Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

Physiology 14Mar2009

1 – Cellular Membranes and Transmembrane Transport of Solutes and Water


1.1) Which of the following is NOT a function of cellular membranes?
a) Divide the cell into discrete compartments
b) Membrane proteins are involved in transducing signals from the cell to its
surroundings
c) Allow for the intra- and extra-cellular fluid compositions to remain constant
and equal
d) Contains enzymes, receptors, and antigens that play central roles in the
interaction of regulatory agents in the extracellular fluid
e) Allow the localization of particular biochemical processes in specific
organelles
1.2) A patient is undergoing a gastrointestinal x-ray with barium contrast. Barium ions in
the drink ingested by the patient are highly toxic, but these ions are not absorbed because:
a) Barium is insoluble in the hydrophobic exterior of the cell
b) Barium is insoluble in the hydrophobic membrane interior
c) Barium is insoluble in the hydrophobic interior of the cell
d) Barium is soluble in the hydrophilic exterior of the cell
e) Barium is soluble in the hydrophilic membrane interior
2) Which of the following is NOT true regarding the fluid-mosaic model?
a) Phospholipid or protein "flip-flop" occurs infrequently
b) Many of the constituent molecules are free to diffuse in the plane of the
membrane
c) Most lipids and proteins can move freely in the bilayer plane
d) The model is consistent with many of the properties of biological membranes
but is not an absolute fact
e) A large hydrophilic moiety is the most likely to flip-flop
3) Integral membrane proteins are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer and peripheral
proteins are associated with the surface of the membrane. Which of the following best
describes how peripheral proteins interact with the membrane?
a) By charge interactions with integral membrane proteins
b) By charge interactions with integral membrane lipids
c) By binding with integral membrane proteins
d) By binding with integral membrane lipids
e) By binding throughout the phospholipid bilayer
4) What are the two most prevalent phospholipid classes in membranes?
a) Lecithins (phosphatidylcholines) and the sphingomyelins
b) Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine
c) Glycerol and amino
d) Choline and amino
e) Alcohol and carbohydrate
5.1) Which membrane component buffers the fluidity of the membrane in the presence of
agents that tend to fluidize biological membranes, such as general anesthetics?
a) Glycoproteins
b) Glycolipids
c) Cholesterol
d) Carbohydrates

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -1-


Physiology 14Mar2009

e) Phospholipids
5.2) The receptor for cholera toxin and the receptor for A and B blood group antigens are
carbohydrate moieties. These moieties protrude from the external surface of the
membrane and are part of what non-abundant membrane component?
a) Alcohol
b) Glycolipids
c) Glycopeptides
d) Glycoproteins
e) Glycosamines
6) Phospholipids are distributed asymmetrically (and variably) between the inner and
outer lipid monolayer of the membrane. Which of the following groups is found almost
exclusively in the outer monolayer?
a) Proteins
b) Glycolipids
c) Glycopeptides
d) Glycoproteins
e) Glycosamines
7) Which of the following best describes why membranes "pose a formidable barrier" to
most biologically active compounds?
a) Membranes are highly permeable to water-soluble substances
b) Steroids bound to lipids and other nonpolar compounds are blocked from
entering the cell by glycoproteins
c) Biologically active compounds are soluble in the interior of the lipid bilayer
d) Most molecules present in living systems are soluble in nonpolar solvents
e) Most molecules present in living systems are soluble in water
8.1) Clathrin coated pits are involved in which of the following processes?
a) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
b) Non-metabolic endocytosis
c) Phagocytosis
d) Pinocytosis
e) Exocytosis
8.2) Which of the following would be a way for water-soluble (polar) molecules to enter
the cell?
a) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
b) Non-metabolic endocytosis
c) Phagocytosis
d) Pinocytosis
e) Exocytosis
8.3) Influenza viruses have membrane proteins that undergo a dramatic conformational
change to insert a "fusion peptide" into the host cell. The fusion peptide promotes the
fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell. What is the
most likely result of this process?
a) The virus and host cell will form a new, larger host cell
b) The host cell will lyse upon fusion
c) The viral genome will enter the host cell
d) The host cell contents will transfer to the virus

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -2-


Physiology 14Mar2009

e) The virus and host cell will form a barrier against each other
9.1) Which of the following best describes Brownian motion (diffusion)?
a) The process whereby atoms or molecules move because of their constant
thermal motion
b) The process whereby atoms or molecules move because of their random
thermal motion
c) The process whereby atoms or molecules move because of their constant
kinetic motion
d) The process whereby atoms or molecules move because of their random kinetic
motion
e) The process whereby atoms or molecules move because of their potential
motion
9.2) Imagine a container divided into two compartments by a removable barrier. A much
larger number of molecules of a compound are placed on side A than on side B, and then
the partition is removed. Which of the following statements about diffusion is true?
a) Movement will occur only from side A to side B
b) The rate of diffusion will initially be faster from side B
c) The rate of diffusion will initially be slower from side A
d) When the number of molecules on side A and side B are the same, no more
movement (diffusion) will occur
e) When the number of molecules on side A and side B are the same, the rate of
diffusion will be the same on both sides
10) A typical molecule takes 1-msec to diffuse 1-µm. If diffusion distance is increased by
10-fold, how much longer will the diffusion process need to achieve a given level of
completion?
a) 5 times longer
b) 10 times longer
c) 20 times longer
d) 100 times longer
e) 1000 times longer
11) Which of the following would give the smallest diffusion coefficient of a molecule in
fluid?
a) Large molecule and viscous medium
b) Small molecule and viscous medium
c) Large molecule and non-viscous (thin) medium
d) Small molecule and non-viscous (thin) medium
12) Which of the following is true regarding Fick's first law of diffusion?
a) Membrane area and membrane thickness are directly proportional to flux (J),
while membrane concentration difference is inversely proportional
b) Membrane area and membrane concentration difference are directly
proportional to flux (J), while membrane thickness is inversely proportional
c) Membrane area is directly proportional to flux (J), while membrane
concentration difference and membrane thickness are inversely proportional
d) Membrane area, membrane concentration difference, and membrane thickness
are directly proportional to flux (J)

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -3-


Physiology 14Mar2009

e) Membrane area, membrane concentration difference, and membrane thickness


are inversely proportional to flux (J)
13.1) The permeability of membranes to a particular molecule is:
a) Inversely proportional to its solubility on the exterior of the lipid bilayer
b) Inversely proportional to its solubility in the interior of the lipid bilayer
c) Proportional to its solubility on the exterior of the lipid bilayer
d) Proportional to its solubility in the interior of the lipid bilayer
e) Is not related to solubility of the lipid bilayer
13.2) Plasma membranes of many cells contain membrane proteins called aquaporins that
form channels permitting a high rate of water flow across the membrane; higher than
their predicted lipid solubility. If the water channels that pull in water from the kidney
nephrons were defective, what would be the most likely result?
a) No urine output
b) Concentrated urine
c) Non-concentrated urine
d) Inability of lipid-soluble vitamins to cross the membrane
e) Inability of lipid-soluble hormones to cross the membrane
13.3) The permeability of membranes to uncharged, water-soluble molecules ____ as the
size of the molecules ____.
a) Does not change; Changes
b) Increases; Increases
c) Decreases; Decreases
d) Increases; Decreases
e) Decreases; Increase
14.1) Two chambers are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. Chamber A contains
a solute (NaCl) and chamber B contains only water. Pressure is measured in chamber A
as a hydrostatic force is applied to chamber A in the direction of chamber B. Which of
the following could find the osmotic pressure of this system?
a) At 100mMol NaCl, all water moves into chamber A
b) At 127mMol NaCl, water slowly moves into chamber A
c) At 154mMol NaCl, there is no net movement
d) At 181mMol NaCl, water slowly moves into chamber B
e) At 200mMol NaCl, all water moves into chamber B
14.2) The osmotic coefficient (!) accounts for the deviation of the solution from the
ideal. The value of ! is less than 1 for electrolytes of physiological importance and for all
solutes ! approaches 1 as the solution becomes more:
a) Concentrated
b) Dilute
c) Polarized
d) Unpolarized
e) Depolarized
14.3) Osmotic pressure depends primarily on the chemical properties of the solute
present, rather than the colligative properties.
a) True
b) False

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -4-


Physiology 14Mar2009

14.4) the osmotic pressure of a solution can be estimated from its freezing point.
a) True
b) False
15.1) At 154 mM NaCl (isotonic), the red cell has a normal volume. If a red blood cell is
put into a 170 mM NaCl solution, the cell will:
a) Remain the same
b) Burst
c) Swell
d) Shrink
e) Dissolve
15.2) A trauma patient presents to the Emergency Department. You setup an intravenous
(IV) line and begin infusing isotonic 0.9% normal saline (0.9NS). As the saline combines
with the blood cells closest to the IV site, the cells will:
a) Dissolve
b) Shrink
c) Swell
d) Burst
e) Remain the same
15.3) Physiologic osmotic pressure is about:
a) 124 milliosmolar
b) 212 milliosmolar
c) 286 milliosmolar
d) 368 milliosmolar
e) 488 milliosmolar
16) Which of the following describes what makes active transport different from
facilitated transport?
a) Moves a substance down its chemical gradient
b) Moves a substance down an electrochemical gradient
c) Pumps a substance with a chemical gradient
d) Pumps a substance with an electrochemical gradient
e) Requires energy
17.1) Movement via a transport protein showing saturation kinetics will reach Km of the
transported substance at what rate of transport?
a) Maximal rate of transport
b) Half maximal rate of transport
c) Quarter maximal rate of transport
d) Initial rate of transport
e) No transport rate change occurs at this point
17.2) Which of the following states that only molecules with the requisite chemical
structure are transported?
a) Chemical formula
b) Saturation kinetics
c) Chemical specificity
d) Competitive inhibition
e) Noncompetitive inhibition

