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Agroforestry iF the integrati:m of trees and agriculturel horticulture to pruciucf' a diver~e, productive and resilient system for prod~cing

food, :naterials, timbcr 2nd other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing sheltw, shade and emergency forage, to fcrest garden systems incorporating layers of tall 2nd small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining , interconnected and productive system.

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a ~ear in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are : 18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (14 unwaged) 22 per year overseas (please remitin Sterling) 32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 3.50 per copy including postage (4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

---------------------Agroforestry News

Akebia

Volume 10 Number 1

October 2001

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 10 Number 1

October 2001

Contents
2 3 7 18 27 35 38 39 40 News Akebia: Chocolate vines Peaches (3) Forest gardening: Plants for difficult sites Perennials (1) Nut profile: Northern pecans Basketry Plants Pest & Disease series: Water core of apples & pear Book review:
Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems

A.R.T. Courses in 2002

The views expressed in Agroforestry Nevvs are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor. authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K. Fax & telephone: +44 (0)1803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 1

News
Forest gardening course
The course which ran on 89th September was highly successful , with most participants giving very positive feedback. The course will run twice in 2002 - see back page for full details, includint! grafting and nut crop courses.

Forest garden network


The idea for this came from the forest gardening course in September. This is a newlyformed informal network of people planning or already cultivating their own forest gardens, with the aim to facilitate visits to each others gardens - one of the best ways to improve our knowledge about this form of temperate agroforestry. Martin Crawford of the ART has offered to administer the network. There is no newsletter as such - in late winter, Martin Crawford will send a letter out to all members inviting offers of visits over the coming year. These will be collated and a list sent out. It will then be up to members who they visit. If possible, communications will be preferred by email. For the time being, there is no charge to be a member - simply write and request to be put on the membership list, either with your email address (preferred) or normal mailing address. See the back cover for the ART contact details.

Squirrel damage to walnuts


The walnut trees in our variety trial suffered from severe damage in late June and July caused by grey squirrels stripping bark. Some branches were completely ring-barked and died back. Branches of diameter 3-10 cm seemed most attractive, and these were protected as much as possible with spiral tree guards. In future years, we intend to apply a deterrent paste onto accessible branches to hopefully reduce the problem. In the long term , reducing squirrel numbers is the only solution. Later in Volume 10 we are planning articles on squirrels as pests, and on deterring animals using plant extracts.

Chestnut harvest
As this is written , the chestnut harvest from the trees in our variety trial is looks to be another good harvest despite the atrociously wet winter of 2000/1 death of one chestnut tree some 2 m high , we think due to root asphyxiation waterlogged for weeks on end) and the rather dry summer here in Devon. results of this years' harvest will appear in the next issue. about to begin. It (which caused the as the ground was Full details of the

Forest farmers wanted


London Farmers ' Markets , founded two years ago , organise ten weekly markets for farmers to sell home-grown seasonal food. They are very keen to hear from forest farmers producing honey, livestock, berries, herbal drinks, remedies from tree bark, flowers or plants - anything from woodlands in fact - within 100 miles of the M25. Contact Nina Planck at: 020-7704-9659, email info@ilm.demon .co . uk, website www .londonfarmersmarkets.com.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/10 No 1

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Akebia:
Chocolate vines
Introd uction
Akebia species, originating from China, Korea and Japan, are cl imbing vines which are semi evergreen in Britain but evergreen in milder areas or deciduous in colder areas. They have a long history of usage in their native regions , where they occur in woods and thickets in mountainous areas. The name 'Akebia' comes from the Japanese name for these plants , 'Akebi'. The main two species in cultivation are Aquinata (5 leaf Akebia) and Atrifofiata (Syn. A/obata, 3 leaf Akebia): and the hybrid between them (with intermediate characteristics and similar uses) A x pentaphyl/a. The following refers to these three species . All three are grown ornamentally for their elegant foliage.

Description
Deciduous, semi-evergreen or evergreen twining vines, growing to 9-12 m (3040 tt) high (A.quinata) I 6-9 m (20-30 tt) high (Atrifofiata). New shoo ts are shiny and purplish. Aquinata is slightly faster growing. Lea ves are alternate and compound, tough and fleshy , 37 cm ( 1.2-3 long . Aquinata has 5 leaflets, oval-elliptic , smooth-edged with long stalks, dark green above and blue-green beneath . Atrifoliata has 3 leaflets, with slightly wavy edges, dark green above and lighter beneath.
ft )

Flowers are borne on thin stalks in April -May (Atrifo/iata) or May-June (A.quinata), with male and female flowers borne on the same flowering raceme; those of Aquinata have a spicy vanilla-like fragrance. Female flowers are violet-brown (Aquinata) or chestnut-brown (Atrifoliata) and 2-3.5 cm (0.8-1%") across . Male flowers are smaller (6 mm, 0.25 " across), pinkish-purple and numerous. Both sexes are borne on plants but individuals are not selffertile, hence two different clones are required for fruiting to occur. Fruits are pods like sma ll light violeUpu rple cucumbers, 5-10 cm t2-4ft) long (Aquinata) I 7-15 cm (3-6") long (A.trifoliata) by 3-6 cm (1-2%") thick. They contain a whitish tasty sweet pulp and numerous small black seeds. If not picked they eventually split lengthways. These three Akebias are winter hardy to -23 C (zone 5). They are resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp.)

Uses
The delicately watermelon-flavoured sweet pulp from the fruits is eaten ra w, or with lemon juice, or made into a drink. Fruits of A.q uinata vary from 45-70 g each in weight. The bitter skins of the fruits can be fried and eaten. The soft young shoots can be eaten raw in salads or used for salt pickl ing.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 3

The dried young leaves can be used to make a tea. The stems are strong and pliable , and are prized for basket making in its native habitat. They can be used unprocessed or are sometimes peeled in the same way as willow is.

Akebia quinata

A.quinata and A.(rifoliata are used interchang eably in Ch inese medicine: The stems are used (ca ll ed mu tong), being anodyne, antifungal, antiphlogistic, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge , laxative, galactogogue, resolvent, stimula nt, stomachic and vulnerary. It is a pungent bitter herb that co ntrols bacterial and fungal infections, and stimulates the circulatory and urinary systems and female orga ns. It is a potent diuretic due to the high content of potassium salts. It is used in Chi nese medicine internally for urinary tract infections, rheumatoid arth ritis, absence of menstruation and

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/IO No 1

insufficient lactation . Stems are cut in autumn and dried for use in decoctions (teas) and powders. The fruit is antirheumatic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge , stomachic and tonic. popular folk remedy for cancer. The root is febrifuge . Both species have pesticidal properties. Leaves and stems of A .quinata have an antifeedant action against Black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus) and Cotton leafworm (Spodoptera litura) . The leaves and stems of A.trifoliata are boiled in water and the liquid used against the Cotton & melon aphid (Aphis gossypii) and as an anti-fungal agent against Potato blight (Phytophthora infestans). The Akeb ias can be used for ground cover - they are excellent for covering banks, providing good erosion control over large areas. As ground covers they only reach 15-30 cm (6-12") high , but they are only good companions to large-trunked trees (which they cannot wrap themselves around) - they will overrun smaller trees and shrubs. They don't tolerate much foot traffic. Plants can be spaced about 3 ft (1 m) apart. Plants also make good favade insulation, trained up wires or trellises on wa lls. Agroforestry News, Vol 9 No 4 pp 28-32 for more details. See
It is a

Cultivation
The Akebias are fast growing vines which climb readily on a trellis or into other plants . They need little training or tying , as the stems will readily fix themselves by twining round any wire, small branch etc. with which they make contact. Most growth occurs between mid April and early July. They are good for training over hedges. They resent root disturbance once planted . Their main requirement is for a moderate to highly fertile, well-drained but moisture retentive soil (a sandy loam is ideal) of any pH. They like sun or partial shade (and will tolerate deep shade but won't flower there), and grow well on the sunnier edges of a woodland . They tolerate moderate drought as well as strong drying winds . There are no serious pest or disease problems. Young plants may require some winter protection in cold areas. Plants of Alrifoliala may require a slightly more sheltered position because they flower earlier and are more susceptible to frost damage to the flowers. Expected growth rates in Britain are about 80 cm (32 ~ ) per year for Aquinata and 30-50 (1220" ) per year for Atrifo/iata . Nearly twice these rates have been recorded in warmer regions. Because ornamental plants in Britain have nearly always been grown singly, there are few reports of good fruiting here; however, the plants have fruited , particularly in the South and South West of Britain , and there is no reason why good fruiting should not occur given two or more clones for cross-pollination. Cross pollination may occur between Aquinata and Atrifoliata or between either of these and A x pentaphyl/a. Different clones can be grown from seed or bought as plants. Breeding work to produce good fruiting cultivars is taking place in China and Korea as well as the USA. At present , there are a few mostly ornamenta l cultivars available which should provide cross pollination for each other: Aquinata Alba - flowers and fru its white Cream form - flowers creamy white

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Page 5

Rosea - flowers pinkish purple Shirobana - flowers white, highly fragrant Variegata - flowers pale pink, leaves with white variegation #1 - flowers deep purple , fruits 7-10 cm (3-4 ") long #2 - flowers white-light pink , fruits 7-10 cm (3-4 ") long Fruits ripen in September-October. Trim batk growth excess to requirements in early spring .

Propagation
Layering - as for other woody plants. Peg down a stem, cover with earth, and leaves for 6-12 months before removing layered plant. Serpentine layering (ie repeatedly layering the same stem) wo rk s well. Cuttings - Semi-ripe cuttings of wood just getting firm - use a rooting hormone and place in gentle heat. A pure vermiculite medium results in the highest rooting percentages. Root cuttings can also be taken in December and placed in warmth . Seed - fresh seed germinates quickly on sowing . Dry seed germinates best after about one month of cold stratification .

Sources
One problem about buying plants is that they are likely to have been propagated vegetatively , thus will not cross-pollinate each other. Try and obtain different cultivars or grow your own plants from seed. Agroforestry Research Trust - supplies seed of A.quinata & A.trifoliata. Crug Farm Plants, Griffith 's Crossing . Nr Caernarfon , Gwynedd, LL55 1TU . Tel: (01248) 670232. Website: www .crug-farm .demon.co.uk. No mail order. The Place for Plants, East Berghott Place, East Bergholt. Suffolk, C07 6UP. Tel: (01206) 299224 . No mail order. J Bradshaw & Son, Bushyfield Nursery, Herne Bay, Kent, CT6 7LJ. Tel: (01227) 375415. Perryhill Nurseries, Hartfield, E Sussex, TN7 4JP. Tel: (01892) 770377. No mail order. Northern Kiwi Nursery, RR.#3 , 181 Niven Rd , Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON LOS 1JO, CANADA Tel : (905) 468-7573. Northwoods Nursery, 27635 South Oglesby Rd , Canby, OR 97013, USA. Tel : (503) 266-5432. One Green World, 28696 South Cranmer Rd, Molalia, OR 97038, USA. Tel: (503) 651-3005. Oregon Exotics Nursery, 1065 Messinger Rd , Grants Pass , OR 97527, USA. Tel: (541) 8467578.

References
Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1978. Bown, 0: The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & their Uses. oor[ing Kindersley, 1995. oirr , M & Heuser, C: The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation . Varsity Press, 1987. Facciola , S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998. Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. John Wiley, 1988. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees & Shrubs , Vol 1. Batsford , 1985. Mackenzie, 0: Perennial Ground Covers. Timber Press, 1997. Yang, R & Tang, C: Plants Used for Pest Control in China . Economic Botany, 42(3), 1988.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Peaches (3)
Popular American & Western European cultivars
There are thousands of peach and nectarine cultlvars (over 10aO new ones introduced since 1980 alone). most being regional in their adaption and not growing so well in other locations. Those listed here are used in Europe and North America; those used in Britain we re described in the second part of this article in the previous issue; the numerous lowchill varieties have not been included. Genetically, peaches are much less variable than fruits lik e apples or pears every seedling is at least edible. For dessert peaches. the cultivars should be yellow-treshed, freestone, regular producers and relatively free from fuzz. Soft-fleshed varieties (apart from early season ones) are usually freestone. Popular cultivars include Babcock, Candor, Cardinal, Dixigem, Elberta, J H Hale , RedGlobe , Redhaven, Redtop, Rio Oso Gem. Popular dessert nectarines include: Annqueen, Cherokee, Late LeGrand , Nectared , Sun Grand , Sunlite, Sunred, Sunripe, Sunrise. For canning, fruits should ha ve yellow flesh, a small non-splitting pit, good symmetrical size and should mature evenly. Although sofHleshed varieties are suitable, firm-fleshed clingstone varieties are preferred for their handling and processing qualities, the canned product retaining its shape , clear juice and good colour. Those suitable for canning include: Carolyn , Cortex , Crawford's Early, Dixon 1, Fortu na, Foster, Golden Bush, Halford, Stuart, Veteran, Vivian. For drying, white-fleshed sweet cultivars with freestone kernels are preferred. Chifling requirements: Low = 200-500 hours, Medium = 500-800 hours , High = 800-1200 hours. Refers to number of hours below 7.2 C (45F) required in winter. The UK requires high chill selections. Low chilling cultivars (200-500 hours) are used in warm summer and tropical regions. Genetic dwarf trees, suited to pot culture: Peaches: Bonanza , Calipso, Circe , Compact Redhave n, Eldorad o, Empress, Garden Annie , Garden Gold, Garden Lady, Honey Babe, Honey Bee, Late Red, Little Giant, Pix-Zee, Royal June , Silverado, Southern Flame , Southern Rose , Southern Sweet, Stark Sensatio n, Sunburst, Va lley Gem. Valley Red. Valley Sun. Nectarines : Delicious Sweet, Early Free, Garden Beauty, Garden Delight, Garden King, Golden Prolific, Nectarelia , Nectarina , Necta Zee, Southern Belie, Red Fantastic, Red Pro lific, Red Sunset. Stark Honeyg lo. Summerred, Sunbonnet. In Southern Britain , early cultivars ripen about mid July, mid-season about mid August and late arou nd mid September.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 7

!i

Key:

Season: VE = very early, E = Early, E-M = early-mid , M = Mid, M-L = mid-late, L = late, VL = very late. IN England, E = mid July, M = mid August. L = mid September.
Size: sm = small. med = medium ,Ige = large, s-m = sma ll-medium , m-I = medium to large.

Colour: yel =yellow, gn = red, org = orange, wht = white. indicated , the red is always a flush.
~ Shape:

Where two colours are

rnd = round. ovl = oval, fit = flat

Flesh colour: as above. Any red here is nearly always near the pit. Quality: exe = excellent, v.gd = very good, gd = good. Stone: free = freestone, semi = semifreestone, cling = clingstone. Texture: softness etc. Also notes if flesh doesn't brown on cutting.

American & Western European peach cultivars


Peach cultivar season Afterglow L L Agate M-L Alekhol E Alexander M Allgold M Arp Beauty Autumn VL Babcock VL Baltet M Bellaire Belle of Georgia L L Belle Imperial M Blazingstar M Bounty L Calipso M-L Canadian Harmon y E-M Candor E-M Cardinal M Carolina Belle E-M Champion M-L Circe E Collins Compact Redhaven M Constitution VL M-L Contender M Coralstar Cresthaven L E-M Cristaline M Delespau[ M-L Delight
------------------- flesh --~-~~~~---~~-~~~~~~~ ------- fruits ------size colour shape colour quality stone texture yellow v.gd free v.firm Ige white yellow m-I gn-wht rnd gn-wht gd free soft m-I red-yel rnd yellow cling firm Ige yellow gd cling firm yellow gd Ige free firm s-m pink rnd white free free soft, juicy Ige wht-red rnd-ovl yel-wht gd med red-yel yellow exc free v.firm exc free Ige wht-red rnd-ovl white firm yel-wht gd Ige yel-red rnd free soft, juicy yel-org exc Ige red firm, melting Ife red-yel rnd yellow exc free firm, non-browning yellow Ige yel-red rnd yel-red gd melting yellow exc med red-yel rnd free firm, fine yellow gd cling med Ige wht-red rnd white free firm, melting e-m wht-red white exc semi tender yellow med yellow gd cling med red-yel yellow firm, non-browning yellow v.gd free firm Ige yellow free firm, melting ,non-b Ige yel-red rnd m-I red-yel rnd yellow gd free firm, melting m-I red-gold yellow free non-browning white cream fair cling Ige yel-red rnd m-I yellow gd free

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Key:

Vigour: '0'.'0'19 = very vigorous , vi9

= vigorous , mod

= moderate . dwarf = genetic dwarf.

Productivity (prod): v.good, good, mod = moderate, poor. Chill: required winter chilling . high , med = medium . Hardy: winter hardiness. Yes = hardy, no

= not.

Flowers: notes any characteristics , e9 colour ; pollinate = needs pollinating; early = flowers earlier than most GVS , late = flowers later than most cvs, long per = flowers over a long period. Origin: where Gultivar originates from .

American & Western European peach cultivars


Peach cultivar
Afterglow Agate

vigour

prod

chill

hardy

flowers

origin USA
France Bulgaria

medhigh

Alekhol
Alexander

Allg old
Arp Beauty Autumn Babcock

vig
med-high

yes

early

Baltet
Bellaire Belle of Georgia Belle Imperial Blazingstar Bounty Calipso Canadian Harmony Candor Cardinal Carolina Belle Champion Circe Collins Compact Redhaven Constitution Contender Coralstar Cresthaven Cristaline OeJespaul

good vig good mod-vig good vig v.good vig dwarf v.vig low v.good vig vig dwarf dwarf v.vig good v.good

vig vig vig

v.good

good
med-high yes med-high yes dk pink

USA (Arkansas) USA USA USA (Calif) France


USA (Virgin ia )

USA (Georgia)
France

USA (Michigan)
USA (Virginia)

med

yes yes

Italy
Canada?

med high med

high
good med-high med-high

mod
vig vig

v.good good good

high high

yes
dk pink

yes yes

USA USA USA USA Italy USA USA USA USA USA USA

(Carolina) (Nth CaL) (Illinois)

(Nth Car.) (Michigan) (Michigan)

France Belgium

Delight

USA

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Page 9

Peach cultivar Delta


Dixigem Dixired

Earlired Early East Early Elberta


Early RE!dhaven

Early Rochester El berta


Eldorado Empress

season E-M M E-M E E-M L E-M E-M L M-L

---_._. size Ige m-I med med m-I Ige med med Ige m-I

fruits ------------------------- flesh ----.--- ------------colour shape colour quality stone texture red - yel ellip yellow cling firm yellow rnd It yellow exe semi firm red rnd yellow gd clin g firm yellow gd cling yellow fair cling yellow exc free v.firm red-yel yellow gd cling firm . non-browning red-yel rnd yellow good free firm red-yel rnd yellow v.gd free v.firm red-yel rnd ye ll ow exc
white v.gd v.gd semi free free free semi cling free free free semi free free free semi cling semi cling free cling semi free free free

Erly-Red-Fre Fairhaven
Fireprince

Flameprince
Flavorcrest Ftordaqueen French Mignonette Frost Gala Garden Gold Garnet Beauty Glohaven G lory G lowingstar Goldeneast Golden Jubilee Goldilocks

E-M M-L M L E-M M-L M-L M VL E M-L L M-L M-L M-L L E M-L L M-L E-M E M E-M M E E-M M M L M-L E-M M VL E VL VL VL

m-I Ige Ige Ige m-I Ige m-I Ige Ige m-I Ige Ige Ige m-I Ige med med m-I Ige

red-yel red -yel red-yel yel-red


red-yel gn-red green red -yel yel-red yel-red

yell ow
yellow yel-red rnd rnd yellow rnd yellow flt-rnd white ye ll ow rnd yellow yel-red oval yel -red rnd yell ow rnd yel-red oval yel-org yellow flt-ovl yel-red rnd yell ow yellow

exc exc
fair

exc gd gd exc v.gd


v.gd fair

red
red-yel

red
red-yel yel-red

firm melting v.firm , melting firm firm soft, juicy soft, juicy melting soft, melting firm, melting firm firm , melting firm, melting
firm, melting firm firm melting firm, melting

v.gd
fair

Gold Medal
Goldp ri nce Halehaven Halford Harcrest Harrow Dawn Harrow D iamond H arrow Fair Harson Hawtorne Honey Babe Idlewild Jalousia Jayhaven J H Hale

red red
yellow

rnd

med red-yel med red-yel med red-yel Ige red

rnd

rnd

July Elberta
Juneprince La Festival La Jewel La Pecher Late Elberta Late Red Legend Little Gia nt

med red-yel v. lge yellow Ige grn-red Ige red-yel m -I red-yel m-I red-yel m-I red-yel

flat rnd rnd rnd rnd rnd

yel-red yellow yellow yellow yellow ye ll ow ye ll ow yel-red yellow ye llow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow ye ll ow yellow yellow

exc

firm, melting , non-b

firm

exc exc
v.gd

Ige Ige
red-yel

fa ir

free free free free free free semi semi free

v.firm v.firm firm melting firm firm firm , melting firm v.firm, melting

rnd

Page 10

AGROFORESTR Y NEWS VallO No I

---c~

;::$

Peach cultivar Delta Dixigem Dixiland Dixired Earlired Early Easy Early Elberta Early Redhaven Early Rochester Elberta Eldorado Empress Erly-Red-Fre Fairhaven Fireprince Flameprince Flavorcrest Flordaqueen French Mignonette Frost Gala Garden Gold Garnet Beauty Glohaven Glory Glowingstar Goldeneast Golden Jubilee Goldilocks Gold Medal Goldprince Halehaven Halford Harcrest Harrow Dawn Harrow Diamond Harrow Fair Harson Hawtorne Honey Babe Idlewild Jalousia Jayhaven J H Hale July Elberta Juneprince La Festival La Jewel La Pecher Late Elbe rta Late Red Legend Little Giant

vigour vig vig mod

prod good

ch ill hardy med med-high med-high high high med -high med-high yes high med high med-high yes med med-high med med

vig vig dwarf dwarf

good good v.good v.good

vig mod vig vig dwarf vig vig v.vig

good good v.good good v.good good good good good v.good v.good

med

med

med med vig good high high high high high med yes yes yes yes yes

mod vig vig dwarf

good

good

mod vig vig vig vig vig dwarf

good good good good good v.good

yes high med-high med med med-high

high dwarf

flowers ongIO self-sterile USA (La) USA USA late USA USA USA USA USA (Michigan) late USA USA (Georgia) USA (ca lif) USA USA USA (Michigan) USA (Ga) Ige, pink USA (Ga) USA USA (Florida) France USA (Wash) USA (Louisiana) late USA USA USA USA (Louisiana) dk pink USA (Michigan) USA USA early USA (Arkansas) USA USA (Ga) USA USA (Calif) Canada (Ont) Canada (Ont) pink Canada (Ont) Canada (Ont) Canada (Ont) USA (Louisiana) large USA (Calif) USA (Louisiana) France USA (Michigan) self-sterile USA (Connectict) USA (Cal if) USA (Ga) USA (Louisiana) hardy USA (Louisiana) pink , many USA (Louisiana) USA USA (Calif) USA (Nth Car.) USA (Calif)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 11

...",.

Z2

--5"'

Peach cultivar
Lo ri ng

season
M-L L L M -L L M E E M E-M L M M E-M M-L M M-L VL M-L M M M M M E-M L M-L L E-M

Lucy
Madame Gaujard Madeleine Rouge Madison
Malo KOl)are

Marcus t Maygold Melina Merrill Gemfree Merrill 49'er Nectar Newday Newhaven Opale Opa line O rchard Queen
Ouachita Gold Perle Pix-Zee Plati na Prairie Dawn Ranger Raritan Rose Redcap Redelberta Redglobe Redskin Redstar

..... _- fruits --------- --- --------- ---- flesh --------------------size colour shape colour quality stone texture med red-yel rnd-ovl ye llow exc free v.firm yellow Ige vel-red rnd wht-red fair free firm. juicy wht-red Ige yel-red rnd free firm, v.juicy Ige red -erg ye llow exc free firm yellow med yellow fair cling soft m-I red-yel ovl yellow gd cling firm, melting

m-I Ige Ige Ige m-I

yel-red red red-yel

gd fair rnd-ovl wht-red v,gd

white yellow

yellow

semi semi

free
semi free

firm firm soft, melting v.firm , non-b

yellow rnd-obl yellow white

fair

exc

white
Ige
ye l-red
oval wht-red yellow white yellow yellow yellow gd yellow v.gd

free

firm, jui cy

flat med Ige grn-red m-I red med Ige


v.lge red Ige yellow m-I red-yel med red-yel v.lge. v.lge red med red

rnd rnd

Regal M-L Richhaven Rio Oso Gem L E Risingstar E-M Royal June M-L Ruston Red Scarletpea rl E Sea Eag le VL E Sentry M-L Silverado Southern Flam e Southern Rose Southern Sweet M-L Southland E-M Starfire E-M Sta rk Sensation Sullivans Early Elberta L Summerprince E S unburst Suncrest L E-M Sunhaven M-L Sunhigh Sweethaven E TexRoyal E Page 12

med red-grn v.l ge yet-red

yellow yellow rnd yellow yellow rnd rnd yellow oval yellow yellow rnd-obl yellow ova l yellow yellow yellow white rnd-ovt ye t- red yellow white

gd exc esc exc exc gd exc exc gd

cl ing free free cling free free free semi semi free free cling

firm firm soft, melting v.firm v .firm, melting v.firm , non-b firm, melting firm, melting fjrm v.firm, non-b firm, melting

cling

gd

melting firm

v./ge. m-I red-yel m-I red - yel

rnd rnd rnd rnd

Ige m-I Ige m-I

red-yel red-yel

yellow yel-org yell ow yellow yel-red yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow

exc
fair fair

free free free semi free semi free semi free

firm firm firm firm , melting v.firm firm firm firm, melting

v.gd gd exc
v.gd

v. lge .

s-m red m-I red-yel

exc gd

rnd

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValiD No 1

Q42 -

=
chill hardy med-high yes flowers no frost-res high med origin USA (Missou ri) Bulgaria Belgium Fran ce USA (Virgi nia ) Bulgaria USA USA (Georgia) France USA USA (Calif) USA USA USA (Michigan) France France France USA (Louisiana) France USA (Calif) Fran ce USA USA USA USA USA USA (Maryland) USA (Maryland) USA (Michigan) USA (Louisiana) USA USA (Calif) USA (Michigan) USA (Calif) USA (Louisiana) USA (Ga) UK USA (Maryland) USA (Ca lif) USA USA USA USA USA (Michigan) USA (Calif) USA USA (Ga) USA USA USA USA USA (Michigan) USA (NJ)

vigour Peach cultivar vig Loring Lucy v.vig Madame Gaujard vig Madeleine Rouge mod Madison Malo Konare Marcus vig Maygold Melina Merrill Gemfree vig Merrill 49'er vig Nectar Newday mod Newhaven Opale Opaline vig Orchard Queen Ouachita Gold Perle dwarf Pix-Zee Platina Priarie Dawn mod Ranger vig Raritan Rose Redcap Redelberta vig Redglobe vig Redskin vig Redstar Regal Richhaven low Rio Oso Gem vig Risingstar dwarf Royal June Ruston Red Scarletpearl vig Sea Eagle Sentry dwarf Silverado dwarf Southern Flame dwarf Southern Rose dwarf Southern Sweet Southland mod Starfire dwarf Stark Sensation Sullivans Early Elberta vig Summerprince dwarf Sunburst vig Suncrest Sunhaven Sunhigh med Sweethaven vig TexRoyal

prod good good v.good

good

good

med-high

good

high

yes

yes

good good

good v.good v.good

good good

high yes high med-high high med-high med high med high high high

long per It pink

late dk pink

med good yes

v.good mod good good

med-high high high med-high med-high high med-high yes med

pink

Ige, pink

good

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No I

Page 13

Peach cultivar Thomas Rivers Triogem Une de Mai Valley Gem Valley Red Valley S.un Vedette ' Vermeil Veteran Victoria Vinegold VioleUe Hative Washington Western pride

season VL M E VL M-L L M-L M M-L M-L

------size Ige Ige

L M M-L

fruits ------------------------- flesh --------------------colour shape colour quality stone texture yel-red rnd gn-wht gd free juicy yel-red rnd-ovl yellow v.gd free firm white med red obi yel-org gd free v.firm med red rnd yellow gd firm med red rnd yellow gd free v.firm Ige yellow fair cling white m-I red-yel rnd-obl yellow exc free firm yellow Ige red-yel rnd yellow gd cling firm Ige yel-red rnd yel-red exc free v.soft Ige yellow v.gd free firm Ige yellow fair semi firm

Popular American & Western European nectarine cultivars


Nectarine cultivar season Arctic Gold Arctic Rose M Armking E E-M Carolina E Carolina Red Cherokee Corail E VE Crystal Selle E-M Crystal Red E-M Delicious Sweet Desert Dawn E Dryden M E-M Earliscarlet Early Free E M Emeraude Fairlane L Firebrite M Flamekist M-L Flavortop M Garden Delight L Garden King L Garden State Gold Mine L Golden Prolific E-M Harblaze Hardired Harflame E M Harko Heavenly White L Independence M E-M Jade E June Glo Juneprincess E-M ------size med Ige Ige med -----.------------- flesh --------------------colour quality stone texture white exc free v.firm . melting wht-red exc cling firm yellow v. gd semi yellow semi firm . melting yellow med red oval yellow v.gd semi stringy white med red rnd white good cling firm . melting m-I red end white gd semi firm. melting yellow s-m red yellow exc semi v.lge gn-red rnd white exc free soft yel-red yellow exc semi firm yellow white Ige red-yel oval yellow v.gd cling Ige red-yel oval yellow exc semi firm Ige yel-red oval exc cling firm yellow Ige red oval red-yel exc free firm Ige red-yel rnd yellow v.gd free melting red yellow Ige yel-red rnd-ovl yellow free firm white Ige wht-red free juicy red yellow rnd Ige red yellow good free firm med red yellow good free firm m-I red rnd-ovl yellow free med red-yel yellow v.gd free Ige wht-red exc free firm med red oval yellow exc free firm white m-I yel-red rnd yellow exc free firm Ige red yel-red gd free firm fruits ------colour shape wht-red oval wht-red rnd red-yel red rnd

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

""'
Peach cultivar Thomas Rivers Triogem Une de Mal Valley Gem Valley Red Va lley Sun Vedette Vermeil Veteran Victoria Vinegold Violette Hative Washington Western Pride vigour mod vig
dwarf dwarf dwarf

-~

prod

chill

hardy

flowers

good
v.good
v.good v.good

med-high early early early

vig vig

v.good

high

yes yes
It pink

good

high

origin UK USA France USA (Calif) USA (Calif) USA (Calif) USA France Canada (Ontario) Romania Canada (Onta rio ) France USA USA

Popular American & Western European nectarine cultivars


Nectarine cultivar
Arctic Gold Arctic Rose Armking Carolina Carolina Red Cherokee eorail Crystal Belle Crystal Red Delicious Sweet Desert Dawn Dryden Earliscarlet Early Free Emeraude Fairlane Firebrite Flamekist Flavortop Garden Delight Garden King Garden State Gold Mine Golden Prolific Harblaze Hardired Harflame Harko Heavenly White Independence Jade June Glo Juneprincess

vigour vig
vig

prod good

chill hardy med-high med

flowers Ige , pink Ige , pink

vig

good
good

low

pink
hardy Ige , pink Ige , pink

med vig
vig dwarf

good

good
low
good good

vig vig dwarf vig med vig dwarf dwarf vig vig dwarf vig vig med

med

yes yes

many

good good good good good

med med low low low low high yes yes yes yes low

large large pink Ige , pink

good

good
good

pink Ige, pink

med
vig good

good

vig

good high

hard y yes Ige,pink USA

origin USA (Calif) USA (Ca lif) USA USA (Florida) USA (Carolina) USA France France France USA (Calif) USA UK USA (Virginia) USA (Calif) France USA (Ca lif) USA USA USA USA (Calif) USA USA New Zealand USA Canada (ant) Canada (ant) Canada (ant) USA USA (Calif) USA France USA (Ca lif)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 15

a
Nectarine cult iva r season July Pearl M E Karla Rose M-L LeGrand M Mericrest M Morton M Nectarina E Necta Zee M Panamint M-L Pitmaston Orange Pocahontas Red Chief M-L Red Fantastic M-L Red Glen Red Gold L M-L Red Prolific E-M Red Sunset Rosep rincess M E Silver Lode Southern Belle L Spenser L Sta rk Honeyglo E Sta rk Sunglo M Summerred L VE Sunblaze
Sunbon n et Suncoast Sundollar Sunfree Sungem Sun Grand Sunhome Sun li te Sunm ist S unred Sunraycer S unripe S unri se Sunsnow

------si ze Ige med Ige med s-m Ige Ige med med m-I sm

fruits ------colour shape red rnd red red-yel red red rnd red red rnd red yel-red flt-rnd red oval red rnd

------------------- flesh -------------- ---- --co lour quality stone texture white cling melting white exc free v.juicy v.gd firm yellow cling yellow exc free gn-wht gd free firm, v.juicy yellow juicy yellow cling firm gd yellow v.gd free gold exc free yellow gd semi fair white free firm
yellow yel-red yellow yellow yel -pnk white white yellow grn-red yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow ye ll ow yellow yellow yellow white ye llow yellow yellow ye ll ow white yellow yellow yellow white gn-red wht-red white cl ing firm, cri sp firm

Ige m-I

red red

rnd rnd obi rnd

gd

free free free free free


free free free semi semi semi semi free semi free semi semi semi semi semi semi semi semi free free free

med med grn-red med red Ige red


gn-red

soft, melting
melting

v.gd

firm
v.soft firm firm, melting firm, melting firm , melting firm , melting firm firm, non-browning firm, non-b rowning firm firm, non-browning firm firm, melting firm, non-browning firm, melting firm

rnd

exc v.gd

Ige

red-yel oval

E VE E-M E M E E E

E E M
E-M E E L L M M-L M-L

Suns pla sh
SunWright Surecrop Topaze Victo ria Violette Hative Zep hir

med red red Ige yel-red med yel-red med red m-I red Ige red -yel s-m red med red-yel red sm red Ige red med red-yel red med yel-red med yel-red s-m red Ige yel-red m-I
yel -red yel-red

rnd rnd rnd rnd rnd


oval

gd v.gd gd v.gd
fair

gd exc exc

rnd
oval

obi rnd rnd rnd rnd

gd exc

v.soft

References
Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Displayed. Cassell , 1998. Bazeley , B: Growing T ree Fruits. Collins, 1990. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T., 1997. Cummins , J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Va rieties : Ust 35. HortScience, Vol 26(8) , August

1991; List 36, Vol 29(9), Sept 1994; List 37, Vol 30(6), Oc11995.
Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998.

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Nectarine cultivar July Pearl Karla Rose LeGrand Mericrest Morton Nectarina Necta Zee Panamint Pitmaston Orange Pocahontas Red Chief Red Fantastic Red Glen Red Gold Red Prolific Red Sunset Roseprincess Silver Lode Southe rn Belle Spenser Stark Honeyglo Sta rk Sunglo Su mm erred Sun blaze Sunbonnet Su ncoast Sundo ll ar Sunfree Sungem Sun Grand Sunhome Sunlite Sunmi st Sunraycer Sunred Su nrip e Sunrise Sunsnow Sunsplash SunWright Surecrop Topaze Victoria Violette Hative Zephir

vigour vig mod vig vig dwarf dwarf vig vig dwarf vig dwarf dwarf vig dwarf mod dwarf dwarf vig dwarf med vig vig

prod good fair good

chill med

hardy

flowers Ige, pink Ige, pink

origin USA (Calif) USA USA USA USA USA USA (Cal if) (New Hamp) (NY) (Cal if) (Calif) (Virgi nia ) (Virginia ) (Calif) (Calif) (Ca lif) (Cal if) (Ga) (Calif) (Calif)

yes yes v.good good good low med low

UK
USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

v.good

yes

good

med low low


no

early

UK
USA (Calif) USA USA (Ca lif) USA ( Fl orida) USA USA (F lorida) USA (Flo rida) USA (Flo/Cal) USA (Florida) USA (Calif) USA (Flori da) USA USA (Florida) USA (Florida) USA (Florida) USA USA (Florida ) USA (Florida) USA (Florida) USA France France France

good good low med low low med low low med low low low low low low low

yes dp pink

good good good

pink large la rge pink pink many

vig med vig vig vig med vig

v.good good good good good

Ige, pink pink pink

good

yes

Flowerdew, B: Bob Fl owerdew's Complete Fruit Book. Kyle Cathie , 1995. Mitra, S, Bose , T & Rathore , 0: Temperate Fruits. Horticulture and Allied Publishers, 1991 . Okie, W: Regi ster of New Fruit and Nut Va rieties, List 38. HortScience, Vol 32(5), August 1997; List 39. Hort Science, Vo l 34(2), April 1999. Pascal , T : Peach Breeding in Fra nce. Acta Hgort 465, ISHS 1998. Simmons, A: Simmons Ma nual of Fruit. David & Charles, 1978. Westwood, M N: Tempe rate-Zon e Pomology. Timber Press, 1993.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 17

Forest gardening: Plants for difficult sites: perennials (1)


This article lists useful perennials which are tolerant of the following conditions:

Dry shade ( A ): Found under conifers and densely-crowned deciduous trees such as beech. Damp shade ( 1..,.. ): Full shade found under open-crowned deciduous trees and shrubs. Droughty sunny sites ( }.l ): Where the ground usually becomes very dry in summer. Boggy sunny sites ( "' ,. ): Where the ground is often boggy and waterlogged. Exposed sites (" ): Where the wind exposure is significant. Heavy clay soils ( U ): Self explanatory. Very alkaline soils ( => ): Chalk and limestone soils with a pH greater than about 7.5. Very acid soils ( t;::: ): Soils with a pH less than about 5.5 .

Latin name
Abronia fragrans Abronia latifolia Acaena anserinifolia Acaena pinnatifida Acanthus mollis Acanthus spinosus Achillea ageratum Achillea atrata Achillea borealis Achillea davenae Achillea erba-rotta ssp. mosdlata Achillea millefolium Achillea millefolium var. lanulosa Achillea nana Achillea ptarmica Achillea sibirica Achlys triphyUa Acinos alpinus Aciphylla colensoi AciphyUa squarrosa Aconitum chasmanthum

zone common name

IWild four o'clock


Sand verbena

height

0.25 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.2 1.2 0.5 0.2 0 0.4

c u , c .5 c , u u u -il u ~ , " " > 0 E e 0 x " '>" " w u '>" '>" '" u u
~ ~

"
~

~ ~

New Zealand bur

"
U

6 6
7

IBear's breeches
Mace

~ ~ ~
~

"

I
3
Iva yarrow
1

~
~

02 0.6 1 0.2 0.6 0.45 0.3 0.5 1.2 1.2 0


E E

~
~

2 2 5

Yarrow

" " "


tu I

=>

IAmerican yarrow
Sneeze-wort

~ ~ ~ ~
~

IVanilla leaf
5 5 5
Alpine basil thyme Spaniard Bayonet plant

~
~

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

~-

, , c :E e' , E > ~ e w ~
0
~ ~
~

~ i
~

~ ~

Latin name
Aconitum chinense Aconitum ferox Aconitum hemsleyanum Aconitum heterophyllum Aconitum napellu5

zone

common name

height
1.2

0 D

6 6 4 6

> " " " > > U


~ ~

u
~

.<
~

11 1.5

Acorus calamus
Acarus gramineu5 Acourtia microcephala
Actaea spicata

Aconite 1.5 6 2-3 Sweet flag 1.5 5 Grassy leaved sweet flag 0.45

8
5 3
Herb Christopher Spring adonis

I I~ I I", ",
~

U 00

""

1.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

I
00

Adonis vernalis Aegopod ium podagraria


Agoseris aurantiaca Agoseris villosa Agrimonia eupatoria Agropyron repens

""

Ground elder Orange agoseris


Agrimony Couch grass Bugle Alpine lady's mantle
Lady's mantle

bl"
~
~

1 ~6 I
0.6 0.3 0.5

I
00

). ).

Ajuga reptans
Alchemilla alpina Alchemilla xanthochlora Aletris farinosa Alisma gramineum Alisma lanceolatum Alisma ptantago-aquatica Alisma plantago-aquatica var. americanum Alisma plantago-aquaticum var. parviflorum Alkanna tinctoria Allium akaka Allium altaicum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum 'aggregatum' Allium canadense AUlum carinatum Allium cepa Allium cernuum

IE I b l ~ 0.15

Ib

", ",
U

00

"" "" ""

Unicorn root

3 3 3 3 3

Water plantain Water plantain

I~6
0.5

", ",

Great water plantain Water plantain

I"'
"~

11
Alkanet

",
~ ~

0.2 0.2 0.7

8 5 6 6 4 7 5 6
Wild leek Bunching peart onion Kurrat leek Wild garlic Keeled garlic Onion Noddina onion

"

1.8 2 2 0 1 .45 [ 0.6 0.6 0.45

1
~ ~

I
,0>

"

U 100

Allium ampeloprasum 'kurrat' 6

["

00 1

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 19

-=--~ ~

Latin name
Allium consanguineum Allium geyeri Allium neapolitanum Allium obliquum Allium przewalskianum Allium roseurn Allium sativum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum
sibiri cum

zone

common name
Ladies leek

height

0
7

c , , u c c u u u ~ :E " ~ ~ "iii , > :;[ E " > e 0 w u u > >


~ ~

- --.- -

..

0>

'"

0> 0>

'" '"

0.5 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.6 0 0.6
A
).

8
7

Daffodil garlic Twistedleaf garlic Rosy-flowered garlic Garlic


I Chives

8 8 8 5 5 5 8
7

"
b" Ib

" " " "

I
U U

=> =>

1 Giant chives

Allium senescens
Allium triquetrum Allium tuberosum Allium ursinum Allium wallichii Alopecurus geniculatu5 Aistroemeria haemantha Aistroemeria ligtu Alstroemeria revoluta Aistroemeria versicolor Alyssum saxatile Ammophila arundinacea Ammophira breviligulata Anacyclus pyrethrum Anchusa azurea Andropogon gerardii Andropogon hallii Andropogon virginicus Anemarrhena Anemone flaccida Anemone nemorosa Anemone ranunculoides Anemone rivularis Anemone vitifolia Anemonella thalictroides

Ballhead onion ' Three-cornered leek Garlic chives


Ramsons

' =>
"~

5 8

Floating foxtail

8 8 9 9 3

Herb lily

I:
" I~
I~ "

"

" "

Golden alyssum European beal::hgrass Beach grass

0.4 1.2 1.1 0.2 1.5

6 3
4

Pellitory Anchusa Big bluestem Sand bluestem Broom sedge

5 6 6 5
4

Wood anemone

" I lu 2 " 2 " 1.2 " 0.5 E " o 1 I I , Ib 0.15 I=> b"I 0.2
b b

I"

5
Rue-anemone

0.6 0.9 0.1

b b

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

c
0

["

~ ~

Latin name
Anthemis tinctoria Anthyllis vulneraria Antirrhinum majus Apios americana Apocynum cannabinum Apocynum venetum Aponogeton distachyus Arabis alpina Arabis caucasica Aralia cordata Aralia racemosa Arenaria peploides Arisaema oostatum Arisaema flavum Arisaema serratum Arisaema tortuosum Arisaema triphyllum Aristea sp Aristolochia serpentaria Armaracia rusticana Arnica chamissonis Arnica montana Artemesia douglasiana Artemesia dubia Artemesia feddei Artemesia glacialis Artemesia glutinosa Artemesia japonica Artemesia keiskeana Artemesia laxa Artemesia princeps Artemesia tilesii Arum italicum Arum maculatum Arundo donax
6"'''''r........ ""rifnli"fTI

zone common name


6 7 3 4
Yellow camomile
Kidney vetch Snapdragon

> height w 0.6 E

, - " - e
0
~ ~

, c ,
D

. "
0
~

e-

~ ~

0 "

>
0

m m
~

>

ee0 0 ,>

0.15 1 1.2 0.6 06 1.5 1 0 0.4 0.15 E 1.8 1.8 0 0.6 0.35 0.9 0.6 0.6 1 0.1 0.7 0.3
).

i
b b

" "
p, p,

=> =>

U
co co

Ground nut
Dogbane

Apocynum androsaemifolium 4

Indian hemp Dogbane

I
5 4 8 4 7

8-9 Cape pondweed


Alpine cress

Rock cress
Udo American spikenard

h
~

Sea beach sandwort

b b b b b
~
~

7 5 7-8 4-5 Jack in the pulpit 8 8 5 2 6 3


Arnica Virginia snakeroot Horseradish

=> =>
~ ~
~

co co

0.3 3 0 0

~
~

5 8 4

Glacier worm wood

0.2 0 1.4 0

~
~ ~

~
~ ~

Alpine wormwood Japanese mugwort

0.2 0 0 0.4 0.45 6 n10


).

6-8 6
7

b b

Cuckoo pint

6-7 Giant reed

"

,-

"

=>

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/10 No 1

Page 21


Latin name

zone common name


7 2 7 4
Snake root

L
P

Asarum blumei Asarum canadense Asarum cauda tum

height w 0.15 E

>

c u c ro u ro ~ :E E"
0
~ ~

il
D

'"

E ro

~ ~

.., " ro " > ro x " > >


m
~

b b

'" '"

0.1
1 0 .1 0.1

P P
!

Long-tailed wild ginger


Asarabacca

E E

b b b

Asarum europaeum
Asarum sieboldii

0
Spider antelope horn

Asclepias decumbens
Asclepias eriocarpa

11 11 10 1.2 0 0.8 2

Woollypod milkweed

Asclepias erosa
Asclepias incarnata

3 6 6 3 3 7 4 7

I Swamp milkweed
Dwarf milkweed

" " " "


" "

" I1
1 1

Asclepias invotucrata
Asclepias mexicana

Asclepias subulata
Asclepias suUivanti

I" I "1 I I " "


" "

Asclepias syriaca Asclepias tuberosa


Asclepias verticil lata Asparagus lucid us

Common milkweed Butterfly weed


Horsetail milkweed

1.5

2
0.6 1.5 1.5
E

Chinese asparagus Asparagus


King's spear

Asparagus officinalis
Asphodeline lutea

"

=>

-=

Asphodelus aestivus
Asphodelus albus

8 6-8 Asphodel 8
6 5
Scale fern Wall rue Hart's tongue fern

1 0 15 . 10.1 0.6 0.5 0.3


E E E

Asplenium ceterach
Asplenium ruta-muraria Asplenium scolopendrium Astelia nervosa Aster alpinus Aster porteri Astilbe thunbergii Astragalus baeticus Astragalus canadensis Astragalus crassicarpus Astragalus crassicarpus var. berlandieri Astragalus glycyphylJos Astraga lus henryi Astragalus hoantchy Astragalus mongholicus

A A

" " " " " " " " " " " "
"

=> I =>

9
3 4 7 8 7
7
White aster Swedish coffee Canada milk vetch Ground plum Larger ground plum Milk vetch

U => U

0.3 0.6 0 1 104 04 0.2 0 10 0

=>

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

....
W

Latin name
Astragalus pictus filifolius Astragalus sinicus Athamanta cretensis Aubretia deltoidea Austrofestuca littorali s Azalia caroliniana Azalia filiculoides Azalia pinnata Azorella caespitosa 8allota nigra Balsamorhiza deltoides Balsamorhiza hooken Balsamorhiza sagittata Baptisia tinctoria
Basella alba

zone common name


Chinese milk vetch

height

0 0 0.6 0.2
Sand fescue

c , c u . c u .0 , u u U x 0 " e> E , a > " > e a u '" u u '>" '>"


~

~
~

6 7

Candy carrot

7-9 Waterfem 7-9 Karerarera 9


Water fern

0 10 0 1 0 0
E

" " " " "

.'
.>

,<>

Black horehound Puget balsamroot Hooker's balsamroot Balsam root

0.9

I~3

5
X

Wild indigo
Indian spinach Daisy

,
9

0.6

Bellis perennis Bergenia ciliata Bergenia crassifolia Bergenia purpurascens Boehmeria nivea Borago pygmaea Bothriochloa caucasica Bothriochloa ischaemum Bouteloua curtipendula Bouteloua eriopoda Bouteloua gracilis Bouteloua repens Brasenia schreberi Brodiaea coronaria Bromus anomalus Bunium bulbocastanum Bupleurum falcatum Butomus umbellatus Cabomba caroliniana Cacalia farfaraefolia Calamintha coccinea

o.,
0.3
E E

7 3
4
Siberian tea

" " " " " "

"

"I
I

I
l eo

l ij ij ij

0.3

7 7 5 5 6 8
4?

Ramie Caucasian bluestem Yellow bluestem Sideoats grama Black grama Blue grama Slender grama Water shield Harvest brodiaea Nodding brome Pig nut

0.45 E , .8 0.6

h"

0.8 0.6 10 .5 0.8 0 0.3 1.6 0.6

I~

"
" " " "

"

eo eo

eo

1 '

"
" " "
Page 23

Hare's ear 3 3-5 Flowering rush

,
0 , .2 103
b

5 8

.'
0'

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Latin name
I
Calamintha grandiflora
Calamintha graveolens

zone

5 8 8 6

height common name Large-flowered calamint 0.6

u u " " E' 0- , 0 > E 0 > e 0 x w u u > >


~ ~

c e u
0

c , c ,
0

10
U

'"

~ ~

.. ..
.<
~

!~
~

'" '"

Calam{ntha mimuloides Calamintha nepeta Calamintha sylvatica Calla palustris Callirhae digitata Callirhoe involucrata Callitriche herrnaphroditica Callitriche palustris Callitriche stagnalis Calochortus elegans

Lesser calamint

0 1.5 0.6 0.6 0.25 1.2

6 Calamint 3-4 Water arum 5 4


6
Finger poppy mallow Purple poppy mallow

"

Calochortus gunnisonii Calochortus nuttaUii


Calochortus pulchellus

0.3 0.5 StalWort 0 !Common water starwart 0.6 0.2 Star tulip 0.6 Sagebrush mariposa

I"
~
~

"

"

Sego lily

0.6 0.3

~ ~

Caltha leptosepala Caltha palustris Calypso bulbosa Camassia reichtlinii


Camassia quamash Campanula carpatica Campanula cochlearifolia Campanula garganica Campanula glomerata CampanuJa latifolia Campanula Campanula Capsicum annuum Capsicum frutescens Capsicum pubescens Cardamine amara Cardamine bulbosa Cardamine glacialis Cardamine hirsuta Cardamine macrophylla Cardamine nasturtioides

3 Western marsh marigold j 0.3 2-8 Marsh marigold 0.3 5 3 5 3 6 5 2 3 4 3 9 9 9 3


Sweet pepper T abasco pepper Tree pepper Bitter cress Bittercress Scurvy grass Hairy bittercress

Fairyslipper

0.1 0.3 0.5 0.2

IWild hyacinth
Quamash Tussock bellflower
~
~

" "

"

IFairy's thimble
1Clustered bellflower

0.15 1E 08 1 1.5 A ;, 0.2 E 0.2 1 3 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 E E

~ ~

~ ~

,>

"

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Latin name
Cardamine rotundifolia Cardamine yesoensis Carex acutifolia Carex arenaria
Carex atherodes
I

zone

common name
American water cress

height

Sand sedge

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 25

Latin name
Centaurea repens Centaurea scabiosa Centella asiatica

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Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

5i3'J _
Nut profile:

Northern pecans
Introd uction
Pecan is native to parts of the USA as far north as Illinois, but it is cultivated further north still, into Southern Canada. Traditional pecan varieties are notorious for needing a somewhat long fruit development period, with hot sunny weather, and are very unlikely to be a viable crop in temperate climates. The so-called 'Northern' varieties of pecans have been selected and bred in the North of the USA and Southern Canada (Ontario) with the following properties:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Trees must survive severe cold temperatures in winter. Trees mu st ripen their nuts in relatively short summer seasons. Trees must drop their nuts freely before the first severe frosts. Ideally, trees reta in their leaves for a while after nut fall to allow the tree some recovery time.

These northern varieties have good potential in cooler and temperate regions.

Description
The pecan , Carya illinoinensis, is a large deciduous tree, growing 30 m (100 ft) high or more , with deep furrowed , irregular brownishgrey bark. They can live to a great age, 4-500 years, and tend to form upright cylindri cal crowns when grown in the open. Leaves are alternate & pinnate with 1117 leaflets, each 5-17 cm (27") long. aromatic The foliage is

Male flowers are produced on slender, drooping catkins which arise from lateral buds on the previous years' wood; female flowers are borne in clusters on a spike at the end of the current season's shoot. Pollen is light. dry, fluffy and pale yellow in colour. Fruits are borne in spikes of 310, oblong, 3-8 cm (1.2-3") long with a slightly 4winged outer leathery skin (the shuck); nuts smooth, light brown , thinshelied, sweet and edible. C) but needs hot summers to ripen wood. In areas like Britain with cooler Hardy to zone 6 (20 D sum mers, winter hardiness is somewhat reduced - here it only tolerates short periods with temperatures below -12DC. Pecans have pronounced taproots which securely anchor the trees if soil conditions allow.

Uses
The edible kernels from pecan nuts are used in numerous ways: baked foods (cakes, breads , cookies, pies , pizzas) , dairy foods (ice creams, yoghurts, cheeses), batters for meat and fish , con fectionary, breakfast cereals, in sauces and marinades , in pesta, with vegetables, in salads and raw or roasted as snacks . Note: like other tree nuts , the protein in pecans can cause an anaphylactic reaction in sensitive individuals. The nuts are a good source of oleic acid, Thiamin , vitamin E, magnesium , selenium, zinc, protein and fibre . Whilst m ost nuts are high in monounsaturated fats , and walnuts are high in polyunsaturated fats, pecans have a blend of both . The fatty acid content is very similar to that of olive oil. Average content of dried pecan kernels (per 100g) is:

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Page 27

I
Water Protein

ia
4.0 9 9.6 9 13.6 9 3.3 9 5.6 9 71.4 9 6.6 9 42.2 9 16 9 0.67 9 15.9 9 291 mg 2.1 mg 0.9 mg 392 mg 128 mg Manganese Copper Selenium Zinc Vitamin A (all carotene) Thiamin (61) Niacin Riboflavin Vitamin 86 Vitamin C Folic acid Pantothenic acid Vitamin E 4.5 mg 1.2 mg 11.7 mg 5.5 mg 1281.U. 0.8 mg 0.9 mg 0.13 mg 0.2 mg 2.0 mg 39.2 mg 1.7 mg 3.2 mg

Total carbohydrates
Sugars Fibre Total fats Saturated fat Monounsaturated fat Polyunsaturated fat Omega 3 fatty acid Omega 6 fatty acid Phosphorus Iron Sodium Potassium Magnesium

An edible oil can be extracted from the kernels , of good quality and suitable for any culinary uses . The oil is also used in cosmetics .
Pecans can be tapped for the sap , which is concentrated to make a syrup like maple syrup , or made into a wine etc. Seed 'Edible Tree Saps ' in Agroforestry News, Va' 2 No 3, for more

details.
Pecan shells , a byproduct of nut production, are a commercial commodity in themselves, being used in tannin manufacture, for charcoal and as abrasives in hand soaps ; ground as a meal and used as a filler for plastic wood and veneer wood ; and as a fuel for heating. The shell flour of various sizes is used as a soft grit in nonskid pa ints, adhesives , dynamite and polishing materials. Pecan wood is not quite as strong as that from many other hickories , but is used similarly . Hickory wood is well known for its resilience and is excellent for tool handles (hammers , picks , axes etc). The heartwood is brown or reddish-brown and so ld as 'red hickory' , and the sapwood is sold separately as 'white hickory'. The wood is straight gra ined, coarse textured, heavy (820 Kg/m 3 ) , with high bending and crushing strength , stiff and highly shock resistant, with excellent steam bending properties . High quality timber is used for the manufacture of skis , gymnastic bars , and other ath letic equipment (golf club shafts , lacrosse sticks , tennis racquets , basketball bats , longbows) and as a flooring material for gymnasiums, roller skate rinks and ballrooms . Some wood is used in making furniture , in piano construction , for butcher's blocks , wall panelling and interior trim , dowels, ladder rungs and pallets , heavy sea fishing rods , drum sticks , wheel spokes and vehicle bod ies. It makes excellent firewood and charcoal , and is used in the smoking of meats and cheeses. Leaves of pecans , like walnuts , contain the anti-funga l chemica l j ug lone; the leaves were used medicinally against fungal diseases by native North Americans. Pecans are very beautiful trees and are widely used for their ornamental value . useful for shade in summer and with golden leaf colour in autumn .

Cultivati on
Because of their relatively low yields , pecans are well suited to low input, sustainable agricultural systems. where the long-lived mu ltifunctiona l trees are a val uable resource for food . fuel and high qual ity timber. Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

IT ""

Pecan is essentially a climax forest tree which competes with other species for space in the forest cano py. It is adapted to rich soils in flood plains, and thus does best in a fertile loamy soils - moist but well drained. They have a high demand for zinc. They need a relatively sheltered site -limb breakages in strong winds are lik ely. Pecans prefer a good fertile soil, preferably a deep moisture-retentive loam, though they tolerate both light and heavy soils, and acid and alkaline conditions. Transplanting sho uld be undertaken with care because of the long fteshy tap root: For their first few years , young trees form a taproot with only a few lateral feeder roots, and this taproot is usually longer and thicker than th e above-ground stem. If buying or raising plants, either grow th em in open-bottomed conta iners that air-prune the tap root, or undercut the taproot (at 20-25 cm, 8-10" below ground level) at least a year before transplanting. They grow faster than other hickories; planting in tree shelters may be advantageous. Pecans become large trees in time, requiring 6-12 m (2040 tt) of space , so plant at wide spacing and use the ground between to intercrop for several years; often, other fruit trees are interplanted for 20-30 years before finally being removed . Grazing cattle and sheep in pecan orchards is also popular in the USA. Traditionally, pecan orchards were cu ltivated in North America with a leguminous ground cover (often crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum andlor hairy vetch, Vicia viffosa). These provided nitrogen for cropping , and good cover for beneficial insects which contro lled pecan aphid numbers . It is important that any ground cover crop is managed so as not to interfere with nut harvesting from the ground in autumn. Trees come into leaf in late April or May, and may be damaged by late spring frosts . Growth is always slow after transplanting (dipping roots in hormone rooting solution helps overcome shock) but within a few years, annua l growth of 30-45 cm ( 1-1% ft) is achieved. There is substantial evidence that northern pecan cuitivars require between 3200 and 3800 accumulated heat units (ie total number of hours with temperatures over 10, 50F, from the last spring frost until nuts ripen and fall from trees) to ripen their nuts. This accords with values which are obtained from the southern half of Britain, thus they should be a viable crop here, ripening their nuts in mid to late October.

Flowering
Flowering in cool climates usually occurs in mid-late May and early June. The length of flowering depends on the season and cu ltivar, but typically pollen is shed from male flowers for 3-7 days, and stigmas in female flowers are receptive for 7-14 days. Pecan trees bear male and fema le flowers at different locations, and at different times, Although there are on the same tree. variations year by year, some cultivars are protogynous (ie they mature female flowers first), while other are protandrous (mature male flowers first). Some have no overlap between flowers, so are com pletely selfsteri le; but generally there is some overlap of female and male flowers on the same tree. When self-pollination occurs there is a slight decrease in nut size.

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I
For these reasons, it is common practice to plant more than one culti var to ensure crOS5 * pollination between cultivars occurs. Northern pecan growers usually grow 4-5 cultivars, using a mixture of protandrous and protogynous types. Although pollen can be carried 900 m by the wind, in moist climates one should assume good pollination only for 2-3 trees distance away. Pollin ation is via the wind (like walnuts), hence the weather at flowering time can have large effects on fruit set - wet weather being especially detrimental. Unlike walnuts, though , flower initiation occurs in the spring , hence poor summer weather shou ld not have such an effect on flowering the following year as it does in walnuts. There is the usual drop of unpollinated nutlets in July. The number of nuts per cluster depends on the cultivar, and varies from 2-3 in some to 8-10 in others. After pollination, the fruits grow larger for 3 months , then the kernels fill in the remaining 2 months before harvest Nuts are considered good sized when nut counts reach SO-6S/lb (ie 7-9 g/nut weight).

Feeding and irrigation


Young trees need no extra nutrients. Although pecans have deep tap roots, the majority of their feeder roots lie within the top 60 cm (2 ft) of the soi l, and largely below the drip line of the canopy. Healthy bearing trees should produce shoots 18-40 cm (7_15 long - less than this and they will produce few nuts. If growth is less, fertilise with manure, compost etc - nitrogen being the nutrient most needed . If growth is more, reduce extra feed. If a nitrogen-fixing ground cover is used then this will probably provide all the extra nitrogen needed. Another option is to intercrop the pecan trees with nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs.
H )

Pecans have a high demand for zinc and deficiencies are common, depending on the soil reserves. Soil moisture is a major factor in determining the average size of nuts produced. Very dry soils in August and September will have a significant effect, hence it may be worth considering irrigation if this is likely. The developing nutlets are often hard to spot in the trees until almost harvest time.

Pruning
Little pruning is required - just remove branches that are too low, overcrowded , diseased or damaged by wind or heavy crops.

Harvesting
Prior to harvest, it is important to prepare the ground beneath - it needs to be relatively free of any large vegetation. Nuts are ready to harvest when the shucks (husks) begin to curl open. They will eventually fall to the

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

ground without help, but to aid harvest, branches are usually shaken or knocked down with bamboo poles. Tarpaulins can be used underneath th e trees to catch the nuts. The shucks often remain on the trees throughout the winter. Commercial harvesting is usually facilita ted by machine shakers which shake the tree trun ks and shake the nuts off. The nuts are then swept into Shucks beginning to split windrows and picked up with a mechanical harvester. More precocious cultiva rs sta rt bearing nuts after 4-5 years , while other may take 6-8 years before they start bearing. Heavy bearing trees have a tendency to become biennial bearers. Peca n is one of the less productive major tree crops - even in the main producing areas of the USA, yields rarely surpass 900 kgfha (2000 1b/acre or 1 ton/acre) . For northern cultivars , typical yields rise to 10 kg (22 Ib) per tree at 10 years of age and continue rising to an average of perhaps 15 kg (33 Ib) per tree after 20 yea rs. Large trees are likely to occasionally bear large bumper crops. Overall yie lds can eventually reach around 1125 kg/ha (1000 Ib/acre).

Processing
Drying is essential, as it not only slows the onset of rancidity, but also improves the nut's appearance, aroma, flavour and texture . Commercially, rapid drying to about 8% moisture is done soon after harvesting. On a small sca le, ai r-drying in a cool airy location can take seve ral weeks - keep the nuts is thin layers, and turn regularly. For long-term storage , nuts are dried to 4.5% moisture. Unshelled nuts store in a cool dry place for 6-12 months. Nuts are then clea ned (to remove debris and shrivelled nuts) and sized (separated into different sizes). For cracking, nuts are con ditioned by soaking for 24 hrs to make the kernel limp and pliable so it resists shattering, yet retaining the shell dry enough for cracking. Nuts are then cracked, she lled and sized . The kernels are dried to about 4% moisture and can then be stored at 1-2C (32-34 F) and 65-72% relative humidity for up to 9 months. Longer storage without loss of quality for up to 2 years is obtained by freez ing raw kernels. Roasted pecan kernels sto re on ly for a few days without becoming stale. Kernel composition also varies between cultivars; some have high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids, which leads to degradation in storage more quickly than those with lower levels . The percentage of oils varies between cultivars and from season to season but is usually at least 70%.

Pests & diseases


All hickories are resistan t to honey fungus (Armillaria mellea). Outside of North America , there are few pests and diseases. Pecans, like walnuts , contai n juglone in the leaves (and probab ly the roots too) ; this substance can have detrimental effects on some other plants , such as apples and the white pines. Scab - pecan scab (Cladosporium caryigenum) is the most economically important disease in the USA, but it is worst in the South East and is unlikely to be a problem in cooler northern regions. Aphids can so metimes be a problem . Coral spot fungus (Nectria cinnabarina) can be a problem in Britain when the new wood doesn't probably ripen. Symptoms are pinhead-sized salmon pink pustules on dead and young twigs and branches. If seen, infected wood should be cut out; don't leave any dead branch stubs.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

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11
Northern pecan cultivars should be less susceptible to this than the seedlings planted here in the past. . Squirrels can be a major problem, especially when crops are small. They will take nuts from their cases before they open and fall to the ground . Squirrel numbers must be controlled if they become a problem .

Northern pecan cultivars


The 'standard' northern varieties have medium to large nut sizes , shelling percents typically in the high 50s . Some are grown as early ripening cultivars in southern pecan growing regions . They require some 3800 accumulated heat units to ripen their nuts. Highly recommended : Colby, Hirschi, Kanza, Major, Pawnee, Peruque , Posey. Others recommended are Don Gratian , Old Woman . Snodgrass . Extra-early northern varieties ripen 10 days or more before 'Colby' , have relatively small nuts (but which crack into large pieces of halves), kernels 45-52% of nut weight. They require some 3400 -3700 accumulated heat units to ripen their nuts. Highly recommended: Campbell NC-4 , Dumbell Lake (Large), Gibson, James, Lucas , Mullahy, Stark Hardy Giant. Others include Bryce, Chillicothe, Devore, Dumbetl Lake (Small) , G I Hackberry, Hadu 2 , Norton, Ralph Upton, S-24, Shoals West, Warsaw North. Extreme ly early northern varieties have small nuts (usually 100/lb, 220/kg or more) which mature extra early (under 140 days from bud break) on a very cold-hardy tree. Most have kernels under 50 % of the nut weight, moderately th ick shells , and need cracking in a nut cracker. They are suitable for the most northerly regions where pecans are grown, and require some 3200-3400 accumulated heat units to ripen their nuts. Recommended: Abbott, Carlson 3, Deerstand , Fritz flat, Fritz 8all , Green Island Beaver, Martzahn, Snaps Early. Others include Frisbie. Key to cultivar table: HU columns indicate number of heat units' required to ripen crop (see above for explanation). This equates to earliness of ripening - ie 3300. HU cultivars will ripen quickest. Nut size: s = small, m = medium, I = large Flavour: fr = fair, gd = good, exc = excellent Cropping :

gd = good mod = moderate reg = regular bienn = biennial tendency bbl - bud break late in spring upr - upright tree Idl -leaves drop late from tree sba - tree has strong branch angles upr - upright tree

Page 32

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValiD No I

Page 33

Propagation

Seeds are not highly dormant but are usually given 12- 16 weeks of stratification for better germination. Seeds can be planted in the autumn in pots or even in the ground - the latter option leading to strongly-rooted trees which don 't require transplanting ; jf sowing straight into their final positions, use 3 seeds per position. sow 7 em (3 ~ ) deep and protect from rodents & squirrels (perhaps use a tree guard pushed well into the soil) - thin down to 1 seed ling during the first season. Seeds germinate much better at high temperatures (2 1-30 C, 70-86F). Seeds~of named cultivars of northern pecans have a high chance of performing as well or better than their parents. Named cultivars are propagated by grafting onto seedling pecan rootstocks grown from northern pecan nuts. Normal methods work, ego whip-and-tongue, but the graft union needs to be kept at 2rC (80 F) for 10-14 days after grafting. This necessitates the use of a hot grafting pipe or heated box/room of some kind. Keep the roots in a moist medium (p referably cool too) while the graft is callusing. An open-grown 3-4 year old pecan tree will have a tap root 1.2-1.5 m (4-5 ft) long , much of which will have to be dug up if the tree is to be transplanted : a lot of work. Container-grown trees should be grown initially in open-bottomed containers to facilitate air pruning of the tap root and subsequent fibrous root de ve lopment. Later, trees can be potted up into deep containers but only until they are 2 years old or so, when they should be planted out.

"

Sources
The two Canadian sources listed here are the best sources for grafted and seedling plants. They can also sometimes provide seed. The A.R.T. is growing northern pecans from named seed and should have plants available in the next year or two. Grima Nut Nursery, 979 Lakeshore Rd, R.R.3 , Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, CANADA LOS 1JO. www.grimonut.com R D Campbell , Campberry Farm . R.R.1 . Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, CANADA LOS1JO. Tel: (905) 262-4927.

Campbell, R D: Kernel Quality in Northern Pecans. NNGA 88u, Annual Report, 1997, pp 69-70. th Campbell , R D: The Best Pecans for Ontario. NNGA 86 Annual Report, 1995, pp 78-9. Crawford, M: The Hickories. Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 1. Duke, J: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press, 1989. Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998. Grauke, L J: Dream Tree: Pecan. NNGA 89 th Annual Report, 1998, pp 113-120. Jaynes, R A: Nut Tree Culture in North Ameri ca. NNGA, 1979. Mitra, S et al : Temperate Fruits. Horticulture & Allied, 1991. th Morrissey, T & Gustafson, W: Blossom dates for Northern Pecan. NNGA 79 Annual Report, 1988. pp 73-5. Nelson, Rat al: Northern Pecan Research 1988 - Bud Break, Flowering and Fruiting Data for th 31 Pecan Clones. NNGA 79 Annual Report , 1988, pp 70-2. Reed , C & Davidson, J: The Improved Nut Trees of North America and How to Grow Them. De vin-Adair, 1954. th Rice, G W: Ultra-Northern Pecans. NNGA 90 Annual Report, 199, pp 110-115. Riotte, L: Growing Nuts. Taylor Publishing Co , 1993.

References

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

Basketry Plants
Introduction
The term 'basketry' is used to encompass many methods of constructing conta iners made from plant materials. Most commonly, baskets are made of thin, whippy , young shoots of trees or shrubs. for example willows; these baskets tend to be very strong , fairly durable, and need some strength 10 make. Another category of baskets comes under the term 'rushwork'. These are baskets made out of soft, pliable materials, usually long, strong leaves or stems, which are woven , plaited or coiled to make soft, supple baskets as well as other materials such as rope , chair seating , shoes , and even cloth. Bast fibres (t he inner bark) of many trees can be used in the same way , although it takes a lot more work to obtain them; this article doesn't include these species. Finally, split material from is sometimes used (for example split bamboo) , split small branches of larger trees (for example. ash) , or thin slices of split wood (for example , oak to make trugs).

Stooled trees/sh rubs


These yield long whippy flexible woody shoots. They are usually harvested in late autumn , at the start of the dormant season when leaves have fallen . The shoots are sometimes debarked (difficult on a small scale - harvest shoots in April when the bark strips off rather easier) . Coppicing (the cutting down of shrubs/trees to ground level in winter) or pollarding (cutting to a higher level 1-2 m, 3-6 ft high) is carried out to maintain a good supply of long, thin shoots which are free of side branches . Coppicing maximises the yield of shoots and the lifetime of the plants , but pollarding is less work as plants are well clear of weeds after each harvest. Most species coppice strongly , producing a large cluster of 10-50 shoots which grow 1-3 metres (310 feet) in the next year.

Comus spp - dogwoods. Grow in most soils and situations, and coppice/pollard very well. Species of use include C.afba, C.glabrata, C.nuttallii, C.sanguinea, C.s/olonifera (C.sericea). Some of these have brightly coloured stems. Extremely hardy - to _2SD C (-13 F) or more. Salix spp. - willows . Long used in temperate regions for basketry . Often grown in dense beds, called withy beds , on damp ground. The main species used in Europe are S.purpurea (purple wi llow/os ier), S.triandra (almond-leaved willow) , and S.vimina/is (osier). They like a fertile and moist soil- boggy soils are tolerated but are not ideal. Very hardy, to _20DC (_4 F) or more. Numerous - hundreds - of varieties of these have been selected for rod colour and other characteristics.
Some of the more popular clones include: S.purpurea - 'Brittany Dicks ', 'Dark Dicks', 'Dicky Meadows', 'Franz Geel ', 'French', 'Goldstones ', 'Green Dicks ', 'Lancash ire', ' Leicestershire', 'Purple', 'Red Buds ', 'Welsh '; S.triandra - 'American Green', 'Black German ', ' Black HOllan der' , 'Black Maul' , 'Black Top', 'Dark French' , 'GriseUe Noir', ' Light Newkind ', 'Stone Rod ', 'W hissander' ; S.viminafis - 'Aquatica Gigantea', ' Black Osier', 'Black Rod ', 'Black Satin ', 'B rown Merrin ', ' English Rod ', 'Gigantea Korso' , 'Irish Rod ', ' Mealy Top ', 'Readers Red ', 'Stricta ', 'S uperba ' , 'Utelescens ' and 'Ye llow Osier'. Other species widely used include S.daphnoides ('Meikle' ); S.alba vitellina , S.eriocephala ('Green USA' ), S. 'Americana ', S.pentandra (,Lumley') in North America; and S. gilgiana, S.kinuiyanagi, S.koriyanagi, and S.miyabeana in Japan . The cultivation of basketry willows is covered in more detail in Agroforestry News Vol 6 No 1 & our Factsheet S22.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 35

Shrubs/perennial with leaves for rushwork


The leaves of these species are usually long and sword-shaped, and can be weaved to make soft baskets etc. Materials for rushwork, like the true bulrush (Schaenoplectus lacustris, syn Scirpus I.), yellow flag (Iris pseudacorus), Phormium sp., Yucca sp. , palms etc., are often obtained from occasional plants in gardens , or from the wild with the permission of the landowner. If a stand of plants is cultivated specifically for leaf/stem production, plants should be harvested in alternate years to both provide a continuous supply of material , and in order to allowlllants to recover sufficiently. When harvesting leaves/stems, it is wise not to cut all leaves or stems, but only a proportion , perhaps up to 50%. Harvesting normally takes place while the leaves are still green during late summer. Leaves or stems should be cut as low as possib le to the ground. Some species, like the bul ru sh, have brittle leaves or stems when they are still fresh , and care should be taken while handling them . Drying, in the open or in an airy shed, takes 3-20 days; dried material will store well if kept in the dry and dark, but will start to mould if it is a damp atmosphere. The more leathery leaves can easily be split lengthways into the required width or material to work with . Before use, the material needs to be dampened by spraying with water, then wrapping in a damp cloth for 3 hours. Unused materials can be re-dried , but successive dampenings and dryings do discolour and weaken them. Aciphyl/a spp. Spearg rass . Evergreen perennials from New Zealand with leathery leaves, growing up to about 1 m (3 tt) wide and high, with higher flower spikes. They like moist but well -drai ned fertile , humus-rich soil and full sun; hardy to about -10 C (14 F). Acarus spp. ego Acalamus - sweet flag. Deciduous or semi-evergreen aquatic perennials. They grow well in boggy sailor shallow water. Hardy to -20C (_4 F). Cordyline australis. Cabbage palm. Evergreen palm from New Zealand, growing 2-5 m (6-16 tt) high in Britain. Bears a tuft of leathery leaves on a woody trunk. Lik es a fertile, well -drained soH and sun or part shade. Hardy to about _8e (18F). Crocosmia spp. Montbretia. Deciduous perennials growing about 60 cm (2 tt) high - often grown ornamentally for their flowers. They like a moderately fertile , humus-rich, moist but welldrained soil and sun or part shade. The lea ves are moderately strong. Juncus spp. Rushes. Numerous species throughout temperate regions, growing from a few inches to 2 m (6 tt) high. They have long cylindrical stems which are harvested and flattened when used for fine rushwork . They like a permanently moist or boggy acid soil and sun or part shade . Very hardy. Phalaris arundinacea. Reed canary grass . Evergreen perennial grass with [eaves to 35 em (14ft) long; spreads via rhizomes. Any soil in sun or part shade; hardy to -25C (_13 F). Phormium spp. New Zealand flax. Evergreen shrubs. One of the finest plants for extremely strong leathery leaves . P.tenax grows to 3 m (10 f1) high, with individual leaves to 2 m (6 ft) long and 6 em (2Y2ft) wide. They like a fertile moist soil and sun or shade - very tolerant. Hardy to - 15C (5 F) or so. Schoenoplectus spp. Bulrush. Evergreen marginal aquatic perennials . The leaves are widely used for traditional rushwork in Europe and North America . They [ike fertile wet soils or shallow water and full sun. Hardy to -20C (_4 F) or more. Scirpus spp. Club rush. Perennial marginal aquatic plants. shallow water and full sun. Hardy to -20C (-4 F) or more. They like fertile wet soils or

Typha spp. Reedmace. Vigorous, marginal aquatic deciduous perennials with thick rhizomes spreading. Leaves are up to 2 m (6 tt) long. They form dense stands of vegetation around lakes and large ponds. Grow in shallow water and are very hardy - to -25 e (-13 F) more.

or

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 1

zz::

Xerophyllum spp. Bear grass. Clump-forming deciduous perennials. Leaves are finely tapered , to 90 em (3 ft) long. They like a moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil and sun ; hardy to -1SoC WF).

Yucca spp. Evergreen shrub s from North America, with tough leathery leaves. warm sun ny site and well-drained soi l; some are hardy to -20"C (_4F).

They like a

Trees/shrubs with split stems used for baskets


These include most bamboos and several large trees . Small branches are used from such trees , which may themselves be coppiced frequently to supply long enough shoots of the correct sized material. Shoots are again usually harvested in late autumn , at the start of the dormant season when leaves have faUen.

Bamboos - most can be used. Many are hardy; a moist part shaded site is ideal. Knock a knife through the cane to split; quite finely split lengths are needed for them to be pliable enough. Carya spp. - hickories. Hardy nut trees which prefer a continental climate. Fraxinus spp. - ashes. The native F.exee/sior is very good. Coppices strongly. Quercus sp - oaks. The European species perform better in Britain than the American ones.

Climbers & miscellaneous species


Many climbers are vigo rou s enough to produce a regular supply of long thin shoots suitable for basketmaking without the need for coppicing. Shoots are again usually harvested in late autu mn , at the start of the dormant season when leaves have fallen . Plants can still be coppiced if vigour reduces and longer shoots are needed. Most grow in sun or shade and most soi ls. Akebia spp. Chocolate vines . Vigorous sem ievergreen twini ng climbers growing to 10m (33 ft) high. Hardy to -20 C (_4 F). Hedera spp. Ivy. Vigorous evergreen clinging climbers , likely to be growing in most woodland in Britain - can be pulled off trees etc. to use. Hardy to 20C (4 F). Lonicera spp. Honeysuckle. Vigorous twining climbi ng species L.pericfymenum. Deciduous stems are easy to use. Hardy to 20C (4F). are suitable, ego

Parthenoeissus spp. Boston ivy, Virginia creeper. Vigorous deciduous clinging climbers growing 15 m (50 tt) high or more - copp ice well. Hardy to 25 C (- 13F). Prunus spinosa. Blackthorn . Native UK suckering deciduous shrub to 6 m (20 tt) high coppices well. Whippy stems need spines removing. Hardy to 25 C (13 F). Rubus fruticosus. Blackberry. Native UK deciduous or semievergreen thorny scrambler , found in most woodland. The despined stems (pu ll through a hole in a tin) are strong and flexible. Spartium junceum. Spanish broom. Deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (10 tt) high. Likes sun and a welldrained soil. Hardy to 10C (14F). Symphoricarpus spp. Snowberry. Deciduous suckering shrubs growing about 2 m (6 tt) highvery hardy and tolerant. Shoots are narrow and flexible. Hardy to 25C (-13 F). Ulmus spp. Elm. Suckering new shoots of this deciduous tree are flexible and useful especially for basket handles. Vinca spp. Periwinkle. Evergreen prostrate shrubs with long trailing thin stems - makes good ground cover in shade. Hardy to Hardy to 20C (_4 F) or so. Vilis spp. Vines. Very vigo rou s deciduous clinging climbers which coppice well. Most species hardy to -20C (_4F).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

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tte-

Pest & Disease series:

Water core of apple & pear


Intrpd uction
This disorder occurs worldwide but is particularly prevalent in arid and semiarid regions , and in hot droughty summers in other regions . The name 'water core ' is a misnomer because, except for a few cultivars , the disorder is usually manifested only in the fruit cortex just beneath the skin. It is also known as ~ glassiness " due to the glassy, almost wet appearance of the flesh.

Symptoms
The fruit cortex becomes water-soaked in distinct areas or more or less uniformly throughout the flesh. This condition is due to the presence of water and soluble materials in the intercellular spaces. The influx of water into the affected areas may increase the moisture content as much as 20% and produce enough pressure to cause excretion of liquid through the lenticels. In the inilial stages , the disorder causes few changes in the apple flesh - there is little collapse , discoloration or abnormal growth of affected cells. The water-soaked condition is rarely discernable from external examination. Water co re begins to develop as the fruit approach maturity, increasing as the fruit ripens, reaching a maximum in fruit left on the tree until fairly ripe . It seldom appears after fruit s are picked, and if not too severe will often dis appear gradually from fruits which showed symptoms at harvest (the rate of disappearance being faster at room than at cool temperatures) . Severely affected fruit will undergo secondary breakdown - ie will rot in store. Fruit with water core at harvest time are sweeter than usual, and if only affected in a minor way, fruits can still be utilised.

Causes
The causes of water core are still not fully understood. It is likely to be at least partly due to hot days I cool night alternating temperatures causing cells in the apple to lose their ability to retain certain soluble materials. Other contributory factors are exposure to direct sunlight (fruits shaded by leave s are less affected) and low soil moisture in the latter part of the growing season. Another is too much nitrogen, producing lush vegeta ti ve growth. ExtenSive damage to or removal of bark (eg . by squirrels or deer) can also increase susceptibility. Recent research has shown that water core is inversely related with calcium levels in the fruit ; it has recently become clear that foliar sprays of calcium ca n help.

Susceptible cultivars
Summer and autumn cultivars are more susceptible to water core than are winter cultivars. Young trees are also more prone. Cultivars not usually affected may develop the disorder in long hot periods of weather. Notably susceptible cultivars include the following and their sports:

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No I

Beni Shogun, Braeburn . Bramley's Seedling, Cox's Orange Pippin. Delicious, Early Harvest. Fall Pippin, Fuji, Granny Smith , Gravenstein, James Grieve, Jonathon, Kotoku , Michinoku , Miller's Seedl ing, Nebuta, Newtown, Northern Spy, Pumpkin Sweet, Rambo, Red Astrachan, Rome Beauty, Saint Everard , Sayaka, Stayman Winesap, Suntan, Tompkins King, Williams' Pride, Winesap, Worcester Pearmain, Yataka, Yellow Transparent, York Imperial. Water core occurs to some extent in pears, especially in Asian pea r selections.

Reducing susceptibility
Avoid overfertilisation with nitrogen fertilisers (chemical or organic). Avoid excessive pruning & thinning which will encourage vigorous growth. Protect bark of trees from squirre l & deer damage. Where irrig ation is used, maintain adequate soil moisture throughout the growing season. Foliar calcium sprays (eg. calcium ch loride or hydroxide) reduce the severity of the disorder. Pick fruit at optimum maturity - do not all ow to become over mature.

References
Crawfo rd, M: Directory of Apple Cultivars. A.R.T., 2000. Greenwood, P & Hal stead. A: The RHS Pests & Diseases. Darling Kindersley, 1997. Mitra. S et al: T emperate Fru its. Horticulture & A lli ed Publishers. 1991. Ogawa. J & English. H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree fruit an d Nut Crops. University of Ca liforni a, 1991. Westwood, M: Temperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press. 1993.

Book Review
Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems
Ken E Giller
CAB I Publish ing. 2001; 448 pp; 60 .00 ($110.00). ISB N 0 85199 417 2.
Nitrogen fixation by plants in association with micro organisms is an important part of susta inable and ecologically-based cropping systems both in tropical and temperate reg ions. This new edition conta in s up to date material based on significant current research on the theory and practice of ni trogen fi xation in tropica l cropping systems - and much of it is highly relevant to temperate cropping systems too. Although the principal focus is on the legume/rhizobium symbiosis, other potentia l sources which fix nitrogen are considered, including actinorhizal plants, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria with grasses and cereals, and the aquatic fern Azalia and its symbiosis with a cyanobacteri a. Chapters also cover green manu re and cover crops , forage legumes, and agroforestry systems using nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs. Useful read in g for all interested in the more technical aspects of nitrogen-fixing plants and their use in agricultura l systems.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 1

Page 39


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5

Agroforestry Research Trust - Courses in 2002

Forest Gardening - running twice in 2002:


25-26 May 2002 and again on 31 Aug-1 Sept 2002
The overall aim of this two day course is to give you an overview of how to de sign , implement and maintain a temperate forest garden. Teaching sessions will be interspersed with frequent visits into our 8-year-old established forest garden. Practical information on tree crops , shrub crops , perennials and ground covers will be complemented with visits to our forest garden to look at our successes and failures , as well as to taste unusual leaf and fruit crops.

Grafting -

23 March 2002

This one day course will cover basic grafting techniques for use by amateurs and professionals. The use of rootstocks and bench grafting - Grafting onto established trees - Grafting fruit onto native trees. Much of the time will be spent in practical sessions with participants being taught grafting practice.

Nut Crops -

28-29 September 2002

This weekend course will cover all aspects of growing common and uncommon nut crops in Britain. Teaching sessions will be interspersed with visits to forest garden and trials site where several nut crops are grown . Several unusual nut crops will also be available to taste. Common nuts covered are Chestnuts , Hazelnuts and Walnuts. Less common species include Almonds, Butternuts, Heartnuts, Hickory nuts, Monkey puzzle, Oaks with edible acorns , Pine nuts. For more details and a booking form for any of these courses please contact: A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Fax/Tel: 01803 840776. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

Classified adverts
25p/word, minimum 5.00. 20% discount for subscribers.
ECO-lOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath Bath, BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472. N.Tenerife: Forest Garden Retreat. Ouiet valley near sea/village. Cottage 120 week . Yurt 60. Also need helpers. Vegetarians only. Tel: (0034) 676 438 936. NUTWOOD NURSERIES can supply a varied selection of nut trees suitable for the UK climate. Catalogue is free on receipt of a 9 x 6" SAE. NUTWOOD NURSERIES LTD., Higher Trannack Farm, Helston, Cornwall, TR13 000.
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Arbor-Eat-'M , Hedwig Scheer, Ghesule 6 Sis, B1547 Bever, Belgium. Phone/fax 0032/54 586 257. Send 8 x 27p stamps for a file with info and prices of about 200 forgotten trees/shrubs/plants with edible fruits or other edible parts. I also sell many unusual plant cultivars.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No I

Ag;'oforestry is the integration of trees and agricuUure/ horticulture to produce: diverse, prod.uctive and resilient system for producing food, matenals,. Ilmbel ~n" other products. It can range from planting trees In pastures providing she!.er, shad8 and emergency fo,agn, to forest garden systems ,~corporatlng layers, of tall and small trees, "hi uos and ground layers In a self-sustaining, Interconnec.ed and prodw:;!iv ~ system.

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (14 unwaged) 22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) 32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 X 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 3.50 per copy including postage (4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnss, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Decaisnea fargesii

Volume 10 Number 2

January 2002

liS

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 10 Number 2

January 2002

Contents
2 4 9 11
21 24 31 36 38

News Pest & Disease series: Squirrels Blue bean: Decaisnea fargesii Forest gardening - Plants for difficult sites: perennials (2) Staphylea: bladder nuts The strawberries The Alliums Siberian ginseng: Eleutherococcus senticosus Book reviews: Bamboo for Gardens / HDRA Encyclopedia
of Organic Gardening / The Woodland Way / The BioPesticide Manual

40 Classified adverts
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agrofarestry News refer to edible and medicina l crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agrofarestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Dartingtan, Fax & tetephone: +44 (0)1803840776 Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K. Email; mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website; WNW.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/IO No 2

Page 1

News
Chestnut harvest & yield data - 2001
There were excellent yields from many of the chestnut varieties in our variety trial this year from both early and later-ripening cuftivars . No doubt the very mild October helped the later-ripening selections ripen quickly enough - there must still be some doubt that in a cool October they will do nearly as well.

Castanea sativa, hybrid sativa x crenata and C.crenata Gultivars all did very well. Nut sizes we re med ium -large, with some producing large and very large nuts - the largest from Doree de Lyon (= Marron de Lyon), Ederra, Marigoule, Marki, Marron de Redon, Marron Goujounac, Numbo, Rousse de Nay and Vignals.
Total yields reached 2.5 kg fo r the best cultivars (this from 5-year-old trees) - equivalent to 156 kg/acre or 390 kg/hectare. Highest yields were from Belle Ep ine, Bouche de Betizac, Doree de Lyon, Maridonne, Marigoule, Marron Comballe, Rousse de Nay, and Verdale - although some trees in th e trial are younger, so a di rect compa ri son is not possible yet. The nuts - of excellent quality, and looking much better than imported French nuts were sold in a loca l fa rme rs' market fo r 3.85/kg (1.75/1b).
1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 21314 5 1 16 1 7 1 819 1 OQ1 1 2 3Q4Q5 6 7 8 ' 9 0 1

Date (1 = October 1

SI

31 = October 31

st

2001)

Nuts/kg

Cultivar
Belle Epine Bouche de Betizac Bournette Doree de lyon Ederra Herria Ipharra Laguepie Maraval Maridonne Marigoule Marki Marlhac Marron Comballe Marron de Redon Marron Goujounac Marsol Numbo Precoce Migoule Rousse de Nay Verdale Vignols

X x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xxxxxxxx XXXXXXXX

xl

124 131 100

x x x x x x x x

x x x
XXXXXXX

95 96
110 111 150 178 106

XXXX 1XXX

x x xix x x x x x x x x x x x x x l xl x x x x x x x x x x x x xxxxxxxxX x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xl x l x x x x x x x x x x x x X X x x x x x x X x x x x X x x

xxx

:1' :1 ::

96 94
126 113 75 76 134

x xIX x x x x x x X x
xxxxxxxxxxxx

x x

x x x xix x x x

X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X XXXXXXXXXXXX X

99
143 87 123

x x x
X

X X X X X X X

x xx

xx

x x xx x x Xx x xx Xxx x X x x X X x x x x x xlxl

90

x - total period of harvesting x indicates the period of heaviest cropping (if there was one).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

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Squirrels in urban forest gardens


Marcus Carlton from Penge in London writes:

I have found the squirrel problem this year to be acute - much more than I previous years. have a large suburban garden full of fruit trees and bushes of various kinds . The squirrels had most of the plums. sloes , cherries , pears and this year damaged or ate about half of my apple crop. Quinces were the only fruit not attacked , perhaps because they are too hard.
When I moved here 12 years ago squirrel damage was minimal. The only serious pest was the birds eati ng the cherries, and that is a well known hazard of growing cherries, which I can live with by tempo rarily netting the cherry trees and bushes when in fruit. I clearly recall that during the early 19905 J had undamaged plum and apple crops, and the squirrel damage was limited to hazel nuts. I suspect there has been a recent increase in the number of squirrels in this area, caused either by the milder winters (decreased mortality andlor more litters of young) ; or the growing up of large forest trees (mainly ashes) in neighbouring uncultivated gardens and the maturing of stre et trees, providing more nesting habitat or territory for the squirrels . Also other neighbours might be feeding them , (people think they're cute) or they steal food put out for birds. Because my fruit trees and bushes are intended as a food resource , and not an ornament, the problem is realJy serious. Robert Hart wrote about the revolutionary effect which could be achieved by turning urban ba ck gardens into forest gardens, but I fear the squirrel problem co uld render this aim impossible. I am aware of no really effective, sustainable way of deterring them . Training a cat to be a hunter and to cha se them can help to deter them, but such cats can have a devastating effe ct on garden bird and frog populations and I am reluctant to get a cat for this rea so n. There is an ultra-so und device available for about 32 , but that uses batteries , and is indi scriminate in that it will also apparently deter welcome visitors to my garden such as the urban faxes which find it very much to their liking here. I know that there may not be many answers to this problem at present , but th ought you might be interested to read my experiences of how the squirrel problem in cities (or at least in suburbs , where there are more large trees for them to n est in) seems to be beco ming a serious problem . See the article on squirrels in this issue for more info on this topic!

