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Using MIS 5e Chapter 6

Data Communication and the Cloud by David Kroenke

GearUp: “No, I Mean 25 Cents an Hour.”

Gearup’s Web hosting costs rising rapidly

Lucas suggests provisioning Web servers and databases in the cloud

Provision server resources by the hour

Costs: $50/mo plus 25-cents per hour for processing time used

Could yield huge savings

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Study Questions

Q1: What is a computer network? Q2: What are the components of a LAN? Q3: What are the fundamental concepts you should know about the Internet?

Q4: What processing occurs on a typical Web

server? Q5: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations? Q6: How can organizations use the cloud? Q7: 2022?

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Q1: What Is a Computer Network?

Q1: What Is a Computer Network? C o p y r i g h t ©

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Q2: What Are the Components of a

LAN?

Q2: What Are the Components of a LAN? SOHO LAN C o p y r i

SOHO

LAN

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LAN Protocol

IEEE 802.3

Wired LAN

10/100/1000 Mbps

Ethernet

IEEEE 802.11

Wireless LAN

802.11n

Bluetooth

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Summary of LAN and WAN Networks

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Connecting to an ISP

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Using MIS InClass 6: A Group Exercise

Opening Pandora’s Box

Sonos: leverages technology to provide entertainment

High-quality, wireless LAN audio systems

Uses wired Ethernet to link up to 32 other Sonos devices around home

Each device can play own music or same audio program Includes a small computer running Linux and a proprietary Sonos protocol

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Q3: What Are the Fundamental Concepts You Should Know About the Internet?

the Fundamental Concepts You Should Know About the Internet? C o p y r i g

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TCP/IP Protocol Architecture

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Application Layer Protocols

Hyper Text Transport Protocol (http)

HTTPS - secure HTTP data transmission Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP )

File Transfer Protocol (ftp)

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TCP and IP Protocols

TCP or Transmission Control Protocol

Breaks traffic up into packets and sends each one along its way

IP (Internet Protocol)

Routers

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IP Addressing

Public IP Addresses

Identify a particular device on public Internet

Public IP addresses must be unique, worldwide

Assignment controlled by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)

Private IP Addresses

Identify a particular device on a private network

Major benefits

1. Public IP: All devices on LAN share a public IP address.

2. Private IP address, need not register computer with ICANN-approved agencies.

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Functions of the LAN Device

Switch processing: IEEE 802.3 wired LAN traffic

Access-point processing: IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN traffic

Translating between IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11

Converting between Analog and Digital

Assigning private IP addresses

Converting IP address between private and public

IP addresses

Routing packets

And more …

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Public IP Addresses and Domain Names

IPv4

Four decimal dotted notation like

165.193.123.253

Domain name Worldwide-unique name affiliated with a public IP address Affiliation of domain names with IP addresses is dynamic URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

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Remote Access Using VPN

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WAN Using VPN

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Q4: What Processing Occurs on a

Typical Web Server?

Q4: What Processing Occurs on a Typical Web Server? C o p y r i g

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Watch the Three Tiers in Action!

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

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XML, Flash, Silverlight, HTML 5

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

Fixes several HTML deficiencies

Program-to-program interaction over Web

Flash

Browser add-on for animation, movies, and

other advanced graphics inside a browser.

Silverlight

Browser add-on with greater functionality than Flash

HTML 5.0

Supports animation, movies, and graphics

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Ethics Guide: Personal Work at Work

You email 12 pictures of your surfing skills from New

Zealand to a friend at some company in Ohio.

Each picture is 6.2 megabytes in size.

Packets of email and picture transmitted to Ohio company router and from router to its email server.

Your message consumed processing cycles on router

and email server. A copy of your pictures stored on email server until your friend deletes them.

Friend uses company LAN to download the pictures to his

desktop computer.

Friend reads his email during his working hours.

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Q5. Why Is the Cloud the Future for

Most Organizations?

Cloud Elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the Internet Elastic Dynamically increasing/decreasing a leased resource programmatically in a short span of time, and only pay for resource used

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Why Is the Cloud Preferred to In-House

Hosting?