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -5-


Physiology 14Mar2009

17.3) If one transport substrate decreases the transport rate of a second substrate by
fighting for binding to the transporter, this is called:
a) Chemical formula
b) Saturation kinetics
c) Chemical specificity
d) Competitive inhibition
e) Noncompetitive inhibition
18.1) The Na+/K+ ATPase pump, which works against a gradient and uses ATP as
energy, is an example of:
a) Competitive inhibition
b) Noncompetitive inhibition
c) Facilitated transport
d) Primary active transport
e) Secondary active transport
18.2) Amino acids getting their energy indirectly from the gradient of Na+ that is itself
undergoing transport (against a gradient), is an example of:
a) Competitive inhibition
b) Noncompetitive inhibition
c) Facilitated transport
d) Primary active transport
e) Secondary active transport
19.1) What class of membrane transport proteins includes Glucose, usually has multiple
!-helices, and involves binding of the substrate from one side, a conformational change
of the protein, then release of the substrate to other side of membrane?
a) Pores
b) Channels
c) Transporters (carriers)
19.2) What class of membrane transport proteins has a very low rate of diffusion through
a closed channel and where accessibility depends on the location of the gated structure?
a) Pores
b) Channels
c) Transporters (carriers)
19.3) What class of membrane transport proteins has a permeation pathway that is
accessible from both sides of the membrane at all times?
a) Pores
b) Channels
c) Transporters (carriers)
20) Epithelial cells are considered polarized due to different ____ sitting on opposite
sides of the membrane (apical versus basolateral plasma membrane).
a) Phospholipids
b) Peripheral proteins
c) Integral proteins
d) Transport proteins
e) Membrane proteins

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -6-


Physiology 14Mar2009

2 – Ionic Equilibria and Resting Membrane Potentials


1.1) The force of diffusion (Fd) acts on all particles. In the equation to calculate Fd, the
concentration of a particular species (C) is ____ related and the changing variable (d/dx),
with respect to distance, is ____.
a) Directly; Concentration gradient
b) Reciprocally; Concentration gradient
c) Directly; Voltage across the membrane
d) Reciprocally; Voltage across the membrane
1.2) The force due to the electrical gradient (Fe) applies to ions. In the equation to
calculate Fe, the valence (z) of the ion is ____ related and the changing variable, (d/dx)
with respect to distance, is ____.
a) Directly; Concentration gradient
b) Reciprocally; Concentration gradient
c) Directly; Voltage across the membrane
d) Reciprocally; Voltage across the membrane
1.3) Net force is defined as Fe + Fd, where Fe is “electro-“ and Fd is “-chemical”. For an
ion to passively cross a membrane, Fnet must be at equilibrium and the membrane must
be permeable to the particle. At equilibrium, the net force acting on an ion is:
a) Increasing
b) Constant
c) Decreasing
d) Zero
e) Infinite
2.1) Which of the following must be true for a membrane to be permeable?
a) Permeability coefficient < 0
b) Permeability coefficient = 0
c) Permeability coefficient > 0
2.2) Conductivity is ____ related to resistance and ____ proportional to permeability as
permeability also includes uncharged particles.
a) Directly; Directly
b) Reciprocally; Directly
c) Directly; Inversely
d) Reciprocally; Inversely
3.1) In a normal semi-permeable lipid membrane, Na+ (outside) is ____ and K+ (inside)
is ____ to the membrane.
a) Impermeable; Permeable
b) Permeable; Impermeable
c) Impermeable; Impermeable
d) Permeable; Permeable
3.2) To have a positive current (by the current equation), we would need the flux of K+ to
be ____ and the flux of Na+ to be ____.
a) Positive; Positive
b) Negative; Negative
c) Zero; Zero
d) Negative; Positive
e) Positive; Zero

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -7-


Physiology 14Mar2009

3.3) As a negative membrane voltage (Vm) is established, an Fe will be generated for


each ion in solution. For K+, the direction of Fe will be ____ Fd. As K+ fluxes outward,
Vm increases and Fe will be equal to Fd in magnitude. At this point, Fnet will be ____.
a) Opposite that of; Double
b) Opposite that of; Zero
c) The same as; Double
d) The same as; Zero
3.4) A stable Vm will develop (steady resting membrane potential, Vr) when Fnet is ____
for all permeable ions and "net, or flux, is ____. At this point, we have a Donnan-
equilibrium.
a) Negative; Zero
b) Positive; Zero
c) Zero; Zero
d) Negative; Positive
e) Positive; Negative
4.1) If the Nernst equation calculated Vr to be -95mV for a living neuron or muscle cell,
the force due to the electrical gradient (Fe) is ____ the force due to diffusion (Fd), in
magnitude.
a) Greater than
b) Less than
c) Equal to
4.2) For all permeable ions, the Nernst equilibrium potential for an ion (Ei) is equal to:
a) Net force acting upon an ion (Fnet)
b) Net force due to friction (Ffr)
c) Force for diffusion (Fd)
d) Force due to the electrical gradient (Fe)
e) Fd and Fe
5.1) To determine if an ion is in equilibrium at a measured membrane potential, the
Nernst equation must be calculated. This requires measuring:
a) Ion concentrations inside and outside of the cell
b) Ion concentration inside of the cell
c) Ion concentration outside of the cell
d) Flux moving from inside of the cell
e) Flux moving from outside of the cell
Match the following ions their Nernst potentials (Ei):
5.2) Magnesium a) -109mV
5.3) Calcium b) -36mV
5.4) Chloride c) -92mV
5.5) Sodium d) +68mV
5.6) Potassium e) +120mV
6) Which two variables must be equivalent for an ion to be at equilibrium?
a) Ion concentrations inside and outside of the cell
b) Flux and Nernst potential
c) Flux and Membrane potential
d) Membrane potential and Nernst potential
e) Membrane potential and Ion valence

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -8-


Physiology 14Mar2009

7) Which of the following is NOT needed for a system to be at a Donnan-equilibrium?


a) "net = 0 and Fnet = 0 for all permeable ions
b) Vr exists (Inet = 0)
c) Ei = Vr for all permeable ionic species
d) All ions are in steady-state at Vr
e) Vr maintenance requires energy
8) Which of the following helps explain why cells do NOT obey a Donnan-equilibrium?
a) The measured Nernst Vr for a muscle cell versus the calculated value
b) The permeable behavior of K+
c) The permeable behavior of Na+
d) The permeable behavior of Cl-
e) The lack of energy expenditure to maintain Vr
9) Which of the following is in agreement between the Donnan-equilibrium concept and
the non-equilibrium steady-state (NESS) concept?
a) Fnet of all permeable ions is zero
b) "net = 0 for all permeable ions
c) Vr=Ei for all permeable ions
d) Expenditure of energy is required to maintain Vr
10.1) The Na/K ATPase pump is essential in maintaining ionic concentrations and moves
Na+ and K+ unequally across the membrane. It actively transports ____ Na+ out of the
cell for every ____ K+ transported into the cell.
a) 1; 2
b) 2; 1
c) 2; 2
d) 2; 3
e) 3; 2
10.2) Some pharmacological agents, such as cardiac glycosides (digitalis, ouabain), work
by inhibiting the Na/K ATPase. This would ____ its rate of activity and ____ Vr.
a) Decrease; Decrease
b) Increase; Increase
c) Decrease; Increase
d) Increase; Decrease
11) Which of the following best describes the chord conduction equation?
a) Membrane potential is the sum of the equilibrium potentials of the membrane-
permeable ions
b) Membrane potential is the sum of the equilibrium potentials of all ions
c) Membrane potential is the weighted average of the equilibrium potentials of the
membrane-permeable ions
d) Membrane potential is the weighted average of the equilibrium potentials all
ions
e) Membrane potential is the reciprocal of the equilibrium potentials of the
membrane-permeable ions
12) Referring to the chord conductance equation. If gCl- = gNa+ = gMg++ = gCa++ = 0,
but gK+ is significant, then what is Em?
a) -109mV
b) -36mV

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE -9-


Physiology 14Mar2009

c) -92mV
d) +68mV
e) +120mV

3 – Generation and Conduction of Action Potentials


1) For a non-gated (leakage) and regulated (gated) channels, what depends on the size of
the channel and the characteristics of the channel protein?
a) Fd (force of diffusion)
b) Fe (force due to electrical gradient)
c) Vr (Nernst potential)
d) Vm (Membrane potential)
e) g (conductance)
2) For non-gated (leakage) channels, Na+, Cl-, and K+ channels are responsible for
determining:
a) Conductance
b) Resistance
c) The resting cell potential
d) The maximal cell potential
e) Net force
3.1) Blood vessels have channels that open in response to physical stress, like stretching.
What type of channels are these?
a) Chemical/Receptor-gated
b) Mechanical-gated
c) Light-gated
d) Voltage-gated
3.2) Some hormones contain a region near the channel protein with a ligand-bindable
receptor. These gates will only open after a certain number of bindings have taken place
and the probability of opening is high. What type of channels are these?
a) Chemical/Receptor-gated
b) Mechanical-gated
c) Light-gated
d) Voltage-gated
3.3) At rest, a gate is open. As the membrane potential changes enough to reach a specific
point, these gates close. This is a specific type of what kind of channel?
a) Chemical/Receptor-gated
b) Mechanical-gated
c) Light-gated
d) Voltage-gated
4) A single channel can change its state more than once in response to a single stimuli.
The mean time that the channel remains open (or closed), topen, is a characteristic
property of:
a) Chemical/Receptor-gated channels
b) Mechanical-gated channels
c) Light-gated channels
d) Voltage-gated channels
e) Each channel type

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 10 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

5.1) In the voltage-clamping technique, ____ is injected into a cell and the membrane
potential is clamped at ____ voltage.
a) Current; Zero
b) Voltage; Zero
c) Current; A specific
d) Voltage; A specific
e) Current; Original membrane
5.2) The patch-clamp technique improved on the voltage-clamping technique by allowing
for measurements across ____ ion channels. This is done by plucking a small piece of
membrane with the tip of a micropipette, where the inside of the pipette contains the ____
fluid.
a) Single; Intracellular
b) Multiple; Intracellular
c) Single; Extracellular
d) Multiple; Extracellular
6.1) In a typical voltage-gated sodium channel, there are ____ m-gates and ____ h-gates
from extracellular moving to intracellular.
a) 3; 1
b) 1; 3
c) 2; 1
d) 1; 2
e) 3; 3
6.2) In a typical voltage-gated potassium channel, there are ____ n-gates and ____ h-
gates from extracellular moving to intracellular.
a) 4; 1
b) 1; 4
c) 4; 0
d) 0; 4
e) 4; 4
7.1) For sodium channels, the m-gates are responsible for quickly ____ as the channel
membrane depolarizes and the h-gates are responsible for quickly ____ upon
depolarization.
a) Opening; Opening
b) Closing; Closing
c) Opening; Closing
d) Closing; Opening
7.2) For potassium channels, current is ____ lasting than sodium channels and terminates
after ____, when Vm is made more negative.
a) Shorter; Depolarization
b) Longer; Depolarization
c) Shorter; Repolarization
d) Longer; Repolarization
8.1) For sodium channels, if Vr = -90 and the cell is depolarized by 20mV (to -70mV),
the probability that each m-gate is open is Pm. The probability that each h-gate is open is
Ph. What is the probability that a channel will open, Po?
a) Po = Pm + Ph