Szechuan pepper yields - 2001


The species Zanthoxylum schinifolium continues to crop spectacularly well for use - the best to date of the temp erate pepper bushes Zanthoxylum. This year we recorded yields from the two bus hes in our forest garden , which are six years old and about 2 .1 m (7') high and wide . The crop was picked over a period of 2% weeks from the middle to the end of September. When picking pepper fruits , aim to harvest just before the pink seed shells start to split and the black seeds start to pop out - it is the pink seed shell that is peppery ; the black seed is in fa ct tasteless, but it is normally harvested with the seed shell and the whole lot dried and used as a co ndiment in a pepper mill. The 2001 total dry yield of seed shell s + seeds was just under 400g (about 14 oz) per bush . Szechuan pepper is a highly valued niche spice selling for about 1 .70 per 10 g (4.85/oz or $7/oz) , making the value of the crop from one bush about 68 ($100)!

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 3

S echuan (or Szechwan) peppercorns are 4-5 mm in diameter. Several of the Zanthoxylum s~ecles are used Interchangeably in China and Japan . including Z.alatum, Z.coreanum, z.piperitum and Z.simulans. The fruits have a warm pepperJike fragrance and in flavour are peppery, woodsy and fragrant. Sometimes the berries are gently roasted to release aromatics before crushing with a pestle and mortar or being ground in a mill or grinder. Ground product should be stored in airtight containers in the dark. Szechuan pepper is also an ingredient in Chinese five-spice powder and in Shichimi togarashi, a Japanese seven-flavour seasoning .

Szechuan pepper is often used in China with duck and chicken dishes, and is often combined with star anise and ginger. It is also one of the few important spices for Tibetan and Bhutani cookery of the Himalayas (it is one of the few spices that will grow there) - the national dish of Tibet is momos, a pasta stuffed with yak and flavoured with Szechuan pepper, garlic, ginger and onion. The leaves are also used as a spice - they have a citrus fragrance and are also peppery ; in Japan, the ground dried leaves are called sansho, and the whole leaves are called kinome they are used fresh , vacuum packed, or pickled. Sansho is used to make noodle dishes and soups mildly hot and fragrant; kinome are used to flavour vegetables, especia lly bamboo shoots, and to decorate soups.

Pest & disease series:

Squirrels
Introduction
The grey sq uirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) was introduced to Britain in the 19th century and has spread widely, especially in lowland areas with broad leaved and mixed woodlands. Don't confuse the grey squirrel with the native (to UK) red squirrel (S.vulgaris). The latter causes little damage to trees , but is being displaced by the grey squirrel. Grey squirrels mainly frequent woods conta ining broad-leaved trees, and in the winter they live together in large nest-like structures (dreys) made from leafy branches and constructed high in the branches of trees . The does Jive alone in large breeding dreys or in holes in trees and produce litters of 3-4 young , either in late February or in July.

Damage caused
Grey squirre l damage is one of the most serious problems in commercia l timber growing in the UK. Trees are damaged at an advanced stage , and control is difficult. Damage takes the form of bark stripping from trunks and branches of pole-stage trees (normally 10-40 years old). Smaller trees (notably oaks and wa lnut s) are sometimes attacked at a younger age. Damage occurs from ground level up to about 16 m (50 ft) high . On hardwoods, the damage is concentrated around the base , and at the points where side branches meet the trunk , with both trunk and branches stripped . Damage to conifers can occur anywhere on the trunk , usually higher up on older trees. Squirrels strip bark to get to the sap , and they home in on trees with the largest sap volume, and on areas of a tree where the average sap volume is highest.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

&
Damage can occur unpredictably, but appears to be triggered by population stress , especially high numbers of males. Risk of damage is greatest when populations are highest, which happens following mast years (when oaks of beech produce la rge amounts of seed) followed by mild winte rs and early springs. Most damage occu rs in May, June and July. The recent mild win ters ce rtainly seem to have benefited squirrel populations . Very susceptible are thin-barked trees - beech (Fagus sy/vatica) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus); also susceptible are pines (Pinus spp.) , oaks (Quercus spp.), ash (Fagus sylvatica), other maples (Acer spp .), larch (Larix spp.), birch (Betula spp.) and walnuts (Jug/ans spp.). Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) is also sometimes attacked. In urban areas, squirrels can be se ri ous pests of fruit and nut crops, in cluding apples, pears, cherries, plums, chestnuts, hazelnuts and wa lnuts; even in rural areas, hazelnuts (Cory/us spp .) are at severe risk . Chestnuts tend to be attacked only when the burrs start to open and nuts become exposed. They also often dig up and eat bulbs , especially crocuses , lilies and tulips. Squi rrels not only strip bark and damage or kill trees , but they also pre date on young fledgling birds and eggs - contributing to the decline of the songbird population in particular. Regu lar pruning of side branches - essential in agroforestry systems for timber trees - can help reduce squirrel damage on the main trunk, as it removes places for the squirrels to perch.

Deterrent methods
Most of these work only on a sma ll scale - garden or small planting. Providing an alternative source of food during the susceptible period (April-July) may reduce da mage. Fruit cages and netting used around garden fruits will deter squirrels ; permanent fruit cages are bes t made out of wire netting as squirrels easily eat through plastic nets. There is no evidence to suggest that ultrasonic devices will prevent squirrel damage in gardens. Electric netting, designed for rabbits , with a 10 out of an area for a whi le. One hazelnut growe r ripening nuts. Occasiona l animals might lea p important to only use it for short periods of time, cm (4-) mesh , might sometimes keep sq uirrels has used it successfully for 2 months to protect through the mesh . If trying this method, it is and to remove it afterwards.

Using 'sac rificial' trees , ego of sycamore, has been suggested, but the risk is that squirrels will learn to strip bark on these , then move onto more valuable trees. This technique is cautioned against.

Repellents
Little work has been done on squirrel repellents, but some has been done on repelling other an imals from eating plants , most of which can be applied to squirrels too , as they have similar dislikes. There are some commercial products available to gardeners such as ~ Squirrel Ofr which are based on capsaicin and are sprayed onto the plant parts to be protected once a week or so. The repellent M Renardine is used by soaking cloth in the product and hanging around the area to be protected - it is not clea r whether this is effective on squirrels, though.
H

Wild anima ls (deer, rabbits, squirrels) do not feed on certain plant species - eg o daffod il (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), bearded iris (Iris spp.), mints (Mentha spp.) and catnip (Nepeta cataria). They are also repelled by capsaicin - the hot peppery-causing compound from chilli

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 5

Wild animals (deer, rabbits, squirrels) do not feed on certain plant species - ego daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), bearded iris (Iris spp.), mints (Mentha spp.) and catnip (Nepeta cataria). They are also repelled by capsaicin - the hot peppery-causing compound from chilli peppers (Capsicum frutescens). Current commercial repellents are nearly all based on this latter compound. The two main problems with using plant extract-based repellents are possible phytotoxicity (ie the repellent damaging the plants themselves); and the short-lived efficacious period. Repellents are usually sprayed on to plants and the active compounds evaporate and get wash~d off by rain - hence the repellent effect lasts only up to 2 weeks or so. Also , you wouldn't want to go spraying these mixtures onto edible crops within several weeks of cropping. Recent resea rch has shown the most effective repellent mixtures to be For use on plants in leaf: extracts of pepper (3%), catnip (3%) and peppermint (3%) For dormant plants: a low concentration of daffodil extract (2.5%), plus pepper (3%) and catnip (3%) extracts. (NB. 1% concentration = 109/litre) Mixing the extracts with kaolin clay lengthens the effectiveness of the mixture, and using su rficants (eg. soft soap) helps the sprayed mixture stick to leaves and bark.
It is possible to make up your own repellent mixtures - use essential oils of peppermint and catnip. and assume 19 = 1 ml. Use dried cayenne pepper instead of the pepper extract - use considerably more. Add a very little soft soap or washing up liquid, and kaolin clay if you can get it from a pharmacy. Mix well with water and spray onto plants every 2 weeks or so.

An alternative, for use on bark on ly, is to mix the essential oils & cayenne pepper with a soft wax (eg bees wax) or petroleum jelly. this can then be smeared onto the bark by hand.

Control methods
Squirrels cannot be excluded from a woodland or garden, and even if a population is killed, others will rapidly move into the area. Food and habitat is always in short supp ly, and is the main natural control on the survival of yOUrlg animals. One reason that sq uirrels are becoming a serious pest in urban areas is that they eat food put out for birds or even for squirrels themselves - some folk in Britain have a misguided view that these animals are 'cute and cuddly'. Those who are aware of their pest potential think of them rather as 'tree rats'. The only feasible method of population management is to control the numbers by killing immediately before and during the damage period (April-August); if control is done at other times, numbers will only build up again by the following springfsummer. In woodlands, control must be concentrated around the 10-40 year old pole-stage vulnerable trees. The two most effective control methods are cage trapping and by poisoning with warfarin.

Cats
Domesticated cats are sometim es good hunters of squirrels. A cat at RHS Rosemoor in North Devon often catches a squirrel a day, which must considerably help keep numbers down. The cat probably needs to be on the large side, as squirrels are extremely aggressive when caught or in fights. Worries about cats reducing bird populations are probably exaggerated; squirrels too predate on young birds , especially those in nests. Exactly how one wo uld tra in or encourage a cat to attack squirrels is another question.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Hunting with hawks

**

Two fine predators of grey squirrels which are th emselves native to North America, where the grey squirrel is a normal part of their prey. are Harris and Redlail Hawks. Some falconers fly these birds and offer a service where they and their birds wi ll come and hunt squirrels . This control method is humane and natural and avoids the use of poisons, traps or guns.

Shooting
"r"
Where trees are being badly attacked , shooting can result in many squirrels killed, but in general it is ineffective in controlling numbers. Dreys can be poked to make squirrels appear if

necessary.

Trapping
The legal methods in the UK are cage-tra pping and spring-trapping. Cage-trapping is the more efficient method and the one to use if there are also red squirrels in the area. Spring trapping is indiscriminate and often leads to other animals being killed. Single or Multi -capture (ie hold more than one animal) cage traps should be set out at a maximum density of about one per hectare (1 .5 acres). Initial baiting with yellow whole maize in the open door unset position should be carried out for a minimum of 4 days and then the trap set to catch for 5 days. Traps should have a plastic cove ring secured with branchwood to protect captive animals. Cage traps. once set, must be visited daily (this is a legal requirement) and all captive grey squirre ls must be humanely killed (eg by guiding into a hessian sack and administering a sharp blow to the head , held firmly in the corner of the sack. with a heavy stick). It is illegal to release squirrels once trapped. As a bonus, grey squirrels caught this way can be eaten! Cage traps cost 20-30 for a single-capture trap.

Poisoning
Poisoning, using hoppers with 0 .02% warfarin baited wheat, are an effective and popular method with foresters. They are illegal to use in areas where the red squirrel still resides (eg. mid Wales). Many people dislike warfarin baiting because other mammals and birds may eat grain spilled from the hoppers; the poison can also enter the food chain once the squirrels have died. However, with careful use the risk to non-target animal species is very low. Hoppers must be of the specified legal design and size, and should have flap doors which prevent sma ll mammals and birds from taking the bait. The success of the control operation depends on the ability to find sites for hoppers that squirrels will visit regularly to feed. The best sites are under large trees where the ground is clear of high vegetation; stumps where squirrels feed regularly are also suitable , as are sites near the edge of the forest and adjacent hedgerows. From mid March onwards, hoppers should be spaced some 100-200 m apart at a density of one hopper to 1-5 ha (2.5-12 .5 acres). The hopper should be placed at the base of the tree with the tunnel tilted slightly downward to prevent surface water flowing down the tunnel to the bait. The entrance can face into or away from the tree. The hopper is firmly secured with branchwood or stakes , held tight by tying wire or thick rubber ties. Branchwood. stones or turf can be used to disguise the hopper. Bark-stripping damage can occur on trees adjacent to the hopper site. Two or three handfuls of yellow whole maize (untreated) are initially scattered around the hopper to attract squirrels to the site. If pheasants remove the maize , the tunnel entrance can be extended by 150 mm (6") with rabbit netting.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 7

It is essential that continuous supply of bait is available to the squirre ls and the hoppers are not allowed to become empty. Initially, one visit per week is normally enough to keep them topped up. It is not unu sual for 1.5-2 kg of bait to be tak en in the first week . After 2-3 weeks, less bait is taken and hoppers can be visited every 2 weeks. Use a jug or scoop to transfer bait to avoid spilling it. Any grain that is spoi led by moisture should be removed for safe disposal, as should an y spilled bait. Control should stop by mid Augu st at the latest, when hoppers are best brought in for storage until the following Spring . The area will be reco lonised by grey squirre ls within 3 months, so this pfocedure must be followed each year. Hoppers cost about 30.

Future prospects
UK Forest Commission research is looking at squi rrel control via an oral contra ceptive vacci ne. T rials in 1999 used three la rge enclosures in a beech plantation which were populated with grey squirrels after rece iving the vaccine. Although th e trial was of a small number of squirrels, it confirmed the efficacy of the vaccine, although several problems still have to be sorted out, notably how to keep the vaccine stable in a sweetened bait for long enough to be ingested in the wild. It is hoped that this new technology may come to fruition with a few years.

Contacts
Alpe Thermo Products (North) , 21 Beve ridge Street, Barrow on Soar, Leics, LE1 2 6P L. Hoppers. Jason Wilmore, 42 Warren Rd , Chingford, London, E4 60S. Falconer with Harris & Redtail hawks. Long Meadow, Lower Wincome Lane, Donhead St Mary, Shaftesbury, Dorset, SP7 9DB. Tel/fax: 01747 826357. Supplier of cage traps for squirrels & other animals. Males, Warners Lane. Selsey, Ch icheste r, West Sussex, P020 9EL. Tel: 01243602231, Fax: 01243 602770. Supplier of cage traps for squirrels & other animals. Stanton Hope ltd, 11 Seax Court, So uthfield s, Laindon , Essex , SS 15 6L Y. Tel : 01266 41914 1, Fax: 01268 545992. Forestry tools & equipment, supplies cage traps, hoppers etc.

References
Brooks, A: Woodla nds. BTCV, 1968. Bu czacki, S & Harris, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. Co llin s, 1998. Evans. J: Si lviculture of Broadleaved Woodland . Fe Bulletin 62,1984. Hodge, S & Pepper, H : The Preve nti on of Mammal Damage to Trees in Woodland . FC Practice, Note, 1998. Kiser , B: Trees and Aftercare. BTCV, 1991. New shock for sq uirrels! The Cobwe b, 35 (Ju ne 2000). Pepper. H: Grey Squi rrel Damage Control with Warfarin. FC Research Info Note 180, 1996. Pepper, H & Currie, F: Controlling Gre y Squirrel Damage to Woodlands. FC Pra ctice Note, 1998. Ries , S et al: Repelling An imal s from Crops Using Plant Extracts. HortTechnology April-June 2001 11 (2), 302-30 7. Squirrel Management. Forest Research Annua l Report and Accounts 1999-200.

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Blue bean:
Decaisnea fargesii
Introduction
Oecaisnea fargesii. known as the blue bean. is a very distinctive shrub from Western China, sometimes planted ornamentally for its remarkable metarricblue pods which look like blue broad beans. It is less well known outside its native range as an edible crop and as a source of rubber.

Description
It is an upright shrub, growing to 3~6 m ( 10-20 ft) high by 3 m (10 ft) across, sparsely branched with thick shiny pithy branches. There are very distinctive large winter buds . Leaves are large, pinnate , 60-100 em (24-39") long, with 13-25 leaflets, the leaflets are opposite, avata, 6-14 em (2}s-6") long, deep green above (b luetinged when young) and blue-green beneath. Rather like huge potato leaves. Flowers are yellowish-green, borne on long stalks in racemes up to 50 cm ( 19") long in May-June. Fruits are pods , 7-15 cm (3_6") long by 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1") wide: they are often borne in 3's. They have a rough warty outer surface. They start green but turn an increasingly bright metallic blue as they ripen; they also become soft. When fully ripe in October they split to reveal transparent-whitish jellylike contents which contain numerous smallish black seeds, disc-shaped, about 4 mm across. Blue bean is hardy to about -20C (zone 6). The closely related D.insignis, from the Eastern Himalayas , is very similar apart from the fruits which are thicker, curved and yellow. It is also less hardy, to about _10C. The pulp is also edible from this species.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 9

Uses
The pulp inside the pods is sweet and edible raw, with a fine melon flavour. The skin is peeled off in the same way as a broad bean is peeled. Two Hnes of seeds run the length of the pulp and can be swallowed without harm.

Decaisnea fargesii is traditionally used in Chinese medicine as an antirheumatic and antitussive drug. The stems appear to be used.
The shell of the pod, whose contents are edible, is not edib le itself. It contains a white latex which contains various hydrocarbons of the terpene type and rubber (CsHa). The latex is found in a system of canals , and can

be seen oozing from the edges of the pod when it is split open . There is thus the potential of obta ining rubber from the pods.

Blue bean pod s - ruler top scale in em

Cultivation
Blue bean will grow in sun or semi-shade, and prefers a fertile, loamy, moist but well-drained soil. It dislikes drought. Some shelter is preferable, as the branches are somewhat brittle and may break in strong winds. New growth can sometimes be damaged by late spring frosts. Growth is quite fast . about 40 em (16
n )

per year .

The plant flowers and fruits regularly in the UK . Plants start producing fruits after about 5 years. They ripen in late September and October. There are no pests or diseases of note. Pruning is not usually required. Propagation is by seeds. Fresh seeds germinate best, sown in autumn or stratified over winter. They germinate slowly in the spring. Seed is available from the A.R.T.

References
Bean , W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1974. King , J et al: Triterpenoid glycosides from Decaisnea fargesii. Phytochemistry. 1993, 33:2. Krussmann. G: Manual of Cultivated BroadLeaved Trees & Shrubs. Batsford . 1985. Metcalfe, C: Distribution of Latex in the Plant Kingdom. Econom ic Botany. Vo121 .

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Forest gardening: Plants for difficult sites: perennials (2)


This article lists useful perennials which are tolerant of the following conditions: Dry shade ( A ): Found under conifers and densely-crowned deciduous trees such as beech. Damp shade ( }.. ,.. ): Full shade found under open-crowned deciduous trees and sh ru bs . Drough ty sunny sites ( ~ ): Where the ground usually becomes very dry in summer. Boggy sunny sites ( 11"' ): Where the ground is often boggy and waterlo gged. Exposed sites (" ): Where the wind exposure is significant. Heavy clay soils ( U ): Self explanatory. Very alkaline soils ( .::::) ): Chalk and limestone soil s with a pH greater than about 7.5. Very acid soils ( e=): Soils with a pH less than about 5.5.

Latin name
Coronilla varia Corydalis ambigua Corydalis bulbosa Corydalis solida Crambe cordifolia Crambe maritima Crambe orientalis Crambe tatarica Crithmum maritimum Crocosm ia sp Crocus chrysanthus Crocus sativus Crocus sp Cryptantha virgata Cryptotaenia japonica Cunila origanoides Cyathea dealbata Cynara cardunculus Cynara scolym us Cynodon dactylon Cyperus esculentus
t:vnrinpriillm rpnin::lp

zone

common name
Crown vetch Fumewort Colewort Seacale Tartar bread plant Samphire

height

6 6 6 6 6 5 7 5 7 7-8 4 6 5-8 8 6 8

0.3 0.2 0.4 0.4 1.5 0.6 1.2 0.9 0.25 1.5 0.1 0.1

, , .5 u u ~ :E e' , a !:' E > x e a w '>" '>" '" "


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b b b
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Crocus olivieri ssp. balansae 7 Saffron Miner's candle Mitsuba Stone mint Tree fern

0.1 0.3 0.6 1 0.3 9 2 1.5 0


1 0.9 .4
~ I innpr

~ ~

E IE I I I I
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b
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6-8 Cardoon Globe artichoke 6 7 8


4

I~
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Bermuda grass Tiger nut


S h nwv l::lriv'l':

nR

=
Page 11

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Latin name
Oactylorhiza hatagirea Oactylorhiza maculata Daiswa polyphylla
Dalea candida Dalea enneandra

zone common name

height

> w

u c u

e> 1i
u

0 6 8
Spotted orchid

'"

, u 0, > E '" '" 8. " 0 x ue n'" u


~

;;:

.E

" " "


~

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>

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>

0.6 0.8 2 0.4 0 0 1.2 2.5 0.6 1 0 0.3 0.6 0 .15 0 .12 0 .6 1 0.9 0 .6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.1
E

Herb Paris

,.

<=

,
~
~ ~ ~

Slender prairie clover

Slender parosela Purple prairie dover Smoke bush

Oalea gattingeri
Dalea lanata Dalea polyadenia Darmera peltata

6 4

Umbrella plant Swamp loosestrife II[inois bundleflower

Decodan verticillatus Delphinium brunonianum Oesmanthus brachylobus Desmodium oldhami Dianthus caryophyllus

,. ,.

~
~

~
~

8 4 5 5 5 3

Carnation Squirrel corn


Dutchman's breeches

Dianthus superbus
Dicentra canadensis Dicentra cucullaria Dichelostemma pulchellum

"

=> =>

A
~ ~

Blue-dicks Burning bush Large yellow foxglove Yellow foxglove

Dictamnus albus
Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis lutea Dodecatheon hendersonii Drosera anglica Drosera rotundifolia Dryopteris carthusiana Dryopteris crassirhizoma Dryopteris fllix-m as Dryopteris fragrans Echinops dahuricus Echinops ritro Echinops sphaerocephalus Echinops spinossimus Eleocharis acicularis Eleocharis tuberosa Elodea canadensis Elymus canadensis

~ ~

6 5 6 5 6 2 3 3 3
7

Sailor-caps Dragonhead Sundew Sundew Narrow buckler fern Male fern

b
~

Dracocephalum ruyschianum 3

,.
~

,. ,. ,.

<= <=

112 0.2 0
Small globe thistle Great globe thistle Hair grass

~ ~ ~
~ ~

0.6 2 0.8 0.1 1 0 0.75

9 3 3

Water chestnut Canadian pondweed Canad ian wild rye

,. ,.

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/10 No 2

"

%~

::;:;;gg&
~ ~ ~

ttr '""""'"

"""'" ~
~

Latin name
Elymus farctus Elymus triticoides EQuisetum fluviatile EQuisetum palustre Eragrostis chJoromelas Eragrostis curvula Eragrostis lehmanniana Eremochloa ophiuroides Eremurus aucherianus Eremurus spectabilis Eriogonum inflatum Eriogonum microthecium Eriogonum umbellatum Eritrichium pusitlum Eryngium campestre Eryngium leavenworthii Eryngium maritimum Eryngium tripartitum Eryngium yuccifolium Eupatorium cannabinum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia amygdaloides var. robbiae Euphorbia characias Euphorbia corollata Euphorbia cyparissias Euphorbia esula Euphorbia glauca Euphorbia ipecacuanhae Euphorbia preslii Festuca elatior var. arundinacea Festuca idahoensis Festuca longifolia Festuca ovina Festuca pratensis

zone common name

height

5
Squaw grass

0.6 1.2 0 0
Boer lovegrass Weeping lovegrass Lehmann Jovegrass Centipede grass

c c m m ~ c ., ~ u m ~ > " .m " m e' , m " 0 m " m " E > m e .8 x " w > > " "
~ ~

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~

.
~

2-3 Swamp horsetail 3 9 7 9 8 6


Desert trumpet

", ",

" "

0.9 1.2 0.1 0 1 0 0.4 0.5 0 0.6 0.45 1.2 1 1.5 3 0.7 1.5

6 7 6 5 5 5 4 5 4 7-8 7 5 4 5 9

Wild buckwheat Sulphur flower Field eryngo Sea holly Rattlesnake master Hemp agrimony Gravelroot

E
b

" " " " " " " I" " " " " " 1 " " I" " " I", "
",1

=> =>

Purging root Cypress spurge Leafy spurge Sand spurge Ipecac spurge

0.9 0.4 1.2 0.5 0.3 0

" " "


" " " " "

5 6 6 5 5

Tall fescue Idaho fescue Hard fescue Sheep's fescue Meadow fescue

1.2 0 0.7 0.25 1.2

" " "


Page 13

.... __

... _- ..... _- ---

" "

........ _...:_--,-

~ ---

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Latin name
Festuca rubra ssp. rubra

zone common name


5
Creeping red fescue
Fine leaved fescue

height

1.1 0.5 0 0 0 0.7 1.2

Festuca tenuifolia Festuca thurber Festuca viridul a


Festuca vivipara

c, c, . c ro u :i! 0 ro ~ E ~ ro eo , > E ro ". ". " > ". ro e x w > > I


~
~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

5 5 5 5
7

Thurber fescue
Greenleaf fescue

I~ I
" " "
" " " " " " " " "I

I
I

Viviparous fescue Paper pumpkinseeds


Meadowsweet

I
U U

co

Fibigia dypeata Filipendula ulmaria Filipendula vulgaris Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria chiloensis Fritillaria camschatcensis Fritillaria imperial is Fritillaria meleagris Fritillaria pallidiftora Fritillaria pudica Fritillaria roylei Fritillaria verticillata Gaillardia grandiflora Galium mollugo Galium odoratum Galium verum Gastrodia cunninghamii Gastrodia elata Gentiana acaulis var. angustifolia Gentiana cruciata Gentiana lutea Gentiana pannonica Gentiana pneumonanthe Gentiana punctata Gentiana purpurea Gentiana verna Geranium phaeum Geranium sanguineum Geranium sylvaticum Geum rivale Glaux maritima
,

2 3 5 4
4 4 4

,>

. Dropwort Fennel Beach strawberry Black sanara Crown imperial Checkered lily Pale-flowered fritillary

0.75 1.5 E 0 .3 0.6 1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6

" "
U

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3 3 5 5
4

Yellow fritillary

Blanket flower Hedge bedstraw Sweet woodruff Lady's bedstraw

3 5 3

0 .8 1.5 0.15 0.6 1 1 0.1


A

h h

b b

"

"'"
I I

co

3 5 5 5
4

Stemless gentian Cross gentian Yellow gentian

OA
2 0.6 0.3

5 5 5 5 5
4

Spotted gentian Purple gentian Spring gentian Dusky cranesbill Bloody crane's-bill Wood cranesbill Water avens Black saltwort

0.6 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.3 1 0.3 0.3


b

" " " " " " "


"
,>

"'" "'"
I

I
I

I
I
I

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

"

wLatin name
Glechoma hedera cea Glehnia littoralis Glyceria dedi nata Glyceria f1uitans Glyceria maxima Glyceria notata Glyceria pediceJlata Glycyrrhiza glabra Goniolimon tataricum Gra tiola officinalis Grindelia camporum Grindelia cuneifofia Grindelia robusta Grindelia squarrosa Gutierrezia sarothrae Gypsophila paniculata Gypsophila repens Gypsophila struthium Halimione portulacoides Haplopappus nuttallii Haplopappus spinulosus Hedysarum boreale Hedysarum boreale ssp. mackenzii Hedysarum coronarium Hedysarum occidentale Hedysarum species Helianthemum canadense Helianthus laetiflorus Helianthus tuberosus Helichrysum arenarium Helichrysum stoechas Helictotrichon pratense Helictotrichon pubescens Helleborus toetidus Helleborus niger
, ' _"_1... __.. .
7 4 4 4

'!!M

5l\iiliI
, c c , ~ 0 u e E > ~ e- li E , e:e:> e:- e 0 > > w
c
0
~
~

0>
~

zone common name Ground ivy Corkwing Glaucous sweet grass Floating manna grass

height 0.2 E

I"

0 0.5 0.45 2.5 0.8 1 1.2 0.5 0.4

"

I ~L ~

Reed sweet grass Plicate sweet grass Hybrid sweet grass

I,

.' .'

=:>

<=

8
4

Liquorice Hedge hyssop

I'" " I

8 8
7

Gumplant Shore grindelia Curlytop grindelia Matchbrush

I~.4
1.2 1 1.2 0.2 0.6 0 0 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.6 0 0.35 2 2.4 0.3 0.5 1 0.8 0.3
E E E

I"I,
I~
1

3
4
4

Baby's breath Egyptian soapwort root. Sea purslane

'"

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=:> 1

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9? 2 3 3 3
4

Spiny goldenweed Liquorice root Liquorice root Saintoin Liquorice root Frostweed Showy sunflower Jerusalem artichoke Everlasting flower
Goldy locks

.' "

I"

I" I

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Meadow oat grass Downy oat grass

Stinking hellebore Slack hellebore


,...._. __ 1..._".1.... __

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=:>

=:>
=:>

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Page 15

Latin name
Hemerocallis fulva

zone common name


4
4

height

Common day lily


Grassleaf day lily

1 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.02 0.75 1.5 1 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.7

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c ~
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Hemerocallis minor
Hepatiq nobms

U U

5 5 3

Hepatica

Heracleum watlichii
Herniaria glabra

,>

=>

j
v

Rupture wort
Sweet rocket Telegraph weed

Hesperi s matronalis
Heterotheca inuloides Heterotheca villosa

8
5

Golden woolly aster Holy grass


Horseshoe vetch

Hierochloe odorata Hippocrepis comosa


Hippuris vulgaris
Hordeum jubatum

Marestail

Maned barley

Hosta ventricosa
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Huperzia 5ela90

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Hydrastis canadensis

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioid es Hydrocotyle vulgaris Hydrophyllum virginianum

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Page 16

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lnula helenium Inula royleana Inula viscosa Iris douglasiana Iris foetidissima Iris germanica Iris missouriensis Iris paltida Iris pseudacorus Iris setosa Iris sibirica Iris versicolor Jeffersonia diphyJla Juncus acutus Juncus balUcus Juncus conglomeratus Juncus effusus Juncus inflexus Knautia arvensis Koeleria macrantha Lachnanthes carolina Lactuca denticulata Lactuca perennis Lactuca pulchella Lactuca thunbergii Lagarosiphon major Lamium album Lamium amplexicaule Lamium galeobdolon Lamium purpureum Lathraea squamaria Lathyrus hirsutus Lathyrus linifolius var. montanu5 Lathyrus ochroleucus
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Page 17

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Lathyru5 ornatus Lathyrus polymorphus
Lathyru ~ vestitu5

zone common name

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Lavatera thuringiaca Lemna gibba Lemna miniscula Lemna minor Lem na oligorrhiza Lemna perpusilla Lemna triscula Leontodon autumnal is Leontodon hispidus Leontopodium alpinum Lepidium latifolium Lesquerella fendleri Leucanthemum vulgare Leucojum vernum Leuzea rhapontica Lewisia rediviva Leymus arenarius Leymus condensatus Leymus racem05US Liatris aspera Liatris odoratissima Liatris punctata Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Ligularia dentata Ligusticum hultenii Ligusticum monnieri Ligusticum mutemnoides Ligusticum scoUcum Ulium macula tum Ulium martagon Ulium pardalinum Umonium carolinianum

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Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValID No 2

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Limonium 9melinii Umonium latjfolium ..Limonium ornatum Limonium sinuatum Umonium vulgare Linaria vulgaris
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Sea lavender Yellow toadflax Perennial flax Blue flax

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Page 19

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/10 No 2

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Lysimachia nummularia Lysimachia quadrifolia Lysimachia vulgaris

zone

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height

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Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Latin name
Meum athamanticum Micromeria chamissonis Milium effusum

zone common name


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Introduction
The bladder nuts are a group of deciduous shrubs and small trees which get their name from the fruits , which are inflated capsules containing a few seeds . Thy originate from northern temperate regions , and are generally found growing in woodlands in moist soil. The two species described here ha ve edible seeds.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Page 21

Description
S.pinnata (Bladder nut I Fa lse pistachio, from Southern & Central Europe - France to Ukraine- and Asia minor - to Syria) and S.trifo/ia (American bladder nut, from Eastern North America - Quebec to Georgia, west to Kansas and Nebraska) are shrubs growing to some 5 r\l (16 ft) high and wide. They are fairly vigorous plants , growing some 50 cm (20") per year. The branches have smooth striped bark. Leaves are opposite with 3-7 leaflets. S.pinnata is upright and vigorous; leaves are pinnate with 3-7 (usual ly 5) leaflets , each 5-10 cm (2_4") long , bright green above and bluish green below. Bell-shaped flowers are whitishgreen tinged pink, fragrant, about 1 cm across in narrow drooping panicles up to 12 cm (5") S.pinnata long, borne in May and June. Pollination is via fl ies. Fruits are nearl y round, green ish-white inflated bladder-like capsules, to 3-4 cm (1.21.6") long, ripening from September to November. They contain 2-3 light brown roundish seeds, each to 12 mm (~M across). Hardy to about -18 D C. It is naturalised in Britain. S.trifolia is upright and moderately vigorous, with shiny shoots ; pinnate leaves have 3 leaflets each 3.5-8 cm (1 ~-3") long, dark green above, downy beneath. Bell-shaped flowers are dull white, 8 mm across, in drooping panicles to 5 cm (2") long, borne in May and June. Pollination is via flies. Fruits are 3-4 cm (1.21.6") long, usually 3-lobed, light brown when ripe from September to November. They contain 2-3 light brown roundish seeds, each about 5 mm (0.2") across. Hardy C. to about _20D Flowers are borne in terminal panicles - ie from the tips of the shoots. Left Staphylea trifolia capsu le and flowers fruit

Uses
The seeds of both species are edible raw or roasted , with a pleasant pistachio flavour. shell is not edible. The A sweet edible oil is obta ined from the seeds of S.trifolia, used for cooking. S.frifolia has been used medicinally by the native Iroquois in North America . An infusion of plants is taken for rheumatism, and a bark infusion is used as a dermatological aid. The seeds were used in rattles Plants have dense underground root systems and can be used for erosion control.

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValiD No 2

Cultivation
The bladdernuts have a robust constitution and grow well in most fertile soils in sun or semishade - good in forest and woodland gardens. They like a moist (but not waterlogged ) soil and are not tolerant of drought. They are very resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp.)

S.pinnata (left) and S.trifolia (right) seeds. Scale in em.


Flowers appear in great profusion in the spring following a long hot summer. Seeds ripen from September to November - it is easy to learn to judge ripeness from the condition of the fruit 'bladder' . Pruning isn't essential. To restrict size and shape, prune after flowering. Plants can also be cut back hard in winter and will respond with vigorous growth.

Propagation
Plants are often grown from seed Seed should either be sown in the autumn or stratified before sowing in the spring. Both the species above require 13-22 weeks of warm stratification, foHowed by 13 weeks of cold stratification, prior to sowing in spring. Cuttings can also be taken; softwood and greenwood (semiripe) cuttings can be taken in summer and rooted in a moist atmosphere with gentle bottom heat. Root cuttings also work. Division works well after plants have suckered . Branches can be layered in JulyAugust. Remove rooted layers 15 months later in winter. Seeds and sometimes plants of both these species is available from the A.R.T.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants Database. ART,2001. Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1978. Dirr, M & Heuser. C: The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Varsity Press, 1987. Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees & Shrubs. Batsford , 1985. Moerman, D; Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Va/tO No 2

Page 23

The strawberries
Introduction
Although the strawberry of commerce was only brought into domestication some 250 years ago, indigenous strawberries have been cultivated for at least 2000 years, and no doubt they were harvested in the wild for their fruits for many thousands of years before that. Indigenous species are not only a source of fruit (sometimes of far better flavour than cultivated types); some have long been used medicinally, and most make a good component of ground

cover.
By the 1Sttl century, Fragaria vesca, the wood strawberry, was widely planted in gardens allover Europe and fruits harvested both for private consumption and market. All parts were used in medicinal teas , syrups, tinctures and ointments by apothecaries.
The musky flavoured F.moschata was also planted in gardens by the late 15 th century, grown for its fruit, as well as F.viridis, grown as an ornamental. F.virginiana arrived in Europe in the th 16 century and was soon added to garden collections, valued for its large red fruits and high yields. F.chiloensis was cultivated over 1000 years ago in Chile for its edible and medicinal uses. It th arrived in Europe in the 18 century and was soon cultivated on a large scale in Brittany, France. It wasn't long until F.chiloensis x F.virginiana hybrids were discovered which began the breeding and selection work on modern commercial strawberries. This article concentrates on indigenous strawberry species and not on modern bred cultivars.

General description
Strawberries are herbaceous perennials with a central stem or crown from which leaves, roots , runners (stolons) and flower heads (inflorescences) emerge. Leaves usually have 3 leaflets. Leaves of m'o st species live only a few months and die after exposure to hard frosts in the autumn; if temperatures don't drop substantially below freezing (as in much of the UK), some leaves remain green (eg. on F. vesca & F.chiloensis). Old leaves are replaced in the spring with new leaves which emerge from the crown. Runners of most species consist of two nodes. A daughter plant is produced at the second node, whereas the first node remains dormant or develops another runner. Each daughter plant has the capacity to produce its own runners. A vigorous plant may produce 20-40 runners per year. The runners themselves can survive for a year or more. The mother plant can transfer water and nutrients to the daughter plant for several weeks to years, depending on the species. Rooted daughter plants can usually survive independently after 2-3 weeks of attachment. Flower heads terminate with a primary flower. Following this, there are typically two secondary ftowers, four tertiaries and eight quaternaries. A typical flower has ten sepals, five petals and 20-30 stamens. Individual flowers persist for up to 2 weeks. Fertility varies between species. Many bear perfect flowers (with both male and female parts present) and may be self-fertile or self-sterile; some are dioecious with male and female plants, with both sex of plants required for fruiting to occur. Others are trioecious ~ producing plants which are male. female, or perfect-flowered. Pollination is via insects , often bees and flies, also via the wind.

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

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Fruits are in fact 'aggregates', composed of numerous ovaries each bearing a single seed (a chene) on the outer surface of the strawberry _ They ripen some 4-6 weeks after flowers are fertilised . They contain about 90% water and 10% total soluble solids , and are extremely high in vitamin C Generally there are 20-30 primary roots, and hundreds of smaller roots ; 50-90% of the roots lie in the upper 10-15 em (4-6") of soil. Roots form associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Strawberries divide into three types which vary in their behaviour to temperature and day length: 3. Short-day. Single-crop or 'June' fruiting habit. Flower buds are initiated either under short day conditions (less than 14 hours of daylight) or when average temperatures are less than 15C. Above 15C , 8-12 daylight hours are requ ired for floral initiation. In climates with co ld winters, flower buds are normally formed in summer/autumn, and they break the following spring when temperatures are warm enough. Runners are produced after flowering from the bases of new leaves and grow in late summer and autumn.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 25

1.

Day-neutral. Plants don't become dormant as the day length shortens - flowering and runner production are continuous from early spring until growth is stopped by cold temperatures late in autumn. Flower buds and runners are produced about 3 months after planting , regardless of day length. Flower buds are then initiated throughout the growing season in a cyclical pattern unless temperatures are too hot. Long-day (everbearing). Plants fruit two or more times per season . Typically initiate their flower buds when daylight lengths are greater than 12 hours and temperatures ~are moderate. Not often grown commercially.

2.

All species require a rest period, induced by short days and low temperatures. Species & cultivars from cool/cold climates require greater chilling during this period than those from warm climates. Insufficient chilling can lead to poor producti vity. Hardiness varies between species & cultivars. Fully dormant and hardened crowns of the hardiest species/cultivars can withstand temperatures of -40C or more, whereas the least hardy can only tolerate -10C. Flowers and immature fruits can tolerate short periods of _3 C.

Cultivation
Strawberries grow and crop in a wide range of soil types from sands to heavy loams, and also tolerate a wide range of pH, acid to alkali. Best growth is with slightly acid pH (6-6.5) and welldrained fertile soil. Frost pockets are best avoided to reduce any spring frost damage. Tolerance to shade varies between species. F.vesca and F.virginiana are understorey plants , and very tolerant to shade; F.chiloensis only tolerates light shade. This article assumes that strawberry species are being grown as multipurpose plants - ie for ground cover, fruit, and perhaps medicinal purposes. As such the standard methods for growing commercial cultivars are not applicable; such methods deny the plants their natural form of growing - ie they are not allowed to send out runners and move themselves around and instead, runners are pruned off or daughter plants transplanted to new beds. This is a lot of work, but necessary to achieve economic yields of fruit from machine harvesters. Plants of most species should be planted at about 30 cm (1 ') apart to quickly form a good ground cover. If plants are allowed to move by themselves , a lot of work is saved. Mother plants, which eventually decline and die, are automatically replaced by daughter plants from other mothers. The plants move automatically where light and soil conditions allow, thus filling in gaps between and beneath other plants. The ground cover is dynamic, responding to changes very quickly. On the downside, fruit harvesting takes longer, but then this is bound to occur when growing species. Overcrowded plants also tend to produce smaller fruits. Strawberry species, which yield much lower fruit yields than cultivated types , are not hungry feeders, and little in the way of nutrients need to be supplied. There are a large number of potential pests and diseases, but non-intensively grown strawberry species suffer few problems. Propagation is by seed or by layering runners to produce daughter plants. Seed of most species germinates best if given 2-6 weeks of cold before warm conditions: sow in late winter onto the surface of a fine seed compost and leave in the light (this improves germination). Germination is slow but steady over many months, and seedlings can be potted up when big enough.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

The species
Ex ananassa - Cultivated f Garden strawberry Hybrids based on crossed between F.chiloensis and F.virginiana. These two species overlap their natural ranges in parts of North and South America , but the domestication of the strawberry was not based on natural hybrids, but instead on accidental hybrids that appeared in European gardens in the mid 1700's. Numerous cultivars have been bred to supp ly the large commercia l strawberry~growjng industry worldwide. Plants grow some 30 em (1') high and bear several runners. Short day types flower in MayJuly, fruit in June-August.
~:

trioecious. Will cross pollinate with F.moschata & F.viridis. Fruits: very large, red, very variable.

Young leaves can be eaten raw.


F.chiloensis - Beach I Chilean strawberry Plants low-spreading (to 30 cm, l' high), vigorous with prolific runnering , evergreen. Runners persist for several years . Leaves are thick, dark green, very glossy. Flowers large (20-35 mm); leaves thick, dark green, glossy; runners robust, bright red . Normally flowers in April-May, fruits in June-July. Very drought tolerant; hardy to -25C (zone 4) . Once cultivated extensively in France - several white-fru ited forms exist. Four subspecies exist:

1. 2. 3. 4.

ssp. ssp. ssp. ssp.

lucida - from the Pacific coast of western North America pacific - also from the Pacific coast of western North America sandwicensis - from Hawaii chifoensis - from beaches and mountains of Southwestern South America

Flowers: trioecious. Fruits: large, dull red-brown, white flesh. mild to pungent flavour, firm . round-oblong. The leaves are used fresh or dried to make a tea. The leaves are used medicinally, being antiseptic, astringent , emmenagogue , galactogogue, odontalgic. They are used to regu late the menstrual cycle . F.corymbosa Native to Northern China . Flowers: dioecious. Fruits: seeds in deep pits. F.daltoniana Plants vigorous , to 30 cm (1') high , leaves shiny with few serrat ions , runners are slender. Normall y flowers in May-June, fruits in July-August. Native to a small region of the Sikk im Himalayas at 3000-4500 m altitude. Flowers: perfect, self-fertile , borne singly. Fruits: quite long (to 25 x 15 mm), ovoid-cylindrical, bright red , spongy, little flavour. F.gracilisa Native to parts of China and Tibet, found on grassy mountain slopes , ditches and forests. Flowers: perfect, self-sterile. Fruits: elongated, ovate .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 27

F.innumae A vigorous, erect plant to 25 cm (1 O ~ ) high, with slender runners. Flowers are moderately large with 6-8 petals. Normally flowers in April-May, fruits in June-July. Deciduous -loses leaves in winter. Native to the alpine mountains of central and northern Japan . Flowers: perfect, self-fertile. Fruits: sma ll (8 mm across x 15 mm long), elongated, spongy , little flavour. Edible
le~ves

- sometimes cooked as a potherb or added to soups.

F.iturupensis Leaves are bluish, flowers moderately large, fruits similar to F.vesca but larger. Island NE of Japan . Flowers: trioecious. Fruits: spherical, bright shiny red.

Native to an

F.mandshurica A small upright plant with long slender runners. Flowers medium sized. Native to Manchuria . Flowers: perfect. self-sterile. Fruits: round-ovoid. seeds in sha ll ow pits, very acid. F.moschata - Musk strawberry A tall (45 cm , 18~) vigorous plant, freely runnering. It grows in forests, under shrubs and in tall grass; native to mainland Europe, Russia and Siberia. Leaves are large , dark green, downy. The flowers are large and fruits are slightly larger than F.vesca. Normally flowers in April-July , fruits in June-September. White and red perfect-flowered forms are cultivated under the name 'Hautbois strawberry'. Hardy to -20 C. Flowers : trioecious. Fruits: light to dark dull purpl ish-red , soft, irregular roundish-ovoid , musky or vinous , aromatic, raised seeds. F.moupinensis Native to China & Tibet. Very similar in all respects to F.nilgerrensis. Flowers: dioecious. Fruits: small, orange-red, spongy, little flavour. F.nilgerrensis n Plant very vigorous, 20 cm (8 ) high , spreading with strong runners, with downy dark green leaves. Flowers large, pink blushed. Native to Southern Asia . Flowers: perfect, self-ferti le. Fruits: small , round , pale pink , flavour subtle or lacking (reports vary - some say banana flavour), many sunken seeds. F.nipponica Native to the mountains of Japan. May, fruits in June-July.

Has short runners.

Plant grows to 30 em (1') high . Normally flowe rs in Ap ril-

Flowers : perfect, self-sterile. Fruits: small (10 mm across), round-ovoid , seeds in pits, unpleasant flavour.

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Va/to No 2

=
F.nubico/a Native to the temperate Himalayas at 1500-4000 m altitudes. resemble F.vesca. The plants and fruits closely

Flowers: perfect (or dioecious - in doubt), self-sterile. Fruits: long ovate, bright red, raised seeds, very aromatic, very soft flesh.

F.orientalis A small upright plant, to 20 em (8") high, with long slender runners, light green leaves with deeply serrated edges, and a few large flowers. Normally flowers in April-May, fruits in JuneJuly. It is found in forests and open mountain slopes. From Eastern Asia.
Flowers: trioecious; sometimes flowers in spring and again in summer. Fruits: large, soft, red, conical or round, slightly aromatic, seeds sunken, sweet, good flavour. F.pentaphylla Native to Central China, found in grassy mountain slopes at 1000-2000m altitude. thick leaflets. Flowers: perfect, self-sterile. Fruits: round-ovoid, bright red, firm, little flavour. F.vesca - wood or alpine strawberry Native to North America, Central America, some of South America, Europe and Asia . It has thin light green, sharply serrated leaves borne on slender stems. Plants are erect and 15-30 cm (612") tall, and are usually profusely runnering. Most plants are short day ( flowering April-July, fruiting May-September), but everbearing runnerless (,Alpine ') types exist O. Hardy to -23C. Four subspecies are found: ssp. vesca - from woods of Europe & Asia ssp. americana - from woods of eastern North America to British Columbia ssp. bracteata - from woods of western North America ssp. californica - from California ('Californian strawberry') F.vesca f.alba is a white fruited form. F.vesca f. semperf/orens, the alpine strawberry, grows some 25 cm (10") across, and does not spread by runners. It flowers from May-November and fruits from June-No vember, producing abundant numbers of sweet excellent fruits. Plants decline after 2-3 years. Flowers: perfect, self-fertile. Fruits: 10-15 mm across, long ovate, bright red, raised or superficial seeds, very aromatic, very soft flesh. The leaves are used (fresh or dried) to make a tea . They can also be eaten raw in salads or cooked as a potherb. All parts are used medicina lly. The leaves and the fruit are astringent , diuretic, laxative and tonic. The leaves are mainly used against sores, though the fruits are taken for fevers. A slice of strawberry is also excellent when applied externally to sunburnt skin. A tea made from the leaves is a blood tonic , also used in the treatment of chillblains and as an external wash on sunburn. The lea ves are harvested in the summer and dried for later use. The roots are astringent and diuretic - used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The roots are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.

It has five

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Page 29

The fruit is used as a tooth cleaner - the fresh fruit removes sta ins from teeth if it is allowed to remain for about 5 minutes . The fruit is also used cosmetically in skin-care cream s. F. virginiana - Scarlet I Virginia strawberry Plants slender, tall (to 30 em, l' high), profusely runnering ; leaves coarsely toothed ; flowers small to large. Normally flowers in April-May , fruits in June-July. Found in meadows throughout central and eastern North America. Hardy to _35C. Two main subspecies are recognised: 1. ssp. g/auca - from the Rocky mountains ('Rocky Mountain strawberry') 2. " ssp. virginiana - from meadows and forest margins in central and eastern North America. Flowers: trioecious . Fruits: large (up to 2 cm across), round , soft, light to deep red or scarlet, white flesh , sweet, succulent, aromatic, deeply embedded seeds. Leaves can be used fresh or dried to make a tea. Medicinally, a tea made from the leaves has been used as a nerve tonic and is slightly astringent - used for sores , diarrhoea and dysentery. A tea made from the roots is astringent and diuretic, and has been used in the treatment of irregular menses, gonorrhoea , stomach and lung ailments, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruit is used as a tooth cleaner - the fresh fruit removes stains from teeth if it is allowed to remain for about 5 minutes. F. viridis - Green / Hill strawberry Native range Northern Europe eastwards into Asia . A slender upright plant (30 cm, l' high) with dark green lea ves with small serrations ; has few runners , without nodes. It is found in open grassland hills, steppes , at the edge of forests and amoung scrub. Tolerant of very alkaline soils. It produces only a few nodeless runners. Flowers quite large but fewer than F.vesca; petals are often yellowish-green when opening. Normally flowers in April-May , fruits in June-July. Fruits are larger than F.vesca. Hardy to -20C. Flowers: perfect, self-sterile; often borne in spring and again in summer. Fruits: firm, green-pink, aromatic, seeds in pits , sweet , succu lent, musky pineapple-cinnamon flavour. F.yesoensis Flowers are moderately large. Japan.

Plant is deciduous.

Native to the cooler regions of Northern

Flowers: perfect, self-fertile. Fruits: large ( 15-30 mm across), round-ovoid , seeds in pits , unpleasant flavour.

References
Crawford, M: Agroforestry Research Trust Plant Database 2001. ART,2001. Hancock, J: Strawberries. CABI Publishing, 1999. Hughes, H: Strawberries. ADAS Reference Book 95. HMSO. Janick, J & Moore, J N: Fruit Breeding, Volume 2: Vine and Small Fruits. Wiley, 1996. Moerman , D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Moore, J N & Ballington Jr, J R: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS ,

1990.
Schaffer, B & Andersen, P : Handbook of En vironmen ta l Physiology of Fruit Crops , Vo lume 1: Temperate Crops. CRC Press, 1994.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

The Alliums
Introduction
Allium species are used throughout the world for food , and in many parts for medicine too. The species described in this article are all used for food in various parts of the world. No doubt many other Alliums can also be used - there are no reports of any being poisonous.

Edible uses
Some members of the family have a distinctive garlic odour and flavour; others lack this and just have an onion flavour. Unless noted, all the species listed below have edible: bulbs - raw or cooked. Also sometimes pickled or dried. quite small, sometimes not round but elongated. leave s - raw or cooked, also can be dried and stored. flowers - used raw in salads. Size varies widely, often

In addition , some species have edible bulbils - miniature bu lbs formed on the stems. These include A.ampeloprasum babingtonii , A.carinatum , A.oleracum , A.scorodoprasum , A.ursinum , A.vineale . In some species , the thick stems are edible (like leeks). Others still ha ve edible cloves - offsets from a main bulb.

Medicinal uses
Some species , ego garlic, have long been associated with therapeutic uses. Recent research has confi rmed that all Allium species contain substances which , with regula r consumption , can have significant health benefits. These include a protective action against some cancers (gastrointestinal) , atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (anticlotting action ), reducing cholesterol levels, and benefits to sufferers of diabetes and asthma . The substance allicin (fo und in all species) is strong ly antibacterial and antifungal ; in additions, garlic contains thiosulfinates and thiosulfonates which are also antimicrobial. The compounds ca using the characteristic strong flavours of the onion family are an important defence for plants against insect and animal pests , and fungal and bacterial diseases. Extracts are fungicidal and insecticidal and are toxic to some nematodes too.

Cultivation
Most Allium species req uire a welldrained so il and full sun or very light shade. A few species tolerate pa rti al shade or even the shade. A moist soil is beneficial when plants are in growth , but many species require a summer rest , when tops die down , and they expect very dry cond itions - a very wet summer can cause bulbs to rot. Most species can be grown from seed sown in the spring . Others ca n be grown from bulbils (top sets) which form on flowering stems of established plants , or from bulbs already harvested. Still others - rhizomatous types can be divided. Beware that species producing bulbils can become weedy. All species are perennial , but some can no t tolerate winter wet. The roots of alliums frequently form mycorrhizal associations with fungi of the family Endogonaceae. Alliums have thick , little-branched roots which lack root hairs , so they are poorly adapted to absorb nutrients present in low concentrations in the soil. Mycorrhizal associations can greatly improve such nutrient uptake. The hardiest species, easiest to grow, are:

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 31

A.altaicum Aampeloprasum Aangulosum A.carinatum A.caro li nianum A.cernuum A fistulosum Agalanthum A.macleanii A.moly A.neapolitanum Anutans A.obliquum

A.oleracum A.pendu fi num Aroseum A .sativum A .schoenop rasum A.scorodoprasum A.senescens A.sphaerocephalum A.splendens Astellatum A.stipitatum A.suaveo l ens A.subhi rsutum

A.thunbergii A.tricoccum A.triquetrum A.tuberosum A.ursinum A. validum Avictorialis A. vineale A.wallichii

Species which need very well drained cond itions, and which are likely to rot outside in British winters, include: A.acuminatum Aakaka A.bodeanum A.cupani Adrummondii Ageyeri A.textile A.unifolium

Table of edible Allium species


Ht cm:gives maximum height of plant in metres (ie 0.1 = 10 cm) hdy: hardiness zone number. Indicates the average minimum winter temperatures that the plant will tolerate.

"C
Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone 1 2 3
4

"F
below -45 37 to 45 29 to -37 -23 to -29 -21 to -23 -15to-21 -12to-15 -7 to -12 below -50 -35 to -50 -20 to -35 -10 to -20 -5 to -10 -5t05 5t010 10 to 20

6
7

Details: +pt shade means plant tolerates part shade +shade means plant tolerates part and full shade. bulb(nn) means bulbs grow to size nn mm ed stems means stems are edible ed cloves means cloves are edible ILatin name IAacum inatum IAaflatunense iA.akaka !A.altaicum IA.ampeloprasum IA.amp. kurrat Wild leek IEgyptian leek lLeek IAamp. babbing tonii Babb ington leek ICommon name ITapertip onion lorigin Iwestern N America W. Asia Caucasus E. Asia S. Europe to W. Asia SW. England IN. Africa - Egypt IMediterranean IHt m IOetails 8 8

0 .3 1
1 0.3 0.37 1.8 1.8 1 1 0 .9 1

5
6 6 6 1 6 1 ed stems ed stems 1 ed stems led stell1 ~

tAam~ por~m

..

.-I

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

/Latin name

ICommon name

1 0rigin

IHt m

Ihdy loetails
1

IAamp. ?(bulbous ) !SulbOUS leek IA.amp. ?(elephant) /Elephan t garlic IAamp. ?(pearl) !A.anceps IAangu'are IAangulosum IAatropurpureum lA.bisceptrum IA bodeanum IA.bolanderi A.brevistylum A.canadense Ac. mobilense Acarinatum A.caro li nianum IA.cepa !A.C. aggregatum Ac. asca lonicum A.c.perutile A.c. proliferum A.c.wageki Acernuum Achinense A.condensatum !A.consangurneum !Acupani IA.dich lam ydeum IAdOUglasii IAdregeanum IA.d rummondii IA.falci folium IA.fistulosum IA.gala,::,th um IA.geyeri A.grayi IOnian lPotato onion Sha llot Everl asting onion Tree onion Wageki onion Nodding onion Rakkyo IPearlonion ITwinleaf onion I !Mouse garlic lAS pen onion I !Solander's on ion Sho rtstyle on ion Meadow garlic Wild garlic Keeled garlic IN.America IE. Asia - Siberia IC. Europe to E. Asia IE. Asia - N. India [Western N. America Russia

1 6 1 6

led cloves(lge) led stems I

I
I 1 5 1 8

I
Ibu lbs slender Ibulbs slender I+pt shade

Iw Asia - Iran
N. America N. America

I
0.45 0.45 0.6 0.4 06 1 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.45 0.4 0.6 I 0 .25 1 1 0.3 03 1 0 .6 1 0 .25 1 10.1 0 .6 1 03 1 0 .45 1

8 1

I
Ibulb(5-10) +pt shade bu lb(30) +ptshade bulb(30) +ptshade bulb(10) bu l b(30)

02 ISouthwestern N. America 1 Western N. America 0.5

1 7 2
4 4

bulbs slender !

I
I
I

Europe. Nard in Britain. E. Asia Iw . ASia IN at known in wild Syria Only known in UK Original habitat unknown . Japan, China N. America China E. Asia IHlmalayas IS. Europe to W. Asia. IN.America Iwestern N. America Is. Africa IN. America IN.America IE . Asia

1 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 5 I 8 1 8 1 6 1 I 1 7 8 1 1 5 1 1 1 7 I +pt shade bulb(50x15) bulb(50)

I
lCoastal on ion IDouglas's onion I !Prairie onion !Scytheleaf onion IWelsh onion I /Geyer's onion

I
I I Ibulb(25x15) I Ibulb(10-25) IbUlb(30) I

IE. Asia - Siberia .


!western N . America E. Asia - Japan

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 33

!Latin name
lA.hoakeri

tttft'

ICommon name

IOrigin IE. Asia - China


lTemperate Himalayas

IHt m I I 0.3 1 04 1 02 1 06 1 0 .5 1 1 1 0 .25 1 0 .6 1 0.3 1

Ihdy IOetaiis I I I 1 7 1 8 1 5 I 1 8 1 5 I 1 7 I I Ibulb(10) I I I I I I I


I+Pt shade
+pt shade

I I
!Glassyo nion

IA.humil. IA. hyalin um


lA.kunthii

IN .Ameri ca
ISouthern N. America

I
IPitted onion

!AJaCUnOsum
!A,ledebobrianum IA.lusitanicum IA,macleanii lA.macropetalu m

IN.America

lei boule vivace


I I
IChinese garli c
IGolden garl ic

IE. Asia IC.Europe

]w. Asia - Afghan istan


ISouthwestern N. America IChina, Japan, M ongo lia jEurope - Mediterranean

lA.macrostemon

IA.moly
A.monanthum

E. Asia - China, Japan

lA.mongo licum

I
IWild onion

IMongolia

IA.mutabi le
IA, nea poli tanum

ISoutheastern N. America
IEu rope - Mediterranean IN,America

IDaffodil garlic
INevada onion IAinu on ion

IA,nevadense
IA,niPponicum
lA.nutans

IJapan

I
!Twisted leaf garlic Field garlic

lA.Obliquum
.oleraceum [A.orientaie IA.oschanin ii

IE. Asia - S iberia


Brita in IN . Africa to W. Asia Iw. Asia - Afghanistan

ISiberia

I I
ISmail onion

Ibulb(15) Ibulb (2 5-40) I 0 .25 1 03 1 0.12 I I 0 .25 1 0 .8 1 0 .5 1 1 1 0 1 .35 0 .6 1 0 .25 1 8 1 8 1 6 I I 8 1 I 1 7 1 8 1 8 I 3 1 I I 8 1


+shade

IA .parvum
A .pendulinum IA.peninsula re

IN.America
Europ e - Mediterranean

!Mexica li on ion IBroadstem onion !Manyflower onion

IN.Am erica
[Southwestern N. Ame rica IN.America [Mongolia [E . Asia - N Tibet ISiberia

I+pt shade Ibulb(20-35) I I I I I Ibulb(15-25) I I I I I I

IA.Platycau le
IA.Pleianthum

IA.polyrrhizu
!A.przewalskianum IA.pskemense lA.ramosum [A.rosen bachi anum lA.roseum

I I I
IChinese chives

IE. Asia
[Asia minor [Mediterranean IE urope to W. Asia. Iwestern N. America IN. Africa

I IRosy garli c
[Assam on ion

lA.rubelium JA.rubrum
lA ruhmerianum lA.sacculiferum lA.sa ti vum

I I I IGa rli c

I
0 .6 1 0 .6 1

IE. Asia

Ic Asia?

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/1O No 2

A4

!Latin name IA.sChoenoprasum jA s sibiri cum Ascorodoprasum As. rotundum A.semenovii A.senescens P:-sphaerocephalum Asplendens A.stellatum IA.stipitatum jA.stracheyi A.suaveolens A. subhirsutum A.suworowii IA.taquetii jAtextile !Athunbergii A.tricoccum A.triquetrum A tuberosum Aunifolium A.ursinum [A:. validum A va villovii A.victoria lis A.vinea le A.wallichii

ICommon name IChives IGiant chives Rocambole

IOrigin IN.temperate regions IN America to E Asia Britain

IHt m

IOetaiis

0 .3 1
0.6 0.5 0.3 0.45 0 .6 0.3 0.75 15 1

1 5 1 5
7 7 6 5 5 5 6

I+Pt shade I+Pt shade bulb(20) +pt shade


I

S. Europe to W . Asia
E. Asia Himalayas Ballhead onion
Round~headed Miyama~rakkyo

C. Europe to Siberia leek Britain E. Asia Japan

+shade +shade +ptshade bulb small bulb(40x I 5) Ibulb(30 -60) +pt shade bulb(15)

Prairie onion I

N.

America
~

Iw.Asia E. Asia India S. and C. Europe Europe Mediterranean Siberia IE Asia - Korea N. America

8 1
5

0 .45 0.3 1 I 0.2 06 1 0.3 0.35 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6

I I

8
I 6 I Ibulb(20)

I Textile onion I Wild leek Threecornered leek Garlic chives One-leaved onion Ramsons Swamp onion

IE. Asia Japan


Eastern N. America S. Europe China Southwestern N. America Britain Southwestern N. America Sibe ria

8 1
6

I
+shade bulb(50xI2) +shade bulb(20)

8
7

8
5 +shade bu lb small tols wet soil bulb(50)

Alpine leek Crow garlic Jimbur

Europe E. Asia

Mediterranean

0.6 0.6 0.6

7
5

N .temperate regions

bulb small

References
Agrofo restry Research Trust: Plant database 2002. Davies, D: Allium - The Ornamental Onions. Batsford, 1992. Brewster, J: Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. CAB Interna tiona l. Moerman, 0: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Negi , K S: Lessknown wild species of Allium from mountainous regions of India. Economic Botany 46( 1). 112-4. van der Meer, Q P: Old and New Crops within ed ibl e Allium. Acta Hort, 433, 1997.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

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Siberian ginseng:
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Introduction
Siberian ginseng, as its name ind icates , is principally found in Siberia, although it is also found in China, and is widely used medicinally in both regions. Its roots are used in place of ginseng (Panax spp.) Other common names are wujia, eleuthero root, tough-rne-not, and devil's shrub. A common synonym for it is Acanthopanax senticosus.

Description
Siberian ginseng is a hardy deciduous shrut with erect, little branched and slender prickl~ stems, growing to 2.4-4.5 m (8-15 ft) high. Leaves are dark green with hairy veins and 3 01 5 oval-oblong finely toothed leaflets each some 7.5 em (3") long. Flowers are spherical umbels 4 em ( 1Y2ft) acros~ w ith purplish male and yellow female flower~ terminating the shoots. Each individual plan produces three types of flower - male, female and bisexual - which open in July. Flowers are cross pollinated, mainly by wild bees (eg Bombus). Pollinated flowers develop into black oval berry like fruits 8-12 mm (0.3-0.5") in diameter wher mature. Long, round, woody, pliable roots spread horizontally at a shallow depth and produce abundant suckers. Siberian ginseng is found in forests through Siberia, to the Sakhalin Islands, Japan , Korea and China. It grows in thickets, small groups or clumps, at the edges and within broad-leaved and evergreen forests. It belongs to the family Araliaceae, is slow growing, and hardy to about -

25C.

Uses
Young leaves are edible raw - good for salads. The roots are used medicinally; the leaves and stem bark also contain some of the major chemical components. In china, the fresh flowers are used to make a tea; fresh and sliced dried roots are also made into a tea; dried roots are also made into tincture and powder. The root and the root bark are adaptogen, antiinflammatory, hypoglycaemic, tonic and vasodilator. It is taken internally during convalescence and in the treatment of menopausal problems, geriatric debility, physical and mental stress etc. It works by strengthening the bodies natural immune system. It has also been used to combat radiation sickness (eg, after Chernobyl) and exposure to toxic chemicals.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Chernobyl) and exposure to toxic chemicals. Production in Russia in the 1960's and 1970's required over 100 tons of the root , which provided over 2 million doses of the herbal extract for human consumption. The byproducts of the plant - from roots , leaves and branches - were used in animal food products . Its use in Ru ssia is fairly recent. but it appears to have been used for over 2000 years in China.
~ Bodrust ~

Siberian ginseng has even found its way into commercial drinks in Russia - a soft drink called (meaning 'vigour') and a vodka ~ Golden Horn " both being produced . The latter redu ced the undesirable hangover effects of too mu ch vodka, though it discoloured the product.

Many pharmacological attributes are ascribed to Siberian ginseng . It is classed by some as an 'adaptogen ' (like true ginseng). It has strong antioxidant properties , and it is a non toxic, non specific, regulator of various organ systems. It thus increases the capacity of the body to adapt to a wide range of biological and physical stresses. Regular use is supposed to restore vigour, Several Russian studies support the memory, good appetite, and to increase longevity. supposed val ue in increasing end uran ce and concentration; Russian cosmonauts have frequently used it on their trips, and it is used by divers, rescue teams , ath letes , soldiers etc. Other studies have shown it to increase the life span of mice (longer than true ginseng) and to retard cancer development, as we ll as having antiviral properties. It does seem to have more universal effects on the immune system than true ginseng, and is sometimes judged more effecti ve and reliable than true ginseng. Si berian ginseng accounts for over 3% of the American medicinal herbal industry - ie some $370 million per year.

Cultivation
Commercia ll y, Siberian ginseng is harvested from its natural habitat in Russia and northern China , but is in danger of being overharvested and endangered . Recommended practices there are now to leave some roots in the soil for future regeneration . Recent experimental cultivation in Japan and Canada has shown that the re are no difficulties in culti vating the plant out of its natural habitat, where it has semishade, and rich, moist sandy loam soils. Poor soil and air pollution are tolerated . There is a thornless form, f.inermis. Plants should be sited in semi-shaded conditions , and need a well-drained but fertile soil. Seedl ings require 3-4 years to flower and set seed themselves ; cuttings and suckers probably less. Plants respond well to some nitrogen, and might benefit by being sited near to nitrogenfixing trees or sh rub s. Siberian ginseng roots are usually dug in autumn or early spring, but can be dug at any time du ring the winter that conditions allow. The roots are dried whole , then chopped and stored for later use. The dry root wholesales for about 7 .50/kg ($5 .5Ifb). Commercial production in Russia yields 300-600 kg/ha (268-536 Ib/acre) depending on location and environment; highest yi elds from broad-leaved forests thinned by felling or fire with a good undergrowth. Propagation is by severa l methods. Seeds require warm then cold stratification (4 months warm followed by 2 months cold) to germinate well; there are about 40 seedslg (11 OO/oz). Hardwood and softwood cuttings can also be taken - softwood taking best , in late June. Suckers can be dug from the parent plant in winter.

References
Oa vydov, M & Krikorian , A: Eleutherococcus senticosus as an adaptoge n - a closer look. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72 (2000 ) 345-393. Duke, James A: Ginseng, A Concise Handbook. Reference Publications , 1989. Li , Thomas S C: Siberian Ginseng. HortTechnology Jan-March 2001 11 ( 1), 79-84.

AGROFORESTR Y NEWS Vol 10 No 2

Page 37

... Book reviews


Bamboo for Gardens
Ted Jordan Meredith
Timber Pifess, 2001; 406 pp; 29.99 ($39.95) (hardback). ISBN 0-88192-507-1. Initial chapters cover the origin and distributions of bamboos, their structure and function. The chapter on culture includes details of growth cycles, the forest ecology where bamboos originate, cultural requirements, and how to harvest shoots to eat and canes (cu rms) . Propagation by seed and division is well covered.
The author feels strongly that bamboos should be more widely used in gardens and the next chapter, on Landscaping and Maintenance , concentrates on making their use easier. He d iscusses controlling spread and height, thinning and pruning, container growing, the use of colours and different size bamboos , and creating screens and hedges.

Bamboo uses are covered quite well, including detailed notes on eating bamboo shoots. Most of the second half of the book is an encyclopedia of bamboo genera, species and cultivars. More than 300 bamboos and 40 different genera are described in detail, including subtropical and tropical families . Information is given on size, light and temperature requirements, native range , physical characteristics , and landscape and other uses . Many are accompanied by excellent colour photos (of which there are 160 in all). A useful appendix lists bamboos for special situations - ego for full shade, hedges etc. This is certai nly an excellent book on the land scape uses of bamboos .

HDRA Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening


Pauline Pears (Editor-in-chief)
Darlin g Kindersley, 2001; 416 pp; 25.00. ISBN 0-7513-3381-6 There been a few books of this ilk in recent years , but this is destined to become the leading reference book on organic gardening. It is well designed , readable, and full or relevant and useful information. Initially, the development of the organic movement is related , and answers are given to the questions why do and what is organic gardening. The basic design elements for designing a su burban garden are also briefly covered. Basic aspects of gardening are comprehensively covered, starting appropriately with soil and soil care - soil improvers , composts, green manures and fertilisers all being mentioned . The section on water use starts with the aim to reduce water usage from the outset. That on weeds and their control includes good lists of mulch materials, and how to deal with particular pernicious weeds. Plant health and propagation are also discussed.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

A substantial part of the book deals with ornamental aspects of gardening - landscaping , choosing woody plants, climbers and herbaceous plants, lawn s and wildlife gardening. As one would expect from the HDRA, there are excellent sections on growing fruit, herbs and vegetables , as well as good advice on utilising greenhouses , poly tunnels and cloches . I would ha ve preferred more information on recommended fruit varieties (only a Jist is given for each fruit , with no description). A useful A-Z of plant problems quickly locates adv ice and organic solutions for pests, diseases and other plant problems.

The Woodland Way


A Permaculture Approach to Sustainable Woodland Management

Ben Law
Permanent Publications, 2001; 256 pp; 16.95. ISBN 1 85623 009

The need for a radical book on sustainable forestry with practical examples and written from a practical perspective has finally been answered. Ben Law's book clearly demonstrates how biodiverse healthy woodlands can yield numerous products and secure livelihood s for woodland workers, as well as benefiting the local community. Initially, the woodland resources and main management techniques (both popular and almost unknown but with potential) of the British Isles are described , including agroforestry techniques such as shredding (ha rvesting branches for fodder) and wood pasture . Ben then discusses what is involved to enable forest dwellers to return to a way of living integrated with their ecosystem. Forest dwellers tend to build houses from forest-sourced materials , utilise its products in many ways, grow food in clearing and forest gardens, intimately know every tree and path, and make decisions based on years - even generations - of forest dwelling. The main problem in taking this route in Britain - the planning laws which make the building of dwellings in woods extremely difficult - are touched upon here and returned to in a later chapter. The next few chapters describe alternatives to the mainstream methods of woodland management, and are accompanied by real examples. Assessment and planning - a vital but often overlooked and hurried procedure - is emphasised. 'Establishing new woodlands' applies permaculture principles to the design of woodlands , and briefly describes how to start a tree nursery, and plant and protect new trees . Establishing , harvesting and maintaining coppice and high forest are given detailed treatment. The practicalities of cutti ng and processing wood are covered - extraction , milling , seasoning and adding value to coppiced wood by utilising it for crafts, charcoal etc. Also the marketing of high forest produce. Food from woodlands is given good treatment , concentrating on forest gardening ; brief lists of the most promising , mainly native, tree , shrub and ground cover plants are given . Fungi, bees for honey, and woodland wild meat sources are also mentioned. The law relating to woodland management is most usefully described, as is the planning system relating to dwellings. Useful appendices include lists of useful woodland trees , mostly native ; and trees for coastal situations and different soil types; guidelines for planning sustainable wood lands; relevant forestry planning cases. A book which should be on the desk (or at least the shelves) of all involved in managing or using trees and woodlands. Available from the A.R.T. for 19.50 including postage & packing.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 2

Page 39

--;g
The BioPesticide Manual
L G Copping (Editor)
British Crop Protection Council, 2001; 576 pp; 105.00. ISBN 1 901396290 As the worldwide agricultural industry turns increasingly to integrated pest management and organic farming & horticulture techniques, there is an increasing demand for 'natural' biopesticides for the control of di seases, pests and weeds. The array of biopesticides is vast including micro-organisms (eg. bacteria), macro-organisms (eg. predatory wasps), natural products (eg. fermentation by-products) and naturally-found chemicals (eg. sex pheromones). This impre ssive directory manages to give details about all worldwide available biopesticides over 270 in total (and over 1000 commercial products). Each entry is in itself comprehen sive, and includes details of nomenclature; source (ie origin of the organism or chemical); production (commercial method used to produce a product); target pests, diseases and crops; biological activity (biology, mode of action, efficacy etc); commercialisation (formulation of products and trade names); application; compatibility with other biopesticides or chemicals; mammalian toxicity; and environmental impact and other toxi city details. Comprehensive glossaries are included, Latin-English and English-Latin , to relate common names to Latin names. Companies worldwide manufacturing commercial products are also listed. An index also lists all trade names and Latin names of biopesticide agents and the diseases/pests/weeds they control, referring the reader to an entry number (section: entry) rather than a page number - the latter would have been useful, as there is no other way to look up an entry via this index than flick through the pages trying to catch the entry numbers which are placed irregularly on the page. There is no comparative authoritative world compendium of commercial biopesticides products to this; it is a veritable mine of independent information. Anyone involved with commercial crop protection will easily be able to make frequent reference to this book.

Classified adverts
25p/word, minimum 5.00. 20% discount for subscribers.
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AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValID No 2

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce" uiverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining , interconnected and productive system .

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 18 per year in Britair. and the E.U. (14 unwaged) 22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) 32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 3.50 per copy including postage (4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

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AgroforestryNews

1J 1

Chinkapin - Castanea pumila

Volume 10 Number 3

April 2002

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 10 Number 3

April 2002

Contents
2 3 16 18 24 27 38 40 News The Junipers Chinese quince: Pseudocydonia sinensis Strawberries Castanea pumila: chinkapin Forest Gardening: Plants for difficult sites: perennials (3) Pest & Disease series: Peach Leaf Curl Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and shou ld be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicina l crops; such crops, jf unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776 Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K. Website: www.aaroforestrv.co .uk Email: mailfa)aaraforestrv.cQ ,uk

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News
Autumn olive fruits
The autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, is a nitrogen-fixing windbreak, hedging and companion shrub par excellence, which also bears dark red edible fruits in September. Recent research has found that the red pigments in the fruit (carotenoids) are extremely high in Iycopene , and also contain beta -ca rotene and lutein , Lycopene is one of the pigments found in tomatoes which has preventative qualities for heart disease and cancers of the prostrate, cervix and gastrointestinal tract. It is also found in watermelon and pink grapefruit. But the amounts found in autumn live fruits were 5 to18 times that found in fresh tomatoes. on a gram-for-gram basis. Source: Agricultural Research, September 2001.

Columnar and upright peaches


American researchers at the USDA have bred columnar and upright varieties of peaches. Intended to allow for high -density planting systems and thus much higher yields per hectare, they may also be useful where trees have to be protected (eg. from the rain in spring to prevent peach leaf curl). The upright tree reaches only 2.5-3 m (8-10 ft) across and the columnar tree 1-1.5 m (3-5 ft) across; unpruned they reach 4-5 m (12-15 ft) high . Both are vigorous growers and start cropping very quickly. The fruits on both are large, with flesh that is yellow, sweet, aromatic, firm. melting; and they store well. Source: Agricultural Research, December 2001

Codling moth lures


Cording moths are a serious pest of apples. pears and walnuts. Pheromone lures are currently used to attract male moths and to disrupt mating patterns. Now a potentially more useful tool has been found - a natural chemical in pears that is as effective as pheromones in attracting moths, both male and female. W hile pheromone -based programs target male moths, the ideal goal is to reduce the female 's ability to reproduce. Attracting females directly would allow growers to eliminate the females and their unlaid eggs. The chemical, an ester, acts as a 'kaiomone' - a chemical emitted by one species (in this case pears) that attracts and benefits another (codling moths here). The moths have apparently evolved to detect this odour and use it to locate a preferred food . Some 9095% as male codling moths in an orchard must be trapped or prevented from finding a mate to reduce the number of fertile eggs laid to an economically manageable level; but for each female trapped, dozens of eggs are immediately eliminated. Source: Agricultural Research, June 2001

Nutritional quality of forage species in shade


Recent research has demonstrated that the quality of some grass leguminous fodder species remains high in shade. 50% shade increased total mass of crude protein for species like perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Clovers (Trifolium alexandrinum, T.hybridum, T.pratense, T.repens) and Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). Fibre content was hardly changed. Source: Lin, C et al: Nutritive quality and morphological development under partial shade of some forage species with agroforestry potential. Agroforestry Systems 53: 269-281. 2001.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValiD No 3

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The Junipers
Introduction
The junipers, Juniperus spp ., are a group of about 60 evergreen coniferous shrubs, small and large trees originating in the Nort hern hemisphere from the po lar region s to the mountains of the tropi cs. Many juniper species are useful, for food, medicine or for the val uable durable timber.

General description
The bark of most species is greyish -brown and string y, peeling off in long vertical strips to reveal reddish-brown beneath. The lea ves on junipers are needle-like (as on young plants) or scale-like, borne opposite or in whorls of 3. Both types can be growing at th e same time . Some species are m onoecious, but m ost are dioecious (ie male and female flowers on different plants - both needed for fruiting). Male flowers (cones) are ovate. yellow. 3-5 mm, borne either at the ends of small branchlets or in groups at leaf axils. Female flowers (cones) are round with short, scaly s talk s. The cones are berry-like , composed of 3-6 fleshy enlarged scales, ripening in the first or second year depending on the specie. They are usually dark blu e when ripe with a bloom. The fruit flesh is dryish, fibrous or soft, and very resinous ; it contains 1-10 hard-shelled angu lar seeds.

The species
Warning: Although the fruits of severa l species are often eaten, used medicinally and as a flavouring in various foods and drinks, large doses of the fruit ca n cause rena l damage. Juniper should not be used interna ll y in any Quantities by pregnant women.

Juniperus ashei

Ashe juniper

A large shrub or sma ll tree to 6 m (20 ft) high with severa l stems. Bark greyish-white , leaves dark grey-g reen. Dioecious . Ripe fruits dark blue , bloomy, oval, 8 x 7 mm, with 1-2 seeds , ripen in the 1 sl yea r in October. Fruit production is cyclic, a year of hea vy crops being followed by 1 - 2 years of ligh t crops. Native to the Southeastern USA, hardy to -15C (zone 7.) Uses The fruit is edi ble - raw or cooked; thin-skinned sweet, juicy and resinous. Trees are cut, chipped and the essential oil distill ed from them . The oil is used commercia ll y as a source of cedarwood oil, bei ng ve ry similar in composition to that from J.virginiana. Th e species is considered a weed in Texas where it rapi dly in va des rangeland . The wood is close-grained , hard , durable, light and easily worked. Used locally for posts , railway slee pers etc.

Juniperus ca/ifornica

Californian juniper

A large shru b, occasiona lly a tree . up to 12 m (40 ft) high with a twisted irregular stem. Bark brownish-grey, peeling off in long strips, branches very fl exible, leaves yellowish -green. Fruits

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reddish-brown with a blue bloom , oval, 15-20 mm long, dry, sweet , with 1-2 seeds , ripe n in the2 "d year in October. Native to the coastal mountain s of Western Mexico and USA, hardy to 10C (zone 8.) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland . Uses The fruit is edible - raw or cooked; sweet and non-resinous. It can also be dried and ground into a flour. Unlikely to be freely produced in Britain. Medicinally, an infusion of the leaves was widely used for coughs. Extracts from the bark and sapwood have recently been found to be strongl y antifungal and antibacterial. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oil s. The bark has been used for roofing. The wood is soft, close-grained, li ght reddish-brown , very durable - used for fence posts , fue l, furniture, bows.

Juniperus cedrus
Usually a small tree , occaSionally large, with a short thick trunk and outspread branches. Needles in whorls of 3, bluish-green. Dioecious. Fruits reddish-brown with a blue bloom , round , 10-12 mm thick. Nati ve to the Canary Islands, hardy to -SoC (zone 9.) Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oi l distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oils. The wood is of good quality and very durable - used for posts , fuel.

Juniperus chinen sis

Chinese juniper

A tree or large shrub growing 6-20 m (20-70 ft) high, may be broad-crowned , conical , shrubby or procumbent. Leaves greenish , needle type pri ckly-pointed . Dioecious . Male flowers yellow. Fruits brown, bloomy, round , mealy, 6-8 mm thick , ripening the second year in October. Native to China, Mongolia and Japan; hardy to -25C (zone 4.) Female cultiva rs : 'Ames' - conical , to 4 m(13 ft) high, bears only a few fruits . 'Arbuscula ' - conical habit. 'Excelsior' - columnar, to 4 m ( 13 ft) high. ' Fairview' - conical to 6 m (20 ft) high , green leaves, good crops of silvery-green berries. ' Femina ' - conical , to 5 m ( 16 ft) high, leaves bluish -bl oomy, fruits 5-7 mm thick. 'Iowa' - broadly conical , to 6 m (20 ft) high or more, leaves bluish -green. 'Kaizuka' - broad shrub to 4 m ( 13 ft) high , leaves bright green, fruits oval , violet-bloomy. 'Keteleeri' - dense columnar or conical form to 10m (33 ft) high, leaves green with light blue bloom, fruits roundish, 12-15 mm across, with whitish-blue bloom - fruits abundantly. 'MountbaUen' - columnar or narrow conical form to 4 m (13 ft) high, very dense, needles greygreen, fruits very abundantly. 'Sheppardii ' - multistemmed shrub to 3-4 m (10- 13 ft) high , leaves grey-green . 'Variegated Kaizuka ' - yellow variegated form of 'Kaizuka '. Male cultivars: 'Aurea ' slender conical shrub to 5 m (16 ft), slow growing, needles golden-yellow, produces numerous male flowers . Needs some shade else susceptible to sun sca ld. 'Glauca ' - grey-b lu e foliage .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

'Leea na' - slender columnar form, densely branched. 'Pyramidalis' - narrow columnar form, dense blue-green needles . Ground cover cultivars: 'San Jose' -low spreader, seas-green colour foliage, 30 cm (1 tt) high. Uses The stems, fruit, root, and resin are all used medicinally. The stems are used in the treatment of parasitic skin problems and rheumatism; the fruit is used in the treatment of convulsions, excessive sweating and hepatitis; The root is used in the treatment of burns and scalds; the resin, mixed with the resin of Pinus species, is used as a resolvent on tumours. Trees can be cut and the essential oit distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oils.

A number of cultivars are suitable for use as a ground cover, though they are rather slowgrowing. They should be spaced about 90 cm apart each way .
The wood is very durable and sometimes has burrs - used for construction, joinery, fencing, furniture, roof shingles.

Juniperus communis

Juniper

Very variable, can be tree-like to 9 m (30 tt) high by 4 m (13 tt) across, or only a multi-stemmed shrub to 3-5 m (10-16 tt) high . Bark smooth at first, later fibrous and greyish-brown, needles greyish-green. Dioecious. Fruits roundish -ova l, green in the first year, then bluish-white bloomy, finally black when ripe , 4-9 mm across, taking 2 or 3 years to mature. Native to northern temperate regions , hardy to -20C (zone 6) or more. Plantations can be established with 2-3 year old seedlings planted in rows 1-1.5 m (3-5 tt) apart with plants 0.5-0.6 m (20-24") apart in the row. var. depressa has a procumbent habit, growing to 1 m (3 ft) high. ssp. hemisphaerica is an alpine va riety, a low dense rounded shrub to 2.5 m (8 tt) high and wide but usually less. var. jackii is procumbent with branches to 1 m (3 tt) long. ssp. nana (mountain juniper, = 'Nana') is procumbent and mat-forming, 20-30 cm (8-12") high with rounded fruits. Female cultivar: 'S uecica' (Syn. J.suecica, Swedish juniper) - broadly columnar to 10m (33 ft) high, leaves bluish-green, fruits oblong . Ground cover cultivars: 'Brien' has sott needles 'Corielagan' - dark green, 15 cm (6~) high by 2 m (6 tt) wide. 'Green Carpet' - bright green prickly foliage. 'Prostrata' - procumbent, 20-30 cm (8-12~) high by 1.5-2 m (5-6 tt) wid e. 'Repanda' - creeping dwarf form, 30-40 cm (12-16") high by 1.5 m (5 tt) wide. Uses The fruit is edible - raw or cooked; usually dried. The fruit is often used as a flavouring in sauerkraut, stuffin gs, vegetable pates etc, and is an essentia l ingredient of gin. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. A tea is made by boiling the leaves and stems. A tea made from the berries has a spicy gin -l ike flavour . The berries are also used with beech wood in the smoking of Westpha lian hams.

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Fruits can be gathered 3-4 years after planting . The ripe fruits are harvested from September to November in their second year - usually by carefully knocking branches and letting ripe fruits fall onto canvas sheets. The drying ratio for fruits is 2:1. Commercia ll y, the fruits are harvested from both wild and cultivated plants, mostly in Southern and Central Europe (Italy, Spain etc). Juniper fruits are commonly used in herba l medicine, as a household remedy , in herb teas and also in some commercial preparations. They are harvested from wild plants. The fully ripe fruits are antirheumatic. antiseptic, antispasmodic , antitoxic. aphrodisiac , aromatic , astringent , carminative, cicatrisant, depurative , diaphoretic, strongly diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine , parasiticide , rubefacient, sedative, stomachic , sudorific, tonic and vulnerary. They are especiaUy useful in the treatment of digestive disorders plus kidney and bladder problems , and are used in diuretic and laxative preparations . Other parts of the plant have also been used medicinally. including the branches, leaves, roots and bark (the latter crushed and th epaste applied to relieve rh eumatic pains.) An essential oil is sometimes steam distilled from the fruit and twigs ; the oi l is pale yellow with a swee t, fresh, woody-balsamic odour, and contains over 60 constituents. It is used as a flavouring in foods, drinks (notab ly gin) and liqueurs, in aromatherapy, soaps, detergents , cosmetics and in perfumes with spicy fragrances . Average yields are around 1 % but varies from 0.2 to 3.4% of dry fruits; yields from fresh fruits are about 6-12 kg of oi l per tonne. The wood is used for fencing in some Europea n countries , and is also made into buckets and other domestic articles - handles etc. Many forms of this species are good ground cover plants for sunny situations. The bark is used as cordage and as a tinder, and has also been used to make mats. A good nurse shrub for other species.

Juniperus conferta

Shore juniper

Procumbent shrub with long creeping branches, becoming mat-like . Needles in whorls of 3, greyish -green. Fruits round, 8-12 mm thick, deep dark blue with a grey bloom, smooth, ripen in October. Native to Japan and Sachalin, hardy to -23C (zone 5.) 'Blue Pacific' - more procumbent, needles blue-green. Good ground cover. 'Emerald Sea ' - densely mat-forming, needles emerald green. Salt tolerant. Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distill ed from them . The oil can be used commercia lly, as it contains some valuable oils. A good low ground cover, though plants take about 2 years to form effective cover. Plants should be spaced about 90 cm apart each way.

Juniperus deppeana

Alligator juniper

Broadly conical tree to 20 m (70 ft) high with oak-like bark . Needles blue-green. Dioecious. nd Fruits roundish-ellipsoidal, red-brown, 10-12 mm long , bloomy, ripening the 2 year in OctoberNovember; flesh thick, mealy, dry, with 4 seeds. Native to the Southwestern USA, hardy to 10C (zone 8.) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland. 'Si lver Spire' - columnar shrub to 10m (33 tt) high. Bears fruits with dry fibrous pulp. Uses Edib le fruit - raw or cooked; dry, mealy, sweet and palatable . It can also be dried, ground into a meal and prepared as mush or cakes.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/10 No 3

Trees can be cut and the essential oi l distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some va luable oils. The wood is light, soft. not strong , brittle, close grained, easily worked. Used mainly for fence posts and fuel. also for furniture , construction, roof shingles.

