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3.1 INTRODUCTION

Energy of steam into Kinetic Energy. During the first part of the nozzle, the steam

increases its velocity. But in its later part, the steam gains more in the volume than in the

velocity. Since the mass of steam, passing through any section of the nozzle remains

constant, the variation of the steam pressure in the nozzle depends upon the velocity,

specific volume and dryness fraction of the steam. A well designed nozzle converts the

Heat Energy of steam into Kinetic Energy.

Following three types of nozzles are important from the subject point of view:

exit,

it is called a convergent nozzle.

exit,

it is called a divergent nozzle.

When the cross section of a nozzle first decrease from entrance to throat,

and

then increase from throat to exit, it is called a convergent-divergent nozzle.

3.3 FRICTION IN A NOZZLE AND NOZZLE EFFICIENCY:

When the steam flows through a nozzle, some loss in its enthalpy or takes place

due to friction between the nozzle surface and the flowing steam. This can be understood

with the help of h-s diagram and Mollier chart.

(i) First of all, locate the point A for the initial condition of the steam. It is a

point where the saturation line meets the initial pressure (P1) line.

(ii) Now draw a vertical line through A to meet the final pressure (P2) line. This

is done as the flow through the nozzle is isentropic , which is expressed by

a vertical line AB. The heat drop (h1-h2) isentropic heat drop.

(iii) Due to friction in the nozzle the actual heat drop in the steam will be less

than (h1-h2). This heat drop is shown as AC instead of AB.

(iv) As the expansion of the steam ends at the pressure P2, therefore final

condition of the steam is obtained by drawing a horizontal line through C to

meet the final pressure (P2) line at B’.

(v) Now the actual expansion of the steam in the nozzle is expressed by the

curve AB’ (adiabatic expansion) Instead of AB (isentropic expansion).

Actual heat drop (h1-h3) is known as useful heat drop.

useful heat drop to the isentropic heat drop.

K= = =

Isentropic heat drop AB h1 − h2

Let V1 = Velocity of steam at the entrance of the nozzle in m/s

V2 = Velocity of steam at any section considered in m/s

h1 = Enthalpy or total heat of steam entering nozzle in kJ/kg and

h2 = Enthalpy or total heat of steam at the section considered in

kJ/kg

1 V12 1 V2 2

h1 + =

2 h + + losses

1000 2 1000 2

Neglecting losses in a nozzle ,

1 V2 2 V12

− = h1 − h2

1000 2 2

nozzle.

hd = h1 - h2

Since the entrance velocity or velocity approach (V1) is negligible as compared to h2

Therefore,

V2 = 2000hd = 44.72 hd

We have already discussed that the flow of steam, through the nozzle is

isentropic ,which is approximately represented by the general law:

Pvn = Constant

V22

= ……….(Neglecting initial velocity of

2

steam)

n

Heat drop = ( p1v1 − p2v2 )

n −1

Since gain in kinetic energy is equal to heat drop, therefore

V22 n

= ( p1v1 − p2v2 )

2 n −1

n pv

= × p1v1 1 − 2 2

n −1 p1v1

1 1

−

v2 p1 n p2 n

= =

v1 p2 p1

1

−

p n

v2 = v1 2

p1

v1

Substituting the value of

v2

−

1

2

p p n

p1v1 1 − 2 2

V2 n

=

2 n −1 p1 p1

n −1

n p2 n

= p1v1 1 −

n −1 p1

n −1

n

p2 n

V2 = 2 × × p1v1 1 −

n −1

p1

Now the volume of the steam flowing per second

= Cross sectional area of nozzle× velocity of steam =

AV2

and volume of 1kg of steam i.e., specific Volume of steam at pressure P2

= V2 m3/kg

m=

volume of 1kg of steam at pressure p2

n −1

× p1v1 1 −

n

AV2 A n p

= = 2× 2

n −1

v2 v2 p1

−

1

n −1

A p

× p1v1 1 − 2

n

n p n

= 1 2×

v1 p2 n −1

p1

1

n −1

A p n

× p1v1 1 −

n

2n p

= 2 2

v1 p1 n −1

p1

2

n −1

p2 n 2n p1 p2 n

=A × 1−

p1 n − 1 v1 p1

2 n +1

2n p1 p2 n p n

=A × − 2

n − 1 v1 p1 p1

throat pressure which produces this condition.