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 11 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

b) Po = Pm * Ph
c) Po = 3Pm + Ph
d) Po = 3Pm * Ph
e) Po = Pm^3 * Ph
8.2) For potassium channels, if Vr = -90 and the cell is depolarized by 20mV (to -70mV),
the probability that each n-gate is open is Pn. What is the probability that a channel will
open, Po?
a) Po = Pn
b) Po = 4Pn
c) Po = Pn + Pn + Pn + Pn
d) Po = Pn * Pn
e) Po = Pn^4
9) The voltage response of the membrane during a small, sustained current injection
(electrotonic response) is best described as:
a) Substantial
b) Transient
c) Stepwise
d) Constantly decreasing
e) Constantly increasing
10) What account for the additional depolarization during local response?
a) Electrical characteristics of the membrane
b) Potassium channels
c) Sodium channels
d) ATPase
e) Electrical transients
11) When current is injected into a membrane and the threshold potential is exceeded,
depolarization is:
a) Transient
b) 10-20mV
c) 10-20mV greater than Vr
d) Proportional to the injected current
e) Maximal/Complete
12) During an action potential, when threshold is reached many ____ gates open and
rapid depolarization occurs. At the peak of the action potential, many ____ gates open as
the original gates close and rapid repolarization occurs. In depolarization and
repolarizaton, the Nernst potentials (E) for both ions are ____.
a) Sodium; Potassium; Reached
b) Potassium; Sodium; Not reached
c) Sodium; Potassium; Not reached
d) Potassium; Sodium; Reached
13.1) Which of the following is the sequence of events in the positive feedback loop for
sodium channels?
a) Vm depolarizes to threshold, Na+ conductance increases, m-gates open,
sodium channels open, Vm depolarizes
b) Vm depolarizes to threshold, sodium channels open, m-gates open,, Na+
conductance increases, Vm depolarizes

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 12 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

c) Vm depolarizes to threshold, m-gates open, sodium channels open, Na+


conductance increases, Vm depolarizes
d) Vm depolarizes to threshold, Na+ conductance increases, sodium channels
open, m-gates open, Vm depolarizes
e) Vm depolarizes to threshold, m-gates open, Na+ conductance increases,
sodium channels open, Vm depolarizes
13.2) When the cell is depolarized by 60mV, h = 0 (h-gate closed). The cell can
depolarize by more than 60mV because in sodium channels the ____ gate(s) is/are slower
than the ____ gate(s) to changes in Vm. The sodium channel is considered “re-set” when
the ____ gate(s) return to resting value.
a) M; H; H
b) H; M; M
c) M; H; M
d) H; M; H
13.3) For potassium channels, the peak of the action potential has Po = 50% and not the
expected 100% (approximately). This is because n-gates are ____ and ____ occurs before
the channels have time to reach the Po = 99% value.
a) Fast; Repolarization
b) Slow; Repolarization
c) Fast; Depolarization
d) Slow; Depolarization
13.4) As the cell depolarizes, the electrochemical gradient for sodium ____ at a rate that
is ____ than gNa+ increases.
a) Decreases; Faster
b) Increases; Faster
c) Decreases; Slower
d) Increases; Slower
13.5) As the cell repolarizes, the electrochemical gradient for sodium ____ at a rate that
is ____ than gNa+ decreases.
a) Decreases; Faster
b) Increases; Faster
c) Decreases; Slower
d) Increases; Slower
13.6) Chloride leakage channels ____ the process of depolarization (sodium influx) and
____ the process of repolarization (potassium efflux).
a) Speed up; Slow down
b) Slow down; Speed up
c) Speed up; Speed up
d) Slow down; Slow down
14) At the peak of the action potential, approximately ____ of all the voltage-sensitive
sodium channels are open; this being the maximum possible conductance for Na+.
a) 100%
b) 80%
c) 60%
d) 40%
e) 20%

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 13 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

15) As membrane conductance for a given ion ____, membrane potential will move
toward equilibrium for ____.
a) Increases; That ion
b) Decreases; All ions (equilibrium)
c) Increases; That ion
d) Decreases; All ions (equilibrium)
16) During depolarization, sodium within the cell and potassium outside of the cell is
____. Chlorine concentration is greatest during ____.
a) High; Depolarization
b) Low; Depolarization
c) High; Repolarization
d) Low; Repolarization
17.1) At what point could one determine that the gates and channels have completely
reset to “resting” conditions when comparing to an initial action potential?
a) A stimulus generates no second action potential
b) A small stimulus generates a stunned second action potential
c) A very large stimulus generates a stunned second action potential
d) A stimulus generates a second action potential equal to the first
17.2) Which of the following would occur during the absolute refractory period?
a) A stimulus generates no second action potential
b) A small stimulus generates a stunned second action potential
c) A very large stimulus generates a stunned second action potential
d) A stimulus generates a second action potential equal to the first
17.3) During the relative refractory period, a second action potential can be generated if:
a) The stimulus is much less than the original stimulus
b) The stimulus is equal to the original stimulus
c) The stimulus is much greater than the original stimulus
d) A very short period of time has elapsed
e) No time has elapsed
17.4) The absolute refractory period is a result of inadequate time for resetting of the
____ gates and the relative refractory period is a result of incomplete reactivation of the
____ gates.
a) H; N
b) N; H
c) H; H
d) N; N
e) H; H & N

4 – Synaptic Transmission and Maintenance of Nerve Function


1) Cajal’s “neuron doctrine” proposed that each nerve cell communicates through
“contiguity rather than continuity.” This implies that neurons are:
a) Touching
b) Overlapping
c) Crossed perpendicularly
d) Parallel
e) In close proximity

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 14 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

2.1) Synthesizing enzymes for neurotransmitters that enter the synaptic cleft are
originally formed in the:
a) Axon terminal
b) Axon hillock
c) Soma
d) Myelinated axons
e) Dendrites
2.2) Which of the following areas of the neuron contains tubulin?
a) Soma
b) Axon
c) Dendrite
d) All of the above
2.3) Which of the following areas can contain myelin?
a) Axon
b) Axon terminal
c) Dendrites
d) Nodes of Ranvier
e) A, B, and C
2.4) Where does generation of action potentials begin?
a) Axon terminal
b) Axon hillock
c) Soma
d) Myelinated axons
e) Dendrites
2.5) Where are the active zones located?
a) Axon terminal
b) Axon hillock
c) Soma
d) Myelinated axons
e) Dendrites
3.1) Myelin is formed by ____ in the central nervous system and ____ in the peripheral
nervous system.
a) Schwann cells; Astrocytes
b) Oligodendrocytes; Satellite cells
c) Astrocytes; Schwann cells
d) Satellite cells; Astrocytes
e) Oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells
3.2) Where are voltage gated ion channels most abundant?
a) Myelenated axon
b) Axon terminal
c) Dendrites
d) Nodes of Ranvier
e) Synaptic cleft
3.3) Analogously, myelin sheaths act electrically as high ____ and low ____ insulators.
a) Resistance; Inductance
b) Inductance; Capacitance

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 15 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

c) Capacitance; Resistance
d) Resistance; Capacitance
e) Inductance; Resistance
4) What protein is associated with electrical synapses?
a) Cadherin
b) Alpha-actinin
c) Connexin
d) Clathrin
e) Calcium
5.1) What part of the synaptic junction contains acetylcholine esterase?
a) Synaptic vesicles
b) Active zones
c) Alpha-motor-neurons
d) End-plate peaks
e) End-plate troughs
5.2) In the neuromuscular junction, depolarization of the axon terminus leads to:
a) ACh diffusion of 30nm
b) Binding of ACh
c) Opening of chemical-sensitive channels
d) Opening of Ca++ channels
e) Depolarization of the adjacent neuron
5.3) Postsynaptic receptor binding of ACh opens chemical-sensitive ____ channels,
which have an associated ____ in sodium and potassium conductance.
a) Cation; Increase
b) Anion; Increase
c) Cation; Decrease
d) Anion; Decrease
6.1) Which of the following is observed at rest at around 0.5mV?
a) EPSP
b) IPSP
c) MEPP
6.2) Which of the following does NOT happen at the neuromuscular junction?
a) EPSP
b) IPSP
c) MEPP
7) Which of the following can summate to depolarize the postsynaptic muscle cell and
create an action potential?
a) EPSP
b) IPSP
c) MEPP
8.1) Temporal summation involves firing of ____ presynaptic neuron(s), generating a
series of EPSP’s on the postsynaptic cell. Spatial summation involves firing of ____
presynaptic neuron(s), generating multiple EPSP’s on the postsynaptic cell.
a) One; Multiple
b) Two; Multiple
c) Three; One

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 16 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

d) Multiple; One
e) Multiple; Two
8.2) EPSP’s decay ____, which is caused by the closure of chemically gated ____
channels.
a) Slowly; Potassium
b) Quickly; Potassium
c) Slowly; Sodium
d) Quickly; Sodium
9) An action potential generated at the axon hillock occurs as a proportional response,
rather than a binary response.
a) True
b) False
10) The length constant is defined as the point, between nodes of Ranvier, where what
percentage of the signal is remaining?
a) 100%
b) 63%
c) 50%
d) 37%
e) 0%
11) Regenerative conduction occurs ____ and passive (electronic) conduction occurs
____.
a) Between nodes of Ranvier; Along the entire axon
b) Along the entire axon; Between nodes of Ranvier
c) Between nodes of Ranvier; Between nodes of Ranvier
d) Along the entire axon; Along the entire axon
12.1) The calcium channel essential for neurotransmitter release is a ____ activating
channel responsible for the ____ calcium current.
a) Fast; Inward
b) Slow; Inward
c) Fast; Outward
d) Slow; Outward
12.2) The calcium channel has ____ activation (d-) gate(s) and ____ inactivation (f-)
gate(s).
a) 1; 1
b) 2; 2
c) 1; 2
d) 2; 1
e) 1; 3
13.1) Once calcium enters the cell, it appears to sever the ____ links, which are meant to
hold the vesicle stationary.
a) Tubulin
b) Myosin
c) Actin
d) Connexin
e) Adherin

