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Topics: Introduction Main Principles of Statics Stress Normal Stress Shear Stress Bearing Stress Thermal Stre

FLUIDS

Incompressible

Compressible

Dynamics : 1. Kinematics concerned with the geometric aspects of the motion 2. Kinetics concerned with the forces causing the motion.

Mechanics of Materials : The study of the relationships between the external loads applied to a deformable body and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body.

1.1 Introduction

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External Loads

Body Force

- developed when one body exerts a force on

another body without direct physical contact between the bodies. - e.g earths gravitation (weight)

Surface Forces

- caused by direct contact of one body with the surface of another.

concentrated force

` ` ` ` ` ` ` `

Axial Load Normal Stress Shear Stress Bearing Stress Allowable Stress Deformation of Structural under Axial Load Statically indeterminate problem h l Stress Thermal

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Mechanics of material is a study of the relationship between the external loads applied to a deformable body and the intensity of i t internal lf forces acting ti within ithi the th body. b d Stress = the intensity of the internal force on a specific plane (area) passing through a point. Strain = describe the deformation by changes in length of line segments and the changes in the angles between them

Normal Stress : stress which acts perpendicular, or normal to, the ( ) y g member. cross section of the load-carrying : can be either compressive or tensile. Shear Stress : stress which acts tangent to the cross section of () the load-carrying member. : refers to a cutting-like action.

1.1 Introduction

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Normal Stress,

= P / A

(a)

(b)

Unit: Nm - N/mm2 or MPa Stress ( ) = Force (P) N/m2 or Pa Cross Section (A)

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Assumptions : 1. Uniform deformation: Bar remains straight before and after load is applied, and cross section remains flat or plane during deformation 2. In order for uniform deformation, de o at o , force o ce P be applied along centroidal axis of cross section C

+ FRz = Fz ;

dF = dA

A

P = A

P A

= average normal stress at any point on cross sectional area P = internal resultant normal force A = cross-sectional area of the bar

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Use equation of = P/A for cross-sectional area of a member when section subjected to internal resultant force P Internal Loading Section member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis at pt where normal stress is to be determined Draw free-body diagram Use equation of force equilibrium to obtain internal axial force P at the section Average Normal Stress Determine members x-sectional area at the section Compute average normal stress = P/A

13 1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

Example 1.1: Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing that d1=30mm and d2=20mm, find average normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC BC.

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Example 1.2

Two solid cylindrical roads AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing that d1 = 30 mm and d2 = 50 mm, find the average normal stress in the mid section of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

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Normal strain, is the elongation or contraction of a line segment per unit of length = L / Lo

L = elongation Lo = length

= normal

strain

* L=

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Example 1.3:

Determine the corresponding strain for a bar of length L=0.600m and uniform cross section which undergoes a deformation =15010-6m.

1.4 A cable and strut assembly ABC supports a vertical load P=12kN. The cable has an effective cross sectional area of 160mm, and the strut has an area of 340mm. (a) Calculate the normal stresses in the cable and strut. (b) If the cable elongates 1.1mm, what is the strain? (c) If the strut shortens 0.37mm, what is the strain?

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1.5 The bar shown has a square cross section (20mm x 40mm) and length, L=2.8m. If an axial force of 70kN is applied along the centroidal axis of the bar cross sectional area, determine the stress and strain if the bar end up with 4m length. length

70kN 70kN

2.8m

Tensile test is an experiment to determine the load-deformation behavior of the material. Data from tensile test can be plot into stress and strain diagram. Example of test specimen - note the dog-bone geometry

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11

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Universal Testing Machine - equipment used to subject a specimen to tension, compression, bending, etc. loads and measure its response

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Stress-Strain Diagrams

A number of important mechanical properties of materials that can be deduced from the stress-strain diagram are illustrated in figure above.

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` `

Point O-A = linear relationship between stress and strain Point A = proportional limit (PL) The ratio of stress to strain in this linear region of stress-strain diagram is called Young Modulus or the Modulus of Elasticity given

` ` ` ` ` `

At point A-B, specimen begins yielding. Unit: MPa Point B = yield point Point B-C = specimen continues to elongate without any increase in stress. Its refer as perfectly plastic zone Point C = stress begins to increase Point C-D = refer as the zone of strain hardening Point D = ultimate stress/strength ; specimen b i t begins to neck-down k d Point E = fracture stress

< PL

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Normal or engineering stress can be determined by dividing the applied load by the specimen original cross sectional area area. True stress is calculated using the actual cross sectional area at the instant the load is measured.

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Some of the materials like aluminum (ductile), does not have clear yield point likes structural steel. Therefore, stress value called the offset yield stress, YL is used in line of a yield point stress.

