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ENERGY RESOURCES
INTRODUCTION
Energy is a key input in economic growth there is a close link between the availability of energy and the future growth of a nation. However, in a developing country like India greater the availability of energy the more is its shortage. In spite of the increase in power generating capacity from 2000 MW in 1950 to 91,190 MW by the end of 2000, the peak shortage is expected to touch 30 per cent. Energy is consumed in a variety of forms in India. Fuelwood, animal waste and agricultural residues are traditional sources of energy that continue to meet the bulk of energy requirement in rural India. These non-commercial fuels are gradually getting replaced by commercial fuels such as coal, lignite, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. Commercial fuel accounts for 60 per cent of the total primary energy supply in India with the balance 40 per cent coming from non-commercial fuels. Of the total commercial energy produced in the form of power or electricity, 69% is from coal or thermal power, 25% is from hydel power, 2% is from nuclear power, 4% is from diesel and gas and less than 1% is from non-conventional sources like solar, wind, bio-gas, mini hydel etc. Petroleum and its products are the other large sources of energy. The Government of India has formulated an energy policy with the objective of ensuring adequate energy supply at a minimum cost, achieving self-sufficiency in energy supplies and protecting environment from adverse impact of utilising energy resources in an unjudicial manner. The main features of the policy are (i) accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy resourcesoil, coal, hydro and nuclear power ; (ii) intensification of exploration to achieve indigenous production of oil and gas ; (iii) management of demand of oil and other forms of energy ; (iv) energy conservation and management ; (v) optimisation of utilisation of existing capacity in the country ; (vi) development and exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy requirements of rural communities ; (vii) intensification of resources and development activities in new and renewable energy resources ; and (viii) organisation of training for personnel engaged at various levels in the energy sector ; The development and promotion of non-conventional/alternate/new and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind, bio-energy etc. are getting sustained attention from the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources set-up in 1982. 1

NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES

Classification of Energy Resources


1. Commercial Fuels : e.g. coal, lignite, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. Non-commercial Fuels : e.g. fuelwood, cowdung, agricultural waste. 2. Conventional Resources : e.g. fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas), water and nuclear energy. Non-conventional Resources (or Alternate energy) solar, bio, wind, ocean, hydrogen, geothermal. 3. Renewable Resources of Energy : Renewable sources of energy are those natural resources which are inexhaustible and can be used to produce energy again and again. Examples are solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, water energy and bio energy. Atomic minerals are inexhaustible sources of energy when used in fast breeder reactor technology. Non-Renewable Resources of Energy : Those natural resources which are exhaustible and cannot be replaced once they are used. Examples are fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas which together supply 98% of the total world energy demand today. Coal Coal is the prime source of energy and accounts for about 67 per cent of the countrys commercial energy requirement. It is indispensable in metallurgical and chemical industries. Thermal power produced from low-grade coal accounts for 52 per cent of total installed generating capacity of electricity in the country. Coal consists of volatile matter, moisture and carbon besides ash content. The coal deposits in India belong to Gondwana and Tertiary phase. About 98 per cent of the coal resources belong to the Gondwana age. Nearly 75 per cent of the coal deposits are located in the Damodar River Valley. The places well associated with these deposits are Raniganj in West Bengal, and Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro and Karanpura in Bihar. The other river valleys associated with coal deposits are the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha. Other coal mines areas are in the Satpura range in Chhattisgarh plains of Madhya Pradesh. The coalfields of Singareni in Andhra Pradesh, Talcher in Orissa and Chanda in Maharashtra are also very large. The coal mining industry in India was started at Raniganj in West Bengal in 1774. The coal mining was nationalised in 197273 to avoid exploitation of labour. The production of coal almost completely a public sector activity is now organised through Coal India Ltd., a joint venture of central government and Andhra Pradesh government. Reserves and Production. The GSI, as on 1 January 1996, have put the countrys coal reserves (upto a depth of 1200 m) at nearly 2,01,953.70 million tonnes. Of these, about 27 per cent are of coking variety and 73 per cent of non-coking variety. Because of the limited availability of coking variety, its use is being limited to metallurgical puroses whereas non-coking coal available in the country is generally suitable for power generation. The major states known for coal reserves are Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Coal production which was around 78.17 million tonnes at the time of nationalisation of the coal industry in 197374, rose to a level of 270.12 million tonnes in 1995-96. India is now the third largest coal producing country in the world. At this rate the reserves are expected to last about 200 years. It is therefore imperative that coal must be conserved and used selectively.

