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\ !i-le'-p., P: oductive 2nd resilient system for producing food, ;;..;l'?, tlJ!ibei
dfll sr prv,jllctS. It can range from p:anting trees in p!()vidillg shelter,
emergency forage, to forest garden sYRtems layers of
t2il and 5mal! trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustniilinr;
Bnd productive system.
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Agroforestry News

Volume 13 Number 1
November 2004
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 13 Number 1 November 2004
2 News: Austrian traditional agroforestry /20 years of
alley cropping / Agroforestry in the Himalayas /
Agroforestry in northeastern China / Hazelnut 2004
cropping data / Chestnut cropping 2004/ Walnut
cropping 2004 / Heartnut cropping 2004 / Conifers can
minimize frost exposure / More health benefits of
7 Vaccinium: the Blueberry family
24 Apple cultivar disease-resistance trial
29 Using Nitrogen-fixing shrubs in nut orchards
30 Book review: The Earth Care Manual
31 Compendium of edible fruits: (1) trees
40 Classified adverts
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common fannat.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial , Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes. Devon. TOg 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk
Silvopasture in the Alps
The multipurpose utitisation of agricultural and forest resources has a long tradition in the Alps.
As the(e are many settlements in the valleys of the Alps, mountain forests often serve as
protection against natural hazards (particularly avalanches), in addition to timber production.
Farmers graze their cattle in mosaics of coniferous forests, open pastures with diverse
herbaceous vegetation, and half open pastures with dwarf shrubs and young trees.
The Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research studied both the benefits of
forest grazing for cattle, and the implications on forest structure and biodiversity. The condition
of young trees was assessed and the selection of herbaceous species recorded, the digestibility
of the herbage calculated, and the long-term influence on forest structure studied.
The results suggest that young conifers are not severely damaged by grazing cattle if stocking
density is low and the ranges are sufficientry large, enabling the cattle to select herbage plant
species of adequate digestibility. Grazed forests have a more open and heterogeneous
(diverse) structure than ungrazed forests. The increased insolation promotes both plant species
diversity and natural regeneration. Thus sustainable management of Alpine silvopastoral
systems can combine animal nutrition, biodiversity and avalanche protection.
Source: Mayer, A & Kreuzer,M: Silvopastoral Systems in the Alps. 1
World Congress of Agroforestry Book
of Abstracts, University of Florida, 2004.
Austrian traditional agroforestry practices
In Austria's rural regions traditional practices such as grazed orchards, fodder trees, hedges
and forest grazing still exist. J Studies over the past 8 years have identified various traditional
practices, including ash (Fraxinus excelsior) as fodder trees, larch (Larix decidua) meadows and
grazed forests; and new forms of agroforestry including mouflon and fallow deer in high stem
pear and apple orchards, Shropshire sheep in Christmas tree (Abies alba) plantations, pigs in
elderberry (Sambucus nigra) plantations, ana wild boar and domestic pig crossbreeds in spruce
The main motives for farmers to integrate agroforestry practices are related to raising site
productivity, complying with higher organic standards for animal husbandry and to widen
product variety. Farmers listed benefits such as: microclimate amelioration, higher soil fertility,
additional fodder and higher fodder quality, slope stabilisation, animal welfare and additional
Source: Vogl , C & Stockinger, K Austnan Farmers Knowledge and Innovations Related to Traditional and
New Silvopastoral Practices with its Potential for Organic Farming. 1,t World Congress of Agroforestry Book
of Abstracts, University of Florida, 2004.
Results of 20 Years of alley cropping
There is good economic potential in the Midwestern USA when tree plantations of high-value
veneer wood are intercropped with annual cash crops. Management of resource availability in
the cropping alley are limited to those which maintain veneer wood production goals.
~ n this study, several black walnut (Juglans nigra) management options were examined for their
Impacts on tree and maize production including thinning (years 9 & 15), above ground branch
Page 2
pruning (year 17) and below ground root cutting (year 11). Thinning in years 9 and 14 resulted
in the highest tree diameter growth across the period but had little effect on reversing declining
crop yields. Tree root cutting immediately improved crop access to nutrients and water so that
there was little difference in crop yields observed between middle and edge row crops of maize.
This response dissipated by year 16 when crop production declined by up to 96% as trees
continued to grow and light became limiting across the 8.5 m alley. However, above ground
branch pruning in year 17 returned crop yields to up to 81% of year 11 values.
Source: Kiparski, G & Gillespie, A: Productivity and Competition Vector Changes over Two Decades in a
Temperate Alley Cropping System in Midwestern USA. 1$1 World Congress of Agroforestry Book of
Abstracts, University of Florida, 2004.
Agroforestry in the Himalayas
Agroforestry is one of the basic tradition occupations of millions inhabiting the Himalayas, with
both simultaneous and sequential systems practised. While simultaneous systems such as
boundary planting, alley cropping and silvopasture are common in the drier heights of the
northern and western Himalayas, the humid eastern and southern Himalayas inspire shifting
cultivation, taungya systems and multi-strat a systems (forest gardens and farms) . Hundreds of
Himalayan tribes have almost institutionalised agroforestry practices, and the indigenous
knowledge of mountain dwellers in terms of plot selection, crop selection, crop rotation etc. has
often proved far superior to that of a 'special ist'.
In the Himalayas, forests are part of the agro-pastoral continuum: most Himalayan tribes use
grasslands and forests as common proerty under collective tenure - utilisation of land by
spacing trees and crops, management and regeneration are collectively supervised by the
indigenous communities who rely heavily on oral tradition and experience. The multi-strata
system combining large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) with Nepalese alder (Alnus
nepalensis) adopted in the Sikkim Himalayas has proved to be sustainable and highly profitable.
Source: Choudhury, M: Indiginous Knowledge and Agroforestry Practices in the Eastern Himalayas, India.
1 s l World Congress of Agroforestry Book of Abstracts. Uni versity of Florida, 2004.
Agroforestry in Northeastern China
Northeastern China accounts for about 10% of the total land area in China, has a temperate
climate and is considered on of the most important cereal production areas. To protect the 20
million Ha of croplands from soil erosion and desertification. and to improve agricultural
production, various agroforestry systems have been established and developed. These include:
1. The large-scale farmland shelterbelt networks established since the 1950's for
protecting farmlands from wind erosion and desertification in the west of the region,
2. The combination of farmlands. shelterbelts and woodlots for protecting farmlands from
water and soil erosion in the northern high plain roUing slope area of the region,
3. The special northern ecological homegarden combining fruit tree planting and small
protected production of vegetables.
4. Pigs and biogas in homegardens developed and extended in the mid and southern
areas of the region,
5. The combination systems of medicinal herb production and tree plantations in the
eastern area of the region.
Source: Wen, 0 et al : Agroforestry in Northeastern China. l SI World Congress of Agroforestry Book of
Abstracts, University of Florida, 2004.
Hazelnut 2004 cropping data
This was the first year of crop measurement, mainly due to the fact that squirrels were finaUy under control
(using live traps). Good yields were obtained from all cultivars, the highest yields from Pearson's Prolific
(Nottingham Cob) and White Filbert. The largest nuts, though were mainly from more recent cultivars -
Butler, Caraber, Ennis and the oldff Hail's Giant.
-- --- ------- ------------ -- -- S e p tern be r --------------- ----- --- ---------
Date 14 15 1] 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Carabel ------------- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Ennis ______________ .L
x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Gunslebert -------1x
Hall's Giant ------.Lx X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Webbs Prize COb f x X X X X X X X X X X X X X
White Filbert------rX X X_X X X X X X X X X X X X X
'X' in bold indicates period of heaviest cropping.
White Filbert lIIIITlITlTIIIIIrrrrmmTTTTm
Webbs Prize f-W
Pearsons f-WLW..u.u..u..LJ..L.L.I..j
Halls Giant h-rr",-nTTTTTTrr,....,..,,-;'
Gu nslebert I
Ennis h-rr"'rTTTTTTTTrr"''''TTTT,J1
Cos ford h-rr",nnTTfTrr-I
Butler !IIIq:ITlITjTIII:jIttrprrl-UJlLU
o 2 3 4 5 6
Average nut weight (9)
Page 4
Chestnut cropping - 2004
Our chestnut variety trial in Dartington, Devon was planted in the winter of 1995-0, with at least
two trees of each variety planted (more of some to ensure good pollination). 2004 represents
the ninth year of growth for the trees.
The trees is our chestnut trial cropped extremely well for the second year running. Despite the
average summer conditions, cropping started on 241h September and continued until 26
October (when all remaining nuts were brought down by several days of gales.)
The best cropping cufti vars, as in previous years, were:
Belle Epine
Bouche de 8etizac
Rousse de Nay
Total 2004 crop, kg
Start of harvest
19 October
29 September
13 October
24 September
12 October
24 September
29 September
29 September
After harvest and weighing, the nuts are quickly sorted (by hand), the small nuts (under about
109) being separated off. The larger nuts were sold through a local farm shop, the smaller ones
dried for storage and further processing.
Walnut cropping - 2004
Our walnut variety trial in Dartington, Devon was planted in the winter of 1995-6, with two trees
of each variety planted. 2004 represents the ninth year of growth for the trees.
This was the first year of crop measurement, mainly due to the fad that squirrels were finally under control
(using live traps). In previous years there has been serious squirrel damage to the bark of some trees as
well as predation on the nuts.
Yields in general were disappointirgly low. Highest yields were from Broadview, Femor and Femette - all
yielding a"ouild 2 kg (and with Broadview this despite a bad attack oJNalnut blight.)
Walnuts are known heavy feeders and the low yields may be due, at least to some extent, to lack of
feeding (the trees have only been fed once, with rotted manure, five years ago). Hence next spring they
will receh.e a heavy feed to stmulate better cropping.
Heartnut cropping - 2004
Our heartnut trial was planted in the winter of 19956 and consisted on 28 seedling trees grown
from seed obtained from known mother trees in Ontario, Canada. The aim of the trial is to
select out the best fruiting trees to name and propagate on. Cropping on some trees started in
2002. In the winter of 2003/4, trees which showed no sign of flowering were removed.
Cropping was good on some trees in 2004. All trees were very healthy with no symptoms of the
leaf and nut diseases seen on walnuts. The best tree, E14, bears nuts which resemble
buartnuts more than true heartnuts - total crop was about 1.2 kg, and cropping was very early,
starting on 141h September (about the same time as hazelnuts). Trees producing more 'true'
heartnuts ripened their nuts later, from l SI October.
Conifers can minimize frost exposure
Agricultural production in temperate climate areas is constrained by cold weather which limits
the growing season. Radiation frosts frequently injure vegetation early and late in the growing
season even when air temperatures are warm enough to maintain plant health. Radiation frosts
occur at night when clear sky conditions result in a large net loss in long wave radiation from
plant surfaces and a lack of wind minimises convective heat gain from the air.
Obstrueting the open sky from the plant upward field-ot-view is one strategy for reducing the
severity of radiation frost by providing a surface much warmer than open sky with which plants
exchange long wave radiation. Shade cloth or fleece mounted over vegetation is effective but
costly. Trees can provide a much cheaper solution which minimises radi ation frost damage.
USDA Experiments in Virginia show that conifers work extremely well in protecting nearby crops
from radiation frost damage: under 77% canopy cover, up to 11 C of frost protection was
gained. Clearly, there will also be shadi ng effects, possibly detrimental to a forage or tree crop
interplanted within rows of conifers, hence careful design would be necessary in such a system.
These experiments would indicate that there will be significant benefits of planting trees, shrubs
or other crops close and to the south of coniferous or other evergreen vegetation, in terms of
radiation frost protection. In addition, crops thus situated would suffer very little from any
shading effects.
Source: Feldhake, C: Proximity to Conifers Minimizes Frost Exposure. NNGA 93'd Annual Report, 2002.
More health benefits of walnuts
A new clinical study shows that substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat in a Mediterranean
diet improves, and even restores, endothelial function (the property of arteries to dilate in order
to meet an increased d e m a ~ d for blood, for example due to a physical effort). Walnuts also
reduce harmful cell adhesion molecules which are associated with atherosclerosis (hardening of
the arteries). These dual effects enhance the circulatory system, therefore aiding in the
prevention of heart disease.
Published in 'Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association', the study concludes that
the results provide further support for the inclusion of walnuts in healthy diets. As well as the
effects mentioned, the walnut diet decreased both total and LDL cholesterol.
Walnuts differ from all other nuts because of their high content of alpha-linolenic acid, a fatty
acid, which may provide additional anti-artherogenic properties.
~ ~ - --
-- -
Vaccinium: the Blueberry family
Blueberries and cranberries in many forms have been gathered from the wild and eaten by
people for thousands of years. The berries are also appreciated by many birds (grouse,
partridge, quail, American robins, European blackbirds and thrushes) and many mammals. In
North America the berries form an important part of the diet of bears and chipmunk, while deer,
elk, rabbit and hare graze on the leaves and young stems.
North America contains the largest number of edible species, also the important commercial
ones - blueberries and cranberries . Some European countries do have extensive amounts of
wi ld plants which are sti ll harvested commercially. for example in Poland and Lithuania.
Some of the wild species are named huckleberri es in North America, but they should not be
confused with Gaylussacia which are the better known huckleberries with edible fruit.
Edible uses
Most species of Vaccinium have edible fruit which has long been gathered from wild plants and
eaten raw or cooked (V.arboreum is the only cultivated species with inedible berries.)
Many Native Americans combined dried pounded meat with melted fat and any available dried
berries (often Vaccinium species) to make ' pemmican' which would store for a long time and be
easily carried. They also added fresh or died berries to stews. The settlers from Europe
brought recipes with them which they used to make jams, jellies, cakes, cookies and so on.
Cultivated forms of blueberries are derived from V.corymbosum (Northern highbush) which is
suited to cold winter regions; V.ashei (Rabbiteye) which need moderate winter chilli ng and are
suited to shorter winter regions; and a group of hybrids involving V.angustifolum, V.ashei,
V.corymbosum, and V.darrowii (together called Southern high bush types) which need low
winter schilling and is suitable for mild winter regions.
Medicinal uses
Many species of Vaccinium have long been used medicinally. In North America, Indian tribes
used (and continue to use) every part of the plants - flowers, fruits , leaves, young shoots, bark
and roots.
In the 18
century, bilberries (V.myrtillus) were widely used in Europe as an astringent to treat
diarrhoea, as a diuretic, to prevent scurvy and as a mouthwash to sooth mouth ulcers.
During World War II , British and Canadian air force pilots found that their night vision improved
after eating bilberry jam over a long period. This Jed to much clinical research in the decades
that followed. Air traffic controllers, airline pilots and truck drivers have also reported improved
night vision when given regular extracts of bilberry fruit. Other visual benefits which have been
noted are an improvement in myopia (shortsightedness) and the relief of symptoms of tired
The red, blue or violet pigments in the skins of Vaccinium fruits are due to the presence of
organic chemicals (polyphenols). They act primarily as antioxidants which mop up harmful free
radicals in the body (these are produced by the normal process of converting oxygen into
energy in the cells of the body, and the toxins associated with them are normally disposed of by
a healthy body. However, when produced in excess or not efficiently removed, they can be
highly destructive and destroy the outer membranes of healthy cells , causing degeneration and
death of cell sin tissues where they are active. Antioxidants combine with free radicals and
render them harmless.) These polyphenols also have other effects, some being antibacterial
and antiviral, others are anticarcenogenic, antiangiogenic and antiallergenic. They also boost
levels of glutathione in the body, an important agent which helps repair damaged DNA and in
the liver detoxifies carcinogens and other toxins. There is evidence that raising levels of
glutath,ione can reduce age-related diseases and increase life span .

These polyphenols are in greatest concentration sin the small-berries species and varieties .
They are 3-4 times more potent than vitamin C and are not destroyed by cooking.
There is also evidence of improved microcirculation from eating Vaccinium fruits or their
extracts, in the brain (improving brain functions), eyes, mucous membranes of the digestive and
pulmonary systems, connective tissues (aiding arthritis sufferers) etc.
Vaccinium berries also have powerful antibacterial action in the intestine, especially on coli
bacteria, and they promote healing of gastric ulcers. The berries also contain ellagic acid,
which is a powerful anticarcinogen.
Cranberry juice is well established as excellent for fighting urinary infections, and other
Vaccinium fruit juice has similar qualities. This is due to tannins, which prevent bacteria from
sticking to the bladder lining. Sweetened juice will not be so effective.
In practical everyday terms, regular consumption of Vaccinium fruits should benefit general
health, delay the onset of degenerative diseases associated with aging, help combat tied eyes
and help prevent urinary infections.
Vacciniums generally like acidic soils, ideally with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 (but up to 6.5 is often ok) ,
ideally a sand or loam which is well drained with plenty of organic matter. They do not tolerate
clay soils or soils above pH 7.0 (neutral). Alpine species require very good drainage, whereas
some other species require moist or boggy conditions.
It is better to use containers if the soil is alkaline. Most species do well in containers and will
live many years. Plant small young plants in small containers, and gradually pot up into larger
and larger containers over the years (this goes for all container planting). Container grown
plants are especially prone to drying out in summer and require at least daily irrigation,
otherwise a lack of flowers and fruit the following year will result.
All Vacciniums will only grow healthily if they are growing in association with mycorrhizal fungi.
Spores of such fungi are usually present in peat, hence container grown plants, which are
usually grown in ericaceous composts incorporating some peat, are already inoculated with
types of beneficial fungi.
For heavily fruiting species, some irrigation is often necessary, if only in very dry summer
spells. In very dry soils, growth and flower bud formation is often poor. Collected rainwater is
best although occasional use of neutral or even alkaline irrigation water won't hurt.
n ... :::c:a:::
Autumn planting is preferable in mild climates like most of the UK. Plants and mulch with bark
or sawdust.
Most species prefer full sun or slight shade although some prefer part shade (see species
details and table below).
Vacciniums are notably resistant to honey fungus .
All the Vacciniums produce bell-like flowers, typical of the Ericaceae, usually white or pinkish.
Pollination is via bees, usually wild bees ego bumble bees, for which these are very beneficial
plants. Most species are not self-fertile, hence two selections should be grown for good fruiting.
Fruits ripen in early to late autumn. Fruits vary widely in size from species to species, some are
very small (4-5 mm) and hardly worth bothering with, while others are larger. Quality also
varies, with the flavour, aroma and acidity differing widel y. For the smaller fruited species, a
hand held comb harvester (easily made from a hand held plastic dustpan with fingers cut from
the leading edge) is by far the quickest way to harvest fruits, and is the traditional North
American form of hand harvesting.
Most species can be propagated by seed. If possible sow fresh seed (dried seed can remain
dormant for up to 2 years) , squeezing the flesh and seeds out from the fruit and sowing the lot.
Warm region species won' t need stratification, but cold region species usually need 3-4 months
of cold stratification (or a few days in a freezer can trick them into germinating). Use a 50:50
peat:sand or peat:perlite/ vermiculite compost. Grow on in an ericaceous compost and do not
overfeed. The young seedlings may require shade in the summer.
Suckers, stolons & runners
This is simply the removal of lateral plant extensions which have already formed roots. It is a
simple method for spreading plants such as cranberries, lingonberries and ground cover
species like V.caespitosum, V.crassifolium and V.deliciosum. Some larger shrubs send up
suckers which can be removbed and potted up for a year before planting out.
Most of the evergreen species root readily as semi-hardwood or even hardwood cuttings. Late
summer is the usual time for taking semi-hardwood cuttings, when the current years growth has
become firm but not woody, but any time except high summer often works.
Cuttings from the deciduous species are more difficult to root and timing is critical. Semi-
hardwood cuttings are best, taken as soon as they are firm enough in summer. Terminal
cuttings, including the growing tip of shoots, are usually used. Some require bottom heat and
mist or high humidity conditions. Use a similar compost as for seed sowing. Hormone rooting
liquid or powder is useful. Leave over winter in their containers and pot up in spring when they
start to grow.
The species
Listed below are species with known edible fruits or other uses. There are several others
species which almost certainly have edible fruits too. including the American species V.a/to-
mantaum, V.caesium (deerberry). V.candicans, V.fuscatum, and V.marianum.
V.alaskaense - Alaska blueberry
A very hardy species native to coastal regions from N,. Catifornia to Alaska; sometimes regarded
as a ferm of V.Dvalifolium.
Fruits are dark. bloom less, often not prolific (although there is much variability) and moderately
V.amoenum - Large cluster blueberry
Large deciduous shrub from southeastern N.America, growing to 4 m high but only half that in
cultivation. Bears black fruits about 8 mm across.
Fruit are edible, raw or cooked.
V.angustifolium - Sweet lowbush blueberry
A dwarf, woody, usually deciduous shrub fround growing in a wide variety of areas in North
America on peaty or sandy soil with pH 2.8 to 6.0. It forms a spreading mat from underground
rhizomes, with uprights 30-45 cm tall. Narrow elliptic leaves are 5-17 mm wide and 17-40 mm
long, green but changing to a vivid red or orange in autumn. White or pinkish flowers in May
are followed by blue or black sweet fruits, to 12 mm across, in late summer and early autumn.
Var. laevifolium grows a little taller and wider than the species, and has larger leaves.
Var. nigrum (Syn. V.brittonit) also has larger leaves, likes poor sandy soi ls, and bears shiny
black berries.
Thousands of tonnes of wild blueberries, mainly from this
species, are harvested each year. Mechanical harvesting
occurs where large level fields and sufficient acreage justify
the capital expenditure; but a lot of hand harvesting, often by
children or students on vacation, also take:;; place. Yields are
2.5-7.5 tonnes/ha, the higher yields obtained onl y when
herbicides are used to control weed competition. Most of the
crop is frozen and sold, mainly to Germany and Japan.
'Augusta' , ' Brunswick' , 'Chigneto' and ' Russell' are
selections with good blue fruit colour, good flavour, late
blooming, disease resistance, heavy yields etc.
A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruits - used as a
tonic, and for colic and labour pains.
V.arboreum - farkleberry, sparkleberry
A deciduous or semi-evergreen large shrub or small tree occasionally growing up to 9 m high,
more often 3-4.5 m high, with grey bark. Has leathery leaves, white flowers in summer and
black shiny berries (which do not ripen properly in the UK). Native to Southeastern N. America.
The fruits, though they have been eaten in times of famine, are not at all pleasant (dry, bitter
and astringent).
Medicinally, the berries, root-bark and leaves are very astringent and have been used in the
treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throats etc.
Said to be an excellent vigorous rootstock for 'Rabbiteye' blueberries (V. ashei).
Tannin is obtained from the bark and root.
The wood is heavy, hard, very close grained. Used for tool handles etc.
Deciduous shrub growing 60 cm high from western N.America. Bears edible fruits.
V.arctostaphylos - Caucasian whortleberry