Cloud

On Site

Positives:

Small capital requirements

Control of data location

Speedy development

In-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness

Superior flexibility and adaptability to growing or fluctuating demand

 

Known cost structure

 

Possibly best of breed security / disaster preparedness

 

No obsolesce

 

Industry-wide economies of scale hence cheaper

 

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Why Is the Cloud Preferred to In-House

Hosting? (cont’d)

Negatives:

Dependency on vendor

Significant capital required

Loss of control over data location

Significant development effort

Little visibility into true security and disaster preparedness capabilities

Annual maintenance costs

 

Ongoing support costs

 

Staff and train personnel

 

Increased management requirements

 

Difficult (impossible?) to

accommodate fluctuating demand

 

Cost uncertainties

 

Obsolesce

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When Does the Cloud Not Make Sense?

Only when law or industry standard practices require physical control over the data Private cloud

In-house hosting, delivered via Web

service standards

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Q6. How Can Organizations Use the

Cloud?

Q6. How Can Organizations Use the Cloud? C o p y r i g h t

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Q7: 2022?

Cloud computing benefit

Individuals on iCloud

Small groups using Office 365

Startups Using PaaS

Huge organizations using IaaS

New categories of products and services Create new jobs?

Tele-action

Telediagnosis, telesurgery, telelaw enforcement

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Guide: Thinking Exponentially Is Not

Possible, But…

Humans cannot think exponentially

No one could imagine the growth in magnetic storage and what we would do with it (1990s). Exponential growth in:

Number of Internet connections

Web pages

Amount of data accessible on Internet

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Guide: Thinking Exponentially Is Not

Possible, But…(cont’d)

What can we do to better anticipate

People want to do what they’re already doing, but more easily; they want to solve problems that they already have.

Hedging your bets Position yourself to move quickly as direction becomes clear

Error increases exponentially as time frame increases

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Ethics Guide: Human Networks

Matter More

Social networks are crucial in connecting

Build personal social networks for success

Six-degree theory You are connected to everyone on the

planet by no more than six degrees of

separation

Successful professionals consistently build

personal human networks

People you know the least contribute the most to your network

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Active Review

Q1: What is a computer network? Q2: What are the components of a LAN? Q3: What are the fundamental concepts you should know about the Internet?

Q4: What processing occurs on a typical Web

server? Q5: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations? Q6: How can organizations use the cloud? Q7: 2022?

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Case Study 6: Turbulent Air in Those

Azure Clouds

Microsoft has to find a profitable way to put a big part of its business out of business

If Azure is successful, Office 365 will replace Windows Server and SQL Server, which is 24% of current revenue

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Azure

Standard

Rates

Azure Standard Rates C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1

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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Using MIS 5e Chapter 7

Structured Processes and

Information Systems

by David Kroenke

Fox Lake Country Club Has a Problem

Mike, facilities manager

Anne, wedding planner

Renovation plan interferes with scheduled weddings

Could result in lost revenue, unhappy customers, damaged business reputation and costly law suits

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Study Questions

Q1: What are the basic types of structured processes?

Q2: How can information systems improve process

quality?

Q3: How do enterprise systems eliminate problems of information silos? Q4: How do CRM, ERP, and EAI support structured

enterprise processes?

Q5: What are the elements of an ERP System?

Q6: What are the challenges of implementing enterprise systems?

Q7: How will service-oriented architecture impact

enterprise information systems? Q8: 2022?

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Q1: What Are the Basic Types of

Structured Processes?

Q1: What Are the Basic Types of Structured Processes? C o p y r i g

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How Do Structured Processes Differ

from Dynamic Processes?

How Do Structured Processes Differ from Dynamic Processes? C o p y r i g h

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Common Departmental Information

Systems

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How Do Structured Processes Vary by

Scope?

How Do Structured Processes Vary by Scope? C o p y r i g h t

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Q2: How Can Information Systems

Improve Process Quality?

Process efficiency: ratio of process outputs to inputs.

Process effectiveness: how well a process achieves organizational strategy

Ways to improve process quality

Change process structure

Change process resources

Change both

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How Can Information Systems Improve

Process Quality?