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Classification of Coals. Depending on the relative proportions of fixed carbon, moisture and volatile matter the coal is classified, from high to low rank, as follows : ( i) Anthracite, (ii) Bituminous, (iii) Senic Bituminous, and (iv) lignite or brown coal. Coals are also classified according to percentage of volatile matter into two types : (i) Low Volatile Coal. It has a low percentage of volatile matter, between 20 to 30 with relatively lower moisture content and is generally known as coking coal. These have good coking properties with ash content of up to 24 per cent and with or without benefication are used for manufacture of hard coke required for metallurgical purposes. (ii) High Volatile Coal. It contains more volatile matter, over 30 per cent with moisture as high as 10 per cent and is free burning coal mainly suitable for steam raising. It is commonly known as non-coking coal and is used in industries for general heating and steam raising in thermal power generation, in steam locomotives, brick burning in chemical industries and as domestic fuel. Lignite. Lignite also called brown coal, is a low-grade inferior coal containing much moisture. On exposure, it disintegrates easily and therefore, before use, it is transformed into briquettes. It is mainly used for thermal power generation, as industrial and domestic fuel, for carbonisation and fertilizer production. The Indian lignite has less ash content than coal, and is consistent in quality. Important deposits of lignite occur in Tamilnadu, Pondicherry, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan and Jammu & Kashmir. Lignite reserves in the country are estimated at around 27,400 million tonnes. The deposits at Neyveli in Tamilnadu are 3,300 million tonnes and constitute the countrys 90 per cent of the lignite reserves. The mines, however, suffer from the artesian structure and constant pumping of water is formidable task. But the location of these deposits is a boon for Tamilnadu. It produces 600 MW of thermal power. The industrialization of the State depends considerably on the thermal power generated at Neyveli lignite field. Annual production in this largely open cast mine is 6.5 million tonnes. Problems of Coal Mining (i) Indias reserves of metallurgical coal are limited. In spite of this, the recovery of superior grade coal suitable for coke manufacture continues to remain low, about 70 to 80 per cent. It can be increased by mechanising the mines. (ii) Majority of coal deposits are situated in the eastern and central parts of India whereas the thermal power stations and other consumers are widely dispersed, necessitating long distance transportation of coal. (iii) Since majority of coal mines are on small scale, they use crude methods of production and hence the per capita production is not only low but cost of production also goes high. (iv) Large quantities of impurities which are allowed to remain with coal reduce its quality besides adding to high cost of transportation and deterioration of the environment. It can be avoided by washing the coal. (v) A large amount of coal is just wasted, being discarded as slack coal, which can be avoided if coal powder is converted into briquettes. (vi) Power shortage particularly in the DVC area, non-availability of explosives and labour unrest are some of the other serious problems faced by the industry.

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES

Conservation of Coal. The coal resources of India are poor, both in quality and quantity, and this situation is aggravated due to the misuse of good quality coal like burning in transport and industries, small reserves of metallurgical or coking coal which may not last long, selective mining leading to large waste of raw coal, frequent fires in mines and unsystematic method of extracting coal. It is therefore essential that coal must be conserved and used selectively. The Department of Coal is the nodal agency for development, exploitation and conservation of coal and lignite reserve in India. Coal conservation is ensured by maximum recovery of in situ reserves of coal. Difficult geo-mining conditions prevailing in coal bearing areas has necessitated the introduction of some latest suitable technology for exploitation of such deposits from coal conservation and also safety point in view. Some other coal conservation methods being used or may be adopted are : (i) reservation of coking coal for use only in metallurgical industry and in no case or used in minimum for steam generation, in transport or other industry ; (ii) upgradation of II and III grade coal by washing and blending it with Igrade coking coal and then use in metallurgical industries ; (iii) selective mining should be effectively stopped ; (iv) discovering and assessing new areas of coal reserves ; (v) burning high ash content coal by fluidised bed composition ; (vi ) smokeless coal for domestic use by carbonisation ; (vii) use of slack or powdered coal by briquetting (binding with tar or tar-lime mixture) ; (viii) oil substitution by coal gasification or liquifaction by Fischer Tropsch Synthesis ; (ix) pit head coal processing ; (x) magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD)direct conversion of heat, produced by burning coal, into electricity ; and (xi) slurry transportation of coal to reduce transportation costs.

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS


Petroleum
Petroleum is an inflammable liquid composed primarily of hydrocarbons (90 to 98 per cent) and the rest organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and traces of organometallic compounds. Petroleum and petroleum products are used mainly as motive power, lubricating agents and a source of raw material for manufacturing various chemicals required in industries. Occurrence. Crude oil or petroleum in India is mainly associated with sedimentary rocks of mesozoic and tertiary times which were once under the shallow seas. The potential oil bearing areas in India is estimated to be over 1.5 million sq. km, about two-fifth of the total area. It covers the Northern Plains in Ganga-Brahmaputra valley, the coastal strips together with their off-shore continental shelf, the plains of Gujarat, the Thar desert and the area around Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Exploration and Organisation. In India oil exploration and production started in an extensive and systematic way after the setting up of Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in 1956, now called Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, Oil India Limited (OIL) formed by acquisition of the shares of Burma Oil Company by the Government in 1981, became the second public sector undertaking engaged in oil exploration and production in the country. Till independence Assam was the only state where mineral oil was drilled and refined in the refinery at Digboi. Although small in size this is the only oilfield that has lasted for 100 years continuously. After Independence Gujarat Plains and the Cambay off-shore area showed