A slow growing, densely branched, deciduous shrub growing 1.5 to 3 m high and 11 . 8 m wide.
Leaves are dark green, to 10 cm long by 23 cm wide - they turn brilliant purple and red early in
autumn. Whitish flowers in midsummer and followed by round, shiny, purpleblack berries, 1 cm
across. Tolerates poor dry soils ands some exposure. Native to Turkey, Bulgaria and the
Causasus; hardy to -15C.
Fruits are borne abundantly and have a nice flavour.
The Circassian people of the Caucasus use a decoction of the leaves as a tea called 'broussa
tea' which looks like black tea.
V.ashei - Rabbiteye blueberry
An erect spreading shrub reaching 3 m high, relatively deep rooted. Adapted to hot dry
summers - drought tolerant. White or pinkish flowers followed by blueblack fruits, to 20 mm
Native to the Southeastern USA, this is one of the cultivated species, grown in mild or short
winter regions. There are several good fruiting forms. They like the same conditions and
management as other cultivated blueberries (a detailed article on blueberries is in Agroforestry
News, Vol 8 No 1 and our Factsheet F23). They are not self-fertile, so a mixture of varieties
must be grown for cross pollination.
'Baldwin' - vigorous upright bush, very productive, moderate chilling requirement. Fruits firm,
dark blue, medium size, sweet. ripen over a very long period (67 weeks).
' Beckyblue' - vigorous, tall spreading bush, low chilling requirement . Fruits medium sized,
firm, good flavour.
' Brightwell' - vigorous upright bushes. Fruits medium sized, firm, light blue, good flavour.
Good cropper.
' Briteblue' - Moderately vigorous and spreading bush, moderate chilliung requirement. Fruits
large, firm, hold on bush well.
'Centurion' - vigorous, narrowly upright bush, moderate chilling requirement, later ripening.
Fruit medium size, dark blue, good aromatic flavour.
' Chaucer' - Vigorous, spreading bush with upright canes, flowers prolifically, low chilling
requirement. Fruit light blue, medium size, good flavour, produced over a long period.
' Climax' - upright spreading bushes. Fruits medium sized, firm, good aromatic flavour, ripens
over a short period.
' Premier' - vigorous spreading bushes, moderate chilling requirement , good autumn colour.
Fruits large, firm, good aromatic flavour. Tolerates higher pH soi l than most blueberries.
'Tifblue' - vigorous upright bush, moderate chilling requirement. Fruit light blue, firm, medium
to large, good flavour, hold well on bush when ripe but prone to splitting after heavy rain.
V.x atlanticum
Naturally occuring hybrid of V.angustifolium x V.corymbosum. Simi lar to the latter (highbush
blueberry) but a smaller plant , to 1 m high. Bears large blue bloomy fruits to 20 mm across.
V.atrococcum - Downy swamp huckleberry, black highbush blueberry
A many branched deciduous shrub growing 1.5 to 3 m high. Bears pinkish red flowers in late
spring followed by round black sweet fruits, 6-8 mm across. Native to Eastern N.America.
'Leucococcum' - fruits are translucent, white tinged green or yellow.
Large qeciduous shrub 2-4 m high, forming small colonies, from the eastern USA. White or
pinkish flowers are followed by blue fruits, 7-12 mm across with a good flavour.
A dwarf deciduous shrublet growing only 2-16 em high. often growing with V.angustifolium,
making dense clumps and spreading by surface rhizomes. Leaves are 12-20 mm long by 3-5
mm wide. Fruits are blue, small (3 mm across) , sweet. A Subarctic species from Eastern
N.America, found in forest tundra and upland meadows on exposed rocky sites.
Native to China (Yunnan).
The fruits are valued for food.
The leaves and young stems are used in Chinese medicine.
A well-branched evergreen shrub up to 3 m high, nearer 1 m in cultivation. Ught green shiny
leaves are 5 cm x 2 cm. White flowers in late summer are followed by edible small berries, 5-6
mm across, ripening purple-black in warm climates. Native to Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan;
hardy to -23C.
The plant has been used in the treatment of cancer in China.
V. caesariense
Deciduous shrub to 1.5 m high from Eastern, N.America. Edible fruits 8 mm across.
V.caespitosum - Dwarf huckleberry, dwarf blueberry
A spreading dwarf deciduous shrub growing 4-60 cm high, forming a ground-hugging mat of
yellow-green or reddish green stems. Pinkish white flowers in late spring/early summer are
followed by blue-black fruits , 5-8 mm across, sweet flavoured. A very hardy species from the
north of N.America in all types of site.
The Indians of British Columbia harvested the fruit in large quantities.
A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruits, which is antiseptic, astringent, carminative, and
V.corymbosum - Northern highbush blueberry
A very variable deciduous shrub, typically 1.2-1 .8 m high but occasionally double that. It
usually forms a compact shrub, but it sometimes sends out suckers from adventitious buds on
the roots up to 1 m away from the main plant, particularly if disturbed by burning or damaged by
animals or people. Leaves are ovate or narrowly elliptic, 38-54 mm long by 17-25 mm wide.
They turn bright colours in the autumn. White flowers are followed by blue-black fruits , to 20
mm in diameter, sometimes with a bloom. Synonym V.virgaturn.
Native to North America, this is one of the main
cultivated species. They thrive in their native habitat in
the dappled shade of pines and cedars. There are
numerous good fruiting forms. A detailed article on
blueberries is in Agroforestry News, Vol 8 No 1 (and our
Factsheet F23).
The form constablaei (previous V.eonstablaei) is a
compact plant about 90 em high with small-medium, blue
bloomed fruits with good autumn colour.
A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruit which is
astringent and pectoral.
V.crassifolium - Creeping blueberry,
thick-leaved whortleberry
Evergreen shrublet , creeping by rooting a leaf nodes.
forming a dense mat. Upright reddish stems reach 15
cm, with small downy leaves. Pinkish or white flowers in
late spring/early summer are followed by shiny, purple-black berries 12 mm across. Native to
southeastern USA in dry sunny situations near pine trees .
'Wells Delight' - has bright reddish-bronze young growth. Fruits small, dark purple. Used for
ground cover in acid soil conditions and sun or light shade, planted 60 cm apart.
V. cylindraceum
A semi-evergreen large upright shrub, drought tolerant and tolerant of neutral soils not too
heavy. Bark on older branches is an attractive green-brown pattern. Bright green glossy leaves
are 5 cm long, often falling in late winter. Greenish-yellow flowers are borne from midsummer
onwards in profusion, followed by cylindrical blue-black bloomy fruits , to 25 mm long and 8 mm
wide. Native to the Azores but hardy in Britain.
The frui ts are sweet with a mild pleasant flavour.
An evergreen shrub growing to 90 cm high, spreading by rhizomes. Has pale green leaves, 12
x 5 mm, white flowers and light blue fruits. Native to the southern USA. Heat and drought
resistant , this is one of the species used to breed southern highbush blueberries. Needs a hot
summer climate to thrive.
There are numerous good fruiting forms. A detailed article on blueberries is in Agroforestry
News, Vol 8 No 1 (and our Factsheet F23).
A compact densely branched evergreen shrub growing 30-90 em high, sometimes more in warm
shady locations. Creamy white or pink flowers in early summer, often hidden by foliage, are
followed by small fruits, 4-5 mm across, bluish-purple to black. Native to China, requires good
drainage. Hardy to _10C.
V.deliciosum - Cascade bilberry, blue huckleberry
A dwarf deciduous shrub forming tufted mats usually 10-30 cm high, spreading by rhizomes into
extensive colonies in the wi ld. Leaves 17-33 x 5-8 mm, thick and tough. Pink flowers in late
spring/early summer are followed by sweet blue-black berries, 5-8 mm in diameter. Native to
alpine meadows and subalpine conifer woods in western North America.
The fruits are sweet with a good aroma and flavour.
Large deciduous shrub growing to 3 m high from China (Yunnan). Bears fruits 5 mm in
Fruit are sweet and good to eat.
A large shrub or small tree reaching 6 m high in the wild but less in cultivation. Has large
leaves, 7 ~ 1 2 cm x 2.5-4.5 cm with long tapering points. Flowers in early summer are followed
by round black berries, 5 mm across. Native to the Himalayan region at 1600-3000 m.
The fruits are valued for food in Yunnan (China).
The leaves and young stems are used in Chinese medicine.
V. elliottii
Deciduous shrub with numerous branches growing 2-4 m high, forming clumps, from the
southeastern USA. Pink flowers in spring are followed by edible blue-black fruits 8 mm across.
V.erythrocarpum - Bearberry, southern mountain cranberry
An open shrub, 9 0 ~ 1 8 0 cm high. Pink flowers in early summer are followed by red to black
berries 8-12 mm across. Native to high elevations in the southern USA, associated with spruce
Fruit is rather inferior, with an acidic tastelessness.
V.floribundum (Syn. V.mortinia)
An evergreen shrub growing .90-180 cm high, wide spreading. Masses of pale pink flowers in
early summer are followed by round berries that turn from red to blue-black as they ripen.
Native to Ecuador, Peru and Columbia, but hardy in southern England to -10C or so.
Fruits are juicy and pleasantly flavoured.
A compact evergreen shrub usually growing 15-23 cm high, occasionally to 90 cm. Glossy
green leaves, masses of white-pink flowers in summer and reddish black fruits, 6 mm across.
Likes a well drained soil. Native to China (Yunnan) , hardy to -23C.
The fruits are valued for food in China.
The leaves and young stems are used in Chinese medicine.
V. glaucoalbum
An evergreen shrub growing 50-1 20 cm high, forming dense patches by suckering. Whitish-pink
flowers in late spring/early summer are followed by round black berries with a blue bloom, 6 mm
across, persisting on the plant. Native to Tibet and Nepal and prefers semi-shade and shelter-
will grow in neutral soils.
Fruits are edible but with an unpleasant aftertaste.
A semi-evergreen low shrub growing 1.2 m tall and 1.5 m wide with arching branches. Flowers
in midsummer are followed by small , persistent , blue-black , rather hard fruits. Native to China,
prefers semi-shade or sun in southern England - hardy to perhaps -10C.
V.hirsutum - Hairy huckleberry, woolly berry
A deciduous shrub growing 60-90 cm high, suckering freely and forming dense thickets. All
parts are covered in hairs. Whitish-pink flowers in late spring/early summer are followed by
black hairy sweet fruits, 6 mm across, somewhat gritty and insipid. Likes a moist shady
position. Native to Southeastern USA.
A much-branched deciduous shrub growing 90-120 cm taU and less wide. Fruits are red, round
or oval, 8 mm across. Native to Japan. Likes a semi-shaded site and soil with plenty of organic
V.x intermedium
Naturally occuring hybrid of V.myrtillus x V.vitis-idaea. A low shrub to 25 cm high, deciduous r
semi-evergeen. Pink flowers in early summer are followed by round dark violet edible fruits, 6
mm across.
Native to China (Yunnan).
The fruits are valued for food.
The leaves and young stems are used in Chinese medicine.
Shrub growing 90 cm high with slender branches - evergreen in warm climes. Pink flowers in
spring and summer are followed by small glossy red berries 5-8 mm in diameter, acid flavour.
Likes the shade of a woodland or forest garden.
Deciduous shrub from Korea. Bears edible fruits.
Bears blue-back fruits, 5 mm in diameter.
V.macrocarpon - Cranberry
This is the true cranberry, widely grown commercially in North
America. Full details of cranberries and their cultivation can
be found in Agroforestry News, Vol 9 No 2 (and our factsheet
A low growing, trailing woody perennial that forms a dense
spreading mat. Flowers in May, June or later are followed by
pinkish, red or purple fruits. Plants can be grown as a ground
cover planted about 1 metre apart each way - they spread
rapidly when thriving.
The fruits have a sharp flavour, especially when only just ripe;
they sweeten slightly with age and some wait until November
to harvest them when they are quite soft and sweet.
V.me/anocarpum - Georgia blueberry
Deciduous shrub to 1.2 m high with whitish downy young shoots from Southeastern USA. White
or green tinged flowers in late spring/early summer are followed by glossy edible reddish-violet
fruits 8-10 mm across.
V.membranaceum - mountain bilberry, mountain huckleberry
Deciduous shrub forming clumps 30-150 em high. Whitish fruits in summer are followed by
purplish-black fruits. 5-8 mm across, delicious but acid.
Native to cold upland areas of N.America. Difficult to cultivate as it seems to require very
specific climatic conditions that occur in its native habitat at 900-2100 m. Prefers well drained
slopes under scattered trees out of frost pockets.
Fruits have been harvested for centuries by native Americans in the Rocky Mountains for use
raw or dried (in the sun or over a fire) for winter use.
Leaves are used in a medicinal tea which is antiseptic, astringent , carminative and
Small deciduous shrub from eastern Asia growing 15 cm high and spreading. Pink flowers are
followed by violet fruits, pleasant tasting.
A compact dwarf evergreen bush 60 cm high by 90 cm wide. Leathery leaves, very glossy
green. Reddish-brown flowers in late spring and summer are followed by round, purple-black
fruits 5-6 mm across. Native to China (Szechuan).
V.myrsinites - Florida evergreen blueberry, ground blueberry
Colonising evergreen shrub 45-90 cm high with small leathery leaves. Whitish-pink flowers in
spring are followed by round, shiny black fruits, 12 mm in diameter. Native to SE USA, and
thrives in England.
V.myrtilloides - Velvet-leaved blueberry, Sour-top blueberry
North American deciduous shrub with uprights 10-117 cm high. The plant is downy, with long
green elliptical leaves 8-17 mm wide by 20-38 mm long. White or pink flowers in late spring and
early summer are followed by blue fruits 5-8 mm across. Produces prolific fruit crops in many
mountainous western areas.
The fruits are widely harvested as part of the wild blueberry harvest - see V.anguslifo/ium for
more details.
The Ojibwa people used the fruits, drying them on rush mats in the sun and storing them for use
in the winter. The fruits on the lower slopes of mountains ripened first, and family groups
moved gradually upwards to reach later ripening plants.
Leaves are used to make a tea (medicinal?)
V.myrtillus - Blaeberry, Hartberry, Whortleberry, Wimberry
The most common European species. Found on upland moors and in scrub woodlands, it has a
low growing habit (30-50 cm high) and produces fruits 5-10 mm in diameter. Is still often
harvested wild, and harvested commercially where labour is cheap.
'Leucocarpum' - fruits are a dirty white colour.
The dried leaves are used medicinally for a variety of complaints. The leaves should be
harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then dried i n gentle heat. A
tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent , diuretic, tonic and an antiseptic for the
urinary tract. It is also a remedy for diabetes if taken for a prolonged period. The leaves
contain glucoquinones, which reduce the levels of sugar in the blood.
A decoction of the leaves or bark is applied locally in the treatment of ulcers and in ulceration of
the mouth and throat. A distilled water made from the leaves is an excellent eyewash for
soothing inflamed or sore eyes.
The fruit is astringent , it is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhoea etc. The fruit is most
effective if used when dry. The skin of the fruits contains anthocyanin and is specific in the
treatment of hemeralopia (day-blindness). The fruit is a rich source of anthocyanosides, which
have been shown experimentally to dilate the blood vessels .
A green dye is obtained from the leaves and the fruit and is used to colour fabrics.
A blue or black dye is obtained from the fruit , which can be used as an ink.
V.neg/ectum (Syn. V.stamineum var.neg/ectum) - Deerberry
A deciduous shrub to 1.5 m high from Southeastern USA. Pinkish-white flowers in late spring
are followed by edible fruits, roundish. 6 mm across, green to yellow.
An evergreen shrub about 60 cm high and 90 cm wide with glossy dark green leaves. Pink
flowers in spring are followed by fruits 5-6 mm across, round, black, edible. Native to Sikkim
and Bhutan, hardy to about -15C.
V.occidenta/is - Western huckleberry
A compact shrub growing 75 cm high. White or pink flowers are followed by round shiny fruits,
6 mm across, blue-black. Grows in subalpine wet meadows in Western N.America ..
Fruits are harvested by local people.
A compact upright deciduous shrub growing 90-300 cm high. Many greenish-yellow flowers in
midsummer are followed by round black bloomy edible fruits , 8 mm across. Native to Japan,
Korea and China. (Syn. V.ciliaturn).
V.ova/ifolium - Oval-leaved blueberry, tall bilberry, mathers
Very hardy deciduous species, closely related to V.myrtiffus. Grows 1-3 m high, narrow and
upright. Pink flowers in spring and summer are followed by blue-black berries, often with a
bloom, 8-10 mm across, which do not persist for long on bushes. Native to western North
The fruits, though edible, are not very palatable due to a gritty texture.
The leaves are used to make a medicinal tea which is antiseptic, astringent , carminative and
V.ovatum - Evergreen huckleberry, shot huckleberry
A large bushy evergreen shrub reaching 3.7 m high and 3 m in spread. Whitish-red flowers in
early summer are followed in late autumn by purple fruits, 5-6 mm across. which persist on
bushes for a month or more once ripe. Native to western North America, where it harvested
from the wild on a semi commercial basis. Its ornamental value makes it a valuable garden
The fruits have a sweet , slightly musky flavour. This fruit was valued by American Indians
because it ripened after all other berries had been harvested.
The leaves are used to make a medicinal tea which is antiseptic, astringent , carminative and
'5t Andrews' - dwarf form, only 23 cm high, forming mats 1 m in diameter. Used for ground
cover .
V.oxycoccus - Small cranberry, mossberry, spiceberry, buckberry
An evergreen creeping shrub with fine woody stems and reddishbrown young growth. Short
upright shoots up to 3 em high bear tiny ovateelliptical leaves about 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.
The leaves turn reddish in the autumn. Flowers are borne sparsely, white or pink, and are
followed by glossy fruits, 512 mm in diameter, turning deep red when ripe, persisting a long
time over the winter. Native to All northern hemisphere cool regions.
' Gigas' - vigorous , shade and drought tolerant. Produces a few large berries that have sterile
seeds. Found in isolated locations in North America, Europe and northern Asia.
' Quadripetala' - has larger fruit. Occurs in NW North America. may be a hybrid with true
The Inuit harvested the berries, using their tart flavour as a counterbalance to the fatty food.
The juice of the fruit is used to clean silver.
A red dye is obtained from the fruit.
Plants can be grown as a ground cover planted about 1 metre apart each way.
V.oxycoccus var mir;:rocarpum - European cranberry
Similar to the species, but has elongated fruit and smaller leaves. Found in Northern Europe
and Asia.
V.oxycoccus var ova/ifolium .
Has large leaves, dark brown stems and large fruit which are glossy and have a bloom. Native
to eastern Asia and Western North America.
V.padifolium - Madeira whortleberry
In cultivation an evergreen densely-branched shrub about 1.8 m high and wide. Yellowish-red
flowers in summer are followed by edible round blue juicy fruits, 8-12 cm across. Native to
Madeira but hardy in England.
V.pallidum - Hillside blueberry, dryland berry
A variable deciduous shrub forming colonies 10 70 cm high. White flowers in late spring are
followed by blue or black edible fruits, 6-8 mm across. Native to eastern USA, drought tolerant,
likes sun or partial shade.
V.parvifolium - Red huckleberry, red bilberry
An upright shrub up to 2.4 m high, often evergreen in milder areas. Bears glossy red berries,
12 mm across, which look and taste similar to cranberries . They persist on bushes when ripe
for two months or more. Native to western N.America, likes partial shade.
The fruits have long been used by Native Ameri cans, eaten fresh or made into preserves; also
dried. They were widely used as a means of luring fish in streams by deceiving them into
thinking they were salmon eggs.
The leaves are used to make a medicinal tea which is antiseptic, astringent, carminative and
V.praestans - Kamchatka bilberry
A dwarf creeping deciduous shrub growing to 15 cm high. Pinbkish flowers in early summer are
followed by large bright red round fruits, 12 mm across, juicy with a sweet aromatic flavour.
Native to northern Japan in boggy situations - prefers a cool moist site.
Vaccinum 'Prince Charming'
A hybrid of V.arctostaphylos x V.cylindraceum, a bushy semi-evergreen shrub which flowers
prolificall y and produces a heavy crop of black bloomy berries, 12 mm x 8 mm.
Native to China (Yunnan).
The fruit s are valued for food.
The leaves and young stems are used in Chinese medicine.
A small evergreen shrub growing 45-100 cm high with hairy stems and tough leaves. Whitish-
red flowers in latre spring are followed by black round edible fruits, 5 mm across. Native to the
eastern Himalayas. Likes a well-drained stony site in sun or shade.
V.scoparium - Grouseberry, dwarf red whortleberry
Small deciduous shrub from Western N.America, growing 15 cm high, forming extensive
colonies. Pink flowers are followed by edible red fruit 6 mm across. Sometimes included in
V.myrtillus. Native to western N.America.
The leaves are used to make a medicinal tea which is antiseptic, astringent, carminative and
Deciduous shrub from the Himalayas.
As well as edible fruits, the acid tasting flowers are used in curries.
V. sieboldii
A large evergreen shrub. Flowers are followed by round blue-black bloomy fruits, 5 mm across.
Native to parts of Japan.
A small evergreen shrub growing 60 em high and 90 em across with dark green leaves. Berries
turn blue-black in autumn. Native to the Himalayas and hardy in southern England.
Deciduous shrub growing to 1 m high from Eastern N.America. Bears delicious fruits 10 mm

Oeciduous shrub to 1.5 m high from Japan. White flowers in late spring/early summer are
followed by delicious blue-black fruits 6-7 mm across.
Evergreen or deciduous shrub to 3 m high from Eastern Asia. Whitish-pink flowers in late
spring are followed by edible reddish-black fruits 5 mm across; leaves also used in a tea .

V.stramineum - Deerberry
Deciduous shrub from Eastern N.America, growing 80-300 em high. Bears edible green or
yellow fruit 10 mm across, sometimes excellent raw but very variable.
V. tallapausae
Deciduous shrub from Eastern N.America. Bears edible fruits.
V.tenellum - Small cluster blueberry
Deciduous shrub growing 25-40 em high from Southeastern USA. Pinkish flowers are followed
by edible shining black fruit 6-8 mm across.
The fruits are edible but with a poor texture and flavour.
V.uliginosum - Bog blueberry, bog whortleberry
A small open deciduous shrub growing 30-60 cm tall. Pale pink flowers in late spring/early
summer are followed by round fruits, 5-12 mm across, blue-black and bloomy, with a nice
sweet flavour. Native to all north northern hemisphere regions, found in moist moorland
situations. Var. sa/icinum was syn. V.sa/icinum.
The Inuit harvested the b e r ~ i e s during late summer and stored them in sealskin pouches in
pockets of frozen tundra to give some added interest to the tedious diet of seal and fish during
the long winter months.
All parts of the plant are used by native peoples for medicinal purposes. The leaves are made
into a tea which is antiseptic, astringent, caqT1inative, hypnotic and hypoglycaemic.
V. va cillans - Dryland blueberry, sugar huckleberry
Deciduous shrub growing 20-120 cm high, forming extensive colonies, from Eastern USA in dry
places. Yellowish-green flowers in late spring are followed by dark blue bloomy fruits fruits 5
mm across and considered excellent eating.
V. vitis-idaea - Lingonberry, Cowberry, Mountain cranberry
A low growing, semi-woody evergreen shrub. Leaves are bright green, oval, 5-20 mm long by 5
mm wide, glossy above and dull below. Plants gradually spread outwards for 90 cm or more via
runners or stolons, forming mats with uprights reaching 20 cm high. Flowers are white or pale
pink in late spring/early summer, and fruits are bright glossy red, 5-12 mm in diameter.
This grows widely across the colder parts of North America, Europe and Asia. The habitats
where it is found vary from quite dense woods, to heath, grass moorland, raised bogs, rocky
exposed cliffs and even mountain summits. It is sometimes known as the 'dry cranberry'
because it prefers drier conditions than most of its relatives.
' Erntedank' - tolerates exposed conditions
'Ida' - Swedish introduction with very large berries up to 50 g each. Growth vigorous, upright.
' Koralle' - Dutch selection, the main cuttivar used in commercial production. Ught ted fruit of
moderate size, borne young, heavy cropper. Bushy upright
growth, doesn't spread fast.
' Linnea' - Swedish introduction, a heavy cropper. Fruits quite
large, very aromatic; growth vigorous, upright.
' Red Pearl' - Dutch selection, fast growing, compact, uprights
to 34 cm high. Less fussy about soil conditions than other
cvs . Flowers twice and produces berries in summer and
autumn; fruits 8 mm across, dark red, excellent quality.
'Regal' - American selection, vigorous, moderately spreading,
20 cm high. Fruits 8 mm across. Flowers twice, main crop in
'Sanna' - Swedish introduction, spreads moderately, 30 cm
high, very heavy cropper with excellent quality fruits.
'Splendor' - American selection, vigorous, moderate spread,
20 cm high. Carmine red fruits, 8 mm across, heavy cropper.
Flowers twice, main crop in autumn
'Sussi' - Swedish introduction, spreads readily, 18 cm high.
Heavy yields or mediumlarge berries, excellent quality.
The leaves are used in a medicinal tea which is antiseptic,
They are used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, arthriti s, rh"Ulnatism. diabetes and diarrhoea.
The leaves are gathered in early summer and dried for later use.
The mature fruits are eaten fresh or dried as a remedy for diarrhoea.
A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves and stems; a purple dye is obtained from the fruit.
Can be grown as a ground cover plant , spreading by underground runners. Plants are best
spaced about 30 cm apart.
V.vitis-idaea ssp. minus is also widely distributed and is simil ar to the species but of smaller
habit, leaves, flowers and frui t.
Lingonberry fruits have been of great importance in human diets wherever it is found and are
still widely gathered from wifd plants, as well as being grown commercially. They are best
picked after a sharp frost, and store well (at least 2 months in a fridge, several years in a
freezer). If un picked they will remain a long time on the plants through the winter.
The berries have a richer, aromatic, less astringent flavour than commercial cranberries. They
are rich in magnesium and vitamins A and C, and are well known for their use to treat blood
disorders and urinary tract infections.
The berries have traditionally been made into a tart jelly with a high vitamin C content , often
eaten with meat. The jelly is excell ent for relieving symptoms of sore throats and colds. Other
products made from the fruits are juices, syrups, wine and liqueur, pickles and sauces, candy
and ice cream. Lingonberries are undergoing a revival and are being increasingly grown
commercially in Europe. The harvest from Sweden alone is estimated at 200,000 tons in a good
year. Mature plants can yield 1 kg of berries (13.5-25 tonne/ha).
Cultivated lingonberries require acidic soil (pH 4.0 to 5.0) and a low level of nutrients - poor
sandy salls are ideal. They are usually grown in beds or rows , with plants 30-45 cm apart.
Mulching with shredded pine bark or sawdust is beneficial. As they are shallow rooting,
irrigation in dry summer months is often required, using drip irrigation. Cross pollination
produces a better fruit set and larger fruit, so 2 or more varieties should be planted. A
mechanical aid is useful for harvesting, even just a hand-held scoop (as used for cranberries).
Propagation is by stem cuttings taken in late summer. Weed control needs special attention.
Key to table of Vaccinium species
DIE - indicates Deciduous (D), Evergreen (E) or Semi=evergreen (SE). Sometimes species are
evergreen in mild winter regions and deciduous in cold regions, hence E I D.
Height & Width - in em for mature plants
Ught - indicates light conditions preferred in the UK. )J. = sun = partial shade
Fruit size - in mm. Two figures, ego 20 x 10, indicates a cylindrical shape rather than round.
Fruit col - fruit colour when ripe
Zone - indicates hardiness zone.
Table of Vaccinium species
Species DIE
V.alakaense 0
V.amoenum 0
V.angustifolium 0
V.arboreum O/SE
V.arbuscula 0
V.arctostaphylos 0
V.ashei DIE
V.x atlanticum 0
V.atrococcum 0
V.australe 0
V.boreale 0
E ,
V.caespitosum 0
V.corymbosum 0
V.crassifolium E
V.cylindraceum SE
V.darrowwii E
V.delayavi E
V.deli ciosum 0
V.dunalianum 0
V.elliottii 0
V.floribundum E
V.fragile E
V.glaucoalbum E
V.hirsutum 0
V.hirtum 0
V.intermedium O/SE
V.japonicum O/E
V.koreanum 0
Page 22
Light Height





Width Fruit Fruit col Zone
dark blue 2
100 8 black 5
spreads 12 blue/black 2
6 black 7
100-180 10 purple/black 6
to 20 blue/black 8
100 to 20 blue 3
6-8 black 4
7-12 blue 6
spreads 3 blue
5-6 purple/black 5-7
spreads 5-8 blue/black 2
120 to 20 blue/black 2
spreads 12 purple/black 7
25 x 8 blue/black 8
spreads light blue
4-5 purple/black 7
spreads 5-8 blue/black 6
5 9
5 black 8
8 blue/black 6
9-12 red/black 6
200 blue/black 8-9
6 red/black 6
spreads 6 black 8-9
150 blue/black 8
spreads 6 black 6
75 8 red 6
6 dk violet 6
5-8 red 6
Species DIE Light Height Width Fruit Fruit col
5 blue/black
V.macrocarpon D
15 spreads 15 red/purple
V.melanocarpum D
120 8-10 red/violet
V.rnembranaceum D
30-150 5-8 purple/black
V.modestum D
15 50+ violet
V.moupinense E
60 90 5-6 purple/black
V.myrsinites E
45-90 spreads 12 black
V.myrtiJloides D
10-117 5-8 blue
V.myrtillus D
30-50 spreads 5-10 blue/black
V.neglectum D
100-150 6 green, yellow
V.nummularia E
60 90 5-6 black
V.occidentalis D
75 6 blue/black
V,oldhamii D

90-300 6-8 black
V.ovalifolium D

100-300 50-150 8-10 blue/black
V.ovatum E
370 300 5-6 purple
V.oxycoccus E
3 spreads 5-12 deep red
V.padifolium E
180 180 8-12 blue
V.pallidum D
10-70 spreads 6-8 blue/black
V.parvifolium D/E

240 12 red
V.praestans D
10-15 spreads 12 red
V. 'Prince Charmin/::!' SE 12 x 8 black
V. pubicalyx
V.retusum E
45-100 5 black
V.scoparium D
15 spreads 6 red
V.serratum D
V.sieboldii E
u 5 blue/black
V.sikkimense E
60 90 blue/black
V.simulatum D
100 10
V.smal1ii D

150 6-7 blue/black
V.sprengelii D/E
300 5 red/black
V.stramineum D
80-300 10 green,yellow
V.tallapa usae D
V.tenel1um D
25-40 6-8 black
V.ul iginosum D