Let P1 = Initial pressure of steam in N/m2

P2 = Pressure of steam at throat in N/m2

V1= Volume of 1kg of steam at pressure P1 in m3

V2= Volume of 1kg of steam at pressure P2 in m3 ,and

A = cross sectional area of nozzle at throat, in m2 .

2 n +1

2n p1 p2 n p2 n

m= A × −

n − 1 v1 p1 p1

There is only one value of the ratio P2/P1 , which produces maximum discharge from the

nozzle. This ratio P2/P1, is obtained by differentiating the right hand side of the equation.

We see from this equation that except P2/P1 , all other values are constant. P2/P1 is

differentiated and equated to zero for maximum discharge.

2 n +1

d p2 n

p2 n

− =0

p2 p1 p1

d

p1

2 n +1

−1 −1

2 p2 n n + 1 p2 n

− =0

n p1 n p1

2− n n +1

−1

2 p2 n

n + 1 p2 n

− =0

n p1 n p1

2− n 1

−

p2 n p n

n +1 n

× 2 = ×

p1 p1 n 2

2 −n 1

−

p2 n n

n +1

=

p1 2

1− n

p2 n

n +1

=

p1 2

n −n

1−n −(1−n )

p2 n + 1 n +1

= =

p1 2 2

n

n−1

2

=

n +1

2

2n p1 2 n −1

=A ×

n + 1 v1 n + 1

mmax

(i) When the steam is initially dry saturated:

We know that for dry saturated steam ,n= 1.135.

Therefore maximum discharge is,

p1

mmax = 0.637 A

v1

For superheated steam, n=1.3.

Therefore maximum discharge is,

p1

mmax = 0.666 A

v1

(iii) For gases:

For gases, n=1.4.

Therefore maximum discharge is,

p1

mmax = 0.685 A

v1

n

n−1

p2 2

= Critical pressure ratio =

p1 n +1

We know that for dry saturated steam, n=1.135

p2

=0.577 ; P2 = 0.577 P1

p1

(ii) When the steam is initially superheated:

p2

=0.546 ; P2 = 0.546 P1

p1

It has been experimentally found for wet steam,

p2

=0.582 ; P2 = 0.582 P1

p1

p2

=0.528 ; P2 = 0.528 P1

p1

Now consider two vessels A and B connected by a convergent nozzle. Let the

vessel A contains steam at a high and steady pressure (P1),and the vessel B contains

steam at another pressure (P2) which may varied at will.

Let the pressure P2 in the vessel B be made equal to the pressure (P1) in the

vessel A. There will be no flow of steam through the nozzle. Now if the pressure (P2)

in the vessel B gradually reduced, the discharge through the nozzle will increase. As

the pressure (P2) in the vessel B approaches the critical value , the rate of discharge

will also approach its maximum value. If the pressure (P2) in the vessel B is further

reduced, it will not increase the rate of discharge. The ratio of exit pressure to the

inlet pressure is called critical pressure ratio.

n −1

× p1v1 1 − 2

n p n

V2 = 2 ×

n −1

p1

n n −1

p2 2 n −1 p n

2

= or 2 =

p1 n + 1 p1 n +1

n 2 n n +1− 2

V2 = 2 × × p1v1 1 − = 2× × p1v1

n −1 n +1 n −1 n +1

n 2n p1

= 2× × p1v1 = ×

n −1 n − 1 ρ1

1

QVolume(v) =

Density ( ρ )

p1v1n = p2 v2 n

p1 p

= 2n

ρ1 n

ρ2

1

1 1 p n

= 2

ρ1 ρ 2 p1

1

p1 p p n

= 1 2

ρ1 ρ 2 p1

1 1− n

p p p n p p n

= 2 × 1 2 = 2 × 2

ρ 2 p2 p1 ρ 2 p1

1− n

p 2 n

= 2 ×

ρ2 n + 1

n 1− n

×

p 2 n −1 n p2 n + 1

= 2 × = ×

ρ2 n + 1 ρ2 2

Substituting the value of P1/ρ in the V2 equation,

2n p2 n + 1 nP2 p2 n + 1

× × = ×

ρ2 ρ 2 2

V2 =

n −1 ρ2 2

This is the value of velocity of sound in the medium at pressure P2 and it is known as

sonic velocity.