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evidence of hydrocarbon deposits. But the major reserves were unexpectedly found off the Bombay coast called Bombay High, 115 km from the shore. So far this has been the richest oilfield of India. Distribution. India has 13 important basins bearing oil strata which can be put under three heads : (i) Cambay basin in Gujarat, Assam-Arakan belt and Bombay offshore basin, are petroleum basins from where commercial production is being undertakin ; (ii) Rajasthan, Krishna, Cauvery, Godavari basin, Andaman, Bengal, Himalayan foothills, Ganga valley and Tripura, Nagaland fold belt, are known to have petroleum bearing strata but commercial production from these regions has not begun ; (iii) Kutch-Saurashtra, Kerala-Konkan and Mahanadi have geological structures favouring occurrence of petroleum and therefore are considered to be prospective regions. Reserves and Production. The worldwide proved oil reserves stand at 999.7 billion barrels, as on 1 January 1995. Oil production is looming around 1922 million barrels per year. Comparing these two factors (Reserve-Production) the oil reserves of world will last for 45 years. Indias proved oil reserves are very poorjust limited to 739 million tonnes as on 1 January 1996 and are going to last only for next 1520 years. Our domestic production has increased from 0.25 million tonnes in 1950 to 35 million tonnes in 199596. Oil production has reached a peak of 34.0 million tonnes in 198990. However this fell to 27 million tonnes during 1992-93, largely on account of closure of over-worked oil wells in Bombay High region. Since then it has been increasing mainly due to commissioning of major development schemes such as the additional development of L-II, L-III, Neelan field and South Heera field in the western offshore. It is planned to increase the production to 50 million tonnes. Ofshore crude from Bombay High accounts for nearly 75 per cent of domestic production. About 40 per cent of total consumption of petroleum products of the country is used in transport sector. The balance 60 per cent is used in industries including power generation, domestic and for other miscellaneous purposes. Refineries. Oil refining in India is done in its 13 refineries, all in public sectors with an aggregate refining capacity of 60.4 million tonnes as in June 1996. These 13 refineries are : Barauni (Bihar, Indian Oil), Bongaigaon (Assam, Bongaigaon Refineries), Cochin (Kerala, Cochin Refineries), Digboi (Assam, Indian Oil), Haldia (West Bengal, Indian Oil), Kovali (Gujarat, Indian Oil), Manali and Narimanam (Madras, Madras Refineries), Mathura (Indian Oil), Noonmati in Guwahati (Assam, Indian Oil), Trombay (Bombay, Hindustan Petroleum), Trombay (Bombay, Bharat Petroleum), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, Hindustan Petroleum). Two new refineries are being set up in Mangalore (Karnataka) and Panipat (Haryana) in the joint sector. Problem Areas. The main policy issues in the petroleum oil sector are : (i) Indias large and growing reliance on import of oil and oil products makes it susceptible to changes in international oil prices. Oil imports accounted for 44 per cent consumption and the value accounted to 27 per cent of total imports in 199596. This also raises concern regarding ensuring oil security for the nation. (ii) The domestic crude production has stagnated for some years and even gone down. (iii) Since the finding of Bombay High in the 80s, we have not found any major oilfield. We have also been unable to attract foreign oil companies to come for exploration in India. (iv) Pricing of oil products is highly politicised and full of distortions.

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Conservation. A very high priority is being attached to the conservation of petroleum products. The Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA), operating under the Union Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, has taken the following measures for conservation of petroleum products : (i) creation of mass awareness on the need for conservation of petroleum products, (ii) promotion of measures to curb wasteful practices ; (iii) improve the oil use efficiency of equipment, devices and vehicles ; (iv) R&D for improving oil use efficiency in various end uses ; and (v) promotion of inter-fuel substitutionlike compressed natural gas (CNG) was introduced as an alternative fuel in road transport sector. In order to enhance energy security with the objective to ensure that petroleum products are available across the country at the minimum cost and on regular basis, the Government has adopted a four-point strategy as given below : (i) Exploration Abroad. Domestic oil and gas companies like OIL and ONGC will take up exploration abroad which will earn them foreign exchange for purchase of oil. (ii) New Refineries. Oil exporting countries to be allowed to set up new refineries in the country. Oman Oil and Kuwait Petroleum Corp. are doing so. (iii) Pipeline Grid. To ensure quick and free movement of oil, a pipeline grid is to be built. This will save transportation cost. (iv) Strategic Reserves. Petroleum ministry wants to build up a 45 day reserves in certain areas. Through this country can tide over a temporary shortage.

Natural Gas
Natural gas is found both alone or in association with crude oil ; but most of the output comes from associated sources. Exclusive natural gas reserves have been located in Tripura, Rajasthan and almost in all the offshore oilfields of Cambay in Gujarat, Bombay High, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In a power deficient country like India, natural gas is precious gift. It can be used both as a source of energy (for thermal power) and also as an industrial raw material in petrochemical industry. It takes less time to build a power plant based on natural gas. For Indian agriculture it has a capacity to boost its production through the building of fertiliser plants based on natural gas. The utility of gas is further heightened because of its easy transportability through gas pipelines. Now gas from Bombay and Gujarat gas fields is taken to states like Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), set up in 1984 for transportation, processing and marketing of natural gas, was assigned the priority task of setting up the cross country Hajira-Bijapur-Jagadishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline which is 1,730 km long and carries 18 million cubic metres of natural gas per day. It would feed six fertiliser plants and 3 power plants to begin with Hazira, the starting point, is in Gujarat, Bijapur from where one line runs towards Sawaimadhopur in Rajasthan, is in Madhya Pradesh ; and Jagdishpur, the terminus, is in Uttar Pradesh, HBJ pipeline is a part of the network for southern gas grida concept envisaged for transport of surplus gas from the western offshore fields to the southern states, supplementing to the extent feasible, by additional gas finds and the gas proposed to be imported from the Middle East. A purposed 2,300 km gas pipeline will be laid from Oman to India from where gas could flow to all southern states.

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As of April 1994, Indias recoverable gas reserves stand at 700 billion cubic metres. Presently, the demand for natural gas is 264 million cubic metres per day (MCMD) against which the total production during 199596 was 61 MCMD only. This leaves a huge gap in the demand and supply of natural gas in the country. Production of natural gas during 199596 was at 20.86 billion cubic metres. Keeping in view the future demands and proven gas reserves our gas reserves will last for not more than 20 years.