30-60 5-12 blue/black
V.vacillans D

20-120 spreads 5 dark blue
V.vitis-idaea E

20-40 spreads 5-12 red
Tolerate neutral soi ls: V.cylindraceum, V.glaucoa/bum.
A.R.T. Supply lingonberries, blueberries, cranberries (from 2005)
Trehane Nursery, Stapehill Road. Hampreston, Wimborne. Dorset, BH21 7ND.
Supply a wide range of Vacciniums.
Crawford, M: A.R.T. species database 2004.
Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999.
Trehane, J: Blueberries, Cranberries and other Vacciniums. Timber Press, 2004.
Page 23
---- --- - ~ - - - -
---- ~ - ----=-=-- --- - - ----- -
Apple cultivar disease-resistance trial
88 culti vars of apple identifjed for potential di sease resistance against scab and canker were
planted at our Dartington research site in winter 1998/9. Trees were grafted onto M9
rootstocks, staked and mulched.
Severi ty of leaf scab and apple canker was recorded during the growing seasons of 2002, 2003
and 2004, using a scale 0 to 9 where 0 = no symptoms observed; 3 = mild symptoms observed,
6 = severe symptoms observed to 9 = very severe symptoms observed. In addition, aphid
damage to leaves was recorded in 2003 and 2004, using a similar scale. The results averaged
over the years of measurement were as follows:
Cultivar leaf scab canker aphids Notes
Alfriston 2.2 0 3.0
Annie Elizabeth 1.0 1.0 1.0 I (2)
Bardsey 1.0 0 1.0 I (2)
Beauty of Bath 2.8 2.3 2.5
Belle de Boskoop 1.0 6.5 1.0
Ben's Red 0.7 0 1.5
BramleY5 Seedl ing 0.5 0 5.0 (1 )
Brownlees Russet 2.5 0 2.0
Catshead 0.8 0 0
Cheddar Cross 2.5 0.3 1. 5
Cockle Pippin 0.5 0 0 (1 )
Cornish Aromatic 1.8 2.0 0.5
Cornish LonQstem 1.0 3.5 0
Court of Wick 1.5 0 0
Crawley Beauty 0.8 0 3.0
Crimson Beauty of Bath 2.5 0-7
Crimson KinQ dessert) 1.0 2.0 3.0
Egremont Russet 1.2 3.2 1.5
Emneth Early 2. 1 0 2.0
Fair Maid of Devon 0.7 0 1.0
Farmers Glory 0.7 0 1.0
Forge 2.2 1.0 1.5
Gavin 1.8 2.5 0 ( 1 )
Gladstone 2.7 0 1.0
Golden Bittersweet 0 0 0.5
Golden Harvey 2.0 0.7 1.0
Golden Nugget 1.5 0 0 (1 )
Golden Pippin 1.2 0 2.0
Golden Russet 2.3 0 1.0
Grenadier 1.7 0 2.0
Halstow Natural 0.2 0 2.0
Hoary Morning 1.0 0 0
HockinQs Green 3.5 1.0 2.5
Hollow Core 0.5 0 0
Isle of Wight Pippin 0 0 1.0
Cultivar leaf scab canker aphids
John Standish 1.0 0 1.0
Johnny Andrews 0.7 0 0
Katv 0 0 0
Keswick Codling 0 0 0
Lane's Prince Albert 0.7 0 0
Leathercoat Russet 0.5 2.0 3.5
London Pippin 1.2 0 1.5
Longkeeper 2.0 0.2 0
Lord Derby 0.7 0 1.0
Lord of the Isles 1.3 2.3 0
Lucombes Pine 3.7 0 3.5
May Queen 1.8 0 1.0
Monarch 0.5 3.2 0.5
Newton Wonder 1.2 0 0.5
Northwood 0.3 0 0.5
Payhembury 0.3 0 0
Pear Apple 1.2 0.7 1.0
Peter Lock 1.7 2.5 1.5
Pigs Nose 1.0 0 0
Pineapple Russet of 1.8 0 0
Plum Vite 1.5 1.0 0
Ponsford 0.8 0 1.5
Queen 1.8 1.0 1.5
Red Belle de Boskoop 1.0 1.8 1.0
Red Devil 2.0 0 0.5
RevWWilks 1.5 0.2 0.5
Rival 1.3 0 2.5
Rosemary Russet 1.5 0.7 1.0
Ross Nonpareil 2.3 1.7 0.5
Roundway Magnum 1.0 0.7 0.5
Sam Young 1.5 0 1.0
Sanspareil 1.3 0 0.5
Saw ?it 1.7 0 1.0
Scrumptious 2.0 0 1.0
Sidney Strake 0.9 0 0.5
Sour Bay 1.7 0.3 0.5
Sweet Bav 1.0 0 0.5
Taunton Cross 1.7 0.3 0
Tom Putt 0.5 0 0
Tommy Knight 0.4 0 0
Wellinoton 0 0 0
Wilhelm Ley 2.3 7.0 0
Winston 1.7 0.7 0.5
Winter Peach 2.7 2.5 1.5
Woolbrook Pippin 0.7 1.0 0
(1) Leaf scab & canker results for 2002 and 2003 only
(2) Leaf scab & canker results for 2003 and 2004 only
(1 )
(1 )
Page 25
O'Arcy Spice, Franklyns Golden Pippin, Red Beauty of Bath, Tregonna King and Williams Pride
were originally planted in the trial but died of bad attacks of canker. Wilhelm Ley also died
from canker damage after several years.
Disease ratings - canker
Many varieties continue to show no signs of canker at all, a very few showed moderate signs
(scores 2.5 - 4.0 mean the canker is probably manageable by pruning it out reach year) , and a
few showed severe signs. Most of the badly affected cultivars have already died in the trial
(Wilhe'm Ley died in winter of
canker Cullivar canker
1 I a
a Saw Pi! a
I Ben's Red
a >Cll
Bramleys idnev Strake I (
; Russet I ( ;weet Bay 10
10 'om Putt
Cockle Pippin
a Tommv Kniaht 10
Court of Wick a I a
, Beauty
a 0.2
Rev WWilks 0.2
Fair Maie I of Devon a
a Sour Bay 0.3
a Taunton Cross 0.3
I Golden i a
1 Beauty of Bath
! Golden Nuqqet Golden Harvey
, Golden Pippin Pear Apple 0.7
Golden Russet
a ' Russet
1 Bonum .7
Halstow Natural
Hoary I ( Annie I 1.0
Hollow Core
Forge 1.0
Isle of Wiqht Pippin
Johr i
a F lum Vite
lueer 1.0
: Pippin 1.0
a loss .7
Lane's Prince Alber
led Belle de .8
London Pippin
1 Aromatic 2.0
Lord Derby
1 King ( 2.0
.ucom bes--.fi.rie a
I Russet 2.0
May Queen Beauty of Bath 2.3
Lord of the Isles 2.3
Gavin 2.5

Peter Lock 2.5
Winter Peach 2.5
1 Rus. of Devon : Russet 3.2

:ornish 3.5

Sam Young ( 7.0
Disease ratings leaf scab
Very few varieties have suffered leaf scab of a severity where it would have affected general
tree health - basically, anything under a score of 3.0 can be judged pretty healthy, and only a
couple of varieties exceeded this on average.
Cultivar leaf scab Cultivar leaf scab
Golden Bittersweet a Newton Wonder 1.2
Isle of Wight Pippin a Pear Apple 1.2
Katy a Lord of the Isles 1.3
Keswick Codlina a Rival 1.3
WellinQton a Sanspareil 1.3
Hal stow Natural 0.2 Court of Wick 1.5
Northwood 0.3 Golden Nuaoet 1.5
Pavhembury 0.3 Plum Vite 1.5
Tommy Kni ht 0.4 Rev W Wilks 1.5
Bramleys Seedling 0.5 Rosemary Russet 1.5
Cockle Pippin 0.5 Sam Youna 1.5
Hollow COfe 0.5 Grenadier 1.7
Leathercoat Russet 0.5 Peter Lock 1.7
0.5 Saw Pi t 1.7
Tom Putt
0.5 Sour Bay 1.7
Ben's Red 0.7 Taunton Cross 1.7
Fai r Maid of Devon 0. 7 Winston 1.7
Farmers Glory 0. 7 Cornish Aromatic 1.B
Johnnv Andrews 0.7 Gavin 1.B
Lane's Prince Albert 0.7 May Queen 1.B
Lord Derby 0.7 Pineappl e Russet of Devon 1.B
Woolbrook Piooin 0.7 Queen l.B
Catshead O.B Golden Harvev 2.0
Crawley Beauty O.B Longkeeper 2.0
Ponsford O.B Red Devil 2.0
Sidney Strake 0.9 Scrumotious 2.0
Anni e Elizabeth 1. 0 Emneth Early 2.1
Bardsey 1.0 Alfri ston 2.2
Belle de Boskooo 1.0 Forae 2.2
Cornish Lon stem 1.0 Golden Russet 2.3
Crimson King (dessert) 1.0 Ross Nonparei l 2.3
Hoary Mornina 1.0 Wilhelm Lev 2.3
John Standish 1.0 Brownlees Russet 2.5
Pi s Nose
1.0 Cheddar Cross 2.5
Red Belle de Boskooo 1.0 Crimson Beautv of Bath 2.5
Roundwav Maanum Bonum 1.0 Gladstone 2.7
Sweet Bay 1.0 Winter Peach 2.7
Egremont Russet 1.2 Beauty of Bath 2.B
Golden Pippin 1.2 Hockinas Green 3.5
London Pippin 1.2 Lucombes Pine 3.7
Page 27
Pest ratings aphids
Aphid damage varied considerably between cultivars, but on most the problem was of minor
importance - a rating of under 2.5 indicating no real problem. A few cuUivars showed severe
infestations and on these cropping is affected if no action is taken against the aphids.
Cultivar aphids Cultivar aphids
Catshead 0
Belle de Boskoop 1.0
CockJe;Pippin 0 Fair Maid of Devon 1.0
Cornish Longstem 0
Farmers Glory 1.0
Court of Wick 0 Gladstone 1.0
Golden Harvev 1.0
Golden Nugget 0 Golden Russet 1.0
Hoary MorninQ
Isle of Wioht Pippin 1.0
Hollow Core 0 John Standish 1.0
Johnny Andrews
Lord Derby 1.0
May Queen 1.0
Keswick Codling 0 Pear Acole 1.0
Lane's Prince Albert 0 Red Belle de Boskoop 1.0
Rosemary Russet 1.0
Lord of the Isles 0 Sam Youna 1.0
Payhembury 0 Saw Pit 1.0
PiQs Nose 0 Scrumetious 1.0
Pineapple Russet of Devon 0 Ben's Red 1.5
Plum Vite 0 Cheddar Cross 1.5
Taunton Cross 0 Earemont Russet 1.5
Tom Putt 0 Forge 1.5
Tommy Knight
0 London Pieein 1.5
Wellinaton 0 Peter Lock 1.5
Wilhelm Ley
0 Ponsford 1.5
Woolbrook Pippin
0 Queen 1.5
Cornish Aromatic 0.5 Winter Peach 1.5
Golden Bittersweet 0.5 Brownlees Russet 2.0
Monarch 0.5 Crimson Beauty of Bath 2.0
Newton Wonder 0.5 Emneth Early 2.0
Northwood 0.5 Golden P i p ~ in 2.0
Red Devil 0.5 Grenadier 2.0
RevW Wilks 0.5 Halstow Natural 2.0
Ross Non areil 0.5 Beauty of 8ath 2.5
Roundway MaQnum Bonum 0.5 HockinQs Green 2.5
Sansgareil 0.5 Rival 2.5
Sidney Strake 0.5 Alfriston 3.0
Sour Bay 0.5 Crawley Beauty 3.0
Sweet Bay 0.5
Crimson Kina (dessert) 3.0
Winston 0.5 Leathercoat Russet 3.5
Annie Elizabeth 1.0 Lucombes Pine 3.5
Bardsey 1.0 Bramleys Seedling 5.0
Overall, results from the trial indicate that the original selection of cultivars was good; most
show that neither scab, canker nor aphid damage is a signi ficant problem. On a very few,
severe problems have quickly shown up. and often the young tree has died as a result, whi ch is
exactly what the trial set out to show. The next stage of the trial is to whittle down the
remaining cultivars to those with fruits of good quality and cropping potentiaL
Using Nitrogen-fixing shrubs in nut orchards
In 1982, Hector Black from Tennessee, USA, planted a mixed orchard consisting of alternate
rows of honey locust vari eties (Calhoun and Millwood) and seedling chestnut trees grown from
Chinese and Japanese chest nut seed obtained from a local orchard. Trees were spaced at 4.5
m (15 ft) within the row, with rows 9 m (30 tt) apart , the idea being that the more successful
trees would be left and the weaker ones removed (however, both thrived so now alternate trees
in each row will have to be removed).
Hector had read about USDA experiments in the 1940's interplanting autumn olive (Efaeagnus
umbel/ala) and black walnuts to determi ne if the nitrogen-fixing capacity of the autumn olive
would help speed the growth of the walnuts. They noted a 25-35% increase in grow of the
interplanted trees compared with rows of walnuts with no autumn olives. The additional
prospect of fragrant flowers, edible fruits and attractive plants persuaded Hector to start working
with these plants himself.
He started planting ' Cardinal' autumn oli ve in 1978 and 'Elsberry' in 1985 (these selections
were made by the USDA for larger and better tasting fruits) . The aut umn olives were placed
about 3 ft (1 m) on either side of the tree in each row. They were planted onl y in the tree row to
make mowing under the orchard easier. They also left one row without autumn olive as a
Differences in the growth of the interplanted trees began to show after about 5 years .
Ultimately, they estimate that the growth increase was similar to the USDA 25-35% increase in
the interplanted rows compared with the control. There were also a couple of unexpected
The interplanted chestnuts had a much straighter, longer bole without branches than
the control trees, and much greater overall height , and will make excellent timber trees
(Chinese chestnuts often have a shrubby form)
There was a delay in nut production from the interplanted trees of sometimes 4-5
years, and thei r productivity has not caught up yet with the shorter more branched
In a few warm locations in the USA, autumn oli ve has become a weedy pest , but in many
locations (and in the UK) this does not happen. All the temperate Elaeagnaceae are pioneer
nitrogen fixing species, which get shaded out and killed by larger trees in time.
From several hundred plants in their orchard, five clones were selected over time for
productivity, fruit size and flavour, and these have been propagated to sell from their nursery.
Recently, the USDA have become interested again in autumn olive, because they contain high
amounts of Iycopene, the pigment that colours tomatoes red. Lycopene is believed to have a
protective effect against heart disease and vari ous cancers.
Hector and his fami l y eat the fruits fresh and frozen, make a delicious jam, a ketchup and an
especially tasty fruit leather when combined 50:50 wi th cooked apple. The shrubs are attractive
with silvery leaves and small very fragrant flowers in spring, much loved by bumble bees. It is
not often one finds a plant with so many useful characteristics. lt is ornamental , fixes N,
produces lots of healthy fruits and attracts bees: a plant he would certainly encourage others to
experiment with.
Black, H: The Use of Nitrogen Fixing Shrubs in the Nut Orchard. NNGA 93'd Annual Report ,
Book Review
The Earth Care Manual
A Permaculture Handbook for Britain & Other Temperate Climates
Patri.ck Whitefield
Permanent Publications, 2004; 480 pp; 34.95.
ISBN 1-85623-021-X
I am often asked, when I show people around my forest garden, this or even
"what is PermacultureT I answer that no, this is a forest garden and Permaculture is . and
make up a couple of sentences to try and encompass what Permaculture is now. For those
people, and all others interested in the concept, this is by far the clearest and most
comprehensive answer to date which is relevant to temperate climates.
Patrick Whitefield defines permaculture and places it in the context of the green movement. An
overview of permaculture and its principles concludes that, though it started off as mainly about
land use, it is now more about design and organics than as just organic growing. Permaculture
takes a wide view of the picture, looking at all the inputs to a system, all the outputs from it, and
its relationship the whole. It is also an overall framework which brings together many diverse
green ideas in a coherent pattern.
Te rest of the first part of the book looks at the permaculture approach to soil, water, climate,
and microclimate, energy and materials. Each of these chapters looks in great detail at all
aspects of the topic. In 'energy', the author explains that a vast reduction in energy usage is
required if we are to match energy usage with renewable sources. This is true, but it is one of
Permaculture and the Gree", movement's most difficult messages, and it seems to me more
likely that people wedded to high energy usage will do almost anything to keep doing so, f or
example by accepting nuclear power, rather than reduce their usage by 80%. Energy
conservation is also highlighted, though the record in Britain is that even after energy
conservation campaigns, energy usage has never gone down.
The second part of the book looks at how to apply permaculture to buildings, gardens, orchards,
farms, woodlands and biodiversity. Settlement design and low energy building design are
highlighted. Basic and advanced gardening techniques are described, and forest gardens are
briefly but succinctly covered. I was delighted to see in the 'Fruits, Nuts & Poultry' chapter that
first and foremost nuts are highlighted, as we seem to have a cultural prejudice against growing
them much in this country. Agroforestry is also given useful coverage.
The final third of the book focuses on design: the design process, including a case study, and a
valuable chapter on various useful skills and methods including surveying, mapping and
drawing skills. Useful appendices of publications, organisations and suppliers end the book.
Well written, designed, illustrated and accessible, this has to be the definitive book about
permaculture for temperate climates, and is highly recommended to all interested in sustainable
Compendium of edible fruits
(1) trees
This compendium tabulates all known trees for temperate or continental climates which have
edible fleshy fruits . It is undoubtedly not definitive as there are probably many trees with edible
fruits whi ch have never been written about - ego the hawthorn family. Shrubs will be covered in
the next issues. For details of the hardiness zone system see that table of Vaccinium species
in this issue.
IAmelanchier arborea ] ShadbuSh 10 Iyes 1101 4 Jrawor cooked - variable quality 8- 10 mm
Amelanchier asiatica Korean j uneberry 0 yes 8 5 raw or cooked - good quali ty, sweet , juicy,
apple flavour. 10 mm.
Amelanchier interior 0 yes 9 6 raw or cooked - sweet. j uicy. 6-8 mm.
Aphananthe aspera Muku tree 0 20 7 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
Arbutus andrachne Grecian strawberry tree E yes 6 8 raw - sweet, insipid. 15 mm.
Arbutus menziesii Madrona E yes 15 7 raw or cooked - bland. 15 mm.
Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree E yes 9 7 raw or cooked - sweet. delicate pleasant
flavour. 15-20 mm.
Aristotelia serrala Wine berry 0 no 7.5 8 cooked (jams,jellies, wine). 7 mm. NB
contains toxic alkaloids.
Broussonetia kazinoki Kozo 0 no 4.5 7 raw - sweet good flavour bullittle flesh. 10
Broussoneti a papyrifera Paper mulberry 0 no 9 8 raw - sweet good flavour but little flesh. 15
Bumeria lanuginosa False buckthorn 0 15 6 pickled - may cause stomach upsets. 10-20
Butia capitata Jelly palm E 6 10 raw or cooked - sweet. fibrous, aromatic,
apricot flavour. 25 x 3S mm .
Celtis australi s European nettle 0 20 6 raw - mealy, pleasant. 10-12 mm.
ICelti S bungeana
1 15 1
Siraw. 6-7 mm.
Celtis caucasia Caucasian nettle 0 20 6 raw - mealy, pleasant. 8-15 mm.
Celti s jessoensis 0 15 6 raw. 8 mm.
Celti s koraiensis 0 12 5 raw. 10 mm.
Celti s laevigata Southern hackberry 0 18 5 raw - dry, sweetish, thin flesh. 6mm.
Celti s occidentalis Hackberry 0 20 2 raw - dry, mealy, sweet, pleasant date
Celti s reticulata Western hackberry 0 12 6 raw - sweet. 8-10 mm.
Celtis sinensis Japanese hackberry 0 10 9 raw. 10 mm.
Celtis tournefortii Koprivic 0 8 7 raw. 6 mm.
Citrofortunella floridana Limequal E 9 raw or cooked - very acid, lime flavour, used
like lemons. 30-SO mm.
!Citrofortunella microcarpa Calamondin E 5
9 raw or cooked - acid, pleasant raw with skin
(sweet). B 25-35 mm.
--- -
Page 31
Citrofortunella swinglei
Citroncirus webberi
Citrus aurantium
Citrus ichangensis
Citrus pseudolimon
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Cordyline indivisa
Comus capitata
IComus controversa
Comus macrophylla
Comus mas
Comus ' Norman Hadden'
Comus officinalis
Corynocarpus laevigala
ICrataegus anomala
Crataegus armena
Crataegus arnoldiana
Crataegus azarolus
Bitter orange
Ichang lemon
Palm lily
Bentham's cornel
IWedding cake tree
Large leaved dogwood
Comelian cherry
Japanese cornel
New Zealand laurel
Arnold thorn
ICrataegus calpodendron IBlack thorn
Crataegus canadensis
ICrataegus chrysocarpa
ICrataegus coccinoides IKansas hawthorn
Crataegus columbiana
!Crataegus dilalata
Crataegus douglasii Black haw
Crataegus x durobrivensis
Page 32
E yes 9
E yes 5
E yes 6
E yes 4.5
E yes 9
E 8
E yes 12
1 '51
0 15
0 no 5
0 yes 6
0 10
E 12
0 , yes
0 yes 6
0 yes 6

' E ~

9 raw or cooked - very acid. lime flavour, used
like lemons. 35 mm.
8 raw or cooked - acid, bitler. used like a
lemon. 50-70 mm.
g cooked in preserves - very bitter raw. Rind in
cakes. 50-70 mm.
8 raw or cooked - pulp is acid. 70-100 mm
raw or cooked - very acid, lemony pulp.
9 raw or cooked - sweet, delicious. Rind in
cakes. 50-80 mm.
9 raw or cooked sweet, delicious. Rind in
cakes, preserves etc. 6090 mm.
8 6-8 mm.
8 raw or cooked - bittersweet, variable. Ripens
NovlDec. 20-30 mm.
5 16-7 mm.
6 raw or cooked. 6 mm.
5 raw or cooked, also dried. Sweet and juicy
when fully ripe. 1520 mm long.
5 raw or cooked - borne abundantly. Hybrid
6 raw or cooked - sweet when fully ripe. 15
mm long.
8 Raw - sweet, pulpy. NB seed poisonous. 25-
5 1raw or cooked - good flavour. 20 mm.
raw or cooked - mealy, slightly sweet. 10
5 raw or cooked sweet, juicy, mealy,
delicious. 15-20 mm.
6 raw or cooked - mealy, sweet-acid, apple
flavour. 25 mm.
10 Iyes I 6 1 5 1sweet succulent 10mm
0 yes 9
0 yes 6
0 yes 9
0 yes 5
5 cooked. 16mm.
5 raw or cooked sweet, pleasant. 15mm.
5 [raw or cooked - sweet. 10-12 mm.
5 1raw or cooked - firm. 15-17 mm.
5 raw or cooked - mealy, juicy, very pleasant.
11 mm.
5 1raw or cooked sweet 18 20 mm
5 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, pleasant. 8-15
5 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy. good apple
flavour. 15-18 mm.



u EE ,"
::: Oro

'0 Qj

.. .E


!Crataegus f1abellata
SJraw or cooked - sweet, mealy, good. 15mm.
Crataegus f1ava Summer haw 0 yes B 6 cooked - dry, mealy, used in preserves. 15
Crataegus heterophyUa 0 yes 5 6 cooked. t5mm.
Crataegus hupehensis Hupeh haw 0 yes 5 6 raw or cooked - fairly insipid. Up to 25 mm.
Crataegus lIIinoensis 0 yes 5 5 raw or cooked juicy, mealy, sweet. 20 mm.
Crataegus kansuensis 0 yes acid. Used for making wines and vinegars.
ICrataegus lacmrata 10 Iyes I 6 1 61raw or cooked - very good 15 mm
Crataegus laevigata Midland hawthorn 0 yes 6 5 raw or (best) cooked dry, mealy, poor. 10
Crataegus macrosperma 0 yes B 5 raw or cooked - fair. 15-20 mm.
Crataegus maximowiczi i 0 yes 5 raw or cooked. 10-22 mm.
Cralaegus missouriensis 0 yes 6 raw or cooked - sweel juicy, soft, good
flavour. 15-25 mm.
Crataegus mollis Red haw 0 yes 9 5 raw or (best) cooked sweet, dry, mealy. 12-
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn 0 yes 6 5 raw or (best) cooked poor quality. 10 mm.
Crataegus opaca Mayhaw 0 yes 6 7 cooked add, aromatic, made inlo jams and
ellies. 18-25mm.
Cralaegus pedicellata Scarlet haw 0 yes 7 5 raw or (better) cooked sweet. dry, mealy.
10-20 mm.
Crataegus pensylvanica 0 yes 6 5 raw or cooked sweet-add, good flavour.
20-25 mm.
Crataegus pentagyna Chinese haw 0 yes 6 6 raw or cooked. 10-12mm.
Crataegus pinnatifida Chinese haw 0 yes 7 6 raw or (best) cooked - pleasant fl avour. 15-25
Cralaegus pruniosa Frosted hawthom 0 yes 6 5 raw or (best) cooked - sweet. 10- 16 mm.
Crataegus pubescens Manzanilla 0 yes 10 7 raw or (best) cooked - mealy. Often used in
preserves. 12-15 mm.
Crataegus punclata Dotted hawthorn 0 yes 10 4 raw or cooked - apple like flavour. 20-25 mm.
Crataegus rotundifol i a 0 yes 6 5 raw or cooked - sweet, mealy, pleasant. 15
Crataegus rufula Florida mayhaw 0 yes 5 raw or (best) cooked - dry, mealy. 12-15
Crataegus sanguinea 0 yes 6 4 raw or cooked. 10 mm.
Crataegus scabrifolia 0 yes raw or cooked.
Crataegus schraderiana 0 es 6 6 raw or cooked - soft. juicy, good flavour. 12-
Cralaegus submollis 0 yes 8 5 raw or cooked - sweet, quite juicy, good
. flavour. 20 mm.
Crataegus subvillosa 0 yes 5 raw or cooked good flavour.
Crataegus succulenla Succulent haw 0 yes 6
5 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy.
Crataegus tanacetifolia Syrian haw 0 yes 6 6 raw or cooked soft, juicy, good apple
15-20 mm.
Cudrania tricuspidata Silkworm thorn 0 no 6
7 raw or cooked - sweet, fragrant , pleasant
flavour. 25 mm.


Cydonia oblonga Quince
loacrycarpus dacrydioides IWhite pine
Diospyrds kaki Chinese persimmon
Oiospyros lotus Date plum
Oiospyros virginiana Persimmon
Docynia delavayi
IOocynls mdlca
Ehretia acuminata Koda tree
!Ehretia anacua !Sugaroerry
IEhretia dicksonii
Elaeocarpus dentatus New Zealand damson
IElaeocarpus hookerianus !pokaka
IEriObotrya japonica
Ficus carica Fig tree
Halesia tetraplera Snowdr?p tree
IHeteromeles arbutifolia IChristmas berry
IHiPpoPhae saJicifoJia Sea buckthorn
Hovenia dulcis Japanese raisin tree
!Idesia polycarpa ]Igiri tree
Illicium verum IChinese anise
!Jubaea chtlensrs ICoqurtanut
Juglans ailantifolia Heartnut
Juglans cinerea Butternut
Juglans nigra Black walnut
!Juglans regia !Cornmon walnut
IJUniPerus ashei
Ashe juniper
lJuniPerus caJifornica Californian juniper
IJun;perus deppeana
Alligator juniper
Page 34
D no 12
D no 9
D no 30
E 10
D yes 6
D 8
D no 15
D' 10
ID Ino
112 1
4 cooked in jellies, preserves and with other
fruit ; aromatic. 100 x 90 mm.
9 !raw - sweet
8 raw or cooked - rich flavour. Astringent
before full y ripe. 75 mm.
5 raw or cooked - rich flavour. Astringent
before fully ripe. 15-20 mm.
4 raw or cooked - rich flavour. Astringent
before fully ripe. 20-40 mm.
8 raw or cooked - apple like. Also used in
preserves. 20-40 mm.
8 1raw - eaten when half npe. 2050 mm.
7 raw (ripe) or pickled (unripe) - insipidly sweet. II'
Blraw - sweet. juicy, thin flesh. 8 mm.
7 !raw. 10-20 mm.
9 cooked after removing stalks, skins & seeds;
or pickled like olives. 12-15 mm.
9 10amson flavour. 8 mm.
7 !raw or cooked - sweet aromatic 25-50 mm
7 raw or cooked - sweet, succulent, excellent
Often dried. Pear shaped, 50 mm long.
5 raw or cooked, picked unripe in July - firm,
pea flavour, excellent. 20-30 mm long.
9 !raw or cooked - mealy, poor. 6 mm ..
8 raw Of cooked or juiced - sharp lemon
flavour. Also for preserves. 10-15 mm long.
6 raw or cooked - sweet, fragrant. raisin-like.
Not a true fruit - in fact a swollen stem. 30
mm long.
5 !puIPY, seedy, poor. 8 mm.
8 1used as a flavouring in curries, pickles etc.
IE I I 12 1 8 1candled as a sweetmeat 50 mm
D no 15 5 unripe fruit pickled like walnuts in July. 40
D no 25 4 unripe fruit pickled like walnuts in July. 60
D no 30 4 unripe fruit pickled like walnuts in July. 40 I
10 1no I 20 I 5 1unnpe frUtt ptckled In July 50 mm
E no 6 7 raw or cooked thin skinned, sweet. juicy, i
resinous. 8 mm.
E no 12 8 raw or cooked - sweet, non-resinous. Also
dried and ground into a flour. 10-20 mm.
E no 18 8 raw or cooked - sweet, dry, mealy. Also dried
and ground into a flour. Takes 2 years to
ripen. 12-15 mm.