Performing an activity

Partially automated, completely automated Augmenting human performing activity

Common reservation system

Controlling process flow

Order approval process

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Fox Lake Country Club Departmental

Goals

Fox Lake Country Club Departmental Goals C o p y r i g h t ©

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Islands of Automation

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Examples of Islands of Automation at a

Hospital

Examples of Islands of Automation at a Hospital C o p y r i g h

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Q3: How Do Enterprise Systems Eliminate Information Silo Problems?

How Do Information System Silos Arise?

Data isolated in islands of automation

Different department goals

Different personal and workgroup needs

Duplicate data as organization grows

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What Problems Do Information Silos

Cause?

What Problems Do Information Silos Cause? C o p y r i g h t ©

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How Do Enterprise Information Systems

Eliminate Silos?

How Do Enterprise Information Systems Eliminate Silos? C o p y r i g h t

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An Enterprise System for Patient

Discharge

An Enterprise System for Patient Discharge C o p y r i g h t ©

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Ethics Guide: Dialing for Dollars

Assume you are a salesperson.

It has been a bad quarter. VP of sales

authorized a 20% discount on new orders if customers take delivery prior to end of

quarter so order can be booked for this

quarter.

VP says “Start dialing for dollars, and get what you can. Be creative.”

You identify your top customers to offer discount deal.

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Q4: How Do CRM, ERP and EAI

Support Enterprise Processes?

Business Process Reengineering

Integrated data, enterprise systems create stronger, faster, more effective linkages in value chains

Difficult, slow, and exceedingly expensive

Key personnel determine how best to use new technology

Requires high-level and expensive skills and considerable time

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Emergence of Enterprise Application

Solutions.

Inherent processes

Predesigned procedures for using software products

– Based on “industry best practices”

Customer relationship management (CRM)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Enterprise application integration (EAI)

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Customer Relationship Management

(CRM)

Suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes

Manage all interactions with customer though four phases of customer life cycle:

Marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, loss/churn

Intended to support customer-centric

organization

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Four Phases of Customer Life Cycle

Four Phases of Customer Life Cycle C o p y r i g h t ©

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CRM Applications

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

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Pre-ERP Information System: Bicycle

Manufacturer

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ERP Information System

ERP Information System C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1

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Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

Connects system “islands”.

Enables communicating and sharing data.

Provides integrated information.

Provides integrated layer over the top of

existing systems while leaving functional applications “as is”.

Enables a gradual move to ERP.

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EAI Automatically Makes Data

Conversions Among Different Systems

“Virtual Integrated Database”

Among Different Systems “Virtual Integrated Database” C o p y r i g h t ©

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Using MIS InClass 7: Improving the

Process of Making Paper Airplanes

InClass 7: Improving the Process of Making Paper Airplanes See textbook page 230 for exercise instructions.

See textbook page 230 for exercise instructions.

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Q5: What Are the Elements of an ERP

System?

Applications programs, databases, procedures, training and consulting that integrate:

Supply chain

Manufacturing

CRM

Human

Accounting

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ERP Application Programs

ERP application programs Set configuration parameters

ERP databases

Initial database design included Trigger program code

Stored procedure code

ERP process blueprints ERP consulting and training

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SAP Ordering Business Process

SAP Ordering Business Process C o p y r i g h t © 2 0

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C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1 3 P e

Inherent Processes: SAP Ordering

Business Process (cont’d)

Inherent Processes: SAP Ordering Business Process (cont’d) C o p y r i g h t

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What Companies Are the Major ERP

Vendors?

What Companies Are the Major ERP Vendors? C o p y r i g h t

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Q6: What Are the Challenges When Implementing New Enterprise Systems?

Four Primary Factors

Collaborative management

Requirements gaps

Transition problems

Employee resistance due to threats to self- efficacy

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Q7. How Will Service-Oriented Architecture

Impact Enterprise Information Systems?

Architecture Impact Enterprise Information Systems? C o p y r i g h t © 2

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What Is SOA?

Web service

Encapsulated software service provided anywhere over the Internet

Service description documents how to use

service, and publishes description using

Web Service Description Language (WSDL)

Services delivered via XML, SOAP, REST, et al.

Used by SAP, Oracle ERP

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Q8: 2022?