Juniperus drupacea

Syrian juniper

Tree to 10-12 m (33-40 ft) high, broadly conical or colu mnar with ash-grey bark. Dioecious. nd Fruits bluish, bloomy, round-oval, 15-25 mm long, sweet. ripening the 2 year in October. Native to Asia minor and Greece, hardy to _10C (zone 8.) Uses The essential oil from the fruits (and to a lesser extent leaves) have recently been co nfirmed as having antibacterial and antifungal properties. Edible fruit - raw or cooked; sweet. The wood is very durable - used for construction, joinery, fencing , roof shing les, furniture.

Juniperus erythrocarpa
Tree or shrub to 8 m (27 tt) high with ash-grey bark , peeling in long strips. Fruits orange or red with pink bloom. Native to SW USA and Mexico, hardy to -15C (zone 7.) Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially as a source of cedarwood oil, being very similar in composition to that from J.virginiana. The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland.

Juniperus excelsa

Grecian juniper

Tree , 10 m (33 ft) high or more , conical becoming rounded , with brown bark peeling off in strips. Monoecious or dioecious. Fruits dark brown, blue-bloomy, 8 mm thick , ripening the 2nd year in October, with 5-6 seeds. Native to Southwestern Europe , Asia minor and the Caucasus, hardy to -20C (zone 6.) Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some va luable oils. The smoke from the branches is used in India to treat the delirium of fevers. The bark is used for roofing. The wood is of good quality, moderately hard , close and even grained, fragrant, very durable, and used for building , furniture , roof shingles, posts and railway sleepers. It is also burnt as an incense.

Juniperus flaccida (Syn. J.tetragona) Mexican juniper


Small tree to 6-8 m (20-27 ft) high. Monoecious, but with male and female flowers on different branches. Fruits round, reddish -brown, waxy , 10-15 mm thick, ripening in the 2 nd year in October. Native to Mexico, hardy to -10C (zone 8.) var. pob/ana has larger fruits, to 2 cm thick. Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked; sweet , resinous flesh .

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The wood is brown . hard and durable - used for construction. fencing etc.

Juniperus foelidissima
Tree 5-15 m (16-50 ft) high. very long-lived , with grey bark. Leaves have an unpleasant odour when crushed . Mono- or dioecious. Fruits numerous on short branches. round, 6-12 mm thick . reddish-brown to black , bloomy , with 1-2 seeds. Native to Southeastern Europe. hardy to -5C (zone 9.) Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially , as it contains some valuable oils. The wood is very durable - used for construction, joinery. fencing. furniture, roof shingles.

Juniperus horizonlalis

Creeping juniper

A shrub with long branches creeping widely along the ground. Fruits round, blue-black. bluebloomy, 7-9 mm thick, ripen in October. Native to North America. hardy to -25 C (zone 4.) Male cultivars: 'Adm irabilis ' - vigorous. needles yellow-green with grey bloom . 'Bar Harbor' - lea ves grey-green. mauve in winter, tolerant of salt winds 'P lumosa Compacta' - blue-green foliage, light purple in winter . Female cultivars: ' Emerson ' very slow growing. 30 cm (1 ') high, needles blue-green. 'Filicina ' - very slow growing, needles blue, purplish in winter. ' Glenmore' - very low and slow, leaves deep green. 'Viridis' - 50-60 cm (20-24" ) high, needles bright green. Other good ground cover forms: 'Ad pressa ' - dense, 10-15 cm (4_6 high, fast growing. 'B lu e Chip' - needles silver-blue. 'B lue Moon' - needles blue-green, brownish in winter. 'Douglasii' -leaves grey-green, mat-like hab (t. 'Emera ld Spreader' - flat habit, eme rald green young leaves. 'Hughes' - silvery foliage, 2 m (6 tt) spread. 'Planifolia ' - very fast growing, 20-25 cm (8-10") high , needles silver-blue. 'P rince of Wales' - vigorous, blue-green foliage tinged purple in winter. 'Turquoise Spreade r' - flat habit, greenish-blue young leaves. 'Wapati ' - very vigorous, 30 cm (1 ') high. 'Wiltonii' - bright blue leaves, 1 m (3 tt) spread , excellent ground cover .
ft )

Uses Warning - there are some reports of this species being as poisonous as J.sabina. Ingest with great caution! Edible fruit - roasted to make coffee. Medicinally, a tea is made from the young branch tips. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially , as it contains some va luable oils. The bark has been used to make thatched dwellings and mats. A good ground cover plant for a sunny position , eventually making a dense cover though it requires weeding for the first year or so.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Juniperus indica
May refer to J.pseudosabina. A shrub , prostrate or growing to 4 m (13 ft) high. Flowers in autumn. Fruits 6-10 mm ,ovoid , black, 1 seed. Native to the Himalayas, hardy to -25 C (zone 4.) Uses The fresh leaf extract is added to local wines from the Indian Himalayas and used as a tonic.

Juniperus macropoda
Shrub or small tree to 10 m (33 ft) high. Fruits round , 7-11 mm thick, purple-brown with blue bloom, with 2-4 seeds. Native to the Middle East and Afghanistan , hardy to -15 C (zone 7.) Uses The wood is fragrant, moderately hard, with red heartwood and yellow sapwood - used for building, fuel. pencils, and burnt as incense.

Juniperus monosperma

One-seed juniper

Open-crowned tree to 10m (33 ft) high with bark peeling off in strips. Dioecious. Fruits roundst oval, 5-8 mm long, dark blue, bloomy, ripens in the 1 year in October. Some fruit is produced most years, but heavy crops only occur every 2 - 3 years. Native to Mexico and SW USA, hardy to -25C (zone 4.) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland. Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked; soft , juicy and pulpy. It can be dried and ground into a flour or used as a seasoning. Medicinally, a decoction of the leaves is laxative and used for coughs. The shoots and bark have also been used. Extracts from the bark and sapwood have recently been found to be strongly antifungal and antibacterial. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oils. Thin strips of the fibrous bark are used for making sleeping mats etc. The bark is also used as a tinder and is also made into a slow match. The dried seeds have been used as beads or as the 'rattle' in rattles. A green dye is obtained from the bark. The wood is moderately hard, somewhat heavy, slightly fragrant. When seasoned properly it is very durable and is used mainly for fencing and fuel, also small construction work, roof shingles and bows.

Juniperus occidentalis

Western juniper

Large shrub or tree to 12 m (40 ft) high , occasionally more , straight trunked, wide spreading crown. Needles grey-green. Monoecious or dioecious. Fruits numerous, round , 7-8 mm thick, nd blue-black with a bluish-white bloom , 2-3 seeds, ripening the 2 year in October. Native to western North America, hardy to -23C (zone 5.) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland. Uses The fruit is edible - raw or cooked; dry, sweet flesh with a resinous flavour. It can also be dried or ground into a flour and mixed with cereal flours to be made into a bread.

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Medicinally, a decoction of the leaves is laxative and used for coughs . The branches , roots and fruit are also used. Extracts from the bark and sapwood have recently been found to be strongly antifungal. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. Th e oil can be used commercially , as it contains some valuable oil s. The bark is employed as a tinder and is also made into a slow match ; also used as a thatching material. made into rope and cloth and baskets. The dripd seeds have been used as beads or as the 'rattle' in rattles. The timber is moderately heavy, soft, close-grained, fragrant, durable, easily worked - often used for fencing and fuel , also construction, roof shingles , furniture , bows.

Juniperus osteosperma (Syn. J.utahensis)

Desert juniper

A shrub or small tree to 7 m (24 ft) high with a short thick trunk and bark peeling off in long strips. Monoecious. Fruits round, 6-15 mm thick, reddish-brown with a blue bloom , taking 2 years to ripen in October. Native to Southwes tern USA, hardy to -23C (zone 5 .) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly in vades rangeland. Uses The fruit is edible - raw or cooked; sweet, resinous, mealy. Used as a flavouring in stews or dried and ground into a flour. Medicinally, a decoction of the leaves is used amoung other things for colds and coughs. The fruit and roots are also used. Extracts from the bark and sapwood have recently been found to be strongly antifungal. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oils.

A wax on the fruit is obtained by simmering the fruit in hot water and skimming off the wax as it rises to the surface . The wax can be used to make aromatic candles. The bark is employed as a tinder and is also made into a slow match (the crushed bark was twisted into a rope , tied at intervals and wrapped into a coil ; the free end was set on fire and kept smouldering by blowing on it at intervals - fire could thus be carried from dawn to dusk) ; also used for thatching and as a floor coveri~g The dried seeds have been used as beads or as the 'rattle' in rattles. The wood is very durable - often used for fuel, fencing, also for joinery, furniture , roof shingles.

Juniperus oxycedrus

Prickly juniper

A large shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 tt) high, occasionally more. Fruits reddish -brown, roundnd oval, blue bloomed , round to pear shaped, ripening the 2 year, 3 seeded . Native to the Mediterranean region and SE Europe, hardy to -15C (zone 7.) ssp macrocarpa (Syn . J.macrocarpa ) has larger fruits , 12-15 mm thick . Uses The essential oil from the fruits (and to a lesser extent leaves) have recently been confirmed as having antibacterial and antifungal properties. The wood is mainly used for distillation to produce 'oil of cade', which is used for medicinal purposes , particularly skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic eczema . It is antiseptic and also a parasiticide , and is also used as an immersion oil in microscope work . The wood is durable - used for small items of construction , fencing , furniture , roof shingles.

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Juniperus phoeniceq

Phoenican juniper

A shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 tt) high, densely bushy or con ica l. Leaves bluish-green . Usually monoecious, occas ionally dioecious. Fruits yellow to reddish-brown , 6-12 mm thick , nd glossy, round , dry and fibrous , ripening the 2 year, with 3-9 seeds. Native to the Mediterranean region , hardy to -SoC (zone 9.) Uses The essential oil from the fruits (and to a lesser extent leaves) have recently been confirmed as having antibacterial and antifungal properties. The timber is used for building . fence posts and firewood; and is sometimes distilled for the oil.

Juniperus pinchotii

Pinchol's juniper

A shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 ttl high, bushy and sp re ading with light brown bark. Leaves dark yellowi sh-gree n. Fruits round , 6 mm thick , bright red, with 1 seed, ripen the first year . Native to the Southern USA, hardy to -15C (zone 7.) The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland . Uses The leaves have been used medicinally as has the smoke from them . Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. Th e oil can be used commercially, as it contains some va lu ab le oils. The wood is soft, close-gra ined , light brown, and is used for fencing and fuel.

Juniperus procera

African juniper

A tall tree in its native habitat, much smaller in cultivation. Fruits round,S mm thick , blue-black, very bloomy , with 2-3 seeds. Native to Eastern Africa, hardy to -5 C (zone 9.) Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some va luable oils. The wood is reddish -brown, soft, fragrant, very durabl e, with a fine and even grain - works and polishes we ll , but is rather brittle. Used for building , furniture, cabinet-making , roof shingles, posts.

Juniperus procumbens

Creeping juniper

A small shrub with a procumbent spreading habit, 50-75 cm (20-30 ) high and to 2 m (6')wide. Needles bluish , in whorls of 3. Fruits nearly round, 8-9 mm thick , with 3 seeds . Native to the mountains of Japan, hardy to -10 Q C (zone 8.) 'Boni n Isles' - deep green foliage , 22 cm (9~) high by 1.2 m (4 ft) spread. 'Nana ' - bright green foliage, 22 em (9") high by 2 m (6 It) spread. Uses Used as a ground cover plant.

Juniperus recurva

Himalayan juniper

Tree or shrub to 10m (33 ft) high, with a broad conical crown and grey-brown bark peeling off in thin s trips. Lea ves blue-green or grey-green. sharp. Monoecious. Fruits oval, 8-10 mm long , nd year in October, with 1 seed. Native to dark olive brown , glossy, ripening in the 2 C (zone 7.) Southwestern China and the Himalayas, hardy to -15 Q

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'Densa' is low-growing (60 cm, 24" high) and spreading (1.2 m, 4 ft w ide) , needles green with an intense turpentine odour - may be of special value for its essentia l oil? Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some valuable oils. The wQod is durable - used for construction, joinery, fencing, roof shingles, furniture, coffins, also bu'rned as incense in Buddhist temples.

Juniperus rigida

Temple juniper

A shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 tt) high, conical. Needles in whorls of 3. Fruits round, 7-11 mm nd thick, black-brown, bloomy, with 2-3 seeds , ripening the 2 year in October. Native to Korea and Manchuria, hardy to -23C (zo ne 5.) Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked, also used as a spice Medicinally, the fruit is diuretic. The wood is durable and put to many uses in Japan including construction, agricultural implements, fencing , roof shingles, furniture etc.

Juniperus sabina

Savine

A low shrub or rarely small tree up to 4 m (13 tt) high, with red-brown bark peeling off. Leaves are very sharp, with an unpleasant odour when crushed, bluish-green. Monoecious or dioecious. Fruits on short stalks, round-oval, 5-7 mm thick , blue-black, bloomy, ripening in the nd 1 st October or spring of 2 year, with 1-3 seeds . Native to Central and Southern Europe, the Caucasus and to Siberia, hardy to -35C (zone 3.) All parts of this plant are poisonous. var. tamariscifolia is low growing with bright green or bluish-green leaves, to 2 m (6 ft) high and wide. 'Arcadia' -leaves green, prostrate, 50 cm (20") high by 1.2 m (4 tt) spread. 'Blue Danube' ('Slaue Donau') - prostrate , 60 cm (2') high by 2 m (6 tt) spread , leaves silvery bluish-green. 'Sroadmoor' -leaves bright green , 30 cm (1') high by 1 m (3 tt) across. 'Skand ia ' -leaves mid green, spread 1 m (3 ft), extremely hardy. Uses Medicina ll y, the young shoots are abortifacient, diuretic, emetic, powerfully emmenagogue and irritant. The plant is rarely used internally or externally nowadays, but was used as an ointment and dressing to blisters etc in order to promote discharge. The powdered leaves we re also used in the treatment of warts. The shoots were harvested in spring and dried for later use. Use with great caution and never during pregnancy. The leaves are used as an insect repellent. a decoction of them is used against lice. An essential oil (o il of savin) from the fresh and dried leaves and shoots has strong diuretic properties and is also used in perfumery. Yields of around 4% are obta ined , this oil is also used as an insecticide. A good dense ground cover plant , though it is slow to cover the ground. The species type eventually forms a high ground cover, but there are many named forms that are lower-growing. Plants shou ld be spaced about 1.2 metres apart each way.

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The wood is used for walking sticks and firewood .

""

Juniperus saltuaria
Uses

Sichuan juniper

Tree to 15 m (50 ft) high with a conical crown and dark green leaves . Menoecious . Fruits oval , 6 mm thick , glossy black , with one seed. Nati ve to China , hardy to 10C (zone 8.) The timber is used extensively in China for building.

Juniperus scopulorum

Rocky Mountain juniper

Small tree . often multi-stemmed , to 10 m (33 tt) high with brownish-grey bark. Fruits round , 6 nd mm thick, dark blue and bloomy, sweet. with 2 seeds , ripening at the end of the 2 year. D Native to western N.America , hardy to -35 C (zone 3.) 'Blue Heaven' - conical. leaves blue-green, fruits abundan tly all yea r, to 2 m (6 ft) high. 'Repens' - dwarf ground cover form , creeping and procumbent, leaves blue-g reen , fru its abundantly. 'Table Top' - sp reading shrub , blue leaves , many fruits , to 2 m (6 ft) high and 5 m (16 ft) wide.

Uses
Edible fruit - raw or cooked; sweet, fleshy, resinous - often used as a flavouring, imparting a sage-like taste, it can also be dried and ground into a flour for mush and cakes. The roasted fruit is a coffee substitute. A tea is made from the fruits and young shoots . Medicinally, a tea made from the terminal shoots has been used in the treatment of VD by some N. American Indian tribes; a tea made from the fruit has been used in the treatment of the kidneys. The leaves have been rubbed into the hair in order to treat dandruff. A decoction of the leaves is laxative. The fruit is also used medicinally. Trees ca n be cut and the essential oil distilled from them . The oil can be used commercia lly as a source of cedarwood oi l, being very similar in composition to that from J.virginiana. The species is considered a weed in parts of the USA where it rapidly invades rangeland. A fragrant wax on the fruits can be obtai ne d by boiling the fruit and skimming off the wax as it floats to the surface. It is used to make aromatic candles but is only present in sma ll quantities. The branches are used as an incense to fumigate houses and to drive off smells. The wood can be burnt or just hung in the room , or it can be boi led up in water and the water used to wash the walls, floor etc. The bark is employed as a tinder and is also made into a slow match. The dried seeds have been used as beads or as the 'rattle' in rattles. The fruits and the leave s are used as an insect repellent. A strong infu sio n of the co nes is used to kill ticks. Plants can be grown as a ground cover. A fairly wind resistant tree , it can be grown as part of a she lterbelt planting. In N. Americ a it is used to some exte nt in re-afforestation and shelterbelt plantings on the prairies. The wood is ex trem ely tough, aromatic, close grained, light, fairly strong in endwise compress ion but moderate ly weak in bending, hard , durable in the soil. Used for interior finishes, flutes and drums , bows , hoops , hafts, wheels , fencing , roof shingles , furniture etc; also burned as incense.

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Juniperus semiglobosa

Russian juniper

Tree to 10m (33 ft) high , often less. Leaves glossy green above, white beneath. Fruit hemispherical , 5-8 mm thick. dark brown-black , fleshy, not sweet. Native to Central Asia, hardy to -25C (zone 4. ) Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contajns some valuable o ils.

Juniperus silicicola (Syn. J. virginian a v.silicicola) Southern red cedar


Conical tree or erect shrub. Usually dioecious. Fruits oval 5 mm long , bloomy when ripe in October. Native to Southeastern N.America, hard to -10 C (zone 8.) Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked; sweetish resinous flesh, thin skinned.

Medicinally, the leaves and bark were widely used.


The wood is reddish, straight-grained, very durable, light, brittle, soft , easily worked, very fragrant, insect-resistant. The wood does not shrink much on drying. Highly prized for cabinet making, also used for fencing , the casing of lea d pencils etc. Other uses are probably identical to those of J.virginiana, as these species are botanically very close.

Juniperus squamata

Flaky juniper

Shrub, usually procumbent, with leaves in whorls of 3, green. Usually dioecious. Fruits nd ellipsoid, 6-9 mm long, red-brown becoming black , with one seed, ripening the 2 year in October. Native to Asia (Afghanistan to Taiwan), hardy to -23C (zone 5.) 'Blue Carpet' - leaves bluish-green, mat forming , 25 cm (1 O~) high by 1 m (3 ft) wide. 'Blue Spider' - female dwarf sport of 'Meyeri'. 'Meyeri' - female shrub to 5-6 m (20 tt) high, leaves bluish white, fruits ova l-oblong, 5-6 mm long, deep brown to black, bloomy when ripe. Uses The cultivar 'Blue Carpet' can be used as a ground cover plant in a sunny position. The wood is very fragrant, it is used as a fuel and an incense.

Juniperus taxifolia

Luehu juniper

Tree to 10m (33 tt) high, often a smaller shrub with twisted branches and light green leaves. Fruits round , 6-10 mm across, glossy blue, with 3 seeds. Native to parts of Japan, hardy to 5C (zone 9.) Uses The wood is used for building, fence posts and fuel.

Juniperus thurifera

Spanish juniper

Small conical tree to 10m (33 tt) high, often less. Leaves grey-green. Dioecious. Fruits round, 6-10 mm thick , dark blue , bloomy, with 2 -4 seeds. Native to Spa in , France and NW Africa; hardy to -10C (zone 8.)

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Uses Trees can be cut and the essential oil distilled from them. The oil can be used commercially, as it contains some val uable oils. The wood is used for incense and fence posts.

Juniperus virginiana

Pencil cedar

A medium to large tree growing to 20 m (65 tt) high with reddish-brown bark peeling off in long strips. Leaves light green. Usually monoecious . Fruits oval, to 6 mm thick , dark blue, glossy or bloomy, ripening the first year. Native to Central and E.N.America , hardy to -25" C (zone 4). 'Ca naertii ' - columnar to conical form, to 8 m (27 tt) high , needles dark green , fruits very numerous, small, blue-white. 'Grey Owl' - spreading shrub to 3 m (10 tt) high and 4 m ( 12 tt) wide, wi th silver-grey leaves and brownish violet fruit. A J.virginiana hybrid. 'Hetzii' - open shrub with blue-green lea ves and round, blue-purple to brown fruit, 5 m (16 tt) high and wide. 'Hetzii Columnaris' - columnar, blue-green needles, bears abundant fruits , grows 6 m (20 ft) high. 'Pendula ' - weeping tree to 10m (33 tt) high , needles bright green , fruits abundant, small, bluish-white bloomed. 'Robusta Green' - open shrub to 5 m (16 tI) high , grey-green leaves, sets abundant fruits. Uses Edible fruit - raw or cooked; sweetish resinous flesh. Medicinally, the leaves are anthelmintic, diuretic and rubefacient; the berries are diaphoretic, emmenagogue and mildly antiseptic - they have been chewed as a treatment for mouth ulcers or made into a tea to treat colds, rheumatism, worms etc. The fresh young twigs are used as a diuretic. The plant is said to contain the anticancer compound podoph yllotoxin. An essential oil obtained from shavings and sawdust (Virginian cedarwood oil) - most found in the heartwood from trees . After distillation, the shav ing s are used in horticulture and to make linoleum. At one time a superior oil was distilled from the red heartwood of trees over 25 years old. The oil is pale yellow or ora nge with a mild, sweet-balsamic scent. It mainly contains cedrene and cedro!. It is used extensively in room sprays and household insect and moth repellents, also in aromatherapy, soaps, cosmetics, polishes and perfumes. It is sometimes called cedarwood oil but should not be co nfused with that from C./ibani atlantica. C ultivated as a timber tree in some parts of C. and S. Europe. Th~ wood is pink or reddish, rather soft , light, brittle, straight grained, very durable, easily worked, very fragrant. insectresistant. doesn't shrink much on drying. The best wood is used in the pencil industry and for cabinet making , other wood is used for fencing and railway sleepers, construction , roof shingles, boxes, buckets, flutes etc. The bark was used in ca noe making. The leaves are used as an incense and insect repellent. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting .

Juniperus wallichiana

Black juniper

Tree 10m (33 tt) high, sometimes more, with rough brown bark peeling in papery scales . Leaves bluish above, green beneath. Usually dioecious. Fruits round-oval, 8-12 mm across , blue, ripening the 2nd year. Native to the Himalayas, hardy to -20"C (zone 6.)

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4
Uses The wood is durable - used for fuel, construction , fencing . furniture , roof shingles and burned as incense in Buddhist temples.

Cultivation
Junipers tolerate most soils, light shade , wind and drought - sun and a well-drained SQil are preferred . Fruiting is always better in sun. The y do not like waterlogged soils. Those from hot desert areas need hot summers to thrive , and can only be grown in the UK in South east Englantl J.recurva is most tolerant of humid conditions. The lifespan of plants is much reduced by high humidity; many live for over 1000 years in dry climates, but only for 50-100 years in Britain. Several funga l diseases affect juniper. Needle blight and stem dieback can be caused by the fungi Pestalotiopsis funereal or Phomopsis juniperova, which sometime occur together, and infect wounds or weakened tissue in wet humid conditions . Rusts are caused by various Gymnosporangium species. Plants are resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation
Seeds are generally slow and difficult to germinate, and require various lengths of stratification. Cuttings root very easily . Take heeled greenwood cuttings in late summer in a humid cold frame, or softwood cuttings in summer under mist with bottom heat.

References
Adams, R: Investigation of Juniperus species of the United States for New Sources of Cedarwood Oil. Economic Botan y, 41 (1),1987, pp 48-54. Clark, A et al: Antimicrobial properties of heartwood , bark/sapwood and lea ves of Juniperus species. Phytotherapy-Research, 1990, 4: 1, 15-19. Crawford, M: Ground Cover Plants. A.R.T., 1997. Dallimore, W & Jackson, A: A Handbook of Coni ferae. Edward Arnold, 1931. Oirr , M: Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs. Timber Press, 1997. Huxley, A (Ed): The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan, 1999. Krussman, G: Manual of Cultivated Conifers. Batsford, 1984. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Nautiyal , S et al: Medicinal Plant Resources in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in the Central Him alayas. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, Vo l 8(4) 2001. Stassi , Vet al: The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of four Juniperus species growing wild in Greece. Flavour-and-Fragrance-Journal , 1996,11 :1, 71-74.

Chinese quince:
Pseudocydonia sinensis
Introduction
The Chinese quince, someti mes confused with the common quince (Cydonia oblonga) is another member of the Rosaceae fami ly which bears large edible fruits.

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....
Description
The Chinese quince (native to China) is a small deciduous twiggy tree or large shrub (semievergreen in mild parts of Britain) growing to a height and width of 6 m (20 ft) , It has with bark that peels in small plates, leaving a patchwork of grey, green, orange and brown. The trunks become fluted or corrugated with age. Branches are densely hairy, becoming shiny later, thornless. Leaves are alternate, elliptic-ovate, 4-11 em long by 2.5-6.5 em wide , finely serrated, dark flossy green above, paler, brownish and hairy beneath. They turn red or yellow in the autumn before falling. Flowers are borne singly on short leaf shoots of one-year-old wood in April-May (with the leaves) and are 2.5-4 em (1-1Y2 ") across and pink. Flowers are insect~pollinated and self~steri l e (2 selections are needed for cross pollination to occur). Fruits are very large, October.
10~18

cm

(4~8")

long, dark yellow, egg or botueshaped . They ripen in

Trees are hardy to zone 6 (-20C) if wood is fully hardened by summer warmth.

Uses
The fruits are edible - cooked like other quinces (with other fruit), candied, preserved in syrup or made into a liqueur. In China the juice is mixed with gin ger and made into drinks. Fruits are large, 250-900 g, with a smooth skin and firm flesh. Medicinally, the plant is used as an antitussive. The fruits are very aromatic and add a spicy scent to a room. The wood is hard and dark red - sometimes used to make picture frames.

Cultivation
Chinese quince needs a sunny position and any reasonable welldrained soil. In cool climates like Britain, the wood often does not get fully ripe , and hardiness can only be assumed down to _5C before damage starts to occur. Plants are sometimes grown against a wall or on the sunny side of a hedge/tree for extra shelter. Two selections must be grown for fruit to occur. Less susceptible than common quince to fireb light and quince rust, though it is sometimes attacked mildly. Little regu lar prun ing is needed - ove rcrowded branches can be cut out. It is cultivated commercially in China for its edible fruit. selected in North America: A couple of cultivars have been

'Dragon Eye' - fruit medium sized, yellow, suitable for pickling. Self-sterile - needs cross pollination. 'Chino ' - fruit large, greenish-white , few seeds. Self-sterile - needs cross pollination. Propagation is usually by seed - requiring 3 months of cold stratification. propagated by grafting. Cultivars are

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Strawberries
Introduction
This article con centrates on the cultivation techniques and cultivars for commercial and home garden grown strawberry fruits . Strawberry species and their uses were covered in Agroforestry News Vol 10 No 2.

Cultivation techniques
The two main cultivation system used are: 1. Hill system . This relies on crowns (mother plants) for fruit production , with any runners being removed. The growing bed is usually raised into one or more ridges or mounds 1525 em (6-10") high and 1-1.7 m (3 -5 ft) wide with the crowns planted along the top in 2-4 rows 30-35 em (12-14ft) apart. with plants 20-30 em (8-12") apart in the row . The whole bed is often mulched with straw or black plastic with gaps/holes made for the strawberry crowns . Often treated as an annual system , with crowns planted in autumn/winter one year, cropped the next summer, and ploughed in the next autumn/winter. Used to grow day-neutral varieties everywhere, and short-day types in areas that have warm winters and moderate to hot summers (eg. California, Italy, Spain). Yields are up to 30 Uha. Btack (or sometimes clear or white) polythene mulches are usually used with this system , to regulate soil temperature and reduce weed competition . 2. Matted row system . Here both mother and daughter plants are allowed to runner freely, with periodic training into narrow rows. The growing bed is usually flat, as runner training via cultivation is difficult on ridged surfaces . Mother plants are set out in early spring, with plants 45-60 cm (18-24 ~ ) apart. Treated as a perennial system , the bed being maintained for 3-5 years. Used to grow short-day cultivars in climates with short summers and cold winters (eg . continental Europe). Yields from well-maintained matted rows are up to 10 tlha . First year flowers are often removed to, maximise vigour and runner production . Straw mulches are often used with this system, placed next to the rows in spring to keep the fruit clean and weed-free and is sometimes (where winters are cold) placed on top of plants over the winter. It is vital that proper soil rotations are used between utilising beds for strawberries , with at least a 4 year gaps before strawberries are grown on the same site again . It is because these are neglected that conventional strawberry growers often suffer from a build up of soil diseases. Soils should be kept to a pH of about 6.5; most soils are suitab le. Frost pockets should be avoided. Wind can seriously reduce growth , so shelter is important. When planting , make sure the crown is level with the soil and roots positioned vertically . Maiden plants will provide their first fruit within a 180 0 arc on the side away from where the stolon attached the runner to the mother plant. so the plant can be aligned to make this south-facing or away from a mulch edge. After cropping, cut back all foliage, leaving a 3 cm (1ft) 'stump ', and compost the foliage. Irrigate if necessary. Honey and bumble bees are important pollinators and should be encouraged.

Potential in agroforestry systems


Strawberries tolerate light shade , but will crop less in such conditions. The exception are Alpine strawberries, which crop well in light shade.

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R-

There is good potential for growing normal strawberries in alley cropping systems when trees are at an early age -later on , Alpine strawberries might be more appropriate.

Irrigation
,II

J#

Strawberries generally require irrigation for optimal growth and yield. Drip or seep hose irrigation is the most common system used commercially , both on account of its efficiency and because it avoids wetting the strawberry foliage and fruit (attracting slugs and snails , and benefiting bacterial and fungal diseases). The amount of irrigation required varies tremendously depending on the climate and cultural system used . Typically , during the harvesting period plants may require up to 4 cm ( 1Yz") of water per week in hot conditions .

Nutrition
Ferti lisation practices vary widely . In general, potassium is most important, with relatively low nitrogen inputs except at around 2-3 weeks after planting . They can tolerate low phosphorus levels. Good levels of organic matter are important. Potassium deficiencies can be corrected by applying composted manure, green waste compost or wood ash . Typical matted row perennial systems use some 80 kg/ha of nitrogen (ie 8 g2), applied after harvest. This equates to about 1.5 kg (3 Ib) of compost or 0.4 kg seaweed meal! 2 m , or alternatively the leaves cut 1-2 times from vigorous comfrey plants can be laid under the straw mulch . Spring applications encourage excessive vigour and increases disease problems. Annual hill systems often use much higher amounts of nitrogen , mostly applied with the irrigation water. Concentrated comfrey liquid or seaweed solution could be used in such systems - this would also add potassium.

Weed control
Broadleaf and grass weeds are a serious problem in strawberry cultivation . The best way to avoid weeds is to have a permanent mulch but this in turn may encourage slug and snail populations ; a compromise is to remove straw mulches after harvest, replacing them in spring. Commercial growers use a horrifying collection of soil fumigants and herbicides. Living mulches are another alternative. Not much work has been done in this field, but trials have shown that perennial ryegrass (Lalium perenne) , a common overwintering green manure, helps to protect flowering plants and discourages weed growth when it is grown between the rows of strawberries. Perennial matted row systems inevitably require some hand weeding in late summer. Beds of this type can be renovated by mowing off leaves in late July and having rows narrowed with a rotovator (or by hand) to thin plant densities.

Harvesting
Fruits are hand-harvested on a 2-3 day cycle. Don 't harvest in rainy conditions unless the fruit is going to be used immediately. Pick with a little stalk remaining. Most fruit for the fresh market are harvested when ~ fully ripe. as they store longer than fully ripe fruit and still develop adequate colour - but at the expense of flavour . After harvest, containers of fruit are usually cooled in forced air and then stored at 2 C (36F) and high humidity until shipped. Fruit for processing are allowed to become fully ripe and their caps are removed in the field . Mechanical harvesters are sometimes sued to pick fruit destined for processing .

Propagation
Planting stock is dug as actively growing green plants or dormant plants. Mass propagation

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uses meristem culture to produce virus-free stock. rooted by pegging down or layering in pots.

Runners from healthy plants can easily be

Pests
Stressed plants are always more susceptible to pest attack. Use proper soil rotations ; attract beneficial insects such as anthroco rid bugs , Carabid beetles , ladybirds, paras itic wasps , syrphid flies, green and brown lacewings, and predatory mites. Birds :- in garden situations, birds are likely to eat ripening crops. Protect beds with netting. Aphid1- of primary concern as vectors of virus diseases. Spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) susceptible. feed on leaves. Plants stressed by drought most

Slugs & snails - damage fruit by eating ragged holes in them . Moist thick straw mu lches and wet weather favour their development. Others include Lygus bugs (N.America, damage fruits) , Potato leafhopper (N.America, feed on leaves), Froghoppers (suck plant sap), Strawberry bud weevil (N.America , feed on buds) , Flower thrips (Frank/iniella spp ., damage fruits) , Root weevils (including vine weevil - feed on roots). Leafrollers (damage leaves), Strawberry rootworm (Paria fragariae - damages. roots and leaves). Sap beetles (damage fruits), Strawberry crown borer (Tyloderma fragariae damage crowns, N.America), Strawberry crown miner (N.America, Monochroa fragariae damages crowns), Strawberry crown moth (N.America, Synanthedon bibionipennis - kills crowns), Root knot nematodes (Me/iodogyne hap/a) can cause root death.

Diseases
Numerous diseases cause serious damage to strawberries across the world , although not all exist in every region. Most are prevented by keeping soil well-drained and in good condition, using proper soil rotations, and ens uring good air flow around plants. In the UK, the most serious diseases are grey mold, powdery mildew, leaf spot and virus diseases. Leaf spot (Mycosphaerel/a fragariae) is common, occasionally causing serious damage. Produces spots on leaves, which may wither and disintegrate. Resistant to leaf spot: Albritton, ArKing, Atlas, Benizuru, British Sovere ign, Cardinal, Comet, Cyclone, Dixieland, Earlimiss, Elista, Empire, Fairmore, Fletcher, Fulton , Grenadier, Himiko, Holiday, Hood, Howard 17 (Premier), Jewel, Kent, Klonmore , Lassen , Lateglow , Marieva, Marlate, Massey, Ogallala, Ozark Beauty, Persikovaya , Prelude, Puget Beauty, Quinault , Rosanne, Scarlet, Sentinel, Southland, SI. Williams , Sumner, Suwannee, Tangi , Titan , Totem , Veestar, Vermillion. Powdery mildew (Sphaerothaca macularis) is widespread but usually causes minor damage only apart from to indoor crops. Sulphu r sprays are effective. Resistant to powdery mildew: Apollo, ArKing , Aroma , Benton , Bolero, Cambridge Favourite , Cambridge Late Pine , Cambridge Sentry, Cardinal , Chambly, Columbia , Elsanta, Amily , Eros , Evita, Fletcher, Florence, Fulton, Glima, Harvester, Hinomine, Huxley, Indra , Jonsok, Klondike , Lambada, Lester, Mara des Bois, Merton Herald , Merton Princess , Merton Ruby , Oka , Orland, Pegasus, Persikovaya, Porter's Pride, Prelude, Rainier, Redchief, Red Gauntlet, Rhapsody, Rosanne, Saladin, Scott, Se ntinel, Se renta, Silver Jubilee , Southland, St. Williams, Sunrise , Tahoe , Tantallon , Totem, Tribute, Tristar, Troubadour , Tyee. Viruses include the 'yellows complex' caused by a group of aphid-borne viruses , and other nematode-borne viruses. These cause leaves to yellow at the edges or mottle, blotch or crinkle. Resistant or tolerant to viruses: Aberdeen, Aiko , Anaheim, Benton, Blakemore, Bountiful, Camarosa, Cambridge Favourite, Cambridge Late Pine, Capitola, Carlsbad, Cheam, Co lumbia,

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Cruz, Cuesta , Cyclone, Daybreak (LA), Douglas, EarlibeJle, Fairland, Heidi, Howard 17 (Premier) , Irvine , Klondike , Laguna , Lassen , Linn, Madame Lefebver, Missionary, Mrak, Muir, Northwest, Olympus , OsoGrande, Pajaro, Puget Beauty, Rainier, Redgem , Redstar, Robinson . Salinas , Seascape, Sequioa . Shasta, Shuksan. Sieger, Siletz, Sumas. Sunset. Surecrop. Temple . Tennessee Beauty, Tioga . Toro , Torrey. Totem , Tufts . Tyee , Yolo . Grey mould or Botrytis fruit rot (Botrytis cinerea) occurs everywhere and can attack leaves, buds and crowns but is most important in causing grey mold fruit rot. Worst in wet seasons and areas , and made worse by using excessive nitrogen in spring . The biologica l control fungi Trichoderma harzianum & Glioc/adium roseum are effective controls. Resistant to grey mold: Blomidon, Bounty, Cambridge Favourite, Cambridge Prizewinner, Canoga , Cirano , Columbia, Delecta, Delmarvel, Dover, Earliglow, Fairfax, Holiday, Honeoye , Lambada , Lester, Marieva , Marmion , Marmolada, Merton Herald, Merton Ruby, Montrose, Northwest. Olympus, Pandora , Pegasus, Redgauntlel, Sa ladin, Shuksan, Shuswap, Si lver Jubilee, Sumas, Suprise des Hailes, Tago, Tali sman, Tantallon , Tenira, TiJlikum, Tioga, Totem, Troubador, Tyee , Vantage , Veestar. Other diseases include: Angular leaf spot (Xanthomonas fragariae - serious leaf bacteria l disease), Red stele or red core (Phytophthora fragariae ~ one of the most destructive diseases, occurring in all areas; many races occur). Verticillium wilt (V.albo-atrum & V.dahliae - cause a rapid wilt and death of plants), Leaf scorch (Oip/ocarpon earliana - common, common , occas ionally causi ng serious damage), Leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans occasionall y caus ing serious damage), Anthracnose (Col/etotrichum spp. ~ a widespread prob lem, causing fruit rots , lesions and crown rot.), Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria alternata fragariae - severe attacks can kill susceptible cultivars), Fusarium wilt or Fusarium yellows (Fusarium oxysparium fragariae - causes a rapid wilt and death of plants). Crown rot (Phytophthora cactarum - destructive in Europe & California) , Leather rot or fruit rot (Phytophthora caetorum - widespread), Rhi zopus fruit rot (R.sexua/is & R.siolonifer - another post-harvest disease fungi which can cause spoi lage).

Strawberry fruits
Fruits are composed of about 90% water and contain numerous important dietary components including ve ry high amounts of vitamin C. The main soluble sugars are glucose and fructose . The primary organic acid is citric acid, but also present is ellagic acid (an anti-carcinoge ni c). Fruits are utili sed in a number of products including preserves, fruit yoghurt , concentrates, juices, syrups and wines .

Cultivars
There are thousands of cultivars worldwide , so only a selection is given here of the most readily avai lable forms. In the UK, cropping season dates are approximately: Early Seaso n ::; late Mid season= June
May~early

June

Late seaso n ::: July Very late season::; mid July-early August

For commercial organic strawberry production, recommended varieties in the UK are the Junebearers Alice, Darselect, Florence, Pegasus; and the everbearer Bolero.

-t
I

Alice: Mid-late season. Flowers over a long period , sweet fruit, mod. susceptible to mildew. Bogata: Late season. Fruits of fair flavour, susceptib le to mildew. Cambridge Favourite: Early-mid season. Good cropping, fair/good flavour , resistant to frost , mi ld ew & grey mould . Cambridge Late Pine: Mid-late season . Moderate cropping , excellent flavour, resistant to frost and mildew. Cambridge Prizewinner: Very early season. Excellent flavour, compact plant, few runners , resista nt to grey mould. Cambridge Rival : Early-mid season. Good croppin g, good fl avou r.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Page 21

Cambridge Vigour: Early-mid season . Vigorous . large plant. Good cropping . excellent flavour. susceptible to mildew. Chapelaine ; Heavy cropper (over along period). excellent fla vour. good disea se resi stance . Darselect: Mid season. Heavy cropping . vigorous . upright. tolerant of gre y mould. Domanil: Late season. Heavy cropping . susceptible to mildew. Elsanta: Mid season. Moderate cropping (over a long period) , exc. flavour, susc. to diseases. Elvira: Early season. Good cropping , excellent flavour. Emily~ Very early season. Very good flavour, mildew resistant, upright growth. Eros: Mid season. Heavy cropping. good fla vour, resistant to mildew & grey mould. Florence: Late season. Good cropper, exc. flavour, vigorous, resi stant to mildew & vine weevil. Gariguette: Mid season. Good cropping , good flavour. Gorella: Early season. Strong compact plants. Good cropping, good fla vour, susceptible to mildew. Hapil: Mid season. Heavy cropping, good flavour, vigorous plant. Harvester: Very heavy cropping, poor flavour. Honeoye: Early season. Good cropping , good flavour, resistant to grey mould. Laura: Very late season. Heavy cropping, good flavour, good disease resistance . Kovril: Late season. Marmalado: Mid season. Very heavy cropping , excellent fla vour. Maxim: Late season. Very heavy cropping , good flavour, drought resistant. Melody: Fruits small-medium sized , very good flavour. Montrose: Mid season. Heavy cropping, good fruit, very resistant to grey mould. Pandora: Very late season. Heavy cropping, good flavour, requires a pollinator. Pegasus: Mid-late season. Good cropping . fair/good flavour, resistant to mildew & grey mould. Providence: Compact plant. RedgaunUet: Early-mid season. Good cropping (often twice per year) , fairfgood flavour, resistant to grey mould. Rhapsody: Late season. Very good cropping, good flavour. resistant to mildew. Rosie: Early season. Fruits very good flavoured . Royal Sovereign: Early-mid season . Good cropping , excellent flavour, susceptible to mildew & other diseases. Saladin: Mid season. Excellent flavour, resistant to mould and grey mould. Silver Jubilee: Very good flavour, very resistant to mildew and grey mould. Sophie: Heavy cropping , good flavour. Symphony: Late season . Heavy cropping , excellent flavour, vigorous , tolerant of vine weevil , susceptible to mildew. Talisman: Mid-late season. Heavy cropping , good flavour, resistant to grey mould. Tamella : Early-mid season. Very good cropping, good flavour , doesn 't travel well . Lasts 4-5 years. Tantallon: Early-mid season. Heavy cropping over a long period , good flavour, resistant to milew and grey mould. Tenira: Heavy cropping in first year, moderate after that; very good flavour. Tonto: Fruit especially good for freezing. Totem: Mid season. Heavy cropping. good flavour, fruits good for freezing. Troubadour: Mid-late season. Late flowering , excellent flavour . resistant to mildew. Tyee : Good for freezing , resistant to grey mould.

Perpetual (everbearing or long day) Gultivars


These crop in the UK from June, July or August until the first frosts in October or November. Removing the first flush of flowers in spring delays and extends fruiting. Fruit size declines from the second year onwards. Aromel: Good cropping for 1-2 years , excellent flavour, ripens in June & August onwards, susceptible to mildew, few runners . Bolero: Very good flavour and quality. vigorous.

Paae 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Calypso: Heavy cropping , good flavou r, compact growth, susceptible to mildew. Cirano: Good cropping , excell ent flavour, good disease resistance especially to grey mould. Everest: Heavy cropp in g (july-October), tolerant of mildew and grey mould. Evita: Moderate cropping , fair flavour, resistant to mildew. Gento: Moderate cropping , good flavour. cro ps in 2-3 flushes . Hampshire Maid : Excellent flavour. Mara des Bois: Good cropping, excell ent flavour , resistant to mildew. Marastil : Good cropping, good flavour. Ostara: Heavy cropping, good flavour, susceptible to mildew. Rabunda: Good croppi ng, moderate flavour, a compact plant. Rapella: Good cropping, good fla vo ur, susceptible to mildew, few run ners. Tango : Very heavy cropping, good flavour, com pa ct plant.

Day-neutral cultivars
Grown ou tdoors, th ese crop in flushes from June un ti l the first fro sts in Octobe r or November. Fern: Good croppi ng , good flavour. Seascape: Good croppin g, good flavour. Selva: Heavy cropping, fruits large & good flavoured .

Alpine strawberry cultivars


The se are cu lti va rs of Fragaria vesca (see Agroforestry News , Vo l 10 No 2 for more info). The y prefer some shade , do not have runners, and crop from Jul y until the first frosts in October or November. The fla vour is excellent - usually much better than other cultivated strawberries but the fruits are sma ll. Best grown from seed and beds retained for 2-3 yea rs only. Alba : Fruits white, very good flavour. Alexandria : Fruits larger, flavour good. Baron Solemacher: Very good flavour. Rugen (Syn. Old Dutch): Good cropping, flavour very good .

Sources
The followi ng nurseries stock a good range of strawberry cultiva rs: Chris Bowers & Sons , Whispering Trees Nurseries, Wimbotsham, NorfOlk, PE34 80B, UK. Tel: 01366 388752. Fax: 01366 386858. Ken Muir, Honeypot Farm, Rectory Road , Weeley Heath, Essex, C01S 9BJ. UK. Tel: 01255 830181, Fax: 01255 831534. Email: ken .muir@farmline.com J Tweedie Fruit Trees , Maryfield Road Nursery, Nr Terregles , Dumfries, DG2 9TH , UK. Tel: 01387 720880. Welsh Fru it Stocks: Bryngwyn, Powys, Via Kington , Hereford, HR 5 30N , UK. Tel & Fax: 01497 851209. Ahrens Strawberry Nursery, Rt.1, Huntingburg, IN 47542, USA. John Goodson , Rt.1, Box 11, MI. Olive, NC 28365, USA. Tel: 919-658-3413. Norcal Nursery Inc, PO Box 1012, Red Bluff, CA 96080, USA. Tel: 9 16-527-6200. Fax: 916-527-2921.

References

Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Displayed. Cassell, 1998. Bevan, J et al: Organic Strawberry Production. HDRA, 2001. Crawford, M: Fruit Va ri eties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T. 1997. Hancock, J F: Strawberries. CABI Publishing , 1999. Hughes, H: Strawberries . MAFF Reference Book 95, HMSO. Whea ly, K & Demuth , S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol

to No 3

Page 23

-i%F

A;; 41

Castanea pumila: chinkapin


Introduction
Chinkapins, also called 'ch inquapins ', dwarf or bush chestnuts, are shrubs and small trees found if:hroughout the Eastern, Southern and South Eastern USA. It is a little known but potentially va luabl e shrub as a source of food. wood, rootstock material and medi cine . There is some debate about the taxonomy of chinkapins. Some separate them into eight or more poorly-defined species including C.pumila, C.Dzarkensis, C.ashei, A.afnifo/ia, C.f/oridana, C.paucispina, C.arkansana and C.alabamensis. More recently , there is general agreement that all these species come within C.pumila, which has two botanical varieties, var. pumila and var. ozarkensis. This article concentrates on the more common form, var. pumila, known as the Alleghany, American, com mon or tree chinkapin.

Description
The chinkapin is a medium to large, spreading, smoothbarked, multistemmed suckering shrub usually growing 24 m (6-13 tt) high. Occasionally, singlestemmed plants may reach 58 m (16-27 tt) high , exceptionally even a little more. It is found in dry sandy woods (both deciduous and co niferous) and thickets.

""'rn.J=

Leaves are borne alternately along the slender reddish-brown shoots. The leaves are typical chestnut shape but very variable, 7-15 cm (36 long by 2-5 em (0.8-2") wide , bright shiny yellowish -green to light green above, whitish and downy beneath. They have serrated margins , and appear in April. Natural range of C.pumila var. pumila (Johnson)
H )

.~~

Flowering occurs after the first leaves have expanded in June or July. The flowers are borne on erect, horizontal or drooping spikes appearing from leafaxils of the current year's shoots. There is only one flower shoot per leaf axil, and it may be male, female or bisexual. Male catkins appear near the bases of the shoots, and are 1015 cm (46") long ; bisexual flowers containing both male and female flowers are found near the terminal ends of the shoots (female flowers occur near the bases of these bisexual flowers and males near the tips). Occasionally , female catkins appear instead of bisexual ones. The flowers are strong smelling.

Pollination is mostly via the wind , but some insects including bees may help. rarely selffertile, so cross pollination is necessary for a nut cro p.

Chinkapins are

Prickly burrs with soft spines develop, 1446 mm ( O .6 1.8 ~) in diameter, within each of which is a single nut. Usually, 1-5 burrs are formed per flowe r spike, occasionally up to 8 or m ore . The nut is round or elongated. shiny and brown , about 12-20 mm ( O .5 -0.8~ ) across. The burrs split

P~ne

24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

into two parts at maturity. exposing the nut inside for a few days before it falls . Ripening is spread out , with basal burrs ripening earliest. The burrs usually remain attached to the bush for weeks or months afterwards. Nuts usually ripen in September or October. In wet years, nuts may start to germinate within the burr. They naturally germinate in the autumn, sendi ng down a root first. Chinkapins are hardy to about 20" C (zone 5).

Uses
The nuts are edible raw or cooked , being sweet. nutty aromatic and flavoured. They contain 5% fats . 5% protein. 40% starch, and higher levels of oleic and linoleic fatty acids. and sugars sucrose and glu cose than European chestnuts. The seeds can be ground into a flou r and used in way as the same European chestnut flour to make bread etc. are The seeds sometimes used to fatten pigs .

,-pnqnrrJW'jUlilllilllllll'I'ij'lIIlllilllllljlnllllill'llllllll1III'llltlllllljlilllllllllllll'iT1 I1'1 '1'1 1'111111'11

,~ ..

II

__~ 'O ~~2 ~ O ~.3 ~O ~~' ~O ~~' ~'O ~~6 ~O ~.7 ~O~~8 ~O ,-~9~ O ~JOo ~. .,~ b ~&~ ~..~
Chinkapin seeds - ruler scale in mm

A coffee and chocolate substitute is made from the seed. The wood is a good so urce of fuel and makes good cha rcoa l. It is also used for fence posts, being naturaJly durable . Shrubs coppice vigorously and can be cut down to ground level. The wood is dark brown , strong , light and hard. coarse grained, and resistant to rotting. The nuts are a source of wildlife food . Dense thickets of chinkapins make good cover for birds such as quail and pheasant. Leaves , bark. wood and seed burrs all contain tannins and could potentially be used for tanning leather. It has some resistance against chestnut blight and has been used in some chestnut breeding programmes as a source of resistance. It has potential as a dwarfing rootstock for other Castanea species, though the suckering habit could be a problem. Medicin ally. the lea ves have been used as a derm atologica l aid and febrifuge , also as an antiperiodic. astringent and tonic . The root has been used as an astringent, a tonic and to treat fevers.

Cultivation
The chinkapin grows and crops well in Britain - reports that it does not crop are probably

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Page 25

7
entirely due to single specimens being grown which are of course not self-fertile.

;;

A well-drained soil is preferred with a slightly acid pH (5.5 to 6.0). Drought, poor and temporarily wet soils. and light shade are all tolerated . Growth of 2-2.5 m (6-8 tt) in 10 years can be expected. Fo r nut production, plants can be spaced at 2-4 m within rows, with rows 3-6 m apart. Plants start flo wering and fruiting after 2-4 years . Maturity is early compared with European chestnuts I in September.

Frequent shaking and collection of nuts is necessary to harvest the crop before wildlife (birds & squirrels) remove the crop ; picking closed burrs is not really viable as the nuts will not usually ripen properly and they must be forced open.
In formation about yields is scarce, but indicates that overall per area yield s to be at least as high as for other chestnuts - 1 to Established plants (10-15 3 tonnes/ha. yea rs old ) can yield 6 kg each. Th ere are 500-1300 nuts per kg. Chinkapins are subject to most of the same potential ins ect pests and diseases as Chinkapin burr and seeds (from Payne ) other chestnuts. Like European chestnuts, they are susceptible to ink disease (Phytophthora cinnamomi). They do show some resistance to chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and because of their suckeri ng habit, can tolerate the disease and still crop well. They are resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp.) Propagation is usually via seed - plant in autumn , keep moist but not wet over winter. Suckers can also be removed.

Sources
Plants are available from the A.R.T.

References
Bean, W : Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1974. Bounous, G et al: II miglioramento genetico del castagno : situazione , obieWvi e metodi. Rivista di Frutticoltura . 1995, 11, p63-73. Duke. J: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press , 1989. Huxley, A (Ed): The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmill an, 1999. Johnson, G: Revision of Casta nea sect. Balanocastanon. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 69:25-49, January 1988. Johnson, G: Chinquapins: Taxonomy, Distribution , Ecology and Importance. Northern Nut Growers Association 78th Annual Report, 1987, pp 58-62. Krussman , G: Manual of Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Balsford. 1985. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press , 1998. Payne, J et al: Castanea pumifa: An Underused Native Nut Tree. HortScience. Vol 29(2), February 1994. Payne, J et al: Chinkapin: Potential New Crop for the South. New Crops (Eds J Janick & J Simon). John Wi ley. 1993.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Forest gardening: Plants for difficult sites: perennials (3)


This article lists useful perennials which are tolerant of the following conditions : Dry shade ( A ): Found under conifers and densely-crowned deciduous trees such as beech . Damp shade ( A!>- ): Full shade found under open-crowned deciduous trees and shrubs. Droughty sunny sites ( ~ ): Where the ground usually becomes very dry in summer. Boggy sunny sites (~ ,.. ): Where the ground is often boggy and waterlogged. Exposed sites (" ): Where the wind exposure is significant. Heavy clay soils ( U ): Self explanatory.
( ~ ): Chalk and limestone soils with a pH greater than about 7.5. Very acid soils ( (::: ): Soils with a pH less than about 5.5.

Very alkaline soils

Latin name
Myriophyllum spicatum Myriophyllum verticillatum Nabalus serpentarius Najas flexilis Najas gracillime Najas major Najas minor Narcissus jonquilla Narcissus poeticus Nardostachys grandiflora Nardus stricta Nasturtium microphyllum Nasturtium officinale Nasturtium palustre Nelumbo lutea Nepeta cataria Nepeta faassenii Nepeta nuda Nepeta racemosa Nuphar adventa Nuphar lutea Nuphar polysepala Nymphaea alba

zone common name


6 3 5 5
Water mUtoil Whorled water milfoil Lion's foot

height

0 0 1.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0 2
1

c , c c , ro u " 0 e ro " " " ro e> , 0 > " E ro " i:' i:' " > i:' ro e ~ w > >
~ ~ ~
~

'"

.
~

"~ "~
b
"~ "~ "~

=>

"~

4 4

Jonquil Poet's narcissus Mat grass

U => U
~

<=
"~

3 3
4

Water cress Marsh cress American lotus Catmint

"~ "~ "~


~
~

3 3 6 4 3 4 4 5

=>

0.6 1.2
Yellow pond lily Yellow water lily Indian pond lily White water lily

~
~

0.3 0 0 0 0

"~ "~

">
"~

I I
Page 27

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

$kI
c u , .< c c m u .c , u " u m ~ " m " e' .c , > " m E "
~ ~

0-

Latin name
Nymphaea odorata Nymphaea tuberosa Nympl10ides peltata Onoclea sensibilis Onosma echinoides Ophiopogon japonicus Orchis coriophora Orchis latifolia Orchis masOJla Orchis militaris Orchis mario Orchis orbiculata Orchis pyramidalis Orchis ustulata Origanum creticum Origanum onites Origanum syriacum Origanum vulgare Omithogalum narbonense Omithogalum pyrenaicum Omithogalum umbellatum Orobanche califomica Orobanche fasciculata Orobanche flava Orobanche ludoviciana Orobanche tuberosa Orontium aquaticum Orostachys spinosa Orthilia secunda O ryzopsis hymenoides Osmorhiza clay toni Osmorhiza longistylis O smorhiza occidentalis Osmunda cinnamomea Osmunda daytonia Osmunda regalis Otanthus maritimus

zone

common name
White pond lily Tuberous water lily Fringed water lily

height

til

>

3 3 6

I~
0 0.5 0.3 0.3
E
h

~ ~ e il' > >

0 0-

,0>
"~ "~

3-4 Sensitive fem

.~

7
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Darkwinged orchis Spanish hops Bug orchis Broad leaved orchis Eany purple orchis Military orchis Greenwinged orchid

0.6 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.3 0 0.2 0.2 0 0.3 1 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.3 0 0 0.6 0.2 0 0 0.3 0 .1 0.6
,~

" "
" " " " "

" "

"'"

"~

=> => =>

I=> I
=>

8 8 5 7-8
6 5

Pot marjoram Bible hyssop Oregano

"
" " " "

I =>

I
I

Bath asparagus Star of Bethlehem

I"
I

I Cancer

ro~t

A
).
).

Lesser broom rape


Broom rape

). ).

h
,~

7
4 5

Golden club

" " I "I " I '~ I


"
I

Onesided pyrola

I"",

8 6 6 6
3 3
8

IIndian millet
Woolly sweet cicily Sweet myrrh
1 Sweet root

I"I
"'" "'" "'"

1.2 0.6 0.5 2 0.5

Cinnamon fern Interrupted fem

I .~ I
. ~

2-3 1 Royal fem


Cottonweed

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

I"

"~
1

c
0

e> O

Latin name
Oxalis acetosella Oxalis oregana

zone

com mon name


Wood sorrel Redwood sorrel Violet wood sorrel Golden groundsel

height w

>

c u , u il E 0 > E 'l' e- " ee 0 > e- u u > u


0
~

c ,

~ ~

, .. .
0
~

3 7 5 3 5 8 6 8 8 6 3 3 6 4 7 5 3

Oxalis violacea
Packera aurea

0 .08 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.5

["
"

)"

Paeonia anomala Paeonia emodi Paeonia lactiflora Paeonia mascula Paeonia officinalis Panax ginseng Panax japonica Panax quinquefolius Papaver orientale Parietaria judaica Paris quad rifolia Parnassia palustris Paronychia argentea Paronychia capitata Paronychia jamesii Parthenium integrifolium Peganum harmala Peltandra virginica Penstemon barbatus Penstemon confertus Penstemon grandiflorus Penstemon laevigatus Penstemon procerus Pentaglottis sempervirens Penthorum sedoides Perideridia gairdneri Perovskia atriplicifolia Petasites fragrans Petasi tes frigid us Petasi tes hybridus Petasites japonicus Petasites japonicus var. aiaanteus

"

Chinese peony

10.75 I

Peony
Ginseng American ginseng Oriental poppy Pellitory of the wall

~6

"
" "
b
)"

U U U U U

I=>

0.8 0 0.3 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0. 1 0 11.2 1 0 .8 0.6 11


E E E

<= <=

Herb Paris
Grass of Pamassus Algerian tea

" "
" " "
"

=> =>

Algerian tea
James Whitkow wort Wild quinine

" "
"

Syrian rue 8 45 Green arrow arum

3 3 3 4 3 7
Yellow penstemon Large flowered beard tongue

"

112
Small-flowered penstemon

I
0.5

11
Virginian stonecrop Yampa

1.2 1.5 0 .3 0 .15 0.5 0.6 12

6 7 5 4 5 5

Russian sage Winter heliotrope Sweet coltsfoot Butterbur Sweet coltsfoot

I" .' .'


1

" ,. " " "

I"
" " "
I"

"

=>

,"

.' .'
Page 29

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3


, u . ro ro u , U ro ~ ~ u E " ro ro E' , > E '" '" a ~ ~ " > ~ ro e a x '" w u u > >
0 0 0
~

Latin name
Petasites palmatus

zone

common name
Sweet butterbur

height

Petasites speciosa
Phalaris arundinacea Phlomis Iychnitus Phlomis tuberosa Phormium colensoi Phormium tenax Phragm ites australis

4 8

I Canary grass

Lamwick plant

6 8 8 3 6 8 8 6 5 4 3 6 5

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0 0 11.5 0.6 1.5 1.2

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Physalis alkekengi
Physalis heterophylla
Physalis peruviana

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Spiked rampion
Orange hawkweed

Phyteuma spicatum Picrorhiza kurroa Piloselia aurantiacum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinguicula vulgaris

Burnet saxifrage
Common butterwort Ribwort plantain
Common plantain

"
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Plantago lanceolata Plantago major


Plantago maritima

Plantago maritima ssp. juncoides


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,Sea plantain
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Hoary plantain Chinese bellflower Alpine blue grass Canada blue grass

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American mandrake Abscess root Bitter milkwort Senega snake root Small Solomon's seal Solomon's seal Solomon's seal Mountain fleece Sistort

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Page 30

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Latin name
polygonum campanuJatum

zone common name


8

height 1.1

c u .0 c c m m u u u '0 m ~ E " m " 2' > E m > m e n x " w u u u > '" '>"
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Polygonum douglasii Polygonum erectum Polygonum sachalinensis Polygonum salicifolium Polygonum scoparium Polygonum weyrichii Polypodium vulgare Polystichum munitum Polytrichum juniperinum Pontederia cordata Potamogeton crispus Potamogeton lucens Potamogeton natans Potentilla anserina Potentilla arguta Potentilla bicolor Potentilla erecta Potentilla fulgens Potentilla glandulosa Potentilla palustris Potentilla reptans Potentilla rupestris Prenanthes altissimus Primula auricula Primula denticulata Primula elatior Primula veris Primula vulgaris Prunella grandiflora Psoralea castorea Psoralea esculenta Psoralea hypogaea Psoralea macrostachya
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0.2 1 0 0.6 0.6 0.6

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Tormentil

3 5 5 5 3 5 5 5
6

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol

to No 3

Page 31

**
Latin name
Psoralea pedunculata Psoralea tenuifolia PteridiLfm aquilinum Puccinellia maritima Puccinellia nuttalliana Pulmonaria obscura Pulmonaria officinalis Pulmonaria saccharata Pulsatilla vulgaris Pyrola rotundifolia Ranunculus acris Ranunculus aquatalis Ranunculus californicus Ranunculus ficaria Ranunculus pallasii Ranunculus peltatus Ratibida columnifera Rheum australe Rheum nobile Rheum officina Ie Rheum palmatum Rheum ribes Rheum tataricum Rhexia virginica Rhodiola rhodantha Rhodiola rosea Romulea bulbocodium Rorippa islandica Roscoea purpurea Rubia peregrina Rubus arcticus Rubus chamaemorus Rudbeckia laciniata Rumex acetosa Rumex acetosella Rumex aquaticus Water crowfoot zone common name

-et=

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Tartarian rhubarb Deer grass

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Page 32

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Latin name
Rumex arcticus

zone

common name
Great water dock Round-leaved dock

height

Rumex hydrolapathum Rumex obtusifofius


Rumex patienta

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Egyptian rue Mountain rue

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Sambucus ebulus

Wapato

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American arrowhead
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Page 33

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

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Cobweb houseleek Housefeek Ragwort Arrowleaf senecio

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Paqe 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

b&

Latin name
Smilacina stellata Solanum ajanhuiri Solidago canadensis Solidago fistuJosa Solidago gigantea Solidago graminifolia Solidago leavenworthii Solidago missouriensis Solidago nan a Solidago odora Solidago rigida Solidago spectabilis Solidago virga urea Sparganium americanum Sparganium anti podium Sparganium erectum Sparganium eurycarpum Sparganium natans Spartina anglica Spartina pectinata Spartina townsendii Spinifex sericeus Spirodela polyrhiza Sporobolus airoides Sporobolus cryptandrus Stachys byzantina Stachys californica Stachys officinalis Stachys palustris Stachys recta Stachys sylvatica Stanleya albescens Stanleya elata Stanreya pinnatifida Stipa tenacissima Stratiotes aloides
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name

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Page 35

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

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height w

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Symphytum ferrariense

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b b b b b b b

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Symphytum uplandicum

Tuberous comfrey
Comfrey

0.6 1.2 0.5 0 0.6

Symplocarpus foetidus Talinurn aurantiacum


Tanacetum parthenium Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum albidum

Skunk cabbage
Orange fame flower

Feverfew
Tansy

Taraxacum kok-saghyz
Taraxacum megalorhizon Tara xacum officinale

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Goat's fu e

Tephrosia virginiana
Teucrium canadense

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Water germander Wood sage

Teucrium scordium
T eucrium scorodonia Teucrium thea Thermopsis lanceolata Thermopsis rhombifolia Thymus linearis Tiarella cordi folia Trapa bicornis Trapa incisa Trapa natans Trifolium alpinum Trifolium macrocephalum Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triglochin maritima Trilisa odoratissima Trillium erectum

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Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Latin name
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium sessile

zone common name White trillium 5

height

4 4 5

Toadshade
Painted trillium Golden oat grass

Trillium undulatum
Trisetum ftavescens Triteleia grandiflora Trollius europaeus Tulbaghia violacea Tulipa kaufmanniana Tussilago farfara Typha angustifolia Typha domingensis Typha glauca Typha latifolia Typha laxmannii Typha minima Typha orientalis Typha shuttleworthii Umbilicus rupestris Uniola paniculata Urtica dioica Utricularia minor Utricularia vulgaris Uvularia perfoliata Uvularia sessiliflora Valeriana celtica Valeriana edulis Valeriana sitchensis ssp. uliginosa Vallisneria spiralis Veratrum viride Verbena officinalis Verbena stricta Veronica americana Veronica anagallis-aquatica Veronica beccabunga Viola labradorica Viola obliq ua

0.4 0 .3 10 .2
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Globeflower 5 7-8 Society garlic

5 5 3 5 3 4 6 5 7 7 2 5
4

Water lily tulip

Coltsfoot
Narrow leaved cattail Blue cattail Broad leaved cattail Scented flag Raupo Kidneywort
Sea oats

10 .3 0.22 '2 3 2 2 1.5 0.8 0 1.5 0.4 2.5 1.2 0.5 0 0.4 0.4

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b

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8 Eel grass 2-3 Indian poke 4 Vervain 4 2 5 2


Hoary vervain American brooklime Water speedwell 8rooklime Labrador violet Marsh blue violet

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0 .1 0 0.6 0.1
0.15

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IE
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Page 37

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 3

Latin name
Viola odorata Viola sororaria Wasabia japonica Wolffia arrhiza Xerophyllum douglasii Xerophyllum tenax Zannichellia palustris
Zizania f1uitans

zone common name


8
4
Violet Common blue violet Japanese horseradish

height

> w
E

, , ~ E e> 1i , E
0
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8 7-8

0.2 01 0.3
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0 0 2 0 0 3.6 0 0

6 5 2
Horned pond weed
Manchurian wild rice Water millet Grass weed Bean caper

"

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=>
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Zjzania latifolia Zizaniopsis milaceae Zostera marina Zygophyllum fabago

" " " .. , ",

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Pest & Disease series:

Peach Leaf Curl


Introduction
Peach leaf curl is a fungal disease of peach and nectarine caused by the fungus Taphrina deformans. It is a particularly devastating disease in regions with mild wet springs, like the UK, and can cause loss of fruiting and even eV, e ntual death of trees .

Symptoms
The fungus attacks young lea ves on trees . Infected leaves are easily distinguished from healthy leaves as they are curled, puckered and thicker than normal. Deformed areas are reddish-yellow at first and then turn brown or purplish. Later the upper surface of leaves turns powdery grey as the fungus begins to produce spores. Eventually the infected leaves fall from the tree, and new leaves will develop. Although new leaves may be less damaged (dependi ng on the weather), the ir growth reduces established food reserves for the tree, weakens the tree (mak ing it more susceptible to winter injury) and reduces fruit yields. Defoliation in successive seasons may kill the tree. Young twigs can also be infected . They become stunted and may be distorted and thickened and often quickly die. Leaves that grow from such twigs are also stunted and distorted. Blossoms sometimes become infected, shrivel and fall. When trees are severely infected, peach fruit can also become susceptible. display distorted warty reddish growths on the surface and will usually abort. Infected fruit

Conditions for infection & spread


Spores of the leaf curl fungus overwinter on the surface of peach twigs. In spring, the spores

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

multiply during periods of moist weather until the leaf buds swell and open. Rain is necessary for infection, and the spores are carried on a film of water into the buds , where lea ves are infected. Cool wet weathe r slows leaf development and allows more time for leaf curl in fecti on; infection occurs readily at 10-21 C (50-70 F). Dry weather during bud swell and bud break limits leaf curl infection. After the deformed and discoloured leaves turn powdery grey on the ir upper surface, spores are dispersed by the wind and splashing rain. These land in the cracks , crevices and twig surfaces and remain there for the winler. Secondary infections do not occur after the in itial infections.

Hosts
Peaches and nectarines are the main hosts to the fungus, but alm ond can also be badly attacked and apricot can also be slightly affected. Susceptibility to leaf curl is correlated with leaf gland type and some 3% of cultivars show some resis tance. There is evidence of several races of the disease, and it is likely that resistance is usually to one or several races , but not all.

Resistant varieties
Nectarines tend to be less susceptible than peaches. Earl ier flowering cultivars of both peach and nectarine also tend to be more susceptible than later flowering selections. No cultivars are immune and even resistant/tolerant cultivars are likely to be infected following very favourable in fection conditions. Below, r) indicates nectarine cultivars. ------------------------- peaches & nectarines ----------- ---------------ResistanUTolerant Slightly resistant Albert Victor La Red Bronte r) August Etter Lippiats Prolific Cresthaven Bed Will's Early Muir Fayette Belle de Louveciennes Nectovera r) Glohaven Brugnon Galopin Pamyat Simirenko Harken Clayton Pollardi Mayflower Curlfree Precoce d'Ampius Newhaven Dixired Q 1-8 Rochester Downing Rann; Kuban; Sentinel Erica Rudolph Redhaven Frost Rheingold Galande Stoikii Hunt's Tawny Victoria Willerrn oz Hylands Peach July Alberta World's Earlie st Kruimcianin (*) Resistant almonds Ferraduel Ferragnes Ingrid Macrocarpa Titan

Control
Peach leaf curl is not difficu lt to control chemically. One to four (severe cases) thorough applications (ie over all twigs , branches and trunks) of a fungicide such as Bordeaux mixture or lime-sulphur are made in the autumn just after defoliation and/or in late winter (January, February) before bud swell. This kill s the spores on twigs. Once the fungus has entered the leaf, the disease cannot be controlled.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Page 39

4&

it

rit

!I

Reducing susceptibility
Trees sheltered from rainfall in th e spring, as buds swell and break and leaves grow, do not suffer from the disease. Thus it is easy to protect trees grown against walls - just provide a polythene canopy overhead on a frame (and maybe in front of the tree too if you get driving rain) from January to late May. Open-grown trees are harder to protect. It should be feasible to protect trees trained on wires in th! same way as wa ll -grown trees - just provide an extra polythene 'wall ' behind the tree on a frame for the cri ti cal period. Trees growing in cool damp Si tuations are particularly susceptible. Various cultural practices can aid the management of peach leaf curl. Where the disease is severe, it is very importa nt to maintain tree vigour by thinning fruit to reduce demand on the tree irrig ation to reduce drought stress if necessary fertilising trees with a nitrogen source by mid June (but do not over stim ulate trees) affected le aves can be collected early in the seaso n and burnt.

References
Bucza cki, S & Harri s, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. HarperCollin s, 1998. Crawford, M: Fruit Va rieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T., 1997. Crawford, M: Almonds. Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 4, Jul y 1998. Crawford, M: Peaches(1). Agroforestry News, Vol 9 No 3, April 2001. Moore, J N & Baltingtan Jr, J R: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS , 1990. Ogawa, J & English, H: Di seases of T emperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. University of California , 1991. Strada, G et at: Peach and Nectarine cultivars introduced in the world from 1980 to 1992. Acta Horticu lturae, 374, ISHS 1996 .

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Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 3

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticu lture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, material s, timber and other products . [t can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage , to forest garden systems incorporating [ayers of tall and small trees , shrubs and ground [ayers in a self-sustaining , intercor,nected and productive system .

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, Apri[ and Ju[y. Subscription rates are: 18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (14 unwaged) 22 eer year overseas (p[ease remit in Ster[ing) 32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 3.50 per copy including postage (4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Dartington, Totnes, Devon , TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803 840776. Emai[ : mai[@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in Eng[and (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Windbreaks

Volume 10 Number 4

July 2002

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 10 Number 4

July 2002

Contents
2

News: squirrels - innovative agroforestrywaterlogging tree losses - farming elderflowers

6 14 20
22

31 34
37

The Viburnums Windbreaks Japanese wineberry Plants for difficult sites: annuals (1) Some perennial tuber plants Pest & Disease series: Replant diseases Book reviews: Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm
climates / Landscaping with Herbs / Plant a Natural Woodland / The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks / Nontimber Forest Products in the United States / Gaia's Garden

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776 Totnes . Devon, TQ9 6JT. UK Website: lNIN'N.agroforestry.co.uk Email: mail@agroforestry.oo.uk

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News
More on squirrel deterrents
Peter Aspin from Shopshire (UK) writes that he has recently heard from a smallholder who uses ' Renardine ', wit h excellent results . aga inst squirrels near he r hazel trees . She also pushes rag s soaked ill the solu tion down rabbit and mole holes. Thi s is the second report we 've heard of this prodLct being used against squ irrels with good success , and it may be worth trying. We may use it to try and guard our wa lnuts this year. Peter also believes that healthy numbers of buzzards and kestrels help deter squi rrels , even though they probab ly wouldn't attack squirrels.

Innovative agroforestry at Hungerford


Bi ll Acwo rth farm s di versely nea r Hungerford (Berks hire, UK) , w ith enterprises including wild flower seed production and improved forestry tree trials. In 1993 he converted a 4.6 hectare ( 11. 5 acres) of arab le field into an alley cropping agroforestry system. lines of trees were planted in a north-south alignme nt (to minimise shad ing) with alley widths of 12 m (40 ft) to suit harvesting machinery, and allowing an additiona l 1. 5 m width for the tree row. Within the rows , trees were planted at an average of 1.5 m (5 ft) apart . Four main tree species are being grown for long-term timber production : wi ld cherry , oak , ash and black waln ut. These were each planted in rows with a 6 m (20 ft) spacing . First to be harvested will be the ash and cherry (at 50-80 years), with a fi na l aim to create an oak parkland with grass beneath. Between the main tree species in th e rows , specimen trees are being grown , sa leable to landscapers and countrys id e developers as la rge standard trees . Three of these specimen trees are placed in the row between each main tree . These include maples (inclu ding sycamore), small -leaved lime, hornbeam, tulip tree , plane , ho lm oak , chestnut-leaved oak, scarlet oak, cut-leaved beech, birch, tree of heaven and grey alder. The trees are arranged in a

As h

Black Walnut

W ild Cherry

Oak or Sycamore

+-----+

o
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1.8m

I 201

12

18 metres

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complex pattern in the rows, designed to allow the different species to develop. The only problem Bill has found has been that the black walnut has been adversely affected by the closeness of inappropriate species. The specimen trees will be uprooted from year 10 onwards (2003) using specialist equipment. To aid lifting the trees, they have been root-pruned already, first using a shakeerator (a type of sub-sailer) along the row sides, and also by ripping across the rows using a digger fitted with a long single tine. Prices for good quality 10year old standard trees are in the region of 600-1000 per tree delivered. Growth has been good with most trees The tree approaching 4 m (13 tt). rows have been kept weed free using herbicides (though this has ceased as the fields will soon be converted to organic status), and the trees have benefited from fertilisers applied to the arable crops. Firm figures are not available, but Bill believes that the yields from the arable alleys increased when the trees were about 5 years old, when the microclimate was greatly improved by the wind protection afforded by the trees; he believes they are still higher now. He hopes to earn over 70,000 from selling the specimen trees! Sources: Woodland Heritage Journal, NO.7 (2002) & Martin Crawford - visit to Little Hidden Farm, June 2002

Waterlogging tree losses in 2001-2


Thousands of young cider apple trees were lost in the UK in 2001 because of excessive waterlogging. Most of the deaths occurred due to root asphyxiation after the very wet winter and spring of 2000-2001. Even trees that pulled though the season may be at risk in 2002, because the wet soil condItions both stressed trees and favour the spread of co llar/crown rot, Phytophthora caetarum. One of the largest English cider companies, Bulmers, estimates that over 60,000 cider apple trees were affected to a greater of lesser extent, in severe cases growers lOSing half of their orchard stock. Trees planted on ex-arable land have been worse affected, due to the poorer soi l structure - new recommendations are to plant into an establi shed grass sward which has a better soil structure and better anchorage for stakes and roots. At the ART trials site in Devon , UK, we lost a couple of very young chestnut trees in spring 2001 and a further two in 2002. Older established trees appear healthy.

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Farming elderflowers
Richard Kelly organically farms 112 acres near Stroud in Groucestershire. Eight years ago (1994) he tired of the ever-increasing bureaucra cy which running a herd of dairy cattle involved , and he looked at alternative ventures. At that time, a local org anic soft drinks manufacturer, Bottle Green, was looking to expand its range and volume of production; one of its most popular products being etderflower cordial. As a result , Richard started planting elder trees on his farm for the production of flowers. He now has 75 acres of elder plantation in production. Most of the plantings were with 2-year old hedging stock from various sources, with clear variation in quality, but he hopes to propagate from his best trees in future plantings . He has found that at least some of the cultivars bred for fruit production in Europe produce po o rly ~fragranced flowers. Much of the first 8 years has been spent experimenting with tree spacing , nutrition, pruning and harvesti ng regimes. Elder is widely grown in mainland Europe for fruit production , but for flower productio n different spacings and pruning procedures are preferred. Richard now believes that the optimum spacing is with rows 5 m ( 16 tt) apart (or more for better machinery acces s), and trees spaced 3 m (10 tt) apart in the rows. 5 x 3 m gi ves a density of 667 trees/ ha (267 trees/acre) . Shelter is important as new growth is snapped by the wind very easily. Large quantities of manure (chicken+horse+cow , mixed and rotted) were used in the establishment phase . Elders are shallow rooted and require good moisture and fertile soil conditio ns. The grass paths between tree rows are mown and the mowings blown sideways under the bushes as a mulch. Grazing pigs (coon~coons, a specialist grazing breed) and ch ickens (continental forest chickens which prefer being under trees) are about to be introduced into the system to maintain fertility and produce further outputs for the farm. Both wi ll graze under the elders without damaging the plants . Richard envisages building up to around 20 sows and their litters, plus up to 1000 free~range chickens which will be moved around the plantations. The aim will be to rotate the animals with pigs first . followed by chickens , which should achieve weed control and fertility maintenance. He has found that sheep eat off the lower leaves and rub against branches; cattle can be grazed in late autumn and early winter but wi ll severely damage trees once the green bud s break in February.

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Pruning should aim to achieve a bushy plant with most flowers within reach of the pickers (harvesting cannot be mechanised) . Young plants are headed back to produce multistemmed bushes , and pinching out shoot tips to increase bushiness was carried out for the first 6 years. The oldest wood is also cut out by hand . The main pruning method is to use a tra c tor-mounted flail (as used to trim hedges) which is used to cut back bushes to a height of about 1.5 m (5 tt) and also along the sides of the bushes to leave bushes some 2.4-3 m (8-10 tt) wide . Most flowers nd appear on 2 year growth. The harvest period lasts a total of about 4 weeks , and most bushes require 5 pickings - ie a picking every 5-6 days. Harvesting is entirely by hand, because at anyone time there are flowers which are ready to pick (fully open with pollen freely falling - flowers remain in this state for about 2 days), others half open and others yet to open at all. It is very important that flowers are picked with as little stalk as possible, as this produces unpleasant flavours . Pickers are paid by the kg - in 2002 the rate was 1.20 per kg (0 .55 per Ib), and a good picker can pick 67 kg of flowers per day (earning 80fday); a less motivated picker might pick 37 kg per day. Average flower yields from bushes are now 3.5 kgfbush (7.7 Ib/bush; 2.3 Uha , 0.93 tonfacre) , but Richard believes that with better selections and optimum management, S kg/bush/year (11 Ib/bush/year; 3.3 tlha , 1.3 ton/acre) is achievable. The flowers have to be despatched to Bottle Green for processing the same day. About the only pest of note is the froghopper - the insect that produces 'cuckoo spit' on young shoots. Young plants can be significantly set back by a bad attack. The introduction of chickens and pigs into the system should make it profitable - so far it is not making a profit. Richard is keen to find other uses for some of the by-products, for example the old wood cut out is extremely hard and excellent for carving, also for making flutes and pipes. Sou rce: Martin Crawford - visit to Thistledown Farm , June 2002

Extra guided tour at Dartington


An extra guided tour around the A.R.T. forest garden at Dartington has been scheduled for th Tuesday September 10 at 10 .00 AM . All are welcome - for directions please see our web site or contact us beforehand .

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The Viburnums
I ntrod uction
The Viburnums are a large group of deciduous and evergreen shrubs or small trees mainly from the northern temperate regions of the world. They bear simple opposite leaves and heads of white or cl-eam flowers, sometimes fragrant. Fruits are generally ovoid or ellipsoid in shape, red blue or black, with one large seed surrounded by a thin layer of flesh. The fruits of many Viburnums are edible, but the quality varies between species and within the same species. Some are sweet and pleasant, while others are bitter and perhaps best left to the birds as a sacrificial crop to tempt them away from fruit more desirable to humans! Fruit colours described in below are the final ripe colours. Most if not all species are self-sterile, hence two different plants will need to be grown for fruiting to occur. The exceptions seem to be V.opufus and V.trifobum, which appear to be selffertile. The evergreen species are generally less hardy than the deciduous ones. The winter-flowering species will require shelter from cold winter winds to set fruit; their flowers tolerate about -10C before being damaged. Most species like sun or part shade and a moist soil. generally they do not do well on poor or dry soils. Some tolerate extremely acid soils, but

Prune evergreens in late spring, and deciduous species after flowering to remove dead or damaged wood.

World wide range of Viburnum species

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Species
V.acerifolium - Dockmackie, Arrow wood, Maple-leaved viburnum, Possum haw Medium sized upright shrub to 1.8-3 m (6-10 tt) high, growing 20 em per year. Native to Eastern N.America , very hardy, to zone 3 (-30C). Likes dry sites. Uses: Edible fruit (8 mm, purplish-black, sweet) Bark and inner bark from the roots and shoots used medicinally. Wood from straight shoots used to make arrows. V. x bodnantense (V.farreri x grandifforum) Medium upright shrub growing to 3 m (10 ft) high. Flowers fragrant , in the winter (Jan-March) and requires shelter then from cold winds. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Uses: Edible fruit (to 20 mm long. sweet). V.cassinoides - Sweet viburnum, Nanny berry, Swamp haw, Teaberry, Appalachian tea Rounded shrub or small tree to 2.5 m (8 tt) high. Tolerates very acid soifs, dislikes alkaline soils. Native to Eastern N.America , extremely hardy (zone 2, -35 D C). Syn V.nudum var. cassinoides. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8-10 mm long, blue-black , sweet, good flavour); ripens October. Leaves used to make a tea. Bark and root bark used medicinally by native Americans. V.cordifolium Large shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 ft) high from Eastern Asia, hardy to zone 9 (_5 D C). Closely related to V.lantanoides. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked. V.corylifolium Upright shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high from Eastern Asia, hardy to zone 6 (-18 C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8 mm long, scarlet.) V.cotinifolium - Smoketree viburnum Large spreading vigorous shrub to 4 m (13 tt) high. Native to the Himalayas, hardy to zone 6 (-18 D C). Uses: Edible fruit (8-12 mm long, black , sweet) - ripens October. The wood is hard and close grained.

V.cotinifolium

V.cylindricum Large evergreen shrub or small tree to 10 m (33 tt) high, native to the Chinese Himalayas, hardy to zone 6 (-18 C). Uses: An edible oil is obtained from the seeds. The oil is also used to burn as a luminant. The wood is hard and close grained.

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V.david;; Dense evergreen small shrub growing 1.5 m (5 ft) high and 90 cm (3 ft) wide. Has large, dark green smooth leaves. Tolerates cha lk. Native to Western China, hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Uses: Ground cover plant. V.dentatum - Southern arrow wood Large shrub to 5 m (16 tt) high, tolerates very acid soils.~ Native to Eastern N.America, very hardy to zone 2 (-35C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (to 10 mm long , blue-black, pleasant sweet flavour.) Shoots used to make arrows. V.di/atatum Erect shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high from Eastern Asia, hardy to zone 5 (-20C). Uses: Edible fruits - raw or cooked (8 mm long, bright red, sweet). Leaves cooked and eaten as a famine food. Medicinal leaves & shoots astringent, verm ifuge; used for washing sores. A fibre from the inner bark is used for making ropes. V.edule V.edule - Mooseberry. Moosewood, Squashberry Small shrub to 1.5-2.5 m (5-8 tt) high. Native to NE Asia and N .America. Hardy to zone 5 (20C). Uses: Edible fruit (7-9 mm long, red, mildly acid, pleasant, best after a frost) - ripens in October. Can be dried or made into jam. Flowers can be cooked and eaten - made into fritters. Bark used medicinally as an antispasmodic . . Leaves, flower buds and fruits also all used medicinally by native Americans. Whippy stems can be used for basketry, particularly for basket rims.

V.erosum Erect shrub to 2 m (6 tt) high, native to Japan. Hardy to zone 6 (-18 C). Uses: Edible fruit (6-8 mm long, red. )
D

V,erubescens Shrub or small tree, sometimes semi -evergreen , to 5 m (16 ft) high from Eastern Asia , hardy to zone 6 (-18C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (black, sweet); ripens October. The subspecies gracilipes fruits we ll in the UK. The wood is close and even grained, hard in cool regions - used as a boxwood substitute.

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V.farreri Upright densely-branched shrub to 3 m (10 tt) high from Northern China, hardy to zone 6 (laO e). Flowers in winter (Nov-Feb) and requires shelter from cold winds then. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (black, sweet); ripens in May. V.foetans Shrub to 1.S-3 m (S-10 tt) high from the Himalayas, hardy to zone 6 (-18 D C). Flowers in winter (Jan-Mar) and requires shelter then from cold winds. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (black, sweet); ripens in spring. V.foetidum Evergreen shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high or more from the Himalayas, hardy to zone 9 (_SD C). Uses: Edible fruit (6-8 mm, scarlet-crimson). V.fordiae Shrub from China. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked. V.furcatum Upright shrub growing to 3.S m (12 tt) high from Japan and Taiwan, hardy to zone 6 (-18 D C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (black); ripens in October. V.grandiflorum Shrub or tree to 2 m (6 tt) high or more from the Himalayas, hardy to zone 7 (-15 D C). Flowers in winter (Jan-March), and requires shelter from cold winds then. Uses: Edible fruit (12-20 mm long, purple-black , sweet) ; ripens in spring. V.japonicum Evergreen shrub to 1.8 m (6 tt) high from Japan, hardy to zone 7 (-lSDC). Uses : Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8 mm long, bright red). Leaves have been cooked and eaten as a famine food. V. x juddii (V. carlesii x bitchiuense) Broad hybrid shrub to loS m (S tt) high, hardy to zone S (_20D C). Uses:

Hedging.
V.lantana - Wayfaring tree, Twistwood A large shrub or small tree to S m (16 tt) high from Europe, hardy to zone 3 (-30 D C). Tolerates dry soils and chalk. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8 mm long. poor, black); ripens August-September. Young stems used as twine. Used as a screening/hedging plant in Austria and Germany. Used as a rootstock for other Viburnum species .

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V./antanoides - Hobbleberry, American wayfaring tree Large straggling shrub to 4 m (13 ft) high, tolerating very acid conditions, Native to North America. hardy to zone 3 (-30C). Uses: Edib le fruit (15 mm long. purple-black, sweet raisin/date flavour, best after a frost); ripens September-October. The roots and leaves are used medicinally by native Americans. V./entagQ - Sheepberry, Nannyberry, Black haw Vigorous large shrub or small tree to 10 m (33 ft) high from Eastern North America, hardy to zone 2. Forms thickets in the wild, also short lived. Uses: Edible fruit (12-16 mm long, bluish -black, bloomy, sweet & juicy, best after a frost); ripens September-October. Bark is used medicinally as an antispasmodic. Leaves are roots also used medicinally by native Americans. Hedging. The wood is heavy, hard and close grained. V.mongolicum Shrub to 2 m (6 ft) high from Eastern Siberia, hardy to zone 5 (-20C) . Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (black). V.mullaha Shrub to 3 m (10 tt) high from the Himalayas, hardy to zone 9 (_5C). Uses: Edible fruit - acid (yellowish-red). The wood is fairly hard - used to make walking sticks.

V.Jentago

V.nudum - Withe rod, Naked viburnum, Swamp haw, Possum haw Upright shrub to 3-4.5 m (10-15 ft) high, tolerating very acid conditions. Native to Eastern N.America. hardy to zone 5 (-20C) . ' Uses: Edible fruit (8-12 mm, blue-black, sweet or bitter); ripens October. The bark is medicinal, used as an antispasmodic, diuretic, tonic and uterin e sedative. V.odoratissimum Large evergreen shrub to 5 m (16 ft) high or more from Asia (India to Japan), hardy to zone 8 (10C). Uses: Edible fruit (10 mm long.) V.opu/us - Guelder rose, Cranberry tree, Cramp bark Large shrub to 4.5 m (15 ft) high and w id e from Europe including the UK. Thicket-forming. Hardy to zone 3 (-30 C) . Tolerates alkaline soils . Probably self-fertile. The garden variety 'Roseum' is sterile and does not set fruit (may be usefu l if bark is the main crop desired.) 'Com pactum' grows 1.5 m (5 ft) high and fruits abundantly. ' Fructuluteo' has yellow fruits. 'Notcutts Variety' has larger fruits . 'Xanthocarpa' has green fruits. Guelder rose is a winter host for the black bean aphid.