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 17 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

13.2) Neurotransmitters are released as ____, with each vesicle adding its contents ____
to the contents released from others.
a) A flowing stream; Exponentially
b) A flowing stream; Incrementally
c) Packets; Exponentially
d) Packets; Incrementally
13.3) The extent of temporal summation and depolarization of the end-plate-potential is
dependent upon:
a) The extend to which ACh is released
b) The strength of the presynaptic stimulus
c) The duration of the presynaptic stimulus
d) The extent to which the channels are activated
e) All of the above
14) A synaptic delay occurs between the arrival of an action potential at the nerve
terminal and the generation of an EPSP at the postsynaptic site. This delay has been
measured in animal models (squid, frog) to be about:
a) 0.2 – 0.5 ms
b) 0.5 – 40 ms
c) 40 – 50.5 ms
d) 55 – 100 ms
e) 112 – 286 ms
15.1) Which of the following would definitely NOT be let through the postsynaptic
membrane by acetylcholine?
a) K+
b) Ca++
c) Cl-
d) Na+
e) H+
15.2) By what process is ACh broken down by AChE into acetate and choline (which is
actively taken back in by the presynaptic axon terminal)?
a) Hydrolysis
b) Reduction
c) Oxidation
d) Hydrogination
e) Ozonolysis
15.3) Which of the following neurotransmitter inactivation mechanisms is associated
with transmitter-sensitive transport molecules and serotonin?
a) Diffusion
b) Reuptake
c) Metabolism
15.4) Which of the following neurotransmitter inactivation mechanisms is associated
with movement out of the narrow synaptic cleft and norepinepherine?
a) Diffusion
b) Reuptake
c) Metabolism

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 18 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

15.5) Neurotransmitter inactivation by metabolism involves enzymes in the synaptic


cleft, which can include:
a) Norepinepherine
b) Serotonin
c) ACh
d) AChE
e) Choline
16.1) Neuron-to-neuron signaling that utilizes neurotransmitters involves one neuron
releasing and being sensitive to ____ neurotransmitter.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 4
d) 8
e) Many
16.2) Neuron-to-neuron signaling can involve second messengers. Which of the
following is the correct sequence for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
system? (arrows denote activation)
a) Ion channels open => Receptor proteins => Linking proteins => Enzymes that
synthesize cAMP => Other enzymes
b) Enzymes that synthesize cAMP => Linking proteins => Receptor proteins =>
Other enzymes => Ion channels open
c) Enzymes that synthesize cAMP => Receptor proteins => Linking proteins =>
Other enzymes => Ion channels open
d) Linking proteins => Receptor proteins => Enzymes that synthesize cAMP =>
Other enzymes => Ion channels open
e) Receptor proteins => Linking proteins => Enzymes that synthesize cAMP =>
Other enzymes => Ion channels open

5 – Membrane Receptors, Second Messengers, and Signal Transduction Pathways


1) Some regulatory substances, such as steroid and thyroid hormones ____ the cell and
bind to receptors that are transcription factors activated by binding the hormone. In this
way, the hormone influences the transcription of certain genes.
a) Leave
b) Enter
c) Remain outside of
d) Remain inside of
e) Are not involved with
2) Agonists exert their influences from ____ the cell.
a) Outside of
b) Inside of
c) The nucleus of
d) The mitochondria of
e) The lysosomes of
3) Which of the following is the correct order, from longest distance to least, for how far
a regulator may travel to reach its target cell?
a) Paracrine > Autocrine > Endocrine

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 19 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

b) Autocrine > Endocrine > Paracrine


c) Autocrine > Paracrine > Endocrine
d) Endocrine > Autocrine > Paracrine
e) Endocrine > Paracrine > Autocrine
4) Phosphorylation plays a central role in eliciting cellular response. Protein kinase ____
particular proteins and protein phosphatase ____ particular proteins.
a) Phosphorylates; Phosphorylates
b) Dephosphorylates; Dephosphorylates
c) Phosphorylates; Dephosphorylates
d) Dephosphorylates; Phosphorylates
5) Which of the following major classes of agonist-activated protein kinases is NOT
matched correctly?
a) cAMP => PKA
b) cGMP => PKG
c) Ca++ => Threonine
d) Diacylgycerol => PKC
6.1) Which of the following is NOT a second messenger that regulates the activities of
protein kinases?
a) Inositol
b) 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)
c) Diacylglycerol
d) Ca++
e) ACh
6.2) cAMP is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Is formed using adenylyl cyclase
b) Activates PKA
c) Phosphorylates serine residues
d) Is broken down by phosphodiesterase
e) Is a product of a G-protein pathway
7) cAMP-dependent protein kinase does all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Is also known as PKA
b) Dephosphorylates enzymes in the cAMP pathway
c) Phosphorylates more than one enzyme
8) All of the following are true EXCEPT:
a) Calmodulin is activated by 4 Ca++ anions
b) Calmodulin enhances the phosphorylating ability of calmodulin-dependent
protein kinases
c) Calmodulin activity would be enhanced upon the formation of IP3 in the cell
d) Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases do not require calcium in their pathway
9) Which of the following does NOT activate protein kinases of the C family?
a) cGMP
b) Ca++
c) Diacylglycerol
d) Membrane phospholipids
e) Breakdown products of membrane phospholipids

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 20 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

10) Insulin and certain growth factors bind to membrane receptors that are themselves
protein kinases that phosphorylate protein substrates on ____ residues.
a) Serine
b) Thronine
c) Tyrosine
d) Adenine
e) Adenosine
11) G proteins have a high affinity for ____ in their active state and preferentially bind
____ in their inactive state. When certain membrane receptors have agonist molecules
bound to them, they interact with specific G proteins to promote the conversion of G
proteins to their activated state by binding ____.
a) GTP; GDP; GDP
b) GTP; GDP; GTP
c) GDP; GTP; GDP
d) GDP; GTP: GTP
12) G proteins affect second messenger levels in cells by altering concentrations of:
a) Adenylyl cyclase
b) cGMP phosphodiesterase
c) PKA & PKC
d) Calmodulin-dependent kinase
e) A & B
13) Ca++ channels may be modulated directly by ____ and indirectly by ____.
a) G proteins; G proteins
b) Second messenger-dependent protein kinases; Second messenger-dependent
protein kinases
c) Second messenger-dependent protein kinases; G proteins
d) G proteins; Second messenger-dependent protein kinases
14) G proteins regulate all of the following effectors EXCEPT:
a) Phospholipase A1
b) Phospholipase A2
c) Phospholipase C
d) Phospholipase D
e) Certain K+ channels
15) Which of the following is NOT true regarding the G protein kinase-mediated signal-
transduction pathway?
a) Amplification can occur at many points
b) The ligand-bearing receptor interacts with a G protein and activates it; the
activated G protein binds GTP
c) The activated G protein interacts with only one effector to activate or inhibit it
d) The increase or decrease of the concentration of a second messenger changes
the activity of one or more second messenger-dependent protein kinases
e) The level of phosphorylation of an enzyme or an ion channel is altered or an
ion channel activity changes because of interaction with an activated G protein
and causes the final cellular response
16.1) Which of the following is the correct pathway order for the G protein Gq?

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 21 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

(phophatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate = PIP2; inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate = IP3;


diacylglycerol = DAG; ! isoform of phospholipase C = PLC!)
a) Gq => PIP2 => PLC# => IP3 & DAG
b) Gq => PLC# => PIP2 => IP3 & DAG
c) Gq => PLC# => DAG => IP3 & PIP2
d) Gq => PLC# => IP3 => DAG & PIP2
e) Gq => PIP2 => IP3 & DAG => PLC#
16.2) In the Gq pathway, after cleavage creates DAG, where does DAG go?
a) Sarcoplasmic reticulum
b) Stays in the membrane
c) Leaves the cell
d) Enters the cell
e) Enters the mitochondria
17) In the Gq pathway, after cleavage creates IP3, it travels through the cytoplasm to its
receptor on the ____ and allows ____ to exit, which increases cytosolic concentration of
that ion.
a) Mitochondria; Ca++
b) Endoplasmic reticulum; Ca++
c) Mitochondria; Na+
d) Endoplasmic reticulum; Na+
e) Nucleus; Ca++
18) Aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents inhibit the conversion of
arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes.
Arachidonic acid, along with phospholipids, are released by:
a) Certain K+ channels
b) Phospholipase D
c) Phospholipase C
d) Phospholipase A2
e) Phospholipase A1
19) The transmembrane portion of the G protein-coupled receptor has how many alpha
helices (each being made of 22 to 28 hydrophobic amino acids)?
a) 3
b) 14
c) 5
d) 12
e) 7
20.1) Phosphorylation decreases the receptor's ability to influence its effector protein.
a) True
b) False
20.2) Agonist down-regulation decreases the number of receptors by subjecting them to:
a) Organophosphates
b) Mitochondria
c) Lysosomes
d) Pinocytosis
e) Endoplasmic reticulum

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 22 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