0 EE ,"

E. :!?!?'


.. .E

. ,


Juniperus drupacea Syrian juniper E no 15 7 raw or cooked -large. sweet. Takes 2 years
to ripen. 20-25 mm.
Juniperus excelsa Greek juniper E no 20 6 raw or cooked. Takes 2 years to ripen. 12
Juniperus f1accida Mexican juniper E no 6 8 raw or cooked - sweet, resinous. 10-15mm.
Takes 2 years to mature.
Juniperus monosperma Cherrystone juniper E no 18 4 raw or cooked - soft, juicy. Also dried and
ground into a flour. 5-8 mm.
Juniperus occidentalis Western juniper E no 18 5 raw or cooked dry, resinous, sweet. Also
dried and ground into a flour. Takes 2 years
to mature. 6-' 0 mm.
Juniperus osleosperma Utah juniper E no 12 5 raw or cooked - sweet, resinous, mealy. Also
dried and ground into a flour. Take 2 years to
mature. 6-18 mm.
Juniperus recurva Drooping juniper E no 12 7 raw or cooked. Take 2 years to mature. 11 x
Juniperus rigida Temple juniper E no 8 5 raw or cooked - used as a spice. Takes 2
years to mature. 6-11 mm.
Juniperus scopulorum Rocky mountain juniper E no 10 3 raw or cooked - sweet. fleshy, resinous, used
as a spice. Also dried and ground as a flour.
Ripen in their 2nd year. 5-S mm.
Juniperus silicicola Southern red cedar E no 8 raw or cooked sweet resinous flesh, thin
skinned. 5 mm.
Juniperus virginiana Eastern red cedar E no 20 4 raw or cooked - sweet, resinous. 5-10 mm.
laurus nobilis Bay E no 12 S dried, used as a flavouring (very strong).
Malus x adstringens 0 5 5 raw or (usually) cooked.
Malus angustifolia Narrow leaved crab 0 7 6 raw or cooked - acid, bitter. Used for cider,
'ellies etc. 25 mm.
Malus baccata Siberian crab 0 yes 15 2 raw or cooked - acid. Also dried. 10-50 mm.
Malus bracteata 0 7 6 raw or cooked. 30mm.
Malus brevipes 0 3 5 raw or cooked.
Malus coronaria American crab 0 7 4 raw or cooked - acid, bitter. Used for jell ies
etc. 30-40 mm.
Malus floribunda 0 10 4 raw or cooked - acid, pleasant. 5-10 mm.
Malus fusca Oregon crab 0 12 6 raw or cooked - sub-acid, good. Used for
'ellies, preserves etc. 15 mm.
Malus glabrata 0 5 6 raw or cooked. 30 mm.
IMalus glaucescens
51raw or cooked - aromatic. 30-40 mm.
Malus haiJiana 0 4 5 raw or cooked - acid. 6-8 mm.
Malus hupehensis Hupeh crab 0 yes 7 4 raw or cooked. 10 mm.
Malus ioensis Prairie crab 0 5 2 raw or cooked - acid, astringent. Used for
preserves, jellies, cider. mm.
Malus kansuensis 0 5 5 raw or cooked. 10mm.
Malus lancifolia 0 6 5 raw or cooked. 30 mm.
Malus prunifolia Chinese crab 0 8
3 raw or cooked - sweet, meal y, pleasant. 20
Page 35
IMalus pumila
IMalus x purpurea
IMalus sieboldii
IMalus spectabilis
Malus sylvestris
IMalus toringoides
IMalus transiloria
IMalus trilobata
Malus tschonoskii
IMalus yunnanensis
IMelicytus ramiflorus
Mespilus germanica
Morus alba
IMorus australis
[Morus cathayana
IMorus microphylla
!Morus mongolica
Morus nigra
Morus rubra
Morus serrata
Nyssa aQuatica
Nyssa ogeche
Nyssa sylvatica
Olea europaea
IPheliodendron amurense
IPhillyrea latifotia
Pistacia terebinthus
Pistacia vera
-&t e*--..--
0 0
IWild apple
ITonngo crab apple
IChinese crab
Crab apple
White mulberry
jAlno mulberry
ITexas mulberry
[Mongolian mulberry
Black mulberry
Red mulberry
Himalayan mulberry
Water tupelo
Ogeche lime
IAmur cork tree
ITree phillyrea
Chian turpentine tree
10 I
10 I
10 I
10 I
10 I
0 yes
0 yes
0 yes
E yes
10 Ino
0 no
0 no
I 71 31raw or cooked - sweet. 20-60 mm.
1 10 I 5 Jraw or (usually) cooked. 15-25 mm.
I 3 1 51raw or cooked - can be astringent. 6-20 mm.
I 71 6 1raw or cooked. 15 mm.
1 91 4 jraw or cooked - astringent
I 12 1
I 81
4 raw or cooked - for jellies, preserves. juices:
very variable. some sweet abd others
astringent. 20-40 mm.
5 jraw or cooked. Hangs well on tree. 15 mm.
5 !raw or cooked - acid. astringent. 15-25 mm.
6 [raw or cooked - pear flavour. 20 mm.
6 raw or cooked - gritty. Not produced
abundantly. 20-30 mm.
6 lraw or cooked - acid. astringent. 10-15 mm.
9 !RequieS male and female trees 5 mm
6 raw or cooked - may require picking at first
frosts and ripens indoors. Very sweet, date-
like flavour. Makes good jam. 25-50 mm.
4 raw - sweet, pleasant. Can be dried. 25 mm
6 traw - sweet, JUIcy. 10-15 mm long.
s traw or cooked, sweet. 20-30 mm long.
SJraw - dry, sweet or sour. 10-15 mm long.
41raw - sweet 10-25 mm long
5 raw - sweet, juicy. good flavour. Can be
dried. 18-25 mm long.
5 raw or cooked - sweet. juicy, good flavour.
Also made into preserves or dried and
ground. 30-40 mm long.
raw - sweet. To 25 mm long.
7 raw or cooked in preserves. thin flesh. 20-40
mm long.
8 cooked in preserves - has a citrusy flavour.
12-16 mm long.
3 raw or cooked in preserves - pleasantly acid.
8-15 mm across.
8 unripe - preserved in oil; ripe - piCkled with
salt or lye; also dried and eaten without
curing. 15-40 mm long.
3 Jflavour of turpentine. 10 mm.
9 immature fruits are pi ckled and used as a
relish. 7 x 6 mm.
9 fruits can be cooked and made into a
!Podocarpus macrophyllus ISouthern IE Ino I 10 ! 7 Jraw 12-15 mm long.
Podocarpus lolara rotara pine
IPrumnoPityS andina IPlum fruited yew
Iprumnopitys ferruginea IRusty podocarpus
Prumnopitys taxifolia Black pine E
Prunus alabamensis 0
Prunus alleghaniensis Alleghany sloe 0
Prunus americana American (red) plum 0
Prunus angustifolia Mountain cherry 0
Prunus armeniaca Apricot 0 yes
Prunus avium Wild cherry 0 no
Prunus bokhariensis Bokhara plum 0
Prunus buergeriana 0
Prunus cerasifera MyroboJan 0
Prunus cerasoides Padam 0
Prunus cerasus Sour cherry 0 yes
Prunus cocomilia Italian plum 0
Prunus consociHora Chinese wild peach 0
Prunus cornuta Himalayan bird cherry 0
Prunus davidiana David peach 0
Prunus dawyckensis Dawyckcherry 0
Prunus dielsiana 0
Prunus domestica Plum 0 no
Prunus x fontanesiana 0
Prunus x gondouinii Duke cherry 0
Prunus grayana Gray's chokeberry 0
Prunus hortulana Hortulana plum 0
Prunus Iyonii Catalina cherry E
Prunus mahaleb SI Lucie cherry 0
Prunus maximowiczii Miyana cherry 0
Prunus mexicana Mexican plum 0
Prunus mira Smoothpit peach 0

~ 2

9 raw or cooked sweet juicy, slight turpentine
flavour. 6 mm across.
slraw or cooked - grape flavour. 20 x 15 mm.
glraw or cooked resinous 20 mm across
9 raw- sweet 8-10 mm.
7 raw or cooked thin acid flesh.
5 raw or cooked - juicy, Oleasantly acid. Also
used in jams, preserves. 12-20 mm.
3 raw or cooked - juicy, acid, tough skin. Best
cooked. 25 mm across.
6 raw or cooked - thin skinned, juicy, sweet,
good. 12-18 mm.
5 raw or cooked soft, juicy. rich. Also dried.
3 raw or cooked - sweet or bitter. 20 mm.
raw or cooked.
5 salted and used as a condiment.
4 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, thin skinned,
hangs well on tree. 30 mm.
8 raw or cooked - add, astringent, best cooked.
3 raw or cooked - acid, usually cooked in pies
etc. 18 mm.
6 raw or cooked - good flavour. 30 mm.
6 Raw or cooked - good flavour, like cherry
plums. 20 mm.
5 raw or cooked - acid. 6 mm.
4 fruit dry. 25-30 mm.
6 raw or cooked sweet. 15 mm.
6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
5 raw or cooked - soft, juicy, sweet to acid
depending on cultivar. 30-SO mm long.
5 raw ~ r (usually) cooked - bitter.
4 raw or (usually) cooked. 15-20 mm long.
6 raw or cooked, or young fruits sal ted. 8 mm.
6 raw or cooked - thin skinned, usually cooked.
10-30 mm.
8 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, laugh skin. 12-
6 raw or (usually) cooked.
4 raw or cooked. 5 mm.
6 raw or cooked - juicy, variable qualily. 30
5 raw or cooked - biller. 30-40 mm.
Page 37
F - ~ = - = - - ~
~ c

, "

0 Qj
Prunus mume Japanese apricot 0
Prunus munsoniana [Wild goose plum 0

Prunus nigra Canadian plum 0
Prunus padus Bird cherry 0
Prunus pensylvanica Pin cherry 0
Prunus persica Peach 0 yes
IPrunus pseudocerasus IChinese sour cherry
Prunus ruta
Himalayan cherry 0
Prunus salicifolia Tropical cherry 0
Prunus salicina Japanese plum 0
IPrunus sargentil ISargent cherry
Prunus serotina Rum cherry
!Prunus serrula ITibetan cherry
Prunus serrulata Japanese flowering 0
Prunus simoni! Aprico(plum 0
Prunus ssiori 0
Prunus subcordata Califomia plum 0
IPrunus subhlrtella
/Hlgan cherry
IPrunus x sultana IWickson plum
Prunus umbellata Sloe of the south
lPrunus virens
IPrunus x yedoensis ITokyO cherry
Pseudocydonia sinensis Chinese quince 0
Punica granatum Pomegranate 0
!Pyrocydonla daniel ..
10 Ino.
Ipyrus amygdariformis IAlmOnd leaved pear
Pyrus bretschneideri 0
Pyrus calleryana Callery pear 0
Pyrus communis Pear 0
. -------
Page 38
-a; ~
~ E
6 1
~ m

6 raw or cooked - hard, acid. UsuaUy pickled in '
salt and used as a condiment. 20-30 mm.
6 raw or cooked - juicy, aromatic, sweet. thin
skinned. 15-25 mm .
2 raw or cooked - sour, thick skin, better after
frost. 20-30 mm.
3 cooked - bitter, usually made into jams or
preserves. 6-8 mm.
2 cooked - sour, thin flesh. S mm.
5 raw or cooked - sweet, delicious. Also dried. I
50-70 mm.
Slraw or cooked - quite sweet. 15 mm.
8 raw or cooked.
6 raw or cooked - thin skinned, sl ightly
astringent, sweet. 15-25 mm.
6 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, good. 50-70
4 /raw or cooked. 11 mm.
3 raw or cooked - sweet or bitter (the latter best
cooked). 8-10 mm.
56-8 mm.
6 raw or cooked - aromatic, sweet, good. 25-60
5 raw or cooked. 10mm.
7 raw or cooked - pleasantly acid, slightly
astringent. 25-30 mm.
5 1raw or cooked. 9 mm.
61raw or cooked. 40-50 mm.
8 raw or cooked - acid, tough skin. Usuualy
used in preserves. 10-20 mm.
6 1raw or (usually) cooked - bittersweet.
SJraw or (usually) cooked
6 cooked, candied, preserved. 120-170 mm
9 raw - refreshing, sub-acid, rather seedy.
Juice used as flavouring. 80-1 20 mm.
! 5 1 6 /raw or cooked - pear like flavour
1 101
6 lcooked. 20-30 mm.
6 5 raw or cooked - jui cy. 30-40 mm.
15 5 raw or cooked - sweeter after a frost. 10-25
13 4 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, aromatic,
excellent from named cultivars. 60-160 mm
long .






