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oip nbh dh eftsk dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?

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1H y'i dk T[d/P s/ g{ot XkoBktK fJ; y'i ekoi dk ftPk j?, oip nbh dh ouBk dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B.* pkp{ oip nbh (1894^1979) gzikph dh feZ;kekft gozgok dk nzsbk wjZstg{oB eth j?. T[; dk ouBk ekb thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ ;Zs djkfenK sZe c?fbnk j'fJnk j? fiBQK ftZu'A T[; dhnK ;G s'A tZX wjZst tkbhnK ;kfjse ouBktK dk f;oiB ekb 1920 s'A 1947 sZe fojk j?. fJ; soQK fJ; y'i dk ftPk y/so pkp{ oip nbh dhnK u"Dthn ouBktK d/ jtkb/ Bkb thjthA ;dh dh feZ;kekoh ns/ ethPoh d/ gzikp dh b'eXkok Bkb nzso ;zpzXK dk nfXn?B eoB Bkb ;zpzfXs j?. pkp{ oip nbh d/, w[ZYb/ ihtB ekb ;w/A gzikph ;kfjs gozgoe nfXnkswe u/sBk s'A nkX[fBe ftfrnkBe u/sBk ftZu spdhb j' fojk j?. fJ; ;w/A d"okB wZXekbh ;kfjse ekft o{g yzvs j' oj/ jB ns/ Bt/A ;kfjse o{gkeko Bt/A ihtB nB[Gt ns/ u/sBk nB[;ko f;oi/ ik oj/ jB. fJj d"o feZ;kekoh dh EK Bktbekoh tZb nkT[D dk j?. fi; ;kfjse gozgok ns/ ekft o{gkekoK Bkb pkp{ oip nbh ;zpzfXs j? T[j ;wK ftjk e/ r?o^gq;zre j' oj/ jB go fJ; d/ pkti{d fJBQK jh ;fwnK ftZu pkp{ oip nbh wkbt/ d/ fPo'wDh feZ;keko^ethPo tZi'A ;Ekgs j[zdk j?. T[; B{z wkbtk y/so ftZu jh BjhA ;r'A ;ko/ gzikp ftZu tZv/ gZXo T[s/ gqtkBrh fwbdh j?. fJ; bJh fJj jEbk y'i ekoi fJ; ;kfjse tosko/ d/ e[M p[fBnkdh ;tkbK B{z ;wMD Bkb ;zpzfXs j? fit/A gfjbK, fJ; d"o ftZu feZ;kekoh ns/ ethPoh ekft XkoktK dk ;zrw j'D Bkb fJBQK d'tK B{z fi; gqeko dk iBse j[zrkok fwbdk j? T[; d/ b'eXkokJh nkXko fejV/ jB < d{;ok, nkX[fBe u/sBk ns/ soePhb ftukoXkok Bkb ;zpzfXs ;kfjse f;oiBktK d/ d"o ftZu gozgoe

u/sBk ns/ b'eXkokJh w[jkto/ tkbhnK ouBktK dh eh ;koEesk ojh j? < sh;ok, feT[Afe oip nbh dh ouBk fszB/ Xkowe wkBsktK tkb/ gzikphnK d/ Xkofwe, fJfsjk;e fwfEjk;e ;zdoGk Bkb Gog{o o{g i[Vh j'Jh j?, fJ; bJh fJ; ouBk dk ;KMh gzikphns dh u/sBk B{z gquzv eoB ftZu eh :'rdkB fojk j? < nkfd. fJ; gqeko d/ j'o th eJh gqPB jB fijV/ pkp{ oip nbh dhnK ouBktK d/ ;fGnkukoe ns/ ftukoXkoe gq;zrK ftZu'A T[sgzB j[zd/ jB. fit/A ftPtheoB d/ fJ; d"o ftZu id'A gzikph ;fGnkukoe pDsoK ftZu p[fBnkdh gfotosB nk oj/ jB T[; ;w/A pkp{ ih dh ouBk dk wjZst fJ; rZb'A j'o th tZX iKdk j? fe fJj ;kvhnK ;EkBe gozgoktK ns/ d/;h ofjsb dh w"be T[gi j'D eoe/ fJ; ftZu gzikphns dh gSkD d/ w[ZYb/ bZSD T[gbpX jB. fBo;zd/j pkp{ oip nbh gziph iB ;XkoB d/ fJe ftPkb tor dhnK GktBktK s/ nB[GtK dh soiwkBh eodk fojk j?. go fJzB/ wjZstgoB eth pko/ jkb/ sZe e'Jh rzGho nfXn?B iK y'i ekoi dk brGr nGkt j?. T[go'es ;ko/ ekoBK ;dek w?A pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk B{z b'eXkoe fdqPNh s'A ;wMD dk :sB eoB bJh fJj ftPk u[fDnk j?. 2H ftPk y/so, ftP/ dh u'D ns/ ftP/ dh ;koEesk . gzikph feZ;kekft Xkok wXekbh gzikph ;kfjs dk r"otwJh fto;k j?. fJj ekft Xkok ;'bQthA ;dh ftZu dw'do s'A ub e/ thjthA ;dh ftZu pkp{ oip nbh sZe nkT[Adh j'Jh nb'g j' iKdh j?. fJ; dh g{oh uVQs dk ;wK T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX s'A b? e/ thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX Gkt 1850^1950 sZe feZ;kekft ns/ tko ekft wXekbh ekft dhnK nfijhnK fposK sZe ekft XkoktK jB fijVhnK b"fee gZXo T[s/ ftuodhnK j'D ekoB gzikph iB ihtB d/ ;G s'A B/V/ ojhnK jB. wXekb d/ feZ;kekoK dk ihtB doPB ns/ ;fGnkukoe u/sBk, b'eXkok d/ f;oie iB ;w{jK d/ ihtB

doPB ns/ ;fGnkukoe u/sBk ftZu p[fBnkdh ;kMK j'D ;dek fJj fJe' Xoksb T[s/ ftuod/ oj/ jB. fJ; bJh feZ;k ekft dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B gzikphnK dh wkBf;e s/ Gkt[e gqftoshnK dh gSkD ns/ ;Ekgsh B{z fBPfus eoB ftZu gqwkfDe rtkjh pDB d/ ;woE j?. fJ; dk ;G s'A tZvk ekoB fJj j? fe feZ;keko dk b'e ihtB ns/ b'eXkok Bkb d{jok foPsk j?. feZ;keko nkgDh ;koh eEk^t;s{ b'e gozgok d/ nkXko ftZu'A rqfjD eodk j?, fJ; eEk dh fposKs o{g ftZu ekft f;oiBk eoB ;w/A b'eXkok dhnK o{VhnK T[s/ T[;koh eodk j? ns/ fJ;B{z iB ;XkoB d/ jtkb/ eo fdzdk j?. fJ; soQK feZ;keko dhnK ekft^f;oiD dhnK i[rsK jh b'eXfoe BjhA j[zdhnK ;r'A feZ;keko dh ftukoXkok ns/ u/sBk d't/A b'e doPB ns/ b'e u/sBk Bkb fJe;[o j[zd/ jB. tfPPN ;kfjs d/ pj[s ;ko/ o{gkekoK ftZu'A feZ;k ni/jh ;kfjsB tzBrh j? fijVh b'fee gZXo T[Zs/ ubdh j'Jh ni'e/ Bktb tKr :EkoE^Xowh ;[Gkn tkbh j?. fJ;/ bJh gzikph nkb'uBk ftZu nkX[fBe i[r ftZu T[gi/ Bktb B{z wXekbh feZ;kekft dk ;[Gkn gZy'A tko; wzfBnk iKdk j?. gzikph feZ;/ ns/ Bktb ftZu ;KM f;oca fposKse ftXk tZi'A jh BjhA j? ;r'A fJBQK d'tK ftXktK dh ihtB nB[Gt dh g/Pekoh eoB dhnK ftXhnK ftZu ns/ w{b ;[Gkn ftZu p[fBnkdh ;KMk jB. fJj d't/A ftXktK gksoK ns/ ;fEshnK B{z ;w[Zu/ ;wkie skD/ pkD/ Bkb i'V e/ wB[Zyh foPfsnK d/ ifNb ;z;ko dh g/Pekoh eoB Bkb ;zpzfXs jB. gzikph feZ;k gzikph ihtB s/ gzikphnK d/ v{zx/ wkBf;e Gkt[e ;o'ekoK Bkb B/fVT[A i[fVnk j'D eoe/ fJ; dk b'eXkoe nfXn?B gzikph b'e ihtB B{z ;wMD bJh ns/ wjZstg{oB j?. gzikph ;fGnkuko, b'eXkok ns/ feZ;kekoh d/ T[go'es nzso ;zpzXK B{z fXnkB ftZu oZy e/ n;hA gzikph feZf;nK d/ b'eXkoe nfXn?B B{z nkgD/ y'i ekoi dk y/so fwfEnk j?. feZ;kekoh d/ fJ; ftPkb y/so ftZu'A n;hA nkgD/ nfXn?B bJh pkp{ oip nbh (1894^1979)