POWER
Power development in India began in 1910 with the commissioning of hydel power station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka. Indias electricity generation capacity has increased tremendously since Independence, but it has not kept pace with demands resulting from rapid industrialisation, social and economic development and urbanisation. Installed power generation capacity has risen from a meagre 1,400 MW in 1947 to 83,288 MW during 199596 comprising 20,976 MW hydro, 60,087 MW thermal and 2,225 MW nuclear. Thermal plants at present account for 74 per cent of total power generation and hydroelectricity plants 24 per cent and balance 2 per cent by nuclear plants. Power, whether thermal, hydro or nuclear, is the most convenient and versatile form of energy. It is in great demand by the industry accounting for 50 per cent of total power consumption, agriculture 25 per cent and the remaining in transport, domestic and other sectors.

Thermal Power
Coal, petroleum and natural gas are the chief sources of thermal power. These sources are of mineral origin and are also called as fossil fuels. Their greatest demerit is that they are exhaustible resources and cannot be replenished by man. Moreover, they are not pollution free as hydro-electricity is. Thermal power stations are located mainly in the big industrial regions and coal fields. Of the total installed thermal power generation capacity. Maharashtra accounts for 14.1%. West Bengal 13.2%, Uttar Pradesh 12.8%, Gujarat 12.2%, Bihar 12%, Tamilnadu 9.4%, Madhya Pradesh 7.8%, Andhra Pradesh 5.9% and Delhi 5.2%. In order to develop thermal power, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), New Delhi was set up in 1975 as a Central sector company. It aimed at augmenting electricity supply by setting up Super Thermal Power Stations and began with a 200 MW project at Singrauli in 1982. Today it has an installed capacity of 16,795 MW, representing about 28% of the all India thermal capacity. The corporation has successfully commissioned super thermal power projects at Singrauli (UP), Korba (MP), Ramagundam (AP), Farakka (WB), Vindhyachal (MP), Rihand (UP), Dadri (UP), Kahalgaon (Bihar), Telcher (Orissa) and five combined cycle gas power projects at Anta (Rajasthan), Auraiya (UP), Dadri (UP), Kawas (Gujarat) and Gandhar (Gujarat).

Hydro Power
Surface water because of its potential energy in certain areas, provides the cheapest, neat and clean resource of energy. Electricity produced from water represents hydro power. With the limited resources of coal, lignite and oil, growing reliance is being placed on hydel and nuclear power.

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Potential Areas. India has huge untapped identified potential in the hydel sector. The important hydel power region of India are : ( i) the most important region lies along the foothills of Himalaya in Western Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh having untapped identified potential of about 50,000 MW ; (ii) the north-eastern region also having huge hydro power potential ; (iii) the region along Western Ghats running through Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala ; (iv) the region along the Satpura, Vindhyas, Mahadeo and Maikal ranges in Central India ; (v) the thermal power region extending from east of Nagpur to west embracing coalfields of Gondwana belt. Growth of Hydro Power. The first hydro power plant in India was set up at Darjeeling in 1897, followed by a second plant at Sivasamudaram in Karnataka in 1902. The total installed capacity which was 588 MW in 1951 increased to 20,976 MW in 199596. Merits of Hydro Power. Except for the heavy initial investment hydel, projects have a definite edge over other power plants. Hydel power projects not only provide cheap generation of electricity but are renewable in nature (since water is renewable or inexhaustible source). In other words hydel projects have a very low generation and maintenance cost, while the cost of input, i.e., coal in thermal power plants is considerably high. There is no problem of pollution of environment or disposal of waste matter in generation of hydel power. Oil, coal and gas resources which can be used for providing electricity are in short supply and exert greater pressure on foreign exchange resources, hydel power can easily replace them. In addition, hydel projects can also be used to meet the requirement of irrigation in the down stream areas, and can also adequately meet the demands of power. Problems of Hydro Power. Although as per estimates of Central Electricity Authority, the annual hydroelectricity potential of our country at 60% load factor is 89,830 MW, yet hardly 25% of it has been harnessed, so far. It is probably because the initial investment and execution period of hydro-electric projects are comparatively much more. Another major drawback of hydel projects is displacement of population and damage to environment and fertile lands. There seems to be no escape from long gestation periods. But for the displacement of population and damage to environment and fertile lands, the focus is shifting from constructing big dams to the run-of-the-river projects. While dams are preferred in the foothills, so that area downstream could be irrigated also, run-of-the-river projects are preferred in the high hills, which are far from plains. Such projects do not require big reservoirs and electricity is generated from water available in the river at a particular point of time. This does not need to displace any population, on the one hand, and does not affect the forests and environment, on the other. But such projects cannot increase electricity generation to meet the peaking requirements, as done by the reservoir based hydel projects. Hence a blend of both types of hydel projects is recommended.

Nuclear Power
Deficiency of quality coal and natural gas and oil has forced the urgency of developing nuclear power in India. At present nuclear power accounts for 24% of the total electricity generated in the country. The nuclear power generation began in India in 1969 with the commissioning of first atomic power station at Tarapore with foreign technology. India achieved a landmark in nuclear power programme by building and commissioning indigeneously the Kalpakkam atomic power plant in Madras in 1983. Since then India has acquired all the capabilities needed to generate nuclear power.

