Por su parte, Incalpaca, compaa textil que pertenece al Grupo Inca, posee medio siglo de experiencia trabajando con alpaca en nuestro pas. Sus inicios parten de 1957, cuando Francis O. Patthey, de nacionalidad suiza, y Hugo Corzo Morales, natural de Mollendo, ambos cercanos a la empresa de los Michell, deciden fundar una empresa propia, la compaa Patthey & Corzo, dedicada desde 1957 a la exportacin de fibra de alpaca. Sus productos, entre telas, tejidos de punto, accesorios y confecciones en tejido plano han sido ubicados con xito no solo bajo los nombres de las ms prestigiosas casas de modas del mundo, sino tambin bajo su conocida marca: Kuna by Alpaca111. Con ventas cercanas a los 18 millones de dlares anuales, Kuna opera tiendas en Argentina, Colombia y Chile. Las pequeas y medianas empresas tambin estn invitadas a participar de este espectacular crecimiento. Casos ejemplares se encuentran en el emporio comercial de Gamarra, el barrio textil limeo, desde el cual se han proyectado internacionalmente productores y diseadores, mientras otros esperan su turno mejorando sus estndares de calidad. Dice Ramn Vliz: Lo ms importante para poder conquistar un mercado internacional es la seriedad del fabricante, que lo que se ofrece sea realmente lo que el cliente recibe. Lograr la confianza del cliente para que este pueda apostar por ti es un tema de cultura. El reto de Gamarra es superar la informalidad y respetar los compromisos de calidad y de entrega. Para triunfar en el mercado internacional, a la cultura emprendedora de Gamarra hay que sumar el respeto al compromiso.

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Concerning yarns and garments made of Peruvian alpaca, Michell & Co. is one of the most important international suppliers with eightyone years in the business. The company, from Arequipa, buys annually around 3 500 tons of alpaca raw fleece from the communities, cooperatives, and collection centers of the Andean south, mostly in the highlands of Puno, amounting to 60 percent of the world production. With sales surpassing 75 million dollars per year, the company sells its yarn to more than thirty-five countries around the world, including the U.S., Japan, Korea, and Italy. Italy is the most important destination for its tops with raw material already prepared for their spinners use. It also has presence in the domestic market with its brand Sol Alpaca, with sales estimated in the seven million dollar a year range. Michael W. Michell started in his fathers business, Frank Michell in 1961. Back then there were few buyers, three Americans, and a couple of Europeans, all traders that sold alpaca to the spinners, he remembers. A buyer from Boston, a friend of his fathers, invited the young businessman to work with him in the capital of Massachusetts, a city where he lived for two and a half years learning the procedure of transforming raw matter into tops of alpaca. When he returned to Arequipa, he brought two machines, almost junk, he remembers, to transform a business that was starting slowly to work with yarn. A few years later, Mr. Michell passed from exporting raw material to producing tops, driving a political, commercial energy to open new markets abroad. I remember the first trip to Japan. How scared I was, confesses the businessman. When introducing yourself, you didnt know if they were going to greet you or kick you out! There werent any fairs back then. You moved client by client, opening markets and meeting new people. I traveled only promoting the alpaca, says Michell.

Michell & Ca. would gradually diminish its raw material sales, while increasing the marketing of tops, and with more added value, having the Italian market as one of its principal destinations. In a volatile market that always depends on fashion trends, the company generated trust among its international clients. Now, 78 percent of the companys production goes to yarn, which is one of its principal strengths. We make all the mixtures that you can imagine. We are an industrial boutique, affirms the board chairman. Meanwhile, Incalpaca, a textile company that belongs to Grupo Inca, boasts a half century of experience working with alpaca in our country. It started in 1957, when Francis O. Patthey, from Switzerland, and Hugo Corzo Morales, from Mollendo, Peru, both close to the Michell company, decided to open their own company, Patthey & Corzo, devoted to export alpaca fiber. Its products, among fabrics, knitted fabrics, accessories and woven garments have been placed with success not only under the names of the most prestigious fashion houses around the world, but also under their well-known brand: Kuna by Alpaca111. With sales around 18 million annual dollars, Kuna runs stores in Argentina, Colombia and Chile. The small and medium enterprises are also invited to participate of this spectacular area of growth. Similar cases are found in the commercial emporium of Gamarra, the textile district in Lima, from where many producers and designers have projected themselves internationally, while others wait for their turn while improving their quality standards. Mr. Ramn Vliz says: The most important thing for conquering an international market is the producers reliability, in other words, the client must receive what was agreed upon. Building trust of the client so that he can rely on you is a matter of culture. The challenge in Gamarra is to overcome the informality and respect the quality and delivery commitments. To succeed in the international market, respect for commitment must be added to the entrepreneurial culture of Gamarra.