dhnK u'DthnK ouBktK B{z nkgDk nkXko pDktKr/. fJBQK u'DthnK ouBktK d/ jtkb/ Bkb thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX dh feZ;kekoh ethPoh ns/ b'eXkok d/ nzso ;zpzXK dk nfXn?B ehsk ikt/rk fJ; bJh w?A nkgD/ fJ; y'i ekoi dk ftPk u[fDnk j?. pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B . pkp{ oip nbh (1894^1979) B/ gzikj d/ eohp ekft ouBktK dh f;oiDk ehsh j?. fJBQK ouBktK ftZu bzw/ feZ;/ th jB ns/ S'N/ ethPoh ekft d/ gq;zr th jB. fJ; nfXn?B ekoi bJh fJBQK gzi doiD ouBktK ftZu'A brGr fJe doiB ouBktK B{z fJ; nfXn?B dk nkXko pDkfJnk ikt/rk. ouBktK dh u'D oip nbh dh ouBkekoh dhnK ftP/rs ns/ o{grs d't/A gqeko dhnK tzBrhnK ftP/;sktK B{z w[Zy oZy e/ ehsh rJh j?. fit/A fe fgZS/ th fieo ehsk frnk j? fe gzikph ;kfjs fJfsjk; B{z x'fynK gsk brdk j? fe gzikph feZ;kekoh dk f;yobk d"o T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX s'A b? e/ thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX sZe (1850^1950) pDdk j?. thjthA ;dh dk gfjbk nZX feZ;k ekft gozgok d/ y[oB ns/ nb'g j' ikD dk d"o j? . T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX s'A gzikph feZ;kekoh ns/ feZ;kekoh dk ekft y/so ;KM/ s'A pdb e/ wkbt/ tZb B{z j' iKdk j?. fiZE/ T[BQhthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX Gkt wjkokik oDihs f;zx ekb ftZu T[; d/ oki nXhB g?Ad/ y/soK ftZu jkPw, ekdo:ko, cibPkj ns/ whnK w[jzwd pyP tor/ gqf;ZX eth g?dk j'J/ . go T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX ftZu g{oth gzikp d/ yk; eo e/ wkbtk y/so ftZu tX/o/ ;woEktkB feZ;keko g?dk j'J/ . fJj d"o (1850^1950) w[ZYb/ nzro/Ih ;kPB ekb dk j?. fJ; d"o ftZu wkbtk y/so ftZu doiDK Bkwto feZ;kekok B/ ekft ouBk ehsh fiBQK ftZu'A GkJh GrtkB f;zx, ;kX{ Jh;o dk;, P/o w[jzwd, eow f;zx N{;/, r'eb uzd, ;kX{ ;dk okw, ji{ok f;zx p[Nkjoh nkfd gqw[Zy wzB/ iKd/ jB. ;' fJj fejk ik ;edk j? T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX ftZu

wkbtk y/so d/ feZ;keko gzikph feZ;k ekft Xkok dh w[Zy Xkok pD u[Ze/ ;B. T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX dh feZ;kekoh dh fJZe tZvh ftP/Psk fJj j? fe fJ; d"o ftZu ethPoh ekft, feZ;k ekft dh ;fj:'rh ekft Xkok tZi'A gqc[bs j' fojk ;h. ethPoh Szd pZX ekft tkbh fJe ftbZyD rkfJB P?bh j?. ethPoh ekft ;dek feZ;k ekft d/ S'N/, S'N/ gq;zr ebhnK iK eftsK tZi'A ou/ ns/ rkJ/ ikD bZr/. w/fbnK ns/ j'o ;fGnkukoe w"fenK T[Zs/ ethPoh s/ feZ;keko nkg rkfJB wzvbhnK dh nrtkJh eod/ ;B. fJ; d"o ftZu pj[s ;ko/ feZ;keko s/ ethPo iBse gZXo d/ fJeZm ftZu rkT[Ad/ j'D ekoB gqf;ZX j'J/. fJBQK rkfJeK ftZu'A wkxh f;zx, oD f;zx s/ w'dB pj[s gqf;ZX j'J/ . pkp{ oip nbh B/ fJBQK feZ;keko s/ ethPoh rkfJeK dk fieo ehsk j?. T[BQhthA ;dh d/ d{i/ nZX ftZu fiZE/ feZ;kekoh ns/ ethPoh dk ;zrw j[zdk j? T[E/ feZ;kekoh dh T[ukoBh P?bh, ekft rkfJB dhnK P?bhnK ftZu BtK o{g tNkT[Adh j?. j[D feZ;k f;oca wfjcbK ftZu rkfJB s/ T[ukoB dh ouBk jh BjhA ;r'A w/b/ w[ikjfonk s/ j'o ;wkie fJeZmK ftZu iBse gZso T[Zs/ rkfJB gkm d/ o{g ftZu ;kjwD/ nkfJnk. fJ; dk f;ZNk fJj fBefbnk fe gzikph feZ;kekoh fijVh fgzrb d/ B/wK d/ nkXko T[Zs/ e[M e[M e[ fB:ws ns/ fBPfus SzdK d/ o{g ftzu, ftP/P eo e/ Szd p?As ftZu, ubh nk ojh ;h j[D T[j Bt/A f;oi/ tzB ;[tzB/ SzdK ftZu ouh ikD bZrh. rkfJB o{gK dh ftftXsk ;dek Bt/A, Bt/A SzdK dk fBowkD j'D bZrk. gzikph feZ;kekoh s/ ethPoh ftZu Bt/A Bt/A sIop/ j'D bZr/ fijV/ fe thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX sZe ubd/ oj/. J/BQK jh BjhA ;r'A gzikph feZ;kekoh d/ ftfPnk dk x/ok th ftPkb j'D bZr fgnk. T[BQhthA ;dh dh fgSbh u"EkJh ns/ thjthA ;dh d/ gfjb/ nZX ftZu Bt/A, Bt/A ftfPnK T[Zs/ feZ;/ fby/ rJ/ fJBQK ftZu ;EkBe BkfJeK Xowh

