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Creating a bottom-up parser automatically


S7

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shift-reduce
conflict

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Figure 2.96 The SLR(1) automaton for the grammar of Figure 2.95.






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SECTION 2.2

 7 

From tokens to syntax tree the syntax



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Figure 2.97 The LR(1) automaton for the grammar of Figure 2.95.


 

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356

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Routines and their activation

SECTION 6.3

 















































high
addresses

administrative part

parameter k
.
.
parameter 1
lexical pointer
return information
dynamic link
registers & misc.
frame pointer FP

local variables
stack pointer SP
working stack

low
addresses

 















































   d  8 = F .;0K(+*+.;0 6 '",/4 F 6 ,`228 A 'T4 9<, 6 F 4VO 2 A ,/4Hd
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364

SECTION 6.3

Routines and their activation

 
















































FP
D

Activation record of
lexical parent of R

Activation record of
lexical parent of R

Adm. part

Adm. part

Activation record of
the caller Q of R

Activation record of
the caller Q of R

Adm. part
...

Adm. part

lexical ptr
routine addr

code of Q

code of Q

code of R

code of R

Activation record
of R

PC

PC

a. Before calling R.

FP

lexical ptr
return addr
dynamic link

b. After calling R.

 















































   d  8 ? F`] 4 O 7h* 9 6 A ,Z698 * 9^94P628 A 'T4 9<, 6 F 4VO 2 A ,/4Hd

Figure 6.30 Calling a routine defined by the two-pointer routine descriptor D.



 
 

SUBSECTION 6.4.2

  

  

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Routine invocation

379

 















































parameter n
.
.
parameter 1
administration part
old FP
activation record
of the caller

local variables

working stack

dynamic link

parameter k
.
.
parameter 1
activation record
of the callee

administration part
FP

local variables
SP
working stack

 















































Figure 6.45 Two activation records on a stack.

  

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234

<

SECTION 4.2

9 6

X

<

9 6

Code generation


Instruction

Actions

Load_Const
Load_Mem
Store_Reg

c,Rn
x,Rn
Rn ,x

Rn :=c;
Rn :=x;
x:=Rn ;

Add_Reg
Subtr_Reg
Mult_Reg

Rm ,Rn
Rm ,Rn
Rm ,Rn

Rn :=Rn +Rm ;
Rn :=Rn -Rm ;
Rn :=Rn *Rm ;


Figure 4.22 Register machine instructions.

9 6

    d  8 >'TU[./, ATF .;0 6 'TUW254)6\*s,/4 0\UY.;4P, | :T*HU[4x2 7h* F`] 01'<4Hd


6 ./4V,D~ A 4 b H<<LcNI  9 6 A ,D698 * F ./0 6 '  F@H I^U[0 'T0zST44V'CE*-0K. b }}<<3cND+I 

A ,W68 * F .;0 '  ( )"d


*-v ,y4P*HN2 4 | b<4 6K4HQT3U/0 Q '"(B4 A .W,<4xO *-610 U/4P,_68 _4PO ,`*+.;0 'h B=$ {Q 'CE*-0K.G
v=Z2<*H2 2 | |W4F '{UY. B Q Q
?}. ,/4 | W4 +Q
& '"T*-4P,'"F 2_A 4xO ,;2 U_A 4V0K. ' A T'b, *-C 6 'T25,;0K4 . A ] ,W2 4A 25U 4 A U4VO |'y*B4VO,/,;:<*-,;./4 0 F ' '}25./4 4V'TF *-'}2<.W4s6 8 4PN T,/4xU/U/0 'd
AA ./'<014h6K0\U/U 4P, A AU | 'T4P4 N T<,/0K4x614GU/U/250 4'q,;4 UY. 0\U[F,./3 ,;4%4VUVU d ',<4VO U A 6z.`*+.2<*-'TU A ',;4 0\U[./,;4 |F 01:<6K4 *68 *-0\254s2<4
,/4 0\UY.;,/4xU_* A N50K610\*-01,/4xUPd
=6
<B{<-}5![<}5 H H/"
BTB # BH +<B55 }}<<<-B+ 5 5   H <BB< H

55BB{{<<BBHH55!![[TTHH55}H }}5 HH <<BB)$M" "