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Manufacturar para marcas globales ofrece prestigio a los productores, pero a esa conquista se le debe sumar la innovacin a travs del diseo. La industria nacional de las confecciones tiene un gran potencial por desarrollar, por lo que ya es momento para dar el siguiente paso: crear diseo y marca. Es lo que en jerga empresarial se llama packaging: unir a confeccionistas y diseadores, dos grupos que suelen tomar diferentes caminos. Formando una alianza, podrn mostrar al mundo que el Per no es solo un lugar de maquila, sino tambin de diseo. Si bien la calidad de nuestro algodn nos distingue, debemos tener la capacidad de ofrecer un buen producto. El diseo es un plus. Tenemos artistas y diseadores de renombre que estn a la vanguardia de lo que el exigente pblico busca, afirma Jano Sayn. O como sintetiza el empresario Michael W. Michell: El reto es estar all. Seguir, innovar, ser competitivo, siempre estar adelante. No hay ms que hacer. En medio de la feroz competencia internacional, los diseadores salen a buscar su atril en el concierto de la moda internacional. Para la diseadora Titi Guiulfo, est claro que la mirada de muchas empresas americanas y europeas para desarrollar sus colecciones est enfocada en el Per. Cada da me sorprendo ms de la cantidad de marcas y boutiques de Estados Unidos que nos solicitan trabajos especiales. As se genera ms trabajo, lo que repercute en la mejora de la calidad de vida de artesanos, tejedoras, crocheteras, entre otros. Como viene sucediendo con la gastronoma, ella est segura de que el diseo local va a experimentar un crecimiento natural. Conforme la moda avanza a una menor estandarizacin del producto, buscando un producto ms personalizado, se nos abre ms espacio a nosotros, seala Ramn Vliz. Es importante que la industria nacional trate de vender valor agregado. No solo en la parte productiva y tcnica, sino especialmente en el diseo, tratando ya de vender una coleccin completa con una marca. Esa es la mejor forma de posicionarnos, aade. PromPer hace un buen trabajo tratando de promover a una serie de empresas peruanas en eventos internacionales, misiones comerciales, ferias y desfiles de moda. Con ello, poco a poco se obtiene importancia en el mercado internacional. Incentivando la exportacin, reconociendo el trabajo de los consejeros comerciales en las diferentes embajadas, el nombre del Per empieza a sonar fuerte entre las marcas de prestigio. Pero an nos falta alcanzar una notoriedad en el mercado internacional de la moda que nos haga pensar que efectivamente ya estamos posicionados, seala Vliz.

El producto peruano como origen tiene prestigio en el mercado internacional: una etiqueta Made in Peru lo califica de mejor calidad que confecciones procedentes de China, India o Pakistn. El consumidor ya aprecia el producto peruano, no solo porque est asociado a la calidad del algodn peruano, sino a toda una cultura textil local. El desarrollo de la industria textil y de confecciones est en un alto nivel de madurez. Adems, ha logrado entrar al segmento de mercado alto, donde la calidad es exigente. Nosotros lo que queremos es que el cliente nos abra la puerta. Porque cuando enseamos el producto, el cliente se queda totalmente satisfecho, seala Ramn Vliz. Para l, es un error de la industria local orientarse a un segmento de un mercado masivo y de gran volumen, pensando en colocar sus productos en el mercado estadounidense. Los empresarios han diseado la exportacin de prendas de vestir como un negocio industrial. Yo prefiero concebirlo como un negocio comercial. Cul es la diferencia? Que el precio de tu producto no es la suma de los costos, sino el valor que tu cliente est dispuesto a pagar por l. Cuando miras el negocio desde ese punto de vista, cambia el concepto, afirma Vliz. Para Jano Sayn, un buen consejo es mantener la paciencia y el buen humor: Si hacemos las cosas bien, aseguramos la calidad y trabajamos con empeo, estoy seguro que las cosas se van a ir dando en su tiempo. No hay que precipitarse ni desesperarse. Las decisiones rpidas a veces pueden ser armas de doble filo, seala. Para la diseadora Meche Correa, cuando hablamos de un boom del diseo peruano, estamos hablando de un fenmeno muy reciente. Estamos en pleno camino para ser una fortaleza regional dice. Piensa parecido su colega Jos Miguel Valdivia, quien afirma: Hemos ido aprendiendo. Recibimos elogios individuales, pero recin hemos iniciado el camino. Somos buenos en lo que hacemos, pero an estamos mirando el corto plazo, en el Per y alrededores. El reto del diseador peruano es insertarse en mercado global. Despus de conquistar los ms exigentes mercados con nuestros tejidos, ahora es el trabajo del diseo el que tiene que alcanzar las pasarelas del mundo y encontrar su demanda.