THROUGH NOZZLE:

accompanied by condensation process. If the steam is initially superheated, the

condensation should start after it has become dry saturation. This is possible when the

steam has proceeded through some distance in the nozzle and in a short interval of

time. But from practical point of view, the steam has a great velocity. Equilibrium

between the liquid and vapour phase is delayed and the steam continues to expand in

a dry state. The steam in such a set of conditions, is said to be supersaturated or in

metastable state. It is also called super cooled steam ,as its temperature at any

pressure is less than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. The

flow of supersaturated steam, through the nozzle is called supersaturated flow or

metastable flow.

limit to which the supersaturated flow is possible. This limit is represented by Wilson

line on h-s diagram. The Wilson line closely follows the 0.97 dryness fraction line.

Beyond this Wilson line, there is no super saturation.

Figuare shows the isentropic expansion of steam in a nozzle. The point A represents

the position of initial dry saturated steam at pressure P1. The line AB represents the

isentropic expansion of steam in the supersaturated region. The metastable state(point

C) is obtained by drawing a vertical line through A to meet the Wilson line. At C, the

steam condenses suddenly. The line CD represents the condensation of steam at

constant enthalpy. The point D is obtained by drawing a horizontal line through C to

meet the throat pressure (P2) of the nozzle. The line DF represents the isentropic

expansion of the steam in the divergent portion.

The following effects in the nozzle, in which super saturation occurs are,

(i) since the condensation does not take place during super saturation

expansion, so the temperature at which the super saturation occurs will be

less than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure.

Therefore, the density of supersaturated steam will be more than for the

equilibrium conditions, which gives the increase in mass of steam

discharged.

(ii) The super saturation increases the entropy and specific volume of the steam.

(iii) The super saturation reduces the heat drop below that for thermal

equilibrium. Hence the exit velocity of the steam is reduced.

(iv) The super saturation increases dryness fraction of the steam.

3.10. STEAM TURBINE

the gradual change of momentum of the steam.In a steam turbine, the force exerted on the

blades is due the velocity of steam.

(i) The nozzle in which the heat energy of high-pressure steam is converted into

kinetic energy, so that the steam issues from the nozzle with a very high

velocity.

(ii) The blades, which change the direction of, steam issuing from the nozzle, so

that a force acts on the blades due to change of momentum and propel

them.

of high velocity steam jet by the expansion of high-pressure steam and then conversion of

kinetic energy, so obtained into Mechanical work on rotor blades.

RECIPROCATING STEAM ENGINES:

Following are the important advantages of steam turbines over reciprocating steam

engines:

(i) A steam turbine may develop higher speeds and a greater steam range is

possible.

(ii) The efficiency of a steam turbine is higher.

(iii) The steam consumption is less.

(iv) Since all the moving parts are enclosed in a casing, the steam turbine is

comparatively safe.

(v) A steam turbine requires less space and lighter foundations, as there are little

vibrations.

(vi) There is less frictional loss due to fewer sliding parts.

(vii) The applied torque is more uniform to the driven shaft.

(viii) A steam turbine requires less attention during running, Moreover, the repair

costs are generally less.

• Impulse turbine

• Reaction turbine

• Radial flow turbine

• Condensing turbine

• Non condensing turbine

• Medium pressure turbine

• Low pressure turbine

• Multi stage turbine

impulse of steam jet. In this turbine, the steam is first made to flow through a nozzle.

Then the steam jet impinges on the turbine blades (which are curved like buckets) and is

mounted on the circumference of the wheel. The steam jet after impinging glides over the

concave surface of the blades and finally leaves the turbine.

AN IMPULSE TURBINE

We have already discussed that in an impulse turbine, the steam jet after leaving

the nozzle impinges on one end of the blade. The jet then glide over the inside surface of

the blade and finally leaves from other edge, as shown in the figure. It may be noted that

the jet enters and leaves the blade tangentially for shockless entry and exit.

Consider the steam jet entering a curved blade after leaving the nozzles at C.

now let us draw the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet tips of the moving blade, as

shown in fig.

V = Absolute velocity of steam entering the moving blade

Vr = Relative velocity of the jet to the moving blade. It is the vectorial

difference between Vb and V.

Vf = Velocity of flow at entrance of the moving blade.

It is the vertical component of V.

Vw= Velocity of whirl at entrance of the moving blade. It is the horizontal

component of V.

θ = Angle which the relative velocity of jet of the moving blade (V)

makes

with the direction of motion of the blade.

α = Angle with the direction of motion of the blade at which the jet enters

the

blade.