As illustrated, the offset yield stress is determine by; ` Drawing a straight line that best fits the data in initial (linear) portion of the stress stress-strain strain diagram ` Second line is then drawn parallel to the original line but offset by specified amount of strain ` The intersection of this second line with the stress-strain curve determine the offset yield stress. ` Commonly used offset value is 0.002/0.2%

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Brittle material such as ceramic and glass have low tensile stress value but high in compressive stress. Stress-strain diagram for brittle material.

Example 1.6 The 4 mm diameter cable BC is made of a steel with E=200GPa. Knowing that the maximum stress in the cable must not exceed 190MPa and that the elongation of the cable must not exceed 6mm, find the maximum load P that can be applied as shown

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it returns to its original dimensions after unloading . Any material which deforms when subjected to load and returns to its original dimensions when unloaded i said is id to b be elastic. l i If the stress is proportional to the strain, the material is said to be linear elastic, otherwise it is non-linear elastic. Beyond the elastic limit, some residual strain or permanent strains will remain in the material upon unloading . The residual elongation corresponding to the permanent strain is called the permanent set .

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The amount of strain which is recovered upon unloading is called the elastic recovery.

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When an elastic, homogenous and isotropic material is subjected to uniform tension, it stretches axially but contracts laterally along its entire length. Similarly, if the material is subjected to axial compression it shortens axially but bulges out compression, laterally (sideways). The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is a constant known as the Poisson's ratio,

v=

lateral axial

L L b d sisi @ y = = b d paksi @ x =

36

Example 1.7 A prismatic bar of circular cross-section is loaded by tensile forces P = 85 kN. The bar has length of 3 m and diameter of 30 mm. It is made from aluminum with modulus of elasticity of 70 GPa and poisson's ratio = 1/3. Calculate the elongation and the decrease in diameter d.

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Example 1.8 A 10 cm diameter steel rod is loaded with 862 kN by tensile forces. Knowing that the E=207 GPa and = 0.29, determine the deformation of rod diameter after being loaded.

Solution

in rod rod, =

a

p = A

E Lateral strain,

862 x 10 1 ( 0 .1 ) 4

3 2

N m

2

= 109

. 7 MPa

0 . 00053

=

=

(

d

) =

o . 29

( 0 . 00053

)

)( 0 . 1 )

0 . 000154

=

l

( D ) = ( 0 . 000154

0 . 00154

cm

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Exercises 1

1.

A steel pipe of length L=1.2 m, outside diameter d2=150mm and inside diameter d1=110mm is compressed by an axial force P= 620kN.The material has modulus of elasticity E= 200GPa and Poissons Ratio v = 0.30.Determine : a) the shortening, ( ans :-0.455 mm) b) the h l lateral l strain, i lateral (ans: ( 113 9 10 6) 113.9x10-6) c) the increase d2 in the outer diameter and the increase d1 in the inner diameter (ans: 0.0171 mm and 0.0125mm) d) the increase t in the wall thickness (ans: 0.00228 mm)

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P1=7.5 kN acting at the top. A second load P2 is uniformly distributed around the cap plate at B. The diameters and thicknesses of the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB=32 mm, tAB= 12mm, dBC 57 mm and tBC=9mm, respectively. a) Calculate the normal stress, AB in the upper part of the post post. (ans: 9.95 9 95 MPa) b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post have the same compressive stress as the upper part, what should be the magnitude of the load P2? (ans : P2=6kN)

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3.

A standard tension test is used to determine the properties of an experimental plastic. The test specimen is a 15 mm diameter rod and it is subjected to a 3.5 kN tensile force. Knowing that an elongation of 11 mm and a decrease in diameter of 0.62 mm are observed in a 120 mm gage length. D Determine i the h modulus d l of f elasticy, l i the h modulus d l of f rigidity, and Poissons ratio of the material.

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A force acting parallel or tangential to a section taken through a material (i.e. in the plane of the material) is called a

The shear force intensity, i.e. shear force divided by the area , is called the average g shear stress, , over which it acts, = shear stress V = V = shear force A A = cross-sectional area

` `

shear force

Shear stress arises as a result of the direct action of forces trying to cut through a material, it is known as direct shear force stresses can also arise indirectly as a result of tension, torsion or bending of a member.

`Shear

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Depending on the type of connection, a connecting element (bolt, rivet, pin) may be subjected to single shear or double shear as shown.