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=Uses: Edible fruit (8 mm) - raw or cooked: bitter with a cheesy smell when cooked! Used as a cranberry substitute. Wa rn ing: large quantities of raw fruit can cause vomiting/diarrhoea. Fruit used as a food colouring. Bark used medicinally - known as 'cramp bark'. It is antispasmodic, astringent and sedative, and cont ains 'scopoletin', a coumarin that has a sedative affect on the uterus. It is effective at relieving any over-tense mus cle. The bark is harvested in the autumn before the leaves change colour, or in the spring before the leaf buds open. It is dried for later use or made into tinctures etc. The lea ves and fruits are antiscorbutic, emetic and laxative. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh bark , used in the treatment of menstrual pain and spasms after childbirth. A red dye and ink is obtained from the fruit. Plants ca n be grown as part of a mixed tall hedge. The wood can be used to make skewers. Bee plant. Stalks without pith are used to make 'peas hooters '. V.phlebotrichum Shrub to 2.5 m (8 tt) high from Japan, hardy to zone 6 (-18C). Uses: Edib le fruit - raw or cooked (9-10 mm long, red). V.plicatum f. tomentosum Shrub to 3 m (10 tt) high or more with horizontal branches from Japan and China, hardy to zone 5 (-20C). 'Cascade' has abundant red fruits . ' Darts Red Robin ' has large clusters of deep red fruits. 'Rowallane' fruits well. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (blue-black), ripens October. Young leaves have been cooked and eaten as a famine food . Bee plant. Ground cover (especially cvs 'Ma riesii ', 'Lanarth ' - rarely fruit. )

V.nudum

V.prunifolium - Black haw, Stagberry, Stag bush Upright large shrub or small tree to 5 m (16 tt) high or more from North America. Has redtinged shoots and shiny ovate leaves. Flowers in late spring are followed by black-blue fruits. Hardy to zone 3 (-30C). Tolerates poor dry soils. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (17 mm long, dark blue, bloomy, sweet, dry, best bletted or frosted , sometimes made into jam): ripens October. Medicinal root and stem bark - sa me properties as cram p bark from V.opu/us. It is abortifacient, anodyne , antispasmodic, astringent, nervine and sedative. The bark contains 'scopoletin', a coumarin that has a sedative affect on the uterus and salicin, a painkiller that is the precursor of aspirin . The branch bark is harvested in the autumn before the leaves change colour, or in the spring before the leaf buds open: the root bark in autumn . It is dried for later use or made into tinctures etc. Dye obtained from fruits. Plants can be grown as a hedge, they can be sheared to make a formal screen.

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The wood is heavy, hard , strong , brittle, close grained. It is used to mak e skewers. Bee plant.

V.rufidulum - Southern black haw, Rusty nannyberry Upright, slender large shrub or small tree to 10m (33 ft) high or more from North America , hardy to zone 5 (-20C). Uses: Edib le fruit - raw or cooked ( 12-17 mm long , dark blue , bloomy, sweet , best after frost); ripens
August-O ~ tober.

The bark has been used medicinally in the same ways as cramp bark from V.opu/us.

V.sargent;; - Sargent cranberry bush Shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high from Northeastern Asia , hardy to zone 3 (-30C) . Uses: Edible fruit (8-10 mm, light red). V.sempervirens Evegreen shrub to 5 m (16 ft) high from China , hardy to zone 9 (-SO C). Uses: Leaves have been cooked and eaten as a famine food. V.setigerum - Tea viburnum Upright large shrub to 4 m (13 ft) high from Central and Western China , hardy to zone 5 (20 C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (12 mm long , bright red , sweet). Leaves used to make a tea. V.sieboldii Vigorous shrub or small tree to 3.5 m (12 ft) high from Japan, hardy to zone 5 (- 20C) ; prefers hot summers. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (10-12 mm, blue-black). V.suspensum Evergreen shrub to 3.5 m ( 12 ft) high from Taiwan, hardy to zone 9 (_5C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (reddish -black). V.tinus - Laurustinus A much-branched dense evergreen shrub to 3.5 m (12 ft) high from Southern Europe , hardy to zone 7 ( - 15C). Uses: Bee plant. Hedging. V.trilobum (V.opulus americanum) - American cranberry bush, Highbush cranberry Shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high or more from North America , hardy to zone 2 (-35 C). Very closely related to V.opufus, and probably self-fertile. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8-12 mm long , scarlet-red, juicy, acid, bitter), used as a cranberry substitute and for jam. 'Philips ' & 'Wentworth ' are good fruiting cultivars. Fruits ripens September-October, but often hangs well into the winter before the birds will take it.

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g
Medicinal bark - identical uses to cramp bark from V.opu/us. medicinally by native Americans . The fruit was formerly used as bait in snares to trap rabbits. The roots are also used

V.veitch;; Upright shrub to 1.5 m (5 ft ) high from Central China , hardy to zone 5 (20C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8 mm long , black , sweet.) V.wrightii Shrub to 3 m (10 ft) high from Japan, hardy to zone 5 (20C). var. hessei is a dwarf form growing to 2 m (6 ft) high that usually produces abundant fruit. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked (8 mm long, bright red) - ripens AugustSeptember.

V. wrightii var. hessei

Propagation
Propagating Viburnums from seed is notoriously difficult. Ideall y, sow fresh seed as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow and if the seed is harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Deciduous species can be propagated by softwood cuttings in early summer, using a 2:1 mix of peat:sand, genUe bottom heat and an enclosed moist atmosphere. Hardwood cuttings can also be taken in autumn and winter . The current seasons growth can also be layered in JulyAugust - remove 15 months later. Evergreen species are best propagated from semiripe cuttings , 5 . 8 cm long with a heel if possible , in July/August in a frame or enclosed moist atmosphere. Overwinter in a polytunnel or greenhouse.

References
A.R.T. Useful Plants Database, 2002. Bown, 0: The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & their uses. Darling Kindersley, 1995. Chevalier, A: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley, 1996. Huxley, A (Ed): The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmill an Reference, 1999. Moerman, 0: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998.

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Windbreaks
Introduction
Windbreaks create smaUscale changes in climate across the area adjacent to the windbreak . localised climatic effects near the ground are known as microclimate, and windbreaks have the capacity to alter microclimate dramatically - equivalent to climatic differences between distant
region~.

Two major factors affect the precise way in which a windbreak will affect the microclimate near it - height and porosity_ The height is obvious and easily measured; but porosity is determined by a complex array of three dimensional gaps and is not so easily measured. Wind is moving air, which behaves likes water or other fluids. Windbreaks cannot stop the wind, but they can deflect it, and the windspeed can only be reduced in one part of the flow by increasing it in another - some of the wind approaching a windbreak is deflected at higher speeds over the top of it and some generally filters through , resulting in a reduced wind speed near the ground on the leeward side.

Wind speed reductions


The extent to which a windbreak affects wind speed is directly proportional to the height (H) . When referring to distances from the windbreak , it is usual to measure them in multiples of this height H. Maximum reduction in wind speed is achieved for a distance of about BH from the windbreak, with wind speeds reduced to around 50% in this area. Reductions to around 80% of wind speed continue to a distance of 15-20H. These va lues will vary with the topography of the site but are accurate on flattish land. Windbreak porosity strongly affects the pattern of wind speed variation within the she lter zone. Denser windbreaks, with lower porosity , produce lower minimum wind speeds. There is a steady increase in the area protected as windbreak porosity decreases (ie the density increases) from 100% to 20%. Previous research which indicated that dense hedges lead to smaller protected areas has now been superseded. It is important to maintain windbreak density near to ground level, otherwise wind speeds can be in creased here and cause damage to soil and crops. The cross-sectional profile of a windbreak ca n also influence leeward wind speed recovery: there is some evidence that rectangular profile windbreaks (eg. using upright or fastigiate trees rather than rounded shrubs) delay wind speed recovery better than smooth or aerodynamically shaped windbreaks.

Wind turbulence
Recent work has identified turbulence patterns near windbreaks. To the leeward side of a windbreak, there is a 'quiet' zone of minimum turbulence, extending to a distance of about BH. Beyond thi s is the 'wake' zone, where turbulence increases, eventually reducing to open field levels. Dense windbreaks give larger reductions in wind speed but also lead to more turbulence in the wake zone; more porous windbreaks have higher wind speeds in the quiet zone but less wake zone turbulence.

Page 14

A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

o
xH

I"Z..
Turbulence patterns leeward of a windbreak

10

Other effects on microclimate


By affecting the wind speed and turbulence, windbreaks also affect the movement of heat and water vapour, producing variations as follows:

Temperature
Windbreaks increase the continental character of the climate. Increases in daytime temperatures of up to 2e , occasionally more, are common in a zone extending to about 10H from a windbreak. The greatest warming occurs on sunny days when the surface is dry. In addition, night time reductions in temperature of up to 1C also occur within a similar zone.

Relative humidity
This increases near to windbreaks due to the reduced turbulent mixing (the surface being a source of vapour due to evapotranspiration.) Typical increases are 3-4%.

Plant surface temperature


The temperature of plant surfaces such as leaves and stems are also strongly affected . Surface temperatures of objects receiving solar radiation are directly related to wind speed . Shelter thus can cause significant increases in plant surface temperatures.

Soil temperature
The temperature in the top few cm of soil is strongly influenced by the soil surface temperature and nearby air temperature. At greater depths, temperatures are buffered and are more dependent on the relative extent of periods of daytime warming and cooling . Over time , increased daytime temperatures and soil surface temperatures (offset to some extent by cooler night time temperatures), along with reduced evaporative cooling , generally lead to increases in soil temperatures of up to 3C.

Solar radiation
Near to windbreaks, direct radiation is reduced due to shading , but are only significant to a distance of 1-2H from the windbreak. North-South oriented windbreaks intruence a smaller area

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Page 15

than east-west windbreaks because shadows tend to be cast along the windbreak. Windbreaks can also reflect radiation if they face the sun and increase air temperatures near the windbreak.

Precipitation
Windbreaks will cast a rain shadow when rain falls with wind. This zone rarely extends beyond 1 H from the windbreak. but can extend further where strong winds driving rain are common.

Evapotranspiration & soil moisture


Evapotranspiration is the combined effect of evaporation ands water use by plants. Water near the surface in soil will evapo rate under most atmospheric conditions. Crop growth and development alters this by the additional effects of crop water use (transpiration). Evaporation is closely related to wind speed reduction . It is significantly reduced to a distance of 10-12H from a windbreak, typically to about 70% of its normal value. The transpiration component is dependent on the degree of plant cover. When plant cover is greater, transpiration is more significant and total evapotranspiration will be reduced to a lesser extent than when plant cover is scanty. Reduced evaporation is shelter usually has the effect of increasing soil moisture. Light rains also have a better chance of infiltrating the soi l and be used by plants if evapo ration is reduced. However, the leaf area of crops grown in shelter is often greater - growth is better and thus transpiration greater, which may cancel out increases in soil moisture due to reduced evaporation. There are also negative effects of wi ndbreaks on soil water availability, due to use of water by the windbreak trees and shrubs themselves. This competitive zone usually extends to a distance of 1H, depending on soil type and species.

Multiple windbreak systems


Where there are a series of windbreaks or paralle l tree rows (as in alley cropping agroforestry systems), the first windbreak produces the most effective windspeed reductions - the density of this first windbreak is very important. The second and subsequent windbreaks do not slow the wind further still after the reduction gained from the first windbreak. Rather, they maintain the reduced wind speed over the whole area. Closely spaced windbreaks - for example at a spacing of 10H apart - can produce continuous high quality shelter as they largely decouple the entire fie ld areas from the general wind flow. The general flow skims over the top of the windbreak system.

Windbreak effects on plant & animal growth


Shelter benefits plant growth . Numerous trials have demonstrated that, beyond a narrow zone of reduced growth immediately adjacent to windbreaks (about 1 H wide), large increases of yields in the range 20-30% can extend to a distance of 10-12 times the height of the trees. Assuming that the windbreak width is 0.25H, and that the reduced yield for a distance either side of the windbreak is 0.5H, this still leads to increased yields over the whole area of about 10% Shelter also improves animal growth. Mortality from exposure is reduced , and animals use less of their energy in maintaining body heat where there is shelter.

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValID No 4

,$

Environmental benefits of windbreaks


Wind erosion control - particularly where soils are loose and sandy. Wind erosion of erodable soils increases proportional 10 Ihe cube of the wind speed - ie twice the wind speed produces 8 times the erosion . So even small reductions in wind speed can greatly reduce erosion. Landscape value - can be greatly increased, for example if windbreaks follow natural Lines in the landscape such as ridges, contours and streams. Noise and odorous pollution can be reduced. Fire protection - windbreaks can help by reducing wind speeds , thus the speed & intensity of fires ; they can catch or deflect burning airborne material: and they can provide protection from radiant heal. They do need careful design though , and must be located well away from other trees. W ildlife habitat. Energy conservation for buildings - heating costs can be reduced by 15-25% by providing shelter.

Siting windbreaks
Take into account prevailing winds and critical winds along with the locations of crops or stock. Note that critical winds - those that do the most damage - are often from different directions from prevailing winds. Locate windbreaks at right angles to the critical wind direction(s) . This orientation will minimise the number of windbreaks required to give protection. Windbreaks meeting at right angles maintain large areas of shelter as the wind shifts. Other factors to take into account are shading (north-south windbreaks minimise this) and any other considerations such as topography, wildlife etc. Planting along contours alo ng hillsides gives best protection in hilly areas , but be aware of creating frost pockets where cold air gets trapped - provide gaps etc. if necessary.

Windbreak design
The key elements of a good design are:

Height
Maximising the height is usually the most important consideration . If you have a large area to protect, then using high growing species will minimise the number of windbreaks needed. If you have a finite area to protect, say of width W , then try and design the maximum height of the windbreak to be one eighth of W : this will provide good protection and minimise competition effects.

Length & gaps


Short windbreaks tend to be very ineffective because the wind tends to curl around each end due to turbulence. Try and make win dbreaks at least 10 times as long as their mature height. Gaps sho uld be avoided if possible, as winds funnel and increase though them. If necessary due to the need for access or frost gap avoidance , try to angle gaps, or use a small island shelterbelt, and/or taper gaps.

Density
Maximum protection is afforded with medium to dense windbreaks. Very dense windb reaks are desirable where a sma ll area of high quality shelter is required, but be aware that there wlll be

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Page 17

more turbulence in the wake zone of such dense windbreaks .

Island shelterbelt

Ang led gap & lapered gap

The vertical distribution on denseness is also important. Ideally aim for a uniform density from ground level to the top of the windbreak - it is especially important to provide low shelter to avoid wind funnelling beneath the windbreak.

Number and spacing of rows


Single row windbreaks can provide very good she lter, as long as they retain foliage down to ground level. Windbreaks with several rows give a better opportunity to use taU tree species which naturally lose their foliage near ground level (o r are pruned for timber production ) in conjunctio n with lower shrubby species. Good density and height can be obtained with 2-4 rows , using 1-2 rows of tall trees. Multiple row windbreaks can also have fast growing species included which will later die or be removed . Rows should be 2-4 metres (6- 13 ft) apart to allow adequate room for development of the trees and shrubs. If the re will be stock next to the windbreak, then lea ves 2-3 metres (6-10 tt) between the outside row and the stock fence to prevent stock browsing off too much low level

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

L~
foliage.

Double row windbreak using a large tree row and a small tree row (a rrow-wind) Rows of low growing trees and shrubs should be located inner edge of the windbreak . Th ey should not be sq ua shed between rows or large trees to avoid shading problems . Remember that smooth-shaped windbreaks are less effective, so it is very important to locate tall rows on the windward side and lower growing rows to leeward.

Double row windbreak using 2 similar rows or trees (a rrow-wind) Spacing ot plants in the rows can be gre ater in wetter fertile regions - ego Britain - than in drier areas. In Britain, medium to tall trees can be planted at 1. 2-3 m (4-10 tt) apart, small trees 1-2 m (3-6 tt) apart, and lower shrubs 0.6-1.5 m (2-5 tt) apart. In drier or Mediterranean cl im ates these spacings will need to be increased by up to 100% .

Triple row system - shrub, small tree , large tree (arrow-wind) Alternatively , a closer spacing can be used, with some thinning planned . This results in faster establishment. Try to stagger the po sition of trees so that th ey are opposite spaces in adjoining rows , to provide a more uniform density, fewer gaps, faster establishment and optimal use of space. When plant ing the windbreak trees and shrubs , weed control is vital. some kind - organic (b ark etc) or a black plastic mulch are fine Ideally use a mulch of

Species considerations
Most importantly, the windbreak species must be able to grow well on your site. Also take i nt o co nsideration: Foliage density and crown shape.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Page 19

Growth rate - fast early growth is desirable, but fastgrowing species can be short lived and less wind firm. They could be alternated in a row with a slower growing but longerlived species. Compatibility with crops and pastures - you can choose species with less competitive roots or those which fix nitrogen. Ability to regenerate naturally at the site (seed or suckers ) - creates perpetual self sustaining windbreaks, often native species are good . . The lifespan of tree species. _ i The number of species in each row - try not to include too many as this decreases height uniformity and permeability. Often one species per row is best. Fire resistance or ability to regenerate - where bush fires are a risk. Flammability of foliage - species of low flammability can protect from the heat of fires. Landscape and wildlife. Timber and tree crops - can be used as part of the windbreak itself. Crops could include honey, nuts etc. Coppicing ability - trees which coppice can greatly assist with re-establishment & renovation . Fodder - low windbreaks can consist entirely of fodder shrubs and can either be grazed directly by stock or lopped and transported to stock.

Agroforestry systems
Alley cropping systems typically space windbreaks or tree lines in the range 10-25H apart. This reduces the competitive zone near tree lines to a small amount of the total , and retrains the total shelter effect which increases yields. Alleys are used for cultivated crops or pasture ; the lines of trees which act as windbreaks may be for timber, a fruit or nut crop, a fodder shrub or other speciality crop. Scattered trees in pasture (silvopasture, wood pasture) also have the effect of reducing windspeed to a value of 50-60% of that in open areas. This is as a result of the trees producing an increase in the general surface roughness of the landscape rather than a simple windbreak effect.

Reference
Much of the information for this article comes from the excellent Steven Burke: Windbreaks. Inkata Press , 1998. This book - the best on windbreaks produced to date - is now available from the A.R.T. for 26.99 including P & P.

Japanese wineberry
Description
The Japanese wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, is a deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (10 ft) high, with spreading, reddish bristly and prickly stems. Leaves are trifoliate, to 18 cm (6") across , with bright green ovate leaflets which have a white down beneath. Flowers are borne in June and July in terminal racemes on second year wood. They are pale pink and up to 4 cm (1Y<:") across. Plants are self-fertile, with pollination mainly by bees. After flowering, the developing fruits remain wrapped up within the calyx until they ripen.

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Fruits are conical , amber to bright red , raspberrylike , sweet and juicy. 15-20 mm (O.60 . 8 ~ ) long , slightly sticky to the touch , ripening in late July and August.

The wineberry is native to Japan , Korea Japanese Wineberry after flowering and China, where the fruits are widely used. It is hardy to zone 5 ( _20 DC) and is fairly long lived . They are naturalised in the UK, Europe and parts of North America.

Uses
The fruits make very good eating raw, or can be cooked or made into jelly or jam. Th ey are especially va lued for desserts - good with cream or ice cream. Despite the name, they don't make a very nice wine!

Cultivation
Requirements are similar to raspberries - they require a moist soil throughout summer , and a good supply of nutrients , especially nitrogen. Wineberries tolerate moderate shade , though fruiting will be improved in sun; they do not like too much wind exposure. Laterals can be encouraged in spring by pinching out the growing tips of canes. Otherwise, canes may need to be tied to any suppo rt as they grow during spring and summer. Wineberries are easy to grow as bushes (without support) as long as the growing tips of canes are regularly pinched out to avoid self-layerin g (when you'll end up with a thicket.) Stems can also be trained against wires or walls in the same way as raspberries. New stems (canes) are produced each year and live for two seasons before dying back. ca nes should thus be cut out each year in late winter or after fruiting. Old

Because fruits are wrapped within the calyx until the y ripen , they do not suffer from maggots at all. Fruits are easily picked, lea ving a dry centre receptacle and hollow fruit. They do not suffer from any major diseases or pests.

Rubus phoenicolasius can be propagated from seed (squash fresh fruit and sow immediately, allowing to overwinter in cold conditions . Germination should occur in early spring.) The tips can also be layered very easily in late summer and early autumn .

References

Flowerdew, B: Bob Flowerdew's Complete Fruit Book. Kyle Cathie, 1995. Johns, L & Stevenson, V: The Complete Book of Fruit. Angus & Robertson, 1979. Lyle, K: The Wild Berry Book. NorthWord Press , 1994.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Page 21

Forest gardening: Plants for difficult sites: annuals (1)


This artifle lists useful annuals which are tolerant of the following conditi ons:

Dry shade ( A ): Found under con ifers and densely-crowned deciduous trees such as beech. Damp shade (4 ,.. ): Full shade found under open-crowned deciduous trees and shrubs. Droughty sunny sites ( 11 ): Where the ground usually becomes very dry in summer. Boggy sunny sites ( 1-\,.. ): Where the ground is often boggy and waterlogged. Exposed sites (" ): Where the wind exposure is signifi cant. Heavy clay soils (

U ): Self explanatory_

Very alkaline soils ( => ): Chalk and lim estone soils with a pH greater than about 7.5. Very acid soils ( <:=): Soils with a pH less than about 5.5.

Latin name
Abelmoschus esculentus Abutilon theophrasti Acinos rotundifoloius Agastache mexicana Agrostemma githago Ajuga chamaepitys Amaranthu5 alba Amaranthus atropurpureus Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthu5 caudatus

zone common X Okra 4 4

name

height

1 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.15

c u , c , u E z l' u 0 " z a " , a 0 > E a e- ee- u x " e 0 u > >


~

=> =>

China jute
Giant hyssop Ground pine

9 6

6-7 Com cockle

Prostrate amaranth Love lies bleeding

1.5

Amaranthus cruentus
Amaranthus cruentus x powe ] 1111 Amaranthus dlacanthus

Purple amaranth

I Hopi red-dye amaranth


Indian Spinach

Amaranthus dublus
Amaranthus graeacans Amaranthus hypochondria Amaranthus lividus Amaranthu5
5

0.45
1

I Prince's feather
Livid amaranth

1.5
0.9
1.2

mantegaZZianl s
Palmer's amaranth

Amaranthus palmeri
Amaranthus quitensis Amaranthus retroflexus

Green amaranth

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/l0 No 4

~
~

rn

c , c , iii
~

rn

00

Latin name
Amaranthus torreyi Amaranthu5 tricolor Amaranthus viridis Anacyclus officinarum Anagallis arvenis Anastatica hierochuntia Anthemis arvensis An themis cotula Aphanes arvensis Arachis hypogaea
Argemone mexicana

zone

common name
Amaranthus
Green amaranth

height
I

E rn

.c ,
~

00

00
~

0 " rn > rn " ~ ~ x > >

rn

I~

6
7
Scarlet pimpernel

0.5 0.1

9 5 8 8 9
6

Resurrection plant
Corn chamomile

I
0.5
0.05 :

,"

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I

Mayweed
Parsley piert Peanut

0.3

I~

"

I
"
"

=>

U
=> =>
~
~

Mexican prickly poppy

Asclepias curassavica
Atriplex hastata Atriplex hortensis Atriplex patula
Avena barbata Avena brevis

Broodflower
Hastate orach Orach

0.75 1.8 0.75

I" "

=> =>

Drach

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 6
X
7

Slender oat

U => U U
=>

Avena byzantina Avena fatua Avena ludoviciana Avena nuda


Avena sativa

Red oat

Wild oats
Oats

1.5 09
1

Naked oat
Oat
Sterile oats

0.9

Avena sterilis Avena strigosa Babiana plicata Bassia sooparia Blackstonia perfoliata Bletia purpurea Baraga officinalis Bowiea volubilis Brassica juncea Brassica nigra Bromus rigidus Bulbine asphodeloides Bulbine narcissifolia Cakile edentula

Bristle oats Baboon roots Summer cypress Yellow wort Pine pink Borage Chinese mustard Black mustard

11 0.9 0.2 0.3 10.45 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.75 1.2

U U U U U => U

~ ~

"
" " " " " "

=> => =>


~

9 9 6

Snake flower Snake root Sea rocket

" "

10.3

"
Page 23

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

~~

u
~

Latin name
Cakile maritima Calandrinia cil iata

zone common name


6
Sea rocket Redmaids

height

?:'

0.3 0.3 06
1

c 0 u . 11 u u U rn rn 0 > 0 E rn , ?:' ?:' e 0 u u > >


0
~

.e

"""

:E

..

Calandrinia ciliata var. menziesii Calendula arvensis Calendula officinal is Catlirhae leiocarpa Canavalia ensiformis

IX

"

"

6 6 6 X X X 9

I Field marigold
Pot marigold Pimple mallow

0.3 0.6 1 2 2 2.5 0.6 0.6


b

I" "
"
~

<=

IJack bean
Sword bean

Canavafia gladiata
Canavalia maritima

Mackenzie bean
t Hemp ,
I

Cannabis sativa
Carbenia benedicta Cardam ine pennsylvanica

Holy thistle

Penna

" "

" " "


~

<=

.',
~

Carthamnus tinctorius Cassia italica


Cedronella canariensis Celosia argentea

Safflower

9 X

Balm of Gilead Quailgrasss

0.8

2
0.5 0.5

Centaurea cyanus
Centaurium erythraea Centaurium venustum

Cornflower
Centaury

Ceratotheca sesamoides
Chenopodium album Chenopodium fremontii Chenopodium glaucum Chenopodium patlidicaule Chenopodium Quinoa Cicer arietinum Cicer songaricum Cichorium endlvia Cleome hassleriana Cleome serrulata Cleome viscosa Clinopodlum acinos

IFat hen

False sesame

" " " " " "


"

0.9 0.6 0.3 0.6 1.5 0.6 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.2 0.2 1 1.5

~ ~

<=

Oak-leaved goosefoot Canihua

8 8
4

Quinoa

Chick pea
Endive Spider flower

.,

" " " " I~


" " "

" "

"

~ ~

<=

I~

ITickweed
4
Spring savory Danish scurvy grass Job's tears Japanese barley

I Beeplant

Cochlea ria danica


Calx lacryma-jabl Calx lacryma-jabi 'ma-yuen' Cammelina coelestis
~n:u::tli~Dlun i

6 9
9

"

<=

8-9 1 Blue spiderwort


~.~.-

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Latin name
Conanthera bifolia Conanthera campanulata Conringia orientalis Consolida ambigua

zone common name 9 9


Larkspur

height

0.5 0.3 0.45 1.2 0.6 0.45 2

c u , c .s u iii 1" , u {l 0 , 0 > E ~ ~ 0. ~ e g' u u > >


~

.. ..
~

~
~

~ ~

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=>

Convolvulus tricolor
Conyza canadensis Coriandrum sativum Cosmos bipinnatu5 Cotyledon edulis Cotyledon pulverulenta Crambe hispanica

8
7

Morning glory
Canada fleabane

Coriander

X X X
7

I~ I
~
~ ~

=>

1
Poison bulb

~
~

Crinum asiaticum
Crinum f1accidum
Crinum zeylanicum Crotalaria burhia Crotalaria cannabina Crotalaria glauca Crotalaria guatematensis Crotalaria intennedia Crotalaria juncea

8
X X

0.6 0.6

~ ~ ~ ~
~

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Cumin Showy crotalaria Sann hemp Lanceleaf crotalaria

~
~

1.6

~ ~ ~

CrotaJaria lanceolata
Crotalaria longirostriata Crotalaria ochroleuca Crotalaria retusa Crotalaria saltiana Crotalaria spectabilis Crotalaria striati Cuminum cyminum Cyamopsis telragonoloba Dahlia pinnata Desmodium incandum Digitaria excills Digitaria iburua Dlgitaria sanguinalis Dimorphotheca pluvial is Dipcadi cowanii

ISun hemp
1.2 2

~
~

~
~

OA
13 2

~ ~ ~ ~

Guar Garden dahlia Hungry rice Black tonio

7 7

~
~

"'"
"'"

4-8 Hairy crabgrass


9
Weather prophet

0.3

OA

~
~

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Page 25

=
ro u u 11 , > E ro , ro e "" u u > ""

u ro

u ro

c, , c
~

1"
U

~ ~

Latin name
Diplotaxis acris Diplotaxis duveyrierana Diplotaxis erucoides

zone common name

height

..

.s

u
ro

"" >

8 8 8 8 8
Wild wheat White wall-rocket Wall rocket

0.6

,<

1 0.4

I"

Diplotaxis muralis
Diplotaxis pendula

I"

Distichlis palmeri
Dracocephallum moldavica

" " "


"
"

=>

Dragonhead

0.5

Drimia ciliaris Drim ia cowanni


Oudleya lanceolata Echinochloa crusgalli var frumentacea Eichhornia crassipes Eminium spiculatum Enydra fluctans Eragrostis tef Erigeron speciosus Erodium cicutarium Erysimum cheiranthoides Eschscholzia californica Euphorbia helioscopia Euphorbia marginata Euphorbia peplis Euphrasia officinalis Fagopyrum esculentum Fedia cornucopiae Galium aparine Gilia capitata Gilia congesta Gladiolus dalenii Gladiolus ecklonii Gladiolus edulis Gladiolus quartianus Gladiolus sp Gladiolus spicatus Gladiolus unguiculatus
CL.oAiL'>IU"'--='1'Qb""",i=>~

9 9 8 6 x 8 9
Teff
Showy daisy Japanese barnyard mille 1.5 Water hyacinth

" " "

1.5
0.8 0.6

I"

3
5 6
4

Stork's bill
Wormseed mustard Californian poppy Snow on

1.2
0.3 0.5

the

mountain 0.15

Eyebright
Buckwheat African valerian

"I " " " " " " " "


U

I"

=>

=>
=

1.5
0.3

8 8 9

Goosegrass

1.2
0.8

II.

'"

" " 1 "


,"
1"

g-X

" "
AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

" "

Page 26

Latin name
Gfobularia alypum Gnaphalium polycephalum Gnaphalium uligonosum Guizotia abyssinica Gundelia tournfortii Gypsophila eJegans Haemanthus coccineus Hedeoma puJegioides Helianthus annuus Helichrysum cochinchinensis Heliotropium amplexicaufe Heliotropium angiospermum Heliotropium arborescens Heliotropium crispum Heliotropium curassavicum Heliotropium elongatum Heliotropium europaeum Hordeum agriocrithon Hordeum bulbosum Hordeum deficiens Hordeum distichum Hordeum hexastichum Hordeum irregulare Hordeum sativum Hordeum spontaneum Hordeum trifurcatum Hordeum zeocriton Hydrolea zeyanica Hymenocallis tubiflora Hyoscyamus muticus Hyoscyamus niger Iberis amara Iberis umbellata Impatiens balsamina Impatiens capensis

zone common name X White balsam


Cudweed

height

c , .E u , E ". ~ u u
u
~ ~ ~

"
u
D

- ..
U

,
u '0

~ ~ ~

1 0 .6 0.3

I" "
" "
" " "

> ". ". > >


0
~

.. ..
~

Niger seed

2
1

8 9

Baby's breath
Blood lily American pennyroyal Sunflower

04 . 0.6 0.3 0.3 3

<=

X X X X X X X

Summer heliotrope
1

06 0.5 04 0.54

Heliotrope Seaside heliotrope

Wild barley Bulbous bar1ey Two-rowed Barley Six-rowed barley Abyssinian intermediate ! Barley

1.2

" " " " "

" " " " " " " "

1 =0

I I
1

"
" " " " "

Barley
Wild barley Himalayan barley Spra t barley

I:

">

5
7 7

Henbane Rocket candy tuft

Candytuft
Garden balsam Jewelweed

I " " 1 8 I I " " I I "


0.3 0.3 0.6
'->

0.4

I I

"I
lu
U

=0 =0

1.2

,>

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Page 27

(
3 ---

k4

Latin name
Impatiens noli tangere
Impati~ns

zone common name

height

I Touch-me-not
Pale jewelweed
Indigo

1
I 1.5

pallida

I I

u
'U
<= i

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I Hairy indigo Spicata indigo Water spinach Scarlet gilea Indian lettuce

0 .6

Indigofera spicata Ipomoea aquatica


Ipomopsis aggregata Kleinia anteuphorbium Lactuca indica Lactuca quercina

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Lactuca sativa

Lettuce Asparagus lettuce Dragon's head Yellow sage Nipplewort Grass pea Annual mallow Tidy tips Venus' looking glass

Lactuca sativa ssp. angusta a6

Lactuca taraxaciflora
Lallemantia iberica Lallemantia royleana
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Lantana camara
Lapsana communis

0.9

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Legousia speculum-veneris

0.75 0.3

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Lens cutinaris Leonotis nepetifotia Lespedeza stipufacea


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Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Latin name
Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus luteus
Lupinus temlis

zone common name


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Page 29

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

.....
, , m E u u m , " > E 8. x m ~ u u m
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Perezia wrightii Perilla frutescens Petrorhagia prolifera Petunia hybrida Phacelia campanularia Phyla nodifera Physalis angulata Physalis fendleri Physa lis ixocarpa Physalis lanceolata Physa lis neomexicana Physalis philadelphica Physalis pruinosa Physalis pubescens
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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Some perennial tuber plants


Apios americana - Ground nut, Potato bean
Also known as the Indian potato , th is is a vigo rous nitrogen-fixing perennial climber/scrambler from Eastern North America. leaves have five leaflets, and the flowers are small, purplish , borne in racemes. Requires a fairly sunny site in the UK, and like a moist, fertile, well-drained soil (though in warm climates it can tolerate waterlogged, acidic soil). Can be propagated by seed or division of tubers. Stems can reach 3 m (10ft) long or more; flowers are fragrant, reddish-brown or dull purple. Best crops are obtained with a regime of moderate nitrogen application , and inoculation with soya bean inoculant (the latter especially with seed -grown crops). Hardy to zone 3 (-30C). Seeds are best sown in early spring after soaking, or pre-chilled for a few weeks before sowing. Plants grown from tubers produce a crop sooner - best to dig and replant tubers in the spring. Plants send out a thin root which swells at intervals some distance from the plant to form tubers which are quite near the soil surface. Tubers can be harvested at any time, but take 2-3 years to grow into a rea so nable size; individual tubers are quite small, 30 x 15 mm , but larger in improved or named varieties from the USA. Total yields from improved varieties can top 3.5 kg (7 Ib) per plant. Unimproved plants grown from seed are very variab le, sometimes ptoducing roots without tubers at all. Tubers can be harvested in autumn and stored until the spring . This species was cultivated in France as a crop in the 19 th century. The tubers are eaten cooked, with a delicious sweet potato flavour and a soft floury texture. The tubers can also be dried and ground into a powder to use as a thickener or mixed with other flours; they contain 5-17% crude protein, and also contain an anti-carcinogenic substance, genistein. The young seed pods and seed can also be eaten when cooked. Cultivars: #784: yields numerous tubers some 5 cm (2") in diameter. Aquarius: yields ve ry large tubers , but overall yields moderate. Corona: tubers large. numerous . Draco: tubers small but flavourful and very numerous. Gemini: tubers large, numerous. Lyra: tubers very large with a smooth skin. Orion: tubers larg e. The tubers are formed close to the crown. Serpens: tubers fairly large. Sirius: tubers very la rge (5-7 cm, 2-3" diameter). light skinned, close to the crown. Virgo: tubers medium sized, numerous . The related species A.fortunei and Apriceana can be used similarly.

Bunium bulbocastanum - Pignut


Also called tuberous-rooted caraway (and Kala zira in India), this is an aromatic bushy plant with feathery foliage , growing 60 cm (2 tt) tall and 25 em (10") wide. It prefers well-drained alkaline soils in meadows in the wild but grows we ll in most soils and situations given good light. It is native to temperate regions of Europe and Asia to the Indian Himalayas, and is hardy to zone 5. Propagate by sowing seed in spring .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Page 31

(
The tuber matures in late summer and has a very good sweet chestnut flavour. Only one tuber is formed per plant, and it not particularly large, so view this as an extra 'nibble' rather than a stap le plant. The seeds, flowe~s and leaves can all be used as a herb with hints of parsley and cumin in the flavour. Bunium is cultivated commercially in the Indian Himalayas for the seed crop , sold as a condiment and used in several Ayurvedic medicines .

Conopodium majus - Pignut


A native British perennial which grows about 30 em (1 ft) high and wide and grows well in sem ishade. It is an umbellifer with feathery foliage , often found in woods, meadows and sandy heaths. Dislikes alkaline soils but tolerates part shade. Propagate by seed sown in spri ng. Whitish flowers appear from May to July. In light loose soils, the tubers can be harvested by pulling on the root that leads down , but in most soils the roots brea k off quickly and must be unearthed and carefully traced down to the tuber; the root leaves the tuber horizontally, then turns 90 to come up to the surface, so don't assume it is directry below the foliage! The tubers, though small (marble to golf ball size), have a very good sweet flavour, raw or cooked, with a nutty/sweet potato taste and fresh crunchy texture. Peel off the thin brown skin from the tuber before eating. The tubers are usually larger from cu ltivated plants than those in the wild.

Helianthus tuberosa - Jerusulem artichoke


Originating from North America, and one of the few commonly grown perennial vegetables, these grow vigorously to a height of 3 m ( 10ft) and provide a good screen within a garden , though they will be blown over in windy locations. Grows under many conditions - tolerates dry and poor soils and part s hade. Tubers are 7-10 cm (3-4") long and 3-6 cm ( 1-2 -) in diameter and vary in colour from white to yellow , red or blue. Propagation is from whole or cut tubers. Yields range from 1-2 kg/m2 (2.2-4.5 Ibs/yd 2). Difficult to eradicate once planted! Numerous knobbly tubers are formed underground , which are cold hardy and can be dug at any time over the winter - in fact they become sweeter once frosted. Unfortunately, the tubers are rich in inulin, a carbohydrate that cannot be absorbed by humans, so much of the food value is lost to us . However, the tubers have various other uses, being easily converted to fructose, and now being used in some regions are the source for making ethanol biofuels. The related H.maximiliani from North America also produces edible tubers. Cuitivars: Boston - red skinned. Dwarf Sunray - free flowering (small sunflowers), smaller grown to 2 m (6 ft). Fuseau - French variety with less knobbly tubers. Golden Nugget - has carrot-like tubers. New White - white skinned. Stampede - Quick-maturing and early flowering with large tubers. Smooth Garnet - red-skinned , less knobb ly tuber.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Lathyrus tuberosus - Earth-Nut Pea, Earth chestnut


This is a European herbaceous perenn ial climbi ng/scramblin g plant, sending out 1-1.5 m (3-5 ft) stems each year. It is a good nitrogen-fixing plant, which scrambles over other nearby plants for suppo rt. The rootstock is slowly creepi ng. Slugs are rather fond of this plant - young plants need protection and it is best to plant out as large plants as poss ible. Grow in any moderately fertile, we ll drained soil in sun or light shade. Hardy to zone 6. Propagate from seed - pre-soak and sow in sp rin g. The tubers are 3-8 em (1.2 -3") in diameter and are rich in starch . They are rather chewy raw, but when cooked they have a floury texture and a swee t chestnut flavour.

Pueraria lobata - Kudzu, Japanese arrowroot


A vigoro us, sometimes rampant , perennial twinin g cl imber which has become a shrub weed in some warm regi ons. like the southeastern USA. A nitrogen-fixing species. Flowers are red dish-purple in dense racemes. Needs full sun and a well-drained soil - prefe rs acid soils. Propagate by seed, pre-soaking and sowing in spring. It bea rs large spindle-shaped tubers, which are starchy and more ofte n used as a so urce of starch for thickening soups etc. than eaten by themselves. It is wid ely valued in Asia for its other uses too: the young leaves are cooked and eaten, the seeds sp ro uted or roasted for coffee. a fibre obta ined from the stems, animal fodder, Chinese medicine etc.

Sources
A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes , Devon , Ta g 6JT. UK. Tel: 01803 840776. mail@agroforestry.co.uk, www.agroforestry.co.uk. Seeds/plants of Bunium, Conopodium, Pueraria; plants of Lathyrus tuberosa. John Shipton (Bulbs) , Y Felin, Henllan Amgoed, Whitland, Dyfed, SA34 OSL. majus plants. Conopodium Tel;

Grinnell Botanic al Conservatory, W hite Oak Creek Rd, Burnsville, NC 28714, USA. (704) 459-7069. Specialises in improved cu/tivars of groundnut (Apios americana).

Jerusulem artichoke varieties: most vegetable seed suppliers stock 'Fuseau '; the following two suppliers stock other varieties: Edulis, 1 Flowers Piece, Ashampstead, Berkshire, RGB BSG. edulis.2000@vi rgin .net, www.edulis .co.uk. Ive rn a Herbs, Glenmalure, Rathdrum , Co Wicklow, Ireland. Tel/fax: 01635 57B1 13.

References
Blackmon, W & Reynolds , B: The Crop Potential of Apios americana - Preliminary Evaluations. HortScience 21 (6): 1334-1336. 1986. Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 199B. Fern, K: Plants for a Future. Permanent Publications , 2000. Panwar, K S et al: Effects of nitrogen levels on kala zira. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal, 1990, 13: 4, 146-147. Phillips, R & Rix, M: Vegetables. Pan Books, 1993. Putnam , 0 et al: Response of Apios americana to Nitrogen and Inoculation. HortScience 26(7): 853-855. 199 1.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValiD No 4

Page 33

is

Replant Diseases
Introduction
In many parts of the world, the replanting of apples, cherries, peach and Citrus (also to a lesser extent pear and plum) on land previously planted to the same type of tree results in poor growth and spmetimes death of the newly planted tree. This is usually referred to as the ~ replant problem ~ or ureplant disease ", although there appear to be several different causes which may act alone or together.

Symptoms
In general, affected trees show poor growth , shortened internodes between buds , and abnormally small leaves. The above ground effects are usually more pronounced in younger than in older trees. In newly established replanted orchards, tree growth is characteristically uneven and some of the young trees may die. The root system of affected trees often shows a variety of symptoms. The system is reduced in size, with darkening of some roots and a killing and distortion of many of the feeder rooUets .

Causes
Nematodes Certain plant-parasitic nematodes sometimes play an important role in the root injury associated with replant problems. These include: Root lesion nematodes Pratylenchus spp. pome/stone fruit, esp on course soils. also carry viruses Dagger nematodes Xiphinema spp. Ring nematodes Criconemella spp. stone fruit stone fruit in warm temperate Root knot nematodes Me/~idogyne spp. regions There is some evidence that these nematodes may interact with other parasitic and nonparasitic micro-organisms, ego fungi to cause replant problems. Fungi There is some evidence that fungi can sometimes be implicated in replant diseases . Fungal species implicated include Fusarium, Pythium, Rhizoclonia and Thie/aviopsis . Toxins Decomposing roots of previous trees can contain materials which are toxic to trees of the same species. This has certainly been found for apples and peaches , due to phenOlic compounds. Nutrient imbalance It is possible that deficiencies of certain nutrients, most needed by the tree species being used, can be a cause of replant problems. Improving available nutrients by adding fertilisers has sometimes improved growth of poorly performing trees. Viruses Certain soil-borne viruses carried by nematodes, such as tomato rings pot virus , could be involved in replant problems. Strains of this virus cause several important diseases of fruit

Page 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

crops (apple union necrosis & decline, yellow bud mosaic of peach, brown line of plum. Prunus stem pitting.) After removal of infected trees with these problems, portions of the root system remaining in the soil could be a source of inoculum for infection of replants as well as sustenance for the nematode vectors.

Prevention
Most obviously, it is best to avoid replanting the same species of tree in the same location if at all possible. In monocrop orchard situations, growers often resort to soil fumigation with broadspectrum biocides before replanting , but this can have detrimental effects too on soil structure and beneficial organisms such as mycorrhizal fungi. Leaving a gap of several years (4-5 minimum) before replanting with the same species might also avoid problems. Recent research has indicated that bacterial and fungal biological control agents can reduce pythium infection and increase apple tree growth and fruiting in replant situations. The bacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter and Baciflus subtilis (EBW-4) along with the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus etunicatum, G.intraradices & G.mosseae have proved effective used as a root dip prior to planting. Planting holes for replanted trees can have the soil removed and replaced with fresh soil from another location, which significantly improves success rates . Additional nitrogen supplied when replanting trees also inhibits detrimental soil bacteria and fungi. There is firm evidence that growing marigold species, notably Tagetes patula, reduces the population of both Pythium fungi and Pratylenchus penetrans (root lesion nematode). Hence growing this on a site for one or two years prior to replanting may significantly reduce potential problems. In addition, the grasses Agrostis alba and Festuca rubra (red fescue) have been shown to reduce P.penetrans populations. Replacing one species with another, even in the same family, is usually fine . peach with plum or vice versa does not usually result in any problems. So replacing

Utilisation of rootstocks can also help if replanting the same species. Some rootstocks are resistant to nematodes (and hence some viruses) and will have fewer problems. Other rootstocks belong to a different species and hence should avoid replant problems. Affected plants can be moved if small - and are likely to recover on a different site.

Rootstocks resistant to nematodes & of different species


Rootstock Apple - none reported Cherry: Charger Resistant to: Species (if different)

F 12/1
Sour cherry Peach: Black Damas C Brompton Cadaman Flordaguard

Root knot nematode (tolerant) Root knot nematode (tolerant) Root knot nematode (tolerant)

Prunus cerasus

Root Root Root Root

knot knot knot knot

nematode nematode nematode (tolerant) nematode

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

Page 35

Rootstock Peach (cont): GF 655-2 Hansen 536/2168 Higama Ishitara (Ferciana) Myr"" Nemaguard Nemared Okinawa Rancho Resistant Royal seedling S37 Pear: Arne/anchier sp. Hawthorn Oregon 260/261/264 Pyrus betu/ifo/ia Pyrus cafleryana Quince Plum: Black Damas C Brompton GF 1869 GF 43 GF 557 GF 655-2 Marianna 2624 Marianna GFB-1 Myrobalan clones

Resistant to:

Species (if different)

Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root

knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot

nematode nematode nematode (tolerant) nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode

Prunus insititia

Apricot

Root Root Root Root Root Root

lesion lesion lesion le sion lesion lesion

nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode

Arne/anchier Crataegus

Cydonia ob/onga

Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root Root

knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot knot

nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode nematode

Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus

insititia hybrid hybrid cerasifera

References
Catska, V et al: Biologi cal control of replant problems. Acta-Horticuiturae, 1994, 363 : 115-120. Edwards, Let al : Effect of antagonistic plants on apple replant disease. Acta-Horticultu ra e 1994.363. 135-140. Ogawa, J & English, H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. Uni versi ty of California, 1991. Utkhede, R & Smith E: Impact of chemical, biological and cultural treatments on the growth and yield of apple in replant-disease so il. Australasian-Plant-Pathology, 2000, 29:2, 129-136. Utkhede, R & Smith E: Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth of microorganisms associated with apple replant disease and on apple seedlings grown in soil infested with these microorganisms. Journal of Phytopathology, 1991 , 132:1, 1-11. Utkhede, R & Smith E: The effect of Glomus mosseae and Enterobacter aerogenes on apple seedlings grown in apple replant disease soil. Journal of Phytopathology, 1992 , 135: 4.218-288. Utkhede, R & Smith E: Biological treatment for planting apple trees in soil previous ly planted with cherry trees in the Kootenay va lley of British Columbia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1993.25: 12. 1689-1692. Wertheim, S: Towards an integrated fruit production in the Netherlands. Acta-Horticulturae, 1990. 285. 25-32.

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol

to No 4

Book reviews
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates
Michael A Dirr
Timber Press, 2002: 448 pp: 52.50 (hardback) . ISBN 0-88192 -525-X A companion volume to the great Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs, this is a photographic encyclopedia of trees, shrubs and vines for warm temperate zones (USDA zones 7-11) which includes most of Britain. It shows both the habit and details (flowers , fruit, bark, autumn colour) of over 400 species and describes hundreds more cultivars and varieties. Over 1400 excellent colour photos accompany the authoritative text. Species covered include Arbutus (strawberry tree, madrone), Broussonefia (paper mulberry) , Camellia. Castanea (chinkap in) , Cephafotaxus (plum yews), Comus. Diospyros (pe rsimmon ), Elaeagnus, Eriobotrya (loquat), Escallonia, Feijoa (pineapple guava), Gay/ussacia (huckleberry), Hypericum, Lespedeza (bush clover), Lindera (spice bush), Myrica (bayberry). Myrtus (myrtle). Passiflora (passion vines), Prunus (plums, cherries), Punica (pomegranate), Quercus (oaks), Rubus, Vaccinium (blueberries), Viburnum, Vinca, Zanthoxylum and Ziziphus. Plant lists at the end of the book allow selection of plants for specific purposes ego tolerance to drought, fragrant flowers, shade tolerance etc. Probably the finest photographic collection of warm temperate trees and shrubs ever produced, this will be va luable to both agroforesters and gardeners in Britain and elsewhere.

Landscaping with Herbs


James Adams
Timber Press, 2001: 223 PP: 14.99 (paperback). ISBN 0-88192-514-4. Although the focus of this book is on herbs as ornamental plants, and on garden design utilising them. it is also a comprehensive encyclopedia of herbs (though not ordered A~Z). The author takes a wide definition of what is a herb, including not only culinary plants , but also many medicinal plants and those used for other purposes; most are perennial plants , though some annuals are included . Over 600 species and cuJtivars are described in the book. As well as the expected cultivation details, many other interesting facets are described, including folklore and medicinal uses, history, and culinary uses (includi ng recipes). To look up specific plant species , the index nearly always needs using , and here Latin names refer the reader to comm on names, where the page numbers will be found . The design of the book often leads to specific plants being mentioned in several places , though the main reference , where the plant is described fully , is given in bold in the index, so is easy to locate.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Page 37

The author is passionate about herbs, and his passion spills over into the book. knowledge with which he writes makes the book readable and enjoyable.

The obvious

Plant a Natural Woodland A Handbook of Native Trees and Shrubs Charlotte de la Bedoyere
Search Press. 2001 ; 128 pp; 19.99 (US $50.00) (hardback) ISBN 0855 329 831
This book aims to provide guidance and information for those wanting to grow and plant 'natural' British woodlands - it is not intended to be a guide to commercial timber production or

detailed uses of trees.


The first part of the book gives guidance on planning both large and small woodlands . importance of rides, glades and ponds for plant and animal diversity are emphasised. The

Very practical advice is given on how to plant, maintain and manage woodlands with minimal intervention whilst coping with weeds. Propagation notes cover growing from seed and cuttings , and don 't try to disguise the difficulties often encountered when growing trees and shrubs from seed . I would have liked to see some discussion about seed sources with respect to climate change but as with most conservation-oriented books, the topic is absent (I am unconvinced that it is best to continue to grow trees from local seed sources: climate change is shifting our climate southwards by some 8 miles a year and trees from more southerly sources may fare better in the future.) The main part of the book contains information of all the native trees and shrubs of Britain (33 trees and some 65 shrubs). Instead of detailed descriptions for each plant . the author has used numerous excellent colour photographs. Tree size and propagation notes are highlighted , with some other information about siting etc. Finally , there is a section detailing severa'i of the native plants . mostly perennial, that are found in native woodlands on the forest floor: photos are accompanied by plant descriptions. Appendices give contact details of suppJlers and organisations . many concerned with wild flower species.

The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks Paul S Johnson, Stephen R Shifley & Robert Rogers
CAB I Publishing. 2002; 528 pp; 85.00 (US $149.00) ISBN 0851995705
This book is not so much a management manual as it is a source of ideas on how to think about oak forests as responsive ecosystems. Being written by American authors , the focus is very much on oak ecosystems in the USA, but the ideas can be applied to other regions including Europe and the Mediterranean.

The book divides into three sections. The first, concentrating on ecology, includes chapters on the ecological characteristics and distribution of oak species and the various kinds of oak
Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 10 No 4

forests, differences between them and how they have been classified , their development, and the relation of oak forests to environment and related concerns .

natural

The second section looks at site productivity and stand management, including the development of natural stands . selfthinning and stand density. The third section concentrates on silviculture. Even and uneven-aged silvicultural methods are discussed (natural and artificial regeneration methods, insect and disease problem s, single-tree and group selection methods). also managing stands for acorn production, savanna and oldgrowth oak forests; and growth and yield of trees. This book accompanies the current trend in managing forests which is away from a narrow focus on timber production and towards a broader philosophy of sustai ning ecosystems , and is to be welcomed.

Nontimber Forest Products in the United States


Eric T Jones, Rebecca J McLain, James Weigand (Eds)
University Press of Kansas. 2002; 472 pp; $60.00 (hardback) I $29.95 (paperback) ISBN 0-7006- 1165-7 (hardback) I 0-7006-1166-5 (paperback) This book aims to discuss the may different ways in which nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are important in the USA, the social , economic and biological benefits they bring , to whom they are important, and the steps being taken to ensure the future sustainability of these products. Examples of American NTFPs include ferns, mosses, wild mushrooms, wild nuts and fruits, cones, maple syrup, floral greenery, bark, and hundreds of medicinal plants such as ginseng and goldenseal. Because the majority of NTFPs grow in woodland situations , they are mainly shade tolerant and idea l candidates for consideration in forest farming and other agroforestry systems. The book is divided into five main parts. The first looks at past and present uses of NTFPs, using case studies from different regions of the USA. In the Pacific Northwest, for example, there is significant commercial value in the floral greenery trade, using species like saral (Gaultheria shallon) , Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) . with both and national and international markets . Cones of all pine species also have comme rcial value. There is also increasing interest in wild fungi and medicinal plants such as cascara sagrada (Frangufa purshiana ). The second part of the book deal s with commerce and conservation . Despite the problem of finding accurate estimates for the value of many traded NFTPs, their role in formal and informal trading systems are thoroughly discussed. Ecological concerns about the expansion of NFTP markets is then covered. with chapters on ecological sustainability and Agroforestry Options as alternatives to wildcrafting (ie gathering from wild plants). The remaining sections of the book mainly cover tenure issues, on federally managed lands and with respect to the critical role that Native American claims to NFTPs play in shaping pOlicies. This book is valuable, not only in providing an overview on NFTPs themselves in the United States, but also in examining the social and economic issues surrounding them - something which is relevant to all regions of the world.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

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5t Gaia's Garden
Toby Hemenway

A guide to home-scale permaculture


Chelsea Green Publishing Co, 2001; 236 pp; 19.95. (D ist: Green Books) ISBN 1-890132-52-7 The title of this book belies its content: it is a book about ecological garden design, and other elements of permaculture, such as the use of structures etc , are purposely left out. It is not an eco-fanatic's manifesto, but is full of techniques and garden lore. The book is organised into three sections . The first , 'Garden as Ecosystem' , introduces the theory of ecological design - how nature works , how patterns can improve efficiency and reduce work in the garden. I was pleased to see here harsh criticism of native plant fetishists with their abhorrence of non-native species , which are vital in the sophisticated hybrid ecologies evolving in the more successful ecologica l gardens. Part two, 'Pieces of the Ecological Garden ', deals wi th soil ecology, water use, plants in the garden , and bees , birds and other animals. This latter chapter includes excellent tables of plants useful to beneficial insects and birds. Part th ree , 'Assembling the Ecological Garden ', deals with practical design . Polycultures and guilds have pride of place in this section, which the author approaches via intercropping and companion planting ; this is the best treatment on the topic of vegetable polycultures I have come across. Forest gardens also merit a chapter here, and though the treatment is brief it covers the main elements very well. Most of the gardening examples mentioned in the book come from the Western USA but nevertheless most of the plants and insects mentioned are wide in range. The excellent emphasis on polycultures and guilds makes this probably the finest book on ecologica l garden design to date and it should prove fascinating reading to gardeners everywhere.

Classified adverts
25p/word, minimum 5.00. 20% discount for subscribers.
NUTWOOO NURSERIES can supply a varied selection of nut trees suitable for the UK climate. Cata logue is free on receipt of a 9" x 6" SAE. NUTWOOO NURSERIES LTD., Higher Trannack Fann, Helston, Cornwall, TR1300Q. Skills for Sustainable Futures. Agroforestry in Action 7-8 Sept. A weekend dedicated to temperate agroforestry led by Professor Steve Newman. Also, Sharing Nature through Play 14-15 Sept and Pond Design and Construction 28-29 Sept. Contact Bendall's Farm, Green Ore, Wells, Somerset. BAS 3EX. Tel 01761241015 or visit www .BendallsFarm.com for on-line booking and information. Arbor-Eat- ' M, Hedwig Scheer, Ghesule 6 Bis, 81547 Bever, Belgium. Phone/fax 0032 54 586 257. Send 8 x 27p stamps for a file with info and prices of about 200 forgotten trees/shrubsl plants with edible fruits or other edible parts . I also sell many unusual plant cultivars. ECO-LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath, BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472. Forest Gardening Course - Dartington, Devon . 3 1 Aug-1 Sept. A.R.T.. 46 Hunters Moon. Dartington, T09 6JT. 01803840776.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallO No 4

Ag roforestry is the ;ntegratiQn of trees and ayriculture/ hurticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system.

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 20 per year in Britain and the E.U .. (16 unwaged) 24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterl ing) 34 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Ie if He

Agroforestry News

Asclepias: the milkweeds

Volume 11 Number 1

October 2002

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 11 Number 1

October 2002

Contents
2

News - Sea buckthorn in Canada / Forest gardening


in British Columbia / Chestnuts in Japan / First heartnut crop / Badgersett research program / ART courses

8 15 21 30 32 36 39

Arctostaphylos - the manzanitas Producing small fruit and woody decorative florals in agroforestry systems Ribes: the currant and gooseberry family World hazelnut production Asclepias: the Milkweeds Pest & disease series: Shothole of stone fruit Book reviews: Mints / The New RHS Encyclopedia of
Herbs & Their Uses

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops . Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. UK Fax & telephone: +44 (0)t803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: WINW.agroforestry.co.uk

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News
Sea buckthorn in Canada
Sea bucl<thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is idea lly suited to growing on the Canadian prairies due to its drought tolerance , extensive root system , ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and w inter hardiness. At present there are approximately 250,000 mature sea buckthorn in Saskatchewan. Extensive use has been made as sea buckthorn in Ch ina in areas characterised by cold , dry windy weather ; some 30 ,000 hectares (75 ,000 acres) of plantations are now established . These plantations have reduced soil erosion by a factor of 8 and increased grain yields . Fruit is borne on female trees, and is rich in vitamins C , A , E, K and P, carbohydrates . proteins , organic acids and amino acids ; the fru it has been used for ce nturies in Europe and Asia for its medicinal and nutritiona l qualities. Sea buckthorn in shelterbelts can produce up to 5 kg (11 Ib) of fruit per fema le tree annually . In Canada , as we ll as used for shelterbelts, sea buckthorn has been used in reclamation and wildlife plantings , as an ornamental species , and recently in commercial orchards . 25,000 shelterbe lt trees have recently been surveyed by the PFRA Shelte rbelt Centre at Indian Head to evaluate fruit size , quality and yield , growth habit, lack of thorns and ease of harvesting . Nine female selections are being propagated and will shortly be released to growers for testing . They ha ve large fruits , few thorns, and are easi ly harvested by hand or machine.
Source: Franklin , P & Schroeder, W: Development of sea buckthorn (Hippopha e rhamnoides L.) as an agroforestry crop o n the Canadian prairies. Proc. 7lh Biennial Conference on Agroforestry in N.America , 2001 .

Fo rest gardeni ng in Bri tish Colu mbia


Gregoire Lamoureux bought Spiral Farm in Winlaw, British Columbia in 10 acres in the summer of 1992. Five acres were mostly open field or abandoned pasture with low quality mixed grass . The other five acres is part marshland and partia lly covered with a deciduous forest of alders (Alnus tenuifolia), poplars (Populus tremuloides & P.trichocarpa), willows (Salix spp .) and birches (Betula papyrifera) ; some planting and restoration is being done on this site with mostly native species. After careful observation during the first year on the land , the most appropriate site with good exposure , good soi l, excellent drainage and airflow was selected for the forest ga rden. This site was the highest ground in the open field area. The purpose of the forest garden was to produce a diversity of food and medicinal plants for personal use and eventually to produce a surplus to market. The main planting started in the spring of 1993, with trees planted first , taking into consideration the spacing between species and potential size of mature trees . The shrubs were planted after. Some areas are designed to be denser planted while others are more open with fewer trees and more shrubs . Each tree receives a generous amount of mulch material every year. Two layers of cardboard are used to control the grass, the cardboard being covered with ramia l wood chip, leaves and in spring a layer of composted manure; a space is left next to the trunk to avoid funga l infections. Plastic or meta l screen tree guards are used in the winter for protection against voles.

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=
The main trees planted were:

=ow

Apples - Ashmead Kernel , George Cave, Jonagold , Macintosh , Cortland, King , Gala, Fuji: mainly on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks (M7, M9, M26) at a spacing of 2 m (6 tt) for dwarf va rieties & 4-5 m (12-15 ft) for semi -d warf varieties. Some apples seedlings were also allowed to grow producing standa rd size trees to eventually form the canopy layer. Pears - European: Lucious, Crapps Favorite; Asian: Chojuro, Hosui . Kikusui. Plum - Shiro. Cherry - Lapins. Mulberry - lIIinois Everbearing.

The fruit trees are interplanted with nitrogen-fixing shrubs usually 2-2.5 m (6-8 tt) away from the fruit trees, in cluding Sibe rian pea shrub (Caragana arborescens) and Elaeagnus (Eumbellata, E.multiflora, E.commutata). These sh rubs are pruned on a regular basis and the pruning used for mulch around the trees. Some will be pruned back to the ground if the are too close to the fruit trees, otherwise they are cut back by 30-60 cm (1-2 ft) and allowed to regrow. Some natural regeneration has happened in the forest garden , including saskatoon (Ame/anchier a/nifo/ia), hawthorn (Crataegus doug/ash) and Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifo/ium). These shrubs are kept and harvested if they are not growing too close to the main planting, otherwise they are pruned back and used for mulch around the trees. The shru b layer includes many varieties of currants - Blackcurrants, Red and whitecurrants , gooseberries, buffalo currant (Ribes aureum), Jostaberry; also highbush cranbe rry (Viburnum trilobum), dwarf quince (Chaenomeles japonica) , and eld er {sambucus canadensis}. These also . receive mulch like the trees. Perennials include comfrey (Symphytum officina/e), yarrow (Achillea millefolium) , tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), lavender (Lavandu/a vera), lupins (Lupinus spp.), stinging netUes (Urtica dioica), mints (Mentha sp p. ), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and several alliums (garli c, chives, tree onions). Some self-seeding annuals are also included: nasturtium ( Tropaeo/um majus), calendula (Calendula officina/e), daikon (Raphanus sativus) and kale (Brassica o/eracea). The perennials are interplanted random ly throughout the garden , with an allium planted close to each fruit tree as a companion plant and pest repellent. The annuals are often planted close to the trees on the south side for more sun exposure. Some creep ing plants are used too; strawberry and creeping thyme (Thymus praecox). The climbing plants are the last to be planted - Schisandra chinensis and Akebia quinata have just gone in. Other shrubs and herbaceous plants are added every year. Many mycorrhizal fungi have started to appear around the trees - favoured by the generous amount of wood chips used for mulch . They will aid the trees and shrubs in their nutrient and water uptake. Watering is done with a combination of drip irrigation, soaker hoses and sprinklers. Fertilisation is by adding composted manure and mulching material (wood chips, leaves, prunings , grass clippings etc) and the use of liquid compost teas - comfrey tea , manure tea; also seaweed or fish fertiliser for foliar and root feeding. One of the main challenges is the control of grasses and weed species. Also , because of the wet climate of the region, cankers on the bark of trees are a problem . The forest garden is a very pleasant place to work in. The diversity of plants attracts a diversity of insects, birds and wildlife ; these help minimise damage from pests and diseases. The ongoi ng maintenance includes pruning, mulching and harvesting. The garden now produces a

AGROFORESTRY"NEWS Vol II No I

Page 3

wide range of fruits , nuts and medicinal plants - each year brings more diversity and larger quantities of food. With th~ inc~ease in production, so~e. of the strategies being c~nsidered are value added Uams, dry frurts , tmctures etc.) and a variatIOn on the CSA (communIty supported agriculture) model. An ecological and organic approach is used and will help in getting the highest return for the harvest. Some of the potential harvest and income could come from: Food: fruits, buts , vegetables, root crops, flowers, seeds, mushrooms. Medicine: fJowers, leaves, root. bark, seeds, mushrooms. Fibres: nettles, basket willow, bamboo. Seeds: trees , sh rubs, herbaceous perennials & annuals. Other: plant division & propagation , educational use, pictures , therapeutic uses, craft material etc.
Source: The Forest Garden. G.lamoureux. Proc. i~ Biennial Conference on Agroforestry in N.America,

2001.

Chestnuts in Japan
Chestnuts have been cultivated in Japan for a long time - since the Jomon period (ca. 10,000 S.C to 300 B.C) according to excavations of various archaeological sites around the country. According to the National Institute of Fruit Tree Science there are 6 major varieties of Japanese chestnut trees , including Tanzawa , Tsukuba and Kunimi. However, there are many more minor varieties grown in the chestnut production centres of Obuse in Nagano Prefecture and Saimyoji in Akita Prefecture. In the year 2000, Japan's 28,400 hectares of chestnut orchards yielded 30 ,000 tons of nuts. Of this yield, 1,435 tons were harvested from 1,706 hectares in Hyogo, Kyoto and Osaka prefectures. Although low yielding, chestnuts from these areas are of high quality. Chestnuts from the Tanba district are large and sweet: 'Homcho Shokkan', and encyclopedia on food complied in 1697 said ~C hestnuts from the mountains in Tanba district are high quality and as big as eggs. ~ 'Tanba chestnut' is a generic term for chestnuts from the area , while Ginyose is the most typical variety of chestnut grown in the region. Tanba chestnut achieved nationwide fame in the Edo period (1603-1868) when feudal lords in the five domains in the Tanba district presented them to the Tokuguwa shog unate. To ensure that the old chestnut trees in the area are properly looked after, a certificati on scheme was introduced in 1992 for orchardists who are skilled in pruning trees. The qualified orchardists pass on the latest techniques and advice to local people. Masahide Moriguchi, 62, was one of the first orchardists to qualify. He has helped local farmers not only with pruning techniques, but also in cultivation and pest control methods. He has 10 varieties of chestnut trees in his 3 ha orchard, the majority f which are Tanzawa , Tsukuba and Ginyose. ~ I tried to grow high quality chestnuts with as little work as possible~, he sa id . ~ It took me about 5 years to learn how to prune trees ~. He prunes back old trees in winter to mainta in trees at a size of about 7-8 years old. He feeds his trees three times a year - after harvest, in late winter and 2 months prior to harvest. A wide variety of Japanese sweets containing chestnuts are made , including sweet bean paste with chestnuts, flower-shaped wafers filled with the paste, rice cakes covered with chestnut paste, and sweetened chestnuts . Ginyose chestnuts gathered in early autumn are sweet enough to make a paste without adding any sugar. They are steamed and cooked individually in boiling water, then mixed together, to ensure the best flavour.

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::i:iiJfZ

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Amaguri, roasted . sweet chestnuts, have been popular snacks in Japan since they were introduced about 90 years ago. Peeled roasted sweet chestnuts have recently become very popular - with sa les in 2000 reached 15 billion yen. Chestnut consumption exceeds supply and large quantities (over 2 million tons per year) are imported from China . The best quality are from Qing Long in Hebei Province - sweet with yellow and tender flesh with easily removed skins. Chestnuts in China are picked from trees growing wild in the mountains, unlike the Japanese varieties which are cultivated . Harvested chestnuts are examined for quality and size and are sent to a processing plants where poor quality are under-size nuts are removed. The selected chestn uts are then packed and sent to Japan. There, chestnuts of the same size are roasted in a gas-heated drum filled with river sand. As chestnuts burst easily if overheated, the heat is turned off several times during the process and a glutinous starch syrup is added to the drum to redu ce the heat. After the chestnuts have been roasted , a few drops of cooking oil are added to make the nuts glossy. The ideal is to roast them until ju st before they burst. Over-roasted chestnuts have a very sweet taste to begin with but then become tough and bitter. Source: article by Akino Yoshihara in the Daily Yomiuri, Japan

First heartnut crop


Our heartnuts on out trials site in Darlington, Devon have cropped for the first year this year. The nearly 40 trees there are 6 years old and are all seedlings of the cultivar 'Brock'. Five of the trees flowered with female flowers this year, and another two bore good quantities of male catk in s. Flowering was in mid May (female flowers are below left).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

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The nuts ripened at the end of September. Two trees bore more fruit than the others, ripening nuts of quite different characters: the first (above top right. scale in em) bearing nuts the size of wa lnuts with a typical heartnut pointed top but with a rounded cross section across ; the second (above bottom right) bore more typical heartnuts, flattened and pointed. The aim is to select the best one or two fruiting andlor pollinating trees, afte r several more crops, to propagate on and name.

Badg~rsett

research program

Phillip Rutter is director and founder of this program , based at the 8adgersett Research Farm near Canton, Minnesota , USA. He has spent 20 years researching into hazelnuts on the 40acre site, making inter-species crosses mainly between Cory/us americana (American hazel), C.comuta (American beaked hazel) and C.avellana (European hazel). He has also obtained genetic material from around the world. The aim is to select trees which are vigorous, resistant - or at least tolerant - to Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB), and good producers of quality nuts. EFB is a serious bacterial disease which can devastate most pure European hazel orchards in North America. His goal is to design a hybrid hazel production system which would appeal to a conventional corn and soya bean farmer, the perennia l system repla cing the energy-intensive annual soya bean system . Bushes would be mechanically planted and harvested. Rutter tries to kill as many seedlings as he can (!) - he does not coddle them because he wants the survivors to be competitive with weeds; seedling rows are not weeded. Resistance or tolerance to EFB is assured by maintaining the disease throughout the 40 acres. Further natural selection is provided by Minnesota's cold winters. Having selected plants that are vigorous under these basic conditions, he has now begun to select for early bearing, large nut size, and thin shells. Other desirable traits include light nut colo ur, heavy fruiting , and visibility of nut clusters at harvest. Rutter employs his Amish neighbours to harvest, and counts on them to tag bushes that they judge to be 'good' plants , relying on their judgement. Early experience shows that establishing trees in arable ground is difficult because of the hard pan created by heavy equipment. Rutter now recommends deep chiselling (subsoiling) before planting because young pla nts spend much of their early energy on establishing and extensive root system, which can extend 2 m (6 ft) or more down and extend 3 m (10ft) laterally. Rutter envisages a management system with bushes coppiced (cut at ground level) every 10 years. Multiple sprouts will quickly grow from the base and the mature root system will regrow a fully sized plant (2-4 m, 6-12 ft high) in one growing seaso n. If the plant will also set male flowers that same autumn , only one year of nut production will be lost. In this scenario , 10% of a farmer's production area would be coppiced and out of production each year. Several hybrid hazelnut clones have been released via the University of Nebraska in the last couple of years, including two which have been patented. Areas needing further research are nutritional requirements of hazels and the investigated of pest complexes and their management. Rutter suspects that nitrogen , strategically applied in the autumn may increase numbers of female flowers initiated , and thus increase potential nut yields . Developing markets for hazelnut co-products (shell , husk and wood) is also part of Rutter's vision of a complete production system. Source: Th e T emperate Agroforester, Vo lume 10 Number 4 (October 2002)

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New A.R.T. catalogue


Our new combined plant, seed , publications and sundries catalogue is now available . Subscribe rs to Agroforestry News (apart from those in North America) should already have received a copy. Any who have not, and those in the USA and Canada who would like one, please requ est one. New in this years' cata logue are: A wide selection of bare-root top fruit - apples. apricot, cherries, medlars. nectarine , peaches. pears, plums, gages and damsons. Quince Nut trees - a good selection of cuUivars of chestnut, hazelnut and walnut (bare root) Soft fruit - good selections of blackcurrant, gooseberry, redcurrant , whitecurrant, raspberries (mostly bare ro ot) 30 new seed species 60 new plant species

Agroforestry Research Trust - Courses in 2003


Forest Gardening - running twice in 2003: 24-25 May 2003 and again on 23-24 August 2003
The overall aim of this two day course is to give you an overview of how to design , implement and maintain a temperate forest garden. Teaching sessions will be interspersed with frequent visits into our 9-year-old established forest garden. Practical information on tree crops, shrub crops, perennials and ground covers wi ll be complemented with visits to our forest garden to look at our successes and failures , as well as to taste unusual leaf and fruit crops. Cost: 95.00 including lun ches.

Nut Crops - 4-5 October 2003


This weekend cou rse will cover all aspects of growing commo n and uncommon nut crops in Britain. Teaching sessions will be interspersed with visits to forest garden and trial s site where several nut crops are grown. Several unusual nut crops will also be available to ta ste . Common nuts covered are Chestnuts , Hazelnuts and Walnuts. Less common species include Almonds , Butternuts, Chinkapins, Heartnuts, Hickory nuts , Monkey puzzle, Oaks with edible acorns, Pine nuts. Cost: 95.00 including lunches. For more details and a booking form for any of these courses please contact: A.R.T. , 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. Email: mail@agroforestry .co. uk . Fax/Tel: 01803 840776. Website: www.agroforestrv.co.uk

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Arctostaphylos - the manzanitas


Arctostaphylos are members of the heath (Ericaceae) family. They comprise some 50 species of mostly prostrate or medium sized shrubs; with the exception of two species from the alpinearctic regions of the northern hemisphere (Aa/pina, Auva-ursl) they occur naturally in a variety of wa rm , dry and well-drained habitats in western North America, particularly California. They have alternate, simple lea ves, terminal panicles or racemes of tiny urn-shaped usually white flowers , followed by spherical fruits. The name bearberry comes from the fact that bears like eating the fruits of several species. All apart from A.alpina are evergreen shrubs or shrublets. Most require a sunny position in Britain (but tolerate part shade in hotter climes) and always fruit better in sun . As to soil, they need a lime-free soi l (ie acid conditions), well drained but preferably moist; light or medium in texture. Plants resent root disturbance and should be pot-grown , then placed in their final positions as soon as possible. Most need sheUer from strong winds, though some species are noted as being tolerant of wind and maritime exposure. The arctic species are hardy to -30 C or more, and the rest frost tolerant to between -5 and 15C (these latter really require summer heat to ripen their wood and hardiness will often be less in Britain). Apart from the arctic species, the best of the more tender shrubs in Britain are Acanescens, Aco/umbiana, Ax media, Anevadensis and Apatula. All species have urn-shaped flowers and are very good bee plants , especially for wild and bumble bees, although in California, manzanita honey was highly esteemed when common last century. The smaller and low~growing species form mats of glossy green evergreen foliage and are well-suited as ground cover for steep , sandy banks. Most have edib le fruits which traditionally are eaten mixed with other fruits as they are often of mediocre flavour on their own. They were often dried for later use or mashed in water and strained to make a refreshing drink. Many species have also been used medicinally - usua lly the leaves being used for kidney and urinary tract complaints; a warning should be given here: the leaves of most species contains arbutin which hydrolyzes into the toxic urinary antiseptic hydroquinone - only use under the supervision of a suitably qualified herbal medical practitioner. The leaves of several species were dried and smoked (particularly before tobacco became available). Propagate by simple layering in spring, by division of rotted stems of the trailing species, by semi-ripe cuttings in summer, of by seed which generally requires a short boiling water soak (or exposure to fire eg o by placing straw over seeds and burning) followed by cold stratification before sowing.
Arctostaphylos alpina - Alpine bearberry A deciduous shrublet to 15 cm (6 high , native to northern Temperate regions , found on mountains and moors. Fruits reddish-black , borne in early summer. Grows well in a rock garden. Extremely hardy - to zone 1 (-40C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked: very juicy but slightly bitter, about 6 mm in diameter, flaour improved by cooking. The bark and leaves are used medicinally. The fruits are used for dyeing.
K )

Arctostaphylos canescens - Hoary manzanita Upright shrub to 2 m (7 tt) high, often much sma ller, native to the western USA. Fruits brown. Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses: Edible fruit - 8 mm across, usually dried for winter use or mashed in water and sieved to make

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

a drink. The wood was used for making string reels , spoons, canes etc.
Arctostaphylos x cinerea - Del Norte manzanita Uses: Edible fruit - usually cooked. Arctostaphylos columbiana - Hairy manzanita Erect shrub to 1-3m (3 - 10 tt) high, native to the coasta l region of Western N. America. Fruits light red . Very closely related to A. tomentosa , but with a more northerly range . Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses: Ed ible fruit - raw or cooked, about 8 mm in diameter; best harvested when slightly under-ripe since the fully mature pulp is mealy. The bark is used medicinally for diarrhoea. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, which does not require a mordant. The wood is used for making tools and awl handles; it also makes a bright light when burnt and was used on fires at ceremonies . 'Oregon Hybrid' is a low growing selection often used for highway planting in Oregon and Washington . Arctostaphylos crustacea - BriUleleaf manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 ft) high, native to California . Fruits are reddish-brown . Hardy to zone 8 (10 e). Uses: Edible fruit - 6-10 mm in diameter.
0

Arctostaphylos cruzensis - La Cruz manzanita Shrub to 2-3 m (7-10 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses: Ed ible fruit. Arctostaphylos cushingiana - Mouse mound manzanita Shrub to 0.5-1 m (1~-3 ft) high, native to Ca lifornia. Hardy to zone 6 (-18 C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos densiflora Shrub to 0.5-1 m (1~-3 tt) high , native to Cal ifornia. Hardy to zone 6 (- 18C). Uses: Ed ible fruit. 'Harmony' is a selection wh ich is good for ground cover. Arctostaphylos edmundsii - Sur manzanita Shrub let to 10 cm (4" ) high, native to Ca lifornia. Hardy to zone 8 (- 10 C) . Uses: Edible fruit . Ground cover. 'Carmel Sur' is cold and drought tolerant. 'Danville' and 'Indian Hill ' are good ground cover forms.

Arctostaphylos glandulosa - Eastwood's manzanita Upright. spreading shrub to 2 m (7 ft) high , native to western USA. Fruits reddish-brown. Hardy to zone 8 (-10C).

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Uses: Edible fruit - raw, cooked, made into a drink or dried for future use. Edible seeds - ground into a meal and cooked. The leaves and bark have been used medicinally for diarrhoea and other urinary complaints. The wood burns very hot and slowly. Also used to make awl handles, small tools and pipes. Arctostaphylos g l auca - Bigberry manzanita Upright shrub to 4m (13 ft) high. native to dry hilly slopes of California. Fruits brownish. Hardy to zone 8~(-10 C) - best in the milder parts of Britain. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked ; up to 18 mm across , dry, poor flavoured , used fresh or it can be dried and ground into a flour, or used to make preserves or a beverage. Edib le seeds - ground into a meal and cooked. The dried leaves are used medicinally. Green leaves are harvested in autumn and gently dried. A tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent, diuretic and an ant iseptic for the urinary tract; it is much used for kidney and bladder complaints and inflammation of the urinary tract. A ye llowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, which does not require a mordant. The branches were used to make brooms. The wood burns very hot and slowly. Also used to make awl handles and small tools. Arctostaphylos hooker; - Monterey p i ne manzanita Shrub to 30 em (1 tt) high, nati ve to California. Hardy to zone 9 (-SO C). Uses: Edible fruit. Ground cover. 'Wayside' is more cold tolerant and a good ground cover. Arctostaphylos hooveri - Hoover's manzanita Shrub to 1-6 m (3-20 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (-10 C). Uses: Edible fruit. 'Pacifica ' is a hybrid growing 30-100 em (1-3 tt) high, making a good ground cover. Arctostaphylos insularis - Island manzanita Shrub to 1-3 m (3-10 tt) high, native to Ca lifornia. Hardy to zone 8 (-10C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos luciana - Santa Lucia manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 tt) high , native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (-10 C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos manzanita - Manzanita Upright shrub to 2-4m (7-13 tt) high, native to dry coastal slopes and canyons of California . Hardy to zone 8 (-10 0 e) - best in the milder parts of Brrtain. Fruits reddish-browe. Po llination seems poor in Britain. Tolerates maritime exposure. Sometimes named A. pungens manzanita , and includes the former A.parryana (parry manzanita). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked ; an agreeable acid flavour but the fruit is dry and mealy - it can be dried and ground into a flour and then used as a flavouring in soups etc, and a cooling drink can be made from the fruit. The unripe fruits were eaten to quench the thirst. The leaves have been used medicinally for diarrhoea and other urinary complaints. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, which does not require a mordant.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

The wood is used to make string reels, spoons and canes ; also makes very good firewood. The boiled leaves give a yellowish-red extract which is used as a cleansing body wash . Arctostaphylos mariposa - Mariposa manzanita Shrub to '-3 m (3-10 tt) high, native to California . Hardy to zone 6 (-1B" C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos )( media Hybrid of A columbiana and Auva-ursi, closely resembling the latter. Hardy to zone 7 (- 1S" C). Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Probably has the same uses as Auva-ursi. 'Snow Camp' is the usual form grown, bearing masses of pale pink flowers forlowed by flattened-spherical red fruits. Arctostaphylos mewukka - Indian manzanita Shrub to 1-2.S m (3-8 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (- 10" C). Uses: Edible fruil. Arctostaphylos morroensis - Morro manzanita Shrub to 1-2.2 m (3-7 tt) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 7 (-12"C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos nevadensis - Pine-mat manzanita Mat-forming shrublet to 40 cm (16") high, native to mountain areas of Oregon and California. Closely related to A. uva-ursi, grows well in shade and tolerates maritime exposure . Fruits dark brown. Hardy to zone 6 (-20 C). Uses: Edible seed - ground into a flour and added to soups etc. Edible fruit - usually dried for future use, or made into a drink. The leaves have been used medicinally for diarrhoea etc. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, which does not require a mordant. The wood is used to make string reels , spoons and canes. A good ground-cover plant for steep sandy banks, growing quite rapidly and rooting as it spreads. Arctostaphylos nummularia - Glossyleaf manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3 -7 tt) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 9 (-SO C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos obispoensis - Serpentine manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 tt) high , native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (- 10" C). Uses: Edible fruit . Arctostaphylos ophiovirides Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (-10" C). Uses: Edible fruit.

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Arctostaphylos parajoensis - Pajaro manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 tt) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos patula - Greenleaf manzanita Upright shrub to 1-2m (3-7 ft) high, native to the open coniferous forests of Southwestern N. America . Not very wind tolerant. Highly fire resistant, it regenerates we ll after forest fires. Naturallv self-layers. Fruits dark brown. Hardy to zone 6 (-18" C) - grows well in Britain. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked; about 8 - 10 mm in diameter; when fully ripe , pleasantly acid with a flavour resembling green apples. Also used for making jelly and a drink. Edible seed - ground into a flour and added to soups etc. The leave s are used medi cina lly as an astringent and for other purposes. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, wh ich does not require a mordant. Arctostaphylos pechoensis - Pecho manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3 -7 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (-10" C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos pi/osula - Santa Margarita manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 tt) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 7 (-12 " C). Uses: Edib le fruit. Arctostaphylos pringle; - Pringle manzanita Erect shrub to 1-2.5 m (3-8 tt) high, native to Arizona and California. Fruits dark red. Hardy to zone 8 (- 10 C). Uses: Edible fruit - 6-i2 mm , raw, cooked or made into preserves. Edible seeds - ground and cooked. Arctostaphylos pumila - Sandmat manzanita Mat-form ing shrub to 30 cm ( 1 tt) high, native 'to California. Fruit reddish-brown . Hardy to zone

8 (-10 C). Uses: Edible fruit - used to make a drink.


Arctostaphylos pungens - Pointleaf manzanita Native to the chapalJel of Southern N. America - Mexico. Closely related to A. manzanita. Hardy to about -10" C best in the milder parts of Britain. Uses: Edible fruit - raw, cooked, dried for future use or made into a drink. Edible seeds - ground into a meal and cooked. Leaves are used medicinally for diarrhoea etc. A yellowish-brown dye is obta ined from the leaves, which does not require a mordant. The wood makes good firewood , burning hot and slow. Also used to make pipes , awl handles and small tools. Arctostaphylos puriss;ma - Lompoc manzanita Shrub to 1-1.5 m (3-5 tt) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 8 (_10C). Uses: Edible fruit.

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Arctostaphylos rainbowensis Shrub to 1-1.5 m (3-5 ft) high, native to California . Hardy to zone 7 (-12 D C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos refugioensis - Refugio manzanita Shrub to 1-2.5 m (3 -8 tt) high , native to California . Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos rudis - Shagbark manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (37 ft) high, native to California. Hardy to zone 6 (- 18DC). Uses: Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos silvicola - Santa Cruz manzanita Shrub to 1-2 m (3-7 ft) high, native to California . Hardy to zone 8 (-lOD C). Uses : Edible fruit. Arctostaphylos stanfordiana - Stanford manzanita Upright shrub to 1.5-2.5m (5-8 ft) high, native to open ridges and slopes of California . Difficult to cultivate - best grown against a wall. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value . Fruits light red. Hardy to zone 9 (-SO C) . Dioecious - plants are male or fema le. Uses: Edible fruit raw or cooked; about 5 - 7 mm in diameter, good flavour. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the [eaves, which does not require a mordant. Arctostaphylos tomentosa - Down y manzanita Upright shrub to 1-2.5m (38 tt) high , native to forest edges and the coast of California. Hardy to zone 8 (-lODC) - best in milder parts of Britain . Tolerates maritime exposure. Regenerates well after forest fires. Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked; 8 - 10 mm in diameter, a tart apple flavour if under-ripe, but when ripe sweet, dry and mealy - can be dried for winter use, eg. in bread; also used to make a drink. Edible seed - ground into a flour. The bark and dried leaves are used medicinally. Green leaves harvested in early autumn and dried in gentle heat. A tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent , diuretic and an antiseptic for the urinary tract: it is much used for kidney and bladder complaints and inflammation of the urinary tract. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, which does not require a mordant. The wood , though small , is used for making fine furniture. Arctostaphylos uvaurs; - Bearberry, Kinnikinnick Shrublet to O. lm (4n) high, native to Northern N. America, N. Europe, N. Asia - found in dry open woods , often on gravelly or sandy soils , also found on sand dunes along the coast and in the European Alps (often limestone alps with a thin acid peaty soi l ). Hardy to zone 4 (-25 D C). This is also a pioneer plant in the wi ld , often being the first plant to colonize burnt-over areas, especially on poor soils. There are a number of named varieties developed for their ornamental interest. Fruits scarlet. Includes Arctostaphylos rubra - Red alpine bearberry . Uses: Edible fruit - raw or cooked; 6-12 mm in diameter, insipid, dry and mealy, it becomes sweeter when cooked . Added to stews etc, it is a good source of carbohydrates. The fruit can also be

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Af2i
used to make a cooling drink or used for preserves etc. A tea is made from the dried leaves. The leaves, stems and fruits are used medicinally - they contain hydroquinones and are strongly antibacterial, especially against certain organisms associated with urinary infections. The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, diuretic, lithontripic, hypnotic and toni c. Green lea ves are harvested in early autumn, and dried in gentle heat. A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves which does not require a mordant. The dried fruits are used in rattles and as beads. The frults were mashed & rubbed on the inside of coiled cedar root baskets to waterproof them. The leaves are a good source of tannin (up to 19%) and were used for tanning hides in Iceland , Scandinavia and Russia. A good ground-cover for steep sandy banks in a sunny position or in light shade. A carpeting plant, growing fairly fast and rooting as it spreads, it is valuable for checking soil erosion on watersheds. 'Anchor Bay' is a good groundcover form. ' Emerald Carpet' is more shade tolerant than the species. 'Green Supreme' has bright green leaves and a good dense habit for cover; also drought tolerant. 'Massachusetts' is an especially prostrate , free-flowering and free-fruiting form. 'Point Reyes' is heat and drought tolerant , with darker green and denser-packed leaves. 'Point St. George' is dense-growing and bears abundant fruit which persist well. ' Radiant' has lighter green leaves and fruits heavily - good ground cover form. 'Tom's Point' is a good dense cover and bears abundant fruit. 'Vancouver Jade' bears flowers and fruits on semi-upright branches so easier to see and harvest. Vulcan's Peak' is prolific in flowering and fr.uiting, and has overlapping leaves making a good cover. Wood's Red ' is a hybrid which bears large shiny red fruit.
Arctostaphylos viridis sima - McMinn's manzanita Shrub to 1-4 m (3-13 ft) high, native to California . Hardy to zone 7 (-12 C). Uses; Edib le fruit. Arctostaphylos v;sc;da - Sticky whiteleaf manzanita Uses; Edible fruit - raw, cooked, dried for future use or made i nto a drink. leaves have been used medicinally.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Plant database, 2002. Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999. Las Pilitas Nursery, California: Online catalogue at www .laspilitas.com MacKenzie, 0: Perennial Ground Covers. Timber Press, 1997. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998.

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Producing small fruit and woody decorative florals in agroforestry systems


Introduction
Farmers and producers both in North America and Europe are searching for alternatives to current row crops and farming systems to improve profitability and system sustainability. Speciality forest products are one group of alternative crops that are derived from trees or shrubs, and includ e products for the niche food , medicinal , decorative floral and handicraft markets. Many species that produce these products can be integrated into agroforestry practices and These systems such as windbreaks, alley cropping configurations, or riparian buffers. intentional systems can diversify landscapes on a large scale and generate income through the production of speciality or non-timber forest products. The main barrier which exists for producers to adopt these crops is lack of information which they need to decide which crops are appropriate for their enterprise. to grow the material in an agroforestry practice, and to market the products. This article draws on recent findings from speciality forest product cultivar testing , production and market research programs in Canada (Saskatchewan) and the USA (Nebraska) but the principles involved apply everywhere.