21) During the activation process of the heterotrimeric G protein, which subunit releases
GDP from its nucleotide binding site, binds GTP, then dissociates from the other two
subunits?
a) ! (alpha)
b) # (beta)
c) $ (gamma)
22) Adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that produces cAMP, is the prototype for G protein-
mediated signal-transduction pathways. Certain stimulatory agonists (e.g. epinephrine)
and certain inhibitory agonists (e.g. adenosine) cause the release of the ____ (stimulatory)
and ____ (inhibitory) heterotrimeric G protein subunits respectively, which activate
adenylyl cyclase.
a) !s, #i
b) #s, !i
c) $s, $i
d) #s, #i
e) !s, !i
23) Cholera toxin catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose to ____, leading to increased
cAMP, leading to massive secretion of Cl-, Na+, and water into the intestinal lumen.
a) #i
b) #s
c) !i
d) !s
e) $i
24) Gi-type G proteins act on (and inhibit):
a) Diacylglycerol
b) Adenylyl cyclase
c) PLC#
d) IP3
e) Ca++
25) The action of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors to increase K+ conductance of
the pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node of the heart is the major mechanism whereby
parasympathetic nerves slow the heart rate. This is an example of a case where certain ion
channels are ____ modulated by G proteins ____ the help of second messengers. Another
example is certain extracellular agonist, such as acetylcholine and $-aminobutyric acid.
a) Indirectly; With
b) Indirectly; Without
c) Directly; With
d) Directly; Without
26.1) The activation of monomeric GTP-binding proteins is enhanced by____, and
inactivation is promoted by ____.
(guanine nucleotide exchange factors = GEFs; GTPase-activating proteins = GAPs)
a) GEFs; GEFs
b) GAPs; GAPs
c) GEFs; GAPs
d) GAPs; GEFs

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 23 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

26.2) Which of the following monomeric GTP-binding protein subfamilies is/are


involved in the signal-transduction pathways that link growth factor receptor tyrosine
kinases to their intracellular effects?
a) Ras-like proteins
b) Rho-like proteins
c) Rab-like proteins
d) A & B
e) B & C
27) In the presence of micromolar levels of cAMP, each PKA regulatory subunit binds
____ molecule(s) of cAMP, activating catalytic subunits. The active catalytic subunit
phosphorylates target proteins on particular serine and threonine residues.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 6
28) Myosin light-chain kinase, a calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, plays a central
role in regulating the contraction of smooth muscle. Which of the following is required
for this to occur?
a) Na+
b) Cl-
c) K+
d) Mg++
e) Ca++
29) The primary action of certain lipophilic tumor-promoting substances, most notably
the phorbol esters, is direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC). PKC is activated by
membrane lipids (e.g. DAG) and:
a) cAMP
b) cGMP
c) IP3
d) Ca++
e) Mg++
30.1) Receptors for all of the following have tyrosine kinase activity EXCEPT:
a) Insulin
b) Glucagon
c) Fibroblast growth factor
d) Epidermal growth factor
e) Nerve growth factor
30.2) The binding of hormone or growth factor to its receptor triggers multiple cellular
responses, including all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Ca++ efflux
b) Increased Na+/H+ antiport activity
c) Stimulation of the uptake of sugars
d) Stimulation of the uptake of amino acids
e) Stimulation of PLC# to hydrolize PIP2
31) Which of the following “out-of-control” kinase would lead to cancer?

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 24 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase


b) Receptor-associated tyrosine kinase
c) Protein-tyrosine kinase
d) Histidine-specific protein kinase
e) Aspartic acid/glutamic acid-specific protein kinase
32) What reverses the work done by protein kinases? The two major classifications of
these are protein-serine/threonine and protein-thyrosine.
a) Protein phosphatase
b) Protein dephosphoralate
c) Protein biphosphus
d) Adenosine phosphatase
e) Adenosine dephosphoralate
33) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is released by cells in the atrium of the heart in
response to ____ atrial pressure. This hormone ____ the excretion of NaCl and water and
____ certain blood vessels. The membrane receptors for ANP themselves possess
guanylyl cyclase activity that is stimulated when ANP is bound to the receptor. No
second messenger is required to activate guanylyl cyclase.
a) Increases; Decreases; Relaxes
b) Decreases; Decreases; Constricts
c) Decreases; Decreases; Relaxes
d) Increased; Increases; Constricts
e) Increased; Increases; Relaxes
34.1) Increased cytosolic levels of which of the following is often the stimulus for
enhanced formation and release of nitric oxide (NO)?
a) Na+
b) Cl-
c) K+
d) Mg++
e) Ca++
34.2) NO stimulates a soluble guanylyl cyclase in the target cell and thereby elevates the
intracellular concentration of cGMP, thus stimulating cGMP-dependent protein kinase.
What other affect does NO have?
a) Bronchioconstriction
b) Bronchiodilatation
c) Vasoconstriction
d) Vasodilatation

6 – Striated Muscle
Match the following skeletal muscle fiber properties with their types:
1.1) Mixture of glycolytic and oxidative capacities a) Type I
1.2) Low oxidative, high glycolytic, fast twitch b) Type IIa
1.3) High oxidative, slow twitch c) Type IIb
1.4) High myoglobin content, high resistance to fatigue, and small diameter
1.5) Low capillary density and low mitochondrial density
1.6) Low troponin affinity for Ca++
1.7) Which of the following is the correct order of recruitment for skeletal muscle fibers?

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 25 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) Type IIa > Type IIb > Type I


b) Type IIa > Type I > Type IIb
c) Type IIb > Type IIa > Type I
d) Type I > Type IIb > Type IIa
e) Type I > Type IIa > Type IIb
2.1) Which of the following is in the correct order from largest to smallest?
a) Myofibril > Myofiliament > Muscle fiber > Muscle
b) Muscle fiber > Muscle > Myofibril > Myofiliament
c) Muscle fiber > Muscle > Myofiliament > Myofibril
d) Muscle > Muscle fiber > Myofibril > Myofiliament
e) Muscle > Muscle fiber > Myofiliament > Myofibril
2.2) Which of the following is considered the smallest unit that contains all metabolic
machinery?
a) Muscle
b) Myofilament
c) Muscle fiber
d) Myofibril
3) Thick filaments, made from myosin, are aniosotropically aligned. Myosin molecules
are arranged in a regular helical pattern, with crossbridges every:
a) 30 degrees
b) 60 degrees
c) 90 degrees
d) 180 degrees
e) 270 degrees
4.1) Which of the following forms the “backbone” of the thick filament?
a) Myosin subfragment 1 (S1)
b) Myosin subfragment 2 (S2)
c) Light meromyosine (LMM)
d) Heavy meromyosin (HMM)
e) Myosin light chains (LCs)
4.2) The myosin subfragment 2s (S2) are associated with how many S1s?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 4
e) 8
4.3) How many alpha-helices form the LMMs and S2s?
a) 5
b) 4
c) 3
d) 2
e) 1
4.4) Which of the following contains an actin binding domain, an ATP binding site, and a
region of myosin-ATPase activity?
a) Myosin subfragment 1 (S1)
b) Myosin subfragment 2 (S2)

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 26 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

c) Light meromyosine (LMM)


d) Heavy meromyosin (HMM)
4.5) The essential, or alkali, LCs (LC1, LC3) contain a Ca++ binding site, which helps
control:
a) The actin binding domain
b) The ATP binding site
c) Myosin-ATPase activity
d) Smooth muscle contraction
e) Mg++ regulation of LC2s
4.6) The accessory C protein runs ____ across the thick filament and keeps the myosin
molecules aligned. The M protein joins the myosin at the ____ of the thick filament.
a) Transversely; Peripheral helices
b) Transversely; Central bare zone
c) Longitudinally; Peripheral helices
d) Longitudinally; Central bare zone
5.1) F-actin (a double alpha-helix of G-actin) has the capacity to:
a) Decrease myosin-ATPase activity
b) Increase myosin-ATPase activity
c) Decrease the actin binding domains
d) Increase the actin binding domains
e) Block the ATP binding site
5.2) What is the ratio of tropomyosin (Tm) to actin on thin filaments, as well as the ratio
of troponin (Tn) to G-actin?
a) 1:1
b) 1:2
c) 1:3
d) 1:5
e) 1:7
Match the following functions with their functional domains of troponin (Tn):
5.3) Modifies actomyosin interactions at low Ca++ a) Troponin T (TnT)
5.4) Contains Ca++ binding site b) Troponin I (TnI)
5.5) Attaches to tropomyosin c) Troponin C (TnC)
Match the following functions with their intermediate filament proteins:
6.1) Anchors myofilaments to the sarcolemma a) TITIN
6.2) Associated with the z-line b) NEBULIN
6.3) Associated with myosin c) DYSTROPHIN
6.4) Associated with actin d) ALPHA-/BETA-ACTININ
7 .1) Which part of the sarcomere contains only thick filaments?
a) I-band
b) A-band
c) H-zone
d) Z-line
e) M-line
7.2) Which part of the sarcomere may contain thick filaments, thin filaments, and
intermediate filaments (overlapping)?
a) I-band

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 27 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

b) A-band
c) H-zone
d) Z-line
e) M-line
7.3) Which part of the sarcomere is associated with the function of crosslinking myosins?
a) I-band
b) A-band
c) H-zone
d) Z-line
e) M-line
8.1) Shortening during muscle contraction is due to shortening of sarcomeres as well as
shortening of the proteins themselves.
a) True
b) False
8.2) During the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction, the length of ____
remain(s) constant while the ____ shorten(s).
a) Myofilament; A-band
b) A-band; I-band
c) Myofilament & H-zone; I-band & A-band
d) Myofilament & A-band; I-band & H-zone
e) I-band & A-band; Myofilament & H-zone
9.1) Rigor (rigot mortis) is defined as the absence of:
a) Ca++
b) Actin
c) Myosin
d) ADP
e) ATP
9.2) The initial reaction, which leads to the binding of actin and myosin S1 (M.ADP.Pi or
M.ADP to A.M.ADP.Pi) is initiated by:
a) Active increase in intracellular Ca++
b) Active increase in extracellular Ca++
c) Passive increase in intracellular Ca++
d) Passive increase in extracellular Ca++
e) Active decrease in intracellular Ca++
9.3) The “power stroke” (putative force generation step) occurs after the release of ____
into the sarcoplasm.
a) ATP
b) ADP
c) Pi
d) Ca++
e) Mg++
9.4) During the “power stroke”, motion of S1 goes from ____ degrees to ____ degrees, in
relation to the thin filament.
a) 90; 45
b) 45; 90
c) 90; 180