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Three Stage Programme. Dr. Homi J. Bhabha in 1954, formulated a three stage programme for attaining self reliance in nuclear power using uranium and vast thorium resources of India. First Stage. Use of natural uranium (U-238) as fuel in pressurised heavy water-reactors (PHWR) to produce power and plutonium. Second Stage. Use of plutonium produced in fast breeder reactor (FBR) to produce additional plutonium/U-233 from thorium and power. Nuclear Power Reactors
Location No. of reactors and type Capacity (MWe) Year of Commissioning

Operating 1. Tarapore (TAPS 1 & 2) 2. Rawatbhatta (RAPS 1 & 2) 3. Kalpakkam (MAPS 1 & 2) 4. Narora (NAPS 1 & 2) 5. Kakrapar (KAPS 1 & 2) Under Construction 1. Kakrapar 3 & 4 2. Rawatbhatta 3 & 4 3. Kaiga 1 & 2 4. Tarapore 3 & 4 Planned 1. Kaiga 36 2. Rawatbhatta 5-8 3. Kudankulam 1 & 2 4, PHWR 4, PHWR 2, VVER 4 220 4 500 2 1000 = 880 = 2000 = 2000 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2 220 2 220 2 220 2 500 = = = 440 440 440 2, BWR 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2, PHWR 2 160 2 220 2 220 2 220 Total = = = = 320 300 440 440 440 1940 1969 1973, 1981 1983, 1985 1990, 1991 1992, 1995 100 + 200 =

= 1000

Target by 2020 AD = 20,000 MWe

Third Stage. Use of thorium. U-233 in an advanced fuel cycle and reactor system (under development). The first stage has reached the commercial stage. The generation of power from nuclear energy began in India in 1969 with the commissioning of first atomic power station at Tarapore i.e. TAPS. The total installed capacity of nuclear power stations in operation at five sites in five states (see under nuclear power reactors given in box) is 1940 MWe. The commissioning in 1985, of the fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) of 40 MW thermal and 13 MW electrical power at IGCAR, Kalpakkam marked the commencement of the second stage of Indias nuclear power programme. For the third stage some progress has been made like U-233 bearing fuel has been fabricated and tested in small reactor system ; an advanced heavy water reactor system that can make use of appropriate thorium/U-233 fuel cycle is being developed. Indias long term strategy is to depend on thorium reactors because, ( i) thorium converted into U-233 would

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help to keep the cycle going, without sizeable inputs of exteral fissile material ; ( ii) the energy potential of thorium on thermal reactors is way above that of natural uranium ; (iii) India has nearly five times as much high-grade thorium as uranium (abundant availability of thorium from natural resources) ; and (iv) potential of thorium exceeds that of fast reactors. Nuclear Energy Minerals. India is rich in certain atomic or nuclear minerals. Uranium is obtained from Jaduguda mines situated in Singhbhum district of Bihar and also from parts of Rajasthan. Abundant monazite sands on the coast of Kerala is chief source of thorium and uranium. Illmenite and zirconium are found concentrated in the beach sands of Malabar and Coromandal coasts. Graphite is found in Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
India has a vast potential of renewable energy sources and a number of technologies have been developed to harness them. A number of industrial base has been created in the country in the various renewable energy technologies such as solar thermal, solar photovoltaics, wind, small hydro, biomass etc. An aggregate capacity of 900 MW has been installed, based on these technologies. Plan and Policy. The non-conventional sources of energy are capable of solving the twin problems of energy supply in a decentralised manner and helping in sustaining cleaner environment. The government is encouraging New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE) to meet the growing demand of energy, to act as supplement to the fast depeleting conventional sources of energy and also to meet energy needs of the rural areas. The Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES), set up in 1982 and now upgraded to a full-fledged Ministry (MNES), looks after the development of new and nonconventional sources of energy. Its main activities include programme for development of solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, hydrogen energy, biomass energy, chemical sources of energy, energy from waste, biogas, improved chulha, waste recycling, magnetohydrodynamics, etc. In planning and implementation of NRSE programmes particular care is taken to elicit the cooperation of local communities and to meet their needs for small power, such as energy for cooking, supply of water for minor irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes as well as also street lighting. These programmes have proved particularly useful in remote and hilly areas in providing facility for the welfare of weaker sections of the society.

SOLAR ENERGY
The energy from the sun in the form of radiations is the solar energy. Sun is a source of enormous energy. It is believed that with just 0.1 per cent of the 75,000 trillion KWH of solar energy that reaches the earth, the planets energy requirements can be fulfilled. Solar energy can be utilised in three ways : ( i) converting it into thermal energy ; (ii) converting it into electricity ; and (iii) photosynthesis.

Thermal Energy
Thermal energy from sun can be obtained by using a solar collector. A large number of applications of solar thermal energy particularly those where low-grade thermal energy is required, have already become commercial. These include solar cookers, solar water heating systems, solar air heating, crop drying, refrigeration, water pumping, timber seasoning and

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water desalination. Work is on to develop economically viable solar collectors for high temperature applications. Solar thermal systems are today supplementary thermal energy requirements at various temperatures from 60C380C for different domestic and industrial applications including process heating and power generation. Solar water heating systems have vast potential to save electricity in domestic and commercial sectors and furnace oil in industrial sector which otherwise are being used for hot water supply. A proposal for setting up a 35 MW solar thermal power project at Maithania village in Jodhpur, Rajasthan based on line focussing collectors has been under the consideration of the Ministry. Solar Energy Centre under the MNES is the nodal agency for R&D effort. Main activities of the centre include solar heating research, systems design and engineering, solar thermal power generation, solar passive architecture and greenhouse technology.