Small fruit
A number of North American native or naturalised fruit species appear to have substantial commercial potential there as part of agroforestry production systems. These include: saskatoon (Ame/anchier alnifo/ia) chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) beaked hazelnut (Cory/us cornuta) hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) mulberry (Morus spp.) buffalo berry (Shepherdia argentea) American plum (Prunus americana) sand cherry (Prunus besseyi) pin cherry (Prunus pensy/vanica) Nanking cherry (Prunus tomentosa) choke cherry (Prunus virginiana) currants (Ribes spp.) gooseberry (Ribes spp.) wi ld rose (Rosa spp.) elderberry (Sambucus spp.) western huckleberry (Vaccinium sp .) highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) wild grape (Vilis riparia)

Native American fruit species are characterised by a variety of traits that allow substantial versatility of use, including use as ornamentals for landscaping purposes, in wildlife habitat improvement, in shelterbeJts and hedgerows , and as edible fruit to diversify our diets and make eating a pleasure. Some like the saskatoon can be eaten fresh. All can used in processed

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products including jams, jellies , sauces, syrups , juices, ice cream, yoghurt , choco lates , muffins, pies, tarts, cookies, pancakes, wine and liqueurs , raisins, fruit leathers, wate r-reduced purees, flavour concentrates and dyes. Many of the native fruits are best utilised processed because the fresh fruit are often overly sour or astringent. Companies in Nebraska , Iowa, South Dakota , Mississippi and Kansas use over 90,000 kg (200,000 Ib) of fruit per year from the following species in products ranging from jams, jeHies, syrups to, wines. Prices paid for the fruit depends on the species and end use . Species Choke cherry Elderberry Sand cherry American plum Currants Mulberry Hawthorn Buffalo berry Gooseberry Saskatoon

Jam/jelly 23870 kg (525241b) 3680 kg (8100 lb) 365 kg (800 lb) 2026 kg (44581b) 1464 kg (3220 lb ) 327 kg (720 lb) 2045 kg (4500 lb) 303 kg (19871b) 923 kg (2030 lb) 341 kg (750 lb)

wine 1955 kg (4300 lb ) 36860 kg (81095 1b) 9090 kg (20000 lb ) 5045 kg (11100 lb) 1545 kg (3400 lb) 1818 kg (4000 lb )

68 kg (150 lb) 91 kg (200 lb)

total 25829 kg (56824 lb) 40543 kg (891951b) 9455 kg (20800 lb ) 7071 kg (15558 1b) 3009 kg (6620 lb) 2145 kg (4720 lb) 2045 kg (4500 lb) 971 kg (2 137 1b) 923 kg (2030 lb) 432 kg (950 lb)

SUS value $71,000 $67,000 $20,800 $19,500 $6,940 $4,720 $4,500 $3,206 $2,030 $950

Many of the jam and jelly companies in the Midwestern US are small, often pick their own fruit from wild sources, and subsequently process it themselves. Severa l of the larger companies purchase large amounts from growers . Speciality fruit markets on the Canadian prairies vary substantially in size. Over 226,800 kg (500,000 Ib) of fresh saskatoons are sold annually in Canada, primarily on a 'pick your own' ('Upick') basis. Trial marketing of fresh fruit in grocery stores suggests that a substantial untapped market exists. Additionally, a similar amount of saskatoons are processed each year. Markets for other native fruits are smaller, but specific market opportunities exist for juices, wines, In syrups and jellies from chokecherry, and for teas and fresh fruit from saskatoon , Saskatchewan, specia lity fruits grown include: Species Saskatoon Chokecherry Pin cherry Highbush cranberry Currant jam/jelly/wine 45454 kg ( 100,000 lb) 9091-18182 kg (20-40,000 lb) 454- 1364 kg (1-3,000 lb) 2273-6818 kg (5-15,000 lb) <454 kg 1000 lb) Market value to producer ($US) $97,500 $13,000-$26,000 $650-$1,950 $3,250-$9,750
?

The production of these native fruit species has significant commercial potential. Yields of fruit per plant can be substantial. Marketable yields from mature saskatoons can attain 17 kg (37 Ib) per plant, depending on cultivar, site and season . Prices for saskatoons va ry from Can$1.003.50 per pound. Marketable fruit yields from other species (non-matu re) have reached: Species Saskatoon 'Smoky' Pin cherry 'Lee #4' Highbush cranberry 'Wentworth' Chokecherry 'Garrington' Blackcurrant 'Wellington' Marketable fruit per bush Marketable fruit/row 8.1 kg (17 .81b) 402 kgl100 m (2696 lb11000') 8.9 kg (19.61b) 485 kgl100 m (3257 lb11000') 4.0 kg (8.8 lb) 218 kgl100 m (14641bI1000') 11.9 kg (26.2 lb) 649 kgl100 m (43541bI1000') 4.2 kg (9.3 1b ) 229 kgl100 m (15371bI1000')

Mature yields may be greater. All at a 1.8 m (6 ft) linear agroforestry planting (alley cropping) with rows 3.35 m (11 ft) apart, except currants (1.2 m 14ft spacing in rows 2.4 m 18ft apart).
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Approximately 890 ha (2200 acres) of saskatoon , - - - - - - - - - - - - - , orchards ha ve been planted in Alberta , Saskatchewan Profile and Manitoba. Results of eco nomic analyses of Litehouse Dressings of saskatoon vary; in general , average development and Sandpoint, Ohio sells several operational costs of saskatoon orchards vary from huckleberry products to speciality US$1,500-2,720/ha/year (US$608 -1, 100/acre/year) over stores in the Northwest USA. a 10-ye ar period. Mean yields over a 10-year period The company purchases berries 6,050-8,630 kg/ha/year (5,400-7,700 from local pickers for about $2/1b rang e from Ibs/acre/year, based on 880 plants/acre). Gross income during a 4 week summer season. over this 10 year period ranges from US$16,011Pickers can pick about 5 Ib of 22,8311ha/year (US$6,480-9 ,240 /acrel year using a fruit per hour from woods in se lling pri ce of US$1.20/Ib) and mean net income ranges northern Idaho, many being from US$ 13,343-2 1,349/ha /year (US$5,400retirees who come in campers 8,640/acre/year.) and camp in the woods whi le they pick. Yields of 500 Ib per acre are not uncommon in a Cultivating native fruit species in agroforestry systems good huckleberry year. Quite a could contribute to the diversification and health of the number of pickers gather berries agricultural economy - in addition, many fruit products as a major source of their annual are well suited to the organic market. income.

Woody decorative florals


Any woody species that has a colourful or unusually shaped stem, bud, flower or bark can become a decorative woody floral product. While most of Ihe materials currently in the American floral market are produced largely on the west coast of the USA and Canada , there are good opportunities elsewhere for producing and marketing decorative stems of a number of species and cultivars , and garnering substa ntial returns. Retail florists in the USA generally pay wholesalers US$0.50-$0.80 per 1.2-1.5 m (4-5 ft) stem of curly wi ll ow (Salix matsudana) or pussy willow (Salix caprea), with larger stems bringing higher prices.

The huckleberries are processed, bottled then marketed - jams, syrups and biscuits have been sold. Fresh frozen berries are also sold in bulk in 20 Ib bags to a few local Safeway stores , but this is more as a service since the berries are more valuable as processed products.

The company can sell all the huckleberry products that it can produce and now processes over 65,000 Ib of fruit. Holly (llex spp.) and flowering branches of apple (Malus L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ spp.), cherry (Prunus spp .), pear (pyrus spp .), forsythia (Forsythia spp.) and other spring flowering trees and shrubs have similar markets, and bring US$1 .00-2 .00/stem wholesale. This class of products is both sold by producers directly to floral shops , and to large retailers and wholesalers in large and small towns and cities throughout the USA and Canada . Woody florals are usually sold fresh except for a few exceptions , ego sweet birch (Betula lenta) which is so ld dried. A recent 2001 survey of 109 wholesale and retail florists in Nebraska (a small state with a population of 1.75 million) indicated a market of approximately 213,000 woody stems sold annually (worth US$178,OOO), the main ones listed below: Species Pussy willow (Salix caprea) Curly willow (Salix matsudana) Red (sweet) birch (Betula lenta) Flowering branches (mixed) Forsythia (Forsythia spp) Red dogwood (Comus stolonifera) No. stems per year 760 ,500 68,400 53.700 7,400 10,100 3,500 SUS value $56,400 $54,720 $42 ,960 $11,100 $10,100 $2,800

Values listed here are based on average prices that retail fl orists pay to wholesalers.

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A further survey of all states east of the Rocky Mountains indicated a large demand for fresh cut woody flora Is, which are detailed in the table below. Note that these data do not include large quantities of dried woody florals marketed by hobby and craft stores across North America , or woody florals produced by retail florists for their own use, or Canadian markets. The total market is therefore likely to be considerably larger. Florists judge quality and freshness of utmost importance, and often find that shipped woody florals are damaged, dead or with poor colour; local sources are almost always preferred. Curly willow 902 ,000 US$4.506.50 for 10 stems $4,961.000 Pussy willow 331,000 $3.50$4.00 for 25 stems $1,241,250 Forsythia 152 ,60 0 $5.00$6.00 for 10 stems $839,300 Red birch 93,132 $4.00$6.00 for 25 stems $465,660 Dogwood 47.855 $4.00$5.00 for 10 stems $215,348 Misc flwg branches 33,662 $1.50$6 .00 for 5 stems $126,233

No. Bunches per year Average wholesale pricefbunch Average wholesale price (US$) Frequency of purchase

weekly

week ly in season Jan-April California, NWUSA catkins on, stems not dry

Primary source supply Quality criteria

of

NW USA & Mexico No leaves, green or brown p liable branches

weekly in season MarchApril California, Holland lighl stage bud

monthly

weekly in season Dec-Feb California, NWUSA bright twig co lour

weekly season Spring

in

Upper Midwest dried product. 1.2-1.5m (4-5') stems

California

slighlly forced

To develop realistic production information for woody flora Is in agroforestry systems, the University of Nebraska has installed a 40-acre flatland alley cropping research I demonstration trial at Mead, NE; three other trials test these materials in various agroforestry configurations (a lley cropping in pasture, riparian buffer and hillside alley cropping). These trials are composed of species of trees and s hrubs that produce a variety of commercially valuable forest products (woody decorative flora Is, small fruits and nuts, medicinals, and handicrafts). Th e woody species are arranged in rows 18m (60 ft) apart with corn, soya beans or wheat cultivated between the rows. Woody plants were planted as large nursery stock. The woody florals were harvested by cutting to within 15 cm (6~) of the ground. This resulted in the inevitable loss of a small number of short and unmarketable stems. Shrubs responded well to cutting. producing dense numbers of stems growing 1.2-2.4m (4-8') the following season. Yellowtwig dogwood was the slowest and shortest grower (60-90 em, 2-3 ft) and scarlet curls willow the most vigorous an tallest (over 2.1m , 7 ft). Deer damage was severe on some of the dogwood stems - minimised by cutting in November and December. The first harvest was after 2 growing seasons, the second one year later. First and second harvests of marketable ('mark') stems were are detailed in the table below. Notes: Plants spaced at 1.2-1.5m (4-5 ft) apart, depending on species, in a linear agroforestry planting (area = 1.65 acres I 0.66 hal. Marketable stems are those over 90 em (3 tt) in length, with little physical damage and good colour where applicable.

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Ei

......

~ ~

-~~ ~ ~

:=:
2" harvest gross income US$f1000' ($/ 100m) row $2,580 ($846) $4,985 ($ 1,63 5)

Species

1 harvest

2 harvest

stems
StreameD willow (Salix purpuraa) Scarlet curls willow
(Salix "Scarcusam"

stems
43 53

30 22

2" harvest stems/100m row 2,82 1 3,466

2" harvest stems/1000 ' row 8,600 10,566

hybrid)
Pussy willow (Salix

13 0 7

43 16 12

2,795 1,292 951

8,522 3,938 2,900

$1,300 ($426) $1,064 ($349) $870 ($285)

caprea)
Curly willow (Salix matsudana) Bailey red twig dogwood (Comus sericea "Bailey") Colorado dogwood (Comus sericea "C% radensis'1 Flame willow (Salix

10

11

876

2,670

$801 ($263)

0 12

11 8

880 960

2,685 2,928

$806 ($264) $578 ($190)

hybrid "Flame'1' Card inal dogwood


(Comus sericea "Cardina/'1 Yeliowtwig dogwood (Comus sericea

905

2,760

$792 ($260)

"Yal/owtwial Bloodtwig dogwood (Comus sanguinea


var atrosanguinea

193

588

$176 ($58)

"Bloodtwial
Financial returns from these integrated plantings can be conside rable. In additi on to the annual crops harvested between the woody rows, income is generated through the sale of the woody speciali ty crop. For instance, two years after planting at the Mead trial, 4,1 15 dogwood, curly willow and basket wiJlow stems (approx 1.2-1.5 m , 4-5 ft long) were harvested , with an average value of US$0.50 per stem (or an agg regate gross value of US$2 ,057 from 300 plants covering an area less than 0.2 acres / 0.08 ha). The most productive species scarlet curls willow produced gross income of US$15.60/m (US$5~00/ft) of planting along the row with plants 1.5m (5 ft) with in th e row.

Profile
Neil Dahlke of Bandon, Oregon wild crafts not only cones but herbs, bark, moss, mushrooms and other edibles. As soon as the cones are dry in summer, his crews collect sugar pine cones and ponderosa pine cones, collecting 9-15 truckloads on cones per yea r. He ha s a contract with a timber company to pay th em 10% of whatever the For examp le, in 1991 h e harvesters are paid. averaged 9,000-10,500 Ib per truckload of ponderosa pine cones. The value to the wildcrafter was about $0~25 per Ib, or $2,250$2,625 per load, and the landowner received 10% of that. Most wildcrafters can pick at least 300 Ib of cones per day , fo r a daily ea rning of $75; they ca n pick for about 5 months long. Dahlke has cone contracts with 2-4 crews, with 5-7 people per crew working during the summer. The crews ara usually coll ege students or retirees , mostly locals who need the work because of the redu ction in the timber industry.

Cones
A wide variety of cones are used in the

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=
floral industry, in gift and fragrance items, ornamenta lly and in a variety of small niche markets. Cones can be waxed or crushed and moulded into log shapes and used as fire starters. Cones from redwood, Douglas fir , hemlock, pines and spruce, amoung others, are all marketable . The markets readily substitute new types for cones which are in short supply. Many manufact u rers of cone products obtain their cones from seed cleaning plants after the seed has been removed ; however, some cones are too fragi le to remain intact after the seed cleaning process, wh ile others are so large that they can only be obtained from local harvesters.
Prices p~id for decorative cones vary from year to year, by region and by variety. A good export market to Europe exists fo r North American cones, with Germany be ing a particularly heavy consumer. Harvesters (wildcrafters) sell to brokers or wholesalers, who sometimes will require a large quantity per sh ipment, often 2,000 to 20,000 lb. Good wildcrafters can average an income of about $120 per day.

Wholesale cone prices in Northwest N.America in 1991 were as fo llows (harvesters were paid about 15% less): Alder Hemlock La rch Giant sequoia Incense cedar Western red cedar Douglas fir Digger pine Jeffrey pine Knobcone pine Lodgepole pine Longleaf pine Ponderosa pine Sugar pine White pine Black spruce Norway spruce Sitka spruce White spruce Alnus spp. Tsuga spp. Larix spp. Sequioadendron giganteum Calocedrus decurrens Thuja plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus sabiniana Pinus jeffreyi Pinus attenuata Pinus contorta laUrolia Pinus palustris Pinus ponderosa Pinus lambertiana Pinus strobus Picea mariana Picea abies Picea sitchensis Picea glauca
$1.80/Ib

$1.50Ilb
$1.80/Ib

$0.60Ilb
$1.80/Ib $1.50/I b $0.25-0.35/Ib $0.45 each

$0.18 each
$0.12 each $0.40/Ib $0.15-0.25/Ib $0.30-0.45/Ib $0.45-0.60/Ib $0.70/Ib $0.70/Ib $0.10 each $0.65/Ib $0.40-0.65 /Ib

Cones can be gathered from the ground directly under some trees (primari ly pine & spruce trees) - they must be gathered soon afte r falling or they will turn black. Small cones are often raked from branches , or ground cloths can be laid and the trees shaken or branches beaten . They are then cleaned, packed in polypropylene bags, sewed and weighed. There is clearly good potential for producing profitable woody flora Is from agroforestry systems both in North America and Europe. The simp le trials reported above could easi ly be adapted to multiple-row systems, forest garden and forest farm systems and contribute an important part of total farm income.

References
Josiah, S et al: Transforming agroforestry plantings to on-farm profit centers through speciality forest product production. Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Conference on Agroforestry in North America, 2001. Josiah, S: pers.comm. 2002. USDA Forest Service: Agriculture Information Bulletin 666 - Income Opportunities in Specia l Forest products. 1993.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 1

Ribes

,
)

the currant & gooseberry family


Introduction
There are several hundred species of Ribes, the family having a world ~wjde distribution , with most temperate and continenta l climate regions having species of use, notably for edib le fruits. Most Ribes species are easily grown, preferring a moisture retentive but well drained loamy soil of at least moderate quali ty. They are Quite tolerant of shade though not fruiting so well there. Many species can harbour a stage of 'white pine blister rust' , so they should not be grown in the vicinity of certai n pine trees, pa rticularly in North America. Plants in this genus are also notably susceptible to honey fungus. Worldwide range of Ribes

All the species below have edible fruits unless noted; there are many more which probably have too . The quality obviously varies from species to species , and edibil ity raw also depends partly on the ind ividua l palate. Those too acid to be enjoyed raw can still be cooked in pies , puddings etc and make great jams and jellies. The is a long tradition for many species of drying the fruits to preserve them as a food for the winter. Others were made into wine. The commonly grown blackcurrant (R.nigrum), redcurrant (R.rubrum) and gooseberry (R.uva crispa) have long been bred and named cultivars are complex hybrids involving many other species. Their uses have also been more widely researched , notably medicinal and dye uses.

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It is highly likely that many other Ribes species also ha ve medicinal uses and can be used for dyeing too.

All species are good bee plants , particularly for wild & bumble bees. Ribes aciculare - Needle-spined gooseberry Native to E. Asia - Siberia. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 3 (-35C). Fruits a~e large, red , green or yellow, sweet and tasty . Ribes alpestris - Hedge gooseberry Native to the Himalayas & China. Shrub to 3m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20 C). Fruits are oval, 16 mm long, purplish-red . Ribes alpinum - Alpine cu r ra nt, Mountain currant Native to Britain. Shrub to 1.2m. Hardy to zone 2 (-40 C). Fruits are sweet, 5 mm in diameter, scarlet, freely borne when male and female plants are grown (unusually, th is species is dioecious). The cultivar 'Green Mound' makes a good dwarf hedge. Plants can be grown as a tall ground cover when spaced about 2 metres apart each way. The cultivars 'Aureum' and 'Pumilum' are smaller growing and should be spaced about 1 metre apart. Ribes altissimum Native to E. Asia - Siberia. Shrub to 3m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are small with a thick skin and a pleasant acid taste . Ribes amarum - Bitter gooseberry. Native to N .America. Fruits eaten to quench the thirst. Ribes ambiguum Native to E. Asia - China, Japan. Shrub to O.6m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are to 12 mm in diameter, translucent green, acid flavour. Ribes americanum - American blackcurrarit Native to Eastern N. America. Shrub to 108m. Hardy to zone 2 (-40C). Fruits are black, to 10 mm in diameter, fair flavour. A tea made from the boiled roots has been used to treat kidney problems and also to expel worms. The poulticed root barb has been applied to swellings. Shoots are leaves used for dyeing. Ribes aureum - Golden currant Native to Western N . America. Naturalized in C. Europe. Shrub to 2.4m.

Hardy to zone 2 (40C). Fruits are purplish-black, 5 mm in diameter, good flavour. The flowers are also eaten raw - very sweet. The inner bark is used medicinally as a poultice for leg swellings. Used as a rootstock for currants & gooseberries. Ribes bracteosum - Stink currant. Californian blackcurrant Native to Southwestern N. America. Shrub to 2.5m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Fruit are black with a white bloom, about 5-8 mm in diameter, poor flavour . The fruits, roots and shoots have all been used medicinally. The pith less stems were used as tubes to inflate seal paunches used as storage containers.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 1

Ribes burejense Native to Northern N. America & N. As ia. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23 C ). Fruits are green , about 10 mm in diameter, acid but palatab le, a gooseberry which can hang on the bush until November when it develops a good blackcu rrant flavour. Ribes californicum - Hill s ide gooseberry Native to Southwestern N. America . Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Ribes cereum - Wax currant, Squaw currant Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 1.8m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits are scarlet, 6m in diameter, poorly flavoured . The young leaves are used in teas, and the flo wers also eaten raw (sweet). The fruit and inner bark ha ve been used medicinally. Straight stems were used as arrow shafts. Ribes cruentum - Shinyleaf currant Native to N.America. Ribes curvatum Native to Southeastern N. America. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15 C). Fruit are pu rp lish gooseberries about 7.5 mm in diameter. Ribes cynosbati - Dogberry, American wild gooseberry Native to Eastern N. America. Shrub to 1.5m . Hardy to zone 2 (-40C). Fruits are dark red , about 10-12 mm in diameter, cove red with sho rt weak bristres; good subacid flavour. The roots have been used medicinally for uterine problems. Ribes diacanthum Native to E. Asia - Siberia to Manchuria. Dioecious shrub to 1.8m. Hardy to zone 2 (-40 C). Fruits are green-scarlet, about 5 mm in diameter with a good sweetish-acid flavour. Ribes distans Native to E. As ia - China, Korea, Manchuria .

Dioecious sh ru b to 0.6m.

Hardy to zone 5 (-

23C).
Scarlet fruits have a poor fla vour.
Ribes divaricatum - Worcesterberry Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 2.7m. Hardy to zone 4 (-25 C). Fruits are reddish-black, about 10 mm in diameter wi th a sweet-acid flavour. Bush is very spi ny, making an animal-p ro of hedge plant. A parent of seve ral mildew-resistant gooseberri es. The inner bark and roots ha ve been used medi cinally. The roots were bo iled wit h cedar and wild rose roots, pounded , and woven into rope. The roots were also used to make fishing nets. The shoots were hollowed out and used as smoking pipes. The stiff sharp thorns were used as needles for lancing boils, removing splinters and tattooing. Ribes emodense (Syn . R.himalayense) Native to the Him alayas & China. Hard y to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are redd ish-black, large with large seeds. Ribes fasc;culatum Native to E. Asia - China, Japan , Korea. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits are reddish , about 5 mm in diameter, containing a lot of fa irl y large seeds . Flavour

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Ht

22

IT .

unpala ta ble. Young leaves are eaten cooked. Ribes fragrans Native to E. Asia - Mongolia, Siberia. Shrub to O.6m. Hardy to zone 3 (-35C). Fruits are brown gooseberries about 8 mm in diameter with a sweet and pleasant flavour. Ribes gayanum Native tot S. America - Chi le. Evergreen shrub to 1.5m . Hardy to zone 8 (-10C). Fruits are black , 7-8 mm across wi th a good flavour. Ribes glaciate Native to E. Asia - China to the Himalaya s. Fruits are scarlet, very acid. Ribes g/andu/osum - Skunk currant Native to N. America. Shrub to DAm. Hardy to zone 2 (-40C). Fruits are red , about 6-8 mm in diameter, with a blackcurrant flavour but the odour of a skunk! Can be used as a ground cover plant. The stems have been used to make a bitter tea. The roots have been used medicinally. Ribes griffith;; Native to E. Asia - Himalaya s from W. Nepal to S.E. Tibet. Fruits are acid in flavour. Ribes hirtellum - Currant-gooseberry Native to Northern N. America. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 4 (-25 C). Fruits are purplish-black, about 8 - 25mm in diameter, a smooth-skinned gooseberry with a pleasant taste. Parent of several gooseberry cuftiva rs. Ribes horridum Native to E. Asia - China, Japan. Shrub to 1.5m. Fruits are acid but succulent. Ribes x houghtonianum Hybrid of R.silvestre and R.spicatum. Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits red - similar to redcurrants. Ribes hudsonianum - Hudson Bay currant, Northern blackcurrant Native to Northern N. America. Shrub to 1m. Fruits are black, about 5 - 10 mm in diameter, acid. The stems, roots and bark have all been used medicinally. Ribes indecorum - Whiteflower currant. Native to California . Shrub to 2.5m. Hardy to zone 8 (_10C). Fruits not recorded as edible; roots used medicinally for toothaches. Ribes inebrians Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 4 (-25C). Fruits are pale red, about 5 mm in diameter. Ribes ;nerme - Whitestem gooseberry Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

Fru it is a purplish-red goosebe rry about 8 mm in diameter.

Ribes irriguum Native to Northwestern N. America. Shrub to 3m. Fruit is a black gooseberry 7 - 13 mm in diameter. Roots have been used medicinally. Ribes janczewskU Native to C . Asia. Fruits are large, aromatic blackcurrants. Ribes japan;cum Native to E. Asia- Japan. Hardy to zone 7 (-15 C). Fruits are black. Ribes Jacustre - Prickly blackcurrant, Swamp gooseberry Native to N. America. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 4 (-25 C). Fruits are black, acid and ve ry juicy with a strange odour; about 5mm in diameter. The leaves, bark and shoots have all been used medicinally. The roots were boiled with cedar and wild rose roots , pounded , and woven into rope. The roots were also used to make fishing nets. The stiff sharp thorns were used as needles for lancing boifs, removing splinters and tattooing. Ribes latifolium Native to E. Asia - Japan. Siberia. Ribes laurifolium Native to E. Asia - W. China . Evergreen shrub to 1m . Hardy to zone 9 (-SO C) . Fruits are reddish-black . a type of blackcurrant. Ribes laxiflorum - Trailing black currant Native to Western N. America. Shrub to O.3m. Hardy to zone S (-23C). The roots and shoots have been used medicinally. The stem s were used to make pipe stems . Ribes leptanthum - Trumpet gooseberry Nativ e to Southwestern N. America. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zo ne 6 (-20C). Fruits are black , about 6 - 8 mm in diameter. Ribes {obbii - Gummy gooseberry Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 1.8m. Hard y to zone 7 (-1S0C). Fruits purple. Roots have been used medicinally. The ro ots were boiled w ith cedar and wifd rose roots, pounded, and woven into rope . The roots were also used to make fishing nets. The stiff sharp thorns were used as need les for lan cing boifs, removing splinters and tattooing. Ribes longeracemosum Native to E. Asia - W. China. Shrub to 3.5m . Hardy to zone 6 (-20 C). Fruits are black , 10 mm in diameter with a good flavour. Ribes luridum Native to E. Asia - Himala yas in Tibet, Sikkim and Nepal. Shrub to 1m . Hardy to zone S

(-23C).

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=
Fruits are black , acid. Ribes magellan/cum Native to Southern S. America - Chile, Tierra del Fuego. Shrub to 4m. Fruits have a pleasant fla vou r. Ribes malvaceum - Chaparral currant Native to California. Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Roots used medicinally for toothaches. Ribes mandschuricum Native to E. Asia - Korea, Manchuria. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are red , about 10 mm in diameter. Ribes mescalerium - Mescalero currant Native to Southern N.America. Ribes maximowiczii Native to E. Asia - W. China. Shrub to 2.7m . Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are red , yellow or green redcurrants , good flavour, about 1 em in diameter. ssp . floribundum a good cropper.

Ribes menziesii - Canyon gooseberry Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 1.8m . Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Fruits are black gooseberries.
Ribes meyeri Native to C. and E. Asia. Shrub to 1m. Fruits black . with a pleasant flavour. Hardy to zone 7 (-15 C).

Ribes missouriense - Misso'u ri gooseberry Native to Central N. America. Shrub to 2m . Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits are smooth-skinned purplish-brown gooseberries 10-14 mm in diameter. with a good rich sub-acid vinous flavour. Ribes montigenum - Gooseberry-currant Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 0.75m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are dark red. about 10 mm in diameter. Ribes multiflorum Native to S. E. Europe - Ba lkans. Sh rub to 2m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are dark red, abo ut 7 mm in diameter. A parent of several redcurrant varieties. Ribes nevadense - Sierra currant Native to California. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Ribes x nidigrolaria - Jostaberry Hybrid of blackcurrant and gooseberry. Shrub to 1.8 m, thornless, resistant to white pine bli ster rust and gooseberry mildew. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits reddish-black , 12-15 mm in diameter, good flavour. Ribes nigrum - Blackcurrant Native to Europe. Shrub to 1.8m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits black. 8-14 mm in diameter with an excellent aromatic flavour.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 1

The leaves are sometimes used cooked in soups and as a herb tea. Numerous medicinal uses have been recorded for the fruit juice and leaves (diuretic, diaphoretic _ used for stomach and digestive problems and for rheumatic pain), the young roots (febrifuge), the bark, and the seeds (a source of gamma-linolenic acid , an unsaturated fatty acid which assists the production of hormone-like substan ces). The oil from the seed is added to skin preparations and cosmetics. It is often combined with vitamin E to prevent oxidation . A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves and a blue or viole t dye from the fruit. Ribes n;veum - Slender branched gooseberry Native to Western N. America. Shrub to 2.7m. Hard y to zone 6 (20C). Fruits are blueblack, about 8 mm in diameter. Ribes odoratum - Buffalo currant, Clove currant Native to Central N. America. Shrub to 2.5m. Hard y to zone 5 (23C). Fruits are black, 1015 mm in diameter, good sweet aromatic flavour. The flowers are also eaten raw (sweet). The leaves can be used to make a tea or as a flavouring in foods. The plant has been used as a poultice for snake bites . The straight stems have been used to make arrows. Used as a rootstock and in windbreaks. The cultivar 'Crandall' has large fruits , 15 mm across. Ribes oxyacanthoides - American mountain gooseberry Native to N. America. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 2 (40C). Fruits are purplish-red gooseberries about 1012 mm in diameter with a sweet and pleasant flavour. The leaves are sometimes eaten raw. The roots, bark and stems have been used medicinally. Ribes palczewskii Native to C. and E. Asia. Shrub to 105m. Ribes pauciflorum Native to C. and E. Asia Siberia to Manchuria. Shrub to 1.5m. Fruits are large and tasty blackcurrants. Ribes petio/are Native to N. Europe, N. Asia to Western N. America. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 3 (35C). Fruits are blueblack blackcurrants about 10 mm in diameter, abundant. not aromatic . Ribes petraeum - Rock red currant Native to W. and C. Europe. Shrub to 1.8m . Hardy to zone 6 (20C). Fruits are acid red or reddish-black redcurrants; one of the parents of cultivated redcurrants. Ribes pinetorum Native to Southwestern N. America Arizona, New Mexico. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are purplishblack . up to 15 mm in diameter with a good gooseberry taste; densely covered with spines. Leaves were used as a ceremonial emetic. The stems were used to make arrow shafts. and the thorns arrow points. Ribes procumbens Native to E. As ia N. Korea , Manchuria. Shrub to O.22m. Hardy to zone 3 (35C).

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Fruits are brownish with a very good flavour. Ribes puncta tum Native to S. America Chile. Ribes quercetorum - Rock gooseberry. Native to California. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 8 (_10C). Fruits bl.fick, 6 mm in diameter. Ribes x robustum Hybrid of R.niveum and R.inerme. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits black, acid. Ribes roezlii - Sierra gooseberry Native to Southwestern N. America - California. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Fruits are reddish-purple, up to 15mm in diameter. Ribes rotundifolium - Eastern wild gooseberry Native to Eastern N. America . Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20 C). Fruits are smooth-skinned purple gooseberries 6-8mm in diameter with a very good flavour. Leaves and bark have been used medicinally. Ribes rubrum (Syn R.silvestre) - Red currant Native to Europe. Shrub to 1.2m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23C). Fruits are acid, 8- 10 mm in diameter. Medicinally, the fruit is antiscorbutic, aperient, depurative, digestive, diuretic, laxative, refrigerant and sialagogue ; the leaves contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide and are used externally to relieve rheumatic symptoms and sprains. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves; a black dye from the fruit. The fruit is used cosmetically 'in face-masks for firming up tired and lifeless skin. Ribes sachalinense Native to E. Asia - N. Japan. Shrub to 1m. Fruits have an acid pleasant taste. Ribes sanguineum - Flowering currant Native to Western N. America . Occasiona ll y naturalized in Britain. Shrub to 2.5m . Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits are about 10 mm in diameter, fair flavour. Tolerates maritime exposure and can be grown as an informal hedge, though it is rather bare in winter. Ribes setosum - Missouri gooseberry Native to Northwestern N. America. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 2 (-40 C). Fruits are red or black, up to 10 mm in diameter with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ribes sinanense Native to E. Asia - Japan. Ribes speciosum - Fuchsia-flowered gooseberry Native to California. Evergreen shrub to 4 m. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Fruits red, bristly.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

Ribes spicatum - Nordic currant Native to Europe. Shrub to 2m . Hardy to zone 3 (-35 C). Fruits translucent red. Ribes stenocarpum Native to E. As ia - N.W. China . Shrub to 2m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20 C). Frui ts are green or red gooseberries about 25 mm long with a pleasant but quite strongly acid flavour and a hairy skin. Ribes triste - American red currant, Swamp red currant Native to N. Europe to Northern N. America. Shrub to O.Sm. Hardy to zone 2 (-40 C). Fruits are red , acid , 6 mm in diameter. similar to cultivated red currants. Stems, leaves and roots have all been used medicina ll y. Ribes ussuriense Native to E. Asia - Korea , Manchuria. Shrub to 1m. Hatrdy to zone 5 (-23C ). Fruits are blue-black bla ckcurrants about 8 mm in diameter. Ribes uva-crispa - Gooseberry Native to Europe. Shrub to 1.2m. Hardy to zone 5 (-23 C). Fruits are yell ow, green or red, 1-3 cm in diameter, sweet when fully ripe. The leaves contai n tannin and have been used as an astringent to treat dysentery and wounds. The fruit pulp is used cosme ti cally in face-masks for its cleansing effect on greasy skins . Ribes valdivianum Native to S. America - Chile, Argentina. Shrub to 3.5m. Ribes velutinum - Desert gooseberry. Native to southern N.America. Ribes viburnifolium Native to Southwestern N. America - S. California. Evergreen shrub to 2m . Hardy to zone 9 (-

5C).
Fruits are red, about 8 mm in diameter. Ribes viscosissimum - Sticky currant Native to Western N. America - British Columbia to California. Shrub to 1m. Hardy to zone 7 (-

15C).
Fruits are black, about 10 mm in diameter. Ribes warszewiczii Native to E. Asia - E. Siberia. Shrub to 1.5m. Hardy to zone 3 (-35C). Fruits are reddish-black redcurrants with a good acid flavour, up to 10 mm in diameter. Ribes wolfii - Wolf's currant Native to SW USA. Shrub to 2-3m. Hardy to zone 6 (-20C). Fruits black , bloomy.

References
Bauer, A et al: Progress in breeding Jostaberries . Acta Hart 538 , 473-474, ISHS 2000. Crawford, M: Useful Plants for Temperate Climates , Vol 2: Shrubs. Agroforestry Research Trust. Moerman, 0: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Plants for a Future: Plant database, 2002.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

Page 29

World Hazelnut production


World production
The main world hazelnut producing countries are Turkey with around 500,000 tonnes (in-sheU), Italy 105~ OOO t, USA 25,000 t and Spain 15,000 t. Since 1995, annual world production has stabiliseCl between 600-700,QOO tin-shell. Although hazelnuts are also produced in Greece (6,000 t), France (4 ,000 tl , Portugal (2,000 t) , the former Soviet Union, Iran, Croatia and Romania , these countries have tittle input into the world hazelnut trade. Turkey con trols 80% of the commercial trade in hazelnuts, with world production fluctuating from year to year in parallel with Turkish output. Germany is the most important hazelnut importing country in the world and uses about 36% of the total world trade. About 75% of the total goes to European countries. The annual hazelnut market is also affected by the world almond crop levels , because these two nuts are sUbstituted for one another in various industrial uses. Hazelnut consumption has increased in the last decades. In-shell consumption accounts for on ly about 10% of production , with the remainder shelled. The highest hazelnut cons umption per capita per year is in Switzerland (2 Kg kernels per person) followed by Germany (ove r 1 kg ), Austria, Belg ium and Luxembourg. World production of hazelnuts has doubled in the last two decades and several countries , including Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Poland , are starting commercial plantings in the expectation that annual cons umption will continue to increase at 1-2% per year

Turkey
Hazelnut is grown in both the eastern and western regions of Turkey along the Black Sea , in areas wh ere the soil in unsuitable for other crops and on steep slopes (over 20%). An additional benefit for hazelnut growing areas with high rainfall is the crop's ability to prevent soil erosion. Approximately 2-3 million growers t5% of the nation 's population) depend on hazelnut growing for their income and it is therefore easy to understand the strategic value of hazelnut production in the social and economic structure of this region . Hazelnuts are grown in two regions located on the coast of the Black Sea . The main and traditional growing area (350,000 ha) is the NE of the country in mountaino us regions (Trabzon, Giresun, Ordu , Sam sun). The new orchards are located in flatter reg ions (Akcakoca, Bolu, Zonguldak) with some 100,000 ha located on fertile land and obtaining higher yields . The main cu ltivars are 'Tombul ' (G iresun) with 34% of the tota l area , fol lowed by 'Pa laz' (Ordu), 'Foca ' (Trabzon) , 'Karafindik ' and ' Mincane' (Akcakoca). The traditiona l orchards are very small (0.4- 1 ha / 1-2.5 acres), placed in areas with good environmental conditions for the hazelnuts - acid pH , high and well-distributed rainfall (1250 mm), moderate summer temperatures etc., although most are in areas of steep slopes that make mechanisation difficult. Cultivation here is unirrigated , with trees trained in bushes , high plantation densities (600-700 trees/hal, low mechanisation and low yields of 600-1000 kg/ha . Labour requirements in traditional orchards are quite high, around 400 -0700 hours/year, most of which is needed during harvest.

Ita ly
There are 70 ,000 ha of hazelnut orchards in Italy, concentrated in four regions : Campania

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

-~

- ~

'"'"

(Ave llino, Naples, Salerno) produces 60% of the total; Lazio (Viterbo, 28 %), Sicily (Mes sina , Catania. 12%) and Piemonte (Alba , Cuneo. 10%). There are a lot of Italian varieties, the most important being 'Tonda Gentile delle Langhe' (TGDL) in the Piemonte ; 'Tonde Romana ' in the Lazio; 'Tonde Giffoni ', 'San Giovanni' and 'Mortarelfa ' in the Campania ; and ' Santa Maraa del Gesu ' in Sicily. The TGOL is renown worldwide for the quality of the nuts which are ve ry good for processing - round , kernels 12-14 mrn, kernel percentage 46-48%, regular shaped kernels, good pellicle removal, excellent flavour roasted . The main commercial areas ha ve good soils and rainfall (800- 1500 mm ), with hazelnut farms usually 5-10 ha in size placed on slopes and sometimes flat areas (Viterbo province, where irrigation is used). Traditional orchards are tra ined in a bush form and newer ones in a short stem vase form. The yields are very variable, reaching a maximum of 20003000 kg/ha in Campa nia and Lazio.

USA
Hazelnuts are grown mainly in the sta te of Oregon in the Willamette Valley, with about 12,000 ha grown. The main cultivars are ' Barcelona ' (80%) , 'Enni s' (1 1%), 'Casina ' (3%) and 'Willamette' (2%), although recent plantings have mainly used two new varieties, 'Clark' and 'Lewis '. The hazelnut orchards are placed where the soil is fertile and deep, in level areas where rainfall is 1,0 00 mm . Most farms are quite large (1530 hal and a high degree of mechanisation and low labour requirement. Trees are planted at densities of 260400 per ha, and trained with a single stem_ Pruning is triennial , suckers are controlled with chemica ls, and harvesting is mechan ised. Th e yield in unirrigated conditions ranges from 1,7002,500 kg/hat

Spain
The main produ cing region is Catalonia , with Tarragona province having 27 ,000 ha of orchards (90% of the total Spanish area). Tarragona 's orchards can be classified into two groups. Firstly, the orchards of the inland mountain areas ('Priorat'), located on hilly slopes, w ith a low mechanisation level, dry farming (around 400 mm of annual rainfall) and low production (500BOO kg/hal. Secondly, the flat area orchards near to the Mediterranean coast ('Camp de Tarragona') which are highly mechanised, with modern cultivation techniques and good production (2,0002,500 kg/hal . The main commercial hazelnut production comes from the latter area , which is grown mainly under drip irrigation . The hazelnut orchards are mostly familyowned and sma ll (24 hal, with most growers being parttime agricultura li sts. The most important cultiva rs are native - 'Negret' (70%), 'Gironell ', 'Pauetet', 'Culpla ', ' Morell ', 'Grifoll', Trenet' and 'R ibet'. Hazelnut is marketed in Spain throughout the year in competition wi th almonds , peanuts and other snack foods.

France
About 2,500 ha of hazelnut orchards have been planted since 1965, most of which are located in the SW of the country (Bordeau x, Agen etc.) The traditional varieties that are cultivated are 'Fertile of Coutard ' (: 'Barcelona ' ) and 'Segorbe '. Newer va rieties now used include 'Corabel' , 'E nnis ' and 'Pauetet'. The hazelnut orchards are quite large (710 hal in flat areas with good soils and rainfall of 700 800 mm. Tree densities are high (650800 tre es/hal and the operations highly mechanised , with drip irrigation often used.

Reference
Taus Marti, J: World Hazelnut Production. Health in a Shell, 46.

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Asclepias: the Milkweeds


Introduction
T he milkweeds (o r sil kweeds) are a large family of tuberous ann uals , perennials and shrubs, the hardie~ ones mainly from North Ame rica. Th ey get thei r name from the mi lky sap found in all parts of the plant. Several species are grown ornamentally for their colo urful flowers and pods whi ch spli t ope n to show the silk -t ufted seeds. Several of the North American species have long been used medicinally by native peoples and in more recent centuries have found their way into Eu ropean herbals. The mi lkweeds are generally conside red as being persistent, perennial, hardy weeds containing cardiac glycosides that are toxic whe n ingested by livestock. This fact makes the edible uses somewhat suspect. The greatest potential on a commercial scale is in fa ct the seed floss , which ha s similar properties to goose down. The lea ves of milkweeds are oblong, tape red at both ends, smooth -edges, borne in opposite pairs on robust stems. Flowers are borne in round cluste rs with individual blossoms very small and pleasantly fragrant; usually borne in June, July and August. These eventually develop into rough long green pods 5-12 cm (2-5") long, and these eventua ll y spl it (September I October) to feveal an intricately packed fi lling of flat seeds, each with its own soft tuft of long silky hairs.

Cultivation
The milkweed s like a fertile, well drained, neutral to acid soil and full sun. Propagation is either by seed in spring (easy; not usually dormant, though seed stored dry for a long peri od may germinate' better after 2-3 weeks of cold stratification), by root cutti ng s in autum n or spring, or by basal cuttings in sp ring. Seedlings should be potted up when you ng and transplanted out before being pot-bound , as they resent root disturbance. The main problem in Bri tain is slugs, which can destroy young plants. Th e desert species require an extremely well drained soil and dislike British wet conditions. Some othe r fail to flower ve ry well here - the best are A.incarnata and Aspeciosa wh ich prefer m oister soil conditions; and Asyriaca.

Uses
Several species ha ve numerous uses. The follo wing are all uses of Aincarnata, A.speciosa, Asyriaca and Atuberosa, with other species mentioned where approp riate:Edible uses Warning: although the edible uses are well documented and many known for a very long time, the fact that most species contain cardiac glycosides make their use as edible plants unwise except in very small quantities. All parts require cooking to remove the bitterness of the milky sap, sometimes needing a change of cooking water. The young shoots are edible, lightly cooked like asparagus - gather in April-May. The young flower buds have a good pea-like flavour, as do the young seed pods (before the seed fl oss is produced) - both are cooked. The green pods ca n be picked and the inner la yer peeled off then cooked and eaten (less fibrous than the whole pod). The flowers are used as a fla vou rin g and a thickener in soups, and were harvested in the early

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morning when the dew was still on them and boiled down to make a sugary syrup. In hot weather the flowers (especially A.tuberosa) produce large quantities of nectar which sometimes forms sugary lumps and can be sucked or picked off the flowers. The seeds are edible raw or cooked - usual:y ground into a flour. Sometimes used immature. The dried latex was used as a chewing gum. Also for Aasperula capricornu, Acalifornica, Acordifolia, Aeriocarpa, Aerosa, Arubra, Asubverticiflala. Also reported as edible are Acalifornica ~eaves were roasted and chewed), Afascicularis (yo ung leaves & shoots were eaten as a cooked vegetable. The young flowers were also occasiona ll y eaten in small quantities), Aga/ioides (flowe r buds, young seed pods and roots have all been cooked and eaten), Ainvolucrala (young shoots have been cooked and eaten), Arubra (flower buds , young shoots & leaves. young seed pods, flowers have all been cooked and eaten), Asubverticillata (flower bud s, roots, immature seed pods are all eaten), Atuberosa (roo ts are edible cooked, with a nutty flavour) , Averticillata ~eaves and young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable), A viridiflora (roots can be cooked and eaten).

Asclepias syriaca - common milkweed, with pod Use of the floss Mature seed pods contain large quantiti es of floss (seed pappus) - a white silky, hollow, cellulose, insulative fibre with numerous uses. It is very water-repellent , with properties similar to kapok (a seed floss obtained from a tropical tree pod) and replaced the latter in North

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~atL==d
America during World War It when kapok imports were hatted; some 11 million kg of pods were used to fill 1.2 mittion life jackets. It has also been used to mop up oit spills at sea. The floss can be spun with other fibres (difficult on its own) to make cloth. It has also been used for making candle wicks and as a kapok substitute for stuffing toys etc. It was formerly used by native Americans as a stuffing for babies nappies. The flat'S competes readily in performance with goose down (which costs about 40/kg or $66/kg) - it has similar therma l impedan ce. The pods contain about 24% of floss and approximately 227 pods are required to produce a kilogram of floss. Aspeciosa yields an average of 207 kg floss /ha and A.syriaca an average of 187 kg floss/ha , with hybrids of the two yielding an average of 350 kg floss/ha. Plants yielded an average of between 1.5 and 2.3 pods per stem. Considering the potential for floss use , this could be a ve ry valuable crop. On a field scale, seed is drilled in rows 76 em (2'6 apart with an aim of plants every 10 cm (4ft ) in the row - this requires a seeding rate of 5.6 kgfha. First year growth is entirely vegetative, with flowering starting in year two. Summer harvest of pods begins when approximately 10% of the pods have burst open.
ft )

At present, milkweed floss is being utilised commercially to blend with white goose down or synthesized polypropylene in insulative batting for such products as sleeping bags and arctic clothing . Medicinal uses Several species including these four are used medicinally. Milkweeds contain the glycoside 'asclepiadine' which is highly toxic and can cause muscle paralysis and even death through heart failure; do not use without the supervision of a medical herbalist. The main medicinal species is Aluberosa (pleurisy root.) The roots are used medicina ll y - they are bitter and nutty . flavoured, and are antispasmodic, expectorant, oestrogenic and diaphoretic. Primarily used in treating pleurisy and bronchial problems. They are lifted in autumn or spring and used fresh in a sy rup or dried for compresses, powders, decoctions, ointments and tinctures. Also reported as being used medicinally are Aasperula capricornu (as a snuff for catarrh and a lotion for anima l bites), A.auriculata (as a nasal decongestant), Acalifornica (used medicinally applied to spider bites), A.cordifolia (roots .used), Acryptoceras (roots we re used for sores on people and horses, and the latex for ringworm ), Aeriocarpa (roots and fatex used), Aexaltata (roots were used for stomach problems), Afascicularis (leaves used to treat snake bites), Agalioides (used as a galactagogue - increases milk flow), Agfaucescens (latex is used for earaches, skin diseases, to treat warts and toothaches), Ahaflii (plant used as a tonic), Aincarnala (roots and other plant parts used), Ainvofucrala (roots and plant used for stomach illness and toothaches), A/atifolia (dried ground leaves and stems used as a snuff for catarrh) , Alinaria (root used to treat toothaches, latex used to treat skin diseases), Anyctaginifolia (infusion of the plant was used as an antidiarrheal for chi ldren), Aperennis (roots we re used for va rious ailments, and the latex for warts), Apumila rnfusion of the plant was used as an antidiarrheal for children), A.quadrifofia (roots were used for various ailments , and the latex for warts), A.speciosa (all plant parts used), Astenophylla (roots used to improve the appetite), Asubulata, Asubverticillata (plant is used to increase milk flow), Asyriaca (roots used as for Atuberosa, latex and above-ground plant used for a variety of ai lments), Averticilla/a (roots, lea ves and shoots used), A viridiflora (roots used primarily for diarrhoea and rashes). Fibre use A tough fibre can be made from the stems. Thi s was usually used to make small cordage twine, thread for sewing etc - and occas ionally to make a cloth . Traditionall y, the dead stems were harvested in autumn and winter, with dry summers producing the strongest fibres. Twine was made both from dry fibres and the fibres separated from the stems by soaking or allowing them to partly decay (the fibres, 10-45 mm long , can be pulled straight off the dead standing

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 1

----=-~-~-

stems in late autumn). The single ply twine could be weaved into two-ply or more for greater stre ngth. and was then used to make large-meshed nets for carrying heavy or bulky items, and smaller-meshed sacks for carrying acorns and other seeds . It was also made into bow strings, game nets, fishing nets and slings. The stems were also used to make paper - the stems can be retted by leaving them in the ground until they are dry in the winter; the stems are then cooked for two hours with lye and pounded; the paper colour varies from white to creamy green depending on how the paper is made. Also reported as used for fibre A quadrifolia, Asubverticillata. are
Aeriocarpa, Afascicufaris, Aperennis, Apumila,

Latex use All milkweeds contain a latex (most in the lea ves), produced mainly in hot weather on dry soils (and destroyed by frost.) The quantity is generally low - 2 to 3% (though reportedly up to 8% in Asullivantii), too low for commercia l exploitation - but in theory the latex can be extracted and made into a good quality rubber. The dried la tex was frequently used by native North Americans as a chewing gum (bu l is likely to be quite tox ic raw). Medicinally, the raw latex has been used to treat warts and to brand animals - warning: it is caustic. The latex can also be used as a glue. There is potential for making liquid fuel , oil and polymeric hydrocarbons from the latex. Other uses The seeds contain up to 20% of an edible semi-drying oil. The seed is quite light so that large quantities would be needed for any decent yield. The oi l can be used for making soap etc. The dried pods can be used as spoons or scoops. Bees are fond of the flowers which are rich in nectar. The flower of many milkweeds can trap insects between its anther cells, the struggles of the insect in escaping ensure the pollination of the plant. Several butterflies are also attracted to milkweeds , notably the Monarch in North America. A green dye is obtained from the leaves and flowers used together. The milkweeds also have some value in erosion control, notably the suckering species such as Ahallii and Asyriaca.

Main species
A.incarnata - Swamp milkweed A densely branching, thick-stemmed perennial growing to 1.5 m (5 tt) tall with dense branches. Leaves are 5-15 cm (2-6 ~ ) long , narrowly ovate. Flower heads are produced towards the end of the stems, white to pinkish with a vanilla fragrance , from midsummer to early autumn. The pods are to 6.7 cm (2-v.z") long, upright. Tolerates wetter soi l conditions than most milkweeds. Hardy to zone 3 (-30 C). Native to eastern USA. A.speciosa - Showy milkweed Softly hairy perennial to 75 cm (2~ ft) high, with leaves to 20 cm (8 long, greyish-white and downy. Starry, purple-pinkish flowers in summer followed by hairy pods which are sometimes spiny, to 10 cm (4 ~ ) long. Hardy to zone 2 (-3S" C). Native to the drier western regions of North America.
ft )

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A.syriaca - Common milkweed Softly hairy perennial to 1-2 m (3-6 ft) high , spreading via suckers , with large leaves 25 cm (10") long by 7.5 cm (3 " ) wide , mid green above and blue-green beneath . Flowers towards branch ends in summer, pinkish-mauve , sometimes white , to 2.3 cm (1") across. Pods to 12 em (5 ") long , sometimes softly spiny. Hardy to zone 3 (-30 D C). Native to Eastern North America , naturali sed in Europe. A.tuberosa - Pleurisy root, Butterfly weed An upright perennial growing 60-90 cm (2-3 tt) high or more by half as wide with large tuberous roots, hairy stems and narrow oval leaves 10-15 em (4-6 ") [ong. Cluste rs of orange-red flowers from midsummer to early autumn are followed by slender seed pods up to 15 cm (6") long on nod ding stalks . Needs a very well drained soi l. Hardy to zone 3 (-30 D C). Native to eastern & southe rn USA.

'"'

References
Bown, D : The RHS New Encyclopedia of Herb s & Their Uses . Darling Kindersley, 2002. Chevallier , A: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Darling Ki nd ersley, 1996. Garcia-Alvarado, J: Traditi onal Uses and Scie ntific Knowledge of Medicinal Plants from Mexico and Central America. Journal of Herb s, Spices and Medicinal Pl ants. Vol 8 (2/3) 2001. Henn essy, K: The Milkweeds. Permaculture News, 23 (Summer 1991). Moerman , D: Native American Ethn obotany. Timber Press, 1998. Vermeu len , N: Encyclopaedia f H erb s. Rebo, 1999. W itt, M & Knudsen , H: Milkweed Cultivation for Floss Production. In: New Crops, J Janick & J Simon (Eds) , John W il ey , 1993.

Pest & Disease series:

Shothole of stone fruit


Introduction
Shothole is a major disease of peach , nectarine, apricot, cherry and almond in some parts of the wo rld, but is only occasionally found on plums. Other names the dise ase is known by are ~ peach blight", "Coryneum blight" and "co rynosis ". It is prevalent in the Pacific coast states of North America and occurs in most parts of the world . The disease is caused by a fungus , Wilsonomyces carpophilus (= Stigmina carpophifa & Coryneum beyerinckii).

Symptoms
Leaf and fruit lesions begin as small purplish areas that expa nd to round brown ish spots 3-1 0 mm in diameter. On leaves, the lesions are often surrounded by a narrow light green-yellow zone . Many of th e spots fall off to produce the holes which give shothole its name . Fruit lesions eventually become rough and corky ; even if they rea ch an adult stage the fruits are seve rely damaged, though still edible. Note that holes on leaves can sometimes be caused by bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae), Prunus scab (Fusicladium carpophilum) and occasion all y powdery mildews.

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Lesions on twigs first appear as purplish round spots 2-3 mm in diameter. As the lesions enlarge, they turn brown and often have a light tan ce ntre which does not fall out. Small tufts of spores are visible in the necrotic areas with a hand lens. Cankers can girdle and kill developing buds and twigs. Lignification (hardening off of new shoots) is hindered , making shoot dieback in winter more likely. The sca les of affected buds are dark brown to black , an dare sometimes covered with a gummy exudate that gives them a varnished appea ra nce.

Beca use rain splashing moves spores, the disease is typica lly worse in the lower portion of a tree as a result of th e downward movement of water. The symptoms vary on different fruits
On peach and nectarin e, twig and bud blighting are most comm on, with fruit infection following in wet springs. Defoliation is rare . On apri cot, bud blighting and fruit and leaf spotting are the main symptoms - twig lesions are rare. Defoliation following serious leaf infections is common. On almond , the main symptoms are lea f spotting and blossom and fruit infection , with so m e minor twig infection. Defo liation following serious leaf infections is common. On cherry, leaf spotting and defoliation is the main sympto m, with occasional in fe ction of flowering shoots and fruits. In fected fruits tend to have a sing le large brown spot.

Conditions for infection & spread


The fungus survives from one season to the next in lesions on twigs and in blighted buds. Spores are produced on twigs and in blighted buds (the latte r especi ally on apricot , nectarine and peach), also on infected leaves and fl owers of peach. Th ey are released by the physical action of raindrops hitting lesions , hence wet weather is an important factor - the disease is worst where there is heavy and prolonged rai nfall at any time between autumn and spring. The spores germinate directly on leaves, twigs , fruits and flowers, mainly between aut umn and sp ring . Germination occu rs over a wide temperature range, even as low as 24C. Twig infection requires a period of at least 24 hours of co ntinu ous wet weather, though leaf infection does not req uire so long a pe~i od. The fungus can persist for several years in the cankers and buds of infected twigs. Soil co nditions generally appear to have little or no influence on infections, although soils of very low fert ility might affect the tree 's ability to recove r from a severe attack. Soi ls prone to waterlogging do seems to encourage attacks.

Hosts
Almonds, apri cot, peach and nectarine are most susceptible, also cherries in areas of heavy rainfa ll. Plums are only occasionally affected. Also susceptible are cherry la urel (Prunus laurocerasus), orname ntal flowering almonds and cherries and some species of native American cherri es.

Susceptible & resistant varieties


Most cultivars of peach are susceptible, with clingstone types apparently more susceptible than freestone types . Particu larly susceptible are:

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if
Peach: Elberta, Gaume, Loader , Palora , Phillips Cling. Apricot Blenheim . Tilton. Almonds: Drake, Le Grand , Merced, Mission, Nonpareil , Ne Plus Ultra , Peerless. Resistant apricots include: Ananas, Boccuccia , Earli Orange , Erevani, Goldrich , Hungarian Best, Ivanne Liverani , Moniqui, Moongold . Reliable , Tyrinthos. Tolerart peaches include: Lovell, Muir.

Control
Cankered twigs should be removed before and after winter (between May and early September to avoid pruning in winter itself ). Bordeaux mixture and other fixed copper materials provide excellent control of shothere on dormant twigs of peach. nectarine and apricot. If sprays are used to co ntrol peach leaf curl (Taphrina deformans) then these should also control shothole. A single application on peach & nectarine in autumn after leaf fall suffices, but on apricot and application between full bloom and peta l fall may be necessary to prevent severe fruit and leaf infection . Dormant sprays on almond reduce leaf infections in spring but do not provide effective control. Copper sprays applied to apricot and almond after leaf emergence in the spring sometimes cause leaf spots, chlorosis of leaf blades, and leaf defoliation symptoms Similar to those of shothole disease, so should be avoided. Many growers use more potent & dangerous fungicides after leaf emergence. (Note: Bordeaux mixture is copper su lphate + lime]

Reducing susceptibility
Sprink ler irrigation where water lands on the foliage increases susceptibility, so should be avoided. Feed weakgrowing trees so that in the event of an infection , they have the resources to recover. Improve soil condition s to reduce the cha,)ces of waterlogging by mulching with organi c matter. Spraying the lea ves with a foliar feed , such as a liquid seaweed solution, is also worth while.

References
Buczacki, S & Harris , K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. HarperColiins, 1998. Crawford , M: Almonds . Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 4, July 1998. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T ., 1997. Culpan , G: Pests, Disease and Common Problems. Hamlyn, 1995. Greenwood, P & Halstead , A: The RHS Pests and Diseases. Darling Kindersley , 1997. Moore , J N & Ballington Jr, J R : Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS,

1990.
Ogawa , J & English , H: Dis ea ses of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. University of California, 1991. Phillips, 0 & Burdekin D: Disease of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan, 1992. Online references : INRA, Utah State University, University of California , Washington State University, Oregon State University.

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Book reviews
Mints: A Family of Herbs and Ornamentals
Barbara Perry Lawton
Timber Press , 2002; 272 pp.; 19 .99 (hardback). ISBN 0 -88192-524-1 This is the first book to survey the entire Lamiaceae (or Labiatae) family which includes many plants long valued for thei r herbal and ornamenta l uses including Agastache (anise hyssop), Ajuga (bugle), Calamintha (calam int ). Glechoma (grou nd ivy), Hyssopus (hyssop), Lavandula (la vender), Melissa (lem on balm), Mentha (mint), Monarda (bee balm), Nepeta (catm int), Ocimum (basil), Origanum (Oregano) . Rosmarinus (rosemary) . Salvia (sage), Satureja (savory) , Stachys (betony). Teucrium (germander) and Thymus (thyme). An in itial chapter, 'Mints in History and Lore' touches on the mention of the family in sacred texts and Shakespeare, th e history of herb gardens and the first herbals. Four further chapters discuss the use of members of the family in herbal medicine (the book does not pretend to be a medicinal herbal, but general descriptions of the uses are given) and for other household uses (as insect repellents , culinary uses, and in garden design); for ornamental uses (although many described as ornamental also have medicinal uses), and those often described as weedy . Species and varieties are described, along with their cultivation requi rements , in all these chapters. Most members of the family are rugged , adaptable and highly resistant to pests and diseases. Hence the cha pter on pests and diseases is small. The major part of the book comes next as the 'Catalog of Mints '. This chapter is a directory of fami ly members, ordered by Latin species name, and containing cultivation details for each genus followed by descriptions of species and varieties commonly available. The book is written in a relaxed and accessible style and includes a section of 61 colour photographs as wet[ as numerous line drawings.

The Royal Horticultural Society New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses
DeniBown
Darling Kindersley, 2002 (Revised edition); 448 pp; 30.00 (hardback). ISBN 0-7513-3386-7 This new edition of Deni Bown's opus on herbs is a great improvement on the original (which was already a fine book), mainly by having the herb description and cultivation details, along with the medicinal uses, all together in a single A-Z format rather than separate ly as in the original. The author ha s also included many n ew herbs and has updated and expanded the

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t
information on those already included. More cult ivars and varieties are also described . Over 1000 herbs are included. Introductory sections discuss herbs through the ages - in myth and legend, in print in the first herbals, and important herbs in history. A definition of a herb is given and the active plant constituents described along with their physiological actions. The importance of conserving herbs in the wild is emphasised - an aspect which is even more important in recent years as the popularity of herbal medicine increases (and of course , 80% of the world 's population continues to rel )( on traditional plant-based medicine. )

The main traditional herbs of regions of the world are then appraised . along with traditional medicines such as Chinese herbal medicine. A section on the use of herbs emphasises safety concerns and describes the different ways herbs can be prepared for medicinal use. A section on the cultivation of herbs and garden design using herbs includes hints on container growing , wildflower gardening , propagation , harvest of plant parts for herbal use and their preservation . Both formal and informal garden designs are covered , with illustrated examples of both. The main section of the book is an A-Z directory of herbs . Each genus is described with cultivation details , history of usage, propagation notes and harvesting requirements . Each species and variety within the genus is then described , with sizes (height, width) , origin , hardiness, parts used , properties and medicinal uses, additional economic uses, and any warnings about toxicity or lega l restriction of use . Many descriptions are accompanied by good quality photographs of the plants and/or parts used. This book is now probably the best "one stop ~ reference book on herbs which contains all the information on the cultivation and uses of herbs needed for the everyday gardener and herb user.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No I

Agrofmf'stry is the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials , timber and other products . It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorpor3ting layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnacted and productive system.

Agroforestry News is publ ished by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 20 per year in Britain and the E.U. ([16 unwaged) 24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) 34 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totnes , Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co. uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops , and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Managing polycultures

Volume 11 Number 2

January 2003

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 11 Number 2

January 2003

Contents
2

News: chestnut harvest I orchard understory I tea in


Cornwall I codling moth I chestnut nut rot I forest farming

5 Cork and cork oaks 10 The North American Redwoods 19 Aronia - Chokeberries 22 Apple cultivar disease-resistance trial 25 Measuring and optimising polyculture yields 31 Pest & disease series: Wasps 33 Climate change impacts 36 A.R.T. courses in 2003 37 Book reviews: Growing berries and currants I Spice
Crops I Allium Crop Science I RHS Fruit & Vegetable Gardening I Agroecological Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry and Agroforestry
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford . Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes . Devon, TQ9 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: l/oI\W{.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 2

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News
Chestnut harvest & yield data - 2002
Extremt;ly poor weather (gales and lots of rain) at flowering time in July led to poor pollination and meant that yields were much reduced in 2002 , however the mild autumn again aided ripening of the later season varieties, with some ripening a week into November. The poor late summer weather led to much smaller nut sizes than usual for some va rieties . The early varieties started ripening 8 days later than in 2001, with several of the mid season varie lies ripening at the same time or shortly after. Nut sizes were largest from Doree de Lyon (= Marron de Lyon) , Maridonne, Marigou le, Marlhac, Marron Comballe, Marron de Redon, Numbo, Rousse de Nay, Verdale and Vignols. Highest yields were from Bouche de Betizac, Bournette , Marigoule, Marron Comballe and Verda le.
91011 234 15167 8 9 ~ O~1

------------------------ October ------------------------- --- November --- Nuts/kg


3 1 4b526b728~9 '3031 1 234 56 78

Cultivar
Belle Epine Bouche de Belizac Bournelle Doree de lyon Ederra Herria Ipharra laguepie Maraval Maridonne Marigoule Marki Marlhac Marron Cornballe Marron de Redon Marron Goujounac Marsol Nurnbo Precoce Migoule Rousse de Nay Verdale Vignols
XX -

x x x X x x X x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x X x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I xxxxx x x X XX x x x x xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x XXXX X X X X

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

129 123 155


100

230
172

143 154 167


x
X x

115

102 167
104
113

X X

X x X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X x

xx xxx xxx x xxxx xxxx x Xj X x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x xxxxxx xxxxxx xx

II

100

135 187 79
217

xxxxx x x x xx x xx x xx xxxxxxxx

105
119

98

total period of harvesting indicates the period of heaviest cropp ing (if there was one).

Gales on 14th October brought down a lot of burrs, which expla ins the peak then.

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IApROFO/flES,TR't\ I\(EWp Vol!! No 2

Orchard understorey benefits


Research in New Zealand has revealed that a herbal rich understorey has many benefits to orchardists. When established within rows of an apple orchard a community of cow parsley , comfrey and fennel provides a variety of functions, including attracting and feeding beneficial insects, reducing some apple fungus diseases and improving nutrient capture and return. Between rows , herbal leys of nitrogen fixing clovers , non-invasive grasses and chicory mulch provide a nutrient source for trees , balance the nutrition from the mulch input and aid nutrient capture and return , providing good levels of trace elements. The height of the understorey is managed by mowing or grazing .

By introducing this organic system . orchardists may gain many other benefits , in cluding the control of pest weeds, improved drainage and soil health. Source: Organic NZ. Vol 61 No 5 (2002)

Growing tea in Cornwall


A Cornish family has taken the pioneering step of planting a commercial tea garden on their estate and expects to pluck their first crop of tea in 2005. Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) were planted on a small garden at Tregothnan , one of the 'largest historic gardens in England, in 1999. Now the plantation is being extended to several hectares and the sale of the whole crop is being negotiated with selected London tea connoisseurs . This is the first commercial planting of tea in the open in Britain - previously , plants have only been grown in glasshouses. RiSing temperatures due to global warming have made it possible.

Camellia sinensis is an attractive evergreen shrub or small tree with glossy dark green elliptic leaves and small , slightly fragrant white flowers . Tea is harvested by taking the two youngest leaves and the bud. These dried are 'Green tea ' - to make the familiar ' Brown tea' , the leaves require processing which involves a controlled fermentation .
Source: The Garden, January 20 03

New codling moth control


Codling moth causes severe crop losses in apples, pears and walnuts. Entomologists at Albany in California have discovered that one of the chemicals responsible for a pear's sweet odour known as pear ester , attracts both female and male codling moths. Sex p-heromones produced by females are already widely used in monitoring and mating disruption programs but only attract male moths. Capturing female moths too has a greater potential to reduce offspring without the use of chemicals . A commercial monitoring tool is being developed using pear ester and the attractant is also planned for use in a sprayable lure formulation. Source: PNP, March 2002

Nut rot disease of chestnuts


Chestnut growing in New Zealand and Australia has been seriously hampered by nut rot disease . The disease tends to be absent in new orchards , but rapidly increasing after 6 years or so - with nut losses due to nut rot sometimes reaching 30% after 10 years. Losses are worst when the weather is particularly wet at flowering time. New research in New Zealand has shown that nut rot disease of chestnuts can be caused by airborne spores of the fungus Diaporthe nux. This fungus has previously been called Phomopsis castanea and the disease called 'Phomops;s ' rot of chestnuts although there are at least two different fungus species whi c h cause significant loss in chestnuts.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol II No 2

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It is now becoming apparent that these two, Diaporthe nux and another tentatively called Discula are the only two fungi causing serious economic losses. In the past these two fungi have been considered together as only one species , Phomopsis castanea, because they have the same size and shaped pycnospores. The Diaporthe fungus that Harvey Smith has recently discovered causing nut rot is the same fungus which is the endophyte which lives in the woody tissues of chestnut (and probably other species of trees and woody plants) without causing any obvious symptoms of infection and causing no harm to the tree apart from being able to cause nut rot. D.nux is probably the same as the nut rot disease in Italy and other parts of Europe called . ' Mummification disease' (previous ly called Phomopsis viterbensis, P.endogena & P.castanea). The most likely method of nut infection is by the airborne ascospores released during rain at flowering time and by rain splashed ascospores after the nuts fall to the ground. Previously it was thought that the fungus might spread from the woody tissues, through the burr to the nuts. The discovery of infective airborne spores of Diaporthe nux is of major importance because it should result in improved methods of control and consequent increases in yield , particularly in wetter districts and in wet seasons. Source; Smith, H; Diaporthe nut rot disease of chestnuts in New Zealand. Australian Nutgrower, December 2002.

Forest farming in Washington


Mariah Cornwoman 's first forest farming venture was on an old orchard property she owns at Wenatchee, Washington, USA, where she started raising shiitake mushrooms three years ago. Shiitake is a Japanese mushroom highly valued both as a gourmet item and for its medicinal properties - it contains at least 3 anti-cancer and 5 anti-tumour compounds. Most of the shiitakes currently sold in supermarkets are raised indoors, but Cornwoman has found that those grown on outdoor logs are more robust mushrooms. Shiitakes grow best on wood that is wet and ~sweet" (ie with a sweet sap) - Cornwoman and Bob Raymer favour silver maple and water birch, though oak, fruit trees etc are also fine. They find the best time to cut logs is just before bud break when the sap runs strongest. The logs are left on the ground for about 3 weeks after cutting - the reason being that the trees contain antifungal compounds that have to be allowed to dissipate [the value of this technique is debatable - logs left like this are prone to weed fungi invasions]. The logs are stacked in square piles with layers at right angles. Their stacks are about 6 ft high, with logs 3. to 4 ft long. It takes at least a year for the fungus to colonise a log. Microsprinkler irrigation ensures that the logs do not dry out. The first flush of mushrooms usually happens in the second year and after that the logs produce for 5-7 years. Each log produces three flushes of mushrooms per year, yielding a total of about 2 Ib (1 kg) of mushrooms per year. Wholesale prices in the USA are $5 to $10 (3 to 6) a ound. Cornwoman remains a cons ultant on the project. Raymer and Cornwoman's next cha llenge is farming their new property in the shade of a forest tree mix typical of Eastern Washington, USA, at 3,000 feet elevation - consisting of both conifers and deciduous trees. Their state of the art solar power system supplies their house with electricity and also powers the drill: drilling (to inoculate logs) is the big chore when setti ng up a shiitake production. Their new property has ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, aspen, Douglas maple and water birch as well as 4 acres of previously cultivated land where they plan to grow more 'domesticated herbs'.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

They wild harvest Oregon grape, nettie, yarrow, St John's wort, mullein, Wood's rose hips and Solomon's Seal. Other herbs being cultivated beneath trees are American ginseng , goldenseal and cascara sagrada (in light shade - about 30%). The shiitake mushrooms give the highest investment return and consistency of production, and production is being expanded. Difficulties include lack of rain (they only get 10-12 inches per year), making establishment of new plantings difficult and also giving a fire hazard . They generally have 50-70% shade which is fine for shiitake and most shade-tolerant herb production. They plan to certify their crops as organic and expand the infrastructure to include postharvesting processing facilities to add more value to the products , and a spore culture lab for the mushrooms. They are exploring the options to form a growers marketing cooperative with severa l other local farmers. Cornwoman and Raymer are proud to be developing a new model of ecosystem management in a region that has been based on an economy of timber/mining/agriculture for over 100 years. They hope to find a balance that creates both a healthy, diverse forest ecosystem and the producer who wants to make a living from the land. Source: The Temperate Agroforester, Vol 11 No 1 (January 2003)

Cork and cork oaks


Introduction
For over 2000 years the cork oak forests of the Northern hemisphere have supplied the local populace with timber, cork, domestic grazing for their herds of goats. sheep , cattle, horse and pigs , as well as hunting for ground animals and birds. Over this period the forests of European cork oak have greatly reduced in size and today cover Physical properties of cork about 2 million hectares in Europe and North Africa, 30% compressibility - cork can of which are in Portugal, 20% in Spain, 5% in France and compressed without be 4% in Italy: and large areas in China. The sustainability spreading at the sides; on of cork oak sil vopastures is now under threat from under release it returns to 95% of stocking of trees and excessive cork stripping, as well as the original thickness the introduction of plastic wine corks. Imperviousness to liquids the air and natural resinous From 400 B.C. and probably earlier. cork has been a binders are impervious to useful and needed plant product, and it is still employed water, oil etc. for many of the original uses - swimming aids , fishing Low specific gravity - four floats, sea anchors, bungs for casks and bottles, sales times lighter than water for shoes etc. The Egyptians made coffins out of it, Low thermal conductivity while the Spanish used sheets of it as bedside mats, as has very good heat insulative linings for storehouses and even house characteristi cs . insulation roofing. In Medieval times , monasteries used cork lined Also fire resistant. walls for heat protection. Vibration absorbency The other major producer of cork in the world today is High coefficient of friction the Chinese cork oak - Quercus variabilis. There are does not slip other trees which produce corky bark which can be used Sound absorbency similarly, or very light wood which has potential for use Stability - tough, durable, as floats etc. sustainable.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 5

? Cork growth, structure and properties

.:;

Cork is mainly derived from the outer bark of the cork oak. This outer bark is superimposed on the inner bark, which arises from the vascular cambium - a layer of living cells which produce the bark cells on the outside and the wood cells on the inside. The outer bark can be stripped and separated from the inner bark without jeopardising its growth function provid ed this is done carefu lly and skilfully. When the bark is removed , the cambium which remains attached to the wood appears as a slimy layer encircling the wood of the trunk/branch . The cork oak tree is unique for its ability to reproduce its bark over the whole stripped surface. Like most trees , it bears sapwood formed from the bast (or inner bark) and the core. What makes it unique is its ca pacity to create a remarkable subertin tissue from its inner bark when the outer bark is removed . The operation of strIpping destroys the cork cambium (phellogen) layer, but a new traumatic pheJlogen is formed in the inner bark and initiates its growth. Cross section through cork tree trunk outer bark (cork) m----cork cambium or phellogen bast or phloem
N

annual arowth mm

,z>l'-_ vascular ca mbIum

The new co rk that reg rows after strippIng is 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 termed 'reproduction cork ', and this merges Time (years) after stripping vi rgin cork with the conti nuously developing virgin cork layers in the unpeeled parts of the tree. The exposed layer changes from a rose colour to a red ochre, then a reddish brown, and the following year to a grey crust-like formation. The reproduction cork grows much faster than the original cork , at a rate of 1.5 to 4 rnm thickness per year. Cork is made up of countless tiny cells, each about 0.003 mm in diameter, each imprisoning within its walls a microscopic bit of air. These cells are 14-s ided and separated by extremely fine but strong membranes which bond them together. Overall just over 50% of the volume of piece of cork is in fact air.

Cork oak - Quercus suber


Q.suber is found in North Africa , Portugal , Spain , France, Italy, Greece, and former Yugoslavia , both in natural wild forests and plantations. Quercus suber forests grow as far north as 45 N at Lot-Garonne in France. Cork oak is a usually a medium sized, evergreen tree growing up to 18 m (60 tt) high with a trunk up to 150 cm (5 tt) in diameter, whose bark IS very thick and corky. The crown is low domed and spreading . Young shoots are covered with a short grey down. Leaves are oval or oblong, 25-62 mm ( 1-2 Y2~) long, 16-38 mm (0. 7-1Y2" ) WIde , rounded or ta pered at both ends , toothed , glossy dark green on the upper side , lower side with a grey down . Trees are wind pollinated and in theory self-fertile, though cross pollination results in much better fruiting. Fruits - acorns - ripen in their first year and are borne singly or in pairs on short stalks . The acorns are 15-30 mm (0.6-1.2 ~ ) long . Cork oak hybridises with other evergreen oaks. Several mycorrhizal fungi associate with cork oak , including Amanita citrina and Cenococcum graniformae.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 2

Q.suber var. occidentalis (Syn. Q.occidentalis) is a variety found on the Atlantic side of Europe, from South west France through Spain and Portugal to west Morocco. It differs by flowering more or less continuously, and has proved much hardier than true Mediterranean species (it is probable that most large cork oaks in Britain belong to this variety.)

Cork oak has few specific soil requirements - it grows we ll in sandy and stony hills - good drainage is essential. They do not like clay or limestone soi ls. It requires a site in full sun, and generally dislikes winter cold, though minimum temperatures of 12C are tolerated . Managed cork oak forests contain around 120 trees/ha, giving a spacing of just over 9 m (30 tt) between trees . Trees need protection from grazing stock for the first 7-8 years, after which open grazing is feasible - a silvopastora l agroforestry system. Growth va ries on siting, but annual height increments are in the rang e 7-25 em (3- 10") per year. Cork uses From raw corkwood: boUle corks, bungs , discs, cork rings fishing net floats, lifebuoys, life preservers , mooring buoys cork paper for cigarette tipping shoe soles and heels tropical helmets fishing rod handles, line winders, floats, sports goods (cricket ball cores, shuttle cocks etc.) floatation devices to measure liquid levels in woodwind musical instruments From cork waste granulated cork for insulation, hot water storage tanks etc. packing , ego grapes, shoes linoleum Agglomerated cork products : insulation co rkboard for cold stores, pipe insulation , acoustic cork board, anti-vibration corkboard for machinery foundations composition/compressed cork sheet for packaging , automotive gaskets, discs for screw caps, tablemats , bath mats, sandi ng blocks etc. bobbins cork floor tiles in concrete expansion joints notice boards

Cork after wine stoppers have been stamped out - ready for grinding

Trees in natural forests are usually 8-18 m (27 -60 ft) in height, though occasional trees are higher. Diameters are usually 20-46 cm (8-18"), with a strong branching habit after only 2-3 m (6-10 ft) of clear trunk. Natural life is 150-200 years, but trees may attain 200-500 years of age. Cork oak trees should be pruned (minimally, avoid ing very large cuts) to ensure a longer life, health and best co rk production by: keeping the natural shape of the trees which is a rounded pyramid, with canopy spread about equal to the height; keeping the crown open with plenty of light and air; removing dead branches ; removing all branches in the areas and to the height that cork is cut - ideally for 4-5 m (13-16 ft); remove vigorous younger branches that tend to crowd out the older branches , provided the latter are still healthy. The stra ight bole of 4-5 m (13- 16 ft)which is optimum cou ld also be encouraged by interplanting with other species which wo uld need to be evergreen, grow faster than cork oak until 5-6 m (16-20 ft) high, then either slow/stop height growth or be thinned out.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol!! No 2

Page 7

Cork oaks can be found growing successfully in many parts of the UK, particularly in the south and west. In the USA, trials in the 1940's indicated that cork oak will grow in 27 of the American states and cork quality to be every bit as good as imported Mediterranean cork. Cork quality improves in the early part of the tree's life with each stripping; harvests from trees 40-70 years old are of the best quality, after which a slow decline begins . There is evidence that slower-g rowing trees produce co rk of better quality

Cork ofi ks are usually grown in an agroforestry system involving grazing animals, notably pigs which forage on the acorns. In Portuga l, some 100,000 tcnnes of acorns are thus fed to pigs , with 10 kg of acorns producing about 1 kg of pork. Cork oak is susceptible to a variety of minor pests and diseases. The main one of note is the Asian Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) which can cause severe defoliation at irregu lar intervals of Mediterranean trees . Cork oaks seem to recover well , though, and there are several biological controls available. Cork harvesting The first harvest is when the tree is some 20 years old or 23 cm (9") in diameter (the legal limit in major cork producing countries) , when the cork bark is stripped up to a height of twice the circumference (eg. a circumference of 70 cm (28 allows peeling of the bark to 1.4 m (56 H) height.) Two horizontal cuts, a metre or more apart, are made with a saw ; these are then joined by vertical cuts and the bark levered off with probes or specia l hatchets with wedge shaped handles used as levers for prying away the cork bark. The ba rk is removed in slabs as big as poss ib le as larger sections bring higher prices.
M )

The virgin cork (or 'male cork ') is rough, fissured and of low va lue - mostly used to make insulation corkboard. When the virgin cork is removed , the exposed area is called 'the mother'. The new cork ('reprod uction cork') grows much faster, and the tree is ready for strippin g again in 8~12 years; the second stri pping yields cork of medium quality. The third stripping, after a further 8~12 years , will yield high quality cork . The co rk varies in thickness but the minimum considered profitable is 2.5 cm (1 H ). The yield per tree varies with the size of the tree, the stripped height and thickness ; a young tree may produce 16 kg (35 Ib), while large trees can yield 1000 kg (2200 Ib or 1 tonne). A skilled stripper can gather 1 36~363 kg (300 ~ 800 Ib) per day. Conservative yields are 250 kg per hectare (220 Ib/acre) per year, yielding a nett return of around 300 ($500) per ha per year for the unprocessed product. (the gross return being four times that, but cork cutters are highly paid.) Further strippings can continue at 8~12 year intervals until 120~150 years old . Harvests at 20*year intervals were common last century when one~piece champagne corks were grown but this is no longer economical. Cork trees are stripped in late spring and summer (mid May~mid August) when the foliage is new, the tree is growing vigorously, and the sap is flowing

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2


freely so the bark separates readily. No stripping is done on hot windy days, as the freshly exposed inner bark is susceptible to damage by dessication. The cork is harder to strip in years o f drought. After the cork is stripped it is piled up and allowed to season for 3-6 months or more to allow the sap to dry. It is then boiled in large vats for 75 minutes, making it softer, spongier , more flexible and increasing its vo lume . Boiling also removes tannin and mineral salts. The rough hard outside portion of the cork is loosened so that it can be readily scraped off with hoe-shaped knives. The cork is now cut, trimmed and graded into sheets of different thicknesses. The sheets are cured for 3-4 weeks to dry.

Propagation Propagation of cork oak (and other oak species) is usually by seed. Ripe acorns are sown immediately in deep containers or in situ (sometimes germinated seed is sown in situ). Acorns will store in moist cold storage for severa l months.) Grafting experiments in the past gave variable success , with the best results grafting onto stumps of stacked cork sheets chestnut leaf oak (O.casianeaefolia) , O.pubescens , and O.chyso/epis; there is little information on good rootstocks and subsequent growth. Tissue culture is also feasible .

Other trees producing cork substitutes


Several other tree species have either corky bark , or extremely light wood. These can be used in many of the ways that true cork can , although it is unlikely that the bark quality will ever match that of cork oak , so it may not be usable for bottle stoppers . In addition , no other tree will re-grow a cork layer like cork oak , so when the cork is harvested from these trees , the tree must be coppiced (or harvested) at the same time. Cork oak hybridises readily with Q.cerris (Turkey oak) , Q.ilex (holm oak) and O.incana (Bluejack oak) . These hybrids themselves are sometimes good producers of cork , but their seedlings will be of varying quality from good to poor. Little research has been done on whether a sustainable harvest from hybrids is possible. The main hybrid of interest is O.X hispanica . Corkwood tree - Ente/ea arborescens A small tree or large shrub from New Zealand, growing to 6 m (20 tt) high. Hardy to zone 9 (-5C). The wood of this species is extremely light - half the weight of cork - and is used for floats , rafts etc. Corkwood - Leitneria floridana A large shrub fromn the swamps of southeastern USA, growing to 6 m (20 ft) high . Hardy to zone 5 (-20C) although it needs summer heat to do well. The wood is very light and used for floats etc. Amur cork tree - Phellodendron amurense A medium sized tree growing to 12 m (40 tt) high, from China and Manchuria. Hardy to zone 3 (-30C). The closely related P./avallei can be used similarly.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 9

Black poplar - Populus nigra A large European tree growing to 30 m 100 ft) high , hardy to zone 2 The bark is corky and used for floats etc.

(~3 5 C ).

Douglas fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii A very large evergreen coniferous tree from western North America , growing to 75 m (250 tt) high . Hardy to zone 7 (-15C). The bark has been used as a cork substitute . Q.x hispanica (Q.suber x Q.cerris) Occurs naturally in southern Europe. Variable , sometimes evergreen large tree. Hardy and lime tolerant. hardy to zone 7 (-15C). Bark corky but generally less so than Q.suber. Includes the following cuUivars (underlined are the best cork producers): 'Ambrozyana ' , 'Crispa ' (shrubby , bark more corky), 'Dentata' (bark more corky), 'Diversifolia' (small tree, bark very corky), 'Fulhamensis' (bark less corky), 'Heterophylla', 'Lucombeana ' (Lucombe's oak - bark not very corky). Burr oak - Quercus macrocarpa A medium sized tree from eastern North America , growing to 15 m (50 tt) high . Hardy to zone 3 (-30C). Bark is reportedly corky and used as a cork substitute. Chinese cork oak - Quercus variabilis This is a deciduous tree from eastern China, 15-25 m (50-SO tt) high with thick corky, yelfowish~ grey bark which is deeply furrowed. Leaves are oblong, S-15 cm (3-6") long, rounded at the base and with bristle-like teeth , dark green above, with a white down beneath. Acorns are 1520 mm (0.6-0.S") long. Synonyms are Q.bungeana and Q.chinensis. Growth is about 30-50 cm ( 12-20") per year with diameter increments of 1-2 cm (004-0.8" ) per year. Hardy to zone 4 (25C). Widely used in China for a supply of cork.

References
Costa , A & Oliveira, A Variation in cork production of the cork oak between two consecutive cork harvests. Forestry, Vol 74, No.4, 2001. Macarthur, R: Cork Oaks and Cork. R MacArthur, 1994.

The North American Redwoods


Introduction
The coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia or wellingtonia (Sequoiadendron g;ganteum) are exceptionally targe~growing and long~lived , and are amongst the tallest , largest and oldest trees in the world . Living trees of Sequioa sempervirens have been estimated to be at least 2000 years old and the largest Sequoiadendron giganteum to be about 3200 years old. Both species , the sale species in their genera, are native to western North America where they are valued for their majestic appearance and for their easily worked , stable , versatile and very durable wood.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Natural distribution
Both coast redwood and giant sequo ia occur naturally in western North America. Coast redwood occurs within a narrow coastal belt about 720 km long and 8 60 km (450 x 38 miles) wide , from southernmost Oregon to the south of Monterey County, California . Frequent summer fogs are a feature of this co astal belt and provide a humid atmosphere which appears to be a governing factor determining its It grows at natural distribution. altitudes of 30-900 metres (100-3000 ft), growing best on ri ver plains, where it forms pure stands , and on moister slopes below 300 m (1000 ft), but also occurs on drier rocky stopes in mixtures with other conifers and Its most common hardwoods. associate is Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzies;;), while others include grand fir (Abies grandis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) and Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii). In the south , its range overlaps that of radiata pine (Pinus radiata).

o",,~

- - ------ - --~- -- ----

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Nevada

PACIFIC

OCEAN

Q,

,,

,,

,,

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California

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Giant sequoia occurs at similar la titudes, but is found in scattered groves in a narrow north south belt about 220 km (140 miles) further inland (on the second mountain range in from the coast) on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in central Cal ifornia, and at much higher elevations. Groves are usually found at altitudes of 830-2700 m (2700-8800 tt) with most between 1400 and 2200 metres (4600-7200 tt) . Usually it grows on coarse , well drained granitic or alluvia l soils on mountain slopes , doing particularly well in shallow grassy basins . Annual precipitation in its range is usually over 1000 mm (40 w), though there is little rainfall during the growing season. Giant sequoia rarely occurs in pure stands and it commonly associates with whi te fir (Abies conca/or), suga r pine (Pinus lambertiana), ponderosa pine (Pinu s ponderosa), in cense cedar (Ca/ocedrus decurrens) and Californian black oak (Quercus kelloggii).

Sequoia and Sequoiadendron are both evergreen and have very similar vegetation; however they are easily distinguished by their very different lower branch leaves - in Sequoia like those of a yew in a comblik e arran gement and in Sequoiadendron (and on leadi ng and reproductive shoots of Sequoia) stiff, sharp and scale-like. Also, Sequoia has buds with lose scales, smaller cones and softer bark than Sequoiadendron.
Older trees are well protected from fire by the very thick bark which does not burn readily even under intense heat, and living crowns of both species are highly fire resistant (th is is a driving factor for the current planting of coast redwood in fi re-pro ne areas of southern France.)

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Description
Sequoia A massive evergreen tree growing to well over 100 m tall in its natural habitat. Young trees conic, branches widely spaced, horizontal, upturn ed near tip. Older trees remain narrow-crowned, but may tiecome flat-topped. Trunk tapering gradually, often flared and irregularly fluted near base. Bark is orange-brown and loosely stringy in you ng trees, becoming reddish-brown and very thick (15-30 em), soft, spongy, fibrous and deeply furrowed . Young shoots are green for 2-3 years, ridged, becoming reddish or greyishbrown. buds surrounded by many loose sca les, bud scales turning brown and persisting at base of young shoot. Leaves are spirally arranged. hard, slightly prickly. of 2 kinds: (1) on side branches in a comb-li ke arrangement on either side of the shoot, linear-oblong, 10-25 mm long by 2 mm wide, dark green to blue-green above, two broad whiting bands below, tips sharp, base twisted, no ' stalk; (2) on leaders and fertile shoots - widely spaced , scale-like, 7 mm long, dark yellow-green , tip horned, incurved. Mature female cones are pendulous on short shoots , ovoid, 15-30 mm long, 15-20 mm wide, green at first becoming reddishbrown to dark brown, weathering to greybrown with about 15-20 hard leathery, ridged and wrinkled scales. Seeds ripen in one year, shed in autumn soon after ripening, cones then persist on tree for several months. About 60 seeds per cone are borne, each seed 3.5-6 mm long, elliptic to oblong, reddish brown with 2 wings equal to or narrower than the seed. Sequoiadendron A massive evergreen tree growing to over 90 m in its natural habitat. Young trees con ic, with a long narrow pointed top and a broader base , but crown may eventually become rounded or irregular. Lower branches drooping downwards, upturned at ends . Trunk becoming massive as tree ages , columnar, often flared and buttressed at base. Bark red-brown to dark brown in yo ung trees , shredding, becoming very thick and fibrous in older trees (at least 50 em thick on large trunks) , soft, deeply fissured and ridged , separating into loose light reddish-brown sca les. Branches green at first , more or less covered by attached leaf bases , becoming brown, much divided into dense bushy clusters , buds hidden, minute, without scales. Leaves are spirally arranged around the shoot, pointing forward, scale-like , rigid , harsh to the touch, 3-7 mm long (occasionally to 12 mm long on vigorous shoots), dull grey-green or bluegreen at first , becoming dark green and shiny rd by the 3 yea r, triangular with a broad flat sta lk less base , tapering to a sharp pointed tip . Leaves are aniseed-scented when crushed. Female co nes are borne solitary at the end of shoots (but appearin~ bunched), erect in 1 st n yea r, pendulous in 2 , ovoid , 35-90 mm long , 25-55 mm wide , taking 2 years to ripen , green in 1st year, usually ripening to brown in 2 nd year, with about 25-40 wedge-shaped, hard fibrous scales , wrinkled , with a fold along the centre line. Cones persist unopened on the tree for up to 30 years. Each cone contains about 150 seeds, each seed 4-8 mm long , oblong, flat, grey-brown, narrow with two broader often very unequal yellow-brown wings . Male cones are 4-8 mm long, borne in large numbers at the ends of shoots, stalkless, turning yellow and shedding pollen in early spring.