vke{nK, nkPeK pko/ fby/ rJ/ feZf;nk d/ Bkb Bkb fizdrh fpbk; ns/ feZ;k o/b dk (;kX{ dfJnk f;zx nkfoc) izrBkwk ekpb (eow f;zx) s'A fJbktk toswkB ;wkie ;wZf;nktK B{z feZf;nK dk ftPk pDkfJnk ikD bZr fgnk. fJ; d"o ftZu pkp{ oip nbh B/ ;EkBe ;fGnkukoe s/ b'eXkoe rkEktK, gq;zrK, eEktK ns/ b'e gqtkBs XkoBktk B{z w[Zy oZy e/ tZy' tZyo/ feZ;/ ns/ ethPoh gq;zrK dh ouBk ehsh fiBQK ftZu feZ;k r[oBkw f;zx rT{e/, nk;h mfmnkoh, gq;zr gkT[ANk ;kfjp, ;kek ;ojzd s/ ;kek uwe"o, bkbk ih Pjhd Bhsh d/ efpZs ns/ p?As, feZ;k j;B j[;?B, d[Zbk GZNh izr woki, pkpk dhg f;zx, izr :{og d/, feZ;k jho gqw[Zy jB. pkp{ oip nbh dh gzikph feZ;k ekft s/ ethPoh B{z d/D fiZE/ Bt/A gq;zrK s/ feZf;nK dh f;oiDk d/ gZy'A j? T[E/ T[; B/ ;G s'A tZX Bt/A SzdK ns/ pfjoK dh f;oiDk ehsh. fJj efjDk nfs eEBh BjhA j't/rk fe ;w[Zuh gzikph feZ;k ekft Xkok ftZu pkp{ oip nbh ni/jk eth j? fi; B/ ;G s'A tZX tzB ;[tzBsk tkb/ w"be SzdK ns/ soiK dh f;oiDk eo e/ gzikph fgzrb d/ B/wK dk ft;sko ehsk. pkp{ oip nbh dk ouBk ekb thjthA ;dh dk gfjbk nZX j?. fJ; ;kfjs d"o dk T[j ;ot'sw feZ;keko ns/ ethPo j?. y'i dh fdqPNh s'A fJj sZE th fdbu;g j? fe id'A thjthA ;dh ftZu feZ;k ekft Xkok dk ;{oi Yb fojk ;h T[BQK ;fwnK ftZu pkp{ oip nbh B/ ftP/ ns/ o{g d'tK gZyK s'A gzikph feZ;kekft Xkok dh gozgoK ftZu fJfsjk;e wjZst tkbk ;kfjse :'rdkB gkfJnk. ;' T[go'es ;ko/ sZEK ns/ gZyK B{z fXnkB ftZu oZy e/ n;hA nkgD/ ftP/ dh u'D bJh pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk B{z b'eXkoe fdqPNh s'A ftPb/Ps eoB dh ftT[As pDkJh j?. fJ; bJh oip nbh ouBktbh dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B gzikp d/ ;fGnkukoe ns/ ;kfjse d'jK gZyK s'A jh wjZstg{oB j?.

3H

oip nbh dk ihtB s/ ouBk L pkp{ oip nbh dk iBw 10 nr;s 1894 JhL B{z fgzv ;kj'e/,

fIbQk fco'ig[o (j[D fibQk w'rk) ftZu fJe w[;bw gfotko iBkp Xwkbh yK d/ xo phph fiT[Dh dh e[Zy'A uko XhnK s'A pknd j'fJnk. pZu/ dk BK oip nbh ykB oZfynk frnk. fJ;bkw Xow dh fwfEjk;e gozgok nB[;ko oip pfjPs ftZu tfjD tkbh T[j Bdh j? fi; dk mzvk gkDh f;oca T[BQK B{z jh B;hp j[zdk j? i' owikB d/ wjhB/ PoXk s/ ftPtkP Bkb g{ok wjhBk o'I/ oZyd/ jB. B/Vb/ fgzv pzphjk GkJh s'A gqkfJwoh gk; eo e/ w'r/ s'A nZmthA iwks ns/ pofizdok jkJh ;e{b cohde'N s'A w?fNqe dh iwks 1912 JhH ftZu gk; ehsh. c/o o;{b, fibQk r[ioks s'A Uto;hno dk e'o; gk; eoe/ pzrkb r'jkNh, sfjL wodkB fibQk fgPkto d/ gmkDK d/ fJbkt/ ftZu 1914 JhH ftZu Bfjoh Uto;hno tZi'A B"eoh nkozG ehsh. T[j fJe ;kb pknd 1915 ftZu T[E'A pdb e/ irokT[A d/ fgzv nykVk fty/ ;ojzd Bfjo T[s/ c/o wkbt/ d/ fJbke/ ftZu nk rJ/. pkp{ oip nbh dh eftsk B{z ;wMD bJh fJj sZE pj[s wjZstg{oB j? fe 1940 JhH ftZu id'A T[BQK dh B"eoh ftZu soZeh j' e/ n?;HvhHUH pDBk ;h sK T[; B{z ;kwoki fto'Xh ns/ d/P Grs ;{ofwnK d/ jZe ftZu eftsktK fbyD ;dek T[BQK dh fJj soZeh ykoi eo fdZsh rJh ns/ T[BQK T[s/ Bio oZyh ikD bZrh. oip nbh B/ ;w/A s'A gfjbK jh B"eoh s'A ckor j' e/ g?BPB b? bJh. 1947 dh tzv ;w/A T[BQK B{z gfotko ;w/s gkfe;skB ikDk fgnk fiZE/ T[j pkeh dh T[wo uZe BzL pZsh, sfj;hb UekVk ftZu oj/. T[E/ T[; B/ pj[s ;kohnK eftsktK ns/ fuZmhnK ftZu ngkDh iBw G{wh ;kj'e/ B{z fPZds Bkb :kd eodk fojk. tsB ftS'V/ dh fJj t/dBk pkp{ ih dhnK eftsktK ftZu v{zxk jkT[ek pD e/ g/P j'Jh j? s/ T[j d[nk eodk

fojk, oipbh ethPo dh ;dk oj/ Broh ozrK ftZu t;dh. gkfe;skB ftZu ikD T[gozs T[; B/ dPw/; wfjwk ns/ ;[o;sh wzrb nkfd dh ouBk ehsh. pkp{ oip nbh B/ fszB/ XowK d/ b'eK dhnK GktBktK, s/ wkBsktK B{z ;wM e/ ;KMh gzikphns dh gSkD B{z ;[u/s o{g ftZu ;Ekgs ehsk j?. fit/L^ Bkw op dk ig e/ s/ oipnbh oZydk fdbK B{z wKih Xow dk ;'wk f;nkD/ wzBd/ T[; B{z ih PkfJo fijVk Biw pDkt/ ;KMh ;[DB fszB e"wK (pkp{ ukb Szd, ozrhbk oip nbh, gzBk^30) pkp{ oipnbh 1965 JhH ftZu fgzv ;kj'e/ nkgDh iBw G{wh d/ nzsw doPB eoB bJh nkJ/ fiE/ wkbt/ d/ ethPoK B/ fszB fdBK dk ethPoh ;wkrw oukfJnk. nyho ftZu T[j 85 ;kb dh T[wo G'r e/ 6 i{B 1979 B{z tcks gk rJ/. pkp{ oip nbh 1917 s'A 1939 sZe wkbt/ dhnK Bfjoh e'mhnK ftZu s?Bks oj/. fJBQK ftZu wjKtZXo, w[es;o, Y?gJh, e/ok e'mh, okig[ok, fpPBg[ok, fsT[Dk, wkj{znkDk, ns/ fYZgK tkbh dhnK Bfjoh e'mhnK T[BQK dk fBtk; ;EkB jh BjhA ojhnK ;r'A wkbt/ d/ ethPoK ns/ feZ;kekoK dhnK ;w{je fwbDhnK d/ fmekD/ th oj/ jB. pkp{ oip nbh d/ doiB s'A tXhe u/b/ nkg tXhnk PkfJoh eod/ oj/ jB .