<   B <H$ "  H <B
A

F@H

7:9

8
8

+9

6 9

6
 ~) *
~) Y
)^Y ~)(*
)(* 

pDI

9 6 6

F@H

+9

P

+E

iF b
F b
F E
E
\

X+X+X

3c Lc
QE





+E

3E

+E

+E



 P +E
 P +E
P +E

 

 
! 5 f f e( @ e   g

3 

240

f h 

 
  e

Code generation

SECTION 4.2

 















































Rn

Load_Const c ,Rn :

Rn

Load_Mem x ,Rn :

Rn

Add_Reg Rm,Rn :

Rn

Subtr_Reg Rm,Rn :

+
Rm

Rn
Rn

Mult_Reg Rm,Rn :

Rm

Rn

Store_Reg Rn ,x:

:=

*
Rn

x
Rm

Rn

 
















































Figure 4.28 The abstract syntax trees for the register machine instructions.

   d 

de^f
y

I K

2< 

w `y {|~y

Rlm5lEo

GJG

=,;:<,/4xUW254VUy01'TU[./, ATF .;0 'TUW254)6\*s,/4 0\UY.;4P, | :T*HU[4x2 h* F`] 01'<4Hd


G G 2K H I J L/I a Pc %G FI %H

v 5 y

y 3 y

y y

y u

-

 z< v 

w } y

}}<< << 
 {BT   
}}<< <B + 
}< <
 {BT    
 {BT   
5<   
2<4VUs74 O F4 F '0250K.VQ5014VU U A 25, 4yF 4P,/4.7 4P0\NUY.;4 ,/4y<U/06K4 ''*J(+* *-4$0KO ..<4 OF *-A 6 ' F$A {6P44 O A _:{4V*J'(+4P*BI . 'H. T*--,768 4$0\2_N54V4 O 4W*-<6 614B,`Q U34x' UY.>* 2MA ,`8[4VO*-(J0K.>*B6 CEA *-4P0K.,
b

b
T
b
b
b
T
T
] T
6

6 7

Lc
Lc
E
Lc
Lc
E
E




E



 A

 A
A 


7:9

A 

9

7:9

3    
!  f 2



fW
 

61 4GU 012<A U U | *B25,/:<4VU,;4ZU 614 A U<| 6 *-A ,;Uh:<,;/4V6 UVQA ,;2' CE*B4V0z'.G.; 4P, 4G254),/4 0\UY.;,/4xUPd A , F 4V61*TQ50K6MCE* A . F *B6 FPA 614P,W614
MB} * 
! ; /}/ " *  + HTB $M55B / / /"
A.;,/'T0144 6K<4x8 ,4VU U[._F 4xO628 *BTA 6 *-,;, 4 ,;* 0z,;. 25] ,;4T4 *B27,;254 O * F4G, ?4$014P.;U;. ,/U;] 4x*-0UP'}Q5QT.R~ U/4$A0. 0M6K4sUP8Y'04$O | .;44V4PO s(+'T*-24 6 A T* 4^A*-2N,`* 8 *B:_4P4PO ./,`,;,;*+24).;46K'_4xA 4UO ,`F UT4V*-U;* U[,`0K* ./4 *-4P, ./B_,;A 4V,/sU74 4V2 '}0\UY.;'}.;UV,/.Wd 4x6KUP4 Q A ' ,
4xUY. h*+N50 *B69d& '* A ,;*%:4VU 01'"2<4 *+Na  Jc7,/4 0\UY.;,/4xU_* A . .`*-6d
6~ A ,`4)U/v~ 25A4 4 4_<%6, 8 ,;:<'%4 6 4'0\U[8 ./* ,;4 4VTF UV*B8Q 4xU UY25.7' 4W~ ,;A :54 8 ./4P0101' 4PU['}./ ,;.G4V4RO '_ 614P0 O :<,`,/*-4y6 6\* 'h'48 O * T*B01,/U74H*Bd-U;? U[A 94 ,6258 4P4ZN,;4 4 01<U[./6K4H,;Q-4VUVU[05Q-268 ''sF '<4' 25A0\U ./016K0\U/U/44
HH<< << 
 {-T   
H< B+
 {-T    
<BH<<5 <   
H< <
 {-T    
H<T <   
& 'b* 4P61 4 F 4P6\*/U <0K61 0K' } Q50 F 0  Z,;4 <,<4VO U/4P'}.;4 A '<4 F *BU/44P' 4 O 01,;4Bd
g   k 0# ! bu$ !  0
 y[ 
1
  