Males cones are 3-4 mm long, round , whitish-yellow, with pollen shed in winter.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Coast redwood (left) and giant sequoia (above) leaf forms.

Wood properties and uses


Coast redwood produces wood that is soft, fine and straight-gra ined, fairly light. easy to work, odou r free , non-resin ous and free of oily materials . There is little shrin kage and once d ry it is very sta bl e. The sapwood is almost white and surrounds deep reddish-brown heartwood which, when exposed to light, changes to a mellow nut brown. In North America the heartwood is exceptiona lly durable, though when grown elsewhere the durability seems variable. The sapwood is highly susceptibly to decay but can be treated to equal or exceed heartwood durability (it cannot be pressure-treated with wate r-born e preservati ves but ca n be treated using boron salts). In North America , coast redwood timber is widely used for general building purposes and is particularly sought after for weatherboarding, outdoor decking , lawn furniture, decorative indoor panelling, sashes and doors. It is also in demand for spa pools , tanks , vats, coating towers and other purposes for which its very high natural durability and lack of odour are an advantage. It is a good estate timber, used for fencing and lightweight gates. It is also used for the cores of fire doors. When used externally galvanised stainless steel or copper nails should be used. For construction , larger dimensions would be required than for a pine timber of similar grade . Because of the lower density and conseq uent poorer nail holding abi lity, special nails (eg . twisted) or ad ditiona l fasteners may be required to ensure strong assembly. The timber can be readily air-dried wit hout significant degrada tion but care is needed in kiln drying as it is prone to co ll apse is temperatures over 40"C are used early in drying . Once dry it is very stable.

Giant sequo ia

Rapidly-grown young trees sometimes tend to have a large core of soft, brittle, low-density wood wi th wide ann ual rings surro unding the pith - density, durability and strength are reduced (it could be expected to last 5-10 years in ground contact) . Fast-grown New Zealand stands give wood whose strength and stiffness properties are about 70% of those for Pinus radiala of equivalent grade:

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 13

=
Pinus radiata 35-vr old trees

.,
Sa uoia sem ervirens 50- ear old trees

Basic - air drv- areen Shrinkaae (air-drv % - Volume - Tanaential - Radial - Lonaitudinal Modulus of ru ture MPa - Green I Dry Modulus of elastici! MPa - Green I Dr Maximum crushin MPa - Green I Dr Hardness kN Green I Dr
Densi!

koIm"-

420 500 955 7.0 4.7 2.2


0 .1 0 40 /90 5.8 /9. 0 16 I 38

335 380 910 4.8 3.2 1.5 0.02


56 I 63

6.4 /6.6
24 I 36 1.8 / 1.9

2.5 I 4.2

Table tops. veneers, bowls and other turned products are produced from redwood burls (irregular lumps or concrescences which commonly occur near the base of coast redwoods) in North America. Former uses, no longer very com mon, were to use the timber fencing, sleepers, water pipes, cooperage, sh ipbuilding , pattern making, paving blocks etc. The wood of giant sequoia closely resembles that of coast redwood , being soft and light, coarse grained although relatively strong for its specific gravity. Density is about 340 kg/m 3 at 15% moisture. However, it is generally coarser in texture. The sapwood forms a pale yellow band beneath the bark while the heartwood is reddish brown - darker than that of coast redwood and with a purplish cast. It soon weathers to a chocolate brown. In North America, second-growth wood is mainly used and is similar in many mechanical properties and generally comparable to or slightly better than that of coast redwood. It is amoung the most durable of woods and its major value is where decay resistance and stabi lity are important. Its main us es are for farm buildings and other light construction work, fence posts, stakes, roof shingles and panelling. Other uses include weatherboarding and sleepers.

Other Uses
The following apply to coast redwood, though the bark uses for fibre , paper etc. can probably be applied to giant sequoia as we ll: The leaves reportedly have antiviral effects on the tobacco mosaic virus. A brown dye is obtained from the bark. The bark and the wood contain tannin , but in too Iowa concentration for economic utilization. On a 10% moisture basis , the bark contains 4.4% tannin and the wood 2.5%. The thick fibrous bark can be harvested without harm to the tree and used as an insulating or stuffing material. A fine bark dust that is produced whilst doing this is a good soil conditioner. This fibrous bark is also used for making paper. Branches can be harvested at any time of the year from logged trees , the bark is cut into useable pieces and soaked in clear water prior to cooking for 6 or more hours with lye. The fibres are beaten for six hours in a ball mill and the paper is a brown colour. Native Americans used an infusion of the sap as a tonic , and the inner bark to make poultices. Coppice shoots were used for basketry, large pieces of bark as wall sections for houses and logs to make canoes. The foliage of both species is used in floristry for wreaths etc.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 2

Siting
Sequoia Coast redwood thrives best in sheltered localities such as valley floors, gully bottoms and river flats with deep, fertile, moist but well-drained soils , relati vely high humidity, It is very and we ll-distributed rainfal l. sensitive to climate and site factors when young and in unsuitable conditions, retarded or checked early growth is common. Seedlings and young trees have a high soil moisture requirement and root competition from weeds (especially grasses) can seriously retard early growth and contribute to establishment failure. Young trees are intolerant of exposure and shelter from strong winds is necessary. Early growth is frequentl y better when coast redwood is planted with a nurse crop such as Douglas fir or larch, or when planted under a high open canopy. Salt-laden winds are not tolerated. Young trees can be damaged by frosts below _goC and can be cut back repeatedly by heavy or severe frosts. In Britain, the best stands are growing in Devon, Wiltshire, Perthshire ; Ireland also has Trees grow faster in the good stands. western side of the country . Sequoiadendron Giant sequoia tends to grow best on slopes with good air and soil drainage. Climatic factors are less restricting than for coast redwood and it far more tolerant of winter cold (surv iving and growin g well where temperatures of -20 o e are common and 30C are experienced occasionally) , drier soils and exposure (extreme winds are tolerated - tops can be brken off, but a new leader readily forms; uprooting is rare) than coast redwood. Wet soils, however, frequently result in butt rot which can be lethal , and it particularly intolerant of wet , acid , peaty soils and dislikes high summer humidity. Overhead light is essential - giant sequoia is much less shade tolerant than coast redwood - as is good weed control for the first few years after planting . In Britain, impressive trees grow in all parts of the country, with trees in Scotland as tall as those in England. Very few examples exist of forest stands though ..

Silviculture
Most of the information on silvicultu re comes from experi ence with coast redwood. sequoia much less widely cultivated and its requirements less well known . The giant One of the basic problems is to establish redwoods at sufficiently wide spacings to accommodate their ultimate very large size, without promoting coarse branching . The aim is to attain a final crop spacing of 250-300 stems per hectare (ie about a 6 x 6 m spacing). The minimum rotation length is 50-80 years, with 100 years being common. Small plants , 30-50 cm high, establish much better than larger ones , which are checked after planting. Close planting - typical forestry spacings of 2.4-3 m (8-10 ft) apart - leads to lower branches soon dying off and they must be pruned off if dead knots, a major cause of defect in the wood, are to be avoided . Thinning of coast redwood usually results in vigorous coppice regrowth (the redwoods are rare con ifers in that they are strong coppicers) which is resilient and hard to control manually. There is evidence that the new coppice shoots are palatable to sheep and that the regrowth can be effectively restricted by grazing, however the wood of sheep allowed to graze under redwoods can be downgraded due to entanglement of dead twigs and foliage. Rabbits and deer do not appear to find the new shoots very palatable , and protection against these may be unnecessary. Interplanting of redwoods with a second species (as a nurse, or an intermediate yield species, or simply for amenity purposes) can avoid the need to thin the redwoods and hence the problem

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Page 15

of coppice regrowth . Larch, eucalypts, cypresses , silver fir or other species can be interplanted At a 3 m (10 ft) initial tree to restrict redwood crown spread, branch size or stem taper . . spacing , with redwoods at 6 x 6 m , slightly more of the intercrop species are required than redwoods for planting. The giant sequoia is most often grown in mixtures with other conifers. In North America , the produc tion of coppice shoots (sprouts) from cut stumps is encouraged to allow rapid re-establishment of the crop after clear felling. Once establisned on a site , redwood can be difficult to eliminate because of its coppicing habit. Irrespective of the approach taken, high pruning to 8-10 m to achieve a small defect core is likely to greatly increase the quality of the crop. Coast redwood may also have promise for erosion control - its widely spreading root system remains alive and can coppice quickly after felling. It also has some ability to survive smothering by landscape sediment and flood debris, particularly where the sediment is coarse grained. Coast redwood's fast growth. high resistance to fire and disease. good above-ground durability and general ease of woodworking are major plus points for this fine tree. Its relatively light and brittle timber is best suited to specialist uses such as exterior cladding , joinery and panelling . It requires a sheltered, moist but well-drained site and reasonable rainfall spread through the year, is intolerant of weed competition when young , and needs high pruning to avoid dead knots in the wood.

Coast redwood

Giant sequoia has a higher tolerance of cold and windy and exposed sites and dry soils. It has greater promise as a windbreak species (it has been used thus in New Zealand and proved exceedingly windfirm). It is more slow-growing to begin with than coast sequoia, and may require to be kept free of weed encroachment for 5-7 years after planting.

Growth and yield


In the best plantations of coast redwood in California, height growth averages 50-70 cm per year and diameter growth 1.3-2 cm . Height growth is most rapid for the first 35 years. For 3 managed stands the expected yield at 100 years ranges from about 700 m /ha on low-ield 3 sites to over 3500 m /ha on high yield sites, with typical mean annual increments of 22 m Iha. In French plantations, current annual increments of 30-40 m 3/ha/year are commonly achieved. Growth of 1.2 m per year in Britain is not un comm on; yields at Dartington in Devon for trees planted in 1925 were 19 m 3/ ha / year after 20 years and at Leighton in Montgomery were 23 m 3 /ha/ year for 94-year-old trees in 1957. Giant sequoia is the world's largest tree volumetrically although coast redwood and at least two other species grow taller. The 'General Sherman ' tree in Sequoia National Park is generally considered the world 's largest living entity. Growth rates are slightly different from the coast red wood , with generally slightly less annual height increment but greater diameter increment. Growth rates for giant sequoia are about 6 m height and 16 em diameter at 10-12 years of age. 3 Recorded yield from one plantation in Kent (70 years old) was 24 m /ha/year in 1957.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Voltt No 2

Pests & diseases


There are few pests and diseases of note both in their natural environment and in culti vation in other parts of the world . Generally the redwoods have a high degree of immunity to fata l attacks by fungi or insects because of the high tannin content of the wood. In North America, redwood seedlings are highly susceptible to several damping off fungi and to grey mold (Botrytis spp .) in warm weather. On older trees, stem rots entering the tree through wounds or scars are common. A canker fungus (Botrysphaeria sp.) is causing concern in Europe, particularly in France It causes the death of twigs and branches , leading to deformed crowns and sometimes death of young trees under stress. Honey fungus (Armillaria sp .) has killed many hundreds of young giant sequoia trees in Europe , especially on sites where hardwoods previously grew. Young trees are prone to browsing damage from deer, caUie and goats - sometimes the main shoots are destroyed , causing serious damage. The bark of giant sequoia is sometimes stripped by caUle and goats.

Agroforestry potential
Both redwoods cast a dense shade and become extremely large spreading trees grown in the open, which limits agroforestry usage. Coast redwood is best grown in a forestry situation as it does not tolerate exposure well. It is best combined in a forest farming system with an understorey crop, which would have to be a very shade-tolerant shrub or perennial - very limited - or better, a mushroom crop grown on logs. There is also potential for a shade-tolerant crop to be planted in alleys between rows of redwoods which are coppiced regularly (perhaps to provide poles etc. for fencing & estate use. ) Giant sequoia can be grown similarly , but as it is very tolerant of exposure , it also has potential in alley-cropping systems. The alleys would need to be large - 200 m or more - and trees highpruned to maintain a clean stem as high as possible. As trees became large, they would provide excellent shelter for alley crops.

Seed propagation
Mature trees of both species can produce vast quantities of seed, but in both the germination rate is variable and frequently very low. Young trees often produce only infertile seed because male cones are not produced as early as female cones. The seeds are dispersed by wind up to 150 m from the original trees. For both species, some seed is produced most years; with good crops every 3-5 years . Cones are collected by hand stripping branches or with secateurs . Also by raiding squirrel caches where prevalent. Seeds are extracted by air or fan drying for 10-30 days , stirring as necessary; or by kiln drying at 120-130" F for 12 hours. Seeds are separated by screening , blowing or shaking cones in a paper bag. Seeds should not be exposed to sunlight , and stored dry in the dark at 4" C. Stratification of seeds is not necessary, but germination may be hastened by 4-6 weeks of stratification after soaking in water for 24 hours. Seed provenance should be considered when growing redwoods from seed - there are significant differences in hardiness, growth rates and tree form depending on the location of the mother trees in the natural range. Southern Californian provenances of coast sequoia seed tend to be faster growing . Giant sequoia is less variable in habit and size than most conifers.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 2

Page 17

Coast redwood Seed produced after 16- 18 years , occasionally as early as 6-8 years . Then produced in large quantitie s for about 20 years. Cones are mature in autumn as they turn yellowish and/or scales begin to separate. Mature cones remain on tree for several months after seed-shed . The seed count is 130,000-500,000 seeds/kg (average 268,000). Seeds store for 3-5 years. Expected germination rate (occasionally up to 50 %). is 10-30%

Giant sequoia Female cones appear much earlier than male cones . Male cones , and thus fertile seeds , may not appear until tree reaches 30-40 years. Seeds are then produced in quantity for about 50 years (but in California not often before 1SO years of age). Cones are mature when reddish-brown to dark brown. Cones containing ripe seed can remain unopened on the trees for many years (often opening naturally after the heat of a forest fire) . The seed count is 150,000-300 ,000 seeds/kg (average 200,000). Seeds store for 2 years. Expected germination (occasionally up to 40%) rate is 6-10%

Cuttings
Cuttings from young trees of both coast redwood and giant sequoia root easily , but rooting becomes more difficult with increasing age. Cuttings from mature trees are difficult to root and frequently grow in branch (pJagiotropic) form. In general, cuttings are best taken in April, 7-10 cm (3-4") long, and rooted under poJythene rather than mist; rooting hormone is not beneficial.

Regeneration
Coast redwood has a remarkable ability, seen in few other conifers, to coppice strongly after felling or other damage to the tree by fire or wind etc. The new shoots grow rapidly, developing their own root systems , and can reach 2 m or more in their first year. Sprouts can also arise from adventitious roots and along almost the entire trunk length after damage. Giant sequoia only occasionally produces sprouts from roots or stumps but tall broken stubs and crowns will sprout vigorously if there is enough live foliage below the breakage. Natural regeneration from seed occurs in California and has occurred in Britain. The seeds are small and do not do well falling onto a thick leaf litter - they really need to land on bare mineral soil to germinate well. Opening up the canopy to allow more light in also favours seed regeneration.

Sources
A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes , Devon , TQ9 6JT, UK. Seed. Mount Pleasant Trees , Rockhampton , Berkeley, Gloucs, GL 13 9DU. Tel: 01454 260348. Whips for forestry planting of both redwoods.

References
Aaron , J & Richards , E: British Woodland Produce. Stobart Davies, 1990. Grainge, M & Ahmed , S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. Wiley, 1988. Knowles , F B & Miller, J T : The Redwoods. FRI Bulletin 124, New Zealand FRI , 1993. Macdonald, J et af: Exotic Forest Trees in Great Britain. FC Bulletin 30, 1957. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press , 1998. Paxton, 0: Natural regeneration of Sequoia sempervirens at the Cliveden Estate, Buckinghamshire. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 92 No 3, 223-225. Savill, P: The Silviculture of Trees used in British Forestry. CABI,1991.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Aronia
Introduction

Chokeberries

The name chokeberry does not exactly inspire confidence , but the chokeberries are fine cooked fruits very popular in Russia and Eastern Europe. In fact the name in Eastern Europe, where they are grown commercially, is 'Service Tree ' and the Aronias are closely related to the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia. They are in fact native to Eastern North America, where their uses are rather less weH known.

Description
Chokeberry bushes are slightly spreading. medium-growing suckering deciduous shrubs reaching 1-2 m (3-6 tt) high or so (occasionally to 3m , 10ft), which grow wild in thickets and woods. There are three specie , one a naturally-occurring hybrid of the two :
A. arbufifolia - red chokeberry A.melanocarpa - black chokeberry A.x prunifolia - purple chokeberry

The leaves are elliptic, with toothed margins and paler undersides. They are 2.5-7 cm (1-3 -) long, and turn to shades of red and orange in the one reason that autumn chokeberries are often planted ornamentally. Flowers are white or whitish-pink, borne in loose clusters of up to 6-20 and quite ornamental in spring (April to June, depending on location). Bushes are insect-pollinated and needed self-fertile, so only one is for good fruiting.
A.arbutifolia flowers

The fruits , red or black , appear like clusters of small blueberries without the waxy bloom. They are 7-9 mm in diameter, rising to 12 mm (~") in larger-fruited cultivars. The fruits have a small soft core - soft enough to be eaten unnoticed and remain firm even when ripe. They ripen from September onwards but are often hidden by the dark leaves until the leaves change colour. All the chokeberries are extremely hardy, to -30" C (-20"F) or so .

Uses
Eaten raw , the fruits leave the mouth feeling dry and - true to name - the throat nearly choking . [Although we have eaten berries from the hybrid A.x prunifolia i n our forest garden which were sweet and tasty . Also there are papers detailing the fresh uses in Eastern Europe. There is some evidence that growing Aronia in long-season areas may lead to milder tasting fruits , and they may even dry on the bush there is not eaten by birds] When chokeberries are made into jelly or preserves , however, they develop a unique rich ftavour. The taste is blackcurrant-ey with added pine and other aromas. The jelly from A.melanocarpa has a bright blue to burgundy colour. The fruits are so highly pigmented that

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 19

they can be mixed with other fruits in sma ll amounts to add colour. These pigments - anthocyan ins have very beneficial health effects (much like those in cranberries and blueberries: protecting the urinary tract and strengthenin g the heart) though chokeberries contain 5-10 times the amount of anthocyanins and polyphenols of cranberries. Aronia jam or jelly is reputedly excellent with venison or game . .

Fruits are also processed into syrups , compotes etc, and are dried for future use (the native North Americans used to make pemmican from them with dried meat and melted fat). The juice is used commercia lly as a colourant for other fruit juices and is now marketed as an alternative to cranberry juice. It can be extracted well by using a steam juice extractor. It also has potential as a wine adulterant, adding colour and tannins but little acidity potentially of great use to the home winemaker. The fruits are also ve ry high in vitamin C ( 15-30 mg/ 100 g). The fruits are grown commercially in Denmark, Poland, Russia (where over 5,400 ha I 13,500 acres of plantations were cultivated in 1971. 4000 of which were in Siberia) and elsewhere.

Chokeberry jelly: wash the chokeberries and place in pan (not alum inium ) with just enough water to cover them. Simm er gentl y until the Transfer the fruit fruit is soft. mixture in to a clean jelly bag and allow to hang and drip into container for several hours or overnight. 00 not squeeze or press the bag as this will produce sediment that clouds the jelly. For every 3 cups juice, allow 4Y-, cups sugar and Xi cups fresh lemon juice. Pour the juice into a clean pan and bring to the boil, stirring in the sugar. Add the lemon juice. Then boil rapidly until setting point is reached . Bottle in hot jars. Chokeberri es contain sufficient pectin to set on their own , although complete setting may take a few da ys.

The fru its are high in pectin and can be added to other fruit j ams/jellies to help them set. Medicinally. the fruits contain substances Russia and former USSR countries. Ongoing studies in the USA suggest that they may also include compounds that are anti-cance r. Aronia plants are sometimes used as a windbreak in North America.

Cultivation
Chokeberries are very hardy and easy to grow. They do well on any reasonable soil other than shallow chalk or very boggy ground. They tolerate partial shade and air pollution. for just a few plants , space at 2 m (6 tt) apart to maximise cropping, and keep mulched. Larger and commercial plantings are better Aarbutifolia fruits made in rows with plants at 1 m (3 tt) apart and allowed to sucker to fill in the space like a hedgerow. Plants tend to sucker, turning them into a stool much like blackcurrants, but they can be kept to a single stem if desired by removing sucker growths in the autumn. Plants could even be grown against a wall or on wires . Thinning of older shoots is recommended every few years otherwise bushes grow too dense and the poor light levels reduce productivity. The fruits ripen in September onwards. but in our experience they fl avou r improves and the

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 2

fruits become sweet if left on the bush. This may necessitate keeping birds off if they show an interest. Fruits are usually hand harvested, but mechanical harvesting is possible (using equipment design ed for blueberries) and is sometimes practised in Eastern Europe where harvest is timed when fruits are at 19 to 21 0 Brix (percent soluble solids). The fruits are liked by birds (though commercial plantings are not too troubled), but there no other significant pests or diseases. Chokeberries are notably resistant to honey fungus. Named varieties of Amelanocarpa are either grown on their own roots or are grafted into rowan rootstock, the latter making slightl y larger bushes with improved yields. Fruiting starts in the second year and gradually increases to yields averaging 10 kg (22 Ib) per bush. Autumn Colour - recent introduction from Canada with large fruit size and superior autumn colourin g. Nero - a good fruiting culti var from the former USSR. Fruits shiny black , twice the weight of wild types, good flavour, borne in large clusters. Vik ing - good fruiting cultivar from Sweden with sl ightly larger berries. Fruits bluish-black , very good flavour. The ornamental variety Brilliant is named for its autumn colour and is not particularly recommended for fruit production.

Propagation
Seed: stratify for 3 months. within 2 months. Germination is then usually Cuttings: softwood in summer, semi-hardwood in JulyAugust or hardwood in early autumn . Quite difficult. Division: suckers can be dug up in winter. Layering: layer low branches in the usual manner.

Amelanocarpa fruits

Sources
Viking and Nero plants will be available from the A.R.T . in autumn of 2003. seed of Amelanocarpa and sometimes plants of Ax prunifolia. We also supply

References
Aronia Berri es. http://winemaking.jackkeller.netla ronia .asp Aronia melanocarpa. http://www.mallorn .com/pomlDec97/ King, J: Aronia Berries - What's Their Potential? http://mtvernon.wsu .edu /frt hortiaronia01.htm Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998. Finn , C: Temperate berry crops. p.324-334 in J Janick (Ed) , Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, 1999. Flowerdew, B: Bob Flowerdew's Complete Fruit Book. Kyle Cathie, 1995. Plocher, T: Experim ents wi th Aronia Berries. NNGA Annua l Report 86 (1995), 128-129. Seufert, L: Plant Chokeberry. Pomona, Vol xxxi No 3 (Summer 1998), 50-52. Smatana , L et al: Results of Breeding and Growing Minor Fruit Species in Czechoslovakia. Acta Hart, 224, 1988: 83-87. Toorava, A D: Medicinal Plants of The Soviet Union and Their Uses. Moscow:Medicine, 1974.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 21

Apple cultivar disease-resistance trial


Preliminary results
Introduction
88 cuttivars of app le identified for potential disease resistance against scab and canker were plantl}d at ou r Dartington research site in winter 1998/9. Trees were grafted onto M9 rootstocks, staked and mulched. Severity of leaf and fruit scab and canker was recorded during the growing season of 2002, using a sca le 0 to 9 where = no symptoms observed; 3 = mild symptoms observed, 6 = severe symptoms observed to 9 = very severe symptoms obse rved. The results averaged over the season were as foll ows (there is no score for fruit canker where no fruit was borne):

Cu ltivar Alfriston Beauty of Bath Bene de Boskoop Ben's Red Bramleys Seedling Brownlees Russet Catshead Cheddar Cross Cockle Pippin Cornish Aromatic Cornish long stem Court of Wick Crawle Beaut Crimson Beaut of Bath Crimson Beaut of Bath Crimson Kinq (cooker Crimson Kinq dessert) O'Arcy Spice Egremont Russet Emneth Early Fair Maid of Devon Farmers Glory Forge Frankl yns Golden Pippin Gavin Gladstone Golden Bittersweet Golden Harv~y Golden Nu et Golden Pi ;n Golden Russet Grenadier Halstow Natural Hoary Morninq Hockinqs Green Hollow Core Isle of Wight Pippin John Standish Johnny Andrews lane's Prince Albert leathercoat Russet

leaf

fruit

cank

Cultivar
London Pippin London Pippin long keeper lord Derby lord of the Isles lucombes Pine May Queen Monarch Newton Wonder Northwood Payhembury Pear Apple Peter lock p; s Nose Pinea Ie Russet of Devon Plum Vite Ponsford Queen Red Beauty of Bath Red Belle de Boskoop Rev W Wilks Rival Rosemary Russet Ross Nonpareil Roundway Magnum Bonum Sam Young Sanspareil Saw Pit Sidney Strake Sour Bay St Edmunds Pi ;n Sweet Ba Taunton Cross Tomm Kni ht Tre onna Kin Wellinqton Wilhelm ley Williams Pride Winston Winter Peach Wool brook Pippin

leaf

fruit

2.5 2.5 2.0 0 0 2 .5 1.5 4.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.5

1.0 2.0 0 2.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 0 3.0 3.0

LA

1.5

1.0 2.0 2.5 1.2 0 1.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 3.5 0 2.0 2.0 1.5 4.0 2.0 0.5 1.0 2.5 0.5 0 2.0 2.0 0 0.5

2.0

0 0 7 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.0 6.5

0 2.5 2.0 0 3.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 0 0 1.5 0 2.0 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 2 .5 1 .0 1.5 2.0 1.5 4.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 2 .0 0.7 3.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.2 1.0 0 2.5 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.0

2.0 0 3.0 4.0 0 0

cank 0 0 0.5 0 2.0 0 0 9.5 0

1.0 0 4.0 1.0 6.0 1.0

o
0 0 0 4.0 5.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0 2.0

0 0

1.0 2.0 0

1.0 1.0

0 0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0

0 1.0 0 1.0

0 0 0 0 0 3.0 0 0 6.0 5 .5 0.5 0 0 5.0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 9.5 0 0 0 8.0 0 8.0 8.5 0 7.5 0

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Va! 11 No 2

Disease ratings - canker


Many va rieties showed no signs of canker at all, a few showed moderate signs (scores 3 - 5.5 meant the canker is probably manageable by pruning it out reach year), and a few showed severe signs. These latter varieties, with scores of 6 and over, often had cankers girdling the main stem and are probably not manageable in our humid climate. Th e most severe trees of these died during the year, and the others will be replaced by new candidates.

C ultivar
Beauty of Bath Ben 's Red Russet ;ross Cockle Pippin Court of Wick I 'Beauty ;rimson Beauty of Bath , Beauty of Ba LA) King Kina Emneth Early Fair Maid of Devon Farmers Glory Faroe Golden Golden Golden Golden Golden

o o
o
o

canker Pear Apple Peter Lock Pias Nose , Russet of Devon Queen Riva l

o
o

canker

o
0 0

, Russet R Sam Youna Saw Pit Sidney Strake Sweet Bay Taunton Gross Tomm y Knight

Bonum

0 0

o o
0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0

o o o

o
0 0 Sour Bav

, Pippin Rev W Wilks

Harvey Nugget Pippin Russet

Natural Hoary i Hockinas Green Hollow Core Isle of Wight Pippin John Standish Johnny Lane 's Prince Albert , Russet condon Pippin ondon Pippin Lord Derby i Pine May Queen Newton

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Lord of the Isles Plum Vi te Golden Pippin Gavin Ross i

.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.5

. Pride D' Arcy Spice St


i

Pippin

9. 9.5 9.5

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 23

Disease ratings - leaf scab


Very few varieties suffered leaf scab of a severity where it would have affected general tree health - basically, anything under a score of 3.0 can be judged pretty healthy, especially as the early summer of 2002 was very wet and humid, favouring the disease, although the autumn was rather dry.

Cultiv.jIr Ben's Red Bramleys Seedlin Fa ir Maid of Devon Golden Bittersweet Isle of Wight Pippin Lane's Prince Albert London Pippin Lord Derby Northwood Payhembury Peter Lock Wellington Crawley Beauty Halstow Natural Hollow Core Leathercoat Russet Sidney Strake Cockle Pippin Cornish Longstem Crimson Kino cooker Farmers Glory Hoary Morning Red Belle de Boskoop Sanspareil Sweet Bay Tregonna King Wool brook Pippin Emneth Early Tommy Knight Catshead Cornish Aromatic Court of Wick Crimson Beauty of Bath Crimson Beauty of Bath (LA) Golden Pippin Newton Wonder Pear Apple Ponsford Queen Rev W Wilks

leaf

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Cultivar Rosemary Russet Sam Young Belle de Boskoop Crimson King (dessert) Golden Harvey Golden Nugget Grenadier John Standish Johnny Andrews Lon keeper Pigs Nose Rival Roundway Maonum Bonum Saw Pit Winston Alfriston Beauty of Bath Brownlees Russet Egremont Russet Gavin Hockin s Green London Pippin May Queen Pineapple Russet of Devon Pfum Vite

leaf

Red Beauty of Bath Wilhelm Ley


Winter Peach Franklyns Golden Pi pin Lord of the Isles Lucombes Pine Sour Bay St Edmunds Pippin Taunton Cross Williams Pride Faroe Gladstone Golden Russet Ross Nonpareil Cheddar Cross

1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 4.5

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Disease ratings - fruit scab


A number of the varieties in the trial did not set fruit. hence do not appear in this tabl e. Once again, severe fruit scab was rare and even where there were severe symptom s, ego on Ponsford, then sometimes the crop was large enough that a good crop of clean fruit could still be picked.

Cultivar Ben 's Red Cornish Longstem Emneth Ea rl y Farae Franklyns Golden Pippin Golden Nuggel Halstow Natural
Hoary MorninQ Longkeeper May Queen Newton Wonder

fru it

Cultivar
Plum Vite Queen Sansp.?reil Sweet Bav Tommy Knight Wi nston Woolbrook Pippin Belle de Boskoop Brown lees Russet Crimson Ki ng (dessert) Golden Pippin Hocki nQs Green Hollow Core John Standish London Pippin Saw Pit Court of Wick Crawlev Beauty Lord of the Isles Cheddar Cross Johnnv Andrews Lucombes Pine Pigs Nose Ponsford

fruit

Peter Lock Rosemary Russet


Ross NOQPareil Sidney Strake Wilhelm Ley Winter Peach Alfriston Catshead Cornish Aromatic Gavin Gladstone Golden Harvey Pear Apple

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 6.0

Several new cuttivars will be added to the plot in winter of 2002/3, repl aci ng some of the Jess suitable cultivars, and measurements will be taken again in 2003.

Measuring and optimi sing polyculture yield s


Introd uction
Most conventional farmers , foresters and landowners are used to growing monocultures of a single crop at a time , measuring the yields from them and managing them accordingly. When confronted with intercropping systems, underplanted orchards or forest gardens, the di versity is often beyond their experience and understanding . This article aims to explain a way of measuring and optimising yields from agronomic systems using several crops growing together.

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The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER)


The usual measure used for comparisons involving diverse crops growing together on the same land is the LER. This measure is independent of any monetary units. The equation for ca lculating LER is:

LER = Xl Y1

+~

+b +h +...& +.
Y3 Y4 Ys

Y2

Where Xl. X2, XJ ... is the individual yield of crop 1,2,3 ... when grown in the polyculture, and y 1. V; , Y J etc are the yields for crops 1,2,3 .. when grown on their own as a monoculture. So, for example, with two grain crops grown together, if Yl=1 tlha, Y2= 2 Uha, X l = 0.7 t/ha and X 2 = 1.8 tlha, then: LER = 0.7/1 + 1.8/2 = 1.6 For LER comparisons, if the LER is greater than 1, the polyculture is superior to that of the monoculture of the primary species. A value of 1.1 would indicate a 10% yield advantage, or expressed another way, 10% more land would be required to obtain the same yields from monocultures. If yields are expressed in physical units, the LER refers to the biological efficiency of the mixture. If yields are expressed in monetary values, then the result is fLER: the financial LER. Two or more crops which are sharing or competing for the same essential resources can often more efficiently exploit the available resources than can a single species, leading to LER values greater than 1. The crops may also have different resource requirements, and sometimes the removal of a resource by one crop improves the yield of another. One complication is when growing a long-term woody c rop with shorter term crops - how to calculate annual yields of the woody crop - but this can be done. One very common intercropping system used in the Americas is growing beans with maize. The LER values for this system usually range from 1.3 to 1.8. Another case study of intercropping radishes in a pear orchard found an LER value of 1.65 to 2.01 relating to economic and biomass yield respectively. The fruit yields were unaffected, w hile the radish plants allocated more biomass to leaves , diminishing the swollen root harvest. Some other two-crop LER's that have been measured are: Crop 1 Barley Beans Bush bean Soya beans Oats Oats Potato Yield Crop 2 Field bean Yield

1.00 1.00 0.66 0.90

Cabbage Carrot Tomato Short pea Barley Wheat

1.23 0.50 1.00 0.44

LER 1.85 2.23 1.50 1.66 1.21 1.00101.11 1.34

LER is maximised when the different crops grown have different resource profiles - ie over time they have differing, preferably complementary, needs for light, water, nutrients etc. For two species grown together, the LER will depend partly depend on the planting density and relative proportions of plants (and thus plant-plant interface distances). There will be a point of optimum planting density/arrangement when the LER is maximised. Plants which occupy different ecological niches when grown together may have the potential to lead to large LER va lues. Temporal separation is also a valuab le tool - for example , growing

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol!! No 2

winter wheat intercropped with a deciduous tree allows the wheat full light access over the winter until the tree comes into leaf. Individual species have tendencies for certain typ es of root architecture - for example, wheat te nds to have roots that are vertically elongated . Species mixtures can thus be selected to A deep rooted species, given utilise the belowground space in non-competitive ways. competitio n from a shallow rooted species, will emphasise root separation. Planting patterns can be used to intensify this effect, by first planting a shallow-rooted species to help keep a later introduced, deep-rooted species in the lower soil horizons. Guide or buffer species can thus be specifically planted with the aim of changing rooting This can reduce tree-crop patterns , and thus increase the overall LER of the system. competition and optimal crop-crop interface distance. The buffer species should have a small but verti ca lly elongated root area with a high density of fine roots.

Lower: shows potential productive area wasted through unconstrained tree growth Upper: shows how buffer-guide species can increa se the spatial effectiveness of a tree-crop association, guiding the canopy and roots , decreasing the optimal interface distance & increasing the LER.

Spatial planting patterns


Where crops have the potential to grow well together with a high LER , systems should be based as much as possible on spatial patternsfarrangements having a large amount of crop-crop interface. When two crops are roughly the same size, fine planting patterns are often used. Maximum crop-crop interface is obtained with a checkerboard pattern , or when rows are used alternate

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 2

Page 27

rows give maximum interface. Fig 2. Fine pattern arrangements

Individual

Checkerboard

Rows

Boundary

Sub -plot

When crops are different sizes (eg. a tree plus smaller crop), coarse planting patterns tend to be used - strips, groups, blocks etc. These have a lower per area amount of crop -crop interface but are chosen to maximise other benefits of the diverse system. The areas between the larger species can contain an area of a single crop, an intercrop, a group of shrubs etc. (see fig 3 - coarse pattern arrangements) Planting patterns are also strongly affected by the site and socia-economic needs . A user may require live fencing and a boundary pattern while also desiring the eco logical dynamics of a gap pattern. A variation or progression might be devised that accommodates both needs. A number of specific (agro)ecological tasks can be performed by special-purpose trees , ego nutrient cycling and capture (N -fixing trees), insect-repellent plants, windbreak effects, which do not affect the crop-crop interface distance but which increase the LER. Countless variations exist of possible pattern arrangements which accommodate specific needs and situations. The normal orientation of crop rows between strips of trees is parallel to the tree strips for ease of machinery use. But sometimes the orientation used is perpendicular to the tree strips, making it easier to carry the green manure from the tree strip to the crop . The optimal spacing between different crop rows might not be symmetric - ego when , because of prevailing winds, more moisture accumulates on the windward side of a tree or hedgerow (this occurs to the SW side in the UK), the optimal layout may have a small inter-row distance on the side of the hedge with more moisture and a wider distance on the other side.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Fig 3. Coarse pattern arrangements

:J.
~ ,1-;0("

-2il
"i;

'B.

, '~" " ~
"

"-

, '"),J}

Strips

Groups

Blocks

Side strips

Gaps

In the space between two different plants, rows , blocks or systems there can be strong competitive effects, a large size differential or poor compatibility between species; this can result in a wide interface distance, less than optimal LER and/or the loss of potentially useful land . In these situations , the use of a third buffer species may increase the spatial efficiency of a system by regulating resource competition between a primary and secondary species. These buffer species would have to be compatible with both adjoining species and have beneficial or other economic roles in an agroecosystem such as crop protection, improvement of microclimate, erosion prevention, pest control, nutrient capture. See Fig 4 for illustration. There may be other reas ons for irregular spacings of plants (ie disarray). These can include using different plant densities to use fluctuating resource availability, to control wind speed andfor humidity (air movement is restricted in irregular plantings as opposed to those in rows) etc. Irregular systems are often the choice for systems with great species di ve rsity.

Diversity of species is important in small-scale agroforests and forest gardens, and is an important factor in making these polycultural systems have some of the highest LER values (3-4 or more). In terms of number of species , the maximum gains are achieved by having at least 10 species , but gains continue (to a lesser extent) as the number of species increases. Tropical and tempe rate home gardens / forest gardens contain 50 to 350+ species (the latter found in home gardens in Mexico). Example: Paulown ia - wheat system To show the complexity of plant interactions, this system, widely used in China , is described. The winter wheat is planted in the early spring between widely spaced alleys of Paulownia trees. Tree-crop competition is minimal in spring but does occur during the latter stages of the

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Page 29

Fig 4. A buffered interface (double row) between two other crop blocks or strips

wheat season - evident by the lower wheat productivity near the trees . . There is some fight competition, but it is lessened through wider tree spacing. In this example , the slight competitive effects may be valuable and, possibly due to a lowering of crop temperatu res. result in gains through seed quality - wheat gluten increases from 1.0 to 3.7%, and protei n increase s from 0.2 to 0.6% over wheat produced in a monoculture. The root architecture of paulownia is interesting. The roots are predominantly in the lower soil layer (80% are 40-1 00 em below the surface), 10% are in the upper 10 em, and 98% are within 5 m of the tree. Wheat has. a deep, narrow root structure, so with the overlap in roots there is the possibility of beneficial mechanisms such as hydraulic lift (when the tree roots raise water from deep levels and make it available to other plants). Above ground beneficial effects are also reported. Trees reduce the winds peed by 45-50%, which in turn in creases seed germination from 0.5% to 1.2%, reduces soil evaporation by 1530%, and increases soil water co ntent by 5-15% over monocultural wheat. In addition , nutrient capture and storage is improved, with fresh paulownia leaves containing 2.8-3% nitrogen and providing the soil with potash and organic maUer. Wheat and fallo w or wheat as part of a cropping sequence in this system is sustainable over the long term, and wheat yields are similar to , sometimes slightly more than, monocultural controls , despite some of the land being occupied by trees. The LER for paulownia and wheat is between 1.2 and 1.5 - moderate increases over monocultures (the wheat component being around 1.0 and the tree component 0.2 to 0.5 depending on tree density). T he main economic advantages of the system occur through the tree products harvested and increased market value from improved grain quality.

References
Altieri, M: Agroecology. IT Publications, 1995. Gordon, A & Newman, S: Temperate Agroforestry Systems. CAB International, 1997. Innis , 0: Intercropping and the Scientific Basis of Traditional Agriculture. IT Publications, 1997. Wojtkowski, P: Agroecologica l Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry and Agroforestry. Science Publishers, 2002. See book reviews for a review of this book.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Val lI No 2

Pest & disease series:

Wasps
Introduction
The familiar wasp problems discussed here are those cause by socia l wasps, the familiar black and yellow striped , stinging insects. They should not be confused with solitary wasps of the numerous types of minute parasitic wasps which are of great use in the garden and for biological control methods. There are several species of social wasps (9 in Britain) including Vespula vulgaris and V.germanica (Syn . Paravespula); tree nesting species such as Dolichovespula media and D.sy/vestris; and the hornet (Vespula crabo).

1t is important to realise that wasps perform some important functions in the garden ecology, some of which may be ve ry useful to us. In spring and early summer they feed their young on caterpillars, aphids and other pests.

Damage caused
Wasps can enlarge damage on fruits started by birds (eg. on apples and pears), but can also initiate feeding on softer-skin ned fruits, ego grapes, cherries and plums. They are attracted to ripe fruits and can eat out extensive cavities . Not only are fruits spoiled, but the presence of wasps can make fruit picking hazardous, as wasps will sting if pressed by a finger.

Life cycle
Vespu/a species usually construct nests in cavities in soil, walls and buildings , while Dolichovespula species make nests amongst twigs and branches of shrubs and trees . Nests are constructed from a paper-like material which the wasps make by chewing small pieces of wood (obtained from old stumps, fences and fence posts , wooden buildings etc.) and mixing them with saliva. Fertilised female wasps (queens) overwinter under loose bark on trees, in garden sheds and other outbuildings and in similar dry, protected situations. They establish new nests in the spring. Initially the nests are sma ll , with only a few open hexagonal cells in which the queen rears the first brood of larvae, feeding them on a high-protein diet of caterpi llars and other insects. When the first worker wasps of the new season emerge in early June they take over the nest building and feeding functions from the queen and by midsummer the nests are greatly enlarged, often containing thousands of workers. At this stage males and females are reared and the young fertilised queens seek suitable sites in which they can overwinter. Nests continue to thrive until the first hard frosts kill them out in late October & early November; it is particularly in this period, after the queens have left, that the remaining workers become a pest. Overall in the UK, wasp numbers are reportedly declining, once possible rea son being the use of fence posts and rails pressure-treated with arsenic-based fungicides. The wasps which chew pieces of this to make nests are poisoned .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 31

Control
Wasp populations fluctuate considerably from year to year and in years when conditions favour them they may be so numerous that it may be impossible to protect all susceptib le plants from attack.
Beer or jam trap Half fill an old jar with beer (or jam mixed with water and little detergent into q watery slurry) and seal it with some paper or thin cloth or foil and an elastic band. Make a small hole in the paper I cloth I foil for the wasps to get in. In their attempts to reach the beer I jam , the wasps should fall down into it and drown. These traps can trap large numbers of wasps, although overall effectiveness varies. Do not use near flowering plants as bees may be attracted.

Apple trap A jam jar is first a quarter filled with water. A sweet apple is then cored right through and placed in the next of the jar. As the apple ferments and goes brown the more the wasps like it; they gorge themselves on the apple and fall right through the opening into the water. Some try to climb up the jar but cannot find the centre of the apple. The wasps will completely eat the app le out of the sk in within a couple of days; empty the jar in an evening and place a new apple in it for the next day. Beer trap Persistent wasp problems caused by a nearby nest might necessitate the destruction of the nest if it accessible - although wasps often fly some distance from the ir nests to forage. Some insecticide dusts are recommended for this use, placing them in the ~ nest entrance at dusk (an hour after sunset) when the wasps have stopped flying; the only 'safe' chemica l in this category is rotenone (Derris).
Pro t ecting fruit On a small scale , ripening fruits can be protected by enclosing the best fruit or fruit trusses in muslin or other permeable cloth bags. Alternatively , a fruit cage can be adapted, by covering the top half with horticultural clear polythene and covering the lower half (when wasps start to become a problem) with shade netting.

To prevent bird damage (and thus secondary damage from wasps) on apples or pears , lake measures to try and keep birds away.

Apple trap

References
Buczacki. S & Harris, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. H.arperCoIHns, 1998. Greenwood, P & Halstead, A: The RHS Pets & Diseases. Darling Kindersley, 1997.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Climate change impacts


Introduction
A recent report on climate change impacts on gardens in the UK has highlighted the likely problems (and benefits) which climate change is likely to bring . For anybody involved in growing less common crops this is an important work, because research into the effects on agriculture really only look at grass and a few cereal crops. This article is based on the report and aims to summarise the relevant details. Readers in other parts of the world are likely to encounter similar problems, though the scale may be different.

Changes in the UK Climate


Some climate change in the future is inevitable, even if human behaviour was to change immediately. Climate models produce different scenarios for the next 80 years assuming different rates of carbon dioxide emissions - low, medium low, medium high and high. For this article I am taking the medium high scenario as this seems most likely, at least in the near future . Average annua l temperatures in the UK are expected to rise by about 0.3e per decade. Warming will be greater in the summer and autumn (June-November) than in the winter and spring (December-May) , and greater in the south east than the north west. By the 2080's a large part of southern England and south Wales will be 4 e warmer in summer and 3-3.5e warmer in winter, while in north west Scotland summers will be 3e warmer and winters 2-2.5e warmer. For each 1e increase in temperature , the growing season can be expected to increase about 21 days in the south east and 10 days in northern areas. Hence by 2080 the Scottish highlands ' growing season of 150 days will be increased by 45 days and the season in south wes t England will extend from 250 days to about 330 da ys. In winter, minimum temperatures will rise more rapidly than maximums. In summer , maximums will rise more rapid ly than minimums , leading to more frequent hot summers. Frosts will becom e rare in some parts of the UK such as the south west. Annual rainfall by 2080 is predicted to decrease by 10%, with substantial decreases in summer (of 30-50%) outweighing smaller increases in winter. Annual cloud cover and relative humidity are expected to decrease by 3-9% by the 2080's, so evaporation will increase, and soil moisture defi cits become much greater in summer. Foggy days are expected to de crease by 20% . Average wind speeds are not expected to change much. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of some extreme events such as droughts and high temperature events, though changes in extreme wind events are unclear.

Plant responses to climate change


In gardens, plants grow in very favourable conditions . They are usually propagated in controlled conditions , planted into prepared ground and protected to some degree from pests , dis eases and competition . In such conditions , plants' ability to respond and adapt to climate change is very much greater than in nature . Two factors are particularly important in determining climate change impacts: hardiness and water availability.

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Hardiness The USDA hardiness system defines zones based on 6.25C bands of average annual extreme minimum temperatures (the lowest temperature recorded in each year averaged over a number of years) . Applied in Europe, and especially the UK, the zones are rather less neatly defined, and their effect on plant survival is less clear, because milder winters in the UK are not currently accompanied by hot summers to ripen wood. Much of the UK at present equates to zone 8 (-12 to _7G), the Scottish highlands to zone 7 (- 17 to -12 C) and the southern and western fringes

to z,p ne 9 (-7 to _1 C).


The 4C rise in temperature anticipated by the 2080's equates to about half a zone. Although mean annual temperature and annual extreme minimum temperatures are very different, most plants currently growing in UK gardens would be expected to survive a temperature lift of this magnitude (already , in cities, the temperature is often 2-3C warmer, and native and exotic plants survive well). Some plants which require summer heat to ripen their wood well will be expected to do better. Water availability Many plants tolerate higher temperatures and drier summers, but many drought-tolerant plants are intolerant of winter wet. Howeve r, increased ra infall in winter won 't necessarily lead to wetter soils, because the warmer drier summers should substantially reduce soil moisture content before the onset of winter. So in fact winter soi l moisture contents are only likely to increase by a very small amount. Soil type will also be important - heavy soils will be more prone to winter waterlogging, and light soils to severe drying in summer. Rainfall inten sity is another factor - a greater proportion of winter rain is expected to fall in more intense downpours. If the soil is fertile with a good structure it will be able to absorb large amounts of water quickly; if not, more runoff, erosion and flooding are likely.

Plant management in a changing climate


Impacts on soil The main effect of climate change on soils due to higher temperatures will be to accelerate loss of soil organic matter and to release nutrients in increasing amounts. Light soils will be most at ri sk from rapid loss of organic matter, degradation of soil structure and in creas ing susceptibility to erosion. Keeping the ground covered with mulches or ground covers will become more important. . Water use Water shortage is likely to be the most serious impact of climate change on the growing of crops and plants. Water demand will rise during summer droughts just when it is not available from mains sources; the importance of harvesting and storing one's own water supplies will multiply. The use of trickle and drip irrigation will need to be considered . Ponds and streams are likely to suffer falling water levels in summer, and increasing temperatures will increase the risk of algal blooms. Trees The main threats to trees are summer drought, winter waterlogging and high winds. Trees grown in grass (eg. parkland trees) will be especially prone to drought damage; soil improvement and mulches will help overcome problems. Winter waterlogging can be reduced by good soil care and drainage. Many fruit trees and bushes have a winter chilling requirement (ie number of hours below 5 C) to break dormancy before flowering (the fruiting) can occur. During dormancy, many plants undergo active internal development, eg of flowers , and insufficient chilling results in delay, abnormality or failure of flowers. Higher winter temperatures could thus pose a serious problem

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

...