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 28 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

d) 180; 90
e) 0; 90
9.5) The formation of the actomyosin complex (A.M.ADP.Pi) enhances ATPase activity
of myosin by how many order of magnitude?
a) 1 (10 times)
b) 2 (100 times)
c) 3 (1,000 times)
d) 4 (10,000 times)
e) 5 (100,000 times)
9.6) During the initial step of the cross-bridge cycle, what does calcium bind to?
a) ATP
b) Actin
c) Myosin
d) Troponin
e) Tropomyosin
10.1) The function of T-tubules is to:
a) Move extracellular fluid into the sarcolemma
b) Connect the feet of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
c) Dampen the spread of the action potential
d) Allow for rapid spread of the action potential
e) Increase extracellular Ca++ concentrations
10.2) What is the ratio of feet proteins to Ca++ release channels of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum cisternae?
a) 1:1
b) 1:2
c) 1:3
d) 1:5
e) 1:7
10.3) Within skeletal muscle, what is contained in a triad?
a) 3 T-tubule and 3 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
b) 2 T-tubule and 2 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
c) 2 T-tubule and 1 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
d) 1 T-tubule and 1 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
e) 1 T-tubule and 2 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
11) What is the direct function of feet proteins (dihydropyridine receptors, DHPRs),
which link T-tubules to the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum?
a) Stimulate Ca++ channels to intake calcium
b) Stimulate Ca++ channels to release calcium
c) Dampen the spread of the action potential
d) Allow for rapid spread of the action potential
e) Respond to the T-tubule action potential
12) What is the function of ryanodine receptors (RYRs)?
a) Stimulate Ca++ channels to intake calcium
b) Stimulate Ca++ channels to release calcium
c) Dampen the spread of the action potential
d) Allow for rapid spread of the action potential

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 29 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

e) Respond to the T-tubule action potential


13.1) Which part of the major sarcoplasmic reticulum regions is responsible for rapid
requestration of Ca++ once it is released from the SR?
a) The junctional SR
b) The SR terminal cisternae regions
c) The longitudinal SR
13.2) Which part of the major sarcoplasmic reticulum regions holds most of the Ca++?
a) The junctional SR
b) The SR terminal cisternae regions
c) The longitudinal SR
14.1) Phosphorylation of phospholamban (plb), which is in the longitudinal SR, results in
what relationship of ATP use (ATPase) to Ca++ uptake?
a) Constant
b) Direct, proportional
c) Direct, inversely proportional
d) Exponential, positive
e) Exponential, negative
14.2) Calsequesterine is found in the SR terminal cisternae regions and reduces the
amount of free Ca++ within the SR. The protein-binding ratio of calcium (per moles) to
calsequesterine (per moles) is:
a) 1:3
b) 1:13
c) 1:23
d) 1:33
e) 1:43
14.3) The work of calsequesterine reduces free Ca++ within the SR from 20mM to about:
a) 10mM
b) 5mM
c) 1mM
d) 0.5mM
e) 0.1mM
15) Excitation in E-C coupling involves calcium release and generation of a Ca++
transient. This process has a delay of about ____ between electrical and physical events.
a) 1 "s
b) 10 "s
c) 1 ms
d) 10 ms
e) 1 s
16) Which of the following is NOT true of the contraction portion of E-C coupling as
calcium concentrations rise?
a) Ca++ binds to TnC and the Tn molecule is sterically altered
b) Tm normally covers the myosin binding sites on actin
c) Tm is pulled into the groove between the two alpha-helical actin strands
d) The myosin binding sites remain covered
e) The actomyosin complex is initiated and crossbridge cycling is initiated
17.1) Which of the following maintains the blocking activity of tropomyosin?

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 30 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) TnC
b) TnI
c) TnT
17.2) Which of the following has four divalent-ion binding sites, with two high affinity
(Mg++) and two low affinity (Ca++)?
a) TnC
b) TnI
c) TnT
18) What can be said about the slope of the graph for calcium concentration versus force
production in the region of the myofibril? This relationship is also saturable, so a further
increase in calcium concentration at high-force will lead to little increase of force.
a) Shallow positive slope
b) Shallow negative slope
c) Steep positive slope
d) Steep negative slope
e) No slope
19) Ca++ activation of striated muscle is a disinhibition of the contractile process. When
does this disinhibition begin?
a) When TnI binds with actin
b) When TnT controls tropomyosin
c) When tropomyosin is moved into the actin grooves
d) When tropomyosin maintains blocking activity
e) When TnC binds with Ca++
20) What is required for relaxation to occur, so that tropomyosin can return to its original
blocking position?
a) Ca++
b) ATP
c) ADP
d) Actin
e) Myosin
21.1) Which of the following is true regarding Ca++ binding (and unbinding) to TnC
sites?
a) Ca++ binds and unbinds at the same rate
b) Ca++ binds slower than it unbinds
c) Ca++ binds faster than it unbinds
21.2) Compared with a single twitch action potential, action potentials for tetanus will
always give a stronger initial force.
a) True
b) False
21.3) Which of the following energetic methods is used for continual muscle contraction?
a) Intracellular ATP stores
b) Phosphocreatine
c) Glycolytic stores
d) Oxidative phosphorylation
22) Which of the following is activated at the lowest level of CNS stimulation?
a) Type I fibers

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 31 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

b) Type IIa fibers


c) Type IIb fibers
23.1) The length-tension relationship for muscle yields a(n) ____ curve for passive
stretch and a(n) ____ curve for active stretch, with the total force being the sum of the
two components.
a) Decreasing; Increasing
b) Increasing; Decreasing
c) Logarithmic; Decreasing then increasing
d) Logarithmic; Increasing then decreasing
e) Constant; Logarithmic
23.2) The length-tension relationship of muscle fibers is directly related to:
a) Thin filaments
b) Thick filaments
c) Concentration of actin
d) Concentration of myosin
e) Overlap of thin and thick filaments
24.1) Which of the following is NOT true for maximal velocity (Vmax) of shortening of
a muscle fiber?
a) Proportional to the myosin-ATPase rate
b) Is a measure of inherent crossbridge velocity
c) Depends on the degree of filament overlap (length-dependent)
d) Attained when the muscle is completely unloaded
e) Depends upon the initial load applied on the muscle
24.2) For the force-velocity relationship, as load increases (toward maximal force) the
maximal speed of shortening will:
a) Remain constant
b) Increase
c) Decrease
d) Increase then decrease
e) Decrease then increase
24.3) For the force-power relationship, as load increases (toward maximal force) the
power produced will:
a) Remain constant
b) Increase
c) Decrease
d) Increase then decrease
e) Decrease then increase
25) The low-resistance pathways between cardiac muscle cells are ____, which are ____
synapses.
a) Gap junctions; Electrical
b) Gap junctions; Chemical
c) Neuromuscular junctions; Electrical
d) Neuromuscular junctions; Chemical
e) Nexi; Electrical
26.1) In skeletal muscle, T-tubules are associated with ____ and in cardiac muscle they
are associated with ____.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 32 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) A-I transitions; M-lines


b) A-I transitions; Z-lines
c) M-lines; A-I transitions
d) Z-lines; A-I transitions
e) M-lines; Z-lines
26.2) The structure in cardiac muscle that is similar to skeletal triads contains:
a) 3 T-tubule and 3 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
b) 2 T-tubule and 2 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
c) 2 T-tubule and 1 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
d) 1 T-tubule and 1 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
e) 1 T-tubule and 2 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulums
26.3) Compared with skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle has ____ as many Ca++ release
channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ ATPases.
a) Just
b) 1/2
c) 1/3
d) 1/4
e) Twice
26.4) During the cardiac action potential plateau phase, the L–type calcium current
causes a ____ movement of calcium ____ the cell, which is responsible for initiation of
the calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) process.
a) Large; Into
b) Large; Out of
c) Small; Into
d) Small; Out of
26.5) The calcium associated with CICR is sequestered in the sarcoplasmic reticulum for
release during the next heart beat. A new amount of calcium is allowed to cross the cell.
This calcium is called:
a) Initial calcium
b) Regulated calcium
c) Substantial calcium
d) Recycled calcium
e) Trigger calcium
27.1) Regarding restorative Ca++ processes, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger moves ____ Na+
inward for each Ca++ extruded from the cell.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 5
27.2) The activity of the exchanger is ____ as the cell ____, since this tends to pull more
sodium into the cell and extrudes more calcium.
a) Increased; Repolarizes
b) Decreased; Repolarizes
c) Increased; Depolarizes
d) Decreased; Depolarizes

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 33 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

27.3) Digitalis, an inotropic drug, works by keeping calcium within the sarcoplasmic
reticulum so it is available during subsequent cardiac activations. It works on the
exchanger by _____ sodium within the cell and _____ the effectiveness of calcium
extrusion.
a) Decreasing; Increasing
b) Decreasing; Decreasing
c) Increasing; Increasing
d) Increasing; Decreasing
28.1) According to Starlings Law of the Heart, an increase in left ventricular end-
diastolic fiber length would result in:
a) Increased ventricular force of contraction and decreased stroke volume
b) Increased ventricular force of contraction and increased stroke volume
c) Decreased ventricular force of contraction and decreased stroke volume
d) Decreased ventricular force of contraction and increased stroke volume
28.2) What is the importance of the high passive force exhibited by cardiac muscle?
a) Allows the heart to increase preload to optimal volume
b) Allows the heart to pump whatever volume of blood it receives
c) Allows the heart to contract as a unit
d) Allows the heart to overcome the pressure differences between chambers
e) Allows the heart valves to remain in place without significant movement

7 – Smooth Muscle
1) Which of the following distinguishes smooth muscle from other types of muscle?
a) Largest in cell diameter
b) Are more rectangular-shaped than spindle-shaped
c) Lack of dense bodies
d) Cannot regenerate or use Ca++
e) Lack of striations
2) Which of the following best describes the general electrical activities of single-unit
and multi-unit smooth muscle cells?
a) Single-unit acts independently and multi-unit acts independently
b) Single-unit acts independently and multi-unit communicates with neighbors
c) Single-unit acts communicates with neighbors and multi-unit acts
independently
d) Single-unit acts communicates with neighbors and multi-unit communicates
with neighbors
3.1) All of the following are true regarding smooth muscle EXCEPT:
a) Smooth muscle cells are relatively small compared with skeletal muscle cells
b) Instead of sarcomeres, it contains dense bodies, which are like Z-lines
c) Gap junctions electrically couple the smooth muscle cells
d) Smooth muscle contains caveolae instead of T-tubules
e) Smooth muscle does not contain sarcoplasmic reticulum
3.2) Thick filament regulation is used because smooth muscle does NOT contain
a) Actin
b) Myosin
c) Tryopomyosin