pkp{ oip nbh fJBQK ;kfonK bJh f;oiBkswe gq//oBk dk ;'wk pD/ oj/ jB. pkp{ oip nbh nkgD/ ;wekbhnK ftzu th pj[s jowB fgno/ oj/ . fJ; d/ jtkb/ fJBQK ethnK dhnK ouBktK ftZu'A fwbd/ jB. T[; d/ ;wekbh wbtZJh ethPoK ftZu wkxh f;zx frZb, uzd f;zx wfjoki, P/o f;zx ;zdb, rzrk f;zx G{zdV, okw f;zx izrhokDk, ;zg{oB f;zx okwk, uzpk okw G'yVk, gzvs feP'o uzd pzd'tkbhnK ns/ gzvs g{oB uzd fePBrVQ gqw[Zy jB. pkp{ oip nbh B/ gzi doiD d/ eohp feZ;/ ns/ ethPoh gq;zrK dh ouBk ehsh. T[; dh pj[sh ouBk T[; d/ ihtB ekb ftZu w"fye o{g ftZu T[; d/ u/fbnK ns/ gq;z;eK B/ ezm eo bJh ;h ns/ E'VQh ouBk Sgtk bJh rJh ;h. e[M ouBk B{z niw/o f;zx f;ZX{ ns/ nksw jwokjh B/ fJ; ouBk B{z ;KGD dk T[gokbk ehsh. pkp{ oip nbh d/ B/Vb/ Pfrod irw/b f;zx pkie e'b pkp{ ih dh ;koh ouBk nwkBs tZi'A ;KGh gJh ;h. T[; B/ ;[yftzdo f;zx ;[szso B{z fJj ouBk SgtkT[D bJh fizw/tkoh ;"Agh. pkp{ oip nbh dh ;w[Zuh ouBk B{z ethPo ;[yftzdo f;zx ; [szso B/ ;Zs fibdk ftZu ekft g[PseK d/ o{g ftZu ;zgkds ehsk j? fJj jBL 1H nB{mk oip nbh 2H nB'yk oip nbh 3H nBw'b oip nbh 4H nDyhbk oip nbh 5H ozrhbk oip nbh, 6H i'Phbk oip nbh 7H oip nbh d/ fe;/ 8H d;w/P wfjwk. pkp{ oip nbh dh ;w[Zuh ouBk B{z ftP/ d/ gZy s'A j/m fby/ torK ftZu tzfvnK ik ;edk j?. fJ; y'i ekoi bJh jo fJe ftP/ Bkb ;zpzfXs fJe iK fJe w'A tXhe ouBkt B{z ftPb/PD ns/ nfXn?B bJh u[fDnk frnk j?. pkp{ ih dh ouBktbh d/ wjZstg{oB ftP/ ns/ T[; ftZu'A u[Dh rJh ouBk dk t/otk fJ; gqeko j?L 1) fJPe ns/ w[jZps Bkb ;zpzfXs feZ;/ ns/ ebhnK ebhnK tkbh jho

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Xowh vke{ ns/ ;EkBe nDyhb/ ;{ow/ ^ ;[Zuk f;zx ;{owk nDy s/ ;{owst Bkb ;zpzfXs fwfEjkf;e BkfJe ^ i?wb cZsk fJ;bkw Xow d/ fJfsjk;e s/ fwfEjkPe BkfJe ^ j;B j[;?B fjzd{ gkopsh fwfEjk; Bkb ;zpzfXs BkfJe ^ pokN got wjKGkos gzikph ;fGnkukoe w[ZbK s/ wkBsktK d/ gfjo/dko BkfJe ^ feZ;k r[oBkw f;zx okT{e/ f;Zy fJfsjk; ns/ fwfEjk; Bkb ;zpzfXs BkfJe ^ ;kek uwe"o Bhsh, nkuko ns/ b'e gqtkBs T[eshnK ^ efpZs s/ p?As Xkowe, ;wkie ;[Xkoe s/ d/P Grsh d/ ftP/ ^ ;zpzfXs ekft gq;zr

4H

;kfjs nfXn?B dh b'eXkfoe gj[zu ftZXh b'eXkok b'e ;z;feqsh dk nfBZyV nzr j?. b'e ;z;feqsh ftZu

nB/eK ni/jhnK f;oiBktK gqubs j[zdhnK jB fijVhnK ghVQh do ghVQh ;zukos j[zdhnK ofjzdhnK jB. fJBQK gozgoe f;oiBktK d/ ;w[Zu/ gqpzX B{z b'eXkok fejk iKdk j?. fJ; soQK b'eXkok d/ nzsors T[j ;kohnK t;sK, f;oiBktK, ftPtkP ebk ns/ frnkB d/ ;ko/ nzr nk iKd/ jB fijV/ gozgoe o{g ftZu b'e ;z;feqsh dh gZXo T[Zs/ ;fji o{g ftZu w"fye ftXh d[nkok ;zukos j[zd/ jB. gzikph b'e Xkok d/ y/so d/ ftdtkBK B/ nzro/Ih gd c'eb'o bJh eJh gd tos/ jB, fit/A vkH eoB?b f;zx fEzd B/ b'e:kB, vkH jfoGiB f;zx B/ b'et/d, fgqzL s/ik f;zx B/ b'e gozgok, gkfe;skBh ftdtkBK B/ b'e fto;k ns/ vkH tDikok p/dh B/ b'eXkok nkfd gd tos/ jB. go j[D c'eb'o bJh b'eXkok gd gqtkB j' e/ gqubs j' u[Zek j?. vkH eoB?b f;zx fEzd B/ b'eXkok pko/ uouk eofdnK j'fJnk b'e gozgok, b'e wkB;, b'e ;zPfeqsh ns/ gqkuhB ;zPfeqshnK d/ ntP/P B{z fJ; d/ gqw[Zy sZs wzfBnk j?. T[BQK B/ b'eXkok dh fJj gfoGkPk fBPfus ehsh j?, gozgokrs o{g ftZu gqkgs b'e ;zPfeqsh d/ nzPK ns/ gqkuhB ;fGnkukoK Bkb Gog{o b'e ;w{j dk T[j frnkB fi; ftZu b'e wkB; dh nfGftnesh j't/ ns/ fi; B{z b'e ;w{j gqtkBrh d/ e/ ghVQhT[ ghVQh nZr/ s'o/, b'e:kB j?. vkH tDikok p/dh B/ b'eXkok gd tosD ;w/A nkgDh dbhb fJj fdZsh j? fe c'eb'o d/ ;ko/ fvf;gbB B{z ftukoB s/ T[jd/ pj[^ftX o{gK s/ ufosq B{z ;wMD wro'A w?A b'eXkok dk Ppd f;ofink 10000 c'eb'o b'eK dh ;wZroh j?, b'ewB dh nfGftnesh j? s/ fJ; dk fBowkD b'eK dh ;w{je u/sBk s'A j'fJnk. fJ; bJh b'e Ppd B{z BtK, gd gVQB bJh fJZe

I[I pDkT[Dk io{oh ;h. Xkok Ppd w?B{z b'e^wB ns/ gozgok d/ n;hw gqtkj dk p"Xe ikfgnk. vkH tDikok p/dh b'e wB d[nkok f;ois ouBktK ns/ frnkB B{z b'eXkok dk nkXko wzBd/ jB. T[BQK B/ b'eXkok dh gfoGkPk eofdnK b'ewB ns/ gozgok B{z e/Ado ftZu oyd/ T[j fbyd/ jB, fJj fe;/ iksh d/ ;obfus s/ nZbQV b'eK d/ w{zj'A^w{zj ufbnk nk ojk ;w[Zuk frnkB ns/ toskok Gkt/A T[j b'erhsK, b'e ejkDhnK, nykDK s/ p[MkosK d/ o{g ftZu j't/, Gkt/ ftPtkPK, ;zebgK, GowK, tfjw, ohsh fotkiK s/ wB"sK d/ o{g ftZu j't/HHHHHH b'eXkok nytkT[Adk j?. 3 fJ;/ soQK vkH G[fgzdo B/ fe;/ b'e ;w{j dh ;fGnkukoe ;'uDh d/ nkXko T[s/ b'eXkok dh fJj gfoGkPk fB;fus ehsh j?, ;w/A, ;EkB ns/ ;Bw[Zy gq;fEshnK d/ gq;zr ftZu b'e ;w{j dh ;fGnkukoe ;'uDh dk ftnes o{g jh b'eXkok j?. fJ; gqrNk bJh tosh rJh ;wZroh ns/ wkfXnw dh fe;w b'eXkok d/ ftfGzB o{gK B{z fBoXkos eodh j?. 4 vkH Bkjo f;zx B/ b'eXkok f;oiB B{z b'e ;w{j dh gZXo T[s/ b'e wB ns/ b'e^o{VhnK Bkb i'V e/ gfoGkPs ehsk j?. T[BQK nB[;ko, b'eXkok dh ohVQ dh jZvh T[j gozgoe Xkok j? fi; B{z fe;/ b'e ;w{j, ephb/ iK iksh B/ nkgD/ b'e wB d[nkok b'e o{VhnK d/ nkXko s/ f;ofinK j[zdk j? ns/ fJ; B{z ;w{fje f;oiDk d/ o{g ftZu gqtkBrh d/ e/ nkgDh gozgok dk nzr pDk e/, ghVhT[ ghVQh nZr/ s'fonk j[zdk j? T[j b'eXkok j?. gzikph ;kfjs, GkPk ns/ ;fGnkuko d/ nfXn?B ftZu b'eXkok dk nfXn?B th wjZstg{oB ;EkB rqfjD eo u[Zek j?. gzikph b'eXkok y/so d/ ftdtkBK ftZu b'eXkok dh gfoGkPk ns/ y/so pko/ pj[s/ wZsG/d BjhA jB. fJj ftdtkB ;kfjs ns/ b'eXkok d/ rfjo/ nzso ;zpzXK B{z gqtkB eod/ jB go ;kfjs ftZu b'eXkok d/ sZsK, o{VhnK, o{gkekoK ns/ P? bhnK dk gqt/P fet/A j[zdk j? fJ; ;zpzXh e[M nzso gkJ/ iKd/ jB. go c/o