0; .E


Ipyrus gJabra
7 jraw or cooked.
Pyrus nivalis Snow pear 0 10 6 raw or cooked - acid, usually cooked or made
into perry. 20-50 mm long.
pyrus pashia Wild pear 0 9 5 raw or cooked - sweet when fully ripened. 20-
30 mm long.
Pyrus phaeocarpa 0 5 raw or cooked. 15-20 mm long.
!Pyrus pyrifolia IASian pear
1 10 1
s lraw or cooked - firm, crisp, juicy. 30-50 mm.
Pyrus salicifolia Willow leaved pear 0 7.5 4 raw or cooked - sweet when fully ripe. Also
used for perry. 25-30 mm.
Pyrus serrulata 0 10 6 raw or cooked. 15 mm.
Pyrus syriaca 0 10 7 raw or cooked. 3D-SO mm long.
Pyrus ussuriensis Chinese pear 0 15 4 raw or cooked - very variable, dry. 20-40 mm.
Rhamnus purshianus Cascara sagrada E 10 7 raw or cooked - may be slightly toxic! 6-10
Rhus chinensis Nutgall tree 0 no 6 8 cooked - acid. Used as a rennet substitute.
Rhus punjabensis 0 no 12 6 raw or cooked - small , little flesh; usually
soaked in water to make a lemon-flavoured
Sassafras albidum Sassafras 0 no 25 5 dried and used as flavouring (cinnamon-li ke
flavour). Some doubts about safety.
Sorbus alnifolia Korean mountain ash 0 15 6 raw or cooked. 6 mm.
Sorbus americana American mountain ash 0 10 2 raw or cooked - astringent, sweet after a
frost. Can also be dried. 6-8 mm.
Sorbus aria Whitebeam 0 12 5 raw or cooked - sweet and delicious after a
frost or when fully ripe. 8-15 mm.
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan 0 15 2 raw or cooked - bitter. Usually made into
preserves. 6-9 mm.
Sorbus commixta _ rowan 0 10 6 raw or cooked. 7 mm.
Sorbus decora Showy mountain ash 0 10 2 raw or cooked - best after a frost , usually
cooked in preserves. 7-12 mm.
Sorbus devoniensi s Qevon sorb apple 0 ye, 13 7 raw or cooked 12-18 mm.
Serbus domestica Service tree 0 ye, 15 6 raw or cooked - astingent before fully ripe,
then sweet and good. Also used in cider. 25-
Sorbus hybrida Fi nnish whitebeam 0 ye,
9 5 cooked in preserves. 10-12 mm.
Sorbus intermedia Swedish whitebeam 0 ye, 12 5 raw or cooked - sweet when ripe. 12 mm.
Sorbus japonica 0 20 6 raw or cooked. 12 mm.
Sorbus lanata 0 10 5 raw or cooked - best after a frost. 12-30 mm.
Sorbus latifolia Service tree of 0 ye,
5 raw or cooked - sweet when fully ripe. 12-15
Fountainbleau mm.
Sorbus mougeotii white beam 0 ye, 18 6 raw or cooked. 8mm.
Sorbus pohuashanensis Chinese mountain ash 0 ye, 10 5 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
Sorbus torminalis Wild service tree 0 ye, 20 6 raw or cooked - sweet when fully ripe. 12-18
T axus baccata English yew E no 15 6 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 10 mm.
"- --
Page 39
Taxus brevifoli a Paci fic yew E no 15 6 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 8 mm.
Taxus canadensis Canadian yew E no 6 4 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 8 mm.
Taxus chinensis Chinese yew E no 15 6 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
i poisonous if crushed.
Taxus cuspidata Japanese yew E no 10 6 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 8 mm.
Taxus x media Hybrid yew E no 15 5 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 10 mm.
Taxus wallichiana E no 15 8 raw - sweet and gelatinous. Seed is
poisonous if crushed. 10 mm.
IT oona sinensis
JToon 10
1 20 1 51
tvaccinium arboreum Farkleberry E 5 7 raw or cooked - dry, astringent, poor. 6 mm.
Viburnum lentago Sheepberry 0 no 9 2 raw or cooked - sweet, juicy, pleasant, can
be best after a frost. 12-15 mm long.
Viburnum prunifolium Black haw 0 no 7.5 3 raw or cooked - thin flesh, dry, sweet, best
after a frost. 12-18 mm.
iburnum rufidulum Southern black haw 0 no 10 5 raw or cooked sweet. best after a frost. 12- 1
17 mm long.
Washingtonia filifera Desert fan palm E 12 g raw or cooked -hard, sweet, thin pulp, date
flavour. Also dried. 6 x 4 mm.
Weinmannia racemosa Towai E 25 9 raw - sweet, pleasant. 5 mm.
Yucca aloifolia Spanisi1, bayonet E yes 7.5 8 raw or cooked - bittersweet, juicy. To 100 x
Yucca schidigera Mohave yucca E 4.5 8 raw or cooked.
Ziziphus jujube Jujube 0 yes 10 6 raw or cooked - sweet, mealy, sweet-acid
flavour. Also dried for the best flavour. 20-40
mm long.
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Page 40
Courses in 2005 from the Agroforestry
Research Trust. Forest Gardening
21-22 May and 10-11 September: learn how
to design, implement and maintain a forest
garden. Growing Nut Crops 8-9 October.
More details from A.R.T . 46 Hunters Moon,
Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT. Tel /fax
(01803) 840776. mail@agroforestry.co.uk
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produc.e a
diverse, productive Clnd resilient system for producing food, materials, timber amJ
other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter,
shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating l<lyers of
tall al,j small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected
a l ~ d productive system.
A\lrofo,estry News i ~ published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a
year in November, February, May and August. Subscription rates are:
20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (16 unwaged)
24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling)
34 per year for institutions.
A iis! of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on
request for 3 x 1 st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy includi ng
postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry
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Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk.
Agroforestry Research Trust ~
The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to ~
research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and
to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other
publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and
plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.
Agroforestry News
Edible shrub fruits
Volume 13 Number 2
February 2005
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 13 Number 2 February 2005
2 News: High-temperature treated wood I Climate
change and wine production I Climate change
indicators in a zone 8-9 location I Uranium
4 The pistacio industry in Italy
7 Carob tree production in China
8 Tree engineering
14 Chestnut production in Andalusia, Spain
16 Book reviews: The roots of health I The winelands
of Britain
17 Compendium of edible fruits: (2) shrubs
39 Fodder trees and shrubs
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust. 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk
Cover illustrations: Acca (Feijoa) sellowiana, Passif[ora edulis.
High-temperature treated wood
High-temperature treated wood is a preservative-free product that is finding a growing market. It
has an appealing appearance and is resistant to biodegradation. High-temperature treated
wood is also referred to as retified WQod, torrified wood and heaHreated wood. Processes
vary somewhat, but use the same principle: heat treatment ranging from 160 DC to 245 DC.
High-temperature treatment for a given period is known as controlled pyrolysis of the chemical
composition of wood; it modifies the internal structure and properties of the wood.
Wood treated in this manner is more resistant to attacks by pathogenic agents and has
increased dimensional stability, thanks to a moisture content of close to 0%. This makes it an
interesting substitute for chemically treated wood, in some cases. The process does diminish
structural properties, however, thus limiting its uses. High-temperature treatment also hardens
the wood, affecting machinability.
High-temperature treated wood is best used for the manufacture of outdoor products such as
fencing, garden furniture, patios, play structures, panelling, etc. Moreover, because this type of
treatment also modifies the colour, species with low market value can increase their value
through use in components such as kitchen cabinets and flooring, since they more closely
resemble exotic lumber which is gaining popularity in Europe.
Source: Newsletter from Quebec - Forests, January 2005
Climate change and wine production
Observed warming trends in the world climate at the present show greatest warming occurring
during the winter and spring at night. These trends and likely future changes in temperature
exert strong influences on virtually every form of agriculture where production viability may be
altered due to changes in winter hardening, frost occurrence, growing season lengths, and heat
accumulation for ripening potential.
Climate change impacts are likely to have very significant effects on viticulture, where many
years of experience have resulted in the finest wines being made from grapes grown in
geographically distinct regions. Grape vines are often grown in regions and under conditions
considered marginal for agricultural production, ultimately putting them at a greater potential
risk from climate change. Because wines are almost obsessively tasted and rated for quality,
wine grapes should be a particularly good indicator crop of changes that will affecting other
crops in the area.
The warmest wine growing regions, in countries like Argentina, where vines grow in mountain
deserts, Chianti in Italy, and Australia, could become too hot for wine growing. Vines stop
ripening their grapes when temperatures exceed 35C, giving red wines unripe, green-tasting,
astringent flavours. Higher temperatures will mean that vineyards totally reliant on irrigation,
such as in Argentina, Chile, S.Africa, Australia and California, will face severe water shortages.
On the other hand, in the UK in fifty years' time many English vineyards may be switching from
crisp dryish white wines to mainly red wines like those from Bordeaux. The Rhine Valley region
in Germany could benefit from greater ripening potential , but might have to produce different
wines in the changing climate.
Along with the climate and grape-growing changes, there are bound to be some big (and
difficult) shifts in thinking for people of the wine growing regions. There is a huge historical and
cultural identity associated with wine-producing regions. A region known for a superb Merlot ,
for example, might need to shift to another kind of grape, changing the cultural identity that has
developed over centuries. In the next 20-30 years, growers will have to work to replace
varieties and change management strategies to maintain a good quality product.
Source: Jones, G: Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with
Programs, Vol 35 No 6.
Climate change indicators in a zone 8-9 location
The A.R.T. is based in south Devon, England, which historically lies in a borderline zone 8/zone
9 location (ie average minimum winter temperatures are no lower than about - 10C). With the
climate in England having warmed significantly over the past 50 years, we now appear to be
firmly in the zone 9 location (over the past 8 years we have had no temperatures below _6C).
Zone 9 locations are likely to be in the forefront of very obviously noticeable changes in plant
behaviour as the climate warms, due to the lack of winter frosts. Many plants only fully defoliate
following several frosts of a certain hardness, while in others flowers may tolerate a couple of
degrees of frost and produce fruit where previously they did not. Longer and milder autumns
will also give borderline fruits more of a chance to ripen.
In Devon, and much of the UK, the autumn of 2004 was exceptionally mild. I was picking
raspberries the week before Christmas, and picked my first lemon (from a Meyer lemon bush)
growing in a container outside in the forest garden on Christmas eve. The mild weather
delayed sending out some plant orders, as most apple and pear trees were still with green
leaves in the middle of December. As I write now, 3 weeks into January, I have some hazels
and apples still with green leaves attached. Some almond trees are evergreen.
The mild winters mean that in time traditional varieties of fruits such as apples and
blackcurrants will flower and fruit much less reliabl y. Collections of local traditional varieties are
likely to be of less use where they originated, though they will be useful further north.
Commercial growers are already reacting to climate change and are beginning to reg raft
varieties such as Cox to a warmer-climate variety such as Braeburn.
A recent study by East Mailing Research has shown that there has already been a 5-12%
decrease in winter chilling in the UK (the lesser figure in Scotland, the greater in Kent), and that
over the next 75 years (under a high carbon emission scenario) a reduction in chilling of 37-
59% is possible. Fruit species needing winter chilling show a defined chill/yield threshold;
beyond this point, with existing cultivars , further reductions in winter chilling retard the plant' sa
physiological processes, leading to a rapid decline in yield. If new adapted low chill cultivars
replace existing cultivars, there is potential for increased yields.
Source: Atkinson, C: Defra Desk Study on Winter Chill in Fruit. EMRA News,S.
Uranium accumulators
Accumulator plants are particular species that are extra good at taking up specific nutrients
from the soil and holding them in the plant itself. Heavy metal accumulators are utilised
commercially by prospectors as indicators where metals might be in higher concentrations.
They can also be used to clean up contaminated ground, ego Mine spoil or an old contaminated
industrial site.
A recent study into Uranium accumulating plants for arid climates has identified several suitable
plants which could be used for soaking up depleted Uranium from contaminated soils where
Uranium-tipped weapons have been used.
Amoung the plants that accumulated a lot of depleted Uranium were Indian mustard (Brassica
juncea) (not well suited to arid climes however), Russian thistle/tumbleweed (Sa/sola tragus),
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and purple amaranth (Amaranthus blitum). Sprinkling the
ground with citric acid enhanced the plants' ability to absorb depleted Uranium.
Most of the Uranium absorption takes prior to flowering , so the plants should be harvested and
removed before flowering. Several crops would be needed to clean up the soil satisfactorily.
Source: Cairns, A: Phytoremediation of Depleted Uranium in an Arid Environment. Geological Society of
America, Abstracts with Programs, Vol 35 No 6.
The Pistacio Industry in Italy
Pistachio (Pisiacia vera L.) , is a dioecious and deciduous species native to western Asia and
Asia Minor. It was introduced into Italy from Syria in 30 A.D. by the Roman Governor of that
Provincie, Lucius Vitellio, at approximately the same time it was introduced in Spain. Its
introduction into Sicily, which nowadays accounts for almost the enti re Pistachio industry in
Italy, probably occurred some time later, following an initial period of culti vation in Campania
which at that time represented the roman countryside". Us cultivation in Sicily began to spread
during the Arab domination (827- 1040 A.D.) together with other major fruit and vegetable
species and in parallel with the improvement of the agronomic techniques. As a matter of fact,
the Sicilian dialectal term for Pistachio tree ( Fastuca) is of arab derivation (Fustuq). However,
very little is known until recent times about its distribution over the region. Historic references
onto Pistachio cultivation are documented by the XVllth century, even if first official records of
the economic importance of Pistachio industry are referred to the first decades of the XX
century. Soon after the second world war the enti re structure of the Sicilian Pistachio industry
underwent significant changes. The relative importance of the traditional cultivation areas
(Agrigento, Caltanissetta and Palermo) strongly decreased with the abandonment of large part
of the Pistachio culti vation which was partially compensated by a parallel increase of the
production in the Catania Province.
Currently more than 90% of the total Italian
Pistachio area is concentrated in only few
territories in the eastern Sicily (western slopes
of Mount Etna volcano), mainly located in the
districts of Bronte and Adrano (Catania
Province), onto approximateJy 4.500 hectares.
Few residuals of the past cultivation can still be
found in Caltanissetta and Agrigento Provinces,
in small and scattered surfaces (as a whole,
130 ha in specialized cultivation and 210 ha in
mixed cultivation).
Despite this ancient origin and the long period
of cultivation, only few female varieties of
Pistachio are now grown in Italy (about ten) ::
together with an even more restricted number of
unnamed male selections. Among the
female cultivars, ' Bianca' (synonym: Napoletana) is practically the only cultivar grown, other
varieties, namely ' Femminella', ' Natalora', 'Agostana', ' Silvana', ' Insolia', 'Cerasola',
'Cappuccia' , representing not more than 3% of the total can still be found , mostly in scattered,
abandoned settlements. This genetic pool is probably the result of a two step introduction
process of genetic material coincident with the earliest introduction from Syria of the reddi sh
' Cera sola' by the Romans and the later introduction carried out by the Arabs. The reasons of
this low number of varieties is thought to be the exclusive use by the growers of vegetative
propagation since ancient times due to the long juvenility period of P. vera seedlings, the long
lifespan of the trees and easy hybridizations with other Pistacia species. Nevertheless, within
the Sicilian Pistachio germplasm, some valuable fruit characteristics such as colour, flavour and
nut quality are highly appreciated in trade, specially the greenness of the kernels and the rich
oily nut-like flavour. Most of these appreciated characteristics have been maintained also by
culti vars obtained in the United States from Sicilian seeds imported in the early 1900's such as
' Bronte' and 'Trabonella' .
In spite of these valuable characteristics of the Italian pistachios, the contribution of Italian
production represents nowadays only less than 0.6% of the world production. Nevertheless,
with respect to product destination, it is remarkable that Italian pistachios maintain a dominant
market position for the uses other than direct consumption (snack), since they are almost
entirely used, and highly appreciated, by the confectionery and ice cream industry.
Due to this fact Italian pistachio exports. between 1000 and 2000 tons per year are represented
mainly by shelled and peeled pistachios, whereas imports (about 9000 tons) consist mainly of
in-shell pistachios, consumed as salted and roasted snacks for domestic markets and, partially,
for re-exportation.
The Bronte Area
This area of the eastern Sicilian province of Catania currently represents the main Pistachio
growing area in Italy. From the ecological point of view this area is of great naturalistic
importance due to the proximity to the Etna Volcano and the inclusion in the Regional system of
parks and naturalistic reserves CParco dell'Etna", 59.000 ha, established in 1987).
Pistachio production in Bronte represents one of the main economic resources of the entire
territory. A total of 3,300 ha of specialized Pistachio orchards are located in this area and 1,500
ha in the neighbourhood territories (Adrano, Biancavilla). The altitude varies between 350
(along the Simeto river bank) and 900 m a.s.l.. The climate is typically Mediterranean with
autumn and winter rainfall (annual average: -550 mm). Average monthly temperatures of the
area are between a minimum of 6.0 C (February) and a maximum of 32.6 C (July). Most of
these Pistachio orchards are defined as Unatural Pistachio plantingsH because they have long
been obtained by grafting in situ spontaneous Terebinth ( Pistacia terebinthus) plants spread in
the particular soils of the area, consisting of rocky, volcanic soils derived in the centuries from
the Mount Etna activity, in steep slopes.
This traditional planting system took advantage of the extraordinary characteristics of
environmental adaptation of Terebinth to poor, dry, shallow soils of the area, where no valid
cultural alternatives are available, except for few other fruit species such as Prickly Pear and
Fig. Thus , Pistachio plantings" are characterized by the absence of regular plant
spaci ngs and by a wide range of plant density (50-500 trees per ha). Also the age of the trees
is consequently highly variable. Successive interplanting of nursery terebinth seedlings is a
common practice to replace dead plants and to increase orchard density. A few local small
nurseries are active in the area of Bronte and supply plant material mainly as seedling P.
terebinthus rootstocks to be grafted directly in the orchard. Small quantities of grafted P.
vera/P .terebinthus pot plants are also produced.
In these conditions cultural operations are necessarily carried out by hand, since mechanization
is almost impossible also due to the training system adopted that can be defined as an
vase" with threefour main irregular branches very close to the soil surface. Pollination is
ensured by spontaneous male P. terebinthus plants or by scattered male P. vera pollinizers
and also by natural hybrids between the two above mentioned species. Fruitset problems are
likely to occur, specially when pol lination largely relies onto spontaneous source of pollen, since
male/female ratio generally adopted in the Bronte area is particularly low (1120). Besides
natural orchards, new plantations are also present in the area. In this case rational orchard
design (6m x 8m or 8m x 8m) and common cultural practices are adopted.
'Napoletana' (syn. Bianca) is the only cultivar widely utilized both in the "natural" or in the
regular plantations and Terebinth is the only rootstock. ' Bianca' is of low-intermediate vigour,
spreading; branching habit is intermediate. Peak bloom date occurs in the last week of April.
Nut size is small to medium; average nut length is 21.6 mm, nut wi dth is 11.6 mm, nut thickness
is 9.9 mm, nut shape is generally elongated, split nuts is generally low 25%) and suture
opening is narrow. Blank production is about 5%. Average kernel dry weight is 0.48 g, colour is
deep green; harvest date occurs between the last week of August and the first week of
Page 5
Old individual trees of other relic cultivars can still be found in scattered areas: 'Femminella',
'Agostara' and ' Natalora'. The first one is very simi lar to ' Bianca' and is now accounting for less
than 5% of the total ' Bronte' production; it is characterized by a fruit smaller than ' Bianca' but it
was very appreciated for kernel quality. 'Agostara' is the earliest flowering and ripening cultivar
in the area. It is considered in danger of extinction. Its fruit is smaller than that of ' Bianca'.
'Natalora', the latest ripening cultivar among the local germplasm, is a vigorous and upright
cultivar and is considered the worst by the local growers due to the high blank percentage. This
characteristic is to be related to the flowering period not coincident with the period of pollen
dispersal by the male trees of the area. Its fruit is bigger than ' Bianca' and presents a more
irregular shape. Splitting percentage, in any case, is generally low.
As a whole, nut size of Sicilian Pistachio cultivars, including others such as 'Silvana',
' Ghiandalora', 'Cappuccia', 'Cerasola', ' Inso[ia', is medium to small, nut shape is generally
elliptic (elongated) and sometimes tends to ovoid. All of them have nuts with an attractive
green kernel and similar sizes and weights. Splitting, although variable from year to year, is
generally low and, therefore, unsatisfactory for direct commercialization and consumption.
Nevertheless, the deep green colour of kernels and their excellent quality are world-wide
The average pistachio farm in the Bronte area is approximately 1-2 hectares, corresponding to
a total of about 3000 farms. As a whole, 3000 to 3800 tons of in shell pistachio is the
productivity of the Bronte area, corresponding to an average yield of about 1-1.2 tons per
hectare. Exceptionally, maximum yield of 4 tons per hectare has been recorded. The average
prices paid to growers for in shell product in the last commercial campaigns ranged between 4
to 5 E/kg. During uoff' years price tends to be higher (aprox. 7.5 E/kg). Pistachios are hand
harvested with the help of tarps. Fruits are normally hulled with small equipment, with an
operating capacity of 400-500 kilos/day, and sold soon after sun drying (3-4 days) at the farm.
They are bought by about ten local industries that proceed to further processing. Three kinds of
end-products are therefore obtained: in shell , shelled (yield 40-45%) and peeled. The prices of
the first two categories of products are of about 7 and 15 Ikg, respectively. Shelled pistachios
are normally commercialized in packages of 25, 12, 1 and 112 kg to domestic and foreign
markets. The average operating potential of this kind of processing plant is of about 500 kifos
of shelled pistachios per day. Some processing plants further process the fruit to obtain
pistachio flour, pesto (condiment), cream and paste for pastry and ice-cream.
Like in other producing countries, the Ita.lian pistachio industry and market are negatively
affected by the alternate bearing problem. A particular cultural practice is generally followed by
the growers to face the alternate bearing pistachio habit. It consists, every second year, of the
total inflorescence bud removal carried out during harvest time, in the Monft year. This traditional
practice is exerted with the aim of obtaining a complete MOW year in order to maximize the yield
of the Uonft year and to minimize the cultural expenses in the biennium. By this way a biological
control of some main pests (bud borer Acrantus (= Chaetoptelius) vestitus, among the others) is
made by interrupting the natural cycle of the insects. This practice requires about 30 hrs/ha
and include also lateral shoots suppression. Other cultural practices carried out by the growers
consist of winter pruning (February and March), fertilization (mostly with Nand P fertilizers),
chemical weed control, orchard floor management (with mechanical hoe) and plant protection.
Total cultural requirements in terms of hand labour (including harvest) range between a
minimum of 150 to a maximum of 400 hrs/ha. Among the diseases in the area Cytospora
terebinthi & Septoria pistaciae are generally considered the most dangerous. Megastigmus
pistaciae, together with Acrantus (= Chaetoptelius) vestitus, can be considered the main pests.
During storage Plodia interpunctella attacks on the fruits have to be controlled generally by
storage room spraying.
This article was adapted from: E barone & F P Marra: The Pistacio Industry in Italy: Current
Situation and Prospects. Nucis-Newsletter Number 12, September 2004.
Carob tree production in China
China is the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, cotton, peanuts and rapeseed. It ranks second in
com and fourth in soybean production. Subtropical fruits such as citrus, litchi and loquat grow together
with apples, peaches, apricots and pears of cool temperate climates. There has been recent interest in
carob trees as an agroforestry species and for the restoration of degraded dryland areas, mainly, of
three Southern Chinese provinces with warm or subtropical climates: Sichuan (Yibasan and TongAn),
Yunnan (Lufeng and Yuan Jiang) and Guangxi (Shangsi and PingGu)
The project of nursery and cUltivation techniques of Ceratonia siJiqua in China" is funded by
the Chinese government. One of the aims of this project is to find a tree species suitable to dry areas of
southwest of China that will contribute to the ecological rehabilitation. The project was started in 2001
and will be completed by 2005. During 2002 the Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) contacted IRTA
Mas Save (Catalonia, Spain) to start a possible collaboration on this species between both institutions.
During two years 2002 and 2004, IRTA sent to CAF more than 100,000 seeds, from important carob
cultivars: five of Spain ('Negra', 'Duraio', 'Rojal' , 'Banya de Cabra' and 'Matalafera') and two of Portugal
('Mulata' and 'Galhosa'), with the purpose of introducing them in the nursery and, later be planted in the
In the new plantations two methods of planting were used: direct sowing in the field and small plants
with containers. The last method would be the most suitable and to be used in the future.
The climatic conditions of the Chinese areas where the carob has been introduced, Sichuan, Yunnan
and Guangxi provinces placed in the south, are different from those of the Mediterranean Basin to which
carob is well adapted. It highlights the great climatic variability, with altitudes of 8001000 m above sea
level, minimum temperatures of 0 or 1 DC and maximum of 40
C, although there is a big gap of
temperature between day and night (about 10 DC), and rainfall of 700800 mm in the county of Xichang
(Sichuan) and, higher in the other two provinces (Yunnan and Guangxi), about 1000 mm, distributed
between June and September. The carob was planted on hilly lands and the soils in general are not
very deep, clay loam, greybrown colours, with neutral or slightly acid pH (67) and low levels of
phosphorus and calcium.
In the Mediterranean countries (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Morocco, Tunisia, etc. ), the carob grows
well in warm temperature and subtropical areas, with altitudes below 600 m above sea level, low rainfall
in summer (300-500 mm/year), and tolerates hot and humid coastal zones. It can only withstand light
frost; temperatures below -4
C can damage young trees and flowers of mature trees. Carob can adapt
to a wide range of soil types from poor sandy soils and rocky hillsides to deep soils, but they cannot
withstand waterlogging. In the Mediterranean Basin carob generally grows in marginal , calcareous and
basic soils.
Crop development restrictions
In the case of the Sichuan province, the areas where the carob seeds have been planted are hilly, long
away from the coast, with high altitudes above sea level, high rainfall (800-1000 mm and concentrated
on three summer months) and with very poor soils, neutral or slightly acid pH, and these conditions are
quite different from the Mediterranean countries. Temperatures of the Yibasan and TongAn areas are
warm and more similar to carob original areas of Mediterranean Basin.
Page 7
Pests: Severe damage is caused in young trees by rabbits and some native ants that gnaw trunks and
new shoots. Diseases: High rainfall , concentrated on summer months, can cause waterlogging
problems in young carobs and later promote fungus attacks of Phytophtora, in the neck of the tree, and
scab in the leaves of the most sensitive carob seed trees.
Pollination: the carob is a trioecious species with male, female and hermaphrodite flowers borne on
different trees. It blooms in summer-autumn and it seems to be mainly pollinated by insects, but also by
wind. High rainfall and relative humidity in the rainy summer season, could increase poor fruit set
during the pollination time (mainly the period that overlaps with blooming time).
Mechanical harvesting: currently this factor is not very important because there is large manpower and
its cost is low.
The Future
Future work will assess the performance of the seedlings planted in the three Chinese provinces (about
100,000 seedlings) that adapt better to the new environmental conditions, and select seedlings from
more vigorous cultivars, female and hermaphrodite sexes, tolerant to diseases ( Oidium), early bearing
and fruits with good quality. Later it would be necessary to bud the best trees on seedlings and to
introduce them in collections and comparative trials to finish their agronomic and commercial evaluation.
These works should be carried out within the new agroforestry systems framework in which the carob
could solve reforestation problems in degraded areas and its bean production used both for human and
animal feeding (sheep, goats, pigs, cows, horses, etc
This article was adapted from; J . Taus & J. Chunqian: Carob Tree Development in China.
Nucis-Newsletter Number 12, September 2004.
Tree engineering
I ntrod uction
Like all engineering structures, trees combine two elements which enable them to grow into
large impressive structures; good materials, and arrangement of the materials so they are used
to best advantage. Trees have only one main structural material - wood - but this is superbly
engineered. Trees also combine strength and flexibility, and can even respond to their
environment and change their design accordingly. This allows them to support a canopy of
leaves using a bare minimum of wood.
The mechanical design of wood
Wood needs to combine many useful properties to allow it to support the leaves of trees. It has
to be stiff, so that trees do not droop under their own weight; strong, so that the sheer force of
the wind does not snap the trunk and branches; tough, so that when the tree is damaged it does
not shatter; and light , so that it does not buckle under its own weight. No manufactured
material can do all of these things: plastics are not stiff enough; bricks are too weak; glass is
too brittle; steel is too heavy. Weight for weight , wood probably has the best engineering
properties of any material - so it is not surprising that it is still the most widely used material for
making our own structures. Its properties come from the arrangement of the cells and the
microscopic structure of the cell walls.
Arrangement of cells
Over 90%. of the cells in wood are long, thin tubes that are closely packed together, pointing
along the branches and trunk. This helps transport water to the leaves, but it is also ideal for
providing support, because they point in the direclion in which the wood is stressed.
Trees mainly have to resist bending forces. Their branches have to resist being bent down
under their own weight, and both the trunk and branches have to resist being bent sideways by
the wind. These bending forces actually subject the wood inside to forces which are parallel to
the trunk or branch; the concave side is compressed, while the convex side is stretched.
Whichever way the tree is bent, therefore, the internal forces always act parallel to the cells or
'grain' of the wood. The long, thin wood cells are well suited to resist the forces; the cells on
the concave side resist being compressed, rather like pillars, while those on the convex side
resist being stretched, rather like ropes. As a consequence, wood is very strong along the
The cellular nature of wood is also advantageous to the tree for another reason. Because the
cells are hollow, the tree's trunk and branches can be thicker than if all its wood material was
laid down in a solid mass. (In some trees, such as the elder , not only the cells but also the
branches are hollow.) Weight for weight, tubular structures like these are stronger than solid
structures; this is why tubes are so often used in large engineering structures.
The arrangement of the cells along the trunk does have one potential disadvantage. It is
relatively easy to split wood parallel to the trunk, what a carpenter would call along the grain.
However, this is not very important to the tree because its wood is hardly ever subjected to
forces in this transverse direction. As an extra precaution, trees prevent the wood splitting
between successive growth rings by incorporating into it blocks of cells called rays , which are
oriented radially in the trunk. As well as storing sugars, these rays act rather like bolts,
effectively pinning the wood together. The result is that when you do see trees that have been
split along their length, for instance after they have been struck by lightning, it breaks radially
from the centre of the trunk out , parallel to the rays. This is also why the easiest way to cut up
wood with an axe is radially, through the centre of the trunk, like cutting pieces of pie.
Structure of the cell walls
The structure of the cell walls also improves the mechanical properties of wood. Cell walls, like
fibreglass, are a composite material. They are made of tiny cellulose microfibrils, which are
embedded in a matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. The cellulose fibres stiffen the material, like
the glass fibres in fibreglass, while the matrix protects the fibres and prevents them from
buckling, like the resin in fibreglass. This gives the composite a combination of high stiffness
and strength.
Embedding fibres within a matrix also improves the toughness of composite materials because
more energy is needed to break them; it is used up pulling the fibres out of the matrix. For this
reason fibreglass is around a thousand times tougher than either resin or fibres on their own.
The arrangement of the fibres within the walls of wood cells helps to make wood even tougher.
Wood cells have walls with several layers, but the thickest layer making up 80% of the wall, is
the so-called 82 layer. Here the microfibrils are arranged at an angle of around 20 degrees to
the long axis of the cell , winding round the cell in a narrow helix. This is not far off being
parallel to the cell wall, so they stiffen it up along the grain quite effectively. But the greatest
effect is to dramatically increase the toughness. As the wood is stretched the cells do not break
straight across; instead, the cell walls buckle parallel to the fibres and the different strips of the
cell wall are then unwound like springs. This process creates very rough fracture surfaces and
absorbs huge amounts of energy, making wood around a hundred times tougher even than
fibreglass. This mechanism only acts when wood is cut across the grain, but it explains why
wooden boats are far sturdier than fibreglass ones and can absorb the energy in minor bumps
without being damaged.
Pre-stressing of wood
Wood has just one problem; because wood cells are long, thin-walled tubes, they are very
prone to buckling, just like drinking straws. This means that wood is only about half as strong
when compressed as when stretched, as the cells tend to fail along a so-called compression
crease. If you bend a wooden rod the compression crease will form on the concave side and it
subsequently greatly weakens the rod. Trees prevent this happening to their trunks and
branches by pre-stressing them.
New wood cells are laid down on the outside of the trunk in a fully hydrated state. As they
mature their cell walls dry out and this tends to make them shorten. However because they are
already attached to the wood inside they cannot shrink and will be held in tension. Because this
happens to each new layer of cells, the result is that the outer part of the trunk is held in
tension, while the inside of the trunk is held in compression. The advantage of this is that when
the trunk is bent over by the wind, the wood cells on the concave surface are not actually
compressed but some of the pretension is released. It is true that on the other convex side the
cells will be subjected to even greater tensile forces, but they can cope very easily with those.
The consequence is that tree trunks can bend a long way without breaking. This fact was
exploited for centuries by shipwrights, who made their masts as far as possible from complete
tree trunks.
Pre-stressing has two unfortunate consequences. Many trees are prone to a condition known
as 'briUleheart'. This occurs because as the wood in the centre of the tree ages it can be
attacked and broken down by fungi. Eventually it becomes so weak that the pre-compression
force makes it crumble, and the tree trunk becomes hollow. Another problem occurs when trees
are harvested. Cutting the trunk frees the cut end and in some species this allows the pre-
stress to be relieved; the centre of the trunk extends and the outside contracts, bending the two
halves of the trunk outwards and causing the trunk to split along its length. These splits are
known to foresters as 'shakes' and render the timber useless. Sweet chestnut is one European
wood probe to this defect.
The mechanical design of the shoot system
There are essentially two parts to the shoot systems of trees: a rigid trunk and a flexible crown
of branches, twigs and leaves. This combination of rigidity and flexibilit y plays a key part in
helping trees stand up. In actual fact, it is usually the wind which is most likely to destroy a
tree, or in some areas the weight of snow. Trees do not collapse under their own weight, unlike
some of the structures made by humans!
Withstanding the wind
Trees use a single trunk rather than many separate stems for the same reason that we use
single poles to hold up flags; weight for weight one thick rod is better at resisti ng bending than
several thin ones. As a result, a single trunk can support a crown of leaves using a minimum of
wood. Like flagpoles, tree trunks are also tapered; they are thickest at their base where the
bending forces are greatest, but progressively thinner towards the tip. This also helps to
minimize the amount of wood they use.
Reconfiguring in the wind
The trunks of mature trees are too rigid to bend far away from the wind. Fortunately, because
the branches and twigs are so much thinner, the whole crown of the tree can. This bending of
Page 10
the crown makes it much more streamlined, reducing the aerodynamic drag force that it
transmits to the trunk. Wind-tunnel tests have shown that this process of ' reconfiguration' can
reduce the force on a 5 m (16 tt) pine tree in high winds to under a third of what it would be if
the tree were rigid. Angiosperm trees can perform even better than conifers in this respect.
Palm trees can bend right over in the wind and so withstand even the strongest hurricanes.
Wind-tunnel tests on deciduous angiosperms have shown that their leaves can reconfigure as
well as their branches; they roll up in the wind to form streamlined tubes which greatly reduces
their drag. The leaves that do this best are lobed leaves, such as those of maples, and pinnate
leaves, like those of ash. However, even in trees like oaks or hollies that have stiff leaves, the
drag is reduced because the rigid leaves are flattened against the branches. Unfortunately,
work has not been done to make it clear just how efficient the reconfiguration of full-sized
angiosperm trees is at reducing their drag. Wind-tunnel tests are difficult and expensive, and
winds are too fickle to get reliable measurements in the field.
The mechanical design of bark
Bark acts as a superb shock-absorber, protecting the delicate phloem tissue from damage. The
key to this ability is that bark is mostly composed of cork, which has a most ingenious structura l
design. Cork is made up of large numbers of closel y packed cells, each of which is dead and
filled with air. Each cell is a hexagonal prism in shape with side walls that are corrugated, like
the walls of an open concertina. Because of the corrugation, a small crushing force can readily
cause the cells to flatten out li ke a closing concertina. Each cell can collapse to only a quarter
of its original thickness, so this process can absorb a great deal of energy. Impacts are
therefore safely dissipated. This is good for the tree but even better for us. The properties
have proved to be ideal to produce a stopper t hat is watertight yet easy to insert and remove.
Real corks are still better in this respect than the artificial corks that have been recently
introduced by winegrowers.
Shedding snow
The conifers that grow at high latitudes or high altitudes have a crown design that allows them
to shed snow. They are conical in shape and both the main branches and side branches of firs
point downwards before curving gently upwards like a ski jump ramp. Snow simply slides off
these branches before its weight can damage the tree.
The mechanical design of the root system
Despite the reconfiguration of their crowns, trees still transmit large wind forces to their trunks
and down to their root system. Fortunately the root systems of most trees are well designed to
anchor them firmly in the soil.
The root systems of young trees are dominated by their tap roots. These anchor the trees
directly, like the point of a stake. The rest of the anchorage is provided by the lateral roots,
which radiate sideways out from the top of the tap root ; they act like the guy ropes of a tent ,
stopping the tap root rotating.
As trees get older, the tap root becomes less important. Instead, the lateral roots, many of
which grow straight out of the trunk start to dominate the root system; they get much longer and
thicker, branching as they grow. They produce a network of superficial roots that ramify through
the topsoil as far out as the edge of the crown. Lateral roots are well placed to take up
nutrients, but not to take up water in times of drought ; neither are they well orientated to anchor
the tree. Trees overcome these deficiencies by developing sinker roots that grow vertically
downwards from the laterals, usually quite close to the trunk.
If a tree is pushed over, a plate of roots and soil is levered upwards, about a hinge on the
leeward side of the trunk. Some anchorage is provided by the bending resistance of the lateral
roots on the leeward side; these roots tend to be elliptical or even figure-of-eight -shaped in
cross-section, ideal at resisting this deformation. However, the vast majority of the anchorage
is provided by the sinker roots on the windward side of the trunk; they strongly resist being
pulled upwards out of the soil. Sinker roots are so important that when waterlogging stops them
developing, trees can be very unstable.
Perhaps the most extraordinary anchorage systems are possessed by trees that have huge
'buttress roots'. In these trees the lateral roots are particularly shallow to help them exploit the
nutrients which are concentrated in just the top few centimetres of soil. Sinker roots are
therefore particularly important to anchor these trees; they are widely placed away from the
trunk to give them longer lever arms. The buttresses act as angle brackets, transferring forces
smoothly down from the trunk to the sinker roots. Without the buttresses the narrow lateral
roots would just break.
Growth responses of trees
The structure of wood and the architecture of trees are mainly genetically determined.
However, trees can fine-tune their mechanical design by detecting their mechanical
environment and responding to it with a range of growth responses.
In areas with extremely strong prevailing winds, such as the tops of mountains or sea cliffs,
trees receive forces predominantly from one direction. An involuntary growth response called
flagging results. The leaves on the windward side are killed by wind-borne particles and the
windward branches are bent gradually leeward by the constant force. The result is that the
foliage points mostly downwind of the trunk, which itself leans away from the wind. This makes
the tree much more streamlined, reducing the wind forces to which it is subjected. In the most
exposed areas, the wind also tends to kill off the leading shoot at the top of the tree, so that the
only living shoots are the ones that point downwind. The tree seems to become bent sideways.
Trees exhibiting the prostrate form that results are common near the tree line up mountains and
in the subarctic.
Adaptive growth responses to 'wind
Trees also exhibit adaptive growth responses to the wind in areas where there is no strong
prevail ing wind direction. The most obvious response is that trees exposed to strong winds
grow shorter than those growing in sheltered areas. If you look at the edge of a wood you will
see that the outermost trees are shorter than the rest. Tree height increases further in, so
many copses seem to have something of a streamlined shape.
Closer examination reveals that the exposed trees also have thicker trunks and thicker
structural roots than sheltered ones. The structure of the wood is also altered. Exposed trees
have wood in which the cellulose fibres are wound at a larger angle to the axis of the cell. The
cells themselves tend to wind around the trunk of the tree rather than running parallel to it, a
condition known to foresters as 'spiral grain'. All these changes help make the tree more
stable. The reduction in height reduces the drag on the tree, while the thickening of the trunk
and roots strengthens them. The changes in the wood, meanwhile, tend to make it more
flexible, so the tree can reconfigure more efficiently away from the wind. Trees growing in
windy areas even have smaller leaves and this further reduces drag as well as water loss.
It has been shown that the growth responses of the wood are controlled locally. If a small
length of a trunk is bent it will thicken up more than unstressed areas of the trunk, and if it is
bent in one plane only it will become elliptical in cross-section. In both cases the tree lays down
wood where the mechanical stresses are highest. This response is clever as it ensures that
trees only lay down wood where it is actually needed. This facility bas been shown to be
responsible for many aspects of the shape of trees. It ensures that branches are strongly joined
to the trunk by expanding like the bell of a trumpet at their base; stresses are concentrated
where the branches join the trunk and this causes the branch t o grow thicker there
automatically. It also is the reason why tree wounds heal fastest along their sides - bending
stresses along the trunk are di verted around the sides of the wound, and so growth proceeds
fastest there. The response also causes lateral roots , which are bent only in the vertical plane,
to grow fastest along their tops and bottoms. and so develop into mechanically efficient I-beam
shapes. It is even responsible for the growth of the bizarre buttress roots of rainforest trees.
When these trees are flexed by the wind, mechanical stresses are concentrated along the tops
of the lateral roots; this causes them to grow rapidly upwards, especially at the join with the
trunk, and so form buttresses.
The time delay which is inevitable in these growth responses causes problems for us when we
grow trees. Cutting a road through a forest or thinning a plantation exposes trees to greater
wind forces than they are used to. The result can be catastrophic wind damage before the trees
can grow thicker. In urban areas, young trees have traditionally been staked to help support
them. Unfortunately, this means that the lower trunk and roots are not mechanically stressed,
so they will remain slender and weak. When the stake is eventually removed the trees are
therefore extremely vulnerable to damage. Nowadays, arboriculturalists advise us to stake
trees as near the ground as possible, or bury a wire mesh around the root system to help it
anchor the tree. These precautions minimize the chances of weak areas developing.
Reaction wood
Trees react if their trunks are blown over or deflected away from vertical , with growth responses
that help them grow vertically again towards the light. The tip of the trunk detects the direction
of gravity and automatically bends upwards. The same is also true all the way down the trunk;
reaction wood is laid down on one side of the trunk to bend it upwards.
Conifers produce a sort of reaction wood, called compression wood, in which the cellulose
microfibrils are orientated at around 45 degrees to the long axis of the cells. This stops the
cells from shortening after they are laid down. If a tree is deflected from vertical , conifers
produce compression wood on the underside of the trunk and it tends to push the trunk
Angiosperm trees produce a very different sort of reaction wood called tension wood in which
the cellulose microfibrils are almost parallel to the long axis of the cell. Cells of this wood tend
to shorten even more than normal wood after it is laid down. Angiosperms produce tension
wood on the upper side of leaning trunks and it tends to pull the trunk upwards.
Both compression wood and tension wood are very useful to the trees , but Hleir production has
disadvantages for foresters. The two types of wood are both brittle, so planks of wood made
from bent trees will not be very strong. The stresses they set up and differences in the
shri nkage rates will also tend to warp and split the planks. Hence, misshapen trees have very
little commercial value.
Ennos, A.R Trees. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, and The Natural History
Museum, London, 2001.
Ennos, A R: How Trees Stand Up. The Overstory, 144, September 2004.
Chestnut production in Andalusia,
Spanish" chestnut production is currently 18,259 tons per year, half of the amount achieved in the
seventies. That production corresponds to approximately 50,000 ha out of the 128,537 ha existing in
Spain. Though chestnut production is located mainly in North Spain, an interesting area for chestnut
production is localised in Andalusia, South Spain. Production in Andalusia is considered to be only
2,000 tons but it could be underestimated according to marketing data and it could reach 6,000 tons
from 6,000 ha.
There are two main areas: i) Sierra de Huelva in Huelva province, and ii) Serranfa de Ronda and Sierra
de Las Nieves, Malaga province. Other chestnut areas are located in Granada, where new orchards
are being established though traditionally chestnut production came from seedlings. Chestnut is an
interesting alternative in Andalusia, mainly in Malaga, because of the precocity of two cultivars,
'Temprana' and 'Pilonga' , harvested at the end of September. Most of the production is commercialised
by cooperatives where big quantities of chestnuts are cleaned and classified. Chestnuts are sold in
Spain and in the international market.
Table 1. Climatic characteristics of Spanish chestnut areas.
Region Province Location Annual av Annual Average Ann.temp
temp(' C) rainfaU(mm) temp - Jan range (' C)
Asturias Asturias Gijon 13.8 971 4.7
Oviedo-EI Cristo 12.9 973 4.2
Aeropuerto Ranon 13.2 1140 5.4
Bierzo LeOn Ponferrada 13.0 675 1.1 17.5
Extremadura Caceres Guadalupe 14.7 755 3.3 17.6
Canarias Tenerife Aeropuerto T enerife
Norte-Los Rodeos 16.5 557 12.8
Andalucia Malaga Gaucin 15.0 1161 6.2 35.0
Huelva Almonaster La Real 16.0 1137 4.9 34.9
Aracena 14.0 1107 3.1 35.8
Galicia Lugo Outeiro de Rei 12.0 1004 2.0 23.3
Vilar do Caurel 7.9 1679 -1 .3 24.5
Ferreira 3.2 1086 2.4 25.7
Fonsagrada 8.8 1754 -1.0 23.3
Ourense Meson de Pentes 10.6 1460 0.8 26.0
Poboa de Trives 8.9 874 0.1 26.6
A Rua-Petin 15.6 763 5.1 26.7
Recently, an important industry for processing chestnuts has been established in Huelva. Both in
Huelva and Malaga, production is based on local cultivars. Growers graft them over seedlings
produced in the same area. In Malaga, due to the high prices of the nuts, trees are planted so close as
5 m x 5 m, though it is necessary to prune severely or remove part of the trees later. In Granada, no
local cultivars have been found and new orchards are based on the excellent cultivars of Malaga.
Weather conditions for chestnut areas in Spain are quite similar (Table 1), with a rainfall around 1.000
mm per year and mild temperatures. Chestnut orchards in Tenerife showed lowest rainfall with 700
mm, followed by Castilla-LeOn and Extremadura, around 700 mm. In Andalusia, orchards are located in
the most humid areas of South Spain. In 1995 a study was started to localise and characterise cultivars
of South Spain.
propagated by grafting: 'CapiJJa', 'Comisaria' , 'Corriente', 'Oieguina', ' Helechal', ' Pelon', 'Pilonga', 'Planta
Alajar' 'Rubia Tardia', 'Temprana', 'Tomasa' and 'Vazquez'.
Cultivars from Andalusia are different from cultivars from other areas of Spain. In comparison with
those from Galicia, the Andalusian cultivars have better nut size, but with higher percentages of
chataignes (poly-embryonic nuts) and split nuts, and more intrusions of the inner coat in cotyledons
what makes it more difficult to peel them. Nuts coming from Andalusian cultivars showed less worms
and diseases what could be related with a drier environment.
The best cultivar in Andalusia is ' Pilonga' due to its early ripening (end of September), big nut size and
less percentage of poly-embryonic nuts (Table 2). The worst feature of 'Pilonga' is the high percentage
of split nuts, over 8 %. 'Temprana' , cultivated in the same area of 'Pilonga' is a tittle worse due to a
higher percentage of poly-embryonic nuts and intrusions of the inner coat in cotyledons. 'Capilla',
'Corriente', 'Rubia Tardia' and 'Tomasa', are three excellent cultivars of Malaga, but they are harvested
later than 'Pilonga' and 'Temprana', at the end of October, when most of the Spanish chestnut
production is concentrated and prices are usually lower. Moreover. 'Capilla' and 'Tomasa' showed the
highest percentages of split nuts and 'Comente' the highest percentage of poly-embryonic nuts.
Table 2. Main characteristics of Andalusian cultivars.
Cultivar Origin Harvest time Use Male Nutsl Lateral chataignes Split
Catkin kg nut(g) % nuts %
Capill a Malaga 20 - 26 Oct Ind. fresh. poll L 66 17.00 11.00 16.00
Comisaria Huelva 20 Oct- 2 Nov Ind. fresh. poll L 80 13.37 6.00 0.50
Comente Malaga 18Sep-40ct Fresh. poll L 65 18.58 15.50 4.50
Dieguina Huelva 20 Oct - 1 Nov Fresh L&M 87 13.61 8.00 2.50
Helechal Huelva 22 - 29 Oct Ind. fresh B&L 80 ~ 4 . 1 4 7.00 1.50
Pelon Huelva 190ct-1 Nov Marmalades, L 113 10.22 3.54 7.81
Purees, poll
Pilonga Malaga 17 Sep - 4 Oct Ind. fresh. poll L 63 18.32 7.61 8.67
Planta Alajar Huelva 20 - 29 Oct Fresh M 71 16.06 10.50 2.25
Rubia Tardia Malaga 25 Oct Ind. fresh. poll L 49 20.76 10.00 2.50
Temprana Malaga 15 Sep -4 Oct Fresh. poll L 61 18.76 11.67 8.53
Tomasa Malaga 20 - 29 Oct Fresh. poll L 44 24.86 14.38 23.13
Vazquez Huelva 20 Oct- 5 Nov Fresh. indo poll L 73 16.05 4.00 1.50
Use: Ind = industry/processing; poll = poJliniser
Male catkin: L = long-staminate (the best for pollination); M = meso-staminate; B = brachy-staminate
Chataignes: ie % of nuts which have multiple embryos.
In Huelva the four main promising cultivars are 'Comisaria', 'Helechal', 'Planta Alajar' and 'Vazquez' due
to their big nut size and low percentage of split nuts. ' Planta Alajar' showed a higher percentage of
poly-embryonic nuts. In comparison with cultivars of Malaga, all cultivars in Huelva are harvested at the
end of October, the main period for chestnut harvesting in Spain, when prices are lower. 'Pelon' is a
very spread cultivar in Huelva that produces the smallest nuts in Andalusia
Most of the cultivars from Andalusia produce pollen, with the most frequent type of male catkin found
being long-staminate and only 'Planta Alajar' and one accession of 'Oieguina' showed mesostaminate
This article was adapted from: S Pereira & A M Ramos: Chest nut Production in Andalusia.
Nucis-Newsletter Number 12, September 2004.
Book Reviews
The Roots of Health
John Reeves
Pub. by. the author, 2003; 3.00 inc P & P.
Avai lable from: John Reeves, ' Eastleigh' , Greenfield Close, Joys Green, lydbrook, Gloucs. , Gl17 9RD, UK.
Readers of this journal wifl probably know about mycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic fungi whi ch grow
in associ ation with plant roots in trees and many other plants. All mycorrhiza draw sugar from
the plants, and by acting as root extensions, enable the plants to take up minerals from the soil
which the plant alone could not achieve. The process can increase plant mineral content by as
much as 50%.
John Reeves , after farming in Devon and Canada, has spent the last 16 years researching into
the mineral content of plants grown in many different regimes, and relating the mineral content
of plants to their mycorrhizal status. He also highlights the link between plants with high
mineral content and hearth. To my knowledge nobody else has undertaken this research or
linked mycorrhizas with human health before, and, perhaps not surprisingly, he has found that
plants growing with healthy mycorrhizas usually have significantly higher mineral content.
Most of his booklet gives the results of his analysis of plants grown in many different situations,
with and without mycorrhizal associations.
Interestingly, his research indicates that organically grown foods do not necessarily have a
higher mineral content - the mycorrhizal status of the plants has a greater effect. Cultivation of
the soil greatly reduces mycrorrhizal populations, hence no-tillage agriculture, no-dig gardening
and forest gardens are likely> to produce plants containing more minerals and which promote
improved health compared with normally-cultivated plants. An interesting and important
presentation of many years dedicated work.
The Winelands of Britain: Past, Present & Prospective
Richard C Selley
Petravin, 2004; 10.00; 110 pp.
ISBN 0-9547419-0-0.
Vines have grown wild in Britain for over 50 million years; only in the ice age of the last 2 million
have they been absent during the glacial maxima, returning during warmer phases such as
The ' Wine/ands of Britain' maps the ebb and flow of vineyards across the British Isles over the
last 2 millenia. In Roman and Medieval times, vineyards flourished southeast of a line from the
Humber to the Severn. In the ' Uttle Ice Age' of the 15
centuries , however, they were
restricted to the southeast. In the present warm phase, vineyards have nearly reclaimed the
former winelands.
Geology is an important factor in viticulture; in conjunction with climate it determines the soil in
which a vineyard grows and the landscape on which it stands. The author, a professor of
geology, brings the subject to bear on all aspects of viticulture, which makes this an unusual
and fascinating book.
Compendium of edible fruits
(2) shrubs
This compendium tabulates all known shrubs for temperate or continental climates which have
edible fleshy fruits. It is undoubtedly not definitive as there are probably many trees with edible
fruits which have never been written about. Perennials will be covered in the next issue. The
information for this compendium comes from our database of useful plants and previous articles
in Agroforestry News.

