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EX NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF RECURSIVE ALGORITHM

DATE: USING POINTER

AIM:
To write a C-Program to implement a recursive algorithm using pointers

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Declare the variable, *no, factorial, sum, p, i, and the function fact(int p),
sum(int p), fib(int p)
STEP 3: Read the value of no.
STEP 4: Call the function fact(*no), sum(*no)
STEP 5: Using a for loop call the function fib(int p) and display the Fibonacci series &
also display factorial & summation.
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION FIB (int p)

STEP 1: Check whether the value of n is equal to ‘0’ if so return ‘0’


STEP 2: Else check whether (p>=1 && p<=2), if so return the value ‘1’
STEP 3: Else return ( fib(p-1)+ fib(p-2))

FUNCTION FACT (int p)

STEP 1: Check whether (p==0), if so return ‘1’.


STEP 2: Else return (p*fact(p-1))

FUNCTION SUM (int p)

STEP 1: Check whether p==0, if so return ‘0’


STEP 2: Else return (p+sum(p-1))
PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int i,p, *no,factorial,summ;
int fact(int p);
int sum(int p);
int fib(int p);
clrscr();
printf("\n Enter The Number:");
scanf("%d",no);
printf("\n The Fibonnacci series: \n");
for(i=0;i<*no;i++)
printf("%d\n",fib(i));
factorial=fact(*no);
printf("\n The factorial of %d: %d\n", *no,factorial);
summ=sum(*no);printf("\nThe summation of %d: %d\n", *no,summ);
getch();
}
int fib(int p)
{
if(p==0)
return(0);
if(p>=1&&p<=2)
return(1);
else
return(fib(p-1)+fib(p-2));
}
int fact(int p)
{
if(p==0)
return(1);
else
return(p*fact(p-1));
}
int sum(int p)
{
if(p==0)
return(0);
else
return(p+sum(p-1));
}
OUTPUT:

Enter the Number: 5

The Fibonacci series:


0
1
1
2
3
The factorial of 5: 120
The summation of 5: 15
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement a recursive algorithm using pointers and the
output was verified
`EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF BUBBLE SORT
DATE:

AIM: To write a C-Program to implement bubble sort using pointers and functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Call the function bubblesort(a,n)
STEP 5: Print the sorted array a
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION BUBBBLESORT (int *b[], int n)

STEP 1: Declare the local variable.


STEP 2: Set a for loop
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 3: Nest another for loop
for(j=1;j<n;j++)
STEP 4: Check the condition
b[i]>b[j]
STEP 5: If so swap the two values using temporary variable t as
t=a[i]
b[i]=b[j]
b[j]=t
STEP 6: Else go back to step3.
PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void bubblesort(int*[],int);
void main()
{
int i,n,a[100];
clrscr();
printf("\n Enter the number of elements:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n Enter the array elements");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
printf("\nUNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",a[i]);
bubblesort(a,n);
printf("\nSORTED ARRAY");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",*(a+i));
getch();
}
void bubblesort(int* b[],int n)
{
int i,j,t;
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
{
if(b[i]>b[j])
{
t=b[i];
b[i]=b[j];
b[j]=t;
}
}
}
}
OUTPUT:

Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements 34


32
12
456
43
56

UNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS 34 32 12 456 43 56

SORTED ARRAY 12 32 34 43 56 456


RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement bubble sort using pointers and functions
and the output was verified successfully.
EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF SELECTION SORT
DATE:

AIM: To write a C-Program to implement selection sort using pointers and functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Call the function sel(a,0,n-1)
STEP 5: Print the sorted array a
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION SEL (int *x, int start, int stop )

STEP 1: Declare the local variable.