Solar Photovoltaic
In solar photovoltaic system (SPV) electricity is generated directly from solar energy. It works on the principle of photoelectric effect : when light falls on certain metals, like silicon, the electrons get excited and escape from the metal ; these are then collected by another metal and passed through wires in a steady stream ; the electron flow thus set up constitutes the electric current. The basic unit of SPV is a solar cell which is a wafer of electron-emitting metal. DNES has the responsibility for the development, production and application of SPV devices. Since 1978, when first R&D programme was launched in SPV system by public sector Central Electronics Limited (CEL) at Ghaziabad, significant progress has been made in this field. During 198590, solar electricity system went commercial at CEL, Ghaziabad and Rajasthan Electronics Instrument Ltd., Jaipur. Solar electrification in remote villages has also begun. Salijipally in Andhra Pradesh became the countrys first village to be electrified using SPV systems. The first two 100 KW partial grid interactive SPV power projects at Kalyanpur in Aligarh district and Saraisadi in Mau district of Uttar Pradesh have been commissioned. At present SPV systems in India are being used for powering a variety of low power applications in rural, remote and un-electrified areas for lighting and water pumping, power for railway signalling rural telecommunication systems, water purifying for drinking and irrigation, microwave repeater stations, powering electronics on offshore platforms and oil & gas pipeline and TV transmission. This way of utilisation of solar energy is attractive considering the favourable solar radiation conditions and large requirement of electricity for decentralised applications. The easy installation and maintenance, absence of noise and pollution and long life make SPV systems favourable for use in remote and isolated areas, forest, hilly and desert regions. The major constraint in the spread of SPV is the high initial costs, the most expensive input being the silicon wafer which is partly imported. Fortunately the Metkem Silicon Ltd. of Chemplast group in conjunction with IISC Bangalore has succeeded in indigenously producing crystalline silicon and developing the process to make silane gasthe new material for amorphous silicon. Suryovonics Ltd., Hyderabad has also begun production of amorphous silicon. A fully automated pilot plant for production of amorphous silicon SPV modules based on a glass-substrate has been commissioned in Gurgaon in 1992.

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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis, a phenomenon of chemical conversion of carbondioxide and water into carbohydrates in presence of sunlight and chlorophyll by the plants, is one of the natures most efficient method of conversion of solar energy into storable form. It has been proved both in algae and in higher plants that under optimal conditions and over short period of time and at relatively low intensity light, upto 30 per cent of the light absorbed is transformed into chemical energy.

BIO-ENERGY
It is the energy produced from biological systems. Bio-energy is produced either by direct use of biomass or its conversion into gaseous or liquid fuels and includes biogas.

Biomass
Biomass occupies a predominant place as an energy source in rural India. Biomass is defined as living matter or its residues, which is a renewable source of energy. Common examples of biomass are wood, grass, herbage, grains, bagasse etc. The main sources of biomass can be classified into two groups : ( i) waste material including those derived from agriculture, forestry and municipal wastes ; and (ii) growing energy crops involving short rotation forestry plantations. Under biomass programme measures have been initiated to plant fast growing short rotation, high calorific value species of plants and trees to meet the needs of fuels, fodder and power. These are called energy planations. Grown in wastelands, besides providing energy, they also improve soil fertility and decrease soil erosion. For producing power from biomass gasifier systems and stirling engines have been developed indigenously. These devices convert biomass wastes and agricultural residues to energy through gasification or combustion. Biomass is also being used for production of liquid fuel (for transportation) such as ethanol and methanol and solid fuel through conversion of agricultural wastes into pellets and briquettes. Vegetable oils, having high calorific value and ignition quality approximating to those of diesel oil, can act as substitute or supplement to diesel oil. But due to their high viscosity and carbon residue vegetable oils may present pumping and vaporisation difficulties in engines and also heavy smoke emission in exhaust. To overcome these hurdles, IIT Madras has adopted two different approaches : (i) making the diesel engine more adiabatic and (ii) esterification of vegetable oil with methanol or ethanol. IIT Delhi is working on efficient utilisation of producer gas in combustion engines. Seven Biomass Research Centres, under different agro-climatic conditions of the country, have been set up to provide R&D back up. India has taken following measures in raising energy from biomass conversion : A 10 MW rice straw based thermal plantthe first of its kindhas been commissioned by BHEL at Jhalkhari in Punjab. A pilot plant to generate electricity from garbage and municipal wastes has been installed at Timarpur, Delhi. The first large scale plant to produce fuel pellets from municipal garbage has begun trial runs at Bombay. A 100 KW gasifier system has been established at Port Blair and a 15 KW sugarcanewater based system is under field evaluation.

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Biogas
Biogas is a sustainable source of energy by virtue of its production from vastly available natural organic wastes, simplicity of construction, operation and maintenance of the production units and multiple benefits accrued at the national and user level. Biogas is a gaseous mixture (in varied composition) ; generally composed of 60 per cent methane (a high value fuel). 40 per cent carbondioxide (an inert gas) and traces of other gases such as nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide. It is produced by anaerobic fermentation (biological process) of natural organic wastes. The organic wastes may be : ( i) cowdung and other animal excreta ; (ii) human excreta ; (iii) agricultural wastes such as straw, plant, leaves, algae, bagasse, paddy husk, water weeds etc. ; (iv) industrial wastes containing cellulosic material such as distillery sludge, wastes from tannery, food industries, paper mills etc. Biogas is commonly produced from cattle dung in a biogas plant, known as gobar gas plant, through a process called digestion that involves anaerobic fermentation. While producing biogas, the manurial value of the dung is not reduced but the slurry from biogas plant is an enriched manure as it has a higher content of oxygen, phosphorus and potassium. Accordingly such plants help in obtaining both fuel and manure from the same quantity of cattle dung. Biogas is a clean, cheap and convenient cooking fuel. It can also be used for lighting purposes and running small motors for lifting and providing power for cottage industries. There are several other advantages for rural families if they adopt biogas technology. The rural women and children will be spared the ordeal of daily collection and loading on their heads heavy bundles of firewood. There will be an end to the fumes (that are part of the traditional chulhas) that are smarting to the eyes and create lung diseases ; a lot of time is also saved in cooking and cleaning of the utensils and vessels ; indiscriminate felling of trees for fuel is also reduced. And if latrines are attached to these plants it helps village sanitation too. What makes the unit financially viable is the cash inflow in terms of saving on firewood and production and use of enriched manure with a high content of oxygen, phosphorus and potassium for agriculture. Scientists have also developed biogas plant that can operate on a variety of feed materials such as night soil, water hyacinth, agricultural wastes, deoiled castor cakes, willow dust and food waste. The MNES is continuing implementation of the National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) which was started in 198192 as a centrally sponsored scheme.