~-

~~~

,""'-~

to fruit growers - problems are already occu rring in the UK with blackcurrant crops after unusually mild winters. In the short term, this problem may be overcome by substitution of cultivars with smaller chilling requirements. Historical cultivars, grown because of their close adaptation to local climatic conditions, will become more difficult to grow. In the longer term. changing crops, e9 from apples to peaches, may be necessary.

Shrubs The smaller and less long-lived habit of shrubs, along with the large number of fruiting shrubs, will make substitution of one for another more drought-tolerant will be easier than with trees. Sub-shrubs will become more widely used. Pests and diseases The general increase in summer and wi nter temperatures, combined with wetter winters and drier summe rs, are likely to have considerable impact on the severity of pest and disease attacks. Butterflies and moths will emerge earli er and may have time for a further generation bad news if their caterpi ll ars damage leaves or fruit. Other insects may overwinter as adults rather than eggs and hence cause more damage. Warmer, wetter winters will favour root diseases such as Phytophthora, that need water to spread in soil. Warmer, drier summers will favour powdery mildews but should decrease the risk of fungal diseases such as bacterial canker of stone fruit, scab and canker of pome fruit.

Conclusion
Climate change is not something about to happen - it is something which is already here and is accelerating at a rate not previously experienced in the Earth's recent hi story. We are already facing the consequences of climate change and extreme weather events. The benefi cial effects of good soil management and maintenance of a healthy plant cover will, if applied on a large enough scale, help to cope with climatic extremes and do much to slow the pace of climate change and to reduce its impacts.

Examples
The three examples here illustrate the changes anticipated by the m ed ium high emissions scenario for the 2080's. These are for Loch Tay in Scotland, Cambridge is eastern England, and Torquay in south west England.

------Januar max min mean rain July max min mean rain

Loch Tay.-------est 2080

--------- Cambridae ----- -I.t.mean est 2080

---------- Tor uav


I.t.mean

~~---~--~~~

Lt. mean

est 2080

5.2 0.4 2.8 159 18.6 10.0


14. 3

7.2 2.4 4.8 190

6.5 0.8 3.65 43 21.5


11.7

9.3 3.6 6.45 54 26.0 16.2 21.1 26.5

8.8 3.4 6.1 114 20.6


13.1

11.3

5.9 8.6 137 24.8


17.3

21.9
13.3

69

17.6 45

16.6 48

16.85 46

21.05 25

i.t.mean = long term (1961-1990) mean est 2080 = estimated value in 2080 max, min, mean - temperatures in C for that month rain - rainfall in mm for that month

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Page 35

"

Loch Tay Winter minimum temperatures rise by 2 G. Summer temperatures rise by about 3e , making it warmer than Cambridge and Torquay at present. Cambridge Winter minimum temperatures rise by 2.8C, making it warmer than Torquay at present. Summer temperatures rise by about 4.soG. Summer rainfall is halved, making severe droughts muc~ more likely.

Torquay Winter minimum temperatures rise by 2.SoC (making it similar to present-day Bordeaux). Summer temperatures rise by about 4C. Th in and free draining soils will suffer severe water shortages in summer.

Reference
Bisgrove, R & Hadley, P: Gardening in the Global Greenhouse: The Impacts of Climate Change on Gardens in the UK. Technical Report. UKCIP, Oxford, 2002.

Agroforestry Research Trust - Courses in 2003


Forest Gardening - running twice in 2003: 24-25 May 2003 and again on 23-24 August 2002
The overall aim of this two, day course is to give you an overview of how to design, implement and maintain a temperate forest garden. Teaching sessions will be interspersed with frequent visits into our 9-year-old established forest garden.

Practical information on tree crops, shrub crops, perennials and ground covers will be complemented with visits to our forest garden to look at our successes and fai lures, as well as to taste unusual leaf and fruit crops.
Cost: 95.00 (includes lunches on both days)

Nut Crops - 4-5 October 2003


This weekend course will cover all aspects of growing common and uncommon nut crops in Britain.

Teaching sessions will be interspersed with visits to forest garden and trials site where several nut crops are grown. Several unusual nut crops will also be available to taste. Common nuts covered are Chestnuts, Hazelnuts and Walnuts. Less common species include Almonds, Butternuts, Heartnuts, Hickory nuts, Monkey puzzle , Oaks with edible acorns , Pine nuts. Cost: 95.00 (includes lunches on both days) For more details and a booking form for any of these courses please contact: A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. Email: maiJ@agroforestry.co.uk _ Fax/Tel: 01803840776. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 2

Book Reviews
Growing berries and currants
Richard Bird & Kate Whiteman
Lorenz Books , 2002; 64 pp; 6.95. ISBN 0-7548-0983-8 The book is divided into three sections. The first describes the different types of fruit , with a Httle about the history and popular cultivars (in addition, a longer cultivar list of names is given) , nutritional properties, and how to store, prepare and use the fruits. As well as the common soft fruits , this book also covers cranberries , elderberries and mulberries in some detail, and mentions cloudberries, hu ck leberries , and strawberry tree. The central sectio n of the book, 'planning and perparation ', tackles soil types and improvement, growing, supporting and protecting fruit, propagation , and comm on pests and diseases. A mixture of organic and nonorganic remed ies for diseases are suggested. The last section of the book tackles the cultivation of different fru its. harvesting, pests and diseases are mentioned. Pruning , training,

The book is very well illustrated with many colour photographs . For a small book it manages to fit a lot in , though the way each fruit has two separate sections is not ideal. It is a good book particularly for the beginner to fruit growing.

Spice Crops
E A Weiss
CABI Publishing , 2002 ; 432 pp ; 80 .00 I US$149.00 (hardback) ISBN 0-85199-605-1 Plants that are the sources of spices have become important cash crops since the Sumarian kingdom (about 3,000 Be) and over the centuries their uses have multiplied . This has resulted in a rise in consumer demand following the popularity for natural flavourings , which in turn has increased interest in their production in temperate and tropical countries. This book is concerned with the profitable production of spice crops at all levels of management, more efficient processing and greater utilisation . It focuses on the growing of spice crops mostly found in the tropics ; temperate species/families covered are the mustards , bay laurel, fenugreek , myrtle , the Umbelliferae (anise, caraway , coriander, cumin , dill, fennel) , capers , nigella and saffron. For each crop there is an extensive review of the history of its usage; botanical details of the speCie or species used which includ es biochemical content of relevant parts ; ecology & environmental conditions required for healthy growth; and extensive cultivation details including soils, fertiliser use, weed control, irrigation , possible intercropping and rotation combinations ,

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pests , diseases and harvesting . Processing of the c rop , storage and drying is then described. Finally, products and usage are described; with mustards , for example , the medicinal uses of the seeds are noted, then the va ri ous uses for English , French and other mustards, mustard meal (used in traditional medicine in many parts of the world), expressed mustard oil (mainly used as a cooking oil ), and the essential oil of mustard (an extremely toxic irritant, used as an antimicrobial and fungicide.) Spice , Crops offers a fine overview of many of the major world spice crops and will be valuable reading for horticulturalists , agronomists and botanists.

Allium Crop Science: Recent Advcances


H 0 Rabinowitch & L Currah (Eds)
CABI Publishing. 2002; 528 pp; 95.00 I US$175.00 (hardback) ISBN 0-85199-510-1 The Alliums are some of the most ancient cultivated crops and include onions , garlic leeks, and numerous other related plants . The aim of this book is to bring together in a single volume , up to date knowledge obtained from a variety of scientific disciplines, from the basic molecular level, to application in the field, of the allium crops. Chapters include the evolutions, domestication and taxonomy of Allium species ; the flowering process; exploitation of wild relatives for the breeding of cultivated AJ1iums ; diversity, fertility and seed production of garlic (all garlic clones were thought to be completely ste rile until recent years - the restoration of garlic fertility is regarded as a major breakthrough of the 1990's); GM technology applied to onions; onion agronomy; therapeutic and medicinal properties of onions , garlic, and other alliums ~ (as well as the commonly known antibacterial and antifungal properties , t here are numerous othe r health effects on the cardiovascular system , respiritory system , on metabolic diseases , and against various cancers). Shallots and leeks merit their own chapters , as do the 'ornamental onions' , many of which in fact have edible or medicinal uses but are rarely cultivated on a commercial scale. This book will be of value to all those interested in the biological aspects of alliums , as well as scientists , horticulturalists and botanists.

The Royal Horticultural Society Fruit & Vegetable Gardening Michael Pollock (Editor-in-Chief)
Darling Kindersley, 2002; 272 pp; 20.00 ISBN 0-7513-3683 - 1 This book aims to give a complete guide for all kitchen gardeners to growing all common vegetables , herbs and fruit. It is divided into four main sections. The first covers genera l gardening and cultivation techniques - soils , feeding and irrigation , planning, mul ching , weed control , general gardening advice etc. It is good to see green manures mentioned , but there are a few silly errors - borage is not perennial , and using comfrey as a green manure to dig in is likely to lead to all sorts of problems from root regrowth.

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The second section covers vegetables. General guidance on growing from seed , plant ing, care , and storage of crops is followed by AZ sections for brassicas, root crops , onion family, legumes, sal ad crops , fruiting vegetables , curcubits , stem vegetables , leafy vegetables , and perennial vegetab les. All the common vegetab les are included , along with one or two less commo n, with siting advice, cultivation details and recommended cultivars . The th ird, small , section covers culinary herbs. detailed and more general cultivation advice. Some 25 herbs are described along with

The fourth section covers fruit. For tree fruits , general descriptions are given about planning , tree forms , rootstocks , grafting, pollination , planting and pruning in various forms. The main tree fruits are then described fairly concisely (with many references to other parts of the book for pruning , feeding , watering, pest and disease advice). Less common tree fruits included are medlar, mulberry (but not American cultivars) , hazelnuts , walnuts and almonds. Similar general guidance about soft fruits is then followed by descriptions of the common fruits , plus cranberries and grape vines. Tender fruits briefly covered next include Citrus, kiwi fruit , passion fruit and olive. I would have liked to see descriptions of more cultivars for most of the fruits mentioned. Overall the book is a good introduction and general text for all kitchen gardeners growing fruit and vegetables.

Agroecological Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry and Agroforestry


Paul A Wojtkowski
Science Publishers Inc. 2002; 356 pp; 34.00 ISBN 1-57S0S-217-X Available from the A.R. T. for 37.00 including P & P . Agroecology can be defined as the study and application of ecologica[ principles to planned and managed ecosystems. in order to obtain socioeconomic, environmental and/or cultural objectives. Agroecology offers alternatives to the unsustainable monocultures which currently dominate agriculture, and to a lesser extent, forestry, which require a new approach. Polycultures in agriculture and forestry can provide increased per area outputs, lower associated costs and/or reduce climatic and market risks. The added complexity and the advantages inherent in a biodiverse plot or landscape are best approached using agroecological principles. The aim of this book is to offer a detailed . in~depth look at concepts, principles and practices that underlie agroecology. It is also a major advance towards an ecologybased approach to the teaching of agriculture , forestry and agroforestry. Most books on these topics look only at a segment of the alternatives (eg. the agronomic options only) , simplifying what is actually a staggering array of biological options. This book takes the opposite view , presenting a huge range of prinCiples and practices. The agroecological perspective is presented starting with the plant-plant interface, proceeding on to the agrotechnologies and then to landscape design .

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The dynamics of plant-plant interfaces covers competition , species which can benefit others , management of unwanted or unutilised plants , achieving the maximum potential from polycultures, and spatial or pattern theory. Concepts such as the land Equivalent Ratio (LER) are introduced here as a method of measuring yields from pol ycultures. Sustainability is approached by looking at insects, pathogens and weeds , soil sustainability Control strategies for insects and weeds are fully factors . and sustain ability strategies. discyssed , as are methods to control soil erosion and manage soil nutrients.

Plant-use concepts encompasses the way plants are used and selected. Tree management options covers the propagation, planting and management of trees for various uses , including the use of buffer-guide trees to regu late resource competition. Economic factors discusses methods of measuring efficiency and yields in polyculturaJ systems. Des ign of agroecological systems encompasses design theory , agrotechnologies (and agricultural and/or forestry land-use practice that has unique and distinct characteristics) , design practicalities and optimisation. Discussion of agroeco logical practices form a large part of the book . This includes agronomic technologies (including cover crops,~companion plants and intercropping) , forestry technologies , mainstream agroforestry systems (parkland , alley cropping and strip cropping ), further agroforestry techniques (shade systems , tree and bush support systems , silvopasture ie animal + tree+ pasture systems) , and water-based systems. Water management and windbreak systems are discussed. Complex ordered agroecosystems concentrates on polycultures grown in ordered patterns. Finally, complex disarrayed agroecosystems (based on density, diversity and disarray) focuses on polycultures of great di versity - some of the most environment-friendly and highly productive versions of agroecology. These include home gardens, forest gardens and forest farms. The adoption of agroecological technologies by farmers and landowners is then covered , followed by chapters on landscape design. This is a book of major importance for those interested in studying, planning or implementing sustainable po lycu ltural and agroforest ry systems. In many ways it extends and supersedes Bill Mollison 's Permaculture: A Designers Manual, and it should be on every Permaculture designers bookshelf.

Classified adverts
25p/word , minimum 5.00. 20% discount for subscribers .
Consultancy services - Martin Crawford of the A.R.T. undertakes consultancy ranging from a walk around your land advising on site , to full plans for forest garden and agroforestry systems. For rates or to discuss your requirements contact Martin at the A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon Tag 6JT. Tellfax (01803) 840776. mail@agroforestry.co .uk ECO-LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN) , 19 Maple Grove, Bath , BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472.

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Agroforestry is the integration oi trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tali and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system.

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (16 unwaged) 24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterlin g) 34 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Darlington, Totnes, Devon , Tag 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk . Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust IS a charity registered in England (Reg . No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops , and agroforestry systems , and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications , seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News
... 7

Ca/ycanthus: American allspice

Volume 11 Number 3

April 2003

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 11 Number 3

April 2003

Contents
2

News: Chestnuts in Japan (II) I Bitter almonds I Stone


pine breeding in Spain I Dwarf almond in Yugoslavia I Nepal pepper I A green edible roof

7 10 23 26 28 31 33 38

Kudzu: Pueraria lobata Edible water plants Chestnut: nutritional benefits Coppicing fruit and nut trees The Chilean hazel: Gevuina avellana The Hazelnut in North West Europe Apples for juice Calycanthus: American allspice

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species . The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops . Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: AgroforeslIy News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Dartington ,

Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. UK


Email: mail@agroforestry.ro.uk

Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776


Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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- News

Chestnuts in Japan (II)


There are 4 main styles of chestnut orchard management in Japan . In the first, clear cultivation. all grass and weeds are removed . This reduces fertiliser demand and drought suscept~ bility (chestnuts have higher evapotranspiration rates than most other fruit trees) and so is widely used in Japan for smaller orchards of drier poorer soils. Orchards with better soils and adequate soil moisture more commonly use turf culture , leaving the grass in place under the trees. This can have the drawbacks of increased risk of drought and Nitrogen (N) deficiency, because the peak of grass growing coincides with the time N is most needed by the chestnut trees. Grass is therefore mown throughout July and August to minimise wa ter transpiration and N input must be over 30% higher than that of clean cultivation. The grass is cut at least 4 times per year to supply organic maUer. Alternatively, straw mulching is sometimes used . Rice or wheat straw , bamboo , grass or bark can be spread over the soil surface. This is said to be the best soil management technique of all , reducing water loss, improving soi l structure and fertility, suppressing weeds and reducing soil temperature fluctuations (though the slower rise in spring soil temperatures may delay bud burst). Soil temperature is optimal for fruit tree development at about 20-30 D C. Higher temperatures (as can occur with clean cultivation or turf cu lture in Japan) can damage roots down to about 15 cm (6"). Straw mulching is thus often preferred in summer time. Lastly , a live cover crop is sometimes used, planted at a time when it will have minimal effect on tree growth, the ploughed in (as a source of organic matter) when it starts to compete for nutrients. Soya beans and vetch are used as summer crops, and lupin , alfalfa or vetch as winter crops. There is a risk of damaging tree roots which limits the use of this technique. The soi l organic matter content is very important and in Japan a considerable amount (20-30 tonnes/ha) must be supplied to prevent any decline in nutrient levels. Fallen leaves alone (2-3 tonnes/ha) are not enough, but mowing the grass 4 times a year (42-43 tonnes/ha) is ample. As a consequence, turf cult ure has replaced clean cultivation over the last 30 years in all but the smallest orchards. In Japanese chestnut trees, bud burst occurs in early April and shoots develop in 2 growth spurts, first in May and again in late June-mid July, with growth virtually ceasing thereafter. Root growth occurs mostly from early April onwards, with a growth spurt in late April and another in early September continuing through to November. Flowers and burrs show 2 growth spurts: the first around flowering , the second just before harvest. These are also the times of peak nutrient uptake (especially high during flowering). Burr development is closely related to potassium (K) nutrition, while fruit development is primarily dependent on N nutrition. Chestnut trees have a greater ability than most other fruit trees to absorb mineral sa lts and are able to use Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium even if present in on ly low amounts, as long as the soil pH is low ( pH 4 to 5.4 is considered ideal). High pH increase Calcium and Magnesium uptake at the expense on Manganese and other essential nutrients, adversely affecting tree development. In terms of nutrient demand, N uptake is the single most important consideration. This begins about a month befo re bid burst (ie March) and increases through flowering until shoot elongation ceases in late July. Potassium and Phosphorus uptake is low at flowering time, but

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then increases through to harvest. Lack of N at critica l stages of chestnut growth (particularly around flowering time) can have very significant effects on tree growth and fruit size. Manure is often used as the winter base dressing to supply most nutrients (at a rate of about 10 tonnes/ha for 6-year old trees, rising to 40 tonnes/ha for 11-year old trees) , with additional fertilisers used in small amounts as 's ide dressings' in July, August and September. Chestnut have high Phosphorus-absorbing capacity and are rarely defi cient. Mycorrhizas are found on chestnut tree roots throughout Japan. Typically, most chestnut roots are found ate 30-50 cm depth, where most of the feeder roots are concentrated. From 80-130 cm depth are found most of the medium-sized roots , with little root development beneath 130 cm. Most mycorrhiza s are found in the top 60 cm and five species have been identified : Clavaria mucida Laccaria amethystea Laccaria laccata Laccaria tortuJis Scleroderma citrinum (note: the last 4 of these are also found in Britain , Europe and North America. particularly noticed large numbers of L.laccata around our chestnut trees in Devon.) We have

These mycorrhiza l fungi all have a very beneficial effect on the host, leading to much increased root and tree growth. Mycorrhizal development is especiaJly god in soils with high organic matter (but equally good in low and high-fertility soils), and generally higher in heavier than lighter soils. Trees with abundant mycorrhizas are able to tolerate a much greater range of soil pH and much drier soi ls then non-mycorrhizal trees. Source: How they do it in Japan (cont). Chestnutz News, November 2002 .

Bitter almonds
Thousands of years ago, before CUltivation of almonds began , most of the original witd species and plants of almond were bitter; many years of selection led to the sweet almond varieties grown today. A recessive gene ca uses bitter almond trees to produce in their shoots , leaves and kernels a toxic compound called amygdalin, which serves as a chemical defence against being eaten. When amygdalin is moistened, it splits into edible benzaldehyde , which provides an intense almond aroma and fla vo ur, and deadly hydrocyanic acid, a fast-acting inhibitor of the respiratory system. The lethal dose of raw bitter almonds depends on the size of the nuts, their concentration of amygdalin and the consumer's sensibility. Estimates are that a 70-kg adult might die from eating between 10 and 70 raw nuts , and a chi ld from ingesting just a few. In any case , the taste is quite unpleasant and few people are likel y to continue to snack on them after the first nibble; but of course they are not meant to be a snack food , but rather used as a spice. Because hydrocyan ic acid vanishes into the air when heated, cooking destroys the poison in bitter almonds and allows them to lend their flavour to a wide range of dishes , both traditional and modern - eg o marzipan, almond milk, cake glazes , amaretto liqueur, biscuits , bread pudding , fruit crumbles , panna cotta, ice cream etc. Bitter almonds have a powerful , unique flavour which gi ves marzipan and almond milk their characteristic taste. Until recent decades, most Mediterranean almond orchards were grown from seed, resulting in a mix of bitter almond trees amoung the sweet; growers liked to keep a few bitter trees around

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because they helped pollinize the sweet varieties. Scattered bitter trees remain in Spain and Italy, but commercial production of bitter almonds is now concentrated in Morocco and Iran. Commercial sweet almond growers regard bitter almonds as a contaminant and take great care to avoid harvest from any bitter trees (some of which might be rootstocks growing from failed grafts). Alternatives to bitter almonds Apricot and peach kernels can substitute for biUer almonds , though they have less amygdalin and thus less flavour. One or two of these added to peach , apricot or cherry jam can heighten the flavour considerably. China exports bitter nuts often called almonds but which are botanically apricot kernels. The fruits, closely related to almonds , are grown primarily for their seeds , not their flesh. To complicate matters, China and Central Asian countries also produce sweet apricot kernels which can be eaten like sweet almonds. Peach leaves macerated in hot water can also be used for biUer almond flavour. The most common sources of bitter almond taste are almond extracts , which are distilled to be free of cyanide. "Pure" almond extract should contain natural oil of bitter almond, a colourless fluid, along with water and alcohol. "Natural" extract is usually flavoured with benzaldehyde made from cassia (a relative of cinnamon) . "Imitation" extract used synthetic benzaldehyde manufactured from petrochemicals. Although oil of bitter almond can be pressed from bitter almonds , apricot kernels and other fruit kernels containing amygdalin (including peaches , plums , cherries), true bitter almonds are almost never used. Apricot kernels yield more oil and, being by-products of the fruit industry, are cheaper. Some 95 kg of kernels are needed to make 100g of bitter almond oil. Source: Bitter Almonds - The case of the tasty but poisonous nut. D Karp . WANATCA Yearbook 2002

Stone pine in Spain


The stone pine , Pinus pinea, is one of the niost characteristic tree species of the Mediterranean basin due to its umbrella shape. Since antiquity it has been used as a nut tree, its cones producing large edible kernels (pine nuts) known in Spanish as "pinones". In Spain , stone pine forests cover some 400,000 ha (1 million acres) , two thirds of the world's stone pine area , half of which lies in Andalusia. In former times , the pine forests provided the local population with a large number of resources, but nowadays the main functions are defined as environment protection, conservation , and recreation. The cone yield is currently the most important commercial production and provides average yearly incomes of 24 Euros Iha (in the most productive stands up to 96 Euros/ha/year) to the owner. Timber sale comes next (15 Euros/ha/year), while income from grazing, fuel wood and hunting is minor. Despite these small amounts, in the Castile-Leon region of Spain, the pinekernel shelling and processing industry includes over 70 companies , with a turnover of 12 million Euros and output of 1500-2500 tonnes of unshelled kernels per year. Spain produces in total in the order of 6000 tonnes of pine nuts (in shell) per year Amoung the nut trees, the stone pine remains as one of the genuine forest species , as it was never domesticated in cultivated plantations - at present, cones are still harvested in forest stands. The difficulties of cultivation may explain this: stone pines cannot be propagated from

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cuttings or woody grafts (only spring grafting is possible) ; pruning is difficult, as the tree on ly forms long shoots from the term in al buds at the top of branches ; cones take three years to mature, so three consecutive yie ld s coin cide on the tree and irregular fruiting between years results; female co nelets and male catkins are situated sepa rate ly in different parts of the tree's crown; grafted trees behave for 10-15 years like female individuals without male flowers, and need to 'grow near mature stands for pollination. Perhaps the main re aso n for lack of cu ltivation is the low yield . Average harvest per ha from natural stands is about 200 kg of cones, giving 40 kg of seeds (ke rnels with shells) and 10 kg of unshelled kernels. Harvesting entails a worker climbing the tree and pulling down the co nes to the ground , where they are collected - this requires skill and time, and is somewhat dangerous too. The job of the cone harvester - pinero - is disappearin g in the new generation as the rural population exodus continues. Mechanisation is unfeasible in most locations . The breeding programme in Castile-Leon aims to find improved selections with good seed yields and fast production. Grafted trees are able to start fruiting in only 5 years (compared with 20 or more in traditional stands) and by 12-15 years of age can yield 1000-1500 kg/ha of cones per year - 5 to 7 times that from natural unimproved stands . Clone banks of highly productive selections were set up in the early 1990's and grafted plantations set up as test plots . Some of these are approaching full production . Good seed stands will be used to provide seed for reforesting. It is hoped to make tissue culture propagation feasible on a scale which will allow faster and easier propagation of improved selections. Source: Nucis-Newsletter, Numbers 6,7 & 9 (1997 , 1998 & 2000)

Dwarf almond in Yugoslavia


Almond in Yugoslavia is often damaged by low temperatures at flowering time, because of its early flowering habit. One pof the main aims of almond breeding in therefore development of late flowering, productive cultivars bearing high quality nuts, resistant to low temperatures and pathogens. Dwarf almond (Prunus tenelJa or Amygdalus nana) is important because it starts vegetation late, flowers later (similar to early flowering apples) avoiding frosts, and is resistant to low winter temperatures and pathogens. Dwarf almond has extremely low vig our. and small nuts with kernels often bitter (the form dulcis has sweet kernels). It ca n be crossed with almond cultiva rs and peaches . It has good potential as a dwarfing rootstock for alm ond and peach as well as for developing new varieties of late-flowering almond. Sou rce: Nucis-Newsletter, Number 9 (December 2000)

Nepal pepper
An interesting email came in to us in April: "I have been on a length y quest to locate information about Nepal pepper, and it all has to do with a reconstruction of a portion of my family's history. My grandfather was a world traveller. In the mid to late 1850's he trekked to the Himalayas, Tibet , Nepal , and Northern India . The Engl ish occupiers of the area introduced him to the wonderfu l fragrance and ta ntalizing taste of a spice called "Nepal pepper." He became so fond of the spice that he purchased a special sterling sil ver pe pper shaker in which to carry a supply . According to my father, he carried that shaker with him at all times for the rest of his life. It certainly went with him on all of his travels, and it occupied a prominent place on the dining room table when he was at home. Th e re-suppl y of the contents is a mystery to me.

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My father inherited the shaker and a supply of the spice; he introduced me to the spice when I was a child in the early 1940's. Its use became almost a ritual with us. As the supply dwindled, my father found that Spice Islands brand carried Nepal pepper. But. about 1965 we learned that the company was discontinuing the marketing of the product. In a panic, we scoured all of the grocery stores in Northern and Central California (USA) and purchased every bottie of the spice that we could locate. The new supply was so large that it lasted until 1996. I inherited the shaker in 1977.
In the ~as t several months I have used the internet to search for the spice plant that would match the profile of what I thought I knew about the spice. ALAS, the tiny residue led me to believe that the spice had come from a long capsicum pepper pod. That led me down many a cold trail. However, the internet searching finally led me to a reference to Nepal pepper. It was fascinating to learn that the spice was not a true pepper at all, but was actually the ground, dried berry of a prickly ash plant. That discovery led me to discover more than I had ever wanted to learn about the spice trade . The movement of plantings around the world, the infighting between countries for the control of the spice trade, the changing names of the spices to suit their use in different countries, etc.

One reference to Sichuan pepper indicates that it refers to a group of closely related plants of genus Zanthoxylum. Further it states that in Asia most representatives of this genus are found in the Himalaya region. And, that as close as I am going to come to the truth at the moment. I hope that you may be able to help me on my quest to get back to my 'roots.'"

'N epal pepper' is in fact Zanthoxylum a/atum, synonym Z.armatum. We are growing this in our forest garden at Dartington, where it is doing extremely well, producing good crops after 7 years. We sent the correspondent some dried fruits to test and grow his own in California. An excellent new book, 'Plants and People of Nepal', M P Manadhar, Timber Press 2002 gives more information on this and ~other Zanthoxylum species used as spices in Nepal.

A green edible roof


A fast way to achieve a green roof including several edible species is available. "Nature Roof' was developed in Germany, on an industrial scale, to insulate warehouses and manage their rainwater run-off. The mainstay of the plants used are the Sedum family, most of which have edible leaves and young shoots, but other alpines can be added for variety like Sempervivum (house leeks), saxifrage etc. Bees are very fond of most of the flowers which make the summer roof very colourful. "The Nature Mat" is grown in fields on geotextile in Somerset and is delivered rolled up like giant turf. This is laid out on top of several inches of free-draining material (vermiculite is the lightest, but gravel would do if the roof is strong enough) in winter or spring. The mat is heavy enough to stay in place by gravity and the plants soon root though beneath. Once rooted, the plants will thrive with minimum maintenance - very occasional weeding. The mat can also be used as a fast ground cover in difficult locations. It is not cheap (18-25 2 per m plus VAT & delivery) but does make a green roof quickly and efficiently. [ It should be possible to doit-yourself relatively easily and cheaply, using a flaxbased mulching roll, broadcasting seed in summer and keeping watered so that young plants can establish by autumn. ) Source: www.greenroof.co.uk

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Kudzu: Pueraria lobata


Introduction
Kudzu (Pueraria lobala or P.montana var./obata) or Japanese arrowroot is an important temperate zone speciality food and cover crop. It is native to China and Japan , where it is widespread, and has been introduced to many other regions . It became a staple food before yams (Dioscorea spp.) or sweet potatoes (Ipomoea balalas) became important. Kudzu is first mentioned in China in the classic Shih Ching, around 1000 Be, where it is identified as a plant used to make summer cloth in northern China . Other references around 100 Be to 100 AD mention medicina l uses. Ed ible uses are mentioned in Japan in 600 AD . Imported into the Americas, it first served as an orn ame ntal in the southern USA from 1876, it was then used as a pasture crop around 1910 and by the 1930's it was recommended for erosion control. Coverage was 3 mi llion ha in 1950, but due to its rapid growth it smothered trees, houses and telephone poles , and furthe r use as cover was discouraged. By the 1980's it was regarded as a pest , and now still covers some 3 million ha . Recently , a biofung us (ie naturally occurring control) has been discovered, the sickle pod fungus , which is like ly to be used as a further control measure. It is an interesting case of a potential plant invader being regarded as very useful to begin with, but when management and uses were neglected it became a problem. There is no reason why, if it were fully utilised , it should be a problem plant - neither should any other potential plant invader. Kudzu is not invasive in Britain or other northern temperate regions.

Description
Kudzu is a leguminous , nitrogen-fixing perennia l twining climber, and during the growing season it produces a dense cover of broad-leaved foliage. The palmate leaves are divided into three leaflets, to 18 em (7") long. Young vines are up to ]4" (12 mm ) in diameter, while older vines are 1-4" (2.5-10 cm) in diameter and Established vines can send out stems woody. reaching 30 m (100 ft) each year, high into trees . The root system of kudzu spreads horizontally to an average depth of 1 m, although depths of 2.5 m have been reported. Individual roots swell and form large fleshy tuberous structures in which starch is stored over the winter to support plant growth in the spring. Such roots range from 3.8 em (1 ~") in diameter for young vines to 18 em (6") in diameter and 2.5-3 m in length for older vines. Roots weighing 100-180 kg have been reported. Flowers (2 em long , magenta -red-purple, scented like grapes) are produced in dense racemes up to 25 em (10") long in August-September from the third year onwards. Pollination is via bees. Small flat seed pods, 4-9 cm long by 8-10 mm wide, are covered with brown hairs and contain the small seeds; they split open when ripe. Seed is rarely set in no rthern regions. The seeds are sma ll , with about 100 per gram.

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The leaves fall after the first frost and leave a substantial layer of soil-enriching organic material on the ground. Kudzu is generally regarded as hardy down to zone 5 (-20C). Nitrogen-fixation occurs when roots are inoculated by the correct Rhizobium species; kudzu belongs to the cowpea group which also in cludes Cytisus (broom) , so atural inoculation should occur in most parts of Britain.

Uses
Surprisingly, kudzu never became domesticated. This is because it is the tuber , leaves and stems that are usually utilised; small , young tubers are preferred because large ones can be tough, woody and difficult to harvest and process - consequently there has been no selection for larger roots or stems. No parts of kudzu are toxic. All parts of kudzu are edible. The tubers are used primarily for food . They can be roasted or boiled. Plants grown for tubers are usually trained up poles 3-4 m high, and the tubers harvested over a number of years. Sometimes the tubers are processed to remove the starch, which is then dried and powdered then sold as kudzu powder, to be used as a thickener similar to cornstarch , as a coating for fried foods and as a jelling agent for desserts. Kudzu starch has a shelf life of over 15 years in ordinary conditions. The starchy ra w tubers contain 69% moisture, 2% protein and 28% carbohydrate. The leaves are an outstanding , readily harvested and renewable food with properties similar to spinach and other table greens. Fresh shoots have a bean/pea flavour. The fresh leaves contain 77% moisture , 4% protein , 0.6% fat, 10% carbohydrate. Cooked leaves contain (per 100g) 36 calories , O.4g protein, 0.1g fat, 9.7g carbohydrate , 7.7g fibre, 34 mg calcium, 20 mg phosphorus , 4.9 mg iron, 0 .03 mg thiamin, 0.91g riboflavin , 0.8 mg nia cin. The seeds can be sp routed and eaten, or roasted to make a coffee. The flowers are edible, but quickl y lose their delicate scent There is good potential for producing fuel from the plant via use of its large biomass. On a commercial scale , yields of 1-1.5 tlacre roots and 1.5-2.5 tlacre of vines are easily attained in the southern USA. There is excellent potential for commercial exploitation as a paper and fibre crop with side-products of starch and tannins. Kudzu is widely used in Chinese herbal medicine , being one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The flowers and the roots are antidote, antiemetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, demulcent, diaphoretic, digestive, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic and hypotensive. Briefly, the whole plant is used to treat skin rashes and measles; the seeds to treat dysentery and alcoholic excess: the shoots to increase lactation , to treat boils and sores , and as a tonic and cough remedy; the flowers whi ch are diaphoretiC and febrifuge to treat dysentery and alcoholic excess ; the leaves are used as a styptic; the tubers are used to treat colds, fever, alcoholic excess, dysentery and many other illnesses. Many of the medicinal uses have been verified in recent years by western researchers , and kudzu is being used , for example , in pilot schemes to help people addicted to alcoho l. Kudzu is valued in Japan as a honey plant. and grape-like scent. Kudzu honey in very fine , with a faint red colour

It is a good soH erosion control plant and soil enrichment (green manure) plant. The top growth provides a valuable forage for livestock, and this ;s the principal use wo rld wide: grazing requires ca reful management as it does not ha ve a high carrying capacity . It is sometimes cut and dried to make a nutritious hay, nearly equal to alfalfa (luce rne) in nutritive value, although the woody stems can make up to half of the weight and it is difficult to cut and rake . About 1250 plants/ha are used for a forage crop, and plants are not grazed until the third

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

==
year. Cattle are recorded as putting on % kg per day through the season fed on fresh kudzu. Mixed with grass , kudzu makes good silage. A good fibre is made from the stems. They contain very long, very strong fibres. This is used to make baskets , fishing lines and nets, for tying, to make rope, net bags and paper. Stems are gathered in June and July, the best being old year old. green, straight, 2-5 m in length . On a small scale, leaves are stripped by hand and 20-30 vines are tied together and wound into coils. Retting is similar to that for linen. The coils are then cooked in boiling water until the outer portion of the vine begins to separate from the rest. They are then subjected to a series of washings, soaking and strippings until the filaments are separated out and split to the desired fineness. Specific pruning may make good quality stems available in late summer and autumn too. The stems are also used as a stuffing for chairs, cushions and beds, in house constru ction (a reinforcing agent in mud/clay walls , like the straw in cob wa ll s), and they are burned as a mosquito repellent. The fib re from kudzu is used to make a soft cloth (grasscloth); it is also used as the weft with cotton or linen as the warp in making cloth. A smallsca le cottage industry sti ll exists in Japan , with targer scale production taking place mostly in Korea.

Kudzu flowers

The rhizomes too have potential as a fibre crop, containing very strong and absorbent fibres at least 2.5 cm (1M) long suitable for paper making.

Cultivation
Kudzu grows on a wide range of soil types, but prefers well-drained loams of good fertility. It is little affected by insects or diseases, while being drought resistant. It will grow well in shade and thrives in full sunlight and requires no fertilisation or irrigation. It cannot stand waterlogging Plants can be kept under control by regular pruning - or better still by pinching out young shoots to be used for food. In areas with winter temperatures below -15 C, roots should be well mulched in autumn to protect from cold temperatures. Alternatively, plants can be grown as annuals. Note: the fresh/raw leaves contain small barbed hairs which can cause severe irritation - handle with care.

Propagation
Seed germinates fairly readi ly after soaking with nearly boiling water. Vines layer naturally where their nodes touch the ground. Cuttings (green or hardwood) can be taken from vines but require misting .

References
Bown, D: The RHS New Encyclopedia of Herbs & their uses. Darling Kindersley, 2002. Crawfo rd , M: Some perennial tuber plants. Agroforestry News, Vol 10 No 4 (July 2002). Crawford, M: Nitrogen-Fixing Plants for Temperate Climates. A.R.T ., 1998. Duke, J A : Handbook of Energy Crops. 1983. Unpubli shed. Keung, W M: Pueraria: The genus Pueraria . Taylor & Francis, 2002. Fungi can Whack Invasive Weeds. Agricultural Research, November 2001. Ody, F: Kudzu. In Herbs, Vol 24 No 2 (1999).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 3

Page 9

Edible water plants


The following table lists water plants which can be cultivated in temperate or continental climates. The definition of water plants here is plants which can grow and thrive in a depth of water of several centimetres or more. Nearly all require a sunny position.

Speci ~s of dubious safety, which have been eaten in times of famine after long periods of cooking, are not included (for example , Caltha pafustris, Marsh marigold). Also not included are several grasses (eg. Glyceria spp.) whose seed is edible but so small and fiddly to harvest and/o r de-husk that it too would only be used in an absolute emergency. All grasses and sedges have edible seeds, but take care that there is no black ergot fungus growing in the seed heads (this is potentially fatal). It is also wise to cook parts of plants in contact with water rather than eat them raw, to avoid the risk of picking up parasites from the water.
Habit: An = Annual, P = Perennial , T = tree Moisture: W = to lerates wet soil, M = tolerates moist soil Oepth: suitable water depth for plan t to grow in, in cm.

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Sweet flag

'" I'"
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Acarus calamus

to

20
em

W Rhizome - be peeled & washed to remove the bitterness then eaten raw like a fruit or roasted - spicy flavour. Also candied or dried as a spice. Contains a bitter glucoside - caution is advised. Young , tender inflorescence is eaten as a nibble for its sweetness. Young leaves - cooked. Inner portion of young stems is eaten raw quite palatable. M Root - raw or cooked ; peel , finely chop and W soak in severa l changes of water first. Spicy. Contains a biUer glucoside - caution is advised. W Root - raw. Peppery and aromatic. Seeds - ground and used for bread etc. W Tuber (starchy) - roasted. Flowering spike & young shoots - pickled or used as a spinach or asparagus substitute. Flowers are used as a flavouring.
~

Acarus gramineus

Grassyto leaved sweet 10 em flag

Anemopsis californica Yerba mansa jAponogeton distachyos

to 5P em to 45 em P

Water hawthorn

.--~

..

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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Young curled leaf tips (which are coated with a thick transparent mucilage) are eaten as a salad with vinegar, sake and soy sauce , or they added to soups as a thickener. A great delicacy in Japan. Root - peeled then boiled and eaten, they
U

Brasenia schreberi

Water shield to P 180

em

can also be dried and stored for later use or ground into a flour.
Butomus umbellatus

Flowering rush

550 P

em
to 60
P

W Tuber (starchy) - peeled and cooked , dried and ground into a meal to be used as a

Callitriche palustris

thickener in soups etc. or be added to floor. Seed - very small. Plant - boiled as a pot vegetab le and seasoned .
M Leaves - raw or cooked; a hot water-cress W like flavour.
Stem bases - eaten raw. Edible seeds - ground and cooked. Stem bases - eaten raw. Edible seeds - ground and cooked.
W The pith of the stem can be eaten raw or cooked. It has a sugary taste. Root and tuberous stem bases - cooked. Edible seeds - ground and cooked. W All have edible seeds - ground and cooked . Some produce quantities, eg. good C.pendula. W Leaves .

em
Cardamine rotundifolia Carex aquatalis
American water cress

to 10

em
Water sedge to 10

em
Carex douglas;;
Douglas's sedge

to 10

em
Carex utriculata

to 10

em
Carex spp.

Sedges

to 10

em
Cera/ophyflum demersum Cyperus longus Damasonium alisma
Hornwort Galingale Thrumwort float P ing

5-50 P

em
to 25
Ani P

M Tuber - used as a spice in soups, pies and W sweets .


W Root

em
Darmera peltala

Umbrella plant___

few P

em

--

W Leafstalk - peeled and eaten raw , cooked like asparagus ~ add~ ups and stews.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 11

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Eleocl'aris tuberosa

Chinese water chestnut

to
10

em

,
!Eriophorum ]angustifOlium Cotton grass

W Corm (2-4 em in diameter) - raw or cooked; sweet and crisp when fully ripe and is starchy before that. Widely used in Chinese cooking. A flour or starch can be made from the dried and ground up corm and this is used to thicken sauces and to give a crisp coating to various deep-fried foods. W Young stem bases - raw or cooked. Root - raw or cooked. The blackish covering should be removed. W Young stem bases - raw or cooked. Root - raw or cooked. The blackish covering should be removed.
Fruit- soft and pulpy, about the size of a small orange; it is highly esteemed in China as a cooling tonic food. Seed - roasted, fresh or dried ; pea-sized . 8 - 15 seeds are contained in each fruit. Very young stalks and rhizomes (starchy).

to
30

I
Eriophorum gracile Cotton grass Euryale ferox

em to
30

em
P

Hippuris tetraphylla

Fourleaf mare.stail Common marestail Tsi

10- P 200

W Young leaves - cooked.

em
Hippuris vulgaris

10- P 200

Houttuynia cordata

em to
30

em
Lysimachia fortune i

W Leaves, young shoots & young plants cooked; best harvested from autumn to sp'!ing . M Leaves - raw or cooked as a pot-herb; an W aromatic orange flavour. Roots - cooked; aromatic and or~ngey but small. M The young plant is edible & leaves are also W used as a condiment. M A tea is made from the leaves and flowers. W M Young leaves. W W Leaves - raw or cooked.

to
10
Creeping Jenny Yellow loosestrife Water purslane

Lysimachia nummularia Lysimachia vulgaris

em to
10

em to
10

Lythrum portula

em to
30

An

em

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol!! No 3

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Lythrum salicaria

Purple loosestrife

to 30 em to

M Leaves - cooked. W Root - cooked. Flowers (pu rple ) ean be used as a food
colouring.

Mentha aquatica

Water mint

15
em
Mimulus cardinalis
Crimson monkey flower

M Leaves - raw or cooked. A strong distinctive W peppermint-like fragrance . Used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods.
A herb tea is made from the leaves .

to

W Young stalks - raw.

20
em

to 20 em Mimulus gayer; to 20 em Mimu/us glabratus James's to var. jamesii monkey 20 flower em Mimulus guttatus Yellow to monkey 20 flower em Great purple to Mimulus lewisii monkey 20 flower em Mimulus moschatus Musk to monkey 20 flower em Mimulus tilingii var. Subalpine to monkey 20 caespitosus flower em Mantia fontana Water blinks few em

Mimulus eastwoodiae Eastwood 's monkey flower

W Fruit - raw or cooked.

W Leaves and young shoots - ra w in salads.

W Young shoots - raw or salted.

M Leaves - raw or cooked . A slightly bitter W flavour, they can be added to sa lads. M Leaves and stems raw or cooked. W W Young plant - cooked.

W Leaves - cooked.

Ani

M Leaves - raw; fairly bland , they are quite W nice in a salad . The lea ves can turn bitter in summer , especially if the plant is growing in
a hot dry position.

Myosoton aquaticum Myriophyllum spicatum

Water chickweed Spike milfoil water to

Ani M Young leaves and stems . cooked. Sweet P W and tender.

20 em

Rhizomes crunchy.

raw or cooked ; sweet and

-Page 13

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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Myrio!(hyllum vertical/alum Najas flexilis

to
20

Th e plant is used as a potherb.

em to
20

An An
P

Young shoots raw or cooked . They are eaten like watercress. Leaves & young shoots.

Najas graminea

em to
20

Najas marina

em to
20

Young plant - raw.

Nasturtium microphyllum Nasturtium officina/e Watercress

em to 5 P em to
60
P

W Lea ves - raw or cooked (peppery, hot).


Seeds sprouted.
peppery.

Can be ground or

W Leaves - raw or cooked (peppery , hot).

em
Ne/umbo lutea American water lotus

The seed ean be sprouted and eaten in salads or ground - a hot mustard -like
flavour. P
Root (very starchy) - usually soaked to remove bitterness , then cooked. Baked it is sweet and mealy, somewhat like a sweet

to
40

em

potato.
Leaves and young stems - cooked. Seed - raw or cooked , or can be dried, ground into a flour and used for making bread , thickening soups etc. An edible oil can be extracted from the seed.
Nefumbo nucifera Sacred water lotus

to
40

em

Root (starchy) - cooked. It is a source of starch much used and relished in Chinese cooking. Leaves & peeled stems - raw or cooked or raw; beet flavour. Seed - raw or cooked , or can be popped like popcorn , ground into a flour and used in making bread. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. Petals are eaten as a garnish. The stamens are used to flavour tea. remove bitterness. Can also be dried and ground into a flour. Seed - roasted , then ground into a flour and eaten raw or used to thicken soups etc.:"

Nuphar advena

Common spa tterdock

40- P 300

~., . ,.. ., '0'''' ,""

em

"'' ":3

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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Nuphar japonicum

40- P 300

Root - coo ked. It ta stes like sweet chestnuts.


Seed.

em
Nuphar lutea
Yellow water 40-

Root - cooked.
Lea ves and leaf stalks - cooked . Seed - cooked. Can be ground into a flour and used in making bread and porridge, or for thickening soups etc. A refreshing drink is made from the flowers.

lil y

300

em

Nuphar po/ysepala

Spatterdock

40- P 300

Root - raw or cooked after soaking , or dried


and ground into a flour.

em

Seed - raw or cooked ; can be dried and ground into a flour and then be used for making porridge or mixed with other flours it for making bread . When roasted resembles popcorn in flavour.
Seed.

Nuphar pumilum

40- P 300

em
Nymphaea alba
White

water 40-

lily
Nymphaea odorata

60

em
Fragrant wate r lily

The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. Seed - cooked. It contains about 47% starch. Flower buds - cooked as a vegetable or pickled . Young flowers - ra w. Leaves - raw or cooked; used in soups and stews. Root - boiled or roasted. Ripe seed - cooked or ground into a meal. Root.

40- P 60

em

Nymphaea tetragona

4060

em
Nymphaea tuberosa

Tuberous water lily Water fringe

4060

Seed - cooked. Can be ground and used as a flour or fried and used like popcorn. Flower buds, leaves and leaf stems (someti mes peeled) - cooked as a potherb Seed.

em
Nymphoides peltata

10- P 80

em
Nyssa aquatica

Water tupel o

M Fruit - occasionally eaten raw but more ofte ~ W used in preserves ; up to 4cm long , with a thin flesh surrounding a large seed ~

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 15

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Oenart,the javanica

to
10

em

Ani W Young leaves and stems - raw or cooked, P also used as a seasoning in soups etc. Flavour is reminiscent of carrots or pars ley. A major vegetable in many parts of the Orient, the leaves are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Root - cooked. Highly esteemed in Japan, the roots can grow up to 30cm long in water.

Seed.
Caution advised poisonous species. can be confused with

Ophiopogon aponicus Orontium aquaticum

Dwarf lily turf to

10
Golden club

M Root W

may require bitterness removing.

em to
45

em
Peltandra sagittifo/ia White arum

W Root - must be well cooked, or can be dried and used as a flour. Difficult to extract from soil. W Root - must be well cooked.

arrow to 10

Peltandra virginica

Green arrow to arum 10 Common reed

em
P
W Seed - cooked; a slightly sweetish flavour. Root - must be well cooked , otherwise acrid.

Phragmites australis

em to
50

em

M Root - raw or cooked like potatoes; contains W up to 5% sugar. Best when young and sti ll growing. Can be dried , ground coarsely and used as a porridge. Young shoots - raw or cooked , used like bamboo shoots . The partly unfolded leaves can be used as a potherb and the Japanese dry young leaves, grind them into a fJour and mix them with cereal flour when making dumplings. Seed - ground and used as a flour. Sma ll and fiddly to de-husk. A sugar is extracted from the stalks or wounded stems. A sweet liq uorice-like taste, it can be eaten raw or cooked. The stems can be boiled in water and then the water boiled off (like maple sap) in order to obtain the sugar . powder extracted from the dried stems can be moistened and roasted like marshmallow.

IA

Phyl/ospadix scouleri

Surf grass

P -----W

Root - raw or cooked. Eaten in spr~._

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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Polygonum amphibian Willow grass to

50

W Leaves - raw or cooked. Seed - cooked ; small and fiddly . W Young shoots - cooked. Used in the spring. Seed - small and fiddly. W Leaves and stems - raw or cooked (very hot). They can also be made into an acid peppery condiment. Seed - small and fiddty _ Used as a condiment, a pepper substitute. The sprouted seeds or young seedlings can be used as a garnish or added to salads, they are commonly sold in Japanese markets. W Seed - raw, cooked like rice or dried and ground into a flour; a nutty flavour and texture. Young leafstalks and plant - raw or cooked .

em
Polygonum coccineum Polygonum hydropiper

Water smartweed Smartweed

to

10

em
to An

20

em

Ponte de ria cordata

Pickerel weed

to

40

em
Rorippa amphibia

Great yellow to 10 cress

M Young leaves and stems - raw or cooked ; a W hot cress-like flavour. M Leaves & young shoots - cooked .

em
Rorippa indica

to

An

10

em
Rorippa islandica

Northern marsh yellowcress Red dock

to

10

W Leaves & stems condiment. W Lea ves - cooked .

peppery .

Used as a l

em
to

Rumex aquaticus

10

em
Rumex aquatic us var. Western fenestratus dock Rumex hydrofapathum Sagittaria aginashi

to

W Leaves & young stems - cooked .

10

I
I

em
Great dock water to

10

em
to

M Young leaves - cooked. W Seed - ground and used as a flour; small and fiddly.
W Leaves and young plant - cooked.

45

em
Sagittaria brevirosta

to

W Root - cooked.

45

--

em
-" .~

-----

j
Page 17

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

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W The base of growing stems are blanched

and eaten raw or cooked.


W Root - cooked. Slightly bitter raw, the roasted tubers are sweeHasting. Those tubers found at the end of the rootstock are the best. When broken off from the roots the tubers rise to the water surface and are then easily gathered.

Sagitta ria cuneata

Wapato

Sagittaria graminea

Chinese arrowhead Duck potato

to
45 em

Ani W Root - cooked. Young shoots - cooked . P P


W Root (tuber) - best cooked; excellent when roasted , the taste is somewhat like potatoes. The tubers can also be dried and ground into a flour. Tubers are borne on the ends of

Sagittaria latifalia

to
45 em

slender roots , often 30cm deep in the soil


and some distance from the parent plant best harvested in late summer as the leaves die down. They cannot be harvested by pulling out the plant since the tops break off easily , leaving the tubers in the ground.

Sagittaria rigida

Sessilefruited arrowhead Arrow head

to
45 em

W Root - cooked. Tastes like potatoes.

Sagittaria sagittifo/ia

to
45 em

fi

W Root - cooked. Excellent when roasted, the taste is somewhat like potatoes . Tubers can also be dried and ground into a flour, Tubers are borne on the ends of slender roots , often 30cm deep in the soil and some distance from the parent plant. Best harvested in the late summer as the leaves die down. W Young leaves - cooked. Root - cooked.

Sagittaria trifo/ia

to
45 em

Sarno/us parviflorus

to
10

M Young leaves - raw or cooked . W M Young leaves - raw or cooked; bitter. W

Samo/us va/erandi
..

Brookweed
.

em to
10

.~

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em _ ._.- ." ..

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-" -"AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 18

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Scirpus acu/us

Hardstem bulrush

5- P 300

em

M Root (starchy) - raw or cooked. It can be W ground into a flour and used in making bread. Seed. Small and fiddly to utilize. Stem bases and young shoots in the spring and autumn; crisp and sweet.

Scirpus affinis

5- P 300

M Root (starchy) - raw or cooked .


W M Root (starchy) - raw or cooked. W Stem and stem base - peeled and eaten raw or cooked . Seed - rather small and fiddly to harvest and utilize. M The stems are peeled and eaten. W Root - raw or cooked. The roots form tubers at intervals along their length and new plants are formed from these tubers . When first formed , the tubers are white and starchY I with a sweet coconut-milk flavour, they become black and woody with age . Tubers can be up to 3cm in diameter.

em
Scirpus americanus

American bulrush

5P 300

em
Scirpus fluviatilis
River bulrush

5- P 300

em

Scirpus lacustris

Bulrush

50-

200 em

M Root (starchy) - raw or cooked. Best W roasted . Starchy, it can be dried and ground into a flour or made into a syrup . The buds at the end of the rhizomes are crisp and sweet, making excellent eati ng raw . Young shoots in spring - raw or cooked. Seed - small and rather fiddly to harvest and l utilize.
M Root - raw or cooked . The roots form tubers W at intervals along their length and new plants are formed from these tubers. When first formed , the tubers are white and starchy with a sweet coconut-milk flavour, they become black and woody with age. Tubers can be up to 2.5cm in diameter.

Scirpus maritimus

Seaside bulrush

5- P 300

em

Scirpus microcarpus

Panicled bulrush

5-

300 em
5P

M Root - raw or cooked. Starchy. W Stem. Peeled and eaten raw or cooked. Stem base - raw or cooked. Seed. Small and fiddly to harvest and utilize. I M Root - raw or cooked. Starchy. W

I
I

Scirpus nevadensis

Nevada bulrush

300 em

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

Page 19

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Scirpu~

U
paludosus
Bayonet grass Alkali bulrush

Scirpus robustus

Scirpus subterminalis

5P 300 em 5P 300 em 5P 300 em

M Root - raw or cooked. Starchy, they can be W dried and ground into a flour then mixed with
flour for making bread etc.

M Root - cooked. W Young shoots - cooked. M Root - raw or cooked. Starchy. W Stem. Peeled and eaten raw Of cooked.
Stem base - raw or cooked. Seed. Sm all and fiddly to harvest and utilize.

Scirpus labernaemontani

Softstem bulrush R iver rush

Scirpus validus

P 5300 em club- 5P 300 em

M Root - raw or cooked. W Stem bases - raw or cooked. Young stems - peeled. M Root - raw or cooked . T he bruised young W roots , when boil ed in water, furnish a sweet
syrup. Young shoots - cooked. The tender base of the stem is eaten raw in salads . Seed - sma ll and rather fiddly to harvest and utilize.

Scirpus validus creber

5- P 300 em

M Root - raw or cooked. The bru ised young W roots, when boiled in water, furnish a sweet
syrup. Young shoots - cooked. The tender base of the stem is eaten raw in salads . Seed - sma ll an d rather fi ddly to harvest and utilize .

Sparganium americanum Sparganium androcladum Sparganium erectum

Bur reed

to

W Root - cooked.
Stem base - cooked.

40 em
to

W Root - cooked.
Stem base - cooked.

40 em
Branched

to

W Root - cooked - sweetish.


Stem base - cooked

bu r reed
Sparganium eurycarpum Sparganium /ongifolium
Broadfruit

40 em
to

W Root - cooked .

bur reed

40 em
to

W Seed - husked and well boiled .

' --

40 em

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol!! No 3


Q) Q)

==~

E -

c c

<1l

c c
0 0

<1l

E
1:
Q)
~

'"
<1l
Q)

Q.

--'

iii

E E

.c
Q)

Q.

:0
I
<1l

0 ::;;

U;

:l

:0 U

Sparganium sfo/oniferum Trapa bicornis


Ling

to
40

W Young stems - boiled.

em to
60
cm; float ing

Seed . cooked . A crunchy texture with a


bland flavour. Rich in starch , the raw seed contains a deleterious principle that is destroyed by cooking . The cooked seed can be dried and ground into a flour.

Trapa nafans

Water chestnut

to
60
cm; float ing

Seed - raw , cooked or dried and ground into a flour; a sweet floury and agreeable flavour , similar to sweet chestnuts .

Typha angustifolia

Small reed to mace, 40 Narrowleaf em cattail

W Roots - raw or cooked . It can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and boiled to yield a sweet syrup. The root can also be dried, ground into a flour and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereal. The roots are fibrous and the easiest way to use them is to break them into 30-40 cm lengths and throw them on to the embers of a fire until blackened . Then the outer surface can be broken and the centre fibres pulled free with the teech; the starchy pulp is The flavour is like sweet sucked out. chestnut. Young shoots in spring - raw or cooked. Very nice sti r-fri ed. Peeled base of mature stem - chopped and cooked. Young flowering stem - raw , cooked or made into a soup. Tastes like sweet corn. The pollen ean be collected and was a traditional ingredient added to flour to improve the protein content. W As for Typha angustifolia.

Typha davidiana

to
40
Southern cattail Blue cattail

Typha domingensis

em to
80

W As for Typha angustifolia .

Typha g/auca

em to
15

P
-

W As for Typha angustifolia.

--

em

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 21

..
OJ OJ
.~

'c " c

'c " c
0

E
</)

1::
.<:
~

--'
Typha ratifolia

E E

C. ii
OJ

'"

0 ::;;:

"'

::>

Cl. OJ

'"

;Q
W

Reedmace, Broad leaf


cattail Scented flag

to
80 em

W As for Typha angustifolia.

Typha laxmannii

to
40 em to 40 em to
15

W As for Typha angustifolia.

( YPha minima
Typha orientafis Raupo

W As for Typha angustifolia.

I I

W As for Typha angustifolia.

em
Utricularia vulgaris
Bladderwort

float P ing

Root - long and thin. Leaves .

Vaflisneria americana Water celery SO-

Young leaves - cooked.

300 em
Vallisneria spiralis

Eel grass

SO-

Young leaves - raw.

300 em
Veronica americana
American brooklime

to
20 em

W Leaves - raw or cooked ; a hot flavour , it can be used as a watercress substitute. W Leaves - raw or cooked; rich in vitamin C.

Veronica aquatica

anagallis- Water speedwell

to
20 em

p.

Veronica beccabunga Brooklime

to
20 em

W Leaves - raw or cooked (pungent) .

Veronica catenata

to
20 em

W Leaves - raw or cooked.

Veronica scutellata

Marsh speedwell

to
20 em

W Leaves - raw or cooked. A bitter ffavour.

--

~-

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Va! 11 No 3

OJ OJ

~ -'

'c " c

'"
c c
0

E
t

'"
OJ

E E

!"
J::

a.
OJ

:0
I

0
em

'"

;::,

-0

11)

"

'c. "

;Q
W "
Seed used as a cereal. A staple food of the I N. American Indians, the long black delicious grain is used in the same ways that rice is used. The base of the culms is used as a vegetable.

Wasabia japonica

Wild rice

5-80 An

Wolffia arrhiza
Zizania aquatica

Least duckweed
Wild rice

float P lng

Leaves - cooked: cabbage-y flavour.

an

excellent,

sweet

5-80 An
em

Seed used as a cereal. A staple food of some N.American Indians , the long black grains are used in the same way as rice. The base of the culms is used as a vegetable.

Zizania latifolia

Manchurian wild rice

5-80 P
em

Seed - cooked; used like ri ce. Young inflorescences - cooked and used as a vegetable. Young shoots - raw or cooked; a pleasant

sweet taste.
Zizania palustris Northern wild rice

5-80 P
em

Seed - cooked; used like rice .

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants Database, 2003. Arnoux, J-C: The Ultimate Water Garden Book. Batsford, 1996. Edwards, M: Plants for Water Gardens. Parragon, 1999. Manandhar, N: Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, 2002. Mears , R: Bushcraft. Hodder & Stoughton, 2002. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press , 1998. Plants for a Future: Useful Plants Database, 1999.

Chestnut: nutritional benefits


Introd uction
Sweet chestnut was for centuries a staple food for generations of mountain people from France and Italy, and also constituted the food of rural populations who turned to it in times of famine and poverty. Its wood was used to heat country dwellings, it provided tannin , litter and leaves for livestock, raw materials for buildings , pole production and items of daily use. As it provided such a basic important food, it was for centuries known as the
~ tree

of

bread~

and

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 23

tt

cultivation extended beyond its natural cultivation area , where it bore fruit due to careful tending of trees. As the cultivation gradually extended . it provided an alternative to cereals , as a food for the masses, thanks to the fact that it was easily available and easy to store . Later, thanks to its low cost and high nutritional content, it became known as the ~bread of the poorH, providing energy and protein to the poorer people. In past times in many mountain areas, the average diet was based on chestnuts for at least 46 months of the year, with consumption about 150 kg per person per yea r. In a self-sufficient economy. chestnut growers often planted different va rieties to meet various requirements (for drying, for flour making and for fresh consumption.) Great creativity was used in inventing various ways of preparing the chestnuts: roasted or boiled in water of milk, and eaten , especially in the mountains, as a bread substitute; served hot with wine or milk in the form of a soup; ground and used as a cereal flour substitute for making polenta , porridge , flat breads, chestnut breads and thick soups.

Chestnut nutrition
Chestnut meet the current demand of consumers , who are increasing ly tending towards organic foods; from a nutritional point of view they are similar to rice or wheat. Unlike the majority of pulp fruits , the water content is around 50% in fresh chestnuts and 10% in dried chestnuts . Fresh chestnuts have a high calorie content (160 Kcal per 100g), a good fibre content (7~8%) , and excellent carbohydrate content (35%) , a fair quality protein content, a low percentage of fats and a moderate percentage of minerals (especially potassium , and to a lesser degree calci um ,sodium and phosphorus). They also have a modest content of hydrosoluble vitami ns (81 and 82 in particular). Carbohydrates: Chestnuts have a high carbohydrate co ntent (sugars and starch) with about 26% starch and 9% sugars. Sucrose is the main sugar present (6.7 g per 100g , more than in wheat. walnuts or potatoes), with small amounts of glucose , fructose and maltose. This sta rch :suga r split makes chestnuts and excellent energy source and ideal in conditions of physical and intellectual strain. Chestnut flour is an ideal alternative in the preparation of sweet products and soups for people with cereal intolerance. Fibre: The fibre is mostly insoluble and is therefore not assimilated by the body. It does, though, play an important role in the functi on of the intestines and micro~flora and helps prevent gastrointestinal problems. Protein: The protein content (about 3g per 100g) is equivalent to that of milk, although substances which convert to gluten are absent, thus it can only be made into bread jf mixed together with cereal or rye flour. The protein is of a high quality, containing essential amino acids (tryptop han , lysine, methionine, cystine) and is compa rable to the protein content of eggs considered ideal for amino~acid balance. Fat: Unlike te majority of other nuts which are rich in fat , chestnuts are low in fats (about 2g per 100g). The fat content present is of high quality and chestnuts are in fact an imp orta nt source of essential fatty acids , especially linoleic acid , which play an important role in the prevention of heart dis ease . Minerals: There is a good potassium content (395g per 100g average) , which plays an important role in the function of the nervous system and membrane exchange. Vitamins : Two important vitamin s of the 8 group , riboflavin (ViI. 82 ) and nicotinic acid (ViI. PP) are found n significant quantities. 8 vitamins are not destroyed by cooking. Smaller quantities of Vitamin 81 (thiamine) and Vitamin C are also present. The nutritional content varies considerably according to the cooking and preparation methods used. When boiled their water content increases and their energy va lue falls by about 25 %; when roasted , the available sugars increase by over 25 %, as well as their energy va lue, while their water content drops by 20%. Cooking alters the starch content, which is redu ced on

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Composition and nutritional value of chestnuts (per 100g product) according to usage d, fresh roasted boiled flour
Edible part % Water % Calories kcal nutritional elements (g(100g carboh drates suqars starch fibre soluble fibre insoluble fibre proteins fats lipids minerals/vitamins m 1100 potassium phos horus sui hoc ma nesium calcium chloride sodium iron manganese copper zinc vitamin 81 vitamin 82 Vitamin PP Vitamin C anthothenic acid h ic acid

81 52.9 160 34.0 9.6 24.4 7.3 06 6.7 3 .2 1.8 395 70 48 35 30 10 9 1 0.7 0.6 0.1 0.3 1.1 23 0.9 50

100 10.1 287 57.8 16.1 41.7 13 .8 1.1 12.7 6 3.4 738 131 126 56 18.6
17

82 42.4 200 39 10.7 28.3 8.3 0.7 7.6 3.7 2.4

88 63.3 120 24.4 7.5 16.9 5.4 0.6 4.8 2.5 1.3

100 11.4 343 63.6 23.6 40 14.2 1 13.2 6.1 3.7 847 164 126 74 50 18 11 3.2

1.9

1.3
0.6 0.3 0.2 0.4 2.1

1.3
0.6 0.3 0.2 0.4 1

boiling with a reduction in the potassium and magnesium content, but not in calcium, while the sucrose, fat and protein content are barely altered. On drying, the protein content further increases to 5~6% (more than in potatoes - 2% - but less than other cereals - 10- 12%), the carbohydrate content also increases to around 60g per 100g of product, and the energy val ue also increases. Dried chestnuts have a modest sodium, B group vitamins, iron, calcium and potassium content.

Conclusion
The demand for wholesome and organic food makes it now possible for a comeback for the chestnut in daily eating habits, free of connotations of poverty with which it has been linked for centuries. Dried chestnuts and chestnut flour are becoming increasingly popular for soups and polenta, and are being used to prepare tagliatelle, gnocchi and ravioli. Dried chestnuts are popular boiled whole and served with meats. Boiled or roasted they make an excellent side dish or salad ingredient. Thanks to the high sugar content, for centuries chestnuts have been used to make desserts and sweets such as marron glaces, mousse, souffle, speciality pastries and ice creams. The trend now is for less elaborate desserts such as chestnut fJour bread, fritters and milk-based puddings. Besides their delicious taste, chestnuts are an extremely versatife cooking ingredient which are also a very healthy and high energy, balanced and quality food.

Reference
Bounous, G et al: The chestnut: The ultimate energy source nutritional va lue and alimentary benefits. Nucis~Newsletter, Number 9 (December 2000).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Page 25

Coppicing fruit and nut trees


Introd uction
One of the most difficult. expensive and time-consuming practices when growing large fruit trees (on vigorous rootstocks) or nut trees is pruning. Without regular pruning , large fruit trees tend 101 produce small fruit , although still in good quantities. which is fine for processing into juice etc. but is not fit to be sold for culinary use. Fruiting also becomes limited to the very outer edge of the tree canopy, with bare branches beneath . Trees become very large and harvest itself, if fruits are to be picked from the tree, becomes difficult. One option to overcome these problems is to use dwarfing rootstocks , though they are not available for most nut trees . There are several drawbacks, though, with dwarfing rootstocks : the tree is not very long-lived (perhaps 30 years) , has a high nutrient demand so requires lots of feeding, is not very drought tolerant, so may require irrigation more frequently, and is very intolerant of competition, so it needs a continuous weed-free area around the trunk. Vigorous rootstocks, on the other hand, tend to be longer-lived, have a larger root system and so can forage for nutrients and water more efficiently, and can tolerate competition once established - very useful if the area below is grassed for grazing or cut forage , or used to grow understory crops. A possible solution to this dilemma is to plan to coppice vigorous orchard trees on a regular rotational basis. Not very much research has been done on this topic, but an interesting 20year experiment with an olive orchard (described below) shows that although there is an obvious yield loss between coppicing and fruiting re-starting , and thus a drop in overall yields in the long term , the saving in time by not pruning more than compensated in economic terms for the yield drop, and the coppiced orchard was in fact more profitable than the normally pruned co mpari so n.

A coppiced olive orchard


Olive trees were planted at 6 x 6 m spacing ' in Italy in spring 1969 and trained to a vase bush (a 3-trunk vase with a short trunk) by regular annual pruning until spring 1980, The orchard was then divided into 10 plots of about 20 trees each, and all trees in one plot were cut off at ground level. Olive trees are know to coppice well from the trunk when cut to the ground. In the following years coppicing was extended to one additional plot per year until 1989. In 1990 the plot first coppiced in 1980 was coppiced again to begin a second cycle of coppicing. All plots were managed according to standard practice and not irrigated . During the 10 years of each cycle, pruning was limited to the elimination of a few suckers in the centre of the canopy on the third year after coppicing. The onset of fruit production occurred the third or fourth year after coppicing.

Results
The coppiced system required a maximum of 14 minutes per plant pruning over 10 years , corresponding to 6.5 hours/ha/year. Pruning the vase bus control took about 17 minutes per plant per year, corresponding to 78 hours/ha/year. Hence the coppiced orchard took only 8% of the pruning time that the standard control orchard took . Also , coppicing is a much less skilled practice than pruning and costs less for the labour employed.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEW,S VallI No 3

Fruit yield per plant over the period 1989-1999. Fruit yield - kglplant 20.5 Vase bush 17.4 Coppiced orchard (all) 24.0 Coppiced orchard (years 4-10)

% of vase bush 100 85 117

Fruit yield of the coppiced orchard was 85% of that of the adjacent control orchard trained to vase bush. If the unproductive years after coppicing (years 1-3) are excluded, the coppiced plants yielded 17% higher than the control plants. Fruit yields of coppiced and control plants from 1989-1999
14
- -0- -

vasebush

-.~

12

-+-- coppfced

2-5,
.~

"
8
6
4

"
2

" ,, ,,

U.

2
0

,," , , ,, 0 , , , , , , , , , , ,, ',
" <l
1996 1998

1990

1992

1994

Year

Alternate bearing was less in the coppiced orchard than in the control. Yield fluctuations overall were greater in vase bush trees than coppiced trees. No effect was found of coppicing on the fruit or oil Quality, nor of the occurrence of pests or diseases. One possible drawback was that mechanical trunk shakers were unsuitable for coppiced trees because of their multiple, smaller, stems.

Discussion
There was no evidence of declining production in the coppiced orchard. One of the most interesting results was the lessening of the alternate bearing habit which is typical of olive an many other fruits and nuts. The main advantage of the coppiced orchard is the reduction of pruning time and associated costs . Other advantages are the low cost of management, the ease of adaption to most cultural conditions, the reduction in tree size, and reduction of alternate bearing. Vigorous trees like standard apples and most nut trees would be expected to behave much the same as olives, with fruiting starting 2-4 years after coppicing. The may be disadvantages in coppiced orchards of grafted trees. The olives in the trial above are grown from cuttings so are not grafted. The only other fruit/nut trees commonly propagated on their own roots are hazelnuts. Coppicing of grafted trees could not be quite as low to the ground (it might be more like pollarding), and the coppicing itself might encourage the rootstock to start suckering. The pruning cuts may make infection by bacterial diseases more likely. One possibility to overcome some of these problems is to use fruit trees on their own roots, on which a further article in the next issue will focus.

Reference
Gucci, Ret al: Performance of an Olive Orchard Managed by Coppicing for 20 years. Acta Hart. 557. ISHS 2001_

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

Page 27

The Chilean hazel: Gevuina avellana


Introduction
Gevuina ave llana, known as the Chilean hazelnut, Chile nut, Gevuin or Gevuina , is an evergreen tree native to Chile between latitudes 35 and 44S, from sea level to 700 m , mainly in the ,cool rain forests of Valdivia and Chilee. It grows under the influence of a temperate oceanit climate in a wide range of temperatures and rainfall with a good frost resistance . Adapted to many well-drained soils, Gevuina has good potential as an edible nut-producing tree and is related to the Macadamia nut.

Description
The Gevuina is an evergreen tree of the Proteaceae family, growing to 10m (33 tt) high, with a large conical head and compact canopy. Branches are stout and pubescent. young shoots covered in dense reddish hair. Leaves are a shiny dark green, bipinnate and leathery, 15-40 em (6-16") long by 1025 cm (4_10") wide with leaflets of varying size. Flowering occurs in summer to autumn, at the same time as the fruits ripen from the previous years' flowers. Flowers are white , borne in racemes about 10 cm (4 ~ ) long on the outside of the tree canopy . Pollination is via bees. Cross pollination between different trees is essential for a good fruit set. although the male and female parts are found in the same flowers . Fruits become coral red when ripe and contain a single hard woody black seed. Mature trees are frost tolerant to at least -SoC. It is vital that in winter their soils remain welldrained and not waterlogged .

Uses
The nuts can be eaten raw, dried, or cooked (usually roasted) . The nut is black with a thin easy-to-peel, smooth shell which can be cut off with a knife. The kernel is creamy white with a crisp texture like coconut, a rich flavour and good taste reminiscent of hazel and macadamia. The nuts are mainly used at present as a nut in breakfast cereals , and are also roasted and sold in small bags like peanuts. It is used in the food industry mixed with chocolate , in butter and pastries , in flours , pressed as a table oil etc. The whole nut can be processed into a M Gevuina butter ~ paste of high nutritional value , similar to peanut butter. Nuts can also be dried and ground into a flour. Roasted seeds can be made into a coffee-like drink . Nuts are high in protein , fats , Vitamin E and energy content. The oil is similar to olive or canola oil in unsaturated fatty acids , except for one thing: palmitoleic acid , a fatty acid with special

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

properties (it is easily absorbed by the skin and blocks uv radiation) is present in large quantities. Nuts contain (g per 1~Og portion): Water Protein Fat Carbohydrates Fibre Calories 7.1g 12.6g 47.79 20.5g 4.9-10.29 680

It is often planted ornamentally for its beauty. The cut foliage is very durable and is widely sold in the Chilean floristry trade. The nuts are used as an important stock feed in Chile, notably for poultry. Bees are fond of the nectar and perform pollination - honey production from Gevuina being important in Chile. The wood is suitable for timber production. It has a distinctive grain pattern, is strong, fle xib le and light; it has been used in cabinet work, for making furniture, roof shingles, tools, oars and musical instruments. The husks of Gevuina are rich in tannin and tannin extraction after nut processing in feasible.

Cultivation
Plants are intolerant of root disturbance (the roots are somewhat fleshy and easily broken) and are best transplanted as young potted plants. Plants are shade tolerant, but do not flower or fruit well there - full sun is optimum. Strong winds are also disliked because of the weak rot system and high sail area of the foliage. Acid to neutral soils are preferred. Plants are apparently sensitive to chemical fertilisers, disliking too much nitrogen. Most production up to now in Chile is from wild trees, which yield abut 5 kg annually. Breeding for superior selections has been going on in Chile since 1970 both for quality and yields of nuts (and nut composition for nutritional, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications) as well as for superior 'plus trees' for forestry use. Of 119 accessions evaluated to date six superior clones have been highlighted (called the VAX clones) which are adapted to low summer rainfall , soils of low natural fertility and good drainage, with frost resistance. These clones start cropping between 3-5 years of age, reaching full cropping at 8-10 years (as opposed to unselected seedling trees which take 7-10 years to start cropping). Yields per tree from VAX clones 333,42,43,53 and 64 reach about 24 kg/tree. Nut counts are 380-460 nuts/kg, with individual nut weights at 2.1 to 2.6 g. Nuts are on average about 17 mm wide by 20 mm long. with some over 25 mm across. The kernels form 36-44% of the nut weight, weigh 0.9-1.0 g, and are about 12 mm wide. Shells are about 2.5 mm thick. Tree vigour varies from low in clone 42 (tree reaches 3.5-4 m /11-13 ft canopy width) to medium in clone 33 (4-5 m / 13-16 ft canopy width) to medium /hig h in clones 43,53,64 (4.5-5.5 m / 15-18 ft canopy width). Yields per hectare depend on planting density. The medium to high vigo ur clones can be planted at 4 x 6 m = 416 trees/ha (13 x 20 ft = 166 trees/acre). giving yields of 11.5 Uha (4.6 tons/acre) nuts (4.2 tlha /1.7 ton/acre kernels). The lower vigour clones can be planted at 3 x 5 m = 666 trees/ha (10 x 16 ft = 266 trees/acre), giving yields of 10.8 tlha (4.3 tons/acre) nuts (4.2 Uha / 1.7 ton/acre kernels). These are comparable to very good yields of hazelnut (Cory/us avellana). These yields were obta ined from trees in orchards with minimum management-

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Valli No 3

Page 29

--~

trees allowed to grow freely without pruning, fertilisation or pesticides ; only a hay crop was taken between trees to allow for harvest. Harvest is carried out in autumn each year in Chile (Feb-March there) over a period of about a month, after the nuts have turned from red to brownish-black , gathering from the ground 80% of the nuts in 15-20 days. To prepare nuts for roasting , the kernels are removeq from the shells and blanched in boiling water to separate the seed coat (pellicle ) . Established trees coppice well if it necessary to rejuvenate them.

Propagation
Cuttings is the easiest way to propagate good selections. Semiripe cuttings in July-August are recommended. Trees can be grown from seed, which is not dormant. Young seedlings are very susceptible to fungal diseases , with a survival rate of 30% or less not uncommon. Using a well-drained compost of medium fertility is recommended. Seed lings and young plants are susceptible to a ~s udden death when roots rot and suddenly the top growth wilts completely. The cause is not known, it may be a response to high nitrogen, a lack of mycorrhizal fungi, pathogenic Phytophthora fungi or a combination of these . Spreading a little soil from an beneath an established tree around seedlings may help survival rates.
ft ,

Sources
Seeds are available from: B & T World Seeds sari, Paguignan, 34210 Olonzac, France. Tel: 3346891 2963. Fax 334 68 91 3039. www.b-and-t-world-seeds .com Sandeman Seeds sarI, 7 Route de Burosse, 64350 Lalongue, France. Tel: 3355 59 68 28 86. Fax 335 59 68 28 82. www.sandemanseeds.com Plants are available from: Burncoose Nurseries, Gwennap, Redruth, Cornwall, TR16 6BJ, UK. Tel: 91209 860316. Fax: 01209860011. www .burncoose.co.uk Deelish Garden Centre, Skibereen, Co Cork , Ireland. Tel/Fax: 028 21374. Burnt Ridge Nursery, 432 Burnt Ridge Rd, Onalaksa, WA 98570, USA. Tel: 206 985 2873.

References
Dolan , M: Chilean Hazel. Fruit Gardener, Vol 31 No 1 (1999). Gevuina nut, a cool climate macadamia. Broadsheet No, 42, New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research Ltd, 1993. Gholston , D: The Chilean Hazel: Gevuina avellana. Fruit Gardener, Vol 30 No 5 (1998). Halloy, S et al: Gevuina Nut (Gevuina avellana, Proteaceae), a Cool Climate Alternative to Macadamia. Economic Botany 50(2) pp. 224-235, 1996. MedeJ,F: Geneti c and Production Improvement of Gevuina avellana Mol. in Chile: Selected Clones for Fruit Production. FAO-CIHEAM - Nucis-Newsletter Number 10, December 2001. MedeJ, F: Gevuina avellana: Potential for Commercial Nut Clones. Acta Hart. 556, ISHS 2001. Newcomb, G: Gevuina. In Tree Crops in New Zealand , NZ Tree Crops Association, 2000.

Page 30

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Voltt No 3

The Hazelnut in North West Europe


The hazelnut has always been a welJ known plant species in northern Europe . In ancient times, nuts were gathered for food and old descriptions of various cultivars exist in several countries, including Denmark. Germany and the Netherlands. The hazel is indigenous as far north as Norway and in the early 1930's a guide for production was published there . but commercial activities never arose - crops came too irregularly; it was rumoured that there were 7 years between good crops. Except for England . no commercial culture of any significance developed elsewhere in Northwestern Europe. At present. no commercial hazelnut growing exists in Norway, Sweden or Belgium. In Denmark, some 3-4 ha (10 acre) sized plantings exist, with perhaps a totals area of 40 ha (100 acres). The main cultivars used are: 'Lang Tidlig Zeller' (='Lange Landsberger') - German origin 'Lambert Filbert' (= 'Kentish Cob' or 'Longue d'Espagne') - prob. French origin These are destined for the 'green' nut market. These two cultivars ha ve been shown to be the most productive in Danish trials. In Germany, commercial activities are restricted to about 10 ha (25 acres) of recent plantings , although there is a considerable activity by hobbyists. The main two cultivars used are: 'Wunder von Bollwiller' (= 'Halle'sche Riesennuss' or 'HalJ's Giant') - French origin 'Lambert Filbert' (= 'Kentish Cob' or 'Longue d'Espagne' ) - prob. French origin In the Netherlands, commercial plantings are also recent. A total of about 40 ha ( 100 acres ) occur, with single stemmed trees. Initial plantings used the cu ltivars: 'Butler' - American origin, recent cultivar 'Gunslebert' - German origin 'Lang Tidlig Zeller' (='Lange Landsberger') - German origin 'Cosford' (used as a poll iniser) - English origin In contrast to England and Denmark, only ripe nuts are harvested for the table-nut market, for which a pellicle-free nut has preference. Hence the productive 'Kentish Cob' and ' Imperatrice Eugenie' are not used. Since the kernels of the above blanch poorly or only moderately well, later plantings have used: 'Corabel ' - French origin, recent cultivar 'Gustav's Zeller' - German origin 'Pauetet' - Spanish origin 'Tonda di Giffoni' - Italian origin Also recommended for the Netherlands , being productive and with good kernel blanching , are: 'Mortarella ' - Italian origin 'Riccia di Talanico' - Italian origin 'WillameUe' - American origin, recent cultivar

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In England, only some 60 ha (150 acres) or so are left of the thousands of acres which existed in Victorian times. The main cul ti var in the old plantings is 'Kentish Cob'. More recently, a revival in interest uses more recent cultiva rs, notably: 'Butler' - American origin, recent cultivar 'Ennis' - American origin, recent cultivar 'Gunslebert' - German origin In th~light of Dutch research, several other cuttivars could be worth growing in Britain, notably 'CorabeJ', 'Gustav's Zeller', 'Lang Tidlig ZeJler' (='Lange Landsberger'), 'MortareJla', 'Pauetet', 'Riccia di Talanico', 'Tonda di Giffoni' and 'Willamette' . The question arises why hazelnut culture dwindled in England and did not develop elsewhere in NW Europe, while it continued in Turkey, Italy, Spain and France. This difference cannot be due entirely to low cropping levels - recent Dutch trials show that cropping levels for weJl-s uited cultivars are comparable to those of Southern areas. Irregular cropping may have been a decisive factor. Several climatic conditions appear to be limiting for good cropping. Male catkins, when releasing pollen, are sensitive to temperatures below -loC , and strong winds during male flowering blow pollen out of the orchard. Buds leafing out are susceptible to spring frost damage. Fertilisation in June depends on wa rm weather, and strong winds in summer lead to drought stresses. Even so, growers in southern regions still experience irregular cropping. Cultivars differ greatly in their climatological requirements, and cultivar choice is critical in NW Europe. Another factor in the lack of a northern hazelnut culture may have been the difference in labour costs, especially with hand harvesting. However, current harvest machinery could change this. Cropping of 'Gustav's Zeller' in the Netherlands

Y.ar

Kgltr

K Ilha

Ib/tr

Ib/acr.

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

~
References

09 2.29 0.51 1.06 3.4' '.90 5.80 5.67 5.37 4.65 11.12 8.05 2.70 4.05

19 )9C 243 293 1623 428 2761 2699 2556 2213 5293

Jill:
1928

3.29 5.04 1.12 2.33 '.50 .98 12.76 J2.47 l ' .8' 10.23 24.46 17. 5.94 8.91

625 958 661 443 1425 376 2424 2363 2244 1944 4647 3365 129 1693

(Area figures assume trees are planted at 6 x 3.5 m = 476 trees/ha; 20 x 12 ft = 190 trees/acre)

Crawford, M: Hazelnuts. Production and Culture. A.R.T., 1995. Wertheim, S J: The Hazelnut in Northwestern Europ e: Past, Present and Prospects. FAONucis-Newsletter. Number 6, December 1997.

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'"

Apples for juice


If apples are to be collected from the ground and used to make juice, it is important that the soil is free draining (and thus the surface dri es quickly), and also that a grass sward beneath app le trees is dense to minimise soil contamination of the fruit. Good anchorage of trees in this case is also important, because trees are usually shaken to release fruits (good juice is rarely achieved from fruits which are allowed to fall naturally).

Apple juice
The fruit should be free from rots and moulds and not over-ripe , otherwise the pulp will brown quickly; they should also be free of sailor grass. Fruit size and skin blemishes are not important, though apples with cod ling moth larvae are best discarded . They are ready for processing when the seeds turn from white to da rk brown. At the same time the cut surface of the apple no longer stains blue with iodine, sowing that most of the starch has been converted to sugar. Freshly pressed juice is pale green and has a varying degree of cloudiness , depending on the va riety of apple and its maturity. In contact with air it becomes more amber in colour and eventually loses much of its cloud and fresh apple aroma. Clear juice is produced by treating the freshly pressed juice with an enzyme that breaks down the pectin (causing cloudiness) into solu ble components; the juice is then filtered. To prevent spoilage the juice can be treated with vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) as an antioxidant before heat sterilising to destroy natural oxidising enzymes and organisms.

Juice varieties
Any variety of apple can be used to make drinkable juice, apart from tannic cider varieties. However, dessert apples often produce juice that is insipid and lacking in acidity. On the other hand, cooking apples may produce juice which is too acid. Some crab apples produce good juice, eg o 'John Downie ', although extraction rates are some 30% lower for crabs than for normal apples. The acidity level of the final product should be high enough that the product is not insipid but not so high that the sharpness is too pronounced . Acidity values vary considerably between varieties , and the maturing of the fruit involves a progressive reduction in the sharp taste of the apple. Most commercial juices are blended using sweet and sharp apples to achieve the final result. Blander juices are more popular in the USA. Ideally, juice apples should remain firm for at least two weeks without bruising excessively (either to allow for transport for commercial quantities, or on a smaller scale just to spread out the pressing time available). Softening fruit contains more soluble pectin which makes the juice more difficult to squeeze from the pulp and gives the juice a thick or cloying feel in the mouth. Ful! sha rp varieties suffer much less from excess soluble pectin. Apples which quickly brown when cut are also undesirable, as this affects the juice. Browning is caused by tan nins and oxidizing enzymes , so varieties are best chosen which are low in these. Another important factor is flavour - including a good sugar/acid balance and reasonable aroma . There is a general lack of good information about varieties for juice production; those listed below include dessert, culinary and cider apples with good juicing qualities. No doubt there are many more which can be added to the list. Sports have generally not been included due to space but they can be used identically to the ir origina l cultivar.

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Pressing date

--- --------------------- -- -------- -- --- J u ice a c i d i t Y ------ ------ ---- -------- -- ---- --- --- ----Low 0.45%) (sweet) Medium (0.45-0.7S%) (medium sharp) Crimson Grieve Falstaff Greensleeves James Grieve Neverblight Red June Rosamund Shoreditch White High (>0.75%) (full sharp)

Sept-early Oct

Billy Down Pippin Court Royal Golden Sweet Halstow Natural Honey Sweet Le Bret Listener Morgan Sweet Pig 's Snout SUQar Bush Sugar Loaf Wellington Worcester Pearmain
"

Brown's Apple Frederick Golden Noble Hyslop Improved Lambrook Pippin Royal Jubilee Stub bard Tom Putt

Mid October

Baker Sweet Bell App le Chehalis Haye Farm Killerton Sweet Pendragon Prima Sa int Edmund's Pippin Schaner .. Aus Herrnhut Sops in Wine Summer John Sweet Bay Sweet Merlin Tolman Sweet Tuman a Wear and T ear White Alphington

Backwell Red 8aukro 8elrene 81utroten Challieux Charles Ross Cider Lady's Finqer Crimson King Devonsh ire Quarrenden Dolgo Dulmener . Rosenapfel Egremont Russet Ell ison's Orange Fall Red Fiesta Forge Fo rtune Freedom Geheimrat Doktor Oldenburq Gibbon's Russet Gravenstein Greensleeves Inqol Katy King of the Pippins King Russet Ladv Lambourne Langworthy Laxton 's Fortune

Bickington Grey Chaxhill Red Clearheart Colemans Seed ling Collogget Pippin Gi Golden Spire Goring Hoary Morning King's Favourite Lord of the Isles

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

=
Pressing date

-- ---- ------- --- ---------- ------------- J u ice a c i d i t Y ----------------- ------------ ---- ---- ---Low 0.45%) (sweet) Medium (0.45-0.75%) (medium sharp) Long Tom Lord Lambourne Maglemer Milwaukee Morkrod Oratia Pippin Pepino Jaune Reine des Reinettes Rouge Reinette O'brv Remo Rote Goldparmane Rouville September Ruby Sheep's Nose Sidney Strake Somerset Ten Commandments Wealthy
..

High (>0.75%) (full sharp)

Mid October

.
Late Oct Nov early

.
Adams Apple American Golden Russet Api Baldwin Bell Apple Black TwiQ Brown Russet Cortland Delicious Dunkerton Late Sweet Empire Fameuse Gardner Geheimrat Breuhahn Golden Russet Grimes Golden Haralred Harrold Red Heubner Honeystrin Houser Red Impro ved Woodbine Jersey Black Johnny Andrews Lalla

All Doer Allington Pippin Ananas Reinette Ashmeads Kernel Belle de Boskoop Belle-Fille Normande Black Limbertwi Boiken BrinQewood Piooin Bullock Colonel VauQhan Court of Wick Cox's Orange Pippin Crisoin D'Arcy S ice Falstaff Finken werder Prinz Geneva Ontario Golden Ball Golden Harvey Golden Pippin Golden Reinette Hadlock Reinette Harberts Reinette Isle of Wight Pippin

Altlander Pfannkuchenapfel Bramley's Seedling Brettacher Sam linq Buttery O'o r Chusenrainer Con resbury Beauty Crimson Bramley Fair Maid of Taunton HowQate wonder Improved Kingston Black Killerton Sharo Lane's Prince Albert Newton Wonder Pavhembury Ponsford Poor Man 's Profit Purple Passion Reinette de Champagne Severn Bank Sour Bay Stembridge Cluster Tobia sler Vallis ApDle Yeovil Sour

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fAPressing date ---------- ------ --- ---- ------ ---- --- --- J u ice ac i d j t Y ------ --- -- -------- --- ------- --- --------low 0.45%) Medium (0.45-0.75%) High (>0.15%) (sweet) (medium sharp) (full sharp) Landsberger Reinette Laxton's Superb Newtown Spitzenburg Northwood Okanoma Pilot Quench Red King Red Prince Red Queen Red Worthy Roxbury Russet Royal Court Royal Red Royal Somerset Ryan Red Sandidge Saturn Shotwell Slack Ma Girdle Skyline Supreme Starking Starkrimson Delicious Sterling Super Starking Sweet Alford Sweet Coppin Sweet Pethyre Town Farm NO .59 Turner Vance Wickson Winter Banana Woodbine Yellow Pitcher York Imperial John Downie Jonagold Judain e Judeline Judor Juliana Jurella Kaiser Wilhelm Karmrn Kin David King of Tompkin's County Lady's of Finger Hereford Lucombe's Pine Mellow Newtown Pippin Ontario Raven Relinda Rene Rewena Ribston Pippin Rome Beauty Rosemary Russet Roter Sauerqrauech Van Schaner Nordhausen Sweet Cleave Sweet Ladin Tommy Knight Twenty Ounce Von Zuccalmaglios Renette Waaener Waltana Winesap Winston Yates Yellow Newtown Pippin

late Nov

Oct-early

Medium sharps make the best single-variety juices , and apples with interesting flavours make better juices than those with delicate flavours. Typical blends might co mbine 10-15% full sharps with 75% medium sharps and 10-15% sweets; or 20-30% sweets with 70-80% full sharps.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Processing
Equipment should be made of stainless steel, glass, plastic or wood and be kept clean. There sho uld be no contact of the juice with zinc, iron, copper etc. as very small concentratio ns of theif sol uble salts can cause colour changes and hazes in the juice, quite apart from any health effects on humans. Wooden presses made now have the steel hoops coated with inert plastic coatings to prevent any contam ination. Composition of blends may require experimentation , especially jf there are extra varieties availab le from time to time which are to be included. Hand picked fruit can be milled without washing; ground-harvested fruit should be washed first. Apples requi re crushing or milling (ie chopping to a pomace - a grated consistency) before they are pressed. A small commercial scale electric centrifugal mill can produce enough pomace for 450 litres (100 gallons) of juice per day wi th yields of 70-75% juice by weight, costing 580. For making juice on a small scale, apples can be crushed in the 'Pulpmaster', a stainless steel blade mounted on a spindle wh ich is attached to a domestic power drill (6 Ib of apples are halved or quartered , placed in a bucket, and are quickly pulped this way) . Alternatively , small hand-operated crushers which fit directry over presses can be used. Prices are about 25 for the 'Pulpmaster', 175-225+ for crushers . Food processors make too fine a puree for pressing satisfacto rily. Juicing machines produce a juice with a very short shelf life and high oxygen levels, which deteriorate quickly. The pulp is now pressed to extract the juice. Commercially on a large scale, hydraulic presses are used. A small commercial scale rack and cloth screw press costs SOO and can press 4S0 litres (100 gallons) of juice per day. In place of the slatted wooden cage of the smaller presses there is a series of wooden racks and cloths; the pomace is wrapped in the strong open-wea ve cloths in 5 cm (2~) layers and the packs are sandwiched between slatted wood boards. Several layers make what is known as a 'cheese'. About 120 kg (264 Ib) of fruit can be pressed per hour, yielding about 83litres (18.5 gallons) of juice. On a smaller scale, screw presses are the norm. Pomace is poured into the cage of the press and pressed by a wooden piston with a metal screw bearing down on a thick board beneath. The juice is forced out through the gaps in the staves (which are positioned to reduce the escape of pomace, pips and skin). A press liner bag can be used to further reduce the amount of solids in the juice. Small screw presses cost 100 upwards; a 6 litre press will give an hourly output of about 7 litres (1 .5 gallons), and a 12 litre press 14 htres (3 gallons). The pressed pomace can be composted or fed to livestock. Apples will yield up to SO% or more juice by weig ht, thus 9 kg (20 Ib) of apples will yield about 4.S litres ( 1 gallon) of juice . Vitamin C can now be added , if desired, to -restrict oxidation as much as possible . Normally 0.5 g vitamin C (available from wine-making suppliers) is added per litre of juice. Commercia lly, juice is usually heated briefly to 90C and pre-warmed bottles filled and kept at that temperature for 3 minutes. Freshly pressed juice will keep in the refrigerator for 2-3 days before it starts to ferment. longer storage, there are two main methods used on a small scale: For

Freezing - cut the top off an empty fruit juice carton, place a polythene bag inside, fill with juice, tie the top of the bag and freeze. Once frozen , the bag can be removed from the box and you have a brick of juice which can be stacked in the freezer. One cubic foot will old over 22 litres (5 gallons) of juice. Juice can be frozen for months without any appreciable loss of flavour. Pasteurisation - fill bottles or jars and close caps, corks or lids loosely (except for one for temperature testing); place them in a warm oven or bath of water at 70C; once the

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

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juice is heated through it should be left for a further 20 minutes at before tightening the closure and allowed to cool. Electric tank pasteurisers are available , as are metal water baths for using directly on a cooker, which will hold about 12 x 750 ml bottles .

lao e

Sources
Vi go Ltd , Dunkeswell Airfield. Dunkeswell, Haniton , Devon , EX14 4LF, UK. Tel : 01404 890262. Fax: q1404 890263. www.v igoltd .com Crushers/mills, presses etc.

References
Copas, L: A Somerset Pomona. Dovecote Press, 2001. Crawford . M: Directory of Apple Cultivars. A.R.T ., 2001 Williams. R: Cider and Juice Apples. Growing and processing. University of Bristol, 1988.

Ca/ycanthus: American allspice


Introduction
The American allspice or spicebush shrubs get their name from the aromatic scent given off by their crushed leaves and stems. There are five American species (and one from China) , of which three are fairly eas il y available . They are deciduous shrubs with aromatic bark and opposite, glossy green leaves. The flowers of all species are similar. and the bushy shrubs are mid to late summer flowering, multistemmed and sometimes suckering in habit. In warm areas (rarely in Britain), the flowers become hard elliptic capsule-shaped fruits with many brown seeds.

The species

description and uses

Ca/ycanthus fertiUs Grows 1 to 3 m (3-10 ft) high. Leaves are a glossy dark green, 5-15 cm (2-6") long. Flowers are purple or reddish-brown, slightly fragrant, 3-5 cm (1_2ft ) across, borne in June-July. From the SE USA (Pennsylvania to North Carolina , Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama) , hardy to zone 6 (-16 C). C.glaucus belongs here.
The bark and shoots are only slightly aromatic; the leaves are not aromatic. The shoots and bark can be used as a cinnamon substitute. The bark was used in an infusion as a urinary medicine by the Cherokee. There is also a report of it being used as an emmenagogue.

Calycanthus floridus - Carolina spicebush, True spicebush, Eastern Sweetshrub Grows 1 to 3 m (3-10 It) high. Leaves are 5-1 2 em (2-5") long, grey-green and downy beneath, rough above , turning yellow in autumn. Flowers are reddish purple, to 5 cm (2") across , with a fruity strawberry scent, in June-July. From the SE USA (Virginia to Florida, west to Alberta and West Virginia) , hardy to zone 5 (-20 C). The seeds are poisonous to cattle and sheep. Several ornamenta l varieties exist with flowers of good fragrance and colour.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 3

The bark, wood, roots . shoots and leaves smell strongly of cloves and can be used as a cinnamon substitute (the economic use of the dried bark is the reason it was introduced to Kew around 1789). The wildcrafted dried leaves and twigs are still sold on a small scale in the USA, fetching about $1.50 per oz (40/kg). Medicinally the plant is antispasmodic and has a disinfectant effect. The seeds contain an alkaloid that has a powerfully depressant action on the heart. A fluid extract has been used as an antiperiod ic. The Cherokee used the plant medicinally in several ways - mostly using the bark as an eye medicine and the roots (strongly diuretic) for urinary problems. They used the seeds to poison wolves. The leaves can be used as an insect repellent and disinfectant. Calycanthus mohrii Closely resembles C.floridus, but only 1 m (3 ft) high , and purple flowers are slightly larger. From the SE USA, ha rdy to zone 6 (-18C). Should have the same uses as C.floridus. Ca/ycanthus occidentalis - Californian spicebush, Western Sweetshrub Grows in a more st raggly manne r up to 4 m (13 ft) high by up to 10m (33 ft) wide, with flowers, purple-brown fading to yellow. openi ng to 7 cm (3~) across, strongly scented, from June-August. Leaves are 8-20 cm (3-8~) long. From Californ ia. hardy to zone 7

Leaves, flower and fruit of C.occidentalis Leaves, wood, bark and shoots are aromatic. especia lly when bruised, with a strong sp icy odour. They can all be used as a cinnamon flavouring. The ba rk was used medicinally by American Indians for chesty colds, sore throats and stomach problems. The wood and bark from fresh shots was used in basket work, and pithy shoots used to make arrows. A light brown dye is obtained from the flowers.

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- ~ttt

Cultivation
The spice bushes are hardy and long lived by are intolerant of summer drought; in their native habitat they are always found close to river or stream margins or in wet areas in woodland and mountain regions . They prefer sun in a temperate climate like Britain , where their wood ripens best, but can be grown in shadier spots in warmer climates. All grow better in acid or neutral soils, though they are tolerant of alkaline soils as long as they are water retentive and of good depth. Plants in thi s genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. The foliage is generally unpalatable to deer and other grazing animals . The seeds are toxic in large quantities to humans, and poisonous to cattle and sheep. Th ey contain the toxic alka loid Calycanthin.

Propagation
Growing allspice from seed is fairly easy. Dry seed requires about 3 months of cold stratification. Semi-ripe heel cuttings can be taken in mid summer: Suckers can be re m oved arising at the edge of the shrub. If not yet well rooted, notch the stem and re-b ury for a season before removing.

Sources
The A.R.T. supplies seeds/plants of C.floridus and C.occidentalis.

References
Bean, W: T rees and Shrubs ~ H ardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1974. Bygrave, P: Allspices and W inter-sweets: an account of Calyca ntha ceae in the wild and cultivatio n. The New Plantsman , March 1996. Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cu ltivated Broadleaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford, 1985. Moerman, D: Native Ameri can Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Russe ll, A: Poisonous Plants of North Caro lin a. NC State University, 1997.

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ECO-lOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical so lutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iog ic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath, BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 3

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticu lture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, mat8rials , timber and other products . It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and e~ergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system.

Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: 20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (16 unwaged) 24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) 34 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stam ps. Back issues cost 4 .00 per copy including postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Daiiington, Totnes , Devon, Tag 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects .

III

Agroforestry News

Rhubarb

Volume 11 Number 4

July 2003

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 11 Number 4

July 2003

Contents
2 9 16 21 24 27 36
39

Rhubarb Irrigation of fruit and nut trees Growing own-rooted fruit trees Fuelwood Pest & disease series: Rooks and crows Drying fruits and nuts Carpobrotus edulis: Hottentot fig Book reviews: Nutshell Guide to Growing Walnuts /
Ecoagriculture / Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility

40

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The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody , somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: wv..w.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 4

Page 1

Rhubarb
Introduction
Most folk are acquainted with culinary rhubarb, but this is just one of many Rheum species which are edible and/or medicinal and are used in many different parts of the world. They are native (0 Europe and Asia , where they grow on moist 50ils , often near water courses or woodland edges. All the rhubarb family ha ve thick roots which go deep in the soil and they good mineral accumulators. 'mining' minerals from deep in the subsoil and bringing them up to the soil surface layers. They are members of the Polygonaceae.

General description
The Rheum family consists of about 50 species of stout perennials herbs with tough or woody rhizomes. They all have large leaves in basal clumps with leaf stalks which are usually thick and fleshy. The leaves are often coloured on the undersides. Flowers are borne in summer on tall upright stems in large panicles, greenishwhite or tinged red . They are wind pOllinated . Pyramidal clusters of seeds follow the flowers. ripen 68 weeks after flowering. The seeds are 3winged. 615 mm long, and

The species
As far as we are able to ascertain. all Rheum species appear to have edible leaf stalks , usually coo ked and sweetened (though some eat them raw, they are very acid!) The flavour varies from

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 4

species to' species . Leaf stalks contain amounts of oxalic acid (most after midsummer/June st 21 ), which can lock up some other nutrients in the body, so should be eaten in moderation. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet. Only the leaf stalks should be eaten and never parts of the leaves, as these contain a poisonous glycoside. Pregnant and lactating women sho uld not use rhubarb medicinally. Leaves of many, possibly all , species can be simme red in water and the resulting strained , cooled liquid used as an insecticide and fungicide. Several species contain over 10% of tannins in the roots and can be utilised to tan leather etc. The tannins will also produce yellow colours in dyeing are recommended for use on silk in particular. They have also been used as a natural hair dye. The large leaves are useful as temporary 'bas kets ' for carrying fruit or other items in the garden. When stems are pulled for eating, the leaves are c ut off and can be used to mulch with. All species can be used as a ground cover, though they all die down completely in the winter, so are best grown interplanted with another low-growing species.

R.acuminatum - Sikkim rhubarb


Grows 1 m high with a long slender rootstock. Leaves to 20 cm (8") diameter, triangular to heart shaped , dull green above, downy beneath. Leaf stalks slender. Flowers are deep red or maroon. Origin: Nepal to Tibet. Uses Leaf stalks are eaten - sometimes pickled in Nepal.

R.alexandrae
Grows 1.5 m (5 ft) high. Leaves heart shaped, to 22 cm (9") long in neat rosettes. Slender leaf sta lks. Flowers greenish yellow. Origin: W.China & Tibet.

R.australe - Himalayan rhubarb


Synonym R.emodi. Grows to 3 m (10 tt) high. Leaves rounded, very large - to 75 cm (30~) long, hairy beneath. Leaf stalks stout, tinged red. Flowers white to red . Origin: Himalaya s, where it is sometimes cultivated but is endangered in some regions . Uses Leaf sta lks are edible with a good apple flavour. They can be dried and pickled. The roots are commonly used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicines, as a laxative, tonic and astringent - for fevers , asthma, bronchitis , cuts and wounds, dysentery, skin diseases, ulcers and swellings. A paste of the crushed roots is applied on wounds and cuts. The roots yield a bright yellow dye.

Rhubarb wine 1. Chop 6 Ib rhubarb stalks and place in bin with thinly pared rind of 1 lemon. Pour on 6 pints boiling water and when cool add the lemon juice, pectic enzyme, campden tablet. Cover and leaves for 24 hrs. 2. Stir in 1 ~ Ib sugar, Sauternes yeast & nutrient and ferment on the pulp for 6 days, pressing down the fruit cap daily. Then strain out and press the fruit, stir in a further 1 ~ Ib sugar, pour the must into a 1 gallon demijohn, top up with cooled boiled water, fir an airlock and ferment to dryness. Rack when necessary, store for 9 months before bottling. Produces a superior white wine.

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R.collinianum
Grows to 90 em (3 tt) high. Leaves roundish-heart shaped, red beneath at first. numerous, dull red. Origin: China. Flowers

R.compactum
Leaves 20-40 em (8- 16 ~) diameter, roundish-heart shaped, tough and shiny above. white . .origin: China. Uses The leaf stalks are eaten. usually cooked. Flowers

R.coreanum - Korean rhubarb


Origin: Korea.
Uses The roots are used medicinally.

R.

cultorum - Rhubarb, garden rhubarb

Synonyms R.hybridum, R.rhabarbarum. An ancient and complex hybrid involving R.rhaponticum and R.palmatum. Grows to 1.5 m (5 ft) high. Leaves roundish-heart shaped. Leaf stalks thick . Flowers reddish.
Uses Leaf stalks are widely used as a 'fru it' , usually cooked. They can be added to other fruit, yoghurts etc. or cooked in pies etc., also used in jams (eg. rhubarb and ginger jam) and chutneys. The unopened flower heads are also reportedly edible when cooked. Cultivars The 'early' varieties require less winter chilling, hence come into growth earlier in the spring. There are some 150 species and cultivars in the UK National Collection, held at Harlow Carr Botanical Gardens near Harrogate. The range of flavours varies dramatically, from apple to cherry and strawberry. Taste tests there have come up with the following as best flavoured varieties: Goliath Greengage Stockbridge Emerald Strawberry Suttons Cherry Red Valentine Zwolle Seedling

Early season: 'Cawood Delight' (moderate numbers of thick deep red stalks of high quality) 'Champagne Early' , ('Early Red' , 'Early Champagne' - long bright scarlet stalks of good flavour; grown from seed and root sets) 'Glaskins Perpetual' (low in oxalic acid, usually raised from seed, green stalks) 'Hawkes Champagne' 'Stockb ridge Arrow' (upright, long bright red stalks, small leaves) 'Tim perley Early' (very early, stalks moderate thickness ). Mid season: 'Ca nada Red' 'Fenton 's Special' (b right red stalks, excellent flavour, high yields) 'Holstein Blood Red' (dark red stalks, usually grown from seed) 'MacDonald' 'Merto n Foremost' (heavy cropper, good flavour) 'Prince Albert' (bright red stalks. good flavour)