STEP 2: Assign
begin =start and small=begin and check if
start < stop
STEP 3: If so then set a for loop
for(i=begin+1;i<=stop;i++)
STEP 4: Check the condition
x[i]<x[small]
STEP 6: If so then assign the value of i to small
Small=i
STEP 7: Then swap the values of x[begin] and x[small] using temp
temp=x[begin]
x[begin]=x[small]
x[small]=temp
STEP 8: Call another function sel(x,start+1,stop)
PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void sel(int *[],int,int);
int main()
{
int a[100],i,n;
clrscr();
printf("\nEnter The number Of elements:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\nEnter the array elements one by one\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
}
printf("\nUNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",a[i]);
sel(a,0,n-1);
printf("SORTED ARRAY:\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
printf("\t %d",a[i]);
}
getch();
return(0);

}
void sel(int *x[], int start, int stop)
{
int begin=start;
int small=begin;
int temp,i;
if(start<stop)
{
for(i=begin+1;i<=stop;i++)
{
if(x[i]<x[small])
small=i;
}
temp=x[begin];
x[begin]=x[small];
x[small]=temp;
sel(x,start+1,stop);
}
}
OUTPUT:

Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements one by one 23


45
89
98
09
65

UNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS 23 45 89 98 09 65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement selection sort using pointers and functions
and the output was verified successfully.
EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF MERGE SORT
DATE:

AIM: To write a C-Program to implement merge sort using divide and conquer strategy

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Call the function split(a,0,n-1)
STEP 5: Print the sorted array a
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION MERGE_SORT (int *a, int low, int high)

STEP 1: Declare the local variable.


STEP 2: If low is less than high then assign the mean value of low
and high to mid
mid =(low+high)/2
STEP 3: Call the function merge_sort(a,low,mid)
STEP 4: Call the another function merge_sort(a,mid+1,high)
STEP 5: Call the function combine(a,low,mid,high)

FUNCTION SPLIT(int *c, int first, int last)

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Set the while loop till the condition i<=mid && j<=high is failed
STEP 3: Check whether a[i]<a[j]
STEP 4: If so the assign the value of a[j] to temp[k] and increment j and k
temp[k]=a[i]
j++ k++
STEP 5: Else assign a[j] to temp[k] and then increment j and k
temp[k]=a[j] & j++ k++
STEP 6: Set another while loop till i is less than mid
STEP 7: Assign the value of a[i] to temp[k]
temp[k]=a[i] & j++ k++
STEP 8: Set another while loop till j is greater than mid
STEP 9: Assign the value of a[j] to temp[k]
temp[k]=a[j]
j++ k++
STEP 10: Construct a for loop for k
for(k=low; k<=high; k++)
STEP 11: Assign the value of temp[k] to a[k]
a[k]=temp[k]
PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void split(int *,int,int);
void merge(int *,int,int,int,int);
int a[25],b[25];
void main()
{
int i,n;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the limit");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n Enter the elements");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
}
split(a,0,n-1);
printf("\n The sorted list is:");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\n %d",a[i]);
getch();
}
void split(int *c,int first,int last)
{
int mid;
if(first<last)
{
mid=(first+last)/2;
split(c,first,mid);
split(c,mid+1,last);
merge(c,first,mid,mid+1,last);
}
}
void merge(int *a,int f1,int l1,int f2,intl2)
{
int i,j,k=0;
i=f1;
j=f2;
while(i<=l1&&j<=l2)
{
if(a[i]<a[j])
b[k]=a[i++];
else
b[k]=a[j++];
k++;
}
while(i<=l1)
b[k++]=a[i++];
while(j<=l2)
i=f1;
j=0;
while(i<=l2&&j<k)
a[i++]=b[j++]
}

OUTPUT:
Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements 23


45
89
98
09
65

UNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS 23 45 89 98 09 65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement merge sort using pointers and functions
and the output was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY SEARCH WITH RECURSION


DATE:
AIM: To write a C-Program to implement binary search using recursive functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Set a for loop
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 5: Nest another for loop
for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
STEP 6: Check the condition a[i]>a[j]
STEP 7: If so swap the two values using temporary variable t as
t=a[i]
a[i]=a[j]
a[j]=t
STEP 8: Else go back to step 6.
STEP 9: Set a for loop to print the value of array a
For(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 10: Read the search key as k
STEP 11: Assign low=0 and high=n-1
STEP 12: Call the function binsearch(a,k,low,high)
STEP 13: Check if ans is not equal to1 if so print the position b+i
Else print that element is not found
STEP 14: Stop the program

FUNCTION BINARY SEARCH (int *x[ ], int x, int low, int high)

STEP 1: Set a while loop till low is greater than high


STEP 2: Assign mean value of low and high to mid
mid=(high+low)/2
STEP 3: Assign the value of x[mid] to p
p=x[mid]
STEP 4: Check if x<p if so assign
high=mid-1
STEP 5: Else check whether x>p if so then assign
low=mid+1
STEP 6: Else check whether x= =p, if so return mid
STEP 7: Else return -1

PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
binarysearch(int *[],int,int,int);
void main()
{
int i,j,k,t,low,high,n,a[50],ans;
clrscr();
printf("\n enter the N:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n enter the array element one by one\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
printf("\n sorted array \n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
if(a[i]>a[j])
{
t=a[i];
a[i]=a[j];
a[j]=t;
}
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t a[%d]=%d\n",i,a[i]);
printf("\t enter the element to search:");
scanf("%d",&k);
low=0;
high=n-1;
ans=binarysearch(a,k,low,high);
if(ans!=-1)
printf("\nthe number %d is present in the list at location %d",k,ans);
else
printf(" the number is not present in the list");
getch();
}
int binarysearch(int *a[],int x,int low,int high)
{
int mid,p;
if(low>high)
return-1;
mid=(low+high)/2;
p=a[mid];
if(x==p)
return(mid);
else
if(x<p)
return binarysearch(a,x,low,mid-1);
else
return binarysearch(a,x,mid+1,high);
}

OUTPUT:
Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements 23


45
89
98
09
65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98

Enter the element to search 23

The number 23 is present in the list at location 2

Enter the element to search 50

The number is not present in the list


RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement binary search using recursive functions
and the output was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY SEARCH WITHOUT RECURSION


DATE:
AIM: To write a C-Program to implement binary search using non-recursive functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Set a for loop
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 5: Nest another for loop
for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
STEP 6: Check the condition a[i]>a[j]
STEP 7: If so swap the two values using temporary variable t as
t=a[i]
a[i]=a[j]
a[j]=t
STEP 8: Else go back to step 6.
STEP 9: Set a for loop to print the value of array a
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 10: Read the search key as k
STEP 11: Assign low=0 and high=n-1
STEP 12: Call the function binsearch(a,k,low,high)
STEP 13: Check if ans is not equal to1 if so print the position b+i
Else print that element is not found
STEP 14: Stop the program

FUNCTION BINARY SEARCH (int *a[ ], int x, int low, int high)

STEP 1: Check if low>high if so return -1


STEP 2: Else assign mean value of low and high to mid
mid=(high+low)/2
STEP 3: Assign the value of a[mid] to p
p=a[mid]
STEP 4: Check if x= =p if so then return mid
STEP 5: Else check whether x<p if so then return
binsearch(a,x,low,mid-1)
STEP 6: Else return
binsearch(a,x,mid+1,high)

PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
binarysearch(int *[],int,int);
void main()
{
int i,j,n,a[10],t,k,b;
clrscr();
printf(" ENTER THE NUMBER\n ");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Enter array elements\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
printf("The sorted the array\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
if(a[i]>a[j])
{
t=a[i];
a[i]=a[j];
a[j]=t;
}
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%d",a[i]);
printf("\nEnter the search element\n");
scanf("%d",&k);
b=binarysearch(&a,n,k);
if(b!=-1)
printf("position:%d",b);
else
printf("search element not found\n");
getch();
}
binarysearch(int *a[],int n,int k)
{
int mid,low,high,p;
low=0;
high=n-1;
while(low<=high)
{
mid=(low+high)/2;
p=a[mid];
if(p>k)
high=mid-1;
else if(p<k)
low=mid+1;
else if(k==p)
return mid;
}
return-1;
}

OUTPUT:
Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements 23


45
89
98
09
65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98

Enter the element to search 23

The number 23 is present in the list at location 2

Enter the element to search 50

The number is not present in the list


RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement binary search without using recursive functions and
the output was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF QUICK SORT


DATE:
AIM: To write a C-Program to implement quick sort using pointers and functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Assign the pointer array *a[100] as global, read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Call the function sort(0,n-1)
STEP 5: Print the sorted array a
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION SORT (int first, int last )

STEP 1: Declare the local variable.