OCEAN ENERGY
Energy from ocean or sea can be obtained in at least eight ways. They are : Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. India is having large potential of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) which could of the order of about 50,000 MW. Some of the best sites in the world for OTEC are situated off the Indian mainland and near the islands Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar. An Ocean Energy cell has been set up at IIT, Madras to keep pace with the international developments in this field. A US company, M/s Sea Solar Power Inc., is promoting use of OTEC and the worlds first plant is proposed off the coast of Tamil Nadu with a capacity of 100 MW.

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The OTEC makes use of the difference in temperature between the surface of the sea and at a depth of 1000 m or more, to extract energy. This energy is used to drive turbines for generating electricity. In tropical countries like India the temperature gradient in the seas is as great as 25C. The main hurdles in OTEC technology is the cost factor, operational snags and the low operational efficiency of OTEC plants. Wave Energy. The energy of waves, generated in their continual upward and downward motion, is harnessed to activate either a water operated or, preferably, air operated turbine to generate electricity. The wave energy potential of the 6000 km long Indian coast is estimated about 40,000 MW. Trade wind belts in Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal are the ideal places for trapping wave energy. Wave power is renewable and pollution free but very expensive (Re. 1 per unit). Indias first wave energy power plant of 150 KW (maximum) capacity based on. Oscillating Water Column (OWC) has been commissioned at Vzhinjam by IIT, Madras. The Department of Ocean Development has declared the plant at Vzhinjam as a national facility for wave energy and wave application studies. A Swedish organisation, Sea Power AB has developed technology for harnessing wave energy under floating wave power concept (FWPC). Harnessing wave energy on this principle is being explored in India and a 1 MW wave energy plant is being set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tidal Energy. The regular flow and ebb of tides, produced by the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon are also useful for producing electricity, specially where the tidal range, i.e. the difference between the high and the low tide is large. If either a natural or artificial reservoir is available, power can be produced by moving the incoming and outgoing tides through turbines. The tidal power potential, in India is estimated to be about 8000 MW to 9000 MW. The potential sites identified are Gulf of Cambay (7,000 MW), Gulf of Kutch (1000 MW) and Sunderbans (100 MW). Asias first tidal power point of 900 MW capacity is proposed to be set up at Kandla in the Gulf of Kutch. Current Energy. Theoretically, the moving ocean current can be used to generate energy by allowing the water to pass through a series of turbines installed under water. But the energy density that can be harnessed is low ; maintaining the turbines in position is a bigger problem. Ocean Wind Energy. Winds in the coastal areas are relatively stronger and smoother than winds in the land area and can be harnessed as a source of energy. Several countries are producing energy from this source. Some of the problems associated with trade wind zone are icing and hurricane. Salinity Gradient Energy. If a semi-permeable membrane is placed between two water bodies of different saline concentration then water with lower salinity begins to flow through the membrane towards higher salinity until both attain equal concentration. This is called osmosis. This movement in osmosis can generate an electric current. In Sweden a pilot study is being conducted to generate power of 2300 MW from salinity gradient energy. Ocean Geothermal Energy. Theoretically, this method uses the temperature gradient as in OTEC but in the reverse way in that the temperature at the earth crust is low and higher at its deeper levels. But the method has not been practically applied. Bio Conversion Energy. Sea weeds can also be converted into fuel and other energy products like methane, food and fertilisers.

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WIND ENERGY
Wind is emerging as one of the most potential source of alternate energy that will be helpful to a great extent in bridging the gap between the energy demand and supply. Wind has kinetic energy by virtue of the movement of large masses of air caused by differential heating of the atmosphere by the sun. This energy can be utilised for performing mechanical and electrical works. Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity, for lifting water from wells and for direct water pumping. The total wind energy potential in India is estimated at 20,000 MW. A total capacity of 732 MW has been installed by 199596. Coastal areas of Tamil Nadu. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are favourable for wind power generation. Wind power in India has been developed both in the stand alone mode (with diesel back-up and pumped storage to ensure supply during little wind) and in wind farms which have arrays of turbines for supplying bulk power needs for grids. Asias first wind farm project is at Mandvi in Kutch district of Gujarat. Asias largest wind farm cluster of 150 MW is at Muppandal in Tamil Nadu.

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Geothermal energy is the energy produced by natural processes occurring within the earth. The major source of this energy (in the form of heat) is molten underground rock or magma. Geothermal energy is extracted for heating and power generation from natural steam, hot water or dry rocks in the Earths crust. Water is pumped down through an injection well where it passes through joints in the hot rocks and then water rises to the surface through a recovery well. This water may be converted into steam through a heat exchanger. Dry steam may be passed through turbines to produce electricity. Approximately ten per cent of the earth surface provides access to heat inside the earth. The most potent sources are volcanoes and hot springs but there are other areas too from where heat can be generated under controlled conditions. In India 340 hot springs localities with average temperatures of 80C100C have been identified as the potential source of geothermal energy. Work is on in several parts of India to survey and assess geothermal potential and utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat and power generation. A 5 KW geothermal pilot power plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. A potential of 45 MW geothermal power has been estimated in the Puga Valley of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir. The use of geothermal energy for space heating and greenhouse effect has been demonstrated. A project on mushroom cultivation and poultry farming using geothermal fluid is under implementation at Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu. The green house for the project will be established at Puga Valley utilising the existing geothermal borewell.