6X* .YX 4V*-U.;* 254) 2_4 4 O 4P'T4P'T252<4V' *B6F' X F ,`4xU;^U~ A,` * 4 ]T' d A ./016 01U/4 A '<4(J*B,/0\*-:T6K4h* T, 4xU698 *J( 0K,4 O F ,;0z.;4
aE2_4PO? ST*'<6 014xBc<=aE6 0K6M; CE* A .Z~ A !46 A F7,`4VU;~61*hA 4 U/4^'CE*B6KU;0 .U[4)A 2<'<*B4R'T(JU *B,/F 0\4P*-. :T6K4,`25*J(+,/4^*-'}4$.D. 25{4*B6Uy8Y4 O 6F 8 01,;'01,/(B4_4P,`xU/ 4 c
0K<=6M6)CE79* 8A  .610K?,;4^6N*J<=(+6B*-'}; .U/*s' A (B4V256K4 14A N 274$4O O S{F '<,/0K0z. .;A 0 ,/'4xUW254A ,ZU A *J0z(.;4 0K{,_U/610*s: ' '<'T4$4).(J. *B6K. 4 A ,W2T*-4P'T'bU *
0\? U *<6 6 A BUy<=6.;*B; ,;2 2<*-'{A U>79D8 QT016M'<4CE* A . T*BUy614CE*-01,;42T*-'TU A 'b* A ./,;4 ,`25,/4Hd
A
& '"(+*%,T4xO *-610 U/4P,_6K4 F ,;,/4xU 'T2T*-'}.y* AF 254GU A 0K(+*-'}.)
x5 $
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6

9 6

K
M

E

B
9 6
<P 9
7
7
f9 6

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= C 7

b
T
b
T
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b
b
T
b
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7
C 9

E
Lc
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6

E

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C

9

9
7 7 6

?P

6

7 C
6

7:9

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9 6

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QE

6 9
7 C

P 9F




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Lc
Lc
E

6

9^9

7 7 6

>

2\2 <

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+9
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0 )

8
8

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9

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9

9 6

9 6

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9

6
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F@H
@F H
@F H
@F H

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6
0
NH

I

6 6

X+X+X

B




aS F H8 A4VvU[,;.y4 8 = 6\ *%?< @S BA 2 :5,/A 4 .;4P61 0' (}A ,;42 25A 4A , 6K^01(F , 4,/A 4)'<: 254s4 A 4$.h.)^,*-25A 64 d '<ce<d4, 4$ . *B,`* 69& d ceQT@U 4h= ' 4V U[@.,/M4 <6K4x,<*U4VO 6\U/L * 4P4 '}F`.<] 04 OH4xAU *,/U 4 61* '} .d 0 Ha,;AF 0K4V8,/4x'H4 UY.<.4P O 4x6\d * U
X

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9 6

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C

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/'<4$./. X74 O 4VU[.Z2 '<'y4 O 0 HA ,/4  d  d
C

6 9^9 6

C

2\2 <

+B
6

254

SECTION 4.2

<

Code generation

 















































=:
+

=:

=:

=:

+
n

y
n

*
n

 















































   d 8 =^?5@254698 4$N54 7$9T6K4Hd
Figure 4.42 AST of the sample basic block.

& '
TT

4PO ' 4V,/4^*-6 ,`U A '<4G*-61 F *+.;0 '(0K,/. A 4P61K4G254xUy,/4 0\UY.;,/4xU A 254)61* 4 O 0K,;4s
$x {}
$$}
H*
$


 

  $

2 67A '<{4h*-,;,`4V* U[ ./,`4 * <] 6 A 4 UGU A~ A01(J8 *B*b'}*-.V61d A 4P,GU/4P6 '6K4xU)(,;*B0K4xU,/4xU/U A , F 4VU ] XU/0\~ A 4VUVQ F 8 4VU[.G698 :<wY4$.
 y9
 !
Z
Y3 ( Z( [D
4 O F 4,;O 0K& ._*J' 01(B,/44* FW| ,;2A54 4V'<U014U[./U/(,;4 ,;4BA *Bd<610K=Z4Z4xU (B01'T4 hU[F./*, A ATF`'<] F 4.;01'<0 ./4x4P'U61d4 ~ qA h*-0*0\UR25F`] 0101U60K'<X 4HU/*QT4P. <'}6.A A .^U/2M0K'48 A y,`A4PUO ,`2 F`*+] ./0 4 0zAN'{.hU"aE,/4P4U;'5U[S{010\:<UY'.;614V,/254UV4P|d5,;(& 4 ,` '*-010KU[.`*+./c)w,;4 4$I A .;./4$,/44.
T2 ,<4 'O F F 4xO 25254P4V'}U.;4V0KUV'{d UY.;, ATF ./0 'TU2 A .YX 4 5<  Q  {BT <  * A N 01'TU[./, ATF .;0 'TU
A
;