STEP 2: Check if first is less than last
first < last
STEP 3: If so then assign the following
pivot=a[first]
i=first
j=last
STEP 4: Assign a while loop till the condition
i<j
STEP 5: Assign a while loop to increment i till
a[i]<pivot and i< last
STEP 6: Assign a while loop to decrement j till
a[j] > pivot and j > first
STEP 7: Check whether i is than j if so then swap the values of a[i] and a[j]
temp=a[i]
a[j]=a[j]
a[j]=temp
STEP 8: Then swap the values of a[j] and a[first]
temp=a[j]
a[j]=a[first]
a[first]=temp
STEP 9: Call another functions sort(first, j-1) and sort(j+1, last)

PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int *a[50],n,i;
void sort(int,int);
void main()
{
clrscr();
printf("Enter the No of Elements:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Enter The Elements;");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
printf("\nUNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",a[i]);
sort(0,n-1);
printf("\nSORTED ARRAY");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%d",a[i]);
getch();
}
void sort(int first,int last)
{
int *temp,*pivot,i,j;
if(first<last)
{
pivot=a[first];
i=first;
j=last;
while(i<j)
{
while((a[i]<=pivot)&&(i<last))
i++;
while((a[j]>=pivot)&&(j>first))
j--;
if(i<j)
{
temp=a[i];
a[i]=a[j];
a[j]=temp;
}
}
temp=a[first];
a[first]=a[j];
a[j]=temp;
sort(first,j-1);
sort(j+1,last);
}
}

OUTPUT:
Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements one by one 23


45
89
98
09
65

UNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS 23 45 89 98 09 65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement quick sort using functions and pointers and the output
was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF INSERTION SORT


DATE:
AIM: To write a C-Program to implement insertion sort using pointers and functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Read the value of n
STEP 3: Set a for loop to read the elements of array
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
STEP 4: Call the function ins_sort(a,n)
STEP 5: Print the sorted array a
STEP 6: Stop the program

FUNCTION INS_SORT (int *b[], int k )

STEP 1: Declare the local variable.


STEP 2: Set a for loop for p
for(p=1;p<k;p++)
STEP 3: Assign the value of b[p] to temp
temp=b[p]
STEP 4: Set a nested for loop for j
for(j=p;j>0&&b[j-1]>temp;j--)
STEP 5: Assign the value of b[j-1] to b[j] and temp to b[j]
b[j]=b[j-1];
b[j]=temp;

STEP 6: Assign a while loop to decrement j till


a[j] > pivot and j > first
STEP 7: Check whether i is than j if so then swap the values of a[i] and a[j]
temp=a[i]
a[j]=a[j]
a[j]=temp
STEP 8: Then swap the values of a[j] and a[first]
temp=a[j]
a[j]=a[first]
a[first]=temp
STEP 9: Call another functions sort(first, j-1) and sort(j+1, last)

PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void ins_sort(int *a[], int n);
void main()
{
int i,n,*a[50];
clrscr();
printf("Enter the number of Elements");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\nEnter the array elements \n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
printf("UNSORTED ARRAY:\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",a[i]);
ins_sort(a,n);
printf("SORTED ARRAY:\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("\t%d",a[i]);
getch();
}
void ins_sort(int *b[], int k)
{
int j,p,*temp;
for(p=1;p<k;p++)
{
temp=b[p];
for(j=p;j>0&&b[j-1]>temp;j--)
b[j]=b[j-1];
b[j]=temp;
}

OUTPUT:
Enter the number of elements:6

Enter the array elements one by one 23


45
89
98
09
65

UNSORTED ARRAY ELEMENTS 23 45 89 98 09 65

SORTED ARRAY 09 23 45 65 89 98
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement insertion sort using pointers and functions
and the output was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF 8 QUEEN PROBLEMS


DATE:
AIM: To write a C-Program to implement a 8 queen program using functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Define the functions that are to be used


STEP 2: Assign a constant value of 8 to QUEENNO
STEP 3: Call the function placequeen(0,x)
STEP 4: Print the message “end”
STEP 5: Stop the program

FUNCTION VOID PLACEQUEEN(int k, int *x)

STEP 1: Declare local variables


STEP 2: Set a for loop for i
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
STEP 3: Check for result of function canbeplaced(k,i,x)
STEP 4: If it is 1 then assign the value of i to x[k]
x[k]=i;
STEP 5: Check if k is equal to 7 if show call the function showboard(x)
STEP 6: Read the value of ch from the user
STEP 7: If the value is equal to n or N then exit
STEP 8: Check whether k is less than 7 if so then call the function placequeen(k+1,x)