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'Reeds Early Superb' (upright, easy to pull, deep red sta lks, good yield) 'Stockbridge Harbinger' (long. high quality, easily pulled stalks) 'Valentine' (deep red stalks of good flavour) Late season: 'The Sutton' (th ick red stal ks with round edges , good cropper) 'Victo ria ' (thick stalks, fair flavour, grown from seed and root sets) American cultivars: 'Cherry Red ', 'Crimson Cherry', 'Linneus', 'Martha Washington', 'Oregon Red Giant'. The liquid from boiled leaves has been used as an insecticide against cabbage caterpillars.

R.forrestii
Grows to 80 cm (32 ~ ) high. Leaves somewhat heart-shaped. Flowers white. Origin: Western China.

R.moorcroftianum
Grows to 60 cm (2 tt) high. Lea ves 15-30 cm (6-12") diameter, shiny rounded. Flowers reddish-green on short stalks. Origin: Central Nepal. Uses The roots are used in traditional herbal medicine. In Nepal , the dried leaves are smoked in a pipe to treat sinusitis.

R.nobile - Sikkim rhubarb


Grows to 2 m (7 tt) high. Lea ves to 30 cm (1 ft) diameter, rounded, glossy, leathery, dark green veined red. Leaf stalks stout, red . Flowers green. Origin: Nepal to SE Tibet. Uses The leaf stalks are eaten raw, cooked or pickled. The stalks are reported to contain 12% protein, 15% fibre, 4.9% fat , 4.1% Potassium, 0.12% Phosphorus, 0.11% Sodium, 360 mg/l00g Iron. The roots can be used medicinally.

R.officinale - Medicinal rhubarb


Resembles R.australe. Grows to 3 m (10 tt) high. Leaves to 90 cm (3 tt) diameter. Flowers greenish -white. Origin: Western China & Tibet. Uses The leaf stalks can be eaten, raw or cooked. The root has long used in herbal medicine as an extremely effective treatment for many digestive problems. It is laxative in large doses but has the opposite effect in small doses. The

Rhubarb sparkling wine 1. Chop 3% Ib rhubarb stalks, place in bin with 9 oz chopped sul tanas and the thinly pared rind of 1 lemon. Pour on 6 pints boiling water and when cool add the lemon juice, pectic enzyme and 1 campden tablet. Cover and leaves for at least 24 hours. in the 2. Stir champagne yeast and nutrient. ferment on the pulp for 4 days, pressing down the fruit cap daily. 3. Strain out and press the fruit, stir in 1% Ib sugar, pour the must into a 1 gallon demijohn, top up, fit an airlock and ferment to dryness. 4. Rack, add a campden tablet and when clear, ra ck again. 5. Store in a cool place for 6-7 months, then prime with 2% oz sugar and an active champagne yeast and siphon into champag ne boWes. Fit hollow-domed plastic stoppers and fasten on with a wire cage. Leave in a warm place for 2 weeks then s tore for at least 6 months. Reputed to be as good as the real thing!

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1$
roots are harvested from 6-10 year old plants in the autumn after the stem and leaves have turned yellow . The medicinal action is largely due to chemicals called anthraquinones which are irritant, laxative and purgative; these are counterbalanced by tannins. Decoctions of the root are antibacterial and effective against mouth ulcers. It can also be applied to burns , boils etc . and is a tonic and mild appetite stimulant. The liquid from boi led leaves has been reported as bactericidal (against bacterial blight of cotton) fungicidal (aga inst potato blight , cotto n anthracnose, wheat rust) and insecticidal (agaj n ~J aphids, cabbage worm and rice borers)

R.paimatum - Chinese rhubarb, Turkey rhubarb


Grows to 1.5 m (5 ft) high. Leaves hairy on veins beneath. Flowers tanguticum (Syn. R.tanguticum) is several ornamental varie ties, mostly roun dish-heart shaped , to 90 cm (3 ft) across , maroon and deep red . Origin: Western China . The natural variety more robust, with leaves ve ry deeply lobed . There are with red or crimson colouring of leaves.

Uses The leaf stalks are edible , raw or cooked, with a good flavour and tender texture . The root has long used in herbal medicine (in China for over 2 ,000 years) as an extremely effecti v e treatment for man y digestive problems. It is laxative in large doses. The roots are harvested from 3-10 year old plants in the autumn after the ste m and leaves have turned ye llow . 80th the species and va ri ety tanguticum are used. Properties and components are the same as for R. officinale . The root is used in homeopathy for irritability and teething in children.

R.paimatum

R.coreanum - Japanese rhubarb

Uses The roots are used medicinally in the same way as R.palmatum .

R.rhaponticum - Rhubarb
Grows to 1.2 m (4 tt) high. Origin : Europe t~ Asia - Siberia , Mongolia, Himalayas. Uses Edible leaf stalks , raw or cooked - good flavour. reportedly edible .

The unopened flower heads are also

Decoctions of the root are reportedly insecticidal (against mosquitoes).

R.ribes - Currant rhubarb


Grows to 1.5 m (5 ft) high. Leaves rounded, to 70 cm (28 ") long , dull grey-green and hairy beneath. Flowers greenish-white. Origin: SW Asia (Turkey to Iran). Uses Edible leaf stalks - usually cooked; supposedly currant fla voured.

R.speciforme
Origin : Himalayas. Uses Edible leaf stems - raw or cooked.

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The roots are used in traditional herbal medicine for cuts. wo unds and fevers .

R.tataricum - Tartarian rhubarb


Origin: Europe to Western Asia. Uses Edible leaf stalks. raw or cooked - good flavou r. reportedly edible.

The unopened flower heads are also

R.undulatum - Bucharian rhubarb


Uses Decoctions of the leaves have an antifeedant action on some insect pests (Colorado potato beetle and the lucerne leaf beetle).

R.webbianum
Grows to 2 m (7 ft) high. Leaves roundish-heart shaped, to 60 cm (21 ft ) across. Flowers pale yellow. Origin: Himalayas. Uses Edible leaf stalks - usually cooked . The roots and leaves are used in traditional herbal medicine for abdominal diseases, wounds and boils. The roots , harvested in summer , are reported to be spasmolytic. A paste of the crushed roots is applied on wounds and cuts.

Cultivation
The Rheums like sun or part shade and a deep, moist but well-drained , fertile soil but do not tolerate wet soils . They prefer high humus levels and medium to heavy textured soils . Avoid frost pockets . Woodland edges and forest garden understories are ideal situations. Plant about a metre (3 ft) apart. Though tolerant of acid soils , optimum growth is achieved with a soil pH of 6.5 to 7.0 and regular feeding with compost or manures, and watering in dry weather. Flowering stems tend to weaken plants and can be removed if not required . Most species are hardy to between -15 and -20 C (-4 to 5 F). The only pest of note is slugs , wh ich nibble at the leaves ; young plants can be set back a while , but usually recover. Established plants are not bothered at all. Rabbits don 't seem to touch rhubarb plants. Harvesting is not carried out for a year or two until plants are well established . Harvesting then starts in early spring and can continue until midsummer - after this, the oxalic acid levels in the stalks tend to increase a lot, and further harvesting that season is not advised. Early harvests can be obtained by forcing plants , either by covering with a thick layer of straw during mid winter or by covering individual crowns with a long light-e xcluding pot/cover to blanch the developing leaves. Alternatively, crowns can be lifted in autumn or early winter and potted in large pots or boxes , then forced indoors (make sure they have had enough winter chilling first, though). Forced stalks are more tender, less acid and are a rich pink colour. Varieties for forcing should be 'Earlies ' that require the least winter chilling .

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To harvest leaf stalks, pull the stalk upwards so they separate from the crown cleanly without snapping. Always retain 3-4 lea ves per plant. One plant can yield 1.5 to 4.5 kg (3- 10 Ib) of stalks per season. After a number of years (5-8 usually) of regular cropping, leaves and stalks start to get smaller as vigour declines. This is then the time to lift and divide plants if desired.

Rhubarb species are susceptible to honey fungus (armillaria root rot) and crown rot.

Particular plants I varieties can be propagated by root di vision - in late autumn, cut through the tough fleshy rootstock with a knife or spade, ensuring each piece has at least one good bud. Plant sections in the soil with buds just showing at the soil surface. Seed-grown plants can also easily be propagated , although be aware that Rheum spp. hybridise freely , so hybrids may result if you have several species flowering near each other . Seed is not usuaJly dormant and can be sown in spring; alternatively , sow in autumn and allow to cold stratify before germination occurs in the spring. The dry seed does not remain viable for more than a year or two .

Sources
A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon , Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. www.agroforestry.co.uk Supply several species. Tel/Fax 01803 840776. Chris Bowers & Sons, Whispering Trees Nursery, Wimbotsham, Norfolk, PE34 8QB . Tel: 01366 388752. Fax: (01366) 386858. Can propagate rare and unusual varieties from the national collection.

J Tweedie Fruit Trees, Maryfield Road Nursery, Nr Terregl es, Dumfries, Scotland, DG2 9TH. Tel 01387 720880. A very large selection of rhubarb varieties.

References
Bown, 0: The RHS New Encyclopedia of Herbs & their uses. Dorling Kindersley, 2002. Chevalier, A: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal.Plants. Darling Kindersley, 1996. Crawford, M: Useful Plants Database. A.R.T ., 2003. Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. Wiley, 1988. Hills, L: The Good Fruit Guide. HDRA, 1984. Houdret, J: Rhubarb . Herbs, Vol 23 No.1, 1998. Howes, F: Vegetable Tanning Materials. Butterworths, 1953. Huxley, A: The New RHS Di ctionary of Gardening. MacMillan Reference , 1999. Manandhar, N: Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, 2002 . Margrave, C: The National Rhubarb Collection. HDRA Newsletter 114, Winter 1988. Nautiyal, S et al: Medicinal Plant Resources in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in the Central Himalayas. Journal of Herbs, Spices & medicinal Plants , Vol 8(4) 2001. Pollock, M: The RHS Fruit & Vegetable Gardening. Dorling Kindersley, 2002. Rombough , L: Reveling in Rhubarb . Horticulture, May 1996. Sam ant, S et al: Himalayan Medicinal Plants . Gyanodaya Prakashan , 2002. Sandriyal, M & R: Wild Edible Plants of the Sikkim Himalaya - Nutritive Values of Selected Species. Economic Botany 55(3) pp. 377-390. 2001.

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Irrigation of fruit and nut trees


With predictions of increasingly hot and dry summers , irrigation of heavily fruiting trees is likely to become more important, even in Britain. In such summers , without irrigation, fruiting is likely to be badly affected and the following applies both to commercial and amateur growers.

Introduction
Soil is a porous medium, like a sponge , and the pores between the soil particles may hold either air or water. As the water content increases. air is displaced whereas when the soil dries out , air moves back into the soil. Plants stop growing at either end of the spectrum: when it is very dry because no water is available to them, and when it is very wet because there is no oxygen present to sustain the root fibres. In sandy soils , pores are large and open and water moves easily in and out of the soil. Plants access this water easily , however the water holding capacity of the sand is limited . If water is continually applied to sand it quickly reaches the point of saturation - where the excess water drains away readi ly under the force of gravity. By comparison , particles and pores in clay soils are very small , and water is bound tightly to the clay particles. Soil moisture content in clay can be very high but plants have to work much harder to extract it The term Readily Available Water (RAW) is used to express how much of the total water which can be held in the soil can be extracted without stressing the plant. Clay soils have a very high total water but only a small portion of it is readily available. Clay loams by comparison hold less water but makes more of it available to the plant. Sandy soils hold least but most of it is available to the plant.

Soil moisture content


Soil moisture content provides information about how much water is in the soil. The unit of measure is either % or mJ/m J. The higher the percentage, the greater the volume of water existing in the soil. The reference weight for calculating percentage of water content is always the oven-dry weight of the soil (see below for more details). Soil moisture tension is a measure of the energy a plant must apply to the soil in order to extract the available moisture. The unit of measure is kPa (kilo pascals). The higher the measure, the harder the plant must work to extract the moisture. So as the soil moisture content decreases, the moisture tension increases. Figure 1. to right shows the relationship between soil moisture and soil tension for three typical soils. Figure 1. At soil tensions between 0 and 4 kPa , most soils drain freely. Drainage will continue at tensions drier than 4 kPa. especially in sandy soils . Where root concentrations are high , plants can use this water before it drains away.

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At soil tensions between 4 and 60 kPa. water is readily available to plants. At soil tensions greater than 60 kPa, water rapidly becomes increasingly unavailable (a logarithmic scale is needed to show how quickly soil tension develops here as the soil dries.) 1500 kPa is usually called the wilting point, when plants wilt and cannot recover. Any particular soil will have its own specific curve describing its waterholding characteristics; the cur,,:es shown above are examples to highlight the different soil types . The range over which the soil moisture tension va ri es depends on the type of soil - sandy or sandy loam soils typically range up to 200 kPa , whereas loam and clay soils may range up to 600 kPa. Hence soil measuring instruments are sometimes calibrated differently for different soil types.

When to irrigate
Deciding when to irrigate depends on how you measure the plant's need for water. There are two different ways to do this: 1. 2. Measure soil moisture. Use meteorological data.

This article focuses on the first of these only.

Soil moisture measurement


This can be used very effectively to decide when to irrigate ~ simply start to irrigate when the soil dries out to a predefined limit. How much irrigation to apply is more difficult to estimate , and it is best to measure soil moisture again immediately after an irrigation to check that an appropriate wetting depth has been achieved. All crops , incfuding trees, draw water from the upper soil layers first , with deeper water only sought once the upper levels are dry. (as a rule of thumb, for most plants , 40 of water uptake is from the top quarter of root depth, 30% from the second quarter, 20% from the third quarter, and 10% from the lowest quarter of root depth). For most tree crops the majority of the root system lies within a depth of a metre, and it important not to measure soil moisture just from the upper soil layers; irrigation is not usually required until the moisture at 60 cm deep declines to around 50-60 kPa or approximately 7-8% for sandy soils, 25-26% for loamy soils, 31-32% for cfay soils . Hence if measuring soil moisture, use at least two depths of measurement (20 cm, 60 cm) or more. Ideally, measure at 1 metre depth too , so that you'll know if the soil here gets very wet you are irrigating too much. The main disadvantage of relying on soil moisture is that measurements are obviously only made at a limited number of sites in the orchard/system . The method of irrigation, ego trickle or drip irrigation, also affects measurement sites. Try to ensure the tree/plant you are measuring near is representative and that the irrigation applied there (whether drippers, sprinklers r whatever) is also representative of the whole irrigation system. If you have distinct soil layers, measure in each layer if possible. Soil moisture can be measured as either: Soil water content (the horizontal axis in the diagram above) Soil water tension (the vertica l axis in the diagram above) Soi l water content can be estimated from the look and feel of soil, it can be calculated by weighing the soil, drying it and weighing again; also by the use of electrical capacitance devices, or by more high-tech devices not covered here.

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Look and feel of soil


Dry, moist and wet soils obviously look and feel different. Soil core samples can thus be taken with an auger, or holes dug in the soil, to check the soi l moisture. The table here shows typical properties of a sandy loam soil. The moisture deficit column indicates the amount of rain or irrigation required to achieve field capacity assuming root depth is 1 metre (in practice, 50-60% of th is amount usuaJly suffices an individual irrigation). For your own specific soil type(s), it is best to make your own table and work our over a number of months of years the irrigation required for specific soil look/feel properties. Moisture deficit
mm/m

Look and feel of (sandy loam) soil

0 -50 -80 -100 -130 -160

(field capacity) Looks very dark, leaves moisture on your hand when sq ueezed, makes a short ribbon. Quite a dark colour. Sandy loam forms a hard ball, clay loam forms a

plastic ball.
Fairly dark colour, makes a good baiL Start irrigating sand and sandy loam so ils. Slightly dark colour , makes a weak ball in sand, a good ball in clay/loam. Start irrigating loam and clay loam soils. Lightly coloured by moisture. Sandy loam will not form a ball, clay loam forms a weak ball. Sta rt irriqatinQ clay soi ls. (wilting point) Very slight colour. Clay loam clods are hard and crumbly

Weighing and drying the soil


This is in fact the most accurate way of determining soil moisture content. The reason why it is not widely used is that it cannot be undertaken Quickly in the field. An accurate weighing device (to 1 gram or so) is needed. An auger can be used to obtain a soil samples from different depths for measuring. The moist soil sample is first weighed. Then the over-dry weight must be determined. The soil is dried in an oven at 105-1 10C (temperatures a few degrees above the boiling point of water hasten the drying process and allow for the in crea sed baiting point of water caused by the presence of dissolved salts). The sample is left in the oven for severa l hours and there must be enough ventilation for the water vapour to escape. The weight of the so il solids (oven dry weight) is taken as 100%, and the weig ht of water is considered as an additional percentage (ie do not use the moist soil weight to divide by). ego Weight of moist soil 75g 60g Weig ht of oven-dry so il Weight of water present 15g Percent water = (15/60) x 100 = 25%

Irrigati on is usuall y required when the moisture at 60 cm deep declines to approxim ately 8% for sandy soi ls, 26% for lo amy soils, 32% for clay soils. At these levels about 80 li tres of water (equivalent to 8 cm of rain or irrigation) should wet a cubic metre of soil. A specific soil will have its own % thresho ld .

Electrical impedance I capacitance devices


These measure soi l moisture content via direct metal probes placed in the soil. The simplest ones simply measure electrical impedance - these are simple, cheap machines, but do not give

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particularly accurate results. More complex machines measure the soil properties using more com plicated electronic techniques. . Soil water tension is usually measured by ten siometers or gypsum blocks.

Tensiometers
These consist of an airtight water filled tube with a porous ceramic tip which is buried into moist loose sojl. Vario us length tubes are used and used at various depths. As the soi l dries, water is drawrt out of the tube through the ceramic tip and a partial vacuum develops in the tube, which is registered on a gauge. As the soil wets up, water is drawn back in and the reading on the gauge falls . Readings are accurate up to about 70 kPa, but tensiometers are not very good in heavy soils which dry out slowly. The slope of the three cu rves for the different soi ls in Fig 1. above between 4 and 60 kPa are reasonably sim ilar and the amount of wa ter held between these tensions is approximately 8%. Thus, if the soi l is uniforml y dry to 60 kPa, about 80 litres of water (equivalent to 8 cm of rain or irrigation) should wet a cubic metre of soil. Soil tension readings ca n be interpreted using the following table: Heavy clay Tension range 0-10 kPa Medium soils Sandy soils

10-20 kPa

20 -40 kPa

40-60 kPa

60-80 kPa

Very low tensions are observed after heavy rainfall or deep irrigation. At saturation, water drains away quickly under the influence of gravity. Once the surplus has drained away, the moisture will stabilise (field capacity). Readings here indicate that the soil is close to field capacity. This ra nge is often used as a trigger to stop irrigation. In very sandy soils with plants that are not drought tolerant, the limit shou ld be reduced to 1015 kPa. Plenty of moisture Plenty of moisture Course sands: commence irrigation avai lable to the available to the plants at 20-30 kPa plants Fine sands: comm ence irrigation at 30-40 kPa Plenty of moisture Coarse texture: Continue irrigation available to the commence irrigation at 40-50 kPa plants Fine texture: commence irrigation at 50-60 kPa Water no longer Continue irrigation Continue irrigation available to most plants. Commence irrigation at 70-80 kPa

Gypsum blocks
These measure soil water tension by the electrica l resistance between two electrodes embedded in (usually cylindrical) gypsum blocks buried in the soil. The water content of the block changes with the soil water tension. raising and lowering the electrical resistance between the electrodes. A meter is used to measure resistance which is converted to soil water tension using a calib ration curve.

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Gypsum blocks are not accurate in wet to moist soils (0-30 kPa) but are more suited to dry soils. They are installed where they will receive irrigation and crop water use. In drip irrigation the holes are spaced at 3-4 points at a distance of about 10 cm from a dripper; enough sensors need to be installed to give a representative picture of wha t is happening through the root zone.

Irrigation methods
Furrow irrigation
Widely used in warm climates where there is plentiful water (eg. runoff from melting snow on mountains) . Requires the construction of sha llow ditches between the crop rows or beds, which are filled from supply ditches by opening gates or by using siphon pipes or tubes. The beds are often raised several inches above the original soil level to provide god dra inage and aeration in the root zone. Advantages Foliage is not wetted , reducing foliar disease problems . Disadvantages Limited to fieldslareas that are carefully levelled to slope slightly from one end to the other (wi th a slope of 0.25 to 2%). Rarely successful on sandy or well-drained soils that hold little water. Requires large quantities of water, much of which is lost to evaporation. If water is high in soluble salts, excessive salts can build up in the soil. Labour intensive - constant checking is necessary.

Sprinkler irrigation
Widely used. Revolving head sprinklers are most common , mounted above the ground on risers. The water generally wets both the foliage and soil. Advantages Water-soluble fertilisers or growth enha ncers (eg. seaweed solution) are easily mixed with the water. Permanent systems are not labour intensive, but if pipes have to be moved around , this does take quite a lot of time. Disadvantages Foliage diseases encou raged through frequent wetting. Distortion of irrigation pattern by wind . Water is required at a fairly high pressure . Water must be good quality, possibly filtered. Initial in sta ll ation costs required. Not good on heavy soils which are better irrigated slowly, otherwise runoff and erosion can occur. Soil structure can be damaged, particularly in any bare soil areas.

Micro-irrigation (Low volume, trickle or drip irrigation)


This is a highly efficient way of using water and delivering it directly to the root zone of the target plant. Basically this is the frequent, slow application of water at specified points along wate r lines through emitters or app licators. The deli very pipes & lines are usually 13-25 mm (Xz -r) in diameter and can be above ground or below ground, as can the emitters themselves.

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There are numerous types of delivery systems , including: 'leaky ' rubber or plastic pipes, which slowly leak water along their length. individual drippers (sometimes with adjustable flow rates) which drip typically at 1-4 litres/hour each. 'Compensating' drippers have a fixed flow rate whatever the water pressure; 'no n-compensating ' have variab le rate depending on the pressure. The drippers either plug in to holes in the delivery pipe , or can be fitted into small (typically ; 5 mm) PVC pipes up to 1-2 m (3-6 tt) long which themselves plus into the delivery pipe. Drippers can be placed over holes and covered with an upturned tin or similar to minimise evaporation losses. micro-jets or micro-sprinklers which have a higher flow rate (16 to 200 litres/hour) and larger orifices, t hus more often avoiding cloggage problems. They can sprinkle water over an area of up to diameter 6 m (20 ft) The movement through the soil of the water emitted will usually be ellipsoidal in shape, but this will be influenced by the soil characteristics. These and the target plant's root characteristics will dictate the spacing required to wet the root zo ne adequately. Advantages Less water is used, reducing costs and conserving water resources. Weed growth is reduced because less soil surface is wetted. Limited soil wetti ng may mean less interruption of cultivation practices. Foliar diseases will be reduced because foliage is not wetted. The uniform water application prevents plant stresses and enhances yield. Water-soluble fertilisers or growth enhancers (eg. seaweed solution) are easily mixed with the water. Frequent applications of water keep salts in the soil solution more dilute and leached to the outer portion of the wetted soil. Water is placed where it is needed most. Disadvantages Initial costs for systems can be high., Above ground systems have lines, tubes etc. where they may get in the way of other operations. Below ground systems are difficult to observe and repair. High quality water supply is essential. Clogging of emitters etc. can be a serious problem. This is caused by particles in the water (can be eliminated by efficient filters) and microorganisms, ego slime molds, which are not easy to control apart from chemically. Damage to delivery lines and tubes by rodents and other animals can be a problem. Plants cultivated entire ly using drip irrigation in dry regions can have a root zone which is less deep and extensive, hence more at risk from water stress problems if there is an irrigation failure.

Where to irrigate
In terms of tree crops, most trees have roots which extend slightly beyond the drip line (ie the edge of the canopy where rain would drip down to the ground), with the concentration of roots highest at the drip line itself, although there will be feeder roots through the whole circular area that the drip line defines . Hence, aim to irrigate this whole area and, if possible, apply more water in the drip line region than in the central region near the tree trunk.

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Thus a large fruit tree with drip irrigation may have 4-8 drip emitters around it, and a grape vine 1 or 2 emitters. In terms of water spread from a drip irrigation system , it very much depends on the soil characteristics and length of time the dripper is dripping . Surface layers of soil are often irrigated to a diameter (centred on the dripper) of 60-100 cm , whereas deeper layers are often irrigated to a diameter of 2 metres or more. Micro-irrigation systems can be operated at night when there is minimum evaporation of water from the soil surface. Irrigation at night will wet a larger volume of soil than daytime irrigation. The irrigation requirements of fruit and nut trees through the growing season are largely determined by the rate of growth of fruits. A typical water use curve is shown in Figure 2 to the right, showing water requirements from spring to autumn. The irrigation season can be divided into four distinct periods: 1. Figure 2.

The early stage of fruit growth. During flowering, root growth is rapid and the soil should be moist. The water use increases as leaf cover increases and temperatures rise. Water use is greatly influenced by ground cover. Irrigation is rarely needed. The slow fruit growth period. During this period there is rapid shoot growth if water is readily available. Irrigation may be needed at temperatures rise , but plentiful water will mean large amounts of vegetative growth - if not desirable. water frequently but in small amounts. Rapid fruit growth prior to harvest. Starts 4-10 weeks prior to harvest. The most likely time that irrigation is needed, make sure that the tree's water needs are met to maximise harvest. The period from harvest to leaf fall. Reduce irrigation to avoid excessive shoot growth. Very dry conditions post-harvest will result in poor fruit set and growth the following season, so some irrigation may still be desirable.

2.

3.

4.

Suppliers
Access Irrigation Ltd , Crick , Northampton. Tel: 01788 823811. www .Access-lrrigation .co.uk EN8 9TY. Tel : 01992 E J Woollard Ltd, Fieldings Rd, Cheshunt, Waltham Cross , Herts.

623232.
Field GB Ltd , Unit 1, Counter Buildings, Brook St. Woodchurch , Kent , TN26 3SP. Tet : 01233 758780. www.irrigation.uk .co LBS Horticulture, Standroyd Mill, Cottontree, Caine , Lancs, BB8 7BW. www .lbs-horticulture.co .uk Tel : 0870727 3617.

References
Miller, R & Donahue, R: Soils in our Environment. Prentice Hall, 1995. Mitchell , P & Goodwin,l: Micro Irrigation of Vines and Fruit Trees. Agmedia , 1996. Preece, J & Read, P: The Biology of Horticulture. John Wiley, 1993. Pudney, S et a1: Soil Moisture Sensor Demonstration. Australian Nutgrower, Vol 16 No 4, 1217. Troeth , F & Thompson, L: Soils and Soil Fertility. Oxford University Press, 1993. Vaysse, P et al: L'irrigation des arbres fruitiers. Clifl,1990.

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Growing own-rooted fruit trees


Introduction
Following the article in the last Agroforestry News about coppicing fruit and nut trees , this article looks at growing fruiting trees on their own roots their management (including coppicing) .

Why grow fruit trees on their own roots?


All grafted trees have a degree of incompatibility between the rootstock and scion variety . Often this is minor and not a problem , but sometimes it is more serious and can dramatically affect the performance of the scion variety.

Before rootstocks were developed, all fruit trees were grown on their own roots, and new varieties selected as seedlings on their own roots . Difficulties in propagation meant that only a relatively small number of varieties were used (eg. those which took easily from hardwood cuttings , such as 'pitcher' apples, or from suckers such as some plum varieties). Some advantages of using own-rooted fruit trees are: To achieve better tree health. Every variety of fruiting tree differs in it's exact nutritional requirements which are met most easily by it growing on its own roots (assuming that the soil contains what is needed). In grafted trees there is always a mismatch of nutrient uptake by rootstocks and the exact requirements of the scion variety grown on it. This mismatch can lead to a reduction in health of the scion variety and a reduction in fruit quality. Better fruit set. Different varieties come into growth at different times , dependent mainly on winter chilling requirement. If a variety early into growth is grafted on a late starting rootstock and flowers before the rootstock is properly active , poor fruit set will result. Self fertility is probably improved. Better fruit quality and storage IHe, especially compared with fruit on dwarfing rootstocks. Better resistance to pests and diseases . Recovery from damage , eg . trees severely damaged by livestock, traffic , vandals etc. will grow back from roots as the same variety rather than the rootstock . Own rooted trees can be planted deeper (if soil conditions permit!) or with buried branch crotches to hinder pulling up. They can be dug up when mature (the top growth being severely reduced), moved and replanted elsewhere without the risk of a rootstock putting out shoots. This property could make them useful as temporary interplants amount larger trees or thinnings from dense plantings. Some disorders are caused by rootstocks - eg . brittle wood in plums or delayed graft failure in nut trees - and are thus avoided. Plums on own roots have more ftexible branches and are much less likely to break under the crop weight.

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Some varieties have their own useful root characteristics - eg o apple 'Katy' has a very vigorous and searching root system from an early age , lost if grafted .

There are also some disadvantages to using own-rooted fruit trees: The main disadvantage in using own-rooted fruit trees is that there is no vigour control by a rootstock , hence other techniques must be used if trees are to be kept smaller than their natural vigour would result in. Some rootstocks are adapted to certain conditions - for example drought-prone or waterlogged winter soils ; or may be resistant to soil pathogens - these benefits may also be lost. Fruiting may not normally begin for 6-1 0 years or more - again, techniques can be used to shorten this time . Apples typically take 3-4 years from root cuttings to start cropping; sooner with trees from nurse grafts (which can set fruit in their first year usually removed to increase growth) There is a problem with propagation and availability - there has been little work on propagating varieties on their own roots, and there is a risk that virus-free material is not available for propagation .

Techniques to induce early cropping


Withhold nitrogen (which stimulates excessive growth) and/or grassing beneath trees Withhold irrigation (except in serious droughts) Plant trees at an angle of 45 tie down 1 and 2 year old branches to the horizontal - this induces fruit bud formation bending over and tying down leading shoots Summer pruning - induces fruit bud formation Avoid winter pruning - stimulates vigorous regrowth root pruning and bark ringing could be attempted if the above are not successful, but are rarely needed.

Techniques to control vigour while maintaining cropping


The best way to control vigour is in fact to maintain steady cropping . Once own-rooted fruit trees are fruiting , a normal feeding and irrigation regime can commence. To maximise fruit bud formation and minimise vigorous shoot growth, prune in summer rather than winter. Continue to tie down shoots to promote fruit buds . Most apples are medium in vigour and can be maintained at a size of about 4-5 m (13 - 16 ft) high. Triploids are more vigorous and more difficult to keep this small. Spur type variet ies are naturally more dwarfing and can be kept somewhat smaller. Competition helps to control vigour too , so poly cropping systems like forest gardens or interplanting systems are well suited to own rooted trees.

Culture of own-rooted fruit trees


Culture is in general the same as for trees on a rootstock . Own root trees do not require the rich fertile soils needed by trees on dwarfing rootstocks , nor the complete lack of close competition.

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Propagation of own-rooted fruit trees


This breaks down into two processes. There is the initial task of producing trees on their own roots (starting with grafted trees). Then once can propagate from own root trees themselves, which tends to be rather easier. Various techniques work , though different varieties (even of the same species) have their own specific requirements and there is not much information available. Tissue culture can be used for own root tree propagation but results so far have been very inconsistent; more work needs doing on this regarding post-culture handling , hardening-off timing , etc. It is potentially a very useful technique.

1. Initially producing trees on their own roots


Apples Hardwood cuttings Easy with pitcher varieties. Some others do well placed in heated propagating bins (with a heating element at the bottom, and cuttings placed in sand in the bin with a base heat of 25C and an air temperature around SO C). The use of a rooting hormone (ISA) is essential. A reliable method used initially to get a variety on its own roots or to produce a single own-rooted tree. Uses M9 nurse roots: the scion variety is temporarily grafted to M9 roots (cut from an M9 rootstock obtained from a fruit nursery) then planted. Use propagating bins with base heat or unheated under plastic or glass; also works outside given wind protection and misting in dry periods. Once the scion has rooted, the M9 rooted section is broken off or cut away, and the rooted shoot replanted.

Nurse root cuttings

Layering & air layering Cherries Nurse root cuttings Layering & air layering
Chestnuts

As for apples but using Colt rootstock.

Semi-hardwood cuttings

Can be taken for hybrid varieties (Japanese x European) and is the normal commercial method of propagation.

Hazelnuts Olives

Layering & air layering Hardwood cuttings as for apples Semi-hardwood cuttings Layering & air layering The normal method of propagation. Nurse root cuttings can be tried on Quince rootstocks. Take in
July/~ugust

Pears
Peaches

under mist.

Plums

as for apples

Nurse root cuttings can be tried on Pixy & SI Julien A rootstocks

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Quinces

Hardwood cuttings Layering & air layering

Fairly easy.

2. Propagating from own rooted trees


Apples Hardwood cuttings Root cuttings As in 1. above. Works with many varieties. Roots from young trees , about pencil thickness , can produce a whip about 50 cm trail in one season in an outdoor bin. Bins need good light and protection from excess heaUcold. The method many rootstocks are propagated by. Trees are stooled and the new shoots earthed up. Some varieties may need marcottage (see hazelnuts below). As for apples. As in 1. above. Suckers form own-rooted trees will be true to type and can be dug up and transplanted. The way some varieties are commercially propagated. Stooled plants have fine wires tied around the bases of young shoots, which are then earthed up. The shoots produce roots and are separated off after a year and planted. The normal method of propagation.

Stooling

Cherries Chestnuts Hazelnuts

Stooling Semi-hardwood cuttings Suckers Marcottage (stooling)

Olives Pears Peaches Plums

Hardwood cuttings as for apples Stooling as for apples Suckers

As for apples.

Suckers form own-rooted trees will be true to type and can be dug up and transplanted. Fairly easy. As for apples.

Quinces

Hardwood cuttings Stooling

Coppicing own-rooted fruit trees


One method for coping with the extra vigour inherent in most own-rooted fruit trees is to coppice or pollard the trees on a regular basis. Ad vantages of this method of cultivation are
It avoids much of the work of summer pruning etc. required to keep trees relatively small.

Biennial bearing is much reduced. Because trees are not grafted , there are no problems of stimulating the rootstock to produce shoots or suckers.

It may induce sucker formation from the tree itself, in which case the suckers can be transplanted as own-root trees of the same variety (sucker formation could also be a disadvantage if other trees are not wanted).

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The life of coppiced trees tends to be extremely long - hundreds of years - much longer than trees grafted on to rootstocks.

Po ll arding (ie coppicing high) might be used , for examp le, where deer are a potential problem , to keep the new shoots high enough to avoid browsing problems on the regrowth. Overall yields would be expected to be slightly reduced for a coppiced orchard (see Coppicing fruit and nut trees in Agroforestry News Vol 11 No 3), but the work involved in maintaining the orchard @ f trees at a sma ll size and cropping well would be vastly reduced. One possible disadvantage wo uld be the susceptibility of branch cuts to fungal and bacteria l diseases. T he Cherry I Peach I Plum family should be coppiced in April or May to minimise the risk of si lverleaf. The apple I pear family are best coppiced in January or February when the spore count from diseases like bacterial canker is usually much lower than in late autumn and early winter . The use of resistant varieties would also be sensib le.

The coppice orchard system


Phil Co rbett of Cool Temperate has proposed this agroforestry system of modified alley cropping for growing fruit trees, bush fruit, vegetables and other pla nts in one system which utili sed own -root fruit trees. The coppice orchard consists of own-rooted fruit trees planted in rows running north-south. When the canopy of the orchard closes, one north-south row of trees is coppiced and the land in the row (ie between the rows of trees either side) used for light demanding crops, ego vegetables or cereals, white the trees re-grow. The trees on either side of the new glade will have higher light levels on their sides and produce more fruit buds. The fo ll owing year another north-south row is cut, but not the immediate neighbours as these will have extra fruit buds , but the next but one row. Thus the main management technique is alternate row coppicing. This process is repeated ever/yea r, creating a series os parallel , sheltered glades. Eventually, the rows of trees forming the avenues between the glades will also be coppiced in turn , but by then the ;glade' trees will have re-grown to form the avenues. As the trees re-grow there wi ll be glades at all stages of growth until the cycle repeats itself, and niches for plants suited to full light, part shade or heavy shade created. The exact timing of coppicing can be adjusted to suit the system - there isn't enough in formation to specifica lly recommend timi ng, though a coppice rotation of 10-15 years would most likely be appropriate. The coppice orchard can indude non-frui ting trees , ego nitrogen-fixing trees, trees for poles etc. which would also be coppiced along with the rest of the row. The re co uld be a large amount of small diameter poles and branches from each year's coppice which would have potential for firewood, fungi logs, woodchips for composting or mulching etc.

Suppl ier
The only supplier of own-rooted fruit trees at present www .cooltemperate.co.uk email philcorbett53@hotmail.com is Cool Temperate at

References
Corbett, Phil. Pers. comm . and Cool Temperate website: www.cooltemperate.co.uk Ermen, Hugh: Fruit Trees on their Own Roots. 2000. Garner, R J: The Grafter's Handbook. Cassell, 1988.

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Fuelwood
r
Introduction
t;::uelwood can provide cheap heating and power, be it in the form of logs, woodchips, offcuts or sawdust. It can be used in wood stoves, house boilers, district hearting schemes and electricity generation. The advantages of using wood as a fuel are numerous. It is carbon-neutral to burn, as long as the wood comes from forests that are sustained. Burning wood produces very low emissions of nitrous oxides and sulphur dioxide (a problem with burning fossil fuels). In addition, sustainable woodlands require people to work them and thus sustain local employment.

Wood as a fuel
Dry wood has a high energy content - 70-80% that of coal, weight for weight.

Fuel Fuel oil Coal Oven-dry wood (0% moisture)

Energy (GJ/t) 42.5 25 .2 19.6

MWh/t

t oil equivalent

11.8 7.0 5.4

1.02 0.60 0.46

(MWh electricity figures assume a 25% conversion rate) The main factors affecting wood burning and heat output are The calorific va lue of the wood The wood density The moisture content of the wood The particle size for burning The burning conditions themselves One cubic metre of freshly cut (wet) wood weighs about one metric tonne (1000 kg). For conife rs, the wood contains about 400 kg of dry matter and 600 kg of water; for hardwoods about 550 kg of dry matter and 450 kg of water. As well as containing about 50%" water, fresh wood also contains carbohydrates (from simple sugars to complex polymers like lignin) and minerals (most of the latter, except for calcium , in the bark) . Broad-leaved species in general have a higher calorific value (about 20 GJ per oven-dried tonne [ODT]), with conifers reaching about 19 GJ per ODT. The greater the calorific value, the grea ter the amount of heat released when it is burned . There is a big range in wood density between different species - to get the same heat output, a smaller volume of a denser wood is required. In the table below, density refers to average J density as kg of dry matter/m .

I'

Particle size is a factor in burning efficiency, because the greater the surface area volume ratio , the faster combustion rate. So fine wood powder burns faster than wood chips, which in turn burn faster than logs . Wood is a poor conductor of heat, and having a log diameter of under 10 cm (4") helps to increase the rate of burning. As well as having a huge impact on the calorific value of the wood (fresh cut wood having only

44% the calorific value of air dry wood), moisture content has other effects. One indirect effect

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as

is that that an increa se in water content increases transport costs I energy use to get the wood to its destination. When burnt, any energy produced in the first stage of combustion is used to evaporate the water within wet timber. The evaporated water contains various soluble materials and can increase the risk of tar deposits in chimneys. Species Holly Hornbeam Black locust Apple Beech Oaks Field maples Ash Walnut Norway maple Sycamore Cherry Birches Density 680 650 630 6 10 580-610 580-610 580 570-600 570 560 540 535 510-570 Species Hawthorn Hazel Larch Sweet chestnut Poplars Urnes Alders Douglas fir Pines Firs Spruces Willows Density 520 510 500 480 480 470 450 450 400-430 360-410 320-390 300-380

...

Moisture content {% of dry weight} (oven dried) 10-12 30 (air dried) 50

Calorific value {GJ/t} 19.6 17.2 12.4 7.6

In burning , the flames seen are the combustion of gases, while the burn ing of solid particles produces a glow. The stages of full wood combustion are: 1. 2. Drying. Gasification and combustion - about 80% of the energy is released as gas. If the hydrocarbon gases produced and burned in this stage are not fully combusted, they may set as tars in the chimney. Charcoa l burnout. About 20% of t~e energy comes from the remaining cha rcoal.

3.

The high proportion of volatile gases released from burning wood means that air should be introduced both above the fuel (secondary air) as well as from below (primary air). An inadequate supply of oxygen (eg. when closing down a wood burner) , as well as reducing efficiency by up to 50%, can lead to emissions of carbon monoxide and polychromate hydrocarbons (some of which are noxious). The temperature in the burning process varies. In open wood fires, temperatures are 200500C and hydrocarbon gases and charcoal are left as by-products. In more efficient stoves, with the addition of hot secondary air, gases burn at 600-700C to give carbon dioxide and water, while burning with just primary air gives temperatures of 300-500C and leaves ash and carbon dioxide. Ceramic stoves burn wood at high temperatures (900-1100C). The higher the burning temperature. the less remains unburned and the more efficient the burning process. Fire type Open fire Double-fire box fire Built in stove Free standing stove Ceramic stove Central heating boiler Burning efficiency 35% (even with air-dried wood) 40-50% 60% 70% 95% 85-90%

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 4

The ash that remains after complete combustion amounts to 0.2 to 0.5% of the oven~drjed weight of the original fuel. It is high in potassium and calcium, with useful amounts of sodium, phosphorus and magnesium. Depending on geology, it can contain heavy metals (lead, cadmium) but in general in lesser quantities than those found jn coal ash.

Drying wood
To achieve efficient combustion, the wood content should ideally have under 25% moisture content. Traditionally, wood fuel has been dried in the form of logs, dried naturally by seasoning - ie stacki ng them in a well~ventilated, covered pile for a year or more. In fact in UK conditions, logs seasoned for year often still contain 35~40% moisture, and two years' seasoning is often requi red to bring the moisture content down to around 30%. Tightly packed logs will dry very slowly and may start rotting - ensure good air flow around all logs. Sma ll diameter logs (50 mm or less) will dry much quicker (within one season or even by the summer following harvest), and there is a case to be made for short rotation coppice (eg. of hazel, hawthorn, ash) to provide small logs like this wh ich can be bundled together for burning. The drying process can be speeded up by stacking under clear polythene to utilise solar energy. On a small commercial scale, batches of logs (1 to 10 tonnes) can be dried in 12 hours using a Siroco mobile drier which uses a steam process - but of course this will use energy itself. An alternative is to utilise wood chips as the fuel. Woodchip heating systems start at 20~30 KW output, suitable for large houses. Logs are easiest to chip when wet (and require less energy to chip then). Wood chips can dry in days or weeks , but require shelter and a good air flow ambient air is best forced through them via pipes and gratings. Piles of wet chips can heat up and spores form (which cause 'fa rmers lung') as well as them starting to decompose quickly. Dry wood chips require sto rage under cover.

Direct cooking wood


Cooking wood (ie for grills etc) is sometimes used on its own, in smokers (for smoking foods) or together with charcoal. Woods preferred are those which burn long and slow, often with an aromatic smoke which enhances the fla vou r of the food. Alder, Apple, Ash, Beech, Birch, Cherry, Sweet chestnut, Hazel , Hickory, Holly, Hornbeam, Larch, Madrone (Arbutus menzies;/), Maples (Acer circinatum, Amacrophyllum, A.saccharum), Oak, Tan oak (Lithocarpus) and Wi ll ow are all used. Woods which burn fast, useful for a quick burst of heat jf needed, for example to boil a kettle, include Alder, Aspen, Cedar, Hawthorn, Horse chestnut, Lime, Pine, Poplar, Sp ruce and Sycamore.

References
Aaron, J & Richards, E: British Woodland Produce. Stobart Davies, 1990. Dyke, A: The Science of Wood as a Fuel. Reforesting Scotland, 28 (Autumn 2002). GulliverGoodall, G: From Wet Wood to Dry Fuel. Reforesting Scotland, 28 (Autumn 2002). Reforesting Scotland: Fuelwood for Homes and Communities. Information Sheet, June 2002. Savill, P: The Silviculture of Trees used in British Forestry. CAB International, 1991. Thomas , M & Schumann, 0: Income Opportunities in Special Forest Products. USDA Forest Service AlB 666. Zschock, R: Ceramic Stoves - Fuel & Fuel Consumption. Permaculture Magazine, 14, p27.

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n
Pest & disease series:

Rooks and crows


Intrpduction
Rooks and crows (Corvus sp. ) are one of the two main pests of nut crops in many countries including Britain (the other being squirrels.) In some countries, jays, magpies. starlings and blackbirds can also be a significant pest. Rooks nest communally in rookeries, whereas crows nests are solitary structures. In early spring, rooks assemble to repair and build nests in exactly the same spot as previous years. Each female lays two to seven eggs (4-5 being usual) in March, hatching one by one a few weeks later. One or two of each brood tend to die of starvation each year. When they are fully grown the young rooks leave the nest but stay on branches close by , still fed by their parents (this is the traditional time that shooting begins , sometimes with the by-product of making rook pie). The young birds that leave successfully feed on a normal diet of mainly invertebrates, but will take advantage of grains , nuts and other crops that are available.

Damage caused
Damage is caused in autumn as the nuts begin to ripen . Almonds , walnuts and hickory nuts are most at risk, with damage beginning as the husks split to reveal the ripe nuts within . Typical signs of rook damage are the presence of small pieces of broken nut shells appearing on the ground under the branches. The whole crop can be taken within days by a large flock. The damage caused often reflects the surrounding habitat and whether that habitat increases bird numbers by providing nest sites, cover for roosting, ample food and the like.

Deterrents and control measures


Rooks are very opportunistic and will eat almost anything - grains, fruits , nuts , carrion , insects etc. Once they find a food source they are quite difficult to make them move on. This plus the fact that they are quite intelligent, makes them a foe to be reckoned with . Measures taken should try and target the problem early: convince the rooks to move on to something else rather than hang around and finish off your nut crop . Make life as unwelcome as possible immediately after they start to predate on the crop, before they develop a feeding pattern , or better still about a week before the problem is about to start. Once they have fed repeatedly in any given spot and know where there is a guaranteed meal to be had all day and every day, they will be very difficult to deal with. Crows usually attack the edge of a crop first , gradually moving further and further in. many scaring devices can work well placed at the edge(s) of the crop. Thus

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 4

The birds must be scared off, and a number of means can be tried. Birds respond differently to scaring devices, and what works with some may not be effective with others . Intermittent loud noises can be effective (only suitable for rural areas , obviously) , ego automatic gas guns (gas cannons) at one per 5-8 acres in the daytime as used agriculturally. There are also a number of electronic devices that use the birds' own distress calls (or, increasingly, abstract traffic noises, music, screeches and whines) to frighten them off - these can be very loud (to 120 decibels). Loud noise deterrents are being viewed as increasingly environment-unfriendly and they are likely to send you and your neighbours mad! They are regulated in many areas and complaints of their nuisance value are rocketing . Other methods can be as effective if rotated (see last point below). Shooting with shotguns is effective at scaring birds off. However, what is often forgotten is that shooting consists of two elements of harassment periodic loud blasts and the presence of humans. Rooks and crows can often learn to disperse as soon as There is also the humans turn up, then return when they see them leave. noise/nuisance problem as above. Birds have excellent eye sight , which some bird scarers exploit by using an intermittent 100 hertz strobe light, with or without an electronic noise scarer (with associated problems). A scarecrow moved at least daily can be effective - rooks are very wary of people. Constant movement can be very offputting to the birds. Hang up items in trees like old CD 's (pick up the free ISP ones from supermarkets), or empty milk cartons (slit down the four sides first and slightly squash to open it up, so it catches the wind better). Brightly coloured flags flapping in the wind sometimes work. Large 'eye' balloons can be used, attached to poles above treetops (see right). These are about 75 cm (30 in diameter. Try and get them a metres (3 tt) above the trees., and use tethers at least 60 cm (2 tt) long. Several per acre can be effective. Vary the height and position every 3-5 days.
ft )

Bird scare tape can be used - red and silver aluminium-mylar tape (not to be confused with humming line tape which is generally not so effective) can be stretched from treetop to treetop in a random pattern. It does not need to be densely spread, as long as there is some tape within, say, 20 metres (70 tt) of any point. Holographic tape has now been developed which is thicker and noisier (a metallic noise as it raUles) which might also be effective. There are reports that the use of monofilament fishing line can be an effective deterrent, it seems that birds are not quite sure whether the barrier is there or not. For trees, the method recommended is to attach a pole vertically in the centre of the tree and then make a 'tepee ' of lines down to the ground from the top. Protruding branches are not a problem as birds are repelled in a fairly large area around the line. Reflective windmills, which have reflective blades and flash UV light are another option.

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Artificial (decoy) snakes or snake look-a likes placed in trees and moved regularly can be effective. Toy rubber ones can be used, or pieces of garden hose. Artificial (decoy) birds of prey, ego hawks or eagles, can also be effective (owls probably less so for rooks). These are best placed on top of poles at treetop level, and again moved regularly. Two companies make eagle kites (one self-launches from its perch) on a tall pole which soar on a tethered line in the wind (see right). There is also some evidence that a kite alone is a good deterrent.

Remember that the birds will become accustomed to anyone technique after a while. Try and alternate two or three techniques for 57 days at a time.

Suppliers
The Organic Gardening Catalogue, Riverdene Business Park , Molesey Road, Hersham, Fax 01932 252707. www.OrganicCatalog.com Surrey, KT1 2 4RG. Tel 01932 253666. enguiries@chaseorgan ics.co.uk - supply 'G litterbang' reflective & crinkly tape The Trapman (UK). Tel: 07831589103. Fax: 01704 821136. sales@TrapMan.com www.trapman.co.uk/decoy-bird-scarers.htm - decoy hawks. Spec Trellissing , USA. Tel: (215) 322 5588. info@spectrellissing.com www.spectrellising.com - ~The Eagle" BirdScarer self-launching eagle kite. www.birddamage .com windmills, eagle kites. (USA) birdgard@ix.netcom.com Tel: (800) 555-9634 - reflective

BirdGuard Bird ContrOl Products, 100 State Street, Suite 312, Erie PA 16507 , USA Tel: (800) 331 2973. : info@birdguard.com www.birdguard.com - ~ lrri-Tape H iridescent foil scarer. Snow Pond Farm Supply, 699 Adams Street, P.O, Box 115, North Abington, MA 02351, USA Tel: 781 -878-5581. Fax: 781-878-5398. sales@snow-pond.com www.snow-pond.com - bird scaring balloons, owls, snakes, tape.

References
Crawford, M: Protecting tree crops from birds. Agroforestry News. Vol 6 No 1. pp 3. Knight. J: Preventing Bird Depredations Using Monofilament Line. Quandong , Vol 25 No 4 pp 12-13. Micke, W: Almond Production Manual. University of California, 1996. Owen, J: Sing a song of sixpence. Organic Gardening, March 1996, pp 8-10. Riotte , L: The Complete Guide to Growing Nuts. Taylor Pub co, 1994.

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Drying fruits and nuts


Introduction
Dried foods has been used for survival from early nomadic man to modern times. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks used it, and early sea-going expeditions survived on dried fruit, grains and meats. Until recent times , it was a necessity anywhere where homes had to be self-retiant during cold and unproductive winter months. The first dehydrator used to dry fruits and vegetables by artificial means was used in France in 1795, using a continuous hot air flow at 40 C (105F). 1t was used to dry thinly sl iced vegetables and fruits. Drying on a large scale was not used until World War I, and again in World War II, when tremendous quantities were needed to feed troops in the field. Cons iderable research on drying foods took place at these times. Today, dried fruit production is a huge industry, with major crops like apricots, raisins, figs and prunes largely being sun dried.

Drying principles
There are two things needed to efficiently dry (dehydrate) fruits, nuts and other plant material: 1. 2. Warm air Air circulation

Warmth alone is not sufficient , as the still air soon becomes saturated with moisture from the plant material. Air circulation alone is also not usually sufficient. All that happens in these cases is that either the cool air or the warm moist atmosphere encourages fungal rots which can v ery quickly ruin crops. The moisture carrying capacity of the air is dependent on the temperature. Each 15 C (2JOF) increase in temperature doubles the moisture-carrying capacity of the air. If the temperature is too hot, the food wi ll case harden - ie form a hard shell that traps moisture inside. Some fruits are not recommended for drying because of their slow drying rate and large amount of seeds - blackberries, blackcurrants, redcurrants, raspberries, crab apples, Quinces.

Pretreatment
All fruits and vegetab les contain enzymes and other chemica ls which cause them to ripen. Drying slows the effect of these enzymes, but some continue to work even after the food has been dried (especially vegetables) , which can lead to poor rehydration and flavour. Some fruits tend to oxidise (ie combine with oxygen in the air) during drying and storage , which can cause browning, loss of vitamins and ftavour loss. The action of enzymes can be stopped and oxidation min imised by pretreating with heat, lemon juice, vitamin C etc. (Sulphur dioxide is often used commercially but is not recommended because of possible adverse health effects.)

Preparation
The best quality product comes from fruit at peak ripeness. Try to avoid picking fruit for drying just after heavy rain or irrigation, as this increases moisture levels in the fruit. Make sure fruit is picked carefully and kept clean. Wash all fruits in cold water to remove soil , bacteria and insect larvae just before processing. For most fruits to dry quickly enough to prevent spoi lage, the skin has to perforated in some way to allow the moisture to escape. Use sharp stainless steel knives for cutting. This can be by either:

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-g

halving ego apricots, peaches, pears can be halves and the core removed , then are dried skin-side down to prevent the juices from dripping out and retain flavour. Slicing ego apples. Larger fruits should be peeled and cut into slices 510 mm (0.4 0.8 ") thick. Uniform slices will dry in the same amount of time. With some fruits (peaches , pears) , slicing lengthwise will give fewer, larger pieces than slicing crosswise. Checking Small fruits such as prunes , cherries and grapes, have a waxy bloom (a thin natural wax-like coating) which keeps moisture in. Cracking or checking this bloom will decrease the drying time. Commercially , fruits are checked by dipping in lye - a potentially dangerous process. On a small scale , the fruits can be dipped whole into boiling water just long enough to crack the skins. Pitting Fruits with a pit or stone, eg o cherries, should be pitted I stoned before drying - this shortens drying time and produces a better-tasting fruit

Larger soft fruits, such as plums I prunes or apricots, can be flattened to shorten the drying time - use your thumbs to press the rounded side in after halving , which exposes more drying surface to the air. Oxidation and enzyme reactions cause some fruits (eg . apples , pears , peaches, apricots) to tUfn brown when cut and exposed to air. After cutting , these are best placed in a holding solution of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) for two minutes or more (no longer than an hour) to reduce browning. Use 1 teaspoon of ascorbic acid per litre of water. Ascorbic acid is avai lable from wine-making shops. Citric acid can also be used , or even citrus fruit juices, though these are not as effective and may add flavours to the fruit . After using a holding solution , drain fruits off and blot dry with paper towels before placing in a dehydrator. Dried fruits should then be packed in plastic bags or glass jars with minimum air. Package in small amounts which can be used up within a few days of opening . Seal bags with a heat sealer or heavy rubber bands and store sma ll er bags inside large plastic or metal co ntainers. If there is a risk that fruits still have insect larvae in them (which will still be alive after drying, of co urse), dried fruits can be ' freeze-pasteurised by placing in a freezer set below -20C (OF) for 2-14 days.

The drying process


Preheat the dryer (if using a dehydrator) a'nd arrange the prepared fruit on drying trays, leaving small spaces between slices or pieces for air circulation . Different fruits can be dried together as they don 't have a strong flavour or odour. Dry fruit halves or slices of similar size on the same tray to redu ce sorting near the end of the drying process. Small fruits like cherries should be stirred occasionally to promote even drying. Try to interrupt the drying process as little as possible. Do not add fresh moist pieces to a dryer filled with partially dried fruit - the increased humidity wi ll greatly increase the drying time of the partly dried fruit. Suggested drying temperatures and times are listed in the table below. Most fruits dry best at 57C (135F). Either dry at this temperature throughout , or use initial drying temperatures of up to 60C (160F) for 1-3 hours to remove surface moisture quickly, before reducing the temperature. If drying several fruits together with different recommended temperatures , make a compromise. The moisture content of dried fruits should be 1520% - some moisture is needed for a chewy texture if fruits are to be eaten in their dried state. This is drier than commercially dried fruits , which are dried to 30-35% moisture then treated with fungicides such as sulphur dioxide. Test frequently near the end of the drying process to avoid overdrying . The easiest dryness test is touching and tasting. The cooled fruit should be chewy and leatherlike with no moi sture

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 4

pockets. Alternatively, use the moisture content from the table below and weigh the fresh and dry fruits to get to an accurate dryness. For example: Apricots contain approximately 85% water.

1. 2. 3.
4.

Weigh the pee led, cored, prepared fruit, ego 5 kg Calculate the total weight of water in the fruit. here 5 x 0.85 = 4.25 kg Ca lculate the weight of water to be removed , here to achieve 20% moi stu re (ie losing 80% or 0.8 of the water): 4.25 x 0 .8 = 3.4 kg The weight of the apricots when dried should be the initial weight minus the water removed, here: 5 - 3.4 = 1.6 kg

So, dry the apricots and weigh frequently near the end of the drying process until this weight has been achieved. When drying has been achieved, some pieces will be more moist than others because the size of the pieces or their locati on in the dryer. Conditioning is a process used to distrib ute the residual moisture evenly in the fruit. It reduces the chance of spoilage, particularly from molds. After the dried fruit has cooled. loosely pack it in plastic or glass containers to about 2/3 fuJI. Cover tightly and let them stand for 24 days. The excess moisture in some pieces will be absorbed by the drier pieces. Shake the containers daily to sepa rate the pieces and check for signs of condensation - if this occurs, further drying is required . Drying trays should be scrubbed clean at regular interva l to stop the growth of molds on them which can spoi l fruit. Nuts should be dried within 24 hours of harvesting. They can be imm ersed in water to remove soil and debris, and the nuts wh ich float can be discarded. Sp rea d nuts in si ngle layers on drying trays. Unshelled nuts will take 1014 hours or more, and shelled kernels 812 hours or more to dry in a dehydrator. Store in airtight plastic, metal or glass containers below 20"C (70F). They should store for up to 1 year or more, depending on their oil content (low oil content nuts like chestnuts will store longer). Dried shelled oily nuts will only sto re for a few months. Fruit Apples wate r 84% preparation Peel, core, slice in to 7 mm (1/4") slices or rings. Hold in ascorbic acid. Drying 57e (135F) for 715 hours ; or 65e (150F) for 23 hours, then 55"C (130F) unlil dry (10% moisture ). 57"e (135F) for 20-28 hours; or 700 e (160F) for 23 hours, then 55 C (130F) unlil dry. 57e ( 135F) for 610 hours; or 65"C 2-3 ( 150F) for hours, then 55e (130F) until dry. 57e (135F) for 13-21 hours; or 700 e (160F) for 23 hours, then 55"C (130F) unlil dry. Dryness tests Pliable crisp. 10 Best varieties are firm textured dessert varieties on Ihe sharp side. Pliable with no pockets of moisture.

Apricots

85%

Halved, stones removed. Hold in ascorbic acid.

Blueberries

83%

Remove stems. Dip in boiling water to remove bloom.

Leathery and pliable with no pockets of moisture.

Cherries

84% (sour), 80% (sweet)

stems, Remove halve (optional) and remove stone, place skin side down.

Leathery and pliable with no pockets of moisture. Sweet varieties are nicest.

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~E

Fruit Cranberries

water 88%

preparation Dip in boiling water to remove bloom.

Figs

78%

Grapes 81%

stems, Remove halve or quarter large fruits. Dry skin side down. Whole of halved, skin side down. Blanching will reduce drying times here by 50%. Remove skin, slice in to 7 mm (1/4") sli ces. Halve, remove into stone, cut quarters and dry skin side down , or cut into 10 mm (3/8") sli ces. Hold in ascorbic acid solution. Scald to remove skins. Cut into 9 mm (3/8") sl ices. Hold in acid ascorbic solution. Peel thinly, cor~, cut into 7 mm ( 1/4") slices. Hold in asco rbic acid so lution. Peel, core, cut into 12 mm (112") slices.

Kiwi fruits

82%

Drying 57C (135F) for 10-12 hours; or 60 0 e (140 F) until dry (5% moisture). 57 e ( 135 F) for 22-30 hours; or 70 0 e (160F) for 12 hours, then 55C (130F) until dry. 57e (135 F) for 22-30 hours; or 70 0 e (160F) for 12 hours, th en 55C (130F) until dry. 60 0 e (140F) for 715 hours until dry. 57e (135 F) for 816 hours; or 70C (160 F) for 2-3 hours, then 55e (130F) until dry.

Dryness tests Shrivelled, pliable, sticky. Best combined with other dry fruits. Pliable and leathery, no pockets of moisture.

Pliable and leathery, no pockets of moisture. Only use varieties. seed less Produces rai sins. Leathery and pliable with no pockets of moisture. Leathery or pliable with no pockets of moisture.

Nectarines

82%

Peaches

89%

57 e ( 135F) for 816 hours; or 65 C (150F) for 2-3 hours , then 55e ( 130F) until dry. 57 e ( 135F) for 816 hours; or 70 C 2-3 (160F) for hours, then 55e (130F) until dry. 60C (140F) until dry.

Pears

83%

Leathery and pliable with no pockets of moisture. Clingstone varieties dry better than freestone. Leathery or pliable with no pockets of moisture. Summer pears li ke Williams are best. Leathery or pliable with no pockets of moisture . All varieties (jood. Light medium to brown, tender and pliable but not sticky. Pliable and leathery. Varieties where the stone comes free easily are much easier to prepare.

Pears (Asian)

81%

Persimmons

79%

Plums

81%

Remove stem cap, cut into half and then into 7 mm (1/4") slices Cut in half. remove stone, cut into 6-9 mm (1/4-3/8") slices, leaving peel intact; or halve and pop the backs.

600 e ( 140 F) for 12 hours, then 55 C (130F) for 10-16 hours until dry. 57C (135 F) for 22-30 hours ; or 70 0 e (160 F) for 12 hours, then 55C (130F) until dry (18% moisture).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/11 No 4

~:

Fruit Strawberries

water
90%

preparation Remove cap, cut into 7 mm (1/4~) slices or in halves if small (dry skin side down).

.
Drying 57e (135F) for 715 hours; or 65C 1-2 (150F) for hours, then 55e (130F) until dry Drying Dry to 10% or less. Dry shelled almonds to 6%. Dry to 15% moisture at 40soac (104-122F): may take 3-5 days. Under 7% is needed to make good chestnut flour which doesn't cake may take a further 2-7 days.

Dryness tests Leathery and pliable with no pockets of moisture. Fi rm varieties dry best.

Nut

water
1520%

preparation

Almonds (in shell) Chestnuts (in shell )

60%

Wash

Dryness tesUcomments For mechanical shelling, 8-10% is needed . Weigh to determine moisture. Dry nuts have brittle shells which break up qui te easily. On a small scale, fill a sack half full and beat it on a hard floor or wall, clean. winnow to 15% is ideal for chestnuts to be eventually rehydrated and gives storage for over a year.

Hazelnuts (in shell)

25 35%

Wa lnuts shell)

(in

2535%

Wash

at 40-50 o e Dry (104-122F) to achieve 7-8% moisture. 12% Dry to moisture at 25 43 e (77-110 F). Typica lly takes 2040 hours. Dry shelled kernels to 8%.

Membrane between the two walnut shell halves is crisp and not rubbery.

Storage
Storage life of dried fruits and nuts depends on: Residual moist ure. Most dried fruits retain 15-20% of their moisture. If they contain too much they will rot. Too little moisture makes them unpalatable and causes large nutri ent losses. Storage te mperature. The lower the temperature , the longer dried foods will remain in prime condition . Temperatures below 16C (61DF) will maintain most foods in good condition for about a year. At 2rC (80F) or more, foods start to deteriorate after F) below 15DC (60 D several months. For every drop of 10C (18D F), the storage life increases 3 to 4 times. Storing in a freezer at -20C (ODF) gives typical s torage times of 5-10 years for most fruits. Expos ure . Exposure to humidity, light and air during storage adversely affects sto rage life. Ught also fades colour and destroys vitamins A and C.

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Packaging. AU packaging materials should be airtight, moisture-proof, insect proof and rodent-proof. Heat-sealed thick plastic bags or freezer bags should have as much air removed as possible . Vacuum packing, using a home-scale machine, is an option.

Vacuum packing. refrigerating or freezing will double or triple storage times.

Fruit leathers
Fruit leather is a chewy fruit product. made by pureeing fresh fruit to a smooth thi ck liquid which is porJred onto a flat surface and dried. As it dries it takes on a leather-like appearance and texture. When dry it can be pulled off the drying surface and still hold its shape. Fruit leather is an ideal way of u sing up slightly bruised , overripe or otherwise blemished fruits which perhaps cannot be sold or processed another way. Leathers can be made from a single fruit, from mixtures. and also ha ve spices added . Line a drying tray with a fruit-leather sheet, mylar, food-grade plasti c or kitchen plastic wrap (the latter needs to be taped down). Prepare fruit as listed in the table below. Puree the fruit until very smooth , adding little or no water if possible , then sieve out any seeds. Combine fru its after they have been pureed and add any spi ces or sweetenings (suga r or honey). Pour it onto the drying tray and spread even ly until it is about 3-4 mm (1/8") thick (it can be up to 7 mm , X" th ick at the edges , as these dry quicker). lea ving a border to allow for spreading during drying. Abut 500 ml is n eeded for a drying tray 45 x 35 cm. Dry at 5rC (135 F). Dry it until it feels leather-like and pliable - there should be no sticky spots in the centre . This takes 4-6 hours in a dehydrator. Remove the leather from the tray while it is still warm and roll it up into cylinder, wh ich can be cut into snack -size section s and stored in plastic wraps. Fruit leathers will store for 1-2 weeks at room temperature. longer in a refrigerator, and longer still in a freezer. Fruit Apples Preparation Core, puree w ith or without skins in a sma ll amount of water or juice. Alternatively, cook and puree. Remove stone, puree with skins. Puree , sieve most of seeds. Puree who le. 10 remove Combine with All fruits. Spices, flavourings Allspice, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, Lemon , mint, nutmeg, orange, vanilla. Allspice, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, lemon, nutmeQ , oranqe. Cinnamon , lemon. Cinnamon , coriander, femon. Almond, cinnamon , lemon , orange. Cinnamon , cloves, ginger. lemon, oranqe. Lemon. Cin namon, cloves, ginger, almond , nutmeg. Ci nnam on, cloves, coriander, lemon , nutmeg, orange .

Apricots

Apple, Plum

Bla ckberries & hY9rid berries Blueberries Cherries

Apple App le, peach. Bland on own. Apple , Raspberry, rhubarb . Apple, pear.
Apple , raspberry. Apple, blueberry, plum , ra spberry.

Cranberries Grapes Peaches nectarines Pears

Puree. Remove stones, Heat to almost boiling and coof. Puree. Puree, sieve to remove seeds, cook to thicken Boil for 2 minute s to remove remove skins. Hal ve, stones, puree . Pe el, core , puree.

&

App le, cra nberry rhubarb .

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f"
Fruit Plum

.,.
Preparation Remove stones . puree. Puree , sieve to remove seeds . Steam until tender, puree.

Raspberries Rhubarb

Combine with App le, apricot, peach , pear. Apple.


Cherry, raspberry, strawberry. Apple, rhubarb , peach.

Spices, flavourings Cinnamon, coriand er, lemon, orange. Lemon . mint, orange. Lemon, orange.

Strawberries

Puree ,

sieve

to

remove

Lemon, orange.

seeds.

Dehydrators
A good quality dehydra tor w ill yield a beUer qu ali ty, more nutritious dried product tha n any o th er method of drying. Th ey allow for drying ove rnight or any other time, and need minimal time for watching, turning or rotating the food. Three important features which are desirable in a dehydrator are:

An adjustable thermostat - allows va ri ed tempera tures for different products. Fan blown air circulation - removes moisture, reduces drying times. An efficient heat source - large enough for the drying area and more efficient if controlled by thermostat.

Round dehydrators usually have the heating unit in the base and may rely on convection to supp ly the airflow in wh ich case they will be slow. They require tray rotation as the lower trays dry first. The drying trays will have holes in the centre which reduces the useable drying area. Dehydrators with a fan & heater at one side and a horizontal air fl ow over drying trays give more eve n drying, do not require tray rotation, have more drying area for th e vol um e and are more versatile. They are more expensive, though.

Stove-top drying
Those with an Aga or Rayburn type stove whi ch is on constantly can utilise the heat for drying. A metal rack is placed just above the stove top. The temperature is difficult to control and air circulation is va riable . Constant heat is req uired until the food is dried.

Oven drying
Oven drying takes 2 or 3 times longer than drying in a dehydrator (making it more energy inefficient and costl y), and time is requ ired to tend and rotate the food. Food dried in an oven is usually darker, more brittle and less flavourful than food dried in a dehydrato r. The higher temperatures whi ch have to be used lead to larg e nutrient losses from the foods. Fruits with a ve ry high moisture co ntent, or those which must be dried slowly because their skin s prevent evapo ration (eg. prunes) , and very difficult to oven dry. Test the oven temperature wi th a thermometer before using as you would whe n drying food. A temperature of 5060C over thi s is too hot. Mo st gas ovens cannot be set this low. as these create an air flow. Use fine mesh drying trays netting or cheesecloth to lay on the slices of fruit. it to dry. Prop the oven door open (122 1 40 F) must be maintained Electric convection ovens are best or oven racks covered with nylon

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Solar drying
In areas with hot dry sunny summers and autumns (not usually Britain), solar drying is an option. It really need s outside temperatures of 30C (86 F) to work welL It is best to build a dryer specifically designed for efficient drying. The one below , designed by the NRI , is widely used in Uganda:

A main frame is constructed out of 50 x 50 mm (2 X 2 ~ ) softwood , with drying trays , rails and support bars made of 50 x 25 mm (2 x 1 ~ ) hardwood to provide strength and durability _ The outside is covered with polytunnel-grade plastic. The base of the drying chamber is slatted , then cove red with fine plastic netting/mesh. This allows air to filter through and enter the chamber from underneath and through to the trays of fruit. Ventilation slots built into the loading doors, also covered with insect netting, allow the warm moist air to dissipate through convection. Any rain which gets inside drains away through the netted base . To operate effectively, a steady air flow is required through the dryer, and gaps should be sealed to achieve this and prevent insect access. Hinged doors at the front provide access for loading unloading the drying trays. In this design , there are two tiers of trays , each with 6 trays . Each tray consists of a hardwood frame across which is stapled strong plastic mesh, onto which are placed the fruit slices for drying.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 11 No 4

To deter ant, termite and other insect attacks , the legs of the dryer can be placed inside old cans filled with mineral or vegetable oil. Inverted cones nailed over the top of these will help prevent the cans being filled with rain water. The dryer has a drying area of 10m 2 and is capable of drying 20 to 35 kg of fresh produce at a time. The drying period depends on local conditions, but 27 days in Mediterranean or other hot dry conditions is normal (the same would lake 6-12 hours in an artificial dryer). Because of this length of time, the foods dried must have a fairly high sugar and acid content to prevent spoilage during the drying process. The dryer needs to be sited in a flat area, unobscured by trees or buildings so it can recei ve maximum light. If the wind blow predominantly from one direction, the dryer should be placed end-on to the wind: this reduces the cooling effect of the wind which would increase drying times, and will also reduce the chances of dust entering the chamber. The sun's ultraviolet rays have a steril ising effect which slows the growth of some microorganisms. Nevertheless, so lar-dried foods tend to have lower quality and nutritional value than foods dried under controlled conditions. As much as 50% of the nutritive value can be lost. Fruits most suitable for so lar drying:

Apples Apricots Cherries Figs

Grapes Nectarines Peaches Pears

Plums

Combination systems
Solar dryers can be made more versatile by combining some elements of artificial dryers with them. Adding a fan to increase the air flow can be very effective; solar-powered fans are available. Adding a thermostat-controlled heating element would extend the potential further , reducing drying times and responding well to coo ler night-time temperatures and periods of dull weather.

Commercial drying of fruits and nuts


On a larger or commercial scale, most processors end up building their own dryers. The important factors again are air flow and wa rm air. Unheated dry air can be used but increases the drying time by a factor of 5 to 7. The moist warm air which is passed out of the dryer can be passed across a heat exchanger to reclaim some of the heat from the air, or the air can b e recirculated and reduce running costs. In general an air flow of 15-30 cubic metres per minute per cubic metre of nuts (15-30 cubic feet per minute per cubic foot of nuts) is required. Control systems have been designed which signal a stop to the drying process on the basis of the temperature difference of the air fed to the nuts and the air leaving the nuts. When the air leaving is 3-4C (5-7 F) cooler, the batch is dry. The exact difference needed va ries with the nut depth and volume, the air flow and incom ing nut moisture level.

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Sources - dehydrators & vacuum packers


Excalibur Products make the excellent Excalibur dehydrators - st urdy, voluminous and well designed . Excalibur Products, 6083 Power Inn Road , Sacramento, CA 95824 , USA. Tel : (9 16) 381-4254. www.excaliburdehydrator.com UK distributor: Mayfield Services (West Midlands) Ltd , POBox 2124, Kenilworth, cva 2WP. www.zednet.co.u/mayfield-services Mainpa UK Ltd , 159 Boyn Valley Road , Maidenhead , Berks, Sl6 4EG. Tel: 01628 510000. Fax: 01628 780059. www.mainca.co.uk/vacuum packing.html - stock small vacuum pack ing machines. The Organic Gardening Catalogue, Riverdene Business Park, Molesey Road , Hersham , Surrey, KT12 4RG. Tel: 01932 253666. Fax: 01932 252707. www.OrganicCatalog.com enguiries@chaseorganics.co.uk - stock the Stockli dehydrator. UK Juicers, Unit 3, Waterline Estate, Acaster Malbis , YORK , Y023 2UY. Tel/fax: 01904 704705. www.ukjuicers.comenguiries@ukjuicers .com - stock the Excalibur dehydrators. www.mycologue.co.uk - stock the Stockli and Ghibli dehydrators.

References
Breisch, H: Chataignes et marrons. Ctifl, 1995. Brett, A et al: Producing Solar Died Fruit and Vegetables for Micro- and Small-Scale Rural Enterprise Development, Handbo ok 2: Dryer Constructi on. NRI, 1996. Delong, 0: How to Dry Food s. HPBooks, 1992. Excalibur Products: Dehydration Guide. 2003. Germain , E et al: Le Noyer. Ctifl, 1999. Grasselly, G & Duval , H: L'Amandier. Ctifl, 1997. McBean, 0: Drying and Processing Tree Fruits. eSIRO, Austral ia , 1976. Micke, W: Alm ond Production Manual. University of California, 1996. Miller, G: Peeled Chestnuts - Commercial Prospects. NNGA 1992 Annual Report 83:46-52. Prunet, H: From the Drying of Wa lnuts to the Management of a Dryer. Acta Hort 442, ISHS 1997. pp 345-349. Ramos , 0: Walnut Production Manual. University of California, 1998. Sauvezon, E et al: Chataignes et Chataigners. Edisud, 2000.

Carpobrotus edulis: Hottentot fig


Description
Carpobrotus edulis, the sour or Hottentot fig , is an undemanding and fast growing succulent which is native to South Africa but now distributed in many parts of the world and widely naturalised in southern Europ e, Australia and California.
A prostrate perennial plant, growing only 10-15 cm (4_6 ) high, it spreads widely , rooting as it goes. The fleshy stems bear pairs of finger-like , slightly curved, 3~angled fleshy smooth green leaves to 8 cm (3 -) long . It is very resistant to wind and salt spray , also very drought tolerant. It needs a su nn y site, and away from the immediate coast requires a very warm position : plants
n

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VallI No 4

can only tolerate two or three degrees of frost (ie zone 9). Numerous large (7-8.5 cm, 3-3~ ~ across) solitary, daisy-like, many-petalled yellow flowers appear from late spring to early autumn, opening in the afternoons and fading to pinkish later in the afternoons. They are pollinated by bees who feed on both nectar and pollen. Pear-shaped fig-like fleshy brown fruits ripen from early autumn onwards.

Cultivation
The plant flourishes on sandy soils and dunes along coastal areas (it has naturalised along the coast in parts of England). In warmer climates, eg. South Africa, it is found on virtually all soil types. In some wa rm climates it may prove difficult to eradicate once established. In Britain it requires a welldrained soil and sun. It can be grown in dry wa ll s. It is easily grown from seed and cuttings. Seeds are minute and should be sown on the surface of a seed compost in spring. Germination is quick. Cuttings can be taken easily at any time during the growing season. Allow the cutting to dry in the sun for a day or two then pot up in a very sandy mix.

C.edulis naturalised on cliffs at Budleigh Salterton , Devon, UK The leaves are easy to harvest in a sustainable manner because of the long trailing stems.

Uses
There are two edible uses. The fully ripe fruit can be eaten raw , cooked , dried for later use or made into pickles, chutney etc. They are sweet-acid and mucilaginous. Fruits are very astringent prior to full ripeness. The [eaves can also be eaten - usuall y raw ; they are succulent and juicy, but can be astringent (because of tannins) in summer. C.edulis is traditionally used for its medicinal properties on a wide scale. The leaf juice is used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of fungal and bacterial infections, also for the treatment of sinusitis, diarrhoea, infantile eczema, and various internal chest conditions . The leaf juice also sooths insect bites and is used for healing wounds . The leaves contain an astringent antiseptic juice which can be taken orally for treating sore throats and mouth infections.

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Recent investigations have confirmed the antibacterial properties, mainly due to f1avonoids and tannins in the leaves . The f1avonoids are also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, strengthe n veins, and are natural protectors against ultraviolet radiation . The leaves contain varying amounts of tannins - as high as 5% of fresh leaves (19% of dried) during the growing season, but reducing to 0.5% at the end of the growing season. For medicinal use, a low tannin content is preferred, so use in winter is more sensible. In the grow~ng season there is potential for utilising the tannins for tanning or dyeing. Yields of 1700 kilos per hectare of cultivated plants have been achieved.

Plants are fire resistant and can be grown as a fire barrier in warm regions . Plants can be used in maritime areas to prevent soil erosion in sandy soils and form a dense carpeting ground cover. It is good on gentle slopes and cliffs - on steep sites, the weight of the stems and leaves can cause plants to pull away from their crowns. Fast growing , plants can be placed at 40-60 em (16-24 apart to form a good cover.
K )

References
Agelet, A et al: Homegardens and their role as a main source of medicinal plants in mountain regions of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula). Economic Botany 54(3) pp. 295-309. 2000. Crawford, M: Useful Plants Database. A.R.T .. 2003. MacKenzie, D: Perennial Ground Covers . Timber Press, 1997. Watt. Evan der & Pretorius, J: Purification and identification of active antibacterial components in Carpobrotus edulis L. Journal of EthnopharmacoJogy 76 (2001) 87 -91.

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Book Reviews
Nutshell Guide to Growing Walnuts
Clive Simms
Orcha rd House Books, 2003; 32pp; 2.99. ISBN 0-9544607-0-7. Orchard House Books, Wood hurst, Essendine, Stamford. Lines , PEg 4LQ. This small booklet is a good starter for anybody thinking about growing walnuts in Britain. Written in plain language, without technical jargon , it is illustrated by many drawing s. pollination, siting , buying a tree and a small selection of walnut varieties are described. One s tatement could do with elaboration - walnut trees do grow well in foamy , slightly alkaline soils , but they do equa lly well on slightly acid soils . Then planting and tree protection is covered . Fe eding and pruning both get a mention. The section on Pests and diseases is the largest in the booklet. The two main diseases, leaf blotch and wa lnut blight are described (C live states that the latter is uncommon in Britain , but is isn't in the west of the country!) The two main pests , rooks and squirrels , merit some detail , and it is good to see an effective squirrel guard described . Finally, harvesting is described.

Ecoagriculture
Strategies to Feed the World and Save Wild Biodiversity Jeffrey A McNeely & Sara J Scherr
Island Press, 2002 : 324 pp: 42.95 (hardback) I 21.50 (paperback). ISBN 1-55963-644-0 (hardback) /1-55963-645-9 (paperback). Di stributed in the UK by the Eurospan Group. Thi s ground breaking book argues the case for integrating wild species diversity and agriculture . The book is divided into three parts . Part 1 draws on new global data to argue that food and fibre production (both that produced by agriculture - domesticated crops, li vestock , trees and fish - and harvested from natural systems - forests , grasslands and fisheries) has come to be the dominant influence on rural habitats in most regions . Wild species are increasingly at risk of extinction as the land area under culti vation continues to expand. Part 2 addresses the main challenge: can agricultural systems be transformed to support wild species while simultaneously maintaining or improving productivity? This integrated strategy is defined as ecoagriculture - an approach which brings together agricultural development and conservation of wild biodiversity as explicit objectives in the same landscapes. This concept builds on the concept of ecosystem management already adopted by many conservation organisations. It recognises that good farm and landscape design , while crucial , is just a start: long-term success will also require improvements in productivity and functioning of agricultural components and management systems. Six strategies are identified to achieve this aim: create

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Page 39

&

biodiversity reserves that benefit local farming communities; develop habitat networks in unfarmed areas; reduce land converted to agriculture by increasing farm productivity; minimise agricultural pollution; modify management of soil, waler and vegetation resources; modify farming systems to mimic natural ecosystems (agroforestry techniques). The authors show that biodiversity preservation and agricultural productivity are not only compatible , but actually mutually reinforcing in a very wide range of settings. Part S, Policy Responses, makes it clear that for ecoagriculture to be feasible on a large scale, many policy and institutional innovations are needed, including price and trade policies, legal frameworks etc.

Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility


Concepts and Research Methods G Schroth & F L Sinclair (Eds)
CABI Publishing. 2003; 448 pp; 65.00 (US$120.00) hardback. ISBN 0 85199 593 4. Agroforestry requires an understanding of the complex relationship between trees, crops and soils. This book provides a review of both economic and biological aspects of soil use and research in agroforestry, with an emphasis on nutrient-poor forest and savanna soils. An overview is given of research results , and a review made of methods used in agroforestry research . Key subjects ~ covered include the economics of soil fertility management, water cycling, nutrients and organic matter, soil structure and soil biological processes. Agroforestry practices can increase the total quantity of nutrients in the soil-plant system by increasing nutrient transfers into the system (from the atmosphere and the soil) and by reducing nutrient losses. Soil structure can be improved by the action of tree litter, physical protection, root systems etc. Soil erosion is reduced. The influence of trees on soil is profound and of significance beyond agroforestry systems, so the book is also likely to be of interest in agriculture, forestry and ecological sciences.

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Ag,vfnrestry is the integration of trees and agricuiture/ horticulturE' to produce a divers6, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelier, shnde and emergency forage, to fOiest garden systems incorporating layers of taII 3nd siTIaH trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconilected and productive system.

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w __

._~_

__ Q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~I_I----_q--------------

Salad plants
(Atrip/ex ha/imus)

Volume 12 Number 1

October 2003

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 12 Number 1

October 2003

Contents
2 3 28 30 33 37 News My "Complete Salad List" - John Comben Sustainable orchard floor management Walnut varieties on trial in Devon Forest gardening: Design of clearings revisited Book reviews:
Plant Resins I Organic Fruit Growing I Republic of Shade I Simple Grafting I Apples: Botany. Production and Uses I Biology of Apples and Pears

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common fannat. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News can not be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Oartington, Tolnes. Devon. Tag 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: WINW.agroforestry.co.uk

.
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 1

News
Silvopasture guidelines
Silvopasture, the integration of trees, forage plants and livestock in an intensively-managed system, provides a means of diversifying on-farm income. Christmas tree plantations have the potent icil to be managed as silvopastures, thereby increasing diversification, sustainability and productivity. Although cattle have occasionally been used , they (a nd goats) require additional inputs including extra fencing to contro l browsing, trampling and rubbing damage. Sheep are a much better choice. Breeds differ in their gregariousness (clustering) instinct. Black-faced (meat) breeds tend to be preferred because they are less gregarious and their lambs have more rapid growth than white-faced (wool) breeds. Undesirable behavioural habits, eg browsing, tend to spread rapidly through gregarious flocks. Breeds which have been used successfully include Dorset, Hampshire, Leicester, Rambouillet. Romney, Shropshire and Suffolk. Trees as young as 12 years from planting can be exposed to sheep, but will need to be monitored for browsed terminal lead ers and lateral branches. New conifer growth is quite palatable to sheep. Grazing should be delayed for 2 months if damage is seen, or until new conifer growth has hardened off, as browse damage is minimal after this point. Sheep can be introduced after hardening off (Ju lyAugust for many tree species) until early sprin g before bud Forage availability and browse damage should be break, weather conditions permitting. monitored daily. Tree species is important along with growth stage. Various firs, hemlock, Western red cedar, redwood and pines (including Scots pine) have been used successfully. It is best to experiment first with small areas of differt;nt trees to check wha t happens. Sheep flocks are most difficult to manage in the spring, when the growth of coo lseason grasses accelerates and trees are highly susceptible to browse damage. Frequent flock rotation, perhaps every 3 days or so, may be necessary. Sheep may, through boredom, cause more damage the longer they remain in one pasture. They will also cause more damage as forage becomes limiting . Browsing is a learned behaviour, so it important to get rid of these ~Iawbreakers" before they teach others their miscreant ways. Almost always, a relatively small number of animals in the flock cause all the damage and when removed, damage ceases. This advice also applies for "jumpers " who ignore fences. Putting weaned lambs by themselves in with trees should be avoided. Lambs challenge and butt into trees , and investigate by browsing more than ewes. The frequency of flock rotation should be adjusted to minimise tree damage. Lambs by themselves take much more time and management for use in silvopastures; however, they tend to follow the example of older sheep in a pasturing routine. Dry ewes are best for this system, but ewelamb pairs may be used jf necessary. Sheep will seek shade during the heat of warm summer days and if none is provided, they will lie under larger trees, possibly damaging lower branches and making them unsaleable as Christmas trees. Ideally, some shade near the water supply would be provided , and the sheep will naturally rest there after watering.

I Continued on page 28

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

My "Complete Salad List"


John Comben Introduction
My definition of beetroot etc.
~ salad

planf is plant eaten raw - so does not include cooked potato and

I find that to make choosing easier it is useful to bring together season of use, flavour and growing conditions , also an indication as to how close to being wild I naturalised a plant is. Everything in the list has been checked against ~ Alien Plants of the British Isles" (Clements & Foster, 1994) which I find invaluable in this regard. So W Wild " (W) on the list includes all near naturalised plants.

Key to left hand pages


Habit: A = Annual, B = Biennial, P + Perennial, W = Wild, S = Shrub. T = Tree N = non-hardy per/bien grown as an annual , E = Evergreen. C = climber Edible: Indicates part(s) which are eaten raw. L young leaves, S young stems, 8 P young pod, Fr fruit, 0 seed

= =

=bulb, F =flower & bud ,

Usage : Indicates whether used as a bulk salad plant (8) or in small quantities for flavouring (F)

Key to right hand pages


Productive salad season: Spr = Spring, March - May Sum = Sum mer, June-August Aut = Autumn , September-November Win = Winter, December-February b = bu lbs bb = bulbi Is sb = stored bulbs ss = sprouted seeds Also , R indicates useful regrowth after cutting down or pruning. Height & spread: given in m, eg .6 x .6 indicates 60 by 60 cm. Productive situation: Hdy (Hardiness): tick = yes (zone number may follow). - = borderline. x = no Lgt: indicates light preference, S

=sun , P =part shade , S =shade Soil : indicates soil moisture preference, D =dry, M = moi st. W = moist but
Page 3

well drained

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Latin name Abutilon vitifolium

Common name

Habit S

ageratum Achillea decolorans) Ach ill ea millefolium Acinos .arvensis Acorus ca lamus Aegopodium podagraria Aaastache foeniculum Ajuga reptans Alcea rosea

Mace Yarrow Basil thyme Sweet flag Ground elder Anise hyssop Bug le Hollyhock

P WP WP WP WP P WP

Edible Taste Usaae unpleasant LlF Bland , of leaf, texture delicious flowe rs L Aromatic. pleasant F L L B LIS L LIS
Bitter Mild th yme Spicy Aromatic, strong Aniseed, delicious Poor Leaf Igood Poor poor, petals

F F F F F

WB/P LlF WP WB L

Alchemilla alpina I mollis Lady's mantle I vu lQ aris Al li aria petiolata Jack by the hedg e

L/S/F Mustard with a hint F


LIB
of garlic - stronge r later Mild garlic. Leaf is F soon tough Mild garlic F Onion Onion Mild on ion Onion Strong onion Onion Onion Mild garlic

Allium ampe loprasum & W ild leek cvs canadense American wild garlic Allium mobilense Allium cepa Onion Allium cepa 'agg regatum ' Allium cepa 'Perutile' Allium cepa 'p roliferum ' Alliu m cernuum All ium chinense Allium fistulosum Allium moly Potato onion Perennial onion Tree on ion Nodding on ion

WP P BIN N P P P P WP WP

LlB/F
LIB LIB LIB LIP LlB/F LIB LIB LlB/F

F F F F F F F F

Rakkyo Bunching onion Golden garlic

Allium neapolitanum Allium porrum

Daffodil garlic Leek

WP WB

LIB Lis

Tasty garlic Leek

F F

Allium sa tivum

Garlic

WP/N LIS

Ga rli c

Allium 'Rocambole '

sativum Rocambole

Mild garlic

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

...
Latin name Abutilon viti folium Productive salad season Height & Sor Sum Aut Win soread

6x5

Productive situation Hdv Lot Soil Comment S D Lovely flowers

Achillea

ageratum 3 decolorans) Achillea millefolium 3 Acinos arvensis J Acarus calamus


Aegopodium podagra ria

0.6 x 0.6

37

SIP D S S S W
Grows in grass water Bog/shallow Iptant Indestructible weed Lovely flowers Can be invasive, but beautiful! Often suffers from

R J 3 R
J R 3

R
J

0.6 x 0.6 32 0.lxO.2 3 1 x spreads 32 0.4 x 0.6 0.7 x 0 .3 0.2 x 0.4 2 x 0.3 J

D
M

Agastache foeniculum Ajuga reptans

J J 3 J

J J

Alcea rosea

SIP WI M D S P WI M S W SIP DIW SIP W

rust disease
Alchemilla alpina I molfis 3 I vulaaris Alliaria peUolata 3

0.4 x 0.8 1 x 0.2

Self-seeds, hedgerows

esp

in

Allium ampeloprasum &J

bb

bb

1.2xO.2 0.5xO.l

J J

cvs
Allium mobilense Allium cepa

canadense 3

SIP W S S S S S S S S W W W W

Rare . Cvs with tarqe bulbils Grows in grass Needs clear ground in sorino

J J

sb sb

sb sb

0.5 x 0.2 0.5 x 0.2 0.6 x 0.2 0.6 x 0.4 0.5xO.l

J5 3 J J 3 -8

Allium

cepa 3 'aaareaatum ' Allium cepa 'Perutile' J Allium cepa 'pro liferum' J Allium cernuum

Needs clear ground


in so rinc

bb

J J

J J J J

J
b b b

D D
W

Needs few competitiors Forms clumps. Beautiful! Needs clear ground Clump forming, may be invasive. Needs humus & very good drainaae. Needs good drainace Must be weed free in spring & early summer. A poor self seeder Poor at naturalising - better replanted in clear around Freely self seeds!

Allium chinense Allium fistulosum Allium moly

J J

0.5 x 0.1 0.2 x 0.1

AtJium neapo li tanum Allium porrum

J J J

J 3

O.4xO.l 0.6 x 0.2

-8 J

S S

D
WI M

Allium sativum

3
sativum 3

0.6 x 0.2

Al lium 'Rocambole'

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 5

x
L a rIn name ommon name Allium schoenoprasum I Ch ives sphaerocephalon Allium triquetruml Three co rnered leek paradoxum
Allium tuberosum

e
usage
F F

a WP WP

as e
Chives

LlF

LlSIFI Onion B LIB


Chives & garlic

I Garlic chi ves


Ramsons

P WP WP

F F F

ramosum
Allium ursinum

Allium vineale I Wild onions carinatum I oleraceum I

LlSIFI Mild garlic B LIB On ion !Ieek

sco rod oprasum


Aloysia triphylla Lemon verbena

S WP WA

L LlF L

Fragrant lemon

F B F

Althaea officinalls Marshmallow Amaranthus caudatus I Prince 's frather etc cruethus I hybridus &

Mild, 'feltv'
Spinach

hypochandrianus
Amaranthus retraflexus Amaranthus tricolor lividu s Anagalis a rvensis Anchusa arvensis Anchu sa azurea Anchusa officinalis Anethum graveolens Pigweed

WA A WA WA

L L LlF LlF

Spinach

F F
only

I Joseph's coat
Scarlet pimpernel

Spinach
Mild
Poor , bristly

Bugloss
Italian bugloss Alkanet

sm Qtv only sm Qtv

Dill

WNBI F P WB F WA LlFID

Herby

Angelica archangelica AnQelica atropurpurea Angelica sylvestris Anthriscus caerefolium

Garden angeli ca Giant angelica Wild an elica Chervil

WB B WB WB

LID LID LID L

Angelica Angelica AnQelica Mild an ise

F F F F

An thri scus sylvestris

Cow parsley

WB

Mild anise

Aphanes arvensis Parsley piert A ios america na Ground nut Apium graveo lens 'dulce' Celery Apium 'rapaceum' graveolens Celeriac

WA PC B B

L B LIS B

Poor & rough Good Ce lery . Mild blan ched Mild celery

B if B B

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Productive salad season Height & Productive situation sp read Latin name Sor Sum Aut Win Hdv Lot Soil Comment 0.2 x 0.2+ J large Allium schoenoprasum I J R R S W Small & cultivars sphaerocephalon Allium triquetruml 3 b 0.3xO.1+ SIP W Can be invasive J self seeds & divides. paradoxum Beautiful flowers. W Allium tuberosum R 0.4 x 0.1 I J J7 S ramosum WID Can be invasive in Allium ursinum 0.3xO.l S J J woods Allium vineale 0.3+xO.l J S WID Invasive on light I J b J soils carinatum I oleraceum I scorodoprasum S D Needs winte r Aloysia triphyUa 0.5 x 0.5 J 3 J protection Althaea officinalis 1.2 x 1 S M J 3 3 Amaranthus caudatus I 1 x 0.5 No S W 3 cruethus I hybridus & hypochandrianus Amaranthus retraflexus 3 1 x 0.5 W May self seed in S 3 3 good situations Amara nthus tricolor I 0.8 x 0.5 No S W Ornamental, multi 3 lividus coloured leaves 0.15xO.l 3 Anagalis arvensis S WID Can be weedy 3 3

Anchusa arvensis Anchusa azurea Anchusa officinalis Anethum gra veo lens

0.3 x 0.2 1 x 0.5


3 J

S S S S

D D D W

Can be weedy Can self seed Can self seed Successional sowing gives a constant supply of leaves self Occasionally seeds Self seeds! Self seeds. Successional sowings give a constant supply of leaves . Common but beware similar poisonous species! Can be very weedy Climbs hedges etc. Will self seed.

J
3 3

3 3

0.5 x 0.2 1 x 0.5

Angelica archangelica Angelica atropurpurea Angelica sylvestri s Anthriscus caerefolium

sd sd sd J

1.5 x 0.5 1.3 x 0.5 1.3 x 0.4 0.4 x 0.2

P P P P

M M M M

J 3 J

J J J

Anthriscus sylvestris

1.2 x 0.5 0.1 x 0.2 3x3 0.5 x 0.3 0.4 x 0.3

SIP MI W SIP D W S M S S
W

Aphanes arvensis J Apios americana Apium graveolens 'd ulce' 3 Apium 'rapaceum ' graveolens 3

J b J J

b 3
J

J J

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 7

Latin name Api um graveo rens 'Zwolsche Krul' Aq uile ia s ecies Arabis caucasia (alpina) & hirsuta Aralia cordata

Common name Herb celery Columbine Rock cress Udo , asparaqus Burd ock Lesser burdock Horseradish

Habit

P WP WP
Japanese P

Edible Taste L Celery F L LIS

Usaqe F

F Pleasant & sweet cress, poor F Hot texture Mild if blanched B F F F

Arctium lappa Arctium minus Arm oracia rusticana

WB WB WP WP PIN WP WP N PIN PIN


ES ES

LlSID Mild, good

LlS/D Mild, good


LlR Hot, raddishy

Artemes ia dracunculus

Russian tarragon

L L L LIS F Fr L L L L L

Strong Interesting Quite strong Tasty Nice, sweet Good? Sweetish Salty, touqhish Salty Spinachy Cress Cress Unexciting Beetroot I Spinach Sa lty spinach

F F F F F F F F F F F F

Artemesia dracunculus French tarragon 'sativa' Artemesia vulgaris Mugwort Asparagus officinalis Asparagus Asphodeline lutea Yellow asphodel Astragalus crassicarpus Ground plums

etc
Astragalu s hoanchy etc Atrip lex canescens Atriple x halimus Atrip lex hortensis Barbarea praecox ve rna Barbarea vulqaris Bellis perennis Beta vu lgaris 'cicla' Beta vu lgaris 'Maritima ' Chinese milk vetch American salt bush Sa lf bu sh Orach I Land cress Winter cress Oaisy Chard
~pinach

A WA

WP/B L WP LlF
Perpetual WB L

F F

Sea beet

WP/B L B WT
L L

Beta vu lgaris 'C racca ' Betula pendula ~ubescens etc. Bora a officinalis Brassica carinata

Beetroot I Birch Borage T exsel greens

WB/A LlF A L WA A
L L

Beetroot I spinach F Unexciting soon tough Cucumber F Odd mustard F Mustard Mild mustard F

Brassica 'u ncea Winter mustard Brassica juncea 'fo liosa ' Chinese greens & 'mul ticep s' etc

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Productive salad season Height & Productive situation S ,pr S AW Hd oy L _gt S'I Comment um ut 'In sprea d 01 Apium graveolens 3 0.5 x 0.2 - SIP MI 3 3 'Zwolsche Krul' W Aquilegia species 0.8 x 0.3 SIP W Freely self seeds 3 3 3 Arabis caucasia (alpina) 3 0.2 x 0.6 Can be invasive. S D 3 3 & hirsuta Self seeds Aralia cordata 1.5 x 0.8 SIP W 3 3

L atm name

A rcti um lappa Arctium minus Armoracia rusticana

3 3

ss stm ss rt

ss ss rt

1.8x1 .5
1.5

3 3

SIP SIP SIP SIP


S S S S S S S S S
P P S

W W M

Plants

get

very

x1

large. Self seeds very Plants get


large. Self seeds Plants can get very In vasive on large.

0.8 x 0.8 1x1 0.5 x 0.5 1x1 1.2 x 1 0.7 x 0.3 0.5 0.5?

ri ch soil.
Artemesia dracunculus

3
3

R R R

3
No

W W

Powerful

rhizomes!

Arte mesia

dracu ncu lu s 3 'sa tiva' Artemesia vulgaris 3 Asparagus officinalis 3 Asphodeline lutea Ast ragalu s crassicarpu5

Courd be weedy Needs w int er protection

3 3

3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3

3 3 3

W Common weed! WID Needs to be free of weed competition D D D D D W M


Cultivated in Ch ina for sa lads

etc
Astraga lus hoanchy etc

Atriple x ca nescens Atriplex halimus Atripl ex hortensis Barbarea praecox verna Barba rea vulgaris Bellis perennis Beta vulgaris 'cicla' Beta vu lgaris 'Ma ritima '

3 3 3

3 3

2 x2 2x2 0.7 x 0.3

No 3

I3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3

3 3 3

0 .3 x 0.3 0.3 x 0.3 0.1xO.1


1 + x 0.7

in moist Best atmosp_ here by sea vegetable. Former Ornamental. Might self seed.

3 3 3 3

S S S S S S S S

0.5 x 0.5 0.5 x 0.3 15 x 5 0.6 x 0.6

Beta vul ga ri s 'Cracca' Betula pend ula pubescens etc. Baraga officinalis Brassica ca rina ta

3 3

I
3 3

3 3

Self seeds. M NNV Self seeds. Can be invasive! W Self seeds in bare ground W Best in moist atmosphe re nea r the sea W W

3 3 3 3 3

0.3+ x 0.3 0.3+ x 0.3 0.3+ x 0.3

D W W W

Brass ica juncea Brassica juncea 'foliosa ' 3 & 'multicep~' etc

No 3

Best protected ove r winter Very fast growing Best protected over winter

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 9

Latin name Brassica napus

Common name Rape

Habit

WA A

Edible Taste L Mild mustard

Usaae B B

8rassica napus Pak choi, Tatsoi etc. 'Chinens is ' & 'Parachi nensis ' & 'Rosularis' etc Brassiea napus Swede 'Napobrassica' Brassica napus Mizuna etc 'nipponos inica ' & I'perviridis' Brassica napus 'Oleifera ' Oil seed rape 8rassica napus Chinese cabbage 'Pek inensis ' Brassica napus 'Rapa ' & Turnip 'Rapi fera '

L/F

Mild mustard

A A WA A WA

L/F/Rt Swede L/F L/F


L Mild mustard

B B

Mild mustard Mild cabbage

F
B

L/F/Rt Mild or strong

Brassica nigra Brassica oleracea

Black mustard Kale

WA

L/F

Hot mustard Strong cabbage

F F
B

WAiP L/F WAiP L/F A WA A A A WA


N

Brassica aleracea Broccoli 'Botrytis' & 'Alboglabra' Brassica 'Botrytis' Brassica 'Ca pitata ' oleracea Cauliflower oleracea Cabbage

Mild cabbage

L/F L/F L/F

Mild cabbage Cabbage

B B

Brassica oleracea 'Gemmifera' Brassica oleracea 'GonQvloides' Brassica oleracea 'Italica' Brassica rap a 'Campestris' Brodiaea ulchellum Bunias orientalis Calandrina ciliata etc. Calendula officinal is Camassia quamash

Brussel sprout Kohl Rabi Calabrese Wild turnip Wild hyacinth Turkish rocket Red maids EnQlish mariQold Camass

Cabbage

B B B

L/S/F Cabbage L/F L/F


B L seed Cabbage Strong cabbage Sweet Hot mustard Mild? Interestin Chestnut

F F F F
B

WP WA WA P

L/F
B

Campanula barbata

Bearded bellflower

EP

Mild but hairy

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Latin name Brassica napus

Brassica 'Chinensis' & 'Parachin ensis' 'Rosularis' etc Brassica napus 3 'Napobrassica' Brassica napus 3 'nipponosinica' & I'perviridis' Brassica napus 'Oleifera ' 3 Brassica napus 'Pekinensi s' Brassica napus 'Rapa' & 3 'Rapifera'

Productive salad season Height & Productive situation spread Sor Sum Aut Win Hdv Lot Soil Comment 0.5 x 0.3 S W Can overwinter. 3 3 3 3 3 Weedx, napus 3 0.5 x 0.3 - S W Overwinter. Needs 3 protection. &

1 x 0.3 0.5 x 0.3

3 3

S S

W W

Overwinter. Overwinter. protected. Best

3
3

3 3

0.8 x 0.2 0.5 x 0.3 0.8 x 0.2

3 No 3

S S S

W W W

Autumn cropp ing Successional sowing gives constant supply. Self seeds. Overwinter. Weedy. Overwinter. Will self seed. One cv a short lived perennia l Overwinter. Will self seed. One cv a short li ved perennial Varieties for all seasons Varieties for all seasons. Self seeds.

Brassica nigra Brassica oleracea

3 3

3 3

3 3

1 x 0.2 1 x 0.3 1.2 x 0.5 1 x 0.4 0.8 x 0.3 1 x 0.8 0.2 x 0.2 0.8 x 0.4

3 3

S S

W W

Brassica oleracea 3 'Botrytis ' & 'Alboglabra' Brassica 'Botrytis' Brassica 'Capitata' oleracea 3 oleracea 3

3 3

3 3

3 3

3 3
No No

S S

W W

Brassica oleracea 'Gemmifera' Brassica oleracea 'Gongyloides' Brassica oleracea 'Italica ' Brassica rapa 'Cam pestris' Brodiaea pulchellum Bunias orienta1is Ca landrina ciliata etc. Calendula officinalis Camassia quam ash

3 3 3 3 3

S S S S S S S S SIP

W W W W
Summer annual Summer annual Weedy! Bulbs lifted autumn Can be weedy Self seeds. Increases freely by division and seed. Dislikes disturbance.

3 3 3 3 3 R 3 3 3

3 3 3 3

0 .8 x 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.6


x 0.1 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.3

3 No 3 3

3 3

0 W 0 0 M

Campanula barbata

0.3 x 0.5

SIP W

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 11

Common name Latin name Campanufa carpatica & Bellflowers & cochleari ifolia Iposcharskyana Campanula glomerata Clustered bellflower

Habit WEP

Edible Taste L Mild. small, fibrous

Usaqe

WP

Mild & sweet

Campa~ula

lactiflora

Milky bellflower

WP

Mild & good

Campanula latifolia

Giant bellflower

WP WEP WEP WB WP

L L L L L

Mild but rough Mild but small Mild, good

Campan ul a pers icifolia & Bellflowers trachel ium Campanula Bellflower portenschlagiana Campanula pyramidal is Chimney bellflower Campa nula Creeping bellflower rapunculo ides Campa nul a rapunculus Campan ul a rotundifolia Campanula versicolor Capsella bu rsa-pastoris Rampion Harebell Bellflower Shepherd 's purse

Mild, pleasant

WP WP EP WA

L L L L

Mild Good, Dea Peppery B F

Capsicum annum Caragana sinica

Sweet pepper Chinese pea tree

A T

Fr F

Sweet & sour Sweet?

F F

Cardam ine flexuosa

hirsuta

& Bittercress

WEA

UF

Tasty cress

smock Cardamine pratensis & Lady's amara Bittercress Carum ca rvi Caraway Centaurea nigra & jacea Knapweed Cercis si liquastrum etc. Chaerophyllum bulbosum Chamaenerion angustifolium Judas tree Turnip-rooted chervil Rose bay wi ll owherb

I WP

UF

Peppery cress

WB WP WT B WP

Usd F F URt Root

Ca rrot I parsn ip

F F

Delicious, lemonv F Aromatic leaf; root F chestnut flavou r Mild

Chenopodium album etc. Fast hen I goosefoot

WA

Spinach

Chenopodium henricus Chlorogalum Ipomeridianum

bonus- Good King Henry Soap lily

WP P

L L

Spinach

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

=
Produ ctive sa lad season H eight & P roductive situation Hdy Lgi S oil Comm ent S ~ pr S um Aut W in spread C ampanula carpa tica &3 0. 15 < 0.3 3 SIP D 3 3 cochleariifolia & ~oscharskvan a Campanula gl ome rata SIP W In vasive rhizomes ; 0. 5 x 0.5+ 3 J 3 dividing needs regula rly. SIP WI Se lf seeds , can Campanul a lacUflora 1.2 < 0.6 3 3 3 3 naturaiise. Best in M shelter & shade. Campanula la tifofia P WI S e lf seeds freely . 1.2<0.6 3 3 3 M Good in woodland . seed s; Campanula persi cifolia & ) Self 0.7 < 0.3 SIP W 3 3 3 spreading . trachelium Campanula Self seed s, spread s 0. 15<0. 6 3 S D 3 3 3 rampantl y! Iportenschlagiana Campanula pyra midalis 3 1.2 < 0.6 P W 3 C a mpanula WI Self seeds 0.7 < 0.3 S 3 3 3 rapunculoides rampantly M invasi ve! 0.8 < 0.4 S M Ma y self seed. Campanula rapunculu s 3 3 3 Campanula rotundifolia 3 0. 3 < 0.3 SIP D 3 3 Campanula versicolor 1 < 0.5 S W 3 3 3 3 0.15<0.1 3 W Very common weed . Ca pseUa bursa-pastori s 3 S 3 3 3 Leaves small. Culti vated in China . Needs protection in Capsicum annum 0.6 < 0.6 No S W 3 3 most of UK. 1. 2< 1.2 D Sometimes sold Caragana sini ca S 3 3 3 grafted ont o C .arborescens. Cardamine hirsuta 0.2 < 0.1 S MI Very common weed . &3 3 3 3 flexuosa Short li ved - soon W seedy & 100 fiddly C ardamine pratensis & 3 0.4 < 0.4 SIP M Formerl y cultivated . 3 3 3 high in vita mins. a ma ra Carum carvi 0 .5 < 0. 2 W S sd sd 3 3 Centaurea nigra & ja cea 0.4 < 0. 3 MI S elf seed s easily. S 3 3 W Ce rcis siliQua strum etc. 3 7<7 S D 3 Chaerophyllum 1 < 0.5 P W 3 3 3 bulbosum Powerfu l Chamaenerion 1 x .. P W Weedy! 3 3 3 3 3 be an gustifolium rhizomes can dUQ at any time . Chenopodium album etc 3 0. 5 < 0.3 W Germinates freely in S 3 3 soil. disturbed Weedy. SI P W Formerl y culti vated Chenopodium bonus- 3 0 .5 < 0.3 3 3 3 henricus 2 < 0.3 D Chlorogalum S 3 Ipomeridianum

Latin nam e

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

Page 13

Latin name Chrysanthemum coronarium Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Cichori um end iva

C ommon name Chop-Suey-Green

Ha b'It WA

Ed'bl I e T aste LlF Interesting

usage
F

Golden saxifrage Endi ve

WP WA

L L

Acceptable Mild bitter

FIB

Cichorium in tybus Chicory

A/B/P L

Bitter

Citrus spp . Clayton ia virginiana & megarrhiza Ctintonia borealis Cochlearia officina lis etc. Conopodium majus Coriandum sativum

Lemon etc. Spring beauty Corn lily Scurvy grass Pignut Coriander

ET P P W B/P WP A

F LlRt
L L
B Crisp & pleasant

Salty cress Chestnut Herby

F F

Co rnus kousa Coronopus didymus Crambe maritima

Chinese dogwood Lesser swine cress Seaka le

T WA WEP

L L L

Strong cress Nutty, slightly bitter

F F

Crataegus laevigata monog yna Cri thmum maritima

& Hawthorn
Samphire

WT WP

L L

Pleasant , nutty

F
warm , B

Mild, fleshy, aromatic


Celery Cucumber Cucumber Mild, variable Pungent cress

Cryptotaenia japonica & Mitsuba I Honewort ca nadensi s Cucumis anQuria Gherkin Cucumis sati vus Cucumber Cucurbita pepo Cymbalaria muralis Sauash I marrow Ivy-leaved toadflax

EP CA CA A WCP

LIS

F F B
B F

Fr Fr Fr L

Cyperus esculentus Daucus ca rota sativus

Nut grass I Chufa Ca rrot

P B

Sweet, nutty Carrot

F
B

Rt

Dentaria laciniata etc. Dianthus caryophyllus

Pe er root I Toothwort Pink I Carnation

P AlP

L F

Peppery cress Fragrant

F F

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 12 No 1

u
L atm name Chrysanthemum coronarium
Chrysosplenium Productive salad season Height & S ,pr S d urn utA Win sprea

0.5 x 0.3 0.5 x 0.5

Productive situation Hd L S'I C omment Jy Lgt 01 S WID Best protected over 3 winter. May self

seed. 3 3 3 3 3

P S S

M
W

Good

bog

garden

oppositifoJium
Cichorium endiva

0.5 x 0.3 1 x 0.3

plant.
Best protected over Can be winter. blanched.

Cichorium intybus

Can

be

forced

or

blanched. sown as salad -

Late winter best

Citrus spp.

J J

1+ x 1 +

3 3 3

S P P S S S

D W

[protected. protection Needs usually.

Claytonia virginiana & 3 megarrhiza Clintonia borea li s 3 Cochlearia officinalis J

0.1xO.1 0.3 x 0.3 0 .3 x 0.3 0.2 x 0.1

3 3 3 3

M M

Salt marshes etc.

etc. Conopodium majus


Coriandum sativum

3 3

J
No

DIM In uncultivated acid


Igrassland

0 .5 x 0.2 7x7 0.2 x 0.3 0.6 x 1 7x7

Successional
sowing gives steady

supply.

Cornus kousa
Corona pus didymus Crambe maritima

J 3 3
&3 3

3 J

3 3 J

SIP W S W W S SIP W S P S S
D

Weed. Best in atmosphere the sea.

humid near

Crataegus laevigata monogyna Crithmum maritima

3 3

0.3 x 0.6 0.3 x 0.5 3 x 0.5 3 x 0.5


stor 4 x 0.5

Cryptotaenia japonica &3 canadensis Cucum is anguria Cucumis sativus Cucurbita pepo Cymbalaria muralis

3
No No No 3

M
W W

J J

3 3

Best in humid near atmosphere the sea. Can be blanched. Self seeds. Needs protection. cvs need Most protection. Best in cond iti ons. cultivated. humid Once

stor 3

J 3

1 x 0.05 0.4 x 0.2


stor 0.4 x 0.2

W S SIP M

Cyperus esculentus Daucus carota sativus

3 3

S S P S

M
W

3 3

weedy. be Once cultivated. Needs well drained good soil for Igerminat