Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Gel Electrophoresis

Mary M. McEwan Spring 2013

Mount Saint Mary College

I. Goals, Objectives, and Standards a. Goals i. The student will understand gel electrophoresis is a technique scientist use to study DNA and proteins. ii. The student will understand gel electrophoresis involves separating DNA fragments by charge and size. iii. The student will understand gel electrophoresis is used in science for three main reasons: 1. To isolate specific DNA fragments 2. To map DNA 3. For DNA fingerprinting b. Objectives i. Given class lecture, notes, and animations of gel electrophoresis, the student will be able to describe in detail the technique including the general procedure involved in running a gel and how the process works with 90% accuracy. ii. Given class lecture, notes, and animations of gel electrophoresis, the student will be able to list and describe the three main reasons why scientist use gel electrophoresis with 90% accuracy. iii. Given class lecture, notes, and animations of gel electrophoresis, the student will be able to identify matching DNA run on a gel with 100% accuracy. c. Standards i. National Standards 1. Content Standard C Life Science: As a result of their activities in grades 912, all students should develop an understanding of a. The cell b. Molecular basis of heredity c. Biological evolution

d. Interdependence of organisms e. Matter, energy, and organization in living systems f. Behavior of organisms. ii. New York State Standards 1. Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding. Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English Language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information. 2. Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources. Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in science. 3. Standard 3: Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation. Students will listen, speak, read, and write, for critical analysis and evaluation. As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information, and issues. 4. Standard 4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science. a. Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring.

i. Performance Indicator 2: Explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter genetic makeup of organisms. 1. Major Understanding C: Different enzymes can be used to cut, copy, and move segments of DNA. Characteristics produced by the segments of DNA may be expressed when these segments are inserted into new organisms, such as bacteria. II. Materials/ Resources a. Materials and Resources i. Pen/ pencil ii. Weekly do now sheet iii. Chapter 4 notes (Tour of the Cell) iv. I have a question slip b. Use of Electronic Technology in Teaching i. SMART Board screen, projector, and pens ii. Virtual gel electrophoresis animationhttp://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/gelelectrophoresis.html iii. Virtual restriction enzyme animationhttp://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/gelelectrophoresi s.html iv. Gel electrophoresis video- http://www.jove.com/video/3923/agarose-gelelectrophoresis-for-the-separation-of-dna-fragments III. Teaching and Learning Strategies a. Introduction

i. The lesson will begin with a do now on the board reviewing material from the last class. The question asks: If the low power magnification of a microscope is 200x, the high power magnification is 800x, and the low power field of view is 2000m in diameter, what is the diameter of the high power field of view in m. The students will have approximately 5 minutes to settle down and complete the do now question. I will then take 2-3 minutes to go over the do now question on the board. ii. To begin the topic of gel electrophoresis I will start by explaining that in the past few days we have used the compound microscopes, which are a tool or technique that scientist use to view very small objects. Gel electrophoresis is also a tool/technique that scientist use to study DNA and proteins. I will get the students thinking by asking them if they think scientist can see DNA under a microscope, and if so, why do they use a technique called gel electrophoresis to study DNA instead of just looking under the microscope. This is a short introduction that will only take approximately 2 minutes. I will then dive into the lesson and begin to lecture on the procedure involved in gel electrophoresis, how it works, and why scientists use it. b. Development i. The instructional strategy used in this lesson is direct instruction as well as cooperative learning. ii. I will be using direct instruction to lecture the class on gel electrophoresis. The students will be filling in sentences or phrases on their note packet and then I will discuss the topic. I will be using virtual labs, pictures, and animations throughout the lesson to express the process of gel electrophoresis in a visual way. iii. Please refer to the gel electrophoresis teacher notes page for a more detailed description of the topic being covered. iv. During one section of the lecture, students will be asked to identify identical DNA mixtures by looking at a picture of a gel. During this guided practice the students

will quickly work in groups to identify the match while I walk around the room to help if needed. v. The development, as well as the guided practice will take the better part of the period, approximately 30-35 minutes. c. Guided Practice and Feedback (Checking for Understanding) i. Guided practice and feedback will be incorporated throughout the development of this lesson through the use of questioning. By asking students prediction and assessment questions I will be giving them guided practice as well as feedback when I respond to their answer. Examples of questions include: 1. What is a buffer? 2. Why would we use a tracking dye? 3. Why does the DNA move through the gel? 4. How do we know the exact size of each DNA fragment? 5. Why do the smaller/shorter DNA fragments move faster and further through the gel. ii. I will help my students understand the material by giving constructive responses to their questions. I will give specific praise such as I like the way you phrased that when a student is correct and ask other students for help such as, does anyone want to add to _______s answer when a student in incorrect. iii. I will also be showing my students pictures of a gel and asking them to identify identical DNA mixtures. This will serve as guided practice because I will be able to walk around and help them. d. Accommodations and modifications for Learners with Special Needs i. This lesson does not require any accommodations and modifications for learners with special needs because there are no special education students in any of my classes. ii. For those students who are having trouble mastering the material, additional individualized help will be given after class.

iii. Those students who have early mastery of the material will be asked to assist those students who may need additional help. iv. As the teacher, I will be assessing my students progress throughout the lesson. In doing this, I will be able to accommodate needs by adjusting my instruction. For example, if my students understand the material I will continue at a faster pace, but if my students do not understand the material I will continue at a slower pace. e. Closure i. As a closure to this lesson I will provide a short video on gel electrophoresis. The video will review the procedure involved in making and running a gel as well as why scientist use this technique. The video will serve as a recap so students have an additional chance to be exposed to the material. ii. After the video I will ask if the students have any last minute questions or anything to add. I will answer any questions they may have. iii. Finally, I will remind students to fill out their I have a question sheets as a way to ask me a question they may not have felt comfortable saying in front of the class. If the student does not have a question I recommend that they write something they learned or their favorite part of the lesson then drop it in the box at the back of the room. f. Independent Practice i. As independent practice, it is implied that student will continue working on their homework. Homework is given to students at the beginning of each chapter and is due at the end of each chapter. The students are expected to complete a section of the homework each night and come to the teacher with questions as needed. g. Method of Evaluation i. Three types of formative assessment will be used to evaluate students during and after the lesson. 1. I will be asking my students questions as a form of formative assessment. This will allow me to gage whether or not the class understands the material and can move on or needs some more review before we continue.

My questions will directly correlate to my learning goals and objectives of the lesson so that I can assess my students progress in meeting these targets. These questions will be scattered through out the 45-minute lesson and will be directed to all students. Examples of questions I may ask include: a. Why does DNA move through the gel? b. How are the DNA fragments separated? c. Where would you find the larger fragments on the gel? d. Why would you use a tracking dye? e. Why would we want to separate DNA fragments by size? f. Etc. 2. At the end of the lesson I will use the I have a question sheets as another form of formative assessment. On their way into the classroom, students will pick up their I have a question sheet. Throughout the lesson, if they have a question or dont understand a certain piece of information they can write it down and slip it into the box at the end of class. This method will allow students to ask questions they may be afraid to ask in front of the class as well as give me a general idea of what the students do or do not understand. If I notice a recurring issue I will address it next class and review the material. If students do not have a specific question they can write their favorite part of the lesson, something they learned, or an interesting fact they want to share. 3. Finally, at the beginning of the next class I will create a do now question to review the material from this lesson. The do now assignment serves as a review or refresher of the content that was covered during the last class. My do now for Friday, February 8th will be: briefly explain the process of gel electrophoresis and why scientist use this technique.