FUNCTION INT CANBEPLACED(int k, int i, int *x)

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Set a for loop for j
for(j=0;j<k;j++)
STEP 3: Check for the following condition
if((abs(j-k)==abs(x[j]-i)||(x[j]==i)))
STEP 4: If its true return 0 else return 1

FUNCTION VOID SHOWBOARD(int *x)

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Set all the display style in printf function
STEP 3: Set a for loop for i to print 1,2,..8 vertically and horizontally
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
STEP 4: Set another for loop for j and check whether j is equal to x[i]
for(j=0;j<8;j++)
STEP 5: If so then print Q else print -

PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define QUEENNO 8
void placequeen(int,int*);
int canbeplaced(int,int,int*);
void showboard(int*);
void main()
{
int x[QUEENNO],i;
clrscr();
printf("the 8 queens problem");
placequeen(0,x);
printf("end");
getch();
}
void placequeen(int k,int *x)
{
int i,j;
char ch;
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
{
if(canbeplaced(k,i,x))
{
x[k]=i;
if(k==7)
{
showboard(x);
printf("want to see more?[n->stop, any-> continue]:");
scanf("%c",&ch);
if(ch=='n' || ch=='N')
exit(0);
}
if(k<7)
placequeen(k+1,x);
}
}
}
int canbeplaced(int k,int i,int *x)
{
int j;
for(j=0;j<k;j++)
{
if((abs(j-k)==abs(x[j]-i))||(x[j]==i)))
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
void showboard(int *x)
{
int i,j;
printf("\n----------------------------------------------\n");
printf(" ");
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
{
printf("%d",(i+1));
printf(" ");
}
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
{
printf("\n\n%d",(i+1));
for(j=0;j<8;j++)
{
if(j==x[i])
printf("Q");
else
printf("-");
printf(" ");
}
printf("");
}
printf("\n----------------------------------------------");

OUTPUT:
The 8 queens’ problem

------------------
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Q - - - - - - -
2 - - Q - - - - -
3 - - - - Q - - -
4 - - - - - - Q -
5 – Q - - - - - -
6 - - - Q - - - -
7 - - - - - Q - -
8 - - - - - - - Q
------------------ want to see more?[n->stop, any-> continue]: n
RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement an 8 queen program using functions
and the output was verified successfully.

EX.NO: IMPLEMENTATION OF MINIMUM SPANNING TREE


DATE:

AIM: To write the C-Program to implement minimum spanning tree using structures, pointers and
functions

ALGORITHM:

STEP 1: Start the program


STEP 2: Assign MAX a constant value of 20
STEP 3: Declare a structure edge with structure variable *front
STEP 4: Define the functions and variables required in the program globally
STEP 5: Call the function create_graph() inside the main function
STEP 6: Call the function make_tree()
STEP 7: Set a for loop using i
for(i=1;i<=count;i++)
STEP 8: Print the values of tree[i].u and tree[i].v
STEP 9: Stop the program

FUNCTION OF CREATE_GRAPH ( )

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Read the number of nodes n
STEP 3: Calculate the value of max_edge as
max_edge=n*(n-1)/2
STEP 4: Set a for loop using i
for(i=0;i<=max_edge;i++)
STEP 5: Read the values of origin and destin
STEP 6: Check whether origin and destin are equal to 0
STEP 7: If so exit the loop using break statement
STEP 8: Read the weight of the current edge wt
STEP 9: Check the following condition
if(origin>n||destin>n||origin<=0||destin <=0)
STEP 10: If any of the condition is true, print “invalid edge!” and decrement the value of i by 1
STEP 11: Else call the function insert_pque(origin,destin,wt)
STEP 12:Check whether i is less than n-1, if so then exit with an error message

FUNCTION OF MAKE_TREE ( )

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Initialize the variable tmp,node1,node2
STEP 3: Assign the values for node1, node2
STEP 4: Calculate and print the values of root_n1 and root_n2.
STEP 5: If the two roots are not equal, call the function inset_tree
STEP 6: Assign the value of root_n1 to father[root_n2]
FUNCTION OF INSERT_TREE (int i, int j, int wt )

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Increment the value of count
STEP 3: Assign values to tree[count].u, tree[count].v, tree[count].weight.