MAGNETO HYDRODYNAMICS (MHD)


Magneto hydrodynamics (MHD) power generation works on the principle of conversion of thermal energy directly into electricity, whereas, in a conventional power plant thermal energy is first converted into mechanical energy which in turn is converted into electrical energy. Generation of power from thermal energy using MHD technology invovles expansion of superhot (2800 K) electrically conducting gas against the retarding force of a strong magnetic field to produce electric power directly. Thus in MHD, the turbine and generator are combined into a single unit but without any moving parts.

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A DNES assisted MHD research project based on coal, in India, aims at the creation of a suitable base for research and development work in the field of MHD power generation by setting up a thermal power level of 5 MW. Research is going on for designing bigger MHD plants that will produce clean and cheap power and operate at greater efficiency than existing coal and nuclear plants. For this purpose data is being provided by a small scale MHD power generator set up at Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu.

ANIMAL ENERGY
The contribution of animal energy or drought animal power (DAP) is about 50 per cent of the total energy generated in the country. This is mainly for farming and transportation. The MNES has launched a national programme in this field in March 1994. Under the programme improvement in equipment, devices and transport vehicles which are animal driven is being done. Also programmes for improving utilisation of human energy for transportation through cycle rickshaws and hand carts, as well as by landless labourers and artisans are being developed and promoted.

ENERGY FROM INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN WASTES


Huge quantities of urban, municipal and industrial wastes produced in India are released into the environment with little or no treatment resulting in environmental pollution. The wastes in the environment undergo natural biodegradation releasing methane into the atmosphere. These wastes can be utilised as an enormous source of potential energy and thus help in reducing emission of greenhouse gases and minimising environmental pollution. To cash on the far reaching environmental benefits by proper utilisation of various wastes hitherto causing pollution problem. A national programme has been launched since June 1995 for proper treatment of urban and industrial wastes and the resultant recovery of energy from these sources. An incineration plant, that will incinerate solid urban refuse and convert the heat into electricity, with a capacity of 300 tonnes of solid municipal waste per day has been installed in Delhi. A pyrolysis plant, using the process of pyrolysis to extract liquid fuel from solid refuse is proposed to be set up in Bombay. Several projects in which power will be generated from bagasse in sugar mills in the country are under execution.

ALTERNATIVE FUELS
DNES is endeavouring to develop alternatives to diesel and motor spirit in order to reduce their consumption as their reserves are limited and to reduce outflow of precious foreign exchange. The various alternatives are : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). For use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a fuel in vehicles the natural gas is compressed at 160200 times the atmospheric pressure and is stored in cylinders that can be mounted on vehicles. In petrol-driven vehicles with spark ignition engines, a convertor kit is installed for switch over to gas. The convertor expands the gas in a pressure reducing valve to sub-atmospheric level and feeds it to the engine through a control valve and carburettor operated by the accelerated pedal. In the car engines CNG-air mixture would be ignited by the spark plug ; in diesel systems the ignition is effected by injection of small doses of fuel. Diesel is used during starting and idling. The CNG system functions automatically once the vehicle starts moving. The advantages of CNG include reduction in gas

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flaring, no harmful emissions and energy savings. The problem is that of additional weight of the gas cylinders. The technical feasibility of CNG as a fuel has already been established in Italy, Argentina, CIS, New Zealand, USA and Canada. In India CNG vehicles are running in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Assam and Tripura. In Bombay buses, taxis and some autorickshaws are running on CNG since December 1992 under the World Banks Metropolitan Environment Improvement Programme. In Delhi too some of the Green Line fleet of DTC are running on CNG. GAIL has a project to convert a total of 63,920 petrol run cars into gas within six years in Delhi, Bombay and Baroda. Three main compressor stations have been set up in these cities. The IBP would take up the project in Assam and Tripura. Use of CNG in buses and trucks would save diesel by 50%, cars would not need petrol at all. A car filled with two CNG gas cylinders at 200 bar pressure has a range of 100 km. Buses and trucks fitted with six cylinders would cover about 300 km. If one runs out of CNG en route, the vehicle would be run on conventional fuel by switching off the CNG system. Hydrogen. Hydrogen is a renewable fuel because the raw material in the form of water is abundant and solar energy used for the decomposition of water to produce hydrogen will be available for millions of years. Furthermore, when used as a fuel, hydrogen gas causes no pollution and forms water thus renewing the raw material. Thus hydrogen is an environmentfriendly, non-conventional and renewable source of energy. In achieving this objective, the principle used in photosynthesis by green plants is used. In photosynthesis water molecule is split into oxygen, electrons and hydrogen ions (H+). These hydrogen ions are converted into energy rich compounds like glucose. However if these hydrogen ions can be converted into hydrogen gas (H2), it can be used as fuel. Gasohol. A mixture of petrol and alcohol called gasohol has been used as a fuel in motor without the need of altering the engine. Hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons produced by some micro-organisms can be used as liquid or gaseous fuel. For instance, microbial production of methane gas from polymers like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. Hydrocarbons are also produced by unicellular alga Botryococcus braunii which possess a hydrocarbon content as high as 75% of its dry weight, the highest reported in any kind of biomass.

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