. c

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EE ,"

u ~
'u Qj
~ <0 ~ .
,; .E

. ,
E- <
IAmelanchier alnifolia Regent serviceberry 0 V 4 2
cooked, also dri ed; soft. jui cy,
sweet apple-li ke flavour , few small seeds.
10-15 mm.
Amelanchier Oblong fruited 0 V 3 5
'aw 0'
cooked, also dried; soft , juicy,
bartramiana uneberry sweet, few small seeds. 1015 mm.
Amelanchier basalticola 0 V 3 5 raw or cooked; juivy. 9-12 mm.
Amelanchier Downy shadblow 0 V 6 4 ,aw m cooked, also dried; soft, jui cy,
canadensis sweet apple-like flavour, few small seeds.
10 mm.
Amelanchier confusa 0 V 3 5 raw or cooked. 7-9 mm.
Amelanchier cusickii Cusick' s serviceberry 0 V
5 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy. 10 mm.
Amelanchier fernaldii 0 V
5 raw or cooked; juicy.
Amelanchier florida Fl ordia june berry 0 V 1.56 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy.
Amelanchier gaspensis 0 V
4 8-10 mm.
Amelanchier laevis Alleghany 0 V 9 4 raw or cooked, also dried; succulent,
serviceberry sweet, very nice. 10-16 mm.
Amelanchier lamarckii Apple serviceberry 0 V 6 4 ,aw
cooked , also dried; succulent,
sweet, apple-like flavour, very nice. 7-10
ffiffi .
Amelanchier neglecta 0 V 3 4 raw or cooked ; juicy.
Amelanchier obovalis Quebec berry 0 V 1.54 raw or cooked; sweet, jui cy. 6-8 mm.
Amelanchier ovaHs Snowy mespilus 0 V 5 5 raw or (best) cooked; lacking in flavour. I
10 mm.
IAmelanchler paillda
10 Iv
[4 [5 Iraw or cooked' JUIcy 4-6 mm
Amelanchier sanguinea 0 V 3 4 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy.
Amelanchier spicala 0 V 2 4 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy. 6-8 mm.
Amelanchier ulahensis Utah serviceberry 0 V 5 3 raw or cooked, also dried; rather dry and
tasteless. 6-8 mm.
Amelasorbus jackii 0 2 3 raw or cooked; rather dry and tasteless.
6-8 mm.
Amorpha fruticosa False indigo 0 4.54 crushed and used as a condiment
(caution advised ).
Arctostaphylos alpina Black bearberry 0 V 0.0
raw or cooked; juicy, slightly
bitter. 6.10J
5 ffiffi .
Page 17

o .





0; .E

Arctostaphylos Hoary mananita E 2 7 raw or cooked. also dried. 8mm.

x Del Norte mananita E raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostap'hylos Columbia manzanita E Y 1.5 7 raw or cooked; mealy_ 8 mm.
Arctostaphylos Brittleleaf mananita E 2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried. 6-10
crustacea mm
Arctostaphylos Mouse mound E 1 6 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
cl!shingiana mananila
Arctostaphylos E 1 6 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos Sur mana nita E 0. 1 8 raw or (usually) cooked, al so dried.
Arctostaphylos Eastwood's mana nita E 2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos glauca Manzanita E Y 4 8 raw or cooked, also dried and made into a
cider-like drink; dry, little flavour. 18 mm.
Arctostaphylos hooked Monterey pine E 0.3 9 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
mana nita
Arctostaphylos hooved Hoover' s mananUa E 6 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos insularl s Island mana nita E 3 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos luciana Santa Lucia E 2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos Manzanita E Y 2 8 raw or cooked, also dried and ground into
manzanita flour, and made into a drink; acid, dry,
mealy. 8-12 mm.
Arctostaphylos Mariposa mana nita E 3 6 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos x media E 0.2 6 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Si milar to A.uva-ursi.
Arctostaphylos Indian mananita E 2.5 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos Morro mana nita E 2.2 7 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos Nevada bearberry E Y 0.1 6 dried and ground into a flour. 6 mm.
Arctostaphylos Glossyleaf mananita E 2 9 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos Serpentine mananita E 2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos E 2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.

Pajaro mana nita E 2 7 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
Arctostaphylos palula Greenleaf manzanita E Y 2 6 raw or cooked; pleasnlly add, apPlel
flavour, also used for making a cider-l ike
drink. 812 mm.

-_. __ .... _----_ .. __._-,.- --


0 EE



Q .

Arctostaphylos Pecha mana nita
Arctostaphylos pilosula Santa Margarita E
Arctostaphylos pring lei Pringle mananHa E
IArctostaphylos pumlla ISandmat mananlta IE I
Arctostaphylos pungens E
Arctostaphylos Lompoc mana nita E
Arctostaphylos E
Arctostaphylos Refugio mananita E
Arctostaphylos rudis Shagbark mananita E
Arctostaphylos silvicola Santa Cruz mana nita E
Arctostaphylos Stanford manzanita E
Arctostaphylos Shaggy barked E Y
tomentosa manzanita
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Red bearberry E Y
Arctostaphylos McMinn's mananita E
viri dissima
jArctostaphylos visci da Sticky whiteleaf E
!Anstotella chllenSIS IMacqUi
IAronia arbutifolla IRed chokeberry
Aronia melanocarpa Black chokeberry 0
Aronia prunifolia Purple chokeberry 0
Iriloba Pawpaw 0
IAzara mlcrophylla
Berberis aggregata Salmon berberis 0 Y
Berberis amurensis Amur barberry Y
Berberis angulosa 0 Y
Berberis aristata Nepal barberry E Y
IBerberls aSiatica IAslatlc barberry




2 8 raw or (usually) cooked. also dried.
2 7 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
2.5 8 raw or (usuall y) cooked, also dried.
10318 Jraw or (usuall y) cooked also dried
raw or cooked, also dried and ground into I
flour, and made into a drink; acid, dry,
mealy. 8- 12 mm.
1. 5 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
1.5 7 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
2.57 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
2 6 raw or (usuall y) cooked, also dried.
2 8 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
1.56 raw or cooked, also dried. 5-7 mm.
1.58 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet, dry,
mealy, apple-like flavour. 8-10 mm.
0.1 4 raw or cooked - sweet, mealy, insipid.
Made into drinks or preserves. 6-8 mm.
4 7 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
raw or (usually) cooked, also dried.
13 18 Iraw or dried bilberry flavour . 6 mm
13 14
Iraw or cooked, also dried. 7mm.
2.5 4 raw or cooked - good flavour, astri ngent
until fully ri pe. Also dried. High in pectin.
6-9 mm.
3 4 raw or cooked - good flavour, astringent
until fully ripe. Also dried. Hi gh in pectin.
6-9 mm.
4.55 raw or cooked; tropical banana custard
flavour. 100-160 mm long.
16 18 13-5 mm
1.5 6 raw or cooked; acid lemony flavour.
mm, freely borne.
3.56 Raw or cooked; acid.
1 6 raw or cooked; acid flavour. palatable. 12-
15 mm, freely borne.
3.56 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet-acid,
seeds slightly biUer. 10-12 mm x 4-6 mm. I
13. 518 Iraw or cooked, also dried, aCid. 8-10 J
Page 19


Berberis buxi folia
!Berberis canadensis
x carminea
Berberi s chengii
Berberis chitria
Berberis chinensi s
IBerbens cooper.
Berberis darwinii
!Berberis em petri folia
!Berberis fendleri
Berberi s flexuosa
Berberis gagnepainii
Berberis georgii
Berberis heterophylla
Berberis jaeschkeana
Berberis koreana
Berberis Iycium
IBerbens pOlretll
!Berberi s rariflora
IBerberis x rubrostilla
Berberis ruscifolia
!Berberis sheriffii
IBerberis sibirica
Berberis sieboldii
Berberis x stenophylla
IBerbens thunberg II
IBerberis tomentosa
IBerberis verruculosa
IBerberiS vulgaris
Berberis wilsoniae
Callicarpa americana
Callicarpa mollis
Ceanothus fendleri
Cephalotaxus fortunei
Page 20


Magellan barberry
[American barberry
0 Y
Darwin's barberry
!Fuegian barberry
0 V
0 V
Indian barberry E V
ISiberian barberry
10 IV
0 V
!Hairy barberry
10 Iv
[Common barberry
10 Iv
French mulberry 0
Chinese plum yew E N
Harrington plum yew E N



E2 x
. E

11 16
3 4
2.4 5
2 3
1.5 7
1 6
1.5 4
3 6


raw or cooked, used in preserves; sweet, I
slightly astringent. 8 mm, freely borne, _
!raw or cooked ' acid 7-9 mm
Iraw or cooked; acid.
raw or cooked; acid.
raw or cooked.
raw or cooked ; aci d.
Iraw or cooked, aCid.
raw or cooked; acid, pleasant, seedy. 71
mm. Freely borne.
Iraw or cooked. 7 mm.
Iraw or cooked' acid 5 mm
raw or cooked; acid.
raw or cooked. 10 mm.
raw or cooked; acid.
raw or cooked; acid. 6-7 mm.
raw or cooked; acid.
raw or cooked; acid. 8mm.
raw or cooked; juicy, slightly acid, 8-12
11 15 Iraw or cooked; aCid , 10 mm.
I 18-9 1raw or cooked, aCid
11,5 !6 !raw or cooked; acid. To1 Sx 10mm.
raw or cooked; acid. bitter. 6-7 mm.
!raw or cooked acid 6-8 mm
106 13
Jraw or cooked. 7 mm.
1 5 raw or cooked; acid. Smm.
3 7 raw or cooked; sub-acid , good flavour,
Iraw or cooked, dry. poor flavour. 8 mm.
I 18
Iraw or cooked.
!raw or cooked; acid, poor. 10-12 mm.
]raw or cooked acid lemony 10-12 mm
1 6 raw or cooked; very acid, lemony. 6-7
Raw - juicy, sweet , slightly aromatic. 6
2.4 8 5 mm.
2 5 Fruit? 5 mm.
6 7 raw or cooked when fully ripe; pine
flavour. 20-30 mm long.
5 7 raw or cooked when fully ripe: pine
flavour, sweet or astringent. 20-30 mm
. J
Cephalotaxus oliveri E
Cephalolaxus si nensi s Chinese plum yew E
Cephalotaxus wi l soni i E
Chaenomeles x 0
Chaenomeles Chinese quince 0
Chaenomeles x 0
Chaenomeles j aponica Japoni ca 0
Chaenomeles speciosa Japanese quince 0
Chaenomeles x 0
Chaenomeles thibetica Tibetan qui nce 0
Chaenomeles x D
Chionanthus virginicus Fri nge tree 0
Ci t rus ichangensis Ichang papeda E
Citrus junos Yuzu E
Citr us limon l emon E
Citrus meyeri Meyer lemon E
Citrus pseudolimon Hill lemon E
Comptonia peregrina Sweet fern 0
ICoprosma acerosa iSand coprosma
Coprosma areolata E
Coprosma lueida Karamu E
Coprosma nitida Shining coprosma E
Coprosma propinqua Mingimingi E
Coprosma robusta Karamu E
Coprosma rotundifolia Round leaved E
Corema album Portuguese E
Corema conradi i Poverty grass E

~ ~

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'i ~

~ -
'E 2

0; .E

N 3 8
N 5 7
N 10 8
2 5
3 5
1 5
1 5
3 5
1.5 5
3 4?
2.5 5
N 5 4
Y 4.58
Y 4 8
Y 3 9
Y 3 8
Y 4 8
1.5 4
IN 10. 5 18
N 5 9
N 5 8
N 2 8
N 6 7
N 5 9
N 2.4 g
N 0.3 8
N 0.2 3
raw or cooked when fully ripe; pine
ftavour. 20-30 mm long .
raw or cooked when fu ll y npe; pine
flavour. 20-30 mm long.
raw or cooked when fuliV ripe; pine
flavour. 20-30 mm long.
Cooked; fragrant. T060 x 60 mm.
cooked; lemony- fragrant , makes a good
"ell y. 1 0 0 - ~ 5 0 mm long by 90 mm wide.
Cooked; fragrant.
cooked; fragrant ,adds a strong flavour to
' ams and jellies. 3D-SO mm across. Juice
used _ ~ s lemon juice.
cooked; fragrant. 50-65 mm across.
Cooked; fragrant. To60 x 60 mm.
Cooked; fragrant. To 110 x gO mm.
Cooked; fragrant. To 80 mm long.
pickled like oli ves. 15-20 mm long.
raw or cooked; juicy, very aci d, lemony.
Up to 100 x 50 mm.
cooked or used as a lemon jui ce
substitute. 50-70 mm.
raw or cooked; very acid, lemony. Up 10
150 x 70 mm.
raw or cooked; lemony. 60 mm long.
cooked or used as a lemon j uice
young fruits eaten raw; pleasant.
Iraw; sweet, juicy, little fla vour. 8 x 6 mm.
raw; sweet, little flavour. 5 mm across.
raw; sweet, juicy, little flavour. 8-12 mm.
raw - sweet. 68 mm.
raw or cooked; sweet, little ffavour. B mm
raw or cooked; sweet, littl e fla vour.
9 x 51
mm, freely borne.
raw or cooked ; sweet, little fla vour. 3 5
raw or cooked.
raw or cooked; dry. 2-3 mm!
Page 21

Coria ria nepalensis
Coriaria sarmentosa
Coriaria sinica
Coria ria terminalis
ICornus amomum
Cornus florida
Cornus kousa
jCornus occldentails
Icornus sanguinea
ICralaegus aprica
Crataegus baroussana
ICrataegus caesa
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus cuneala
Crataegus intricata
ICrataegus jackii
Crataegus jonesiae
ICrataegus lobulala
Cyathodes colensoi
Oecaisnea fargesi i
Decaisnea insignis
Drimys lanceolata
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Elaeagnus commutata
Elaeagnus x ebbingei
IElaeagnus formosana
Page 22
Tanner's tree o
Wine berry o
ISIIky cornel
10 I
American dogwood 0
Jaoanese dogwood 0
1 1 1
Cocks pur thorn 0
Nippon hawthorn 0
Blue bean 0
Mountain pepper E N
Cleaster 0 N
Silver berry 0 N