=

V P = d2 A 4

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=

V = A P 2P = 2 2 d d 2( ) 4

Example 1.9 For the 12 mm diameter bolt shown in the bolted joint below, determine the average shearing stress in the bolt. bolt

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Single Shear

Double Shear

ave =

P F = A A

ave= =

P F A 2A

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The effect of shear stress is to distort the shape of a body by inducing shear strains The shear strain, is a measure of the angular distortion of the body.

x L V

x L

(units: degrees, radians)

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Bearing stress is also known as a contact stress Bearing stress in shaft key;

b =

P M r 2M = = Ab (h 2) L rhL

b =

P td

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Example 2.0 A punch for making holes in steel plates is shown in the figure. Assume that a punch having diameter d=20 mm is used to punch a hole in an 8 mm plates, what is the average shear stress in the plate and the average compressive stress in the punch if the required force to create the hole is P = 110kN. . P

20 mm 8 mm

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It also known as Shear Modulus of Elasticity or the Modulus of Rigidity. ` Value of shear modulus can be obtained from the linear region of shear stress-strain diagram.

`

Unit : Pa

The modulus young (E), poissons ratio() and the modulus of rigidity (G) can be related as

E 2 (1 +

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` Because

of the change in the dimensions of a body as a result of tension or compression, the volume of the body also changes within the elastic limit. ` Consider a rectangular g parallel p piped pp having g sides a, , b and c in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

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The tensile force P causes an axial elongation of a and lateral contractions of b and c in the x, y, and z directions respectively. Hence,

Initial b d body

Initial volume of body body, Vo = abc Final volume, Vf = (a + a)(b - b)(c - c) = abc(1 + )(1 - )2

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Expanding and neglecting higher orders of (since is very small), Final volume, Vf = abc(1 + - 2) Change in volume, V = Final Volume - Initial Volume = abc(1 + - 2 ) - abc = abc(1 + - 2 - 1) = abc( - 2 ) = Vo (1 - 2 ) Hence,

V V o =

(1

(1

2 )

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` `

Isotropic I i material i li is subjected bj d to general l triaxial i i l stress x, y and z. Since all strain satisfy << 1, so v = x + y + z x = y = z =

1 x ( y + z ) E

1 y ( x + z ) E

] ]

x

1 z ( x + y ) E

1 E

)

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Example 2.1 A titanium alloy bar has the following original dimensions: x = 10cm; y = 4cm; and z = 2cm. The bar is subjected to stresses x = 14 N and y = - 6 N, as indicated in figure below. The remaining stresses (z, xy, xz and yz) are all zero. Let E = 16 kN and = 0.33 for the titanium alloy. (a)Determine the changes in the length for x, y and z. (b) Determine the dilatation, v.

y 6N

14 N

14 N x z 6N

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Applied load that is less than the load the member can fully support. (maximum load) One method of specifying the allowable load for the design or analysis of a member is use a number called the Factor of Safety (FS).

FS

Allowable-Stress Design

F F

fail allow

FS > 1

allow

yield y

FS

or

allow

yield y

FS

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If a bar is fixed at both ends, as shown in fig. (a), two unknown axial reactions occurs, and the force equilibrium equation becomes; ; F = 0;

+ y

FB + FA P = 0

In this case, the bar is called statically indeterminate, since the equilibrium equation are not sufficient to determine the reactions. the relative displacement of one end of the bar with respect to the other end is equal to zero since the ends supports are fixed. Hence; A / B = 0 the relationship between the forces acting on the bar and its changes in length are known as force-displacement relations

A / B = 0,

PL AE

A + B = 0

FB + FA P = 0, FA = P FB

Realizing that the internal force in segment AC is +FA, and in segment CB, CB the internal force is FB. Therefore, the equation can be written as;

FA L AC FBL CB =0 AE AE FA L AC FBL CB = AE AE FBL CB AE FA = AE L AC F L FA = B CB L AC

F L P FB = B CB L AC F L P = B CB + FB L AC L CB + 1 P = FB L AC

LCB L AC + P = FB L AC L AC LCB + L AC P = FB L AC L P = FB L AC L AC FB = P L

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Example 2.2:

+ FX = 0,

B / A = 0.001m A B = 0.001m FA L AC FB L CB = 0.001m AE AE FA (0.4m ) FB(0.8m ) = 0.001m ( 0.0025m )2 200 109 Nm 2 ( 0.0025m )2 200 109 Nm 2 or FA (0.4m ) FB (0.8m ) = 3927.0N................( 2) Substitute eq (1)int o eq ( 2) FA (0.4m ) ( 20, 000N FA )(0.8m ) = 3927.0N FA = 16.6kN FB = 3.39kN

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Example 2.3:

Solution:

+ Fy = 0, CCW + M

C

F A + F C + F E 1 5 ( 1 0 3 ) N = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1 ) = 0 F A ( 0 . 4 ) + 1 5 (1 0 3 ) ( 0 . 2 ) + F E ( 0 . 4 ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . ( 2 )