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 34 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

d) Troponin
e) Caveolae
4) Thick and thin filaments in smooth muscle are situated ____ to the long axis and thus
cause the muscle to ____ as it contracts. (Thin filaments attach to dense bodies)
a) Oblique; Twist
b) Parallel; Twist
c) Transverse; Twist
d) Oblique; Stretch
e) Parallel; Stretch
5) Some hormones and neurotransmitters may increase the cytosolic calcium
concentration by depolarizing the smooth muscle membrane. This activates voltage-gated
calcium channels and can lead to Ca++ induced Ca++ release via ____ receptors. Many
hormones and neurotransmitters use a process called pharmacomechanical coupling to
change cytosolic calcium concentrations ____ membrane potential.
a) Ryanodine; While drastically changing
b) Ryanodine; Without altering
c) Dihydropyridine; While drastically changing
d) Dihydropyridine; Without altering
6.1) Striated muscle is a ____ system and smooth muscle is a ____ system.
a) Disinhibition; Disinhibition
b) Direct activation; Direct activation
c) Disinhibition; Direct activation
d) Direct activation; Disinhibition
e) Disinhibition; Indirect activation
6.2) What allows smooth muscle myosin to interact with actin?
a) Ca++
b) ATP
c) ADP
d) Troponin
e) Myosin light-chain kinase
7) The SR Ca++ pump (SERCA) moves calcium ____ the cell and the sarcolemmal
3Na+/Ca++ antiporter and sarcolemmal Ca++ pump move calcium ____ the cell.
a) Into; Out of
b) Out of; Into
c) Into; Into
d) Out of; Out of
8) Smooth muscle tone can be decreased by ____ myosin light-chain kinase or ____
myosin dephosphorylation (phosphatase activity).
a) Inhibiting; Inhibiting
b) Activating; Activating
c) Inhibiting; Activating
d) Activating; Inhibiting
9) #2-adrenergic receptor agonists cause bronchiolar smooth muscle relaxation. This
involves ____ cAMP levels, which ____ myosin light-chain phosphorylation because of
cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of myosin light-chain kinase.
a) Increasing; Inhibit

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 35 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

b) Increasing; Activate
c) Decreasing; Inhibit
d) Decreasing; Activate
10) The vasodilator nitroglycerine reverses vasoconstriction by ____ cGMP levels in
smooth muscle. This activates myosin phosphatase and ____ levels of myosin light-chain
phosphorylation, which relaxes smooth muscle.
a) Increasing; Increases
b) Increasing; Decreases
c) Decreasing; Increases
d) Decreasing; Decreases
11) During the latch state of smooth muscle, ATP use is ____ while maintaining
contraction and the crossbridges (actin and myosin) are held in the rigor state. The
dephosphorylated myosin is predicted to detach from actin much ____ than
phosphorylated myosin.
a) Low; Slower
b) High; Faster
c) Low; Slower
d) High; Faster
12) What causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia in smooth muscle?
a) Increased electrochemical workload
b) Decreased electrochemical workload
c) Increased mechanical workload
d) Decreased mechanical workload

8 – The Autonomic Nervous System and Its Control


1) Which of the following is NOT true regarding the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
a) It is a motor system associated with smooth muscle
b) It is associated with cardiac muscle
c) It is associated with glands
d) It is directly accessible to voluntary control
e) Homeostasis is a major function of the system
2.1) The cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the
intermediolateral (and medial) cell columns (IML). The motor axons are small
myelinated B fibers or in some cases unmyelinated C fibers. They pass from the spinal
nerves into the white communicating rami. When the sympathetic preganglionic axons in
a given white ramus reach the sympathetic paravertebral ganglion of the same segment,
they may do all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Synapse in that ganglion
b) Travel directly to the heart without synapse
c) Descend and synapse in a paravertebral ganglion
d) Ascend and synapse in a paravertebral ganglion
e) Continue through a splanchnic nerve to synapse in a prevertebral ganglion
2.2) Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are located in the paravertebral and prevertebral
ganglia. The axons are ____ that distribute either to the body wall or to the viscera in the
body cavities. If they are destined for the body wall, they pass from a paravertebral
ganglion into a spinal nerve via a ____ communicating ramus.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 36 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) Myelinated B fibers; Gray


b) Myelinated B fibers; White
c) Unmyelinated C fibers; Gray
d) Unmyelinated C fibers; White
2.3) Sympathetic preganglionic neurons that supply the head have axons leaving the
spinal cord via ____ communicating rami at the levels of ____.
a) White; T1-T2
b) White; C1-C2
c) Gray; T1-T2
d) Gray; C1-C2
2.4) Preganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies are located in:
a) The brainstem
b) C1-T2
c) T1-L2
d) S2-S4
e) A & D
Match the following cranial nerve nuclei that contain preganglionic parasympathetic
neurons with their associated cranial nerve.
2.5) Nucleus ambiguous a) CN III
2.6) Superior salivatory nucleus b) CN VII
2.7) Inferior salivatory nucleus c) CN IX
2.8) Edinger-Westphal nucleus d) CN X
Match the following ganglion (for cranial parasympathetic preganglionic axons) with
their associated cranial nerve.
2.9) Otic ganglion a) CN III
2.10) Ciliary ganglion b) CN VII
2.11) Ganglia in walls of target viscera c) CN IX
2.12) Sphenopalatine & submaxillary ganglia d) CN X
2.13) The sympathetic nervous system is a(n) ____ system and the parasympathetic
nervous system is a(n) ____ system.
a) Adrenergic; Adrenergic
b) Cholinergic; Cholinergic
c) Adrenergic; Cholinergic
d) Cholinergic; Adrenergic
3) The adrenal medulla (organ) receives:
a) Postganglionic sympathetic fibers
b) Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers
c) Preganglionic sympathetic fibers
d) Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
e) No autonomic nervous system innervation
4) Which of the following can show reflexive movements when separated from the
autonomic nervous system?
a) Adrenal medulla
b) Heart
c) Kidneys
d) Liver

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 37 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

e) Gastrointestinal tract
5) Control of organ activity by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems should be view
as occurring:
a) Via direct opposition
b) Via indirect opposition
c) Rhythmically
d) Spontaneously
e) Concurrently
6.1) Nicotinic receptors, an acetylcholine receptor on postganglionic neurons, is activated
by ____ and blocked by ____.
a) Nicotine; Curare
b) Nicotine; Atropine
c) Nicotine; Muscarine
d) Curare; Nicotine
e) Atropine; Nicotine
6.2) Muscarinic receptors, an acetylcholine receptor on postganglionic neurons, is
activated by ____ and blocked by ____.
a) Muscarine; Curare
b) Muscarine; Atropine
c) Muscarine; Nicotine
d) Curare; Muscarine
e) Atropine; Muscarine
6.3) What neurotransmitter is generally used by sympathetic postganglionic neurons?
a) Acetylcholine
b) Serotonic
c) Epinpherine
d) Norepinepherine
e) Atropine
6.4) The norepinepherine !-adrenergic receptor is mostly activated by ____ and can be
blocked with ____.
a) Norepinepherine; Phenoxybenzamine
b) Norepinepherine; Propranolol
c) Isoproterenol; Phenoxybenzamine
d) Isoproterenol; Propranolol
6.5) The norepinepherine #-adrenergic receptor is mostly activated by ____ and can be
blocked with ____.
a) Norepinepherine; Phenoxybenzamine
b) Norepinepherine; Propranolol
c) Isoproterenol; Phenoxybenzamine
d) Isoproterenol; Propranolol
6.6) Neurons of the enteric nervous system release all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Acetylcholine
b) Norepinepherine
c) Epinepherine
d) Serotonin
e) ATP

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 38 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

7) In general, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are ____ than preganglionic


sympathetics fibers and postganglionic parasympathetics fibers are ____ than
postganglionic sympathetic fibers.
a) Longer; Shorter
b) Shorter; Longer
c) Longer; Longer
d) Shorter; Shorter
8) Along with some components of the limbic system, which of the following is a higher
center that regulates autonomic function?
a) Adrenal medulla
b) Cerebral cortex
c) Thyroid gland
d) Pituitary gland
e) Hypothalamus
9.1) Which of the following is NOT an originating site for brainstem pathways that
regulate the activity of autonomic preganglionic neurons?
a) Reticular formation
b) Edinger-Westphal nuclei
c) Raphe nuclei
d) Locus ceruleus complex
9.2) Autonomic reflexes are mediated by neural circuits in the spinal cord and brainstem.
The pathways involve interneurons that involve:
a) Visceral sensory receptors
b) Somatic sensory receptors
c) Visceral motor receptors
d) Somatic motor receptors
e) A & B
10.1) The peptide hormones oxytocin and vasopressin (neuromodulators in autonomic
neural circuits) are released from the tract that spans from the hypothalamus to the:
a) Adrenal medulla
b) Cerebral cortex
c) Thyroid gland
d) Pituitary gland
e) Hypothalamus
10.2) Neuroendocrine cells in a number of hypothalamic nuclei secrete hormones into the
___ system that supplies the ____ pituitary gland.
a) Caval; Anterior
b) Portal; Anterior
c) Caval; Posterior
d) Portal; Posterior
11) External thermoreceptors are located in the skin and central thermoreceptor neurons
are located in the:
a) Anterior pituitary
b) Posterior pituitary
c) Anterior hypothalamus
d) Posterior hypothalamus

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 39 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

e) Adrenal medulla
12) What type of feedback in involved in the bodies response to errors in internally set
temperature?
a) Closed-loop positive feedback
b) Closed-loop negative feedback
c) Open-loop positive feedback
d) Open-loop negative feedback
13) Heat-loss responses are mediated by all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Enteric nervous system
b) Autonomic nervous system
c) Somatic nervous system
d) Endocrine system
14) Cooling causes an increase in the activity of the thyroid gland and sympathetic
nervous system, both of which tend to raise heat production metabolically. It also results
in shivering, which involves ____ ____ muscle contractions.
a) Asynchronous smooth
b) Synchronous smooth
c) Asynchronous skeletal
d) Synchronous skeletal
15) Which of the following is NOT a major function of the heat production and
conservation centers in the brain?
a) Sweating
b) Shivering
c) Cutaneous vasodilation
d) Cutaneous vasoconstriction
e) Piloerection
16.1) Which of the following would NOT be an effect seen with M receptors?
a) Miosis (pupil constriction)
b) Increased intestinal motility
c) Penile erection
d) Urinary bladder relaxation
e) Vascular smooth muscle relaxation
16.2) #1 receptors work mostly on what organ?
a) Adrenal medulla
b) Heart
c) Kidneys
d) Liver
e) Gastrointestinal tract
16.3) Sympathetic contraction (of an effector organ) is usually associated with ____
receptors and sympathetic relaxation is associated with ____ receptors.
a) !; !
b) #; #
c) !; #
d) #; !
e) M; M