2.5 8
1 8
5 8
1.2 8
6 5
7 5
; :
raw or used as a beverage; caution
advi sed as many parts toxic. 8 mm.
raw or used as a beverage; caution i
advised as many paris toxic.
raw or used as a beverage; caution
advised as many parts toxic.
raw or used as a beverage: caution l
advised as many parts toxic. 8 mm.
Iraw or cooked 6-8 mm
cooked (very bitter raw). also made into al
drink; mealy, bitter. To 15 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked; skin bitter, pulp deliCiOUS. ,
15-20 mm.
16 16 Iraw or cooked; bitter, aCid, poor.
13 15 Iraw or cooked; bitler, poor. 8 mm.
raw; sweet. 7 mm.
jraw or cooked' sweet 12 mm
raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant.
1 1
Isweet, pleasant.
10 5 raw or cooked; dry, poor. 10 mm.
1.56 raw or cooked, also dried; pleasant
flavour. 12-15 mm .
3 5 raw, cooked or dried; downy. 14 mm.
!raw or cooked, also dried. 12 mm.
1.5 5 raw or cooked; sweet , mealy,
good ]
flavour. 15-18 mm. ,
Iraw or cooked 15-20 mm
0.3 8 raw; sweet, meal y. rarely seen in Britain.
5 mm.
5 pulp inside blue pods is eaten raw; sweet
delicate melon flavour, good. Pods 100-
130 mm long.
3.5 8 pulp inside blue pods is eaten raw; sweet,
good. Pods 80 mm long.
4.5 8 fruit ;s
used as a pepper aod allspice
7 2 raw or cooked ; dry. sweet, mealy. l
astringent before fully ripe.
10-12 mml
3 2 raw or cooked; dry. sweet, mealY"
astringent before fully ripe. 8 mm long.
5 6 raw or cooked; sweet, mealy, astringent j
before fully ripe. 15-20 mm long. I
Iraw or cooked.
Elaeagnus fragrans
Elaeagnus grabra
El aeagnus gonuanthes
Elaeagnus latifolia Bastard or easi er
Elaeagnus macrophylla
!Elaeagnus x maritima t
Elaeagnus montana
EJaeagnus multiflora
Elaeagnus oldhamii
Elaeagnus pun gens
IElaeagnus pyriformis
Elaeagnus x reflexa
Elaeagnus thunbergi!
Elaeagnus umbellata
Elaeagnus yoshino!
Empetrum eamesli
Empetrum nigrum
Cherry elaeagnus
Autumn olive
Siberian ginseng
Purple crowberry
o N
o N
o N
o N
10 IN
o N
Empetrum rubrum South
American E N
Ephedra distachya Sea grape
Ephedra gerardiana Pakistani ephedra
Ephedra viridis Mormon tea
Epigaea asiatica
!Epigaea repens !Trailing arbutus
Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava
Forest!era acuminata Swamp privet
mexican a
neo- Desert olive


raw or cooked; dry, sweet , mealy,
astringent before fully ripe.
6 8 raw or cooked; dry, sweet, mealy,
astringent before fully ripe. 12-20 mm.
raw or cooked.
9 raw or cooked; acid, astringent before
ful ly ripe.
3 7 raw or cooked; dry, sweet, mealy, good
fl avour, astringent before fully ripe. 20-30
mm long, ripens in Apri l-May.
[ I Iraw or cooked.
raw or cooked ; dry, sweet, mealy,
astringent before fully ripe.
3 6 raw or cooked; pleasantly acid , mealy,
astri ngent before fully ripe. 12-25 mm.
raw or cooked.
raw or cooked; sub-acid, mealY' 1
astringent before fully ripe. 12-19 mm.
jraw or cooked.
4.5 7 raw or cooked. Ripens in spring.
raw or cooked.
4.5 3 raw or cooked; juicy, sweet , astringent
before fully ripe. 6-12 mm.
raw or cooked; dry, sweet , mealy,
astringent before fully ripe.
2 3 raw; juicy, bittersweet. 7 mm.
0.2 3
0.1 3
0.3 3
raw or (usually) cooked, best after a frost;
watery flavour.
raw or cooked. 4 mm.
raw or cooked, best after a frost; poor,
watery. 5-6 mm. Made into a drink with
0.3 8 raw ro cooked.
1 6 raw; sweet, juicy, insipid. 6-7 mm.
0.6 7 raw - sweet. 5-7 mm.
1.8 9 raw - sweet.
0. 1 4
10.1 12
3 8
3 5
10 mm.
18 mm.
raw or cooked; delicious,
strawberry-pineapple flavour,
vitamin C. 50-75 mm long.
raw; chewed.
rich in
3 6 a possible ol ive substitute (?pickled). 4-8
mm long.
Page 23




.- -

IFuchsia colensoi
Fuchsia excorticata Tree fuchsia 0
Fuchsia procumhens Trailing Queen 0 Y
Gaultheria adenothrix E
IGaulthena antarctica
IGaultheria anti pod a ITakapo taupuka
!Gaultheria cuneata
IGaultheria forrestii
Gaultheria Indian wintergreen E
hispida ITasmanian waxberry
Gaultheria hispidula Moxie plum E
Gaultheria humifusa Alpine wintergreen E
Gaultheria lanceolata E
!Gaulthena minima
Gaultheria miquellana Miquel E
Gaultheria E Y
Gaultheria ovatifolia Mountain E
Gaultheria procumbens Creeping wintergreen E Y
Gaultheria pumila E N
Gaultheria pyroloides E
Iq .C3.ulthena rupestns
Gaultheria shallon Salal
IGaultheria tetramera
IGaultheria trichophylla
IGaultheria wardii
f aY'USSaCia baccata
Black huckleberry 0
Gaylussacia brachycera Box huckleberry E
Gaylussacia dumosa Dwarf huckleberry 0
Page 24





110 19
jraw or cooked" juicy sweet
10 9 raw or cooked; juicy, sweet. To 25
long. ,
0.1 9 raw poor. 18 mm.
0.3 9 raw or cooked, al so used for wine; sweet.
6 mm. I
!raw or cooked.
Iraw or cooked; sweet, juicy. 12 mm.
Iraw or cooked.
Jraw or cooked
1 9 raw (0 cooked. 8 mm.
10.9 19
!raw or coooked; slightly bitter. 8-12 mm.
0.1 6 raw or cooked, used ;n preserves; sUb- I
acid, pleasant, delicate wintergreen
flavour. 6 mm.
0.1 7 raw or cooked, used in preserves; sUb 1
acid. pleasant. delicate wintergreen 1
flavour. 67 mm.
1.5 7 raw or cooked.
11 17 Iraw or cooked
0.2 6
0. 1 9
0.1 6
0.1 4
0.0 7
0.1 6
1 6
0.4 6
0.3 6
raw or cooked; sweet. 10 mm.
raw or cooked; good. 8 mm.
raw or cooked; spicy, delicious. 6 mm.
raw or cooked, best after frosts;
wintergreen flavour. 1018 mm.
raw or cooked. 6 mm.
raw or cooked. 68 mm.
Iraw or cooked.
raw. cooked or dried; sweet, juicy.
flavour. 10 mm.
Iraw or cooked.
Iraw or cooked.
Iraw or cooked
strong I
gOOd !
raw or cooked; sweet, spicy, delicious.
raw or cooked; tasteless. 12 mm.
raw or cooked; juicy. can be good.
[Gaylussacia frondosa IOwarf huckleberry [raw or cooked ; sweet, jui cy. 8-12 mm.
!Gaylussacia ursi na [Bear huckleberry [raw or cooked; sweet, insipid. 8-12 mm.
[bitter [Griselinia littoralis
Hippophae rhamnoides Sea buckthorn 0 N 6 3
cooked, jui ce widely used
drinks; acid (needs sweetening for most
folk), good flavour. 10-15 mm long.
Holodiscus discolor Ocean spray 0 3 5 raw or cooked; poor, dry, small.
Holodiscus dumosus Rock spiraea 0 4.54 raw or cooked; poor, dry, smalr.
lIex aquifol ium Common holly E N 9 6 roasted as a coffee substitute - caution
advised (may be emetic).
Hex coriacea
Large gallberry E N 3 7 caution advised (may be emetic). 6-10
mm .
Illicium anisatum
Japanese star anise E 6 7 used as a flavouring and chewed to
sweeten the breath. 25 mm.
Juniperus communis
Common juniper E N 9 2 raw or cooked . also dried; aromatic. Used
as a flavouring and
essential oil.
Pregnant/kidney patients should avoid. 4-
8 mm.
uniperus conferta Shore juniper E N 0. 1 5 raw or cooked. 8- 10 mm.
Juniperus horizontal is Creeping juniper E N 1 4 roasted to make a coffee. Caution
Lindera benzoin Spice bush 0 N 3 5 dried and powdered as an allspice
Lonicera angustifolia Narrow leaved 0 Y 2.7 5 raw; sweet, pleasant. 6 mm.
Lonicera caerulea Blue honeysuckle 0 N 2 2 raw or cooked; subacid, pleasant. 6-15
mm long.
Lonicera chrysantha 0 4 3 raw. 7 mm.
Lonicera gracilipes 0 1.86 raw. 10 mm. Caution advised - may be
Lonicera involucrata Twi n berry 0 1. 24 raw or dried; bitter. 8 mm.
Lonicera morrowi 0 2 3 raw. 7 mm. Caution advised may be
Lonicera villosa 0 1.5 2 raw or preserved; mild, biUer.
Lophomyrtus bullata Ramarama E 5 9 raw or cooked ; guava flavour. 8-10 mm
with many seeds.
Luma apiculata Luma E Y 6 9 ,aw
cooked; sweet , july, succulent .
variable. 10 mm.
Lycium andersonii Anderson wolfberry 0 raw or cooked. al so dried.
Lycium barbarum Box thorn 0 2.5 7 ,aw
DC cooked; mild sweet
flavour. 20-25 mm.
]LYCiUm berlandieri
1 1 1
[raw or cooked.
Lycium carolinianum Carolina wolfberry E 1.5 8 raw or cooked; pleasant, salty. T012mm 1
Lycium fremontii 0 3 raw or cooked.
Lycium pallidum Rabbit thorn 0 1.8 6 raw or cooked. alsop dried. 10 mm.
ILycium rutheni cum
!Mahonia aquifolium
Mahonia fremont ii

IMahonia ganpinensis
JRussian box thorn
IMountain grape
Mahonia haematocarpa Mexican barberry
IMahonia japonica
Mahonia napaulensis
!Mahonia nervosa
10regon grape
Mahonia nevini!
IMahonia pinnata
IMahonia repens IHolly grape
Mahonia swaseyi Texas mahonia
Margyricarpus pinnatus Pearl berry
jFalse huckleberry
Mitchella repens Squaw vine
Myrica californi ca California.r bayberry
Myrica cerifera Wax myrtle
Myrica gale Sweet gale
Myrica heterophylla Bayberry
Myrica pensylvanica Bayberry
Myrsine africana Cape myrtle
Myrtus communi s Myrtle
lNandina domestica ISacred bamboo
Nemopanthus Mountain holly
Oemleria cerasiformis 050 berry
jOsmanthus fragrans jFragrant olive
10steomeles schwerinae I
Pachysandra terminalis Japanese

Page 26
;;; c


(j lll

[0 [
[E [
0 N
[E [
0 N


. a:;


'E 2


2.5 8
0.3 9
jraw or cooked; sweet, insipid. 6 mm.
jraw or cooked; aci d, seedy. 7- 10 mm.
raw or (usually) cooked; acid, seedy. 15 :
mm long .
!raw or cooked.
raw or cooked; acid, jui cy, seedy. 6-8 i
mm. 1
Jraw or cooked: aci d, seedy. 9 mm,
raw or cooked, also dried; acid , seedy. 121
mm long.
Iraw or cooked; acid , seedy. 6 8 mm.
raw or cooked; acid lemony flavour, ,I
seedy. 6 mm.
Iraw or cooked acid seedy 6 mm
Iraw or cooked; acid , seedy. 9-10 mm.
raw or (usually) cooked. ; acid , seedy. 15
raw or cooked; slightly acid , mild flavour, !
white. 47 mm.
11 8 16 Jraw or dried 5-7 mm
0.0 3
4 7
9 6
2 1
3 6
3 2
0.7 9
4.5 8
[2.5 [7
3 5
2.5 6
raw; sweet, insipid, hangs well.
6-1 0 mm. 1
cooked, used for flavouring; aromati c, 6
mm in clumps.
cooked, used for flavouring: aromati c, 3
mm in clumps.
cooked , used for flavouring ; aromatic,
mm in clumps.
cooked, used for flavouring ; aromatic, 3
mm in clumps.
cooked, used for flavouring; aromati c, 3
mm in clumps.
dried and added t o pepper as a spice.
raw or cooked: aromatic flavouring.
16.10 mm. Caution advised .
6 mm, rarely borne.
raw or (usually) cooked; bitter, poor,
15 mm. Caution advised.
Junrlpe frurts preserved In brine like olives.
Jraw; sweet , white. 8 mm.
raw; sweet , juicy, rarely borne
culti vation.
in l

L ' ~


' i H ~

r ~

! ! ~
'ES -'-
-. a
0; .E


Peraphyllum Squaw apple 0 1. 8 5 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet, bitter
ramosissimum aftertaste. 8-10 mm.
Photini a grabra Japanese pholini a E 6 7 dried. Smm.
jPhollnla villosa
15 14 18 mm
!Pimelea arenaria ]Autetauranga
IE IN 10.219 13 mm!
Pimelea prost rata Pinataro E 0.1 9 2 mm!
Podocarpus nivalis Alpine totara E N 3 7 raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant. 7 mm
Poncirus tri foliata Japanese bitter 0 Y 3 5 flesh cooked or used for juice. skin
orange marmalade; acid, bitter raw. 20-30 mm.
Prinsepia sinensis Cherry prinsepi a 0 1.8 4 raw or cooked; juicy, pleasantly sour. 15
mm long. Doesn' t fruit freel y In UK.
Prinsepia uniflora 0 1.8 5 raw or cooked; juicy. 12-15 mm. Doesn't
fruit freely in UK.
Prinsepia utilis 0 3.5 7 raw or cooked; sloe-like. 12-18 mm long.
Prunus apelala 0 5 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
Prunus besseyi Rocky mountain 0 1.2 3
'aw 0'
cooked, al so dried; sweetish,
cherry astringent. 18 mm.
Prunus bifrons 0 1.5 5 raw or cooked. 8mm.
Prunus campanulata Taiwan cherry 0 6 8 raw or cooked; astringent. 11 x 15mm.
Prunus canescens Greyleaf cherry 0 3 6 raw or cooked; cherry flavour. 10- 12 mm.
Prunus curdlca 0 0.56 raw or cooked; astringent, aci d.
Prunus x eminens 0 3 4 raw or cooked; sour.
Prunus fasciculata Desert almond 0 3 7 raw or cooked. 12 mm.
Prunus fruticosa Ground cherry 0 1.3 2 Cooked; sour, cherry flavour.
Prunus glandulosa Dwarf flowering 0 1 4 cooked (preserved or pickled). 10 mm.
Prunus gracilis Prairie cherry 0 1.2 6 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried; poor
quality. 15-18 mm.
Prunus gymnodonta 0 5 raw or cooked.
Iprunus humilis !Bunge cherry
ICooked; acid. 12- 15 mm.
Prunus ili cifolia Holl y leaved cherry E 4 9 raw. cooked
dried. 12-16 mm, thin
Prunus incisa Fuji cherry 0 6 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
Prunus insititia Bullace. damson 0 N 6 6 raw or cooked. To 20-30 mm.
Prunus japonica Japanese pl um E 1.5 4 raw or cooked; sweet or sour. 12-14mm.
Prunus kansuensis 0 6 4 cooked; poor.
Prunus laurocerasus l aurel E 6 7 raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant. 8 mm.
Caution advised.
Prunus lusi tanica Portuguese laurel E 6 7 fooked if nol biUer. S mm. Caution
cherry advised.
Prunus maritima Beach plum 0 2.5 3 ,aw m cooked; can be sweet and
pleasant. 12-25 mm.
Prunus nipponica Japanese alpine 0 5 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
, c-.. _
Page 27
~ c


"v ~
'0 EE
o ~

uO> ~ -
~ 2
u is
x 0.

IPrunus x orthosepala
Iraw or cooked; juicy, pleasant. 25 mm.
Jprunus prostrata IRoCk cherry
!raw or cooked; poor. 8-12 mm.
Prunus pumila Sand cherry raw or cooked; pleasantly acid, i

sometimes biUer. 8-12 mm.
IPrunus rivularis !Creek plum jraw or cooked excellent flavour 15 mm.
Prunus sibirica Siberian apricot 0 3 5 raw or cooked; sour, poor. 25 mm
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn 0 3 4 raw or (usually) cooked; astringent, best
after frosts. 10-15 mm.
IPrunus tang utIca
10 1
14 15 jraw or cooked 20 mm
Prunus tenella Dwarf Siberian 0 0.8 2 raw or cooked; pleasant. 25 mm.
al mond
Prunus tomenta sa Downy cherry 0 2 2 raw or cooked; juicy, sub-acid to sweet.
Unripe fruits can be pickled. 10-12 mm.
JPrunus ursina IBear plum
Iraw or cooked. 2Smm.
Prunus ussuriensis Ussuri plum 0 6 5 raw or co_oked; good.
Prunus virgi niana Choke cherry 0 3.6 2 raw or (usually) cooked, also dried; I
astringent raw, juicy, normally sweetened. ,
6-8 mm.
IPyracantha angustlfoha IFlre thorn Ipoor quallty. 6 mm.
JPyracantha coccinea IPyracanth Jcooked caution advised 5-6 mm
Pyracanth a crenulata Nepalese white thorn E 6 7
Pyronia veitchH 0 5 6 raw or cooked; sweet, good flavour when
ripe. Like a small pear to 80 mm long.
Rhamnus croce us Redberry E 4 8 raw; sweet. Caution advised, can cause
skin to tinge red! 6 mm.
Rhus aromatica Fragrant sumach 0 1.2 3 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in l
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink;
small. downy fruit in large heads.
Rhus copallina Mountain sumach 0 2 5 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in '
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink; I
small, downy fruit in large heads.
Rhus glabra Smooth sumach 0 3 2 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink;
small, downy fruit in large heads.
Rhus integrifolia lemonade berry E 2 9
raw or cooked, but usually soaked i ~ I
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink;
small, downy fruit in large heads.
Rhus x pulvinata 0 3 3 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in I
water t ~ make a lemon-flavoured drink;
_ small, downy fruit in large heads.
Rhus trilobata Squaw bush 0 1.8 3 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in I
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink;
small, downy fruit in large heads. I
Rhus typhina Stag horn sumach 0 6 3 raw or cooked, but usually soaked in
water to make a lemon-flavoured drink; I
small , downy fruit in large heads.



EE ,"


a. o c
.. .E
. ,

E- <
t ibes aciculare
Needle spined 0 1 3 raw or cooked; sweet, tasty.
fRibes alpestris
Hedge gooseberry 0 3 6 ra w or cooked. 16 mm.
!Ribes al pinum
!Alpine currant
10 IN 112 12
!raw or cooked; insi pid. 5 mm.
Ribes altissimum Hedge gooseberry 0 3 6 raw or cooked; thick skinned.
Ri bes amarum
Bitler gooseberry 0 raw or cooked; bitter.
Ri bes ambiguum 0 0.6 6 raw or cooked; acid, bristly. 12 mm.
Ribes americanum
American 0 1. 8 2 raw or cooked; variable f lavour. 10 mm.
Ribes aureum
Golden currant 0 2.4 2 caw
cooked; acid, good flavour. 5-6
Ribes bracteosum
Californian black 0 2.5 7 raw or cooked; poor. 5-8 mm.
Ribes burejense
0 1 5 raw or cooked; acid, good flavour lale on.
10 mm.
Ribes californicum
0 7 raw or cooked.
Ribes cereum
Wax currant 0 1.8 5 raw, cooked or 6
Ribes cruentum 0 raw or cooked.
Ribes curvatum 0 1 7 raw or cooked. 8mm.
Ribes cynosbati Prickly wild 0 1. 5 2 raw or cooked; sub acid, pleasant. 10
.. _---

mm, bri stly.
Ribes diacanthum 0 N 1.8 2 raw or cooked; sweet
acid. 5 mm.
Ri bes distans 0 N 1.8 2 raw or cooked; poor
Ribes diva rica tum Worcesterberry 0 2.7 4 raw or cooked; acid, jui cy. 10
Ribes emodense 0 6 raw or cooked.
Ribes fasciculatum 0 N 1.5 5 raw or cooked; unpalatable:. 5 mm.
Ribes fragrans 0 0.6 3 raw or 8 mm.
Ribes gayanum E 1. 5 8 raw or cooked; good flavour. 8 mm, hairy.
Ribes glaciale 0 raw or cooked; acid.
Ribes glandulosum Fetid currant 0 0.4 2 r aw or cooked; jui cy, palatable. 6
8 mm,
bristl y.
Ribes griffithii 0 raw or cooked; acid.
Ribes hi rtellum Hairy gooseberry 0 1 4 raw or cooked, also dried; pleasant. 8-10
Ribes horridum 0 raw or cooked; acid, succulent.
Ri bes x houghtonianum 0 2 5 raw or cooked; like redcurrants.
Ri bes hudsonianum Hudson bay currant 0 1 2 raw or cooked. 51 0 mm.
Ribes inebriens 0 2 4 raw or cooked. 5mm.
Ribes inerme 0 2 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
Ri bes irriguum 0 3 4 raw or cooked. 7- 13 mm.
Ribes janczewskii 0 raw or cooked; like blackcurrants.
japonicum 0 7 raw or cooked.
Ribes lacustre Swamp gooseberry 0 1.5 4 raw or cooked; acid, juicy, 5mm.
Ribes latifolium 0 raw or cooked.
- -




'0 EE ,"


'u Q;

IRibes laurifolium
Ribes laxiflorum
Ribes leptanlhum Trumpet gooseberry 0
!Ribes lobbii [Gummy gooseberry
[Ribes longeracemosum
IRibes luridum
[Ribes magellanicum
Ribes malvaceum Chaparral currant
Ribes mandschuricum
IRibes maximowiczii
IRibes menziesii ICanyon gooseberry
IRibes mescalerium
Ribes meyeri 0
Ribes missouriense Missouri gooseberry 0
Ribes montigenum Gooseberry currant 0
IRlbes multlflorum
IRi __ nevadense ISierra currant
IRibes x nidigrolaria !JOstaber ry
Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant 0 Y
Ribes niveum Slender branched 0
Ribes odoratum Clove currant 0
Ri bes oxyacanthoides American mountain 0
gooseber ry
paucifl orum 0
Ribes petiolare 0
Ribes petraeum Rock red cur rant 0
IR,bes plnetorum
Ribes procumbens
IRibes punctatum
IRibes quercetorum !Rock gooseberry
IRibes x robustum
IRibes roezti-i
ISierra gooseberry
Ribes rotundi f ol i um Eastern wi ld 0
[Ribes rubr um !Redcurrant
IRi bes sachalinense
IWinter currant
Page 30


.... -=



Jraw or cooked; like blackcurrants.
raw or cooked, also dried.
1 6 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
Iraw or cooked.
13.5 16
[raw or cooked; good flavour. 10 mm.
11 15
Iraw or c()_()ked ;acid.
[raw or coo.ked_: pleasant.
raw or cooked.
6 raw or cooked. 10 mm.
127 16
jraw or cooked: good. 10 mm.
1,8 17 [raw or cooked
1 I
[raw O! __
1 7 raw or cooked; pleasant.
2 5 raw or cooked; rich, acid f lavour.
mm, smooth skin.
0.7 6 raw or cooked . 10 mm.
12 16 or cooked. 7- 10 mm.
1t .5 17 jraw or cO()ked.
118 J6 Iraw or cooked good 12-1 5 mm
1.8 5 raw or cooked; excellent aromati c fla vour. I
10-15 mm.
2.7 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
2.5 5 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet. 10-12 1
mm. !
1.5 2 raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant. 10-12\
11.5 1 .. . j
1.5 raw or .cooked; blackcurrants.
1.5 3 raw or cooked. 10 mm.
1.8 6 raw .. or cel_oked; acid, good but seedy.
!6 or_c()Clk.ed .. , .. To 15 mm.
raw or cooked; excellent.
()r 6 mm. !
/rav.' aCi.(j. i
raw or cooked; very good flavour. 6-8 !
mm. !
Iraw or c()oked; acid, good. 8-10 mm. j
!raw or pleasant.
Ribes setosum
tRibes sinanense
Ribes speciosum
tRibes spicatum
Ribes stenocarpum
tRibes !risle
Ribes ussuriense
Ribes uva-crispa
IRlbes valdrvlanum
tRibes vel utinum
jRibes vi burnifolium
!Ribes viscosissimum
Ribes warszewiczii
Ribes wolfii
Rosa aciculari s
Rosa arkansana
Rosa banksiae
Rosa blanda
Rosa caJifornica
Rosa canina
Rosa carolina
Rosa centi folia
Rosa chinensis
Rosa coriifolia
Rosa corymbifera
IRosa cymosa
Rosa dumalis
Rosa garlica
Rosa gigantea
Rosa gymnocarpa
Rosa hemsleyana
EE 0'
Redshoot gooseberry 0
INordic currant
IAmerican red currant 10
Gooseberry 0



10 1
Sticky currant 0
Pri ckly rose 0 Y
Low prairie rose 0
Banks' rose 0
Meadow rose 0
0 Y
Dog rose 0 Y
Carolina rose 0
Cabbage rose 0 Y
China rose 0
0 Y
0 Y
French rose 0
Manipur wild tea rose 0
Wood rose 0