th ;kfjs d/ b'eXkoe nfXn?B dh gj[zu ftXh dk j[D sZe ;Ekgs wkvb tZi'A gqtkB ehsh ik u[Zeh j?. pktk p[ZX f;zx gfjbk gzikph ftdtkB j? fi; B/ nkgDh feos okik o;kb{ ftZu okik o;kb{ Bkb ;zpzfXs dzs eEk dk b'eXkoe nfXn?B g/P eoB dk :sB ehsk j?. go b'eXkok dk ;[u/s s"o s/ ;[szso nB[PkPB tZi'A ftXhts Yzr Bkb nkozG tDikok p/dh dh g[;se ;[ji gqp'X (1967) s'A j[zdk j? fi; ftZu gzikph nykDK ns/ w[jktfonK dk b'eXkok dh ;wZroh tZi'A b'eXkoe nfXn?B gq;s[s ehsk frnk j?. fJ;/ bVh ftZu p/dh dh d{ih g[;se r[o{ BkBe ns/ b'e gqtkj (1968) ftZu r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dh ouBk d/ b'eXkokJh nXkoK dh fBPkBd/jh ehsh rJh j?. b'eXkok dh fdqPNh s'A ;kfjs ouBk ftub/ b'eXkoe sZsK d/ ftPb/PD dh fBPfus ftZXh Bkb ;zpzfXs p/dh dh g[;se r[o{ noiD d/t ih dh pkDh ftZu b'e sZs (1973) j?. tDikok p/dh B/ fJ; g[;se ftZu b'e sZsK dk fBy/Vk eo e/ r[o{ noiD d/t ih dh pkDh dk b'eXkoe fdqPNh s'A ftPb/PD ehsk j? fJ; fttjkoe nfXn?B ftZu'A p/dh dh b'eXkoe nfXn?B ftXh dh N'j fwbdh j? go T[; B/ f;XKse gZXo T[Zs/ b'esZsK d/ iK b'eXkoK d/ nkXko s/ gj[zu ftZXh ;Ekgs eoB pko/ pj[sh uouk BjhA ehsh j?. go T[; B/ ;kfjs ftZu b'eXkokJh sZsK dh ;koEesk pko/ wjZstg{oB XkoBktK fdZshnK jB. ;kfjs ns/ b'eXkok d/ ;zpzXK pko/ p/dh dk ftuko j? e'Jh ouBk fizBh tv/oh wksok ftZu b'e sZsK Bkb T[sg's j[zdh j? UBh jh T[j ihtB ftZu o;h j'Jh s/ ;iht j[zdh j? s/ fizBh e'Jh ouBk ihtB ftZu o;h j'Jh s/ ;iht j't/rh, T[Bh jh tX/o/ T[j wep{b j[zdh j?. r[opkDh d/ b'e^fgq:k s/ ;iht j'D dk fJe ekoB fJ; dk b'e sZs j?. ;kfjs ftZu b'eXkok sZsK dh ;iht G{fwek ns/ ;koEesk pko/ ns/ b'e sZsK dk iksh d/ nu/s wB Bkb ;zpzXK pko/ tDikok p/dh dh m'; XkoBk j?, b'e sZs fe;/ iksh dhnK ohsK, wB"sK, gozgoktK s/ ftPtkPK

dk T[j nzr jB, fiBQK dh o{Vh T[s/ T[; iksh dh b'e ;zPfeqsh T[Z;oh j[zdh j?. fJj gozgok d/ gqtkj d/ T[j g?NoB jB fiBQK ftZu g[ofynK dk ;fji nB[Gt g;fonk j[zdk j? s/ i' b'eK d/ ihtB ftZu jh BjhA ou/ j[zd/ ;r'A T[BQK d/ nu/s wB ftZu th ;wkJ/ j[zd/ jB. fJj sZs b'eXkok dk w{b ;o's j[zd/ jB s/ b'e ;kfjs dk fJBQK sZsK Bkb bj{ wk; dk foPsk j[zdk j?.7 fJ; soQK tDikok p/dh b'ewB dhnK w{b gqftoshnK Bkb i[V/ b'e sZsK dh ;kfjs ftZu ekoiPhbsk B{z b'eXkoe nfXn?B dh ftXh dk nkXko pDkT[Ad/ jB. vkH eoB?b f;zx fEzd B/ wXekbh ;kfjs ftZu b'eXkok dh tos'A pko/ ftXhts o{g ftZu fJZe nfXn?B wkvb s?n ehsk ns/ fJ; dh ftnkfynk eofdnK b'eXkok d/ sZsK d/ torheoB T[s/ i'o fdZsk. vkH fEzd nB[;ko fJj sZs jB L b'e ;kfjs d/ , b'e ebk d/ , nB[PkPBk d/, b'e ftPtkPk d/, b'e wB'oziB d/, b'e XzfdnK d/, b'e p'bh d/ nkfd. vkH fEzd dh XkoBk j? fe fJj b'e sZs j/m fbyhnK uko ftXhnK d[nkok ;kfjs ftZu tos/ iKd/ jB.8 fJj jBL^ 1) 2) 3) 4) b'eXkokJh ;wZroh dk ;kfjs ouBktK ftZu f;ZX/ o{g ftZu gq:'r. b'eXkokJh sZsK dk pdbt/A o{g ftZu gq:'r . ;ze/sK iK gqsheK d/ o{g ftZu gq:'r . b'e o{VhnK dh tos'A . ;kfjs d/ b'eXkoe nfXn?B ;zpzXh fijV/ ftdtkBK B/ j[D sZe y'i ekoi ehsk j? T[BQK dk fJj wzBDk j? fe b'eXkok dh ;wZroh, b'e sZs ns/ b'e o{VhnK tfPPN ;kfjs ftZu ouBkswe s"o s/ tkXk eodhnK jB ns/ ;kfjs dk b'eK se ;zuko ;fji s/ ;[Gkte j' iKdk j?. fJ; soQK b'eXkok ;kfjs ftZu ouBkswe nkXko th pDdh j? ns/ T[; dh ;zuko ;woEk ftZu th tkXk eodh j?. fJ; P'X gqpzX dh gq;skfts o{g o/yk nrb/ gzfBnK T[s/ fdZsh iKdh j?.