The applied load will cause the horizontal line ACE move to inclined line ACE

E A E = C 0 .8 0 .4 C E E = A 0 .4 0.8 E C E = A 0 .4 0.8 0 .4 A 0 .4 E C = + E 0 .8 C = 0 .5 A + 0 .5 E 1 . 5 10 5 E st 1 . 5 10 5 E st FC ( 0 . 5 ) FC L CD FA L AB FE L EF = 0 .5 + 0 .5 5 5 2 5 10 E . 2 . 5 10 E st st FE ( 0 . 5 ) FA ( 0 . 5 ) = 0 .5 + 0 .5 5 5 2 . 5 10 E st 2 . 5 10 E st 10 10 3 FA + 10 10 3 FE

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+ Fy = 0,

CCW + M C = 0 FC = 0.3FA + 0.3FE .................eq(3) Substitute eq (3) int o eq(1) FA + FC + FE 15(103 )N = 0................(1) FA + (0.3FA + 0.3FE )FE 15(103 ) = 0 1.3FA + 1.3FE = 15(103 ) FE = 15(103 ) 1.3FA 1. 3

Substitute eq ( 4) int o eq( 2) FA (0.4) + 15(103 )(0.2) + FE (0.4) = 0 FA (0.4) + 3(103 ) + (0.4) 11.538(103 ) FA = 0 FA (0.4) + 3(103 ) + 4.615(103 ) 0.4FA = 0 FA = 7.615103 0.8

= 9.519(103 ) = 9.52kN

FE =11.538(103 ) FA .......................eq( 4)

Re place FA = 9.52kN int o eq ( 4) = 9.52kN FE =11.538(103 ) FA = 11.538(103 ) 9.52(103 ) = 2.02 kN Re place FE = 2.02 kN int o eq(3) FC = 0.3FA + 0.3FE = 0.3(9.519(103 ) + 0.3( 2.02 103 ) = 3.462 kN

` `

A change in temperature can cause material to change its dimensions. If the temperature increases, generally a material expands, whereas if the temperature decreases, the material will contract. If this is the case, and the material is homogenous and isotropic, it has been found from experiment that the deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated using the formula;

Where

1/C)

T=TL

=linear coefficient of thermal expansion (unit: T=change in temperature L=original length of the member T=change in length of the member

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Example 2.4:

Given: =12x10-6/C

Solution:

+ FY = 0 FA = FB = F

AB = 0

( + )

The change in length of the bar is zero (because the supports do not move) To determine the change in length, remove the upper support of the bar and obtain a bar is fixed at the base and free to displace at the upper end. AB = T F So the bar will elongate by an amount T when only temperature change is acting And the bar shortens by an amount F when only the reaction is acting

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Example 2.5

Given:

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+ Fy = 0,

st = al...............................eq (2)

(+ ) st = (st )T (st )F al = (al )T (al )F (st )T (st )F = (al )T (al )F TL Fst L FL =TL al Ast E AalE Fst (0.25) (0.02)2(200 109 ) = Fal (0.25)

12 106(80 20)(0.25)

4

10

= 3.45 104

4

9.947 10

Fst = 3.45 10

9.947 1010 Fst = 3.45 104 1.21109 Fal 1.8 104 Fst = 1.65 104 1.21109 Fal 9.947 1010

Substitute eq (3)int o eq(1) 2Fst + Fal 90(103 )N = 0 2( 165.88 103 + 1.216Fal ) + Fal 90(103 )N = 0 331.76 103 + 2.432Fal + Fal 90(103 )N = 0 3.432Fal = 421.76 103 Fal = 122.89 kN Substitute Fal = 122.89 kN int o eq (3) Fst = 165.88 103 + 1.216Fal = 165.88 103 + 1.216(122.89 103 ) = 16.445 kN

The negative value for F steel indicates that the force acts opposite to arrow shown. THE STEEL POSTS ARE IN TENSION and ALUMINIUM POSTS IS IN COMPRESSION

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TUTORIAL 1 Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both supports before the loads are applied.

66

TUTORIAL 2 Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=200 GPa) and AC made of aluminum (E=72 GPa), are joined at C and restrained by rigid supports at A and D. Determine (a) the reactions at A and D (RA=52.9kN, RD= 87.1 kN) (b) The deflection of point C (0.086 (0 086 mm)

67

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TUTORIAL 3 At room temperature (21oC) a 0.5 mm gap exists between the ends of the rods shown. At a later time when the temperature has reached 1600C, determine (a) ( )The normal stress in the aluminum rod (a =-150.6 MPa) (b)The change in length of the aluminum rod (a= 0.369 mm)

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