'Gj e




1.2 5
1 1
2 8
1 7
1. 5 3
3 6
2.5 2
1.2 4
10 7
2 2
3 3
1.5 4
6 7
2 5
3 6
112 17
2 4
2 5
15 9
3 6


raw or cooked; sub-acid, pleasant. 10
Iraw or cooked.
raw or cooked; brislly.
Iraw or cooked.
raw or cooked; acid. hairy. 25 mm.
Iraw or cooked" acid seedy 6 mm
raw or cooked. 8 mm.
raw or cooked; sweet and delicious when
ripe. 10-30 mm.
Iraw or cooked
]raw or cooked.
raw or cooked. 8 mm.
raw or cooked. 10 mm.
raw or cooked; acid, good. 10 mm.
raw or cooked.
raw or cooked, also made into syrups or
dried; rich sweet flavour, best after frosts.
15 mm long, thin flesh.
raw or cooked, also made into syrups or
dried; best after frosts. 15 mm long, thin
raw or cooked. 6-7 mm, thin flesh.
Raw or cooked,also dried. 10 mm, thin
raw or cooked. 10-15 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked, also made int o syrups etc.
12-30 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked; acid, tasty. B mm,
thin I
raw or cooked; best after frosts. 12 mm,
thin flesh.
raw or cooked. 20 mm, thin ffesh.
raw or cooked. 25 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked; sweet, delicious. 12-20
mm, thi n flesh.
Iraw or cooked. 7 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked. 15-22 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked. 12 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked. To 30 mm, thin flesh.
raw or cooked; best after frosts. 6-10 mm,
thin flesh.
raw or cooked. 5 mm, thin flesh.
IRosa laevlgata ICherokee rose Iraw or cooked. 18-40 mm long , thin flesh.
Page 31
IRosa macrophylla
10 Iv
IRosa majalis ICinnamon rose
10 Iv
IRosa manca
10 I
IRosa micranlha
10 I
JRosa moyesii IMoyes rose
iRosa moschata IMusk rose
10 1
Rosa multiflora Japanese rose 0
Rosa nutkana Ash leaved rose 0 V
Rosa pimpinellifolia
Scotch rose 0 V
IRosa pisocarpa !Mortar rose
Rosa roxburghii Burr rose 0
Rosa rugosa Ramanas rose 0 V
IRosa se(lcea
10 IV
Rosa setipoda 0
Rosa sherardii 0
Rosa sweginzowii 0
Rosa tomentosa 0
Rosa villosa Apple rose 0 V
IRosa vlrglnlana
IRosa webbiana
Rosa woodsii Wood's rose 0
IRubus adenophorus
Rubus allegheni ensis Mountain blackberry 0 V
Rubus amabilis 0
IRubus bellobatus [Klttatlnny blackberry
10 IV
IRubus biflorus
10 I
]RUbUS buergeri
10 1
Rubus caesius European dewberry 0 V
Rubus canadensis American dewberry 0
IRubus corchonfollus
IRubus corea nus
IRubus crataegifolius
Rubus cuneifolius Sand blackberry
Page 32
Iraw or cooked. 2540 mm long, thin flesh.
Iraw or cooked. 10 16 mm, thin flesh.
1 I
/raw or cooked. Thin flesh .
Iraw or cooked. 12- 18 mm, thin flesh.
Iraw or cooked 10-15 mm thin flesh
Iraw or cooked. 5060 mm long, thin flesh. I
5 5 raw or cooked. 6-7 mm, thin flesh. ,
2.7 4 raw or cooked; juicy, acid,
best after l
frosts. 15-20 mm, thin flesh
raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant 15 mm' l
thin flesh.
12.5 16
]raw or cooked. 8-13 mm, thin flesh.
5 raw or cooked; aromatic, spiny. 30-40 mml
tong, thin flesh.
2 2 raw or cooked; sweet, pleasant. 25 mm' l
flesh thicker than most roses.
125 16 Iraw or cooked 8-15 mm thin flesh
6 raw or cooked. 25-75 mm
long, bristly, I
thin flesh.
5 raw or cooked. 12-20 mm, thin flesh.
6 raw or cooked . To 25 mm long., thin flesh.
3 6 raw or cooked. 18-25 mm, thin flesh.
1.8 5 raw or cooked. 25-30 mm diameter, thin
[1.5 J3 [raw or cooked. 15 mm, thin flesh.
12 16 Jraw or cooked 15-25 mm thin flesh
raw or cooked; best after frosts. 10-15
mm, thin flesh.
12.5 16
Iraw or cooked; good. 10-12 mm.
3 3 raw, cooked or dried; sweet, spi cy
flavour. 12-30 mm long.
2 6 raw or cooked; sweet, good flavour. 15
Iraw or cooked. 30 mm long.
Iraw or cooked; sweet, pleasant. 20 mm.
1 16
]raw or cooked 25 mm
0.2 5 raw or cooked; succul ent, good flavour "
2.5 3 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy, rich flavour. I
To 25 mm long.
12.5 16 [raw or cooked, VinOUS, good.
13 16 ]raw or cooked; poor flavour, small.
12.5 15 Iraw or cooked; sweet, good. A raspberry.
raw or cooked; dry, sweet, good flavour. 9




0 o.
u EE

0 E.

0 OC
.. .E


Rubus del iciosus Boulder raspberry 0 3 5 raw or cooked ; dry, seedy, good flavour.
15 mm.
Rubus ellipticus Yellow Himalayan E 4.58 raw or cooked; sweet-acid, good flavour.
Rubus flagellaris Northern dewberry 0 0.2 3 raw or cooked; rich flavour. 15 mm.
Rubus frondosus
Brainerd's blackberry 0 Y 0.8 5 raw or cooked.
jRubus fruticosus IBlaCkberry
6 raw or cooked; delicious. To 30 mm long.
!RubUS geoides
10.6 1
Iraw or cooked; juicy, good flavour.
Rubus glaucus !Andes black 0 Y 3 8 raw or cooked ; acid, juicy, good flavour.
raspberry To 30 mm long.
Rubus hirsutus 0 raw or cooked .
Rubus hispidus Swamp dewberry E 0.2 3 raw or cooked; acid, mediocre. 10-12 mm.
Rubus ichangensis 0 0.3 7 raw or cooked; good flavour, smal l.
Rubus idaeus Raspberry 0 Y 2 3 raw or cooked; delicious. To 30 mm long.
Rubus iIIecebrosus S tra wbe rry- rasp berry 0 0.6 5 <ow
cooked; sweet , i nsipid. 30 mm
Rubus kuntzeanus 0 3 6 raw or cooked; good flavour. 15-20 mm.
Rubus laciniatus Fern leaved bramble 0 2.5 5 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy, good flavour.
12-15 mm long.
Rubus lasiostylus 0 1.8 7 raw or cooked; mediocre. 25 mm.
Rubus leucodermis lJII estern raspberry 0 2.5 4 raw or cooked; good flavour.
Rubus loganobaccus Boysenberry 0 Y 2.5 8 raw or cooked; pleasant acid flavour. To
40 mm.
Rubus microphyllus Mayberry 0 9 raw or cooked; acid. 20 mm.
Rubus nepalensis Nepalese raspberry E 0.2 8 raw or cooked; good flavour. Fruits well in
part shade.
Rubus niveus

0 4 9 raw or cooked; juicy, rich flavour, small.
Rubus occidentalis Black raspberry 0 3 3 raw or cooked; variable quality. 15mm.
Rubus odoratus Purple flowering 0 2.5 3 ra w or cooked; acid, dry.
Rubus parviflorus Thi mble berry 0 2.5 3 ,aw
cooked, also dried. Sweet ,
pleasant. 20 mm.
Rubus parvifolius Japanese raspberry 0 0.6 6 raw or cooked ; juicy, good flavour, small.
Rubus parvus Creeping lawyer E N 0.2 9 raw or cooked; sweet. 12-25 mm.
Rubus pedatus Trailing wild 0 raw or cooked; j uicy, good flavour.

Rubus peltatus 0 7 raw or cooked.
Rubus phoenicolasius Japanese wineberry 0 3 5
'aw 0'
cooked; sweet, juicy, good. 20
Rubus rosaefol i us E 1 9 raw or cooked; insipid.
Rubus saxatilis Stone bramble 0 Y 0.3 4 raw or cooked; acid, good. 7mm.
Rubus setchuensis 0 3.5 5 raw or cooked; good flavour.
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry 0 1.8 5 raw, cooked or dried; juicy, good ffavour.
Rubus tricolor Creeping bramble E 0.3 7 raw or cooked; good flavour. 15 mm.
Rubus trifidus E 2 6 raw or cooked; good flavour.
Rubus trivialis Southern dewberry
!Rubus ursinus IWestern blackberry to
IRubus villosus IHigh bush blackberry 10
Sambucus caerulea Blue berried elder 0
Sambucus callicarpa Red elderberry 0
Sambucus canadensis American elderberry 0 N
Sambucus melanocarpa Black elder o
Sambucus mexicana Mexican elderberry o
Sambucus microbotrys o
Sambucus nigra Elder
o y
Sambucus pubens Scarlet elderberry o
Sambucus racemosa European red elder o
Sambucus sieboldiana o
Sambucus williamsii o
Schinus polygamus Peruvian pepper tree E N
Shepherdia argentea Buffalo berry 0 N
Shepherdia canadensis Russet buffalo berry 0 N
Solanum aviculare
Solanum laciniatum
ISolanum muncatum
Sorbus gracili s
Sorb us scopulina
Sorbus sitchensls
ISymplocos panlculata
!Vaccinium alaskaense
accinium amoenum
Page 34
Kangaroo apple
Kangaroo apple
Western mountain
Sitka mountain ash
ISapphlre berry
I A I ~ ' s k a blueberry


raw or cooked; juicy, sweet, good flavour.
10-15 mm.
/raw or cooked, also dried; sweet. 25 mm.
jraw or cooked- good quality 12-25 mm
raw, cooked, used in preserves; ripe fruit l
is pleasant raw. 6 mm in large heads.
Caution advised with raw fruits. I
raw, cooked or dried. 5 mm in large
heads. Caution advi sed with raw fruits.
raw or (usually) cooked or dried. Caution I
advised with raw fruits.
4 6 raw or cooked. 6 mm in large heads.
Caution advised with raw fruits.
raw or cooked. 6 mm in large
Caution advised with raw fruits.
headS. ,
2 6 raw or cooked. 4 mm in large heads.
Caution advised with raw fruits.
6 5 raw or cooked. also made into wine. 8
mm in large heads. Caution advised with
raw fruits.
4 4
3 4
4 6
raw or cooked; bitter. 5 mm in large
heads. Caution advised with raw fruits.
raw or cooked; good flavour. 5 mm inl
large heads. Caution advised with raw
raw or cooked. Caution advised with .. r .. a.wl
fruits. .
raw or cooked. 5 mm. Caution advised
with raw fruits.
4.5 10 used as a flavouring; peppery.
4 2 raw or cooked. also dried; acid. pieasant' l
sweeter after frosts. 6-9 mm.
2.5 2 raw or cooked. also dried; acid. pleasant,
sweeter after frosts. 5 mm.
1.8 9
3 9
2 6
4 5
1.8 5
raw or cooked; poor quality,
unripe. 15-20 mm.
raw or cooked; poor quality,
unripe. 15-20 mm.
pOisonous l
poisonous I
/raw JUICY sweet aromatiC melon flavour I
raw or cooked. 1018 mm.
raw, cooked or dried; bitter, best
frosts or bletting. 5 mm.
raw or cooked; best after frosts.
6-12 mmj
in clusters.
[cooked. 8 mm.
Iraw or cooked ; sweet.
raw or cooked. 8 mm.

o .


EE , "


'E 2
Eii . -"
, .
0 '
0; .E



Vaccinium Low bush blueberry 0 0.2 2 ra w or cooked; sweet, pleasant fl avour. 6-
angustifolium 12 mm.
!VaCCinium arbuscula 0 0.6 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium Caucasian 0 3 7 raw or cooked; sweet, good. 10 mm.
arctostaphylos whorUeberry
IVaccini um ashei !Rabbi! eye blueberry
10 IN 15 IB
Iraw or cooked; good fla vour.
10- 20 mm.
Vaccinium x attanticum 0 1 raw or cooked ; sweet. To 20 mm.
Vaccinium atrococcum Black high bush 0 N 3.5 4 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy, good fl avour. I
blueberry 6-8 mm.
Vacciniurn Bustrale Swamp highbush 0 4 6 raw or cooked; good f lavour. 7-12 mm.
Vacciniurn boreale 0 0.2 2 raw or cooked ; sweet. 3 mm.
Vaccinium brachybotrys 0 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium bracteatum E 1 7 raw or cooked. 6 mm.
Vaccinium caesar iense New Jersey D 1.5 raw or cooked. 8 mm.

Vaccini um caespitosum Dwarf huckleberry 0 0.3 2 raw or cooked; sweet, good fl avour. 5-B
Vaccinium constablaei 0 1 raw or cooked; delici ous. 10 mm.
Vaccinium corymbosum High bush blueberry 0 N 2 2 raw or cooked; sweet, juicy, excellent. 12-
20 mm.
Vaccinium crassifolium Creeping blueberry E 0.1 7 raw or cooked; sweet. 12 mm,
Vaccinium SE 3 8 raw or cooked; pleasant. 25 x 8 mm.
Vacci nium darrowi Darrow blueberry 0 raw or cooked; sweet.
Vaccini um delavayi E 0.9 8 raw or cooked. 4-5 mm.
Vaccini um deliciosum Cascade blueberry 0 0. 3 6 raw or cooked; sweet, rich, armoatic. 5-B
Vaccinium duclouxii 0 3 raw or cooked; sweet, good. 5mm.
Vaccinium dunalianum 0 4 raw or cooked. 5 mm.
accini um elliotti i Elli ott' s blueberry 0 4 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
Vacci nium Bearberry 0 1.5 6 raw or cooked; acid, poor. 8- 12mm.
jVaccinium floribundum Columbian blueberry E 2 8-9 raw or cooked; j uicy, sub-aci d, good. 5
(V. mortinia) mm.
Vaccinium fragile E 0.4 6 raw or cooked. 6mm.
Vacci ni um glaucoal bum E 1.2 raw or cooked; poor. 6mm.
Vaccinium griffithianum SE 1.2 8 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium hirsutum
Hai ry
0 N 6 raw or cooked; sweet , insipid. 6-7 mm.
Vaccinium x 0 0.3 raw or cooked. 6 mm.
Vaccinium iteophyllum 0 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium japonicum E 0.9 raw or cooked; acid. 5-8 mm.
Vaccini um koreanum 0 raw or cooked .
Vaccini um leucanthum 0 raw or cooked. 5 mm.
..... _.- - -.-
-... -... -
Page 35

. c ~


~ ~

u EE

~ ~
~ -
'E2 0-
'u ttl
;; .E

Vaccinium macrocarpon Cranberry E Y 0.2 2 raw or cooked, also dried. Acid.
Vacci nium Georgia blueberry 0 1.2 6 raw or cooked. 8-10 mm.
Vaccinium Big huckleberry 0 1 6 raw or cooked; sweet-acid, good flavour. '
membranaceum 5-8 mm
!Vacclnlum modes tum
/0 /
10 218 Iraw or cooked good
IVaccinium moupinense
jraw or cooked. 5-6 mm.
Vaccinium myrsinites Evergreen blueberry E 0.5 7 raw or cooked. 12 mm.
Vaccinium myrtilJoides Sour top blueberry 0 0.6 2 raw or cooked; acid, good. 6-8 mm.
Vaccinium myrtilJus Bilberry 0 Y 0.2 3 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet-acid,
good flavour. 5-12 rnm.
Vaccinium neglectum Oeerberry 0 1.5 raw or cooked. 6 mm.
accinium nummularia E 0.1 7 raw or cooked. 6mm.
Vaccinium occidental is Western huckleberry 0 0.8 raw or cooked. Smm.
Vaccinium oldhamii 0 N 3.5 6 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
Vaccinium ovalifolium Mathers 0 3 3 raw or cooked, also dried; sweet-acid,
poor texture. 8-10 mm.
Vaccinium ova tum Evergreen E 2.5 7 raw, cooked or dried. Sweet, fair flavour.
huckleberry 5-6 mm.
Vaccinium oxycoccus Small cranberry E Y 0.1 2 raw or cooked; acid, pleasant. 5-12 mm.
lVaccinium padifolium Madeiran 0 2.5 raw or cooked: sweet-acid, juicy. 8-12
whortleberry mm.
rvaccinium pallidum Hillside blueberry 0 0.7 raw or cooked. 6-Bmm.
Vaccinium parvifolium Red bilberry 0 1.B S raw, cooked or dried; acid, good, like
cranberries. 10-12 mm.
Vaccinium praestans Kamchatka bilberry 0 0.1 4 raw or cooked; sweet, fragrant, delicious.
5 12 mm.
Vaccinium ' Prince SE 2 raw or cooked. 12x8mm.
Vaccinium pubicalyx 0 raw or cooked .
Vaccinium retusum E 1 raw or cooked. 5mm.
Vaccinium scoparium Grouseberry 0 0.1 3 raw, cooked or dried. 4-6mm.
Vaccinium serratum 0 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium sieboldii E 4 raw or cooked. 5 mm.
IVacclnlum Slkklmense
10.6 18 Iraw or cooked.
Vaccinium simulalum raw or cooked; delicious, 10 mm.
Vacciniurn smallii raw or cooked. 6-7 mm.
!Vaccinium sprengelii Iraw or cooked. 5 mm.
!Vaccinium stramineum IOeerberry Iraw or cooked' poor raw 6-10 mm
lVaccinium tallapausae 0 raw or cooked.
Vaccinium tenellum Small-cluster 0 0.2 6 raw or cooked; poor.
6-8m_m. __
blueberry 5
.- ",- -- --.-.--.---

o .


EE 0"




'u I

. ,

Vaccinium uliginosum Bog whortleberry 0 0.7 2
raw or cooked; juicy, sweet. 51 2 mm.
[Vacci nium vacillans !Oryland blueberry
Jraw or cooked; good. 5 mm.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Mountain cranberry E Y 0.2 5 raw or cooked; acid, pleasant. best after
5 frosts. 5-12 mm.
Vi burnum acerifolium Oockmackie 0 3 3 raw or cooked; sweet. 8mm.
x 0 3 7 raw or cooked; sweet. To 20 mm.
Viburnum cassinoides Sweet viburnum 0 N 2.5 2 raw or cooked: sweet, good flavour, thin
flesh. 8- 10 mm.
Viburnum cordifolium 0 6 9 raw or cooked.
Viburnum corylifo!ium 0 6 6 raw or cooked. 8 mm.
Viburnum cotinifolium Smoketree vi burnum 0 N 3.5 6 ,aw or cooked; sweet, thin flesh. 8-12
Viburnum dentatum Arrow wood 0 N 4.5 2
0< cooked; sweet, pleasant, thin
flesh. 10 mm.
Viburnum dilatatum 0 N 3 5 raw or cooked; sweet. 8-9 mm.
Viburnum edule Mooseberry 0 N 2.5 5 raw or cooked; mildy acid, pleasant, best
after frosts. 7-9 mm.
iburnum erosum 0 N 1.86 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
iburnum erubescens SE 5 6 raw or cooked; sweet.
Vi burnum farreri 0 N 3 6 raw or cooked; sweet.
Vi burnum foetens 0 3 6 raw or cooked; sweet.
Viburnum foetidum E 3 9 raw or cooked. 6-8 mm.
jvl burnum fordll
/0 /
Iraw or cooked
jviburnum furcat um 0 3.56 raw or cooked.
Viburnum grandiflorum 0 N 2 7 raw or cooked; sweet. 12-20 mm.
Vi burnum japonicum E 1.8 7 raw or cooked. 8mm.
Viburnum lantanoides HobbJeberry 0 N 3 3
'aw 0'
cooked; sweet, palatable,
thin I
flesh. 8- 15 mm.
!Viburnum mongolicum
12 15
Iraw or cooked.
!Viburnum mullaha
10 IN
13 1
9 Iraw or cooked; acid. 8 mm.
IViburnum nudum [Withe rod
10 IN 14.516
Iraw or cooked; sweet or bitter. 812 mm.
Viburnum E 5 9 raw or cooked.
Viburnum opulus Guelder rose 0 Y 5 3 raw or cooked; acid, astringent. best after
frosts. Caution advised .sp with
Viburnum 0 2.56 raw or cooked. 9-10 mm.
Vi burnum plicatum 0 3 5 raw or cooked.
Vi burnum sargentii Sargent cranberry 0 3 3 raw or cooked. 8-10mm.
iburnum setigerum Tea viburnum 0 3.5 5 raw or cooked; sweet, thin fl esh. 12 mm.
14 14 Iraw or cooked. 10-12 mm.

IViburnum suspensum
Viburnum triloburn

IVlburnum veltchll
IViburnum wrighlii
Vitex agnus-c3slus
Yucca angusl issima
Yucca baccata
Ivucca elata
IYucca filamentosa
IYucca filifera
Yucca glauca
!Yucca gloriosa
IYucca harrimaniae
IYucca recurvifolia
IYucca rupicola
IYucca smalliana
IYucca whipplei
Zanthoxylum alal um
Zanthoxylum armatum
IzanthOXYl um
Zanthoxylum coreanum
Zanthoxylum piperitum
Page 38
Iraw or cooked 8-10 mm
V,'merican cranberry 0 Y 3 2 raw or cooked; juicy, acid, astringent, l
bush best after frosts. Made into a cranberry l
jelly substitute. 8-10 mm. Caution advised !
esp with raw fruit. .
Iraw or cooked, sweet. 8 mm.
Iraw or cooked 8 mm ,
Chaste tree 0 3 7 used as a condiment; peppery.
E 0.4 8 immature fruits are cooked and eaten !
without the bi tter skin. 60 x 25 mm.
Spanish bayonet E 0.9 9 raw, cooked or dried; large, fleshy, sweet, j
palatable. 170 x 70 mm. 1
!Soap tree yucca
[9 Iraw or cooked; dry. 50 x 36 mm.
ISpoonleaf YtJ_c:: e:a
.2 4 raw, cooked or dri ed; large, fleshy.
Iraw or cooked.
"!raw 'or cooked. To 100 x 26 mm. !
raw or cooked , also dried; dry, bitter skin. 'I '
To 80 x 12 mm.
limmature fruit is cooked; skin biUer. I
[raw cooked . !
leaf YlJcca
Iraw or cooked. i
/raw or cooked. J
]2 [8 !raw or cooked !
Nepal pepper 0 Y 4 6 used as a condiment; .ragrant. peppery. ,
The papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part but the seed is ground
with it. 6 mm in
Y 3 6 used as a condiment; fragrant, peppery. j
The papery shel l around the seed is the!
flavoured part but the seed is ground
together wi th il . 5 mm i n heads.
Prickly ash 0 Y 4 3 used as a condiment; fragrant . peppery. ,
he papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part but the seed is ground
together with it. 5 mm in heads.
0 Y 3 6 used as a condiment; fragrant, peppery. j
The papery shel l around the seed is the!
flavoured part but the seed is groundl
together with it. 5 mm i n heads. f
0 Y 3 6 used as a condiment; fragrant, peppery. I
The papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part but the seed i s grOund!
together with it. 5 mm in heads. .
Pepper tree 0 Y 2 6 used as a condiment; fragrant, peppery.
The papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part but the seed is ground
together with it. 5 mm in heads.
.. ,,,"",. -.. .. ... -. . - - -- -
: c ~

o .

" i ~

'0 EE o cc

urn ~ -
0 c;
0; .E

E ~ ~
Zanthoxylum D Y 3 5 used as a condiment; fragrant . peppery.
planispinum The papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part but the seed
is ground !
together with it. 5 mm in heads.
anlhoxylum Szechuan pepper D Y 3 6 used as a condiment; fragrant, peppery. l
schinifolium The papery shell around the seed IS the
flavoured part but the seed is ground I
together with it. 5 mm in heads. ,
Zanthoxylum simulans Chinese pepper D Y 3 6 used as a cond;meot; "ag,anl, peppe,Y"
The papery shell around the seed is the
flavoured part bul the seed is ground
together with it. 5 mm in heads. -..J
Fodder trees and shrubs
Cultivated fodder trees and shrubs can grow in dry and marginal areas of the Mediterranean
and other similar climatic areas, and provide valuable feed to livestock during the long dry
summer period and also mid-winter when herbaceous plants are dormant.
Research between 1991 and 1995, financed by the Ee, found some important results, some of
which are applicable to temperate areas too.
Chamaecytisus proliferus is a very productive and palatable
semi-arid environments with mild winters and acid soils.
palmensis (tagasaste) and canariae were found suitable.
fodder shrub suited to
Both the sub-species
GfedUsia triacanthos (honey locust) is an interesting fodder tree for its fruits (pods) .
Good on deep soils with a good water holding capacity arer preferred to sandy soils.
Pod yields vary widely between trees. the best producing 376 kg/ha at 4-5 years old.
Pods are available to animals in the winter months when the need is most. Pod
production is on top of ground production of grasses etc. which themselves provide
significant herbage. Sheep thrive on the pods because of their high percentage of
sugars and good digestibility.
Medicago arborea (tree medic) is a very palatable winter growing shrub. dormant in
the summer, but sensitive to winter frosts.
Morus alba (white mulberry) is a very productive and palatable fodder tree for its
foliage, especially if shrubby varieties such as the Japanese cultivar ' Kosuko 21' is
used. There is already a tradition in Provence (France) of farmers cutting Marus
foliage from ancient trees to feed their animals (sheep or goats) at the end of summer
(August-September) as a 'dessert' at the end of the day.
Page 39
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is a very productive fodder tree for its foliage.
Thornless varieties are more suitable for grazing by sheep, and plants are best kept
shrubby. The forage quality is one of the highest for deciduous fodder trees and
shrubs, and it is the first species to be preferred by goats during the summer period.
Weeds have a significant affect on fodder trees and shrubs. Plants are best
intercropped with herbaceous plants, grasses or legumes - possibly using mostly
annual plants to intercrop to reduce the competitiveness.
The productivity of fodder trees and shrubs depends on environmental conditions and
the ages of the plants. In general, Medicago produces a maximum of 500 gfplant of
edible biomass in optimum locations, but only half that in less favourable situations
after 3 years. Morus and Robinia produce higher quantities of edible biomass than
Medicago on good sites, but on poor sites production is less than 500 gfplant. Other
plants tested included Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo), Atriplex halimus (tree
purslane), Caragana arborescens (Siberian pea tree), Carpinus orienta/is (Oriental
hornbeam), Colutea arborescens (bladder senna), Coronilla emerus (crown vetch),
Fraxinus om us (manna ash), Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam), Pyrus
amygdaliformis (almond-leaved pear) and Quercus spp. (oaks)' The majority of these
deciduous fodder shrubs tested produced 100 to 200 g/plant; even such low
quantities, however, calculated on an area basis, out yield most other resources while
they have the benefit of being available in critical periods of the year.
Total annual rainfall and its distribution significantly affect fodder production. Spri ng
rainfall is a decisive factor in shrub growth of several species, ego Amorpha, Morus,
Robinia). Mild rainy springs can increase browse production by over 50%.
The majority of deciduous fodder trees and shrubs tested retained relatively high
levels of crude protein and satisfactory levels of fibre in the summer. Thus, used as a
feed supplemen(for sheep and goats, they can maintain or even increase body weight
because they compare favourably with standard feeds such as dried alfalfa.
Papanastasis, V P; Selection and Utilization of Cultivated Fodder Trees and Shrubs in the
Mediterranean Region. CIHEAM, 1999.
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Page 40
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Agroforestry News
Fibre plants
Volume 13 Number 3 May 2005
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 13 Number 3 May 2005
2 News
5 Lime bast cordage in Northern Europe
8 Fibre sources from bark
16 Pine nuts: present and future prospects
19 Bamboo utilisation in China
22 Processing plant materials into fibres
25 Mulberries in China and Japan
28 A power driven nut cracker
30 Bamboo as a building material in Europe
32 Bamboo fibre
33 Compendium of edible fruits: (3) climber shrubs
37 The nettle: Urlica dioica
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is publi shed quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K. Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
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Page 1
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Health benefits of limonoids
In laboratory tests with animals and with human cells, citrus limonoids have been shown to help
fight cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach, and colon. New research has
uncovered details about these compounds and has demonstrated that our bodies can readily
access a limonoid called limonin, and all its health-imparting properties, each time we bite into a
citrus slice or drink a glass of orange juice, for instance. This is the first time this bioavai lability
has been shown in humans.
Limonin is what remains after our bodies cleave a glucose, or sugar molecule, from limon in's
parent compound, limonin glucoside. Limon in glucoside is present in citrus and citrus juices in
about the same amount as vitamin C. In some individuals, limonin remains in the bloodstream
for up to 24 hours - an impressive length of time - and this persistence may help explain some
limonoids' ability to fight cancer celis, which, if not continuously suppressed, may proliferate. In
contrast, some natural compounds are bioavailable for shorter periods and have to be taken
more