B'N s/ jtkb/ L
1) vkH eoB/b f;zx fEzd, gzBkL 25^26 2) vkH tDikok p/sh, nZmthA, gzBk 3) vkH tDikok p/dh, 4) vkH G[fgzdo f;zx yfjok, gzBk^6 5) vkH Bkjo f;zx, gzikph b'eXkok nfXn?B B{z tDikok p/dh dh d/D, b'et/dh tDikok p/dh, ;HvkH d/ftzdo e"o ns/ j'o, gzBk ^88 6) ;'fjzdo f;zx p/dh, sZs gzBk^7 7) T[jh gzBk^8 ns/ wZXekbhB gzikph ;kfjs, r[o{ noiB d/t ih dh pkDh ftZu b'e gzikph b'eXkok ftPte'P, 2066^67 fibd b'e:kB ns/ wZXekbhB gzikph ;kfjp,

b'eXkok ns/ ;kfjs, gzBk^84 b'eXkok, GkPk ns/ ;fGnkuko,

8) vkH eoB?b f;zx fEzd,b'e:kB gzBk^123

pkp{ oip nbh ekft dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B (u"DthnK ouBktK d/ nkXko s/)
TH ;kfjs dk b'eXkokJh nfXn?B L f;XKse gfog/y

1) b'eXkok, gfoGkPk s/ bZSD 2) b'eXkok, ;kfjs s/ ;fGnkuko, nzso ;zpzX 3) feZ;k ekft, ethPoh ns/ b'e ekft, nzdo ;zpzX 4) b'e gqubs ekft dh ouBk ^ ftZXh 5) b'e gqubs ekft dh b'eXkokJh nfXn?B ftXh nH 1) 2) 3) 4) JH 1) 2) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) pkp{ oip nbh ihtB s/ ouBk L ;o'eko s/ ;o's oip nbh dh f;oiDk d/ ihtB w{be ;o's oip nbh dh ;w[Zuh ouBk dk torheoB oip nbh dh ouBk d/ ;o's ouBk d/ b'eXkokJh nkXkoK dh fBPkBd/jh pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk dhnK b'e o{VhnK ns/ b'e ftPtkP b'e o{VhnK ns/ b'e ftPtkPK dk ouBkekoh ftZu wjZst oip nbh dh ouBk dhnK b'e o{VhnK s/ b'e ftPtkPK dk nfXG"fse b'e o{VhnK ftPtkP goe b'e oVhnK t;s{ goe b'e ^ o{VhnK nze goe b'e ^ o{VhnK tk;sfte Bkb ;zpzfXs b'e ^ o{VhnK

ftPb/PD

oip nbh dh ouBk ftZu ohsK o;wK s/ b'e ftPtkP ;H 1) pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk dh b'e u/sBk ns/ b'e doPB oip nbh dh eftsk dk ;K;feqse u"frodk

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) JH 1) 2) 3)

oip nbh dhnK w{b b'e ;zebgBktK oip nbh dh eftsk ftZu gqfeosh, ;zPfeqsh s/ fwZE u/sBk oip nbh dh eftsk ftZu ;fGnkukoe ehws gqpzX s/ wkBth w[Zb oip nbh dh eftsk ftZu gfotkoe, GkJhekoe s/ ;kekukoe ;zpzX oip nbh dh eftsk ftZu b'e gqubs XkoBktK, ;zegBktK s/ b'e (;nkDwK) pkp{ oip nbh dh ouBk d/ b'e ekft o{g ns/ b'e GkPk oip nbh ekft ftZu b'e ekft o{g ns/ b'e^GkPk oip nbh dh Szd ouBk ns/ Szd gqpzX oip nbh dh nKufbe p'bh ns/ T[;dh nbzekoesk

gzikph
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 niw/o f;zx T[jh T[jh nwoihs e"o nksw jwokjh T[jh T[jh T[jh T[jh fJepkb e"o f;ZX{, r[od/t f;zx f;ZX{, r[od/t f;zx ;[szso, f;zx T[jh T[jh pkp{ oip nbh, ihtB s/ ouBk, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk 1986 ethPoh L fujB s/ fuzsB, gzikph jZE fbys ;kfjs nekdwh gfNkbk 1990 ebh Szd L fBek; s/ ftek;, gpbhe/PB fpT[o', gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk 1991 Szd nbzeko ns/ ;kfjs d/ o{g nwo frnkB gqekPB, eoBkb^fwshjhD b'e:kfBe ftnzrekoh, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk, 1989 pkp{ oip nbh dh u'Dth eftsk, GkPk ftGkr gzikp, gfNnkbk nB{mk oip nbh, pkp{ oip nbh ;kfjs ;dB, ;kj'e/, cohde'N b'e:kfBe ftnzrekoh, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk, 1989 pjZso ebK b/ye wjKeth pkp{ oip nbh Pkfrod, pkp{ oip nbh ;kfjs ;dB ;kj'e/, cohde'N gzikph b'e:kB, gzikph okfJNoI e'nkgo/fNt ; [;kfJNh fbwfNv, b[fXnkDk. gZsb ekft, gpbhe/PB fpT[o', gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk, 1985 wkbt/ dk feZ;k ;kfjs, GkPk ftGkr gzikp, gfNnkbk,

1990 ;[yftzdo nDyhbk oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PBI ;wkDk 2009 nBw'b oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PB ;wkDk 2009 ozrhbk oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PB ;wkDk 2008

5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8

T[jh T[jh T[jh T[jh T[jh ;fszdo f;zx

nB'yk oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PBI ;wkDk, 2010 pkp{ oip nbh d/ feZ;/, ;zrw gpbhe/PBI ;wkDk 2009 d;w/P wfjwk, ;zrw gpbhe/PBi, ;wkDk 2010 nB{mk oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PB, ;wkDk, 2010 i'Phbk oip nbh, ;zrw gpbhe/PBi, ;wkDk 2010 nkX[fBe gzikph ekft o{g nfXn?B, gzikph nfXn?B ;e{b, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh nzfwqs;o (wkou

1980) ;fszdo f;zx (vkH) gzikph feZ;k ekft d/ pdbd/ gfog/y, gzikph ;zgkH ;zX{, o[fgzdo e"o nekdwh fdZbh 1991 GrtkB f;zx ofus feZ;k ihT[Dk w'V dk

;wkfie^;fGnkukoe nfXn?B, oth ;kfjs gqekPB ;:Zd, BIw j{;?B T[jh nzfwqs;o 2004 ;/XK, ;koK ns/ j'o b/y, g[odwB f;zx p/dh (fbgh nzsoB ns/ ;zgkde) i;tzs fgqzNoI b[fXnkDk 2005 nkjhnK ftZu'A BkjhnK, g[odwB f;zx p/dh (fbghnzsoB ns/ ;zgkde) i;tzs fgqzNoI, b[fXnkDk ;toD f;zx (vkH) f;zrb, 2005) feZ;k ekft ftZu ;wki s/ ;fGnkuko, wBgqhs

gqekPB, fdZbh 1981 Xowgkb gzikph eftsk dk ftek; (1901^1925) bkj"o p[Ze

(vkH) Pkg b[fXnkDk 1970 ;hsb, ihs f;zx (vkH) gzikph ;kfjs dk nkb'uBkswe fJfsjk; (nkfd ekb s'A 1979 sZe) g?g;{p[Ze fvZg{ gfNnkbk 1979

2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3

;/y'A,

;zs

f;zx gqf;ZX gzikph eth (f;Zy oki d/ nzs sZe bkj"o p[Ze Pkg, b[fXnkDk, fwshjhD) gzikph feZ;k ekft dk Ehw ftfrnkfBe nfXn?B, GkPk ftGkr, gzikp, 1998 ;zgkde, feZ;k gzikp, B?PBb p[Ze NoZ;N,

(;zgkde) joihs f;zx (vkH) jfoGiB f;zx (vkH) T[jh eoBihs f;zx (vkH) T[jh

fJzvhnk, fdZbh 1972 ouBk ;zouBk, Btu/sB gpfbPoi nzfwqs;o (1977) f;oiDk ;zt/dBk, Bt/A gfog/y, wBgqhs gqekPB fdZbh b'ewB, u/sB ntu/sB, wBgqhs gqekPBH, fdZbh

1998 e;/b, feogkb f;zx gzikp ;kfjs dk fJfsjk; Gkr gfjbk (1850JhH sZe), (;zgkH) T[jh s/ j'o eKr, (vkH) T[jh T[jh (;zgkH) nwoihs GkPk ftGkr gzikp, gfNnkbk . gzikph ;kfjs dh T[sgsh s/ ftek; bkj"o p[Ze Pkg b[fXnkDk 2004 f;zx feZ;k ;z;ko, BkBe f;zx g[;se wkbk nzfwqs;o 1985 feZ;k gfog/y BkBe f;zx g[;sewkbk, nzfwqs;o 1991 gzikph feZ;/, ;kfjs nekdwh fdZbh 1997

eKr nwoihs f;zx wZXekbh gzikph ;kfjs ftt/e, ;kfjs nekdwh, fdZbh (vkH) ns/ i;gkb e"o 2001 eKr (vkH) eKr,e[bpho f;zx gzikph ftZu feZ;k jho oKMk (fJfsjkf;e nb'uBkswe (vkH) T[jh T[jh ns/ s[bBkswe nfXn?B) 1605 JhH s'A 1850 JhH sZe, b'e ;kfjs gqekPB nzfwqs;o 1983 feZ;k ekft fJZe ;whfynk, BkBe f;zx g[;se^wkbk nzfwqs;o 1989 gzikph feZ;k ekft dk fJfsjk;, gzikph nekdwh fdZbh 2005