A

$7

7 6

I

>

:9
9

(7

7 6

=Y

6
+9

f9

&

7
\

9 6

Lc

I

6 9



T

9 6
6
LcI

3    
!  f 2



fW
 
SUBSECTION 4.2.5

Code generation for basic blocks

255

 















































=:

=:

=:

=:

*
n

 















































    d 8 2^2 <254698 4$N54 7$9T6K4Hd

Figure 4.43 Data dependency graph for the sample basic block.

<F 6 A Uh'6TA 4 ' .`*+ 5.;./4 O0K4 F`(H] 44PT*61UKA 4 ~ A 4PU/A6U/01,F :<*B6KA U4b' 4V' ' T4 *BA U;. U/*BF '}. A ,;{sU *-A ,h4V01(}' 61,;F4"44"STT2 61*-UA ,W '61*4A{' AF`] 24 A ,`2"aE* U;F 25* 0K,A'TC)40K.`U[4$c$0Z.hd 69U/8 4 y4PO ,`*+A ./,`0 U A ' 0z.4VU[614.
254 ^v 4%,*-A ,R,<'<4V4$O 4N5U A 44P6z.Z.`*+*-<.Z661d4B25c$Q Q 4%698[A4VO (J,_*B 6K64ZA  U*+ ./A0 4VUU[' |. *-A,;:<'<,;A44, 4 O 25F`F`4]] 4P*H6\*61~ K4A 44P0 H. 4 O A F`,;] ' 4 4V6K 14G4Vd O ' 4x4Pa UY,;F .4Z8 4xUY*BUY. ._6 F,61,;*)3 Uy4VSO 614)4BA2<F ,;*-4 'T25U4GA2 'q'<2,;'y4A 4H O 61d010KU[(./,;,;44
U y4 O F 0\*-6a 614 4P4I '}. 4 T*-,/./A 0K,./0 F`]'T*H'<~4P,WA 4q614 4 O F`] 4P61 4xce4Pd ' 4 O4 F`A ] N4V6K~14VA U 4VF U[./0 '{UWU[4 U/4P'}.Z*-6 ,`U^
4P'}. 4VO 'y4VO ,/4V,R614 F 254)254VU4 O F`] 4V6K14VU F
=6 W ./016 01U/4P,Z2<4VU TU/4 A 2 | ,/4 0\UY.;,/4xU
@3*B*-'H,`.Z254P~ , A A 8 01'"6,/,;4x4 UY .;014)U[./25,;4V4^UyU 'y4 O F A 0\*-2<6 U *s./,`*-0KA./4V,W,^6K4) ,T4xO U A 6K.;*-.y2<4 F`] *B~ A 44 O F`] 4P61K4Hd
BdW4V@3'", U A (B,/4V./01, 4BA d '<4s4 O F`] 4P61 42 '}.. A UM614VUM' A 2<U '}.D* A5| T6 A U A '<4>2_4 O {4V'T2<*B' F 4
5d'?0 AA '<24  y*-4VO 6 ,;*B,`'TU^25 428 A ' ' A 2 2<4 '8 4xUY. T*HU A '<4C 4 A 016 K4 h*-0\U A '
q*-,`~ A 4P, F 4' A (B4V6K 14,;* F 01'<4Bd
=ZW.;U;0KU 610 U/F 4P0K4V, , A ' TA U[,W4 A 614 2 F | ,;254 4 01U[./4VO ,;'y4 4VO ,<4 O *254  aEd U/0 F 4'8 4VU[.Z2_4[O w *GCE*B0z.eced
d 4VO 'y4VO ,/4V,7614 F 254 A ,*J(B4 F 4$.U A <,;0 s4V,yd
"

j9 6
7:9 :9 6

6 7:7

7:9

<

8
8

d "

9 6
7 c9 9

7 7

B 6 7:7
B 6 7:7

9 6

9

9 6

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6 9



8
8

8
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72

6 7$7

9 6





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9 6

6 9

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6 7:7
h9
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6 9

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OQ

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3 ^  +  e  

256

SECTION 4.2

Code generation

 















































x

+
b

+
a

 















































    d  8 2\2 < '<4P.[. 6 X74 O 9 6 A ,W68 4PN54 7:9<614Bd

Figure 4.44 Cleaned-up data dependency graph for the sample basic block.