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Manufacturing for international brands offers prestige to the producers, but to this achievement, innovation through design needs be added. The national garment industry has a great potential for developing great things; therefore, it is time to take the next step by creating a design and brand. In business slang, that is called packaging: to get manufacturers and designers together, two trades that usually take different paths. Forming an alliance, both of them would be able to show the world that Peru, other than being a place of assembly plants, is a place of design too. Since our cotton quality distinguishes us, we must have the ability to offer a good product. The design is a plus. We have renowned artists and designers that are at the vanguard of what the demanding public is looking for, Jano Sayn affirms. As businessman Michael W. Michell summarizes, The challenge is to be there. Continuing, innovating, being competitive, and always taking the next step. No more is needed. In the middle of the fierce international competition, designers go out looking for their musical stand, in the concert of international fashion. For the designer Titi Guiulfo, its clear that many American and European companies are focusing on Peru for developing their collections. Every day I find myself more surprised of the number of brands and boutiques in the United States that request us for special jobs. Therefore, more jobs are generated, having a positive impact on the quality of life of the artisans, weavers, and crocheters, among others. As in the case of gastronomy, she is sure that local design will have a natural growth. As fashion advances to better standardize the product, looking for achieving a more personalized product, new possibilities appear for all of us, Mr. Ramn Vliz points out. It is important that the national industry starts selling added value, not only in the productive and technical areas, but especially in designing, and trying to sell a complete collection with a brand name. That is the best way of positioning ourselves, he adds. PromPer does a great deal of work trying to promote a series of Peruvian companies in international events, commercial missions, fairs, and fashion shows. Thereby, little by little, we achieve presence in the international market. Encouraging exports, recognizing the work of commercial counselors at the various embassies, the name of Peru starts sounding strongly among prestigious brands. But we still have to reach notoriety in the international fashion market to believe we are effectively positioned, Mr. Vliz states.

The Peruvian product as the source has prestige in the international market. A label Made in Peru qualifies it with better quality than garments from China, India or Pakistan. The consumer already appreciates the Peruvian product, not only because it is associated with the Peruvian cotton quality, but also with a whole local textile culture. The development of the textile and clothing industry has reached a high level of maturity. It has also entered into the high segment market, where quality is demanding. What we want is for the client to open doors for us. Because when we show the product, the client is totally satisfied, says Vliz. For him, it is a mistake for the local industry to focus on a massive and great volume market segment, thinking of placing its products in the American market. Businessmen have designed garment exportation as an industrial business. I prefer to see it as a commercial business. What is the difference? The price of your product is not the sum of its costs, but the value that your client is willing to pay for it. When you see a business from that point-of-view, the concept changes, Mr. Vliz indicates. For Jano Sayn, her advice is to be patient and keep the mood positive. If we do things right, we assure quality and we work hard. I am sure that things will come in time. There is no need to feel desperate. Quick decisions can sometimes be a double-edged sword. For the designer Meche Correa, when we talk about the Peruvian design boom, we are talking about a recent phenomenon. We are on the road to being a regional strength, she affirms. She and her colleague Jos Miguel Valdivia think alike, We have been learning. We receive individual compliments, but we have just started on this path. We are good at what we do, but we are still being short-sighted, only looking in Peru and the surrounding areas. The challenge for the Peruvian designer is how to enter into the global market. After conquering the most demanding markets with our textiles, now the design has to reach the runways of the world and find where there is demand for their products.

Este libro fue desarrollado por Grupo Editorial Mesa Redonda por encargo de PromPer.

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