4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8

eKr,

i;gkb

e"o feZ;k ;ztkd, BkBe f;zx g[;sewkbk nzfwqs;o 1990 b'eXkokL GkPk ns/ ;fGnkuko g?g;{ p[Ze

(vkH) yfjok G[fgzdo f;zx yhtk, bkG

fvg{ gfNnkbk 2010 f;zx wbtJh ethPoh, gozgoK f;XKse s/ ;fGnkukoe ftt/uB, i?B;zBI gpfbPoi ;ofjzd 1991 feZ;k ekft ;o{g s/ ftek;, gzikph okJhNoI

(vkH) r[gsk, fePB f;zx T[jh r[oihs f;zx

e'nkgo/fNt ;';kfJNh fbwfNv b[fXnkDk 1989 gzikph feZ;k ekft ftZu ;K;feqse u/sBk, tkfoP Pkj ckT[Av/PB, nzfwqs;o 1997 gzikph b'eXkok d/ e[M gZy, dh gzikph okJhNoI

e'nkgo/fNt ;[;kfJNh, b[fXnkDk, 1995 r[ow[y f;zx (;zgkH) gzikp d/ jho/ feqs w"bk pyP e[Psk, b'erhs x[zwD, fpeow f;zx T[jh T[jh gqekPB, ;ojzd 1996 feZ;k ns/ feZ;kekoh, o{jh gqekPB, nzfwqs;o 1994 gzikph feZf;nK ftZu fJPe, j'Dh s/ w"s, o{jh gqekPB, nzfwqs;o 1995 gzikph feZ;k ekft ns/ d[yKs gozgok gzikph okJhNoI e'nkgo/fNt ;[;kfJNh fbwfNv b[fXnkDk T[jh T[jh T[jh i;ftzdo f;zx (vkH) T[jh 1996 gzikph b'e ekft, tkfoP Pkj cKT[Av/PB nzfwqs;o 1992 gzikph feZ;k ekft f;XKs, ;o{g s/ ftek; tkfoP Pkj cKT[Av/PB, nzfwqs;o 1998 (;zgkH) gzikph feZ;k^ekft dk fposKs ;kPso, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh, nzfwqs;o 2001 ;fGnkuko ns/ feZ;k ekft (1900^1950) ;/X

gqekPB gfNnkbk 1985 gzikph ;fGnkuko gSkD fuzB, g[Bhs gqekPB gfNnkbk 1989

5 9 6 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3

T[jh irpho f;zx (vkH) iZrh, (vkH) T[jh osB

gzikph

b'e

;kfjs

;kPso,

gzikph

:{Bhtof;Nh

gfNnkbk 2003 ;whfEnk ftjko, B?PBb p[Ze Pkg fdZbh

f;zx ftukoXkok, wdkB gpfbPoi gfNnkbk 1966 gzikph ;kfjs ;o's w{be fJfsjk; (Gkr gzitk) T[Zso wZXekb gpbhe/PB fpT[o' gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk 2002 gzikph Szd Pk;so, B?PBb p[Ze Pkg fdZbh 2002

fYZb'A, fJepkb f;zx fYZb'A, f;zx (;zgkH) so;/w n?;

nwoihs gzikph b'e ;kfjsL fJZe nfXn?B gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk, 1987 rIb no{I s/ fgzrb, bkj"o p[Ze Pkg b[fXnkDk

2002 T[jh ns/ niw/o f;zx wkbt/ dh ethPoh gozgok, gpbhe/PB fpT[o', (vkH) fEzd, eoB?b (vkH) T[jh T[jh dhtkB f;zx (gq'L) gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk. f;zx b'e:kB ns/ wZXekbhB gzikph ;kfjs L oth ;kfjs gqekPB, nzfwqs;o 1973 b'e:kfBe nfXn?B, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh nzfwqs;o 1978 ;kfjs nfXn?B gqDkbhnK r[o{ BkBe d/t :

{Bhtof;Nh nzfwqs;o 1977 feZ;k ns/ gzikph feZ;k o{jh gqekPB nzfwqs;o

2001 Xho, e[bdhg f;zx gzikph d/ w"fbe s/ gozgokrs ekft o{gkeko (vkH) Bkjo f;zx (vkH) T[jh gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk 2001 b'e ekft dh f;oiB gqfefonk, b'ekfJs gqekPB uzvhrVQ 1983 wkoe;h o{g fuzsB b'erhs gqekPB ;ojzd 1989

7 4 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 8 0 8 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6

g[zBh, pbpho f;zx T[jh gq/w gqekP

gzikph

b'eXkok

ns/

;fGnkuko

tkfoP

Pkj

cKT[Av/PB, nzfwqs;o 2005 b'eXkok nfXn?B, o{jh gqekPB, nzfwqs;o 2001 f;zx Gkosh ekft PkPso, bkj"o p[Ze Pkg b[fXnkDk

(vkH) 1988 pokV, pbftzdo e"o ;kfjs ns/ b'e sZs, wdkB gpbhe/PBi, gfNnkbk (vkH) pkp{ oip nbh p/dh, ;'fjzdo f;zx T[jh T[jh T[jh 2000 nDgqekfPs ouBktK (gq'L o[bhnk f;zx f;ZX{) gzikp dk b'e ;kfjs, Bt:[r gpfbPoi, fdZbh 1968 r[o{ noiB d/t ih dh pkDh ftZu b'e sZs, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh, nzfwqs;o 14973 wZXekbhB gzikph eZEk o{g s/ gozgok B?PBb p[Ze Pkg, fdZbh 1977 gzikph b'e ;kfjs fJfsjk; dhnK b'e o{VhnK b'e

gqekPB, BthA fdZbh 1982 p/r'tkb, i;tzs f;zx gzikph fgzrb, pbtzs gqekPB ibzXo, 1990 (vkH) Gkosh, mke[o T[jh T[jh gzikph eftsk ftXkB, ns[Zb ;kfjs gqekPB, ibzXo iBtoh 1984 r[o{ noiB d/t dh pkDh ftZu b'e sZs, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh, nzfwqs;o, 1973 ;kfjs ns/ b'eXkok, b'e gqekPB, BthA fdZbh 1978

o;kb/$y'i gZfsqektK
1 niw/o f;zx (;zgkH) ethPoh ftP/P nze nze 49 (wkou 1999) gpbhe/PB 2 T[jh fpT[o', gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk. pho ekft ftP/P nze nze 35 (wkou 1992) gpbhe/PB 3 ;[fozdo f;zx fpT[o' gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk e'jbh ;zgkH goy, gzikp :{Bhtof;Nh, uzvhrVQ 1965 w[Zy ;zgkH y'i dogD r[o{ BkBe d/t : {Bhtof;Nh, nzfwqs;o iBtoh 1980 gzikph d[Bhnk, GkPk ftGkr, gzikp,

(;zgkH) 4 eoB?b f;zx fEzd (vkH) 5 ihs f;zx ;hsb 6 ihtB f;zx (n?wHJ/) 7 osB f;zx iZrh (vkH)

gfNnkbk, iBtoh, cotoh 1961 w[Zy ;zgkH ;kfjs ;wkuko, feZ;k ekft nze, bkj"o p[Ze Pkg, b[fXnkDk iBtoh 1962 y'i gZfsqek, feZ;k ekft, nze 27, gpbhe/PB fpT[o', gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk, wkou 1986

gzikph nzro/Ih e';


1 2 3 4 5 ;'fjzdo f;zx tDikok gzikph p/dh (vkH) T[jh gqhsw ;?Bh (vkH) GkJh ekBQ b'eXkok ftPte'P (fibd u"Eh)

b'egqekPB fdZbh 1981 gzikph b'eXkok ftPte'P (fibd gzith) B?PBb p[Ze Pkg fdZbh 1991 feZ;k ;zdoG e'P, GkPk ftGkr, gzikp, ibzXo