Islands of Automation, Version 2.0

Storing of data in various places in the iCloud, while other versions of data stored in corporate data in SAP

Version 2.0 silos more isolated and less secure than previous silos

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Guide: The Flavor-of-the-Month Club

Management never listens

Employees want change from bottom-up

Change management programs are silly

Managers forgets about programs

When program loses support, new one introduced

Employees grow more cynical with each

failed program

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Guide: ERP and the Standard, Standard

Blueprints

Organization adapts its processes to standard blueprints

If all firms in an industry use same business processes, how can a firm gain competitive

advantage?

How will innovation occur?

Does “commoditized” standard blueprint prevent sustaining a competitive advantage?

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Active Review

Q1: What are the basic types of structured processes?

Q2: How can information systems improve process

quality?

Q3: How do enterprise systems eliminate problems of information silos? Q4: How do CRM, ERP, and EAI support structured

enterprise processes?

Q5: What are the elements of an ERP System?

Q6: What are the challenges of implementing enterprise systems?

Q7: How will service oriented architecture impact

Enterprise Information Systems? Q8: 2022?

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Case Study 7:

Process Cast in Stone

Knowledge of enterprise systems can help

you see how information flows throughout an organization and how enterprise systems enable an organization to keep its records

up-to-date and accurate.

Understanding how an enterprise system

links all aspects of an organization together

will help recognize the value of these

systems and envision their use.

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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Using MIS 5e Chapter 8

Social Media

Information Systems

by David Kroenke

“She Said WHAT?On Our Facebook Page???”

Negative customer comment on Fox Lake’s

Facebook

User-generated content is double-edged

sword

Deleting critical feedback problematic

Critical comments result from process

problems

Learn to deal with negative feedback

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Study Questions

Q1:

What is a social media information system

Q2:

(SMIS)? How do SMIS advance organizational strategy?

Q3:

How do SMIS increase social capital?

Q4: What roles do SMIS play in the hyper-social organization? Q5: How do organizations use Web 2.0?

Q6: How can organizations manage the risks of

social media and Web 2.0? Q7: 2022?

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Q1: What Is a Social Media Information System (SMIS)?

Social media (SM)

Use of information technology to support sharing of content among networks of users

Communities, tribes, or hives

Group of people related by a common interest

Social media information system (SMIS)

An information system that supports sharing of

content among networks of users

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SMIS: Convergence of Disciplines

SMIS: Convergence of Disciplines C o p y r i g h t © 2 0

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SMIS Organizational Roles

SMIS Organizational Roles C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1

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Community/Social Media Site

Relationship

Community/Social Media Site Relationship C o p y r i g h t © 2 0

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Social Media Sponsors

Social Media Sponsors C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1

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Social Media Application Providers

Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google

create the features and functions of the site

Free to users

Sponsors may or may not pay a fee

Most earn revenue through some type of advertising model

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Five Components of SMIS

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Q2: How Do SMIS Advance Organizational Strategy?

Defenders of Belief

Share a common belief

Seek conformity

Want to convince others

Facilitate activities like sales and marketing

Form strong bonds and allegiance to an

organization Seekers of the Truth

Share common desire to learn something, solve a

problem, make something happen

Seldom form a strong bond

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SM in the Value Chain Activities

SM in the Value Chain Activities C o p y r i g h t ©

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Social Media and Manufacturing and Operations

Crowdsourcing

Enterprise 2.0

Folksonomy

SLATES

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McAffee's SLATES Enterprise 2.0 Model

McAffee's SLATES Enterprise 2.0 Model C o p y r i g h t © 2

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Q3: How Do SMIS Increase Social Capital?

Types of business capital

Physical capital factories, machines, manufacturing equipment

Human capital human knowledge and

skills

Social capital social relations

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What Is the Value of Social Capital?

Information

Influence

Social credentials

Personal reinforcement

Value of social capital Number of relationships, strength of relationships, and resources controlled

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How Do Social Networks Add Value to Businesses?

Progressive organizations:

Maintain a presence on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other SN sites.

Include links to their social networking

presence for customers and interested parties to leave comments.