FUNCTION OF INSERT_PQUE (int i, int j, int wt )

STEP 1: Declare the local variables


STEP 2: Allocate the memory space of size, struct edge for tmp
STEP 3: Assign values to tmp->u, tmp->v, tmp->weight.
STEP 4: Check for the following condition.
if(front==NULL||tmp->weight<front->weight)
STEP 5: If any of the conditions are true assign the value of front to tmp->link and assign tmp to
front
STEP 6: else set a while loop and declare following
q=q->link;
tmp->link=q->link;
q->link=tmp;
if(q->link==NULL)
tmp->link=NULL;

FUNCTION OF STRUCT EDGE *DEL_PQUE( )

STEP 1: Declare the local variable


STEP 2: Assign the value of front to temp
STEP 3: print the values of processed edge and return the value of tmp
PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define MAX 20
struct edge
{
int u;
int v;
int weight;
struct edge *link;
}
*front=NULL;
int father[MAX];
struct edge tree[MAX];
int n;
int wt_tree=0;
int count=0;
void make_tree();
void insert_tree(int i, int j, int wt);
void insert_pque(int i, int j, int wt);
struct edge *del_pque();
void main()
{
int i;
create_graph();
make_tree();
clrscr();
printf("edge to be included in spanning tree are:\n");
for(i=1;i<=count;i++)
{
printf("%d->",tree[i].u);
printf("%d\n",tree[i].v);
}
printf("weight of this minimum spanning tree is: %d\n",wt_tree);
getch();
}
create_graph()
{
int i,wt,max_edge,origin,destin;
printf("enter no. of nodes");
scanf("%d",&n);
max_edge=n*(n-1)/2;
for(i=0;i<=max_edge;i++)
{
printf("enter edge %d(0 0 to quit):",i);
scanf("%d%d",&origin,&destin);
if((origin==0)&&(destin==0))
break;
printf("enter weight for this ecge");
scanf("%d",&wt);
if(origin>n||destin>n||origin<=0||destin <=0)
{
printf("invalid edge!");
i--;
}
else insert_pque(origin,destin,wt);
}
if(i<n-1)
{
printf("spanning tree is not possible");
exit(1);
}
return 0;
}
void make_tree()
{
struct edge *tmp;
int node1,node2,root_n1,root_n2;
while(count<n-1)
{
tmp=del_pque();
node1=tmp->u;
node2=tmp->v;
printf("n1=%d",node1);
printf("n2=%d",node2);
while(node1>0)
{
root_n1=node1;
node1=father[node1];
}
while(node2>0)
{
root_n2=node2;
node2=father[node2];
}
printf("rootn1=%d\n",root_n1);
printf("rootn2=%d\n",root_n2);
if(root_n1!=root_n2)
{
insert_tree(tmp->u,tmp->v,tmp->weight);
wt_tree=wt_tree+tmp->weight;
father[root_n2]=root_n1;
}
}
}
void insert_tree(int i, int j, int wt)
{
printf("This Edge inserted in the spanning tree\n");
count++;
tree[count].u=i;
tree[count].v=j;
tree[count].weight=wt;
}
void insert_pque(int i, int j, int wt)
{
struct edge *tmp, *q;
tmp=(struct edge *)malloc(sizeof(struct edge));
tmp->u=i;
tmp->v=j;
tmp->weight=wt;
if(front==NULL||tmp->weight<front->weight)
{
tmp->link=front;
front=tmp;
}
else
{
q=front;
while(q->link!=NULL&&q->link->weight<=tmp->weight)
q=q->link;
tmp->link=q->link;
q->link=tmp;
if(q->link==NULL)
tmp->link=NULL;
}
}
struct edge *del_pque()
{
struct edge *tmp;
tmp=front;
printf("Edge Processed is %d->%d%d\n",tmp->u,tmp->v,tmp->weight);
front=front->link;return tmp;
}
OUTPUT:

NUMBER OF NODES: 3
Enter the Edge 1:2 2
Enter the weight: 1
Enter the Edge 2:2 3
Enter the weight: 2
Enter the Edge 3:2 1
Enter the weight: 5

THE MINIMUM SPANNING TREE WEIGHT IS 7


RESULT:

Thus the C-Program was written to implement minimum spanning tree using structures, pointers and
functions and the output was verified successfully.