2001 f;zx r[o{ Ppd osBkeo wjkB e'P, B?PBb p[Ze Pkg, fdZbh 2006 ;zgkH ;kfjs e'P gpbhe/PB fpT[o'), gfNnkbk 2001 (gfoGkfPe gzikph Ppdktbh

BkGk osB f;zx iZrh (vkH)

:{Bhtof;Nh,

6 7

Shiply Joseph T
Webster

Dictionary of world literacy Terms, George Allen and Unnin id Ltd. London, 1970 Third New International Dictionary Vol. II (L to Z) Mass G. Bell & Sons London 1961

(BIBLIOGRAPHY) ENGLISH BOOKS


1. 2. 3. 1972. 4. 5. Boas, Franz, Race, Language and culture, Free Press, New York, 1966. Caudwell, christopher, studies and further studies in a Dying culture, odern Reader Paperbacks, London, 1972.. 6. 7. Glegerman G. Classes and Nations, progress Publishers Moscow 1979. Herskovits, Meluille J. Cultural Anthropology, Oxford IBH Publishing, New Dehli, 1969. 8. Hoijer, harry (ed) Language in culture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago London 1954 (Seventh inrprint 1971) 9. 10. Hongiman, John J. Understanding Culture, Harper and Raw, New York 1963. Husian S. Abid, The National Culture of India, National book Trust India New Dehli. 11. Kroeber A.L., The Nature of Culture, The University of Chicago press, Chicago 1952. 12. Kroeber, a.L. and clyde luchhohn culture. A critical Review of concepts and Definations, Harvard University Peaboy Museum papers Vol. 47, No. 1,1952. 13. Kukarkiu, A, The passing Age, The ideology and culture of the Late Bourgeo is Epoch, Progress Pulishers, Moscow 1979. Aczel, Gyorgy Culture and Socialist Democracy, Cornina Press Budapest, 1975. Arnoldov, A.J. Socialist culture and Man, Progress publishers, Moscow, 1979. Bartalongffy, Ludwid von, General systems Theory, Penguin Books London,

14. 15. 16.

Lewis, John, The Uniqueness of Man, Lowrance and wishart London, 1974. Linton, Ralph, The study of Man, Appleton and Co., New York, 1936. Novikava, L.I and others, Civilization and the Historical Process, Progress publishers, Mascow, 1983.

17.

Sargent, S. Stanfeld and Robert C. Willamson, Social Psychology, Ronald Press company, New York 1966.

18. 19. 20.

Sumner, William Graham, Folkways, Guan Company (Co.). Baston, 1906. Tyler, E.B., Primitive culture. Brentanos New York 1924. Upadhyaya, Bhagwat Saran, Feeders of Indian Culture, Peoples publishing House, New Dehli, 1973.

21. 1957. 22. 1986. 23.

Vikasha, The Glimpses of Indian Culture, Punjab Book Centre, Jalandher,

Vizgin, Culture and Knowledge in social sciences, Vol XVI No. 3, Moscow

Wellek, Rene and Austin Worron, Theory of Literature, Penguin Books, London, 1966.

24. 25. 1958. 26.

William Raymond, Culture, Fontana Paper backs Glasgow, 1981. William Raymond, Culture and Society (1789-1950) Penguin Books, London,

Keywords A vocabuloary of culture and society, Fontana Paper backs, London, 1983.

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Barabash, Yuri Bascon, William (ed) Boas, Frang Barths, Roland Music Text Borne, C.S Brahl, Leve Brown Rade liffe A.R. Caudwell, Christopher Chaudhry, Surjit Craig, David (ed) Crooke, W. Dorson, Richards M. Dundes, Alan Dundes, Alun Dorson, Richard M, Chommsky, Noam Durga, Bhagwant Eagletion, Terry Fischer Ernst Frazer, J.G : Asthetics and Poetics, Progress publishers, Moscow 1977. Frontiers of Folklore A, A A, S, Selected sysmoposium-5 Westview Press Inc, Colorado 1977. The mind of Primitive man, Macmillen & Com, New York 1968. Mythologies, Granda Publication paladin 1973 Image, collins, London 1977. The Handbook of Folklore, Sidwick and Jackson, London 1914 Primitive Mentality Dover Pulication, New York 1946. Structure and Function in Primitive Society Routledge, London 1978. Illusion and Reality Poepls Pulishing House New Dehli 1956. Folklore and History, K.K. Publishers, New Dehli 1976. Marxist on literature penguin books, Harmondsworth, England, 1975. Popular Religion and folklore of northern, Oxford 1926 American Folklore University of chicago press, Chicago London 1959. The Study of folklore Prentice Hall Inc. Enlewood, USA 1965. Essay in Folkloristics, ved Parkesh vatuk Institute 34/1 Keilash Puri, Mearut 1978 Folklore and Traditional History Mounton 1973 Language and Mind Hercourt Brace, New York 1968 An outline of Indian Folklore, popular Book depot, Bombay, 1958 Marxism and Literary Criticism, Methuen & co, Ltd, London 1977 The Necessity of Art, U.K. Trans, by Anna Bastock Penguin Books Ltd Harmondsworth U.K. 1971 The Golden Bough Mac millian Ahridged Edetion London, 1974

Jobes, Gertrude (ed) Krappe, Alexander Kolkaim, Chidomhare

Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore and Symbos. The seare crow Press New York 1962. The Science of Folklore, Methuen & Co, Ltd, Reprint 1962. Vedic Foundation of Indian culture New Dehli 1976. Moscow 1976.

Kulkova, and Avner Zis (ed) Marxist Lennist Aesthetics and Life, Progress publishers, Krohor, A.K and Kulchan Leech Edmend Leach, Maria (ed) Lenin, V.I Lenin V.I. Third Printing, 1978. Leon, Trotsky (ed) M. Parkhomenko Malinwski B. Marett, R.R Maranda Elli Kongas and Maranda Pierre Marx and Engels Mauss, Marcel Pattanayak (ed) Propp. V.I. Pickering, Miched On Literature and Art, Paul N. Siegel Path Finder press, New York 1970 Renovation of Tranditions progress Pulishers Moscow, 1976. Myth in Primitive Psychology, Kegan Paul, London 1926 Psychology and Folklore, Gale Research Company, Michigan, Reprint 1920. Structural Models in Folklore and transformational Essay, Mounton, The Hague Pasis 1976 On Literature and Art, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1976. General Theory of Magic routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972 Indian Folklore, Central Institute of Indian languages, Mysore, 1981 Morophology of Folktale, laurence Scott (ed and trans) University of Taxes press London Forth ed. 1975. Village Song culture Croom Helm, London 1982. Culture, A Critical Review of Concepts and Definations harward University, Harward press 1952 The stuctural study of Myth and Totemism Tavistock publication London 1967. Standard Dictionary of Folklore mythology and legend Vol I,II Fund & Wagnalls Co. New York 1950 On Literature and Art, Progress Publishers, Mascow, 1970 On Socialist Idealogy and culture, progress Publishers, Mascow,

Reaver J & Boswell, G.W. Richard Carnandis (ed) Sokolov, Y.M Strauss, Claude Levi

Fundamentals of folk literature, Authropological Pulications, Osterhout 1962. Man myth and magic marshall carandish corporation, New York 1970. Russian Folk lore, Trans by Catherine Rothsmith, The Macmillan and Co. New York 1950. Raw and the cooked Introduction to science of Mythology Jonathan cape, London 1970.

Swynerton, C. & Rose, H.A. The romantic Tales form the Punjab with Indian night entertainment, Patiala, Deptt., of languages, Punjab vol I, 1962. Temple R.C. William, Raymon William, Raymon Zis, Avner Zimmer, Heinsrich The Legennds of Punjab, Patiala, Deptt. Of languages Punjab Vol I, Reprint, 1962. The problems in materialism and culture verso, greek street London, 1980 Towards 2000, Penguin Books, Middel sex, England, 1985 Foundations of Marxist Aesthetics, Progress Pulishers, Moscow, 1977. Myths and symbols of India Art and Civilization Ballingen Foundation, Washington D.C. 1978