& '2<(+4s*6\* ,<4xO *-061H0 U/A 4P,/, 4 F 4P.Gd  *-d 6 v 4VU,;0K.4 O ] F`]4P4 61K4x<U 6 A A U[./01014 6KA0\U5,`4POU^4VU)C U/0\4PU), *+S{'}'.* 25A 4 27 4P4POO :'yA4PO ,;.G4P*,| 614 F 254 $ 4PA .),): 614 |
$ $
BdC 4 A ,;0K614 K4HQ 0 4PF ,;8 4x4 UY4P.GO .;61* 4{4G' A 2 A ,R68Y2<4 O 4F`] 4V6K14 Hd BQB4h68 6 A y0R4VO ,;*H*BU/'TU 25F 4 014s * 614ATF`T] U/44 A2524 | ,/4'D 8 4x0\UYUY.;. ,/4T*BU A '<4$4.
wYU 4 A 0Kh(+*B*-'H,`.)~ A 46K4' A 2,`* F 0K'<4Hd ' F A , F 4P.[.;44 O F`] 4V6K14BQ ' 4PO ' 4P,;4G614 F 254h=
 {<}BT< <<  
<H<  
5dT *HU 4 s6144 254$O 4P.`,;* '<0144P, 698Y4 O ~F`]A 4P0614VK4 U[.) U A A , ./F 016K4%0\U5254PO 440 F 02_4V4 O U[{. 4V'Th2<*-*-N' 0 Fh4V*-U^6142<*BF 'T*-U^, 6K4 'q'<4%6 A 0 a ,`'*+w (B4A A ./4.
*~ AA 4)<66 8A U 'A U/'<4)4U[4V2_,[4 O.254P'T4 2<*B^' F * 4JA ceU;dU/& 0M0' F 0\c 4PO ' 4P,;4 614 F 254 U A 01(+*-'}.3aE:<014P'b,;4 h*-,`~ A 4P,
}< M
 {BT  M 
<<55 
<H<  
dF 254 4 44$O U .`A * 0K(+4h*-'} .G6D 'T4),/4xUY.;4G~ A 4)6K4): A .^2M8 *B,/:T,/4)U A 0K(+*B'H.GM& ' 4VO ' 4P,;4 *B6 ,;Uy614
<}}<<<J<<  

2\2 <
I

7 =C

Q9



b
T

C 7



E

T
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7 $9

Lc

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9

E

$


6 9

9 6

(9
6

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f7
6

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2\2 <

E

Lc

E

E
E

?9
2 6

9

Lc
Lc

9 6




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I

DC

3    
!  f 2

fW
 
SUBSECTION 4.2.5

Code generation for basic blocks

261

 















































x
Store_Reg R1,x
+

Add_Mem c,R1

Add_Reg I1,R1

I1

Load_Mem b,R1

 















































    d 8 "Z'"4$N54 7:9<614G2M8Y4 O F`] 4V6K14Bd
Figure 4.49 Rewriting and ordering a ladder sequence.

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6U ,[.;4G4$.F2M8Y4PO 61)0 2<01*B'<'T4PU ,254xc$.;d 4P61K4xA UW,`*-,;'}4V.y2 61*'T2<*-] ' *BF U/4V4^U)2MaE869*-8 0\61274PO F4)*+4x.;UY0 .Z'2258Y4VO 4x(+Uy*-6,/A 4 4P ,y0\UY6\.;*h,/4x2 UPA Q ,<4P'O 4)CE25*-4)0K.y(4V01' 4
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F 254GU A 0K(+*B'H.)
<}}555+<<   
 {B<   
<< << 
<H55  
< <
 {B<< 
<H55  
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g n # u$n ! #$% bn0r#V 0   !  #P% 0
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01'TU[./, ATF .;0 'TU A ,*J( 0K, A ' F A I . 0K'T0 h*-6 F
6