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Using Social Networking to Increase the

Number of Relationships

Social Networking to Increase the Number of Relationships C o p y r i g h

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Q4: What Roles Do SMIS Play in Hyper-social Organization?

Four Pillars of Hyper-Social Organizations

Organization? Four Pillars of Hyper-Social Organizations C o p y r i g h t ©

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Using Social Networks to Increase the Strength of Relationships

1. Ask them to do you a favor

2. Frequent interactions strengthen relationships

3. Size of assets controlled by those in

relationship

SocialCapital = NumberRelationships ×

RelationshipStrength ×

EntityResources

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SEAMS Dynamic Process Activities

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SMIS and SEAMS Activities

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Q4: How Do Organizations Use Web

2.0?

Q4: How Do Organizations Use Web 2.0? C o p y r i g h t

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Testing of New Features, Web 2.0 Style

Testing of New Features, Web 2.0 Style C o p y r i g h t

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In the Web 2.0 World

No traditional marketing viral marketing

Use increases value

Organic user interfaces and mashups

Participation and ownership differences

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How Can Businesses Benefit from Web

2.0?

Advertising

Adwords and Adsense

Mashups

Mashing content of multiple products

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Example of a Mashup

Example of a Mashup C o p y r i g h t © 2 0

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Ethics Guide: Hiding the Truth?

How is social networking different in

business than in private life?

Do the ethics vary between private and

business use of social networking?

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Q6: How Can Organizations Manage the

Risks of Social Media and Web 2.0 Applications?

Six guiding principles to employees:

1. Stick to your area of expertise.

2. Post meaningful, respectful comments.

3. Pause and think before posting

4. Respect proprietary information and content, and confidentiality.

5. When disagreeing with others, keep it

appropriate and polite.

6. Know and follow company code of conduct and privacy policy.

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Intel’s Rules of Social Media

Engagement

Intel’s Rules of Social Media Engagement C o p y r i g h t ©

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Managing the Risk of User Generated Content (UGC)

Major sources of UGC problems:

• Junk and crackpot contributions

• Inappropriate content

• Unfavorable reviews

• Mutinous movements

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Responding to Social Networking Problems

Leave it

Respond to it

Delete it

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Q7:

2022?

GPS devices in consumer products?

How to harness employee social behavior and partners to foster company strategy

Employees craft their own relationships with

their employers

Employers provide endoskeleton to support

work of people on the exterior

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Guide: Blending the Personal and the Professional

Employees sharing personal information

socially

Technology blurs line between work life and

home life

Work is portable and always on

You need to be more careful about what

you say

Work networks are not social networks

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Guide: Social Recruiting

Hyper-social organizations use their communities to

locate prospects

Created communities of ‘alumni’ employees

Get a sense of candidate to find any potential behavior or attitude problems

Exposing protected data

Treat every candidate the same

Join LinkedIn, use Google + circles

Keep your personal social data out of any circle that can

be publicly accessed

Check out blogs, commentary, and postings of people who already work at prospective employers

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Active Review

Q1:

What is a social media information system

Q2:

(SMIS)? How do SMIS advance organizational strategy?

Q3:

How do SMIS increase social capital?

Q4: What roles do SMIS play in the hyper-social organization? Q5: How do organizations use Web 2.0?

Q6: How can organizations manage the risks of

social media and Web 2.0? Q7: 2022?

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Case Study 8: Tourism Holdings Limited

Publicly listed New Zealand corporation that

owns multiple brands and businesses in tourism industry

Operates in New Zealand, Australia, and Fiji,

and sales offices in Germany and United

Kingdom.

Information systems and technology a core component of its business value

Invested in a variety of innovative information systems and Web 2.0 technologies.

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Case Study 8: Tourism Holdings Limited (cont’d)

Problems

Acquisition of multiple brands and companies created a disparate set of information systems using a variety of different technologies,

excessive software maintenance and costs

Converted customer-facing Web sites to use Microsoft SharePoint and MOSS Solutions

Single development platform reduced

maintenance costs

Attention on development and personnel training

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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall

Using MIS 5e Chapter 9

Business Intelligence

Systems

by David Kroenke

“We’re Sitting On All This Data. I Want to

Make It Pay.”