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 40 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

9 – General Principles of Endocrine Physiology


1) Which of the following is NOT true about the endocrine system?
a) Releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body
b) Releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues
and organs
c) Produces effects that can last for hours, days, or even longer
d) Can alter gene activity of cells and growth processes
e) Produces an immediate (nearly instant) response
2) The elaborate endocrine signaling system likely evolved from a primitive one, as it
now has the ability to signal surrounding cells via interstitial fluid. This is called:
a) Endocrine function
b) Neurocrine function
c) Paracrine function
d) Autocrine function
e) Intracrine function
3) Which of the following acts on cells the greatest distance away?
a) Intracrine function
b) Neurocrine function
c) Paracrine function
d) Autocrine function
4) Which of the following is NOT true regarding a comparison of the endocrine system to
the nervous system?
a) Both neurons and endocrine cells are capable of secreting
b) Only neurons generate electrical potentials and can be depolarized
c) Some molecules serve as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone
d) The mechanism of action of both hormones and neurotransmitters requires
interaction with specific receptors in target cells
e) A similar process and repertory of proteins mediate exocytosis of secretory
granules and synaptic vesicles
5) During hypoglycemia, the body response is an interaction and coordination between
the nervous and endocrine systems. Which of the following participates in the neural
component of the response and not the endocrine component?
a) Anterior pituitary gland
b) Adrenal medulla
c) Adrenal cortex
d) Hypothalamus
e) Pancreatic islets
6.1) At the N terminus, a signal peptide directs the transfer of the preprohormone from
the ____ into the ____, soon making the active prohormone.
a) Nucleus; SER
b) Ribosome; ER
c) SER; Nucleus
d) ER; Ribosome
e) ER; Golgi
6.2) An increase in intracytoplasmic ____ concentration is needed for secretion of
hormones.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 41 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

a) Ca++
b) Mg++
c) Raf
d) ATP
e) GTP-binding protein
6.3) Which of the following hormones is closely associated with cholesterol?
a) Catecholamine
b) Thyroid
c) Steroid
d) Prostaglandins
6.4) Which of the following is synthesized from tyrosine and stored in secretory
granules?
a) Catecholamine
b) Thyroid
c) Steroid
d) Prostaglandins
6.5) Which of the following is stored in a storage space (follicle) shared by a group of
surrounding endocrine cells?
a) Catecholamine
b) Thyroid
c) Steroid
d) Prostaglandins
7) In a negative feedback system (closed-loop), if an increase in hormone secretion
stimulates a greater output of product from the target cell, the product feeds back to the
gland to ____ hormone secretion.
a) Maintain
b) Increase
c) Decrease
d) Stop
8.1) Hormones such as ____ circulate unbound to other plasma constituents where
hormones such as ____ are bound to specific globulins (as well as albumin).
a) Steroid hormones; Catecholamines
b) Catecholamines; Peptide hormones
c) Thyroid hormones; Catecholamines
d) Thyroid hormones; Peptide hormones
e) Peptide hormones; Thyroid hormones
8.2) Strong protein binding will ____ a hormone’s plasma half-life.
a) Maintain
b) Increase
c) Decrease
9) Metabolic clearance rate (MCR) is an expression of the overall efficiency with which a
hormone is removed from plasma irrespective of the mechanism. It is the ____ of plasma
cleared of hormone per unit of ____.
a) Volume; Area
b) Volume; Hormone
c) Volume; Time

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 42 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

d) Area; Hormone
e) Area; Time
10) Which of the following describes the major steps of hormone signaling in order?
a) Hormone recognition => Intracellular signal generation => Increase in
intracellular process
b) Hormone recognition => Intracellular signal generation => Decrease in
intracellular process
c) Hormone recognition => Extracellular signal generation => Increase in
intracellular process
d) Hormone recognition => Extracellular signal generation => Decrease in
intracellular process
e) Hormone recognition => Intracellular signal generation => Increase or decrease
in intracellular process
11) Hormone recognition takes place via binding of the hormone (in a reversible fashion)
to a specific receptor that may be located within all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Plasma membrane
b) Cytoplasm
c) Nucleus via translocation
d) Inner mitochondrial membrane
12) Most hormones ____ the number of their own receptors; this helps prevent ____
hormone action on the cell.
a) Increase; Excess
b) Increase; Insufficient
c) Decrease; Excess
d) Decrease; Insufficient
13.1) When hormone-receptor association occurs within the plasma membrane of the
cell, the resultant complex is usually coupled with ____. When this association occurs
within the cytoplasm, the complex usually interacts with ____, where the response trigger
is in the hormone molecule itself as well as the receptor.
a) Membrane components; Membrane components
b) DNA; DNA
c) Membrane components; DNA
d) DNA; Membrane components
13.2) Which of the following is NOT a signal leading to second messengers within the
cytoplasm?
a) IP3
b) cAMP
c) cGMP
d) ATPase
e) Tyrosine Kinase
14.1) What shape does the dose-response curve for the action of a hormone often take?
a) Elliptical
b) Constant
c) Exponential
d) Sigmoidal
e) Stepwise

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 43 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

14.2) Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects the outcome of hormone
action?
a) Duration of hormone exposure
b) Concentration of rate-limiting enzymes
c) Size of receptors
d) Concentration of hormone
e) Cofactors and substrates

James Lamberg

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 44 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

AnswerKey 3.1) A 14) D 2) A


Physio #1 3.2) E 15) A 3) E
1.1) C 3.3) B 16) C 4) C
1.2) B 3.4) C 17.1) D 5) C
2) E 4.1) C 17.2) A 6.1) E
3) A 4.2) E 17.3) C 6.2) C
4) D 5.1) A 17.4) E 7) B
5.1) C 5.2) B 8) D
5.2) B 5.3) E Physio #4 9) A
6) B 5.4) A 1) E 10) C
7) E 5.5) D 2.1) C 11) B
8.1) A 5.6) C 2.2) D 12) E
8.2) D 6) D 2.3) A 13) D
8.3) C 7) E 2.4) B 14) A
9.1) B 8) C 2.5) A 15) C
9.2) E 9) B 3.1) E 16.1) B
10) D 10.1) E 3.2) D 16.2) B
11) A 10.2) A 3.3) D 17) B
12) B 11) C 4) C 18) D
13.1) D 12) C 5.1) E 19) E
13.2) C 5.2) D 20.1) A
13.3) E Physio #3 5.3) A 20.2) C
14.1) C 1) E 6.1) C 21) A
14.2) B 2) C 6.2) B 22) E
14.3) B 3.1) B 7) A 23) D
14.4) A 3.2) A 8.1) A 24) B
15.1) D 3.3) D 8.2) D 25) D
15.2) E 4) E 9) B 26.1) C
15.3) C 5.1) C 10) D 26.2) D
16) E 5.2) C 11) B 27) B
17.1) B 6.1) A 12.1) B 28) E
17.2) C 6.2) C 12.2) A 29) D
17.3) D 7.1) C 13.1) C 30.1) B
18.1) D 7.2) D 13.2) D 30.2) A
18.2) E 8.1) E 13.3) E 31) C
19.1) C 8.2) E 14) B 32) A
19.2) B 9) B 15.1) C 33) E
19.3) A 10) C 15.2) A 34.1) E
20) D 11) E 15.3) B 34.2) D
12) C 15.4) A
Physio #2 13.1) C 15.5) D Physio #6
1.1) B 13.2) D 16.1) A 1.1) B
1.2) C 13.3) B 16.2) E 1.2) C
1.3) D 13.4) A 1.3) A
2.1) C 13.5) B Physio #5 1.4) A
2.2) B 13.6) D 1) B 1.5) C

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 45 -
Physiology 14Mar2009

1.6) A 19) E 2.7) C 10) E


1.7) E 20) B 2.8) A 11) D
2.1) D 21.1) C 2.9) C 12) C
2.2) C 21.2) B 2.10) A 13.1) C
3) B 21.3) D 2.11) D 13.2) D
4.1) C 22) A 2.12) B 14.1) D
4.2) C 23.1) D 2.13) C 14.2) C
4.3) D 23.2) E 3) C
4.4) A 24.1) C 4) E
4.5) C 24.2) C 5) E
4.6) D 24.3) D 6.1) A
5.1) B 25) A 6.2) B
5.2) E 26.1) B 6.3) D
5.3) B 26.2) D 6.4) A
5.4) C 26.3) B 6.5) D
5.5) A 26.5) E 6.6) C
6.1) C 27.1) C 7) A
6.2) D 27.2) A 8) E
6.3) A 27.3) D 9.1) B
6.4) B 28.1) B 9.2) E
7.1) C 28.2) B 10.1) D
7.2) B 10.2) B
7.3) E Physio #7 11) C
8.1) B 1) E 12) B
8.2) D 2) C 13) A
9.1) E 3.1) E 14) C
9.2) C 3.2) D 15) E
9.3) C 4) A 16.1) D
9.4) A 5) B 16.2) B
9.5) C 6.1) C 16.3) C
9.6) D 6.2) E
10.1) D 7) D Physio #9
10.2) A 8) C 1) E
10.3) E 9) A 2) C
11) E 10) B 3) B
12) B 11) A 4) B
13.1) C 12) C 5) D
13.2) B 6.1) B
14.1) B Physio #8 6.2) A
14.2) E 1) D 6.3) C
14.3) D 2.1) B 6.4) A
15) D 2.2) C 6.5) B
16) D 2.3) A 7) C
17.1) B 2.4) E 8.1) E
17.2) A 2.5) D 8.2) B
18) C 2.6) B 9) C

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE - 46 -