B) Y

7 6
7

;7

Lc

E

T

Lc
Lc

T
]

6

(I#V
6
%
6
f9 6 = C 7
6
6
=C
jB 7 + 

6
A  72
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6
6
6
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7
6 7:9
9
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E

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9 6

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6
6
9 6

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6

6 9

9


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6

6 7

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6 7:7
6
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6

7 7 6
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3 ^   
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! f

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Code generation

SECTION 4.2

 















































Rn
#1
cst

Load_Const cst ,R n

load constant

cost = 1

Load_Mem mem,R n

load from memory

cost = 3

Add_Mem mem,R n

add from memory

cost = 3

Add_Reg R 1 ,R n

add registers

cost = 1

Mult_Mem mem,R n

multiply from memory

cost = 6

Mult_Reg Rm,R n

multiply registers

cost = 4

Add_Scaled_Reg cst ,Rm,R n

add scaled register

cost = 4

Mult_Scaled_Reg cst ,Rm,R n

multiply scaled register

cost = 5

Rn
#2

mem
Rn
+

#3

mem

Rn
Rn
+

#4

R1

Rn
Rn
*

#5

mem

Rn
Rn
*

#6

Rm

Rn
Rn
+

#7

* #7.1

Rn
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Rm

Rn
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*
* #8.1

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    d  8 H4 A 2M8 01'TU[./, ATF .;0 6 ' 9 6 A , 6A"BZ?d

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3 ^   
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SUBSECTION 4.2.6

 @ 
 $#e
! f

BURS code generation and dynamic programming

281

 















































#4->reg

+ #7->reg

->mem
#2->reg

#6->reg
#7.1
#8->reg
#8.1
#5->reg
#6->reg

* #7.1
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#1->reg

->cst
#1->reg

->mem
#2->reg

 















































    d 8 6 6 .[. 6 7 | A 9 9{*+.[.;4P,;' 7h*-. F`] 01' d

Figure 4.69 Label sets resulting from bottom-up pattern matching.

SUBSECTION 4.2.6

BURS code generation and dynamic programming

 















































+ #4->reg @13

#7.1

* #8->reg @9

b
->mem @0

#2->reg @3
#5->reg @7

* #7.1

4
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8
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a
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Figure 4.71 Bottom-up pattern matching with costs.

283

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286

SECTION 4.2

Code generation


S00
S01
S02
S03
S04
S05
S06
S07
S08
S09
S10
S11
S12
S13

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

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{cst@0, #1reg@1}
{mem@0, #2reg@3}
{#4reg@0}
{#6reg@5, #7.1@0, #8.1@0}
{#3reg@0}
{#5reg@4, #7.1@0, #8.1@0}
{#6reg@0}
{#5reg@0}
{#7reg@0}
{#8reg@1, #7.1@0, #8.1@0}
{#8reg@0}
{#8reg@2, #7.1@0, #8.1@0}
{#8reg@4, #7.1@0, #8.1@0}


    d   8 % 'TU/4 7:T6K4)254xU4$O .`*+.;U9 6 A , 65"^Z?d
Figure 4.74 States of the BURS automaton for Figure 4.60.

288

SECTION 4.2

Code generation

 


 S01
+
S02
S03
S04
S05
S06
S07
S08
S09
S10
S11
S12
S13


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S05
S03
S09
S03
S09
S03
S03
S03
S03
S03
S03
S09
 S03
S13

 S01
*
S02
S03
S04
S05
S06
S07
S08
S09
S10
S11
S12
S13

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S06
S04
S10
S04
S12
S04
S04
S04
S04
S04
S13
S12
S02 
S08
S07
S11
S07
S11
S07
S07
S07
S07
S07
S11
S11
 S07
S13

 
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3 ^   
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SUBSECTION 4.2.6

 S01
cst 

mem  -reg
#1

 @ 
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BURS code generation and dynamic programming

289


S02
-#2

S03
--#4

S04
--#6

S05
--#3

S06
--#5

S07
--#6

S08
--#5

S09
--#7

S10
--#8


   d < 8 @3*B:<614VUW254 4PO 'y4PO ,`*+./0 6 ' 2<4 F 6 254 9 6 A , 6A"BZ?Md
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S11
--#8

S12
--#8

S13
--#8

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