Anne wants membership data to:

Combine membership data and publicly available data

Enable target marketing

Increase wedding revenue

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Study Questions

Q1: How do organizations use business intelligence (BI)

systems?

Q2: What are the three primary activities in the BI process? Q3: How do organizations use data warehouses and data marts to acquire data? Q4: How do organizations use typical reporting applications? Q5: How do organizations use typical data mining applications? Q6: What is the role of knowledge management systems? Q7: What are the alternatives for publishing business

intelligence?

Q8: 2022?

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Q1: How Do Organizations Use Business Intelligence (BI) Systems?

How Do Organizations Use Business Intelligence (BI) Systems? C o p y r i g h

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Example Uses of Business Intelligence

Example Uses of Business Intelligence C o p y r i g h t © 2

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Q2: What Are the Three Primary Activities in the Business Intelligence Process?

Primary Activities in the Business Intelligence Process? C o p y r i g h t

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Using BI for Problem-solving at GearUp:

Process and Potential Problems

1.

Obtain commitment from vendor

2.

Run sales event

3.

Sell as many items as possible

4.

Order amount actually sold

5.

Receive partial order and damaged items

6.

If received less than ordered, ship partial order to customers

7.

Some customers cancel orders

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Tables Used for BI Analysis at GearUp

Tables Used for BI Analysis at GearUp C o p y r i g h t

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GearUp Analysis: Item Summary and

Lost Sales Summary Reports

GearUp Analysis: Item Summary and Lost Sales Summary Reports C o p y r i g
GearUp Analysis: Item Summary and Lost Sales Summary Reports C o p y r i g

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Short and Damaged Shipments Details

Report

Short and Damaged Shipments Details Report C o p y r i g h t ©

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Publish Results

Options

Print and distribute via email or collaboration tool

Publish on Web server or SharePoint

Publish on a BI server

Automate results via Web service

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Q3: How Do Organizations Use Data Warehouses and Data Marts to Acquire Data?

Why extract operational data for BI processing?

Security and control

Operational not structured for BI analysis

BI analysis degrades operational server performance

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Components of a Data Warehouse

Components of a Data Warehouse C o p y r i g h t © 2

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Examples of Consumer Data that Can

Be Purchased

Examples of Consumer Data that Can Be Purchased C o p y r i g h

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Possible Problems with Operational Data

Possible Problems with Operational Data C o p y r i g h t © 2

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Data Warehouses vs. Data Marts

Data Warehouses vs. Data Marts C o p y r i g h t © 2

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Q4 How Do Organizations Use Typical

Reporting Applications

Basic operations:

1. Sorting

2. Filtering

3. Grouping

4. Calculating

5. Formatting

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Example RFM Scores

Example RFM Scores C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 1

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Example of Drilling Down into Expanded

Grocery Sales OLAP Report

Figure 9-17
Figure 9-17

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Drilling Down to Expanded Grocery

Store Sales

Drilling Down to Expanded Grocery Store Sales C o p y r i g h t

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Using MIS InClass 9 - A Group Exercise

Do You Have a Club Card?

Acxiom Corporation a data aggregator

Visit www.acxiom.com.

Navigate Web site and make a list of 10

different products Acxiom provides.

Describe Acxiom’s top customers.

Describe the kinds of data Acxiom must

collect to be able to provide these products

to its customers.

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Q5 How Do Organizations Use Typical

Data-mining Applications?

Q5 How Do Organizations Use Typical Data-mining Applications? C o p y r i g h

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Unsupervised vs. Supervised Data

Mining

Unsupervised

No model before running analysis

Hypotheses created after analysis

Cluster analysis to find

groups

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Supervised

Model created before

analysis

Hypotheses created before analysis

Regression analysis:

make predictions

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Neural Networks

Used for predicting values and making classifications

Complicated set of nonlinear equations

Go to http://kdnuggets.com and search for neural network”

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Market Basket Analysis at a Dive Shop

(Transactions = 400)

Market Basket Analysis at a Dive Shop (Transactions = 400) C o p y r i

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Decision Tree Example for MIS Classes

(hypothetical data)

Decision Tree Example for MIS Classes (hypothetical data) C o p y r i g h

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