V1, Vr1, Vf1, Vw1,β, φ = Corresponding values at exit of the moving blade.

It may be seen from the above, that the original notations (i.e. V, Vr, Vf and

Vw) stand for the inlet triangle. The notations with suffix 1 (i.e. V, Vr1, Vf1 and Vw1) stand

for the outlet triangle.

It may be noted that as the steam jet enters and leaves the blades without any shock (or

in other words tangentially), therefore shape of the blades will be such that Vr and Vr1

will be along the tangents to the blades at inlet and outlet respectively. The angle θ is

called the blade at inlet and angle φ is the blade at exit of the moving blade.

P

VW

Vb

Inlet velocity triangle

α θ

Vr Vf

V

C

Turbine

blade

Vb

Vr1 Vf1 Outlet velocity

triangle

Vr

φ β

Vw1

In the figuare PC is the axis of the nozzle, which delivers the steam jet with

a high velocity (V) at an angle α with the direction of motion of the blade. The jet

impinges on a series of turbine blades mounted on the runner disc.

velocity of flow (Vf). It causes the steam to flow through the turbine and also an axial

thrust on the rotor. The tangential component of V is known as velocity of whirl at inlet

(Vw). According to combined velocity diagram given below ,the linear velocity or mean

velocity of the blade (i.e.Vb) is represented by AB in magnitude and direction. The length

AC represents the relative velocity (Vr) of the steam jet with respect to the blade.

The jet now glides over and leaves the blade with relative velocity Vr1,

which is represented by AE. The absolute velocity of jet (V1) as it leaves the blade, is

represented by BE inclined at an angle β with the direction of blade motion. The

tangential component of V1 (represented by BF) is known as velocity of whirl at exit

(Vw1). The axial component of V1 (represented by EF) is known as the velocity of flow at

exit (Vf1).

C

Vf Vr V

E

Vr1

V1

Vf!

D θ φ α β

A B

F

Vb

Vw Vw1

(i) Draw a horizontal line, and cut off AB equal to velocity of blade (Vb) to

some suitable scale.

(ii) Now at B, draw a line BC equal to V at an angle α (i.e. velocity of steam jet

at inlet of blade) to the scale.

(iii) Join AC, which represents the relative velocity at inlet (Vf). Now at A, draw

a line AE at an angle φ with AB.

(iv) Now with A as center and radius equal to AC, draw an arc meeting the line

through A at E, such that AC = AE or Vr = Vr1.

(v) Join BE, which represents velocity of jet at exit (V1) to the scale.

(vi) From C and E, draw perpendiculars meeting the line AB produced at D and

F respectively.

(vii) Now BD and CD represent the velocity of whirl and velocity of flow at inlet

(Vw and Vf) to the scale. Similarly, BF and EF represents the velocity of

whirl and velocity of flow at outlet (Vw1 and Vf1) to the scale.

Consider an impulse turbine working under the action of a steam jet. Let us draw a

combined velocity triangle, for the impulse turbine as shown in the fig.

(Vw ± Vw1) = change in the velocity of whirl in m/s.

We know that according to the Newton’s second law of motion, force in the

direction of motion of the blades,

whirl

= m[Vw – ( - Vw1)]

= m [Vw + Vw1] = m x DF N ------------------- (A)

= Force × Distance

= m [Vw + Vw1 ] V b Nm/s ------------------ (B)

= m × DF × AB Nm/s

Power produced by the turbine = work done in the direction of motion of the blades in

Watts

Similarly, we can find out the axial thrust on the wheel which is due to the difference

of velocities of flow at inlet and outlet. Mathematically, axial thrust on the wheel.

flow

= m (Vf - Vf1)

= m (CD –EF) N ------------------- (C)

In the last article, we have discussed that relative velocity of steam jet is the

same of the inlet and outlet tips of the blade. In other words, we have assumed that the

inner side of the curved blade offers no resistance of the steam jet. But in actual practice,

some resistance is always offered by the blade surface to the gliding steam jet, whose

effect is to reduce the relative velocity of the jet i.e to make Vr1 < Vr. the ratio of Vr1 to Vr

is known as blade velocity co coefficient or coefficient of velocity or friction

factor,(usually denoted by K). Mathematically, blade velocity coefficient,

Vr1

K=

Vr

It may be noted that the effect of friction on the combined velocity triangle will be to

reduce the relative velocity at outlet (Vr1) as shown in figure.

C

Vf Vr V E

Vr1 V1

Vf!

D θ φ α β

F

A B

Vb Vw1

Vw

For axial discharge V1 = Vf1 and Vw1= 0

Sometimes, the steam leaves the blade at its exit tip at 90° to the direction of

the blade motion. In such a case, the turbine is said to have an axial discharge. The

combined velocity diagram for axial discharge is shown in fig. It may be noted that in

such a turbine, the velocity of whirl at outlet (Vw1) is equal to zero. Therefore power

developed by the turbine,

P = m × Vw × Vb Watts (Q Vw1 = 0)

Vf Vr V E

Vr1

Vf!= V1

θ φ α

D A

B,F

Vb

Vw

β = 90°

In a reaction turbine, the steam enters the wheel under pressure and flows over the

blades. The steam, while gliding, peoples and make them to move. As a matter of fact,

the turbine runner is rotated by the reactive forces of steam jets.

A Parson reaction turbine is the simplest type of reaction steam turbine, and is

commonly used. It has the following main components:

(i) Casing,

(ii) Guide mechanism,

(iii) Turbine runner and

(iv) Draft tube.

A Parson’s turbine is also known as 50% reaction turbine.

S.

Impulse Turbine Reaction turbine

No.

The steam flows through the nozzles and The steam first through guide mechanism

1

impinges on the moving blades. and then through the moving blades.

The steam impinges on the buckets with The steam guides over the vanes with

2

kinetic energy. pressure and kinetic energy.

The steam may or may not be admitted The steam must be admitted over the

3

over the whole circumference. whole circumference.

The steam pressure remains constant The steam pressure is reduced during its

4 during its flow through the moving flow through the moving blades.

blades.

The relative velocity of steam while The relative velocity of steam while

5 gliding over the blades remains constant gliding over the blades increases

(assuming no friction). (assuming no friction).

6 The blades are symmetrical. The blades are not symmetrical.

The number of stages required are less The number of stages required are more

7

for the same power developed. for the same power developed.

3.14.2. POWER PRODUCED BY A REACTION TURBINE:

P = m (Vw + Vw1 ) Vb

Similarly we can find out the axial thrust on the wheel, which is due to difference

of velocities of flow at inlet and outlet. Mathematically, axial thrust,

= m (V f + V f 1 )

In a reaction turbine, the pressure drop takes place in both the fixed and moving

blades. In other words, there is an enthalpy drop in both the fixed and moving blades as

shown on h-s diagram in the figure. The ratio of the enthalpy or heat drop in the moving

blades to the total enthalpy or heat drop in the stage is known as “degree of reaction”.

Mathematically,

Degree of reaction = =

Total enthalpy or heat drop inthe stage h1 − h3

3.14.4. HEIGHT OF BLADES OF A REACTION TURBINE:

The steam enters the moving blades over the whole circumference. As a result of

this, the area through which the steam flows is always full of steam. Now consider a

reaction turbine whose end view of the blade ring is shown in figure.

h = Height of blades

A = π (d + h) h

and volume of steam flowing = π ( d + h ) hV f 1

We know that volume of 1 kg of steam at the given pressure is Vg (from steam

tables). Therefore mass of steam flowing,

π ( d + h ) hV f 1

m= kg / s

Vg

If the steam has a dryness fraction of x, then the mass of steam flowing,

π ( d + h ) hV f 1 π d m hV f 1

m= = kg / s

xVg xVg

Where dm = mean blade diameter = (d+h).

In the last two chapters, we have discussed impulse and reaction steam turbines. In

these chapters, we have discussed power generated in these turbines. But in this chapter,

we shall discuss their performance i.e. efficiencies and governing.

The following efficiencies of impulse as well as reaction steam turbines are

important from the subject point of view:

(i) Diagram or blading efficiency:

It is the ratio of the work done on the blades to the energy supplied to the blades.

Let V= Absolute velocity of inlet steam in m/s, and

m= Mass of steam supplied in kg/s.

mV 2

∴ Energy supplied to the blade per second, = ---- J/s

2

We know that

Work done on the blades per second = m(Vw + Vw1 )Vb ---- J/s

m(Vw + Vw1 )Vb 2(Vw + Vw1 )Vb

ηb = =

mV 2 / 2 V2

The work done on the turbine blades may also be obtained from the kinetic energy

at

inlet and exit as discussed below:

We know that

mV 2

Kinetic energy at inlet per second =

2

mV12

and kinetic energy at exit per second = J/s

2

∴Work done on the blades per second = Loss of kinetic energy

mV 2 mV12 m 2

= − = (V − V12 ) J/s

2 2 2

m(V 2 − V12 )

and power developed, P= watts

2

m 2

(V − V12 )

V 2 − V12

∴Blading efficiency, ηb = 2 =

mV 2 V2

2

(ii) Gross or stage efficiency:

It is the ratio of the work done on the blades per kg of steam to the total energy

supplied per stage per kg of steam.

Let, h1= Enthalpy or total heat of steam before expansion through the Nozzle in kJ/kg

and h2 =Enthalpy or total heat of steam after expansion through the Nozzle in kJ/kg

∴Enthalpy or heat drop in the nozzle ring of an impulse wheel hd = h1-h2 (inkJ/kg)

and Total energy supplied per stage = 1000 hd J/kg of steam

We know that

Work done on the blade per kg of steam = 1(Vw +Vw1) Vb J/kg of steam

∴Gross or stage efficiency,

ηs = =

1000hd 1000(h1 − h2 )

(iii) Nozzle efficiency:

It is the ratio of energy supplied to the blades per kg of steam = V2/2 (in joules)

V2 /2 V2

∴Nozzle efficiency, ηn = =

1000hd 2000hd

TURBINE:

The blading efficiency of an impulse turbine

V 2 − V12 2(Vw + Vw1 )Vb

ηb = =

V2 V2

It may be noted that the blading efficiency will be maximum when V1 is

minimum. From the combined velocity triangle, we see that the value of V1 will be

minimum, when is equal to the 90 . In other words, for maximum, the steam should

leave the turbine blades at right angles to their motion. The modified combined velocity

triangle for maximum efficiency is shown given below. It may also be noted that for

maximum efficiency, Vw1 is zero.

∴For maximum efficiency, substituting Vw1= 0 in the general expression for efficiency

of an impulse turbine, we have

2 × Vw × Vb

ηmax =

V2

We know that in De-lavel turbine, = , considering Vr =Vr1

1

Vb = Vw = 0.5Vw

2

= 0.5V cos α

2 × Vw × 0.5Vw Vw

ηmax = 2

= 2 = cos 2 α

V V

A REACTION TURBINE:

= AB × EF = Vb (EB + AF – AB)

= Vb (V cos α + Vr1 cosϕ –Vb )

We know that in a Parson’s reaction turbine α = ϕ; V = Vr1; V1 = Vr

Work done per Kg of steam = Vb (2V cosα - Vb)

2 cos α Vb

= Vb ×V 2 − 2

V V

=V 2

− 2

V V

= V 2 ( 2ρ cosα − ρ 2 )

We know that kinetic energy supplied to the fixed blade per kg of steam =V2/2

And kinetic energy supplied to the moving blade per kg of

Vb 2 2Vb

1− 2 + cosα

V V

V2

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α )

2

workdone V 2 (2 ρ cos α − ρ 2 )

= 2

energy supplied V dy

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 cos α )

2 dx

2(2 ρ cos α − ρ ) 2

Steam

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α )

d

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α ) = 0

dρ

2 ρ − 2 cos α = 0

= =

2 2

V 2 V 2 − V12 2V 2 − V12

∴Total energy supplied to the turbine = + =

2 2 2

From the combined velocity triangle, we find that

V1 = Vr = V 2 + Vb 2 − 2VVb cos α

V 2 + Vb 2 − 2VVb cos α V 2 − Vb 2 + 2VVb cos α

= =

2 2

V2 Vb 2 2Vb

= (1 − 2 + cosα )

2 V V

V2

= (1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α )

2

We know that diagram or blading efficiency,

workdone V 2 (2 ρ cos α − ρ 2 )

ηb= = 2

energy supplied V

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α )

2

2(2 ρ cos α − ρ 2 )

=

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α )

It may be noted that the efficiency of the turbine will be maximum when

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α ) is minimum. Now for (1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α ) to be minimum,

differentiate this expression with respect to ρ and equate the same to zero, i.e

d

(1 − ρ 2 + 2 ρ cos α ) = 0

dρ

2 ρ − 2 cos α = 0

Vb

ρ = cos α or = cos α

V

∴Vb = V cos α

It may be noted that when ∴Vb = V cos α ,the value of Vwl will be zero (a

condition for maximum efficiency of impulse turbine also) as shown in figure. In such a

caseVb = Vw.

Now substituting ρ = cos α in equation for maximum efficiency,

η max = =

(1 − cos 2 α + 2 cos2 α ) 1 + cos 2 α

(METHODS OF REDUCING ROTOR SPEEDS):

In the recent years, high pressure (100 to 140 bar) and high temperature steam is

used in the power plants to increase their thermal efficiency. If the entire pressure drop

(from boiler pressure to condenser pressure (say from 125 bar to 1 bar) is carried out in

one stage only, then the velocity of steam entering into the turbine will be extremely

high. It will make the turbine rotor to run at a very high speed (even up to 30000 rpm).

Form practical point of view, such a high speed of the turbine rotor is bound to have a

number of disadvantages.

In order to reduce the rotor speed, various methods are employed. All of these

methods consists of a multiple system of rotors, in series, keyed to a common shaft and

the steam pressure or the jet velocity is absorbed in stages as it flows over the rotor

blades. This process is known as compounding. The following three methods are

commonly employed for reducing the rotor speed:

1. Velocity compounding, 2. Pressure compounding and 3. pressure - velocity

compounding

The process of providing any arrangement, which will keep the speed constant

(according to the changing load conditions) is known as governing of steam engines.

Though there are many methods of governing steam turbines, yet the throttle governing is

important from the subject point of view.

3.17.1. THROTTLE GOVERNING OF STEAM TURBINES:

The throttle governing of a steam turbine is a method of controlling the turbine

output by varying the quantity of steam entering into the turbine. This method is also

known as servometer method, whose operation is given below:

The centrifugal governor is driven form the main shaft of turbine by belt or gear

arrangement. The control valve controls the direction of flow of the oil (which is pumped

by gear pump) either in the pipe AA or BB. The servometer or relay valve has a piston

whose motion (towards left or right depends upon the pressure of the oil flowing through

the pipes AA or BB) is connected to a spear or needle which moves inside the nozzle, as

shown in the figure.

We know that when the turbine is running at its normal speed, the positions of

piston in the servo meter, control valve, fly balls of centrifugal governor will be in their

normal positions as shown in the figure. The oil is pumped by the gear pump into the

control valve, will come back into the oil sump as the mouths of both pipes AA or BB are

closed by the tow wings of control valve.

Now let us consider an instant, when load on the turbine increases. As a result of

load increase, the turbine speed will be decreased. This decrease in the speed of the

turbine wheel will also decrease the speed of the centrifugal governor. As a result of this,

the fly ball will come down (due to decrease in centrifugal force) thus decreasing their

amplitude. As the sleeve is connected to the central vertical bar of the centrifugal

governor, therefore coming down of the fly balls will also bring down the sleeve. This

down ward moment of the sleeve will raise the control valve rod, as the sleeve is

connected to the control valve rod through a lever pivoted on the fulcrum. Now, a slight

upward movement of the control valve rod will open the mouth of the pipe AA (still

keeping the mouth of the pipe BB closed). Now the oil under pressure will rush from the

control valve to the right side of the piston in the servo meter through the pipe AA. This

oil, under pressure, will move the piston as well as spear towards left, which will open

more area of the nozzle. This increase in the area of flow will increase the rate of steam

of steam flow into the turbine. As a result of increase in the steam flow, there will be an

increase in increase in the turbine output as well as its speed. When speed of the turbine

wheel will come up to its normal range, fly balls will move up. Now the sleeve as well as

control valve rod will occupy its normal position and the turbine will run at its normal

speed.

It may be noted that when load on the turbine decreases, it will increase the speed.

As a result of this, the fly balls will go up (due to increase in centrifugal force) and the

sleeve will also go up. This will push the control valve rod downwards. This downward

movement of the control valve rod will open the mouth of the pipe BB (still keeping the

mouth of the pipe AA closed). Now the oil under pressure, will rush form the control

valve to the left side of the piston in the servo meter through the pipe BB. This oil under

pressure will move the piston and spear towards right, which will decrease the area of the

nozzle. This decrease in the area of the flow will decrease the rate of steam flow into the

turbine. As a result of decrease in the steam flow, there will be a decrease in the turbine

output as well as its speed. When the speed of the turbine is reduced to its normal range,

the fly balls will come down. Now the sleeve as well as control valve rod will occupy its

normal positions, and the turbine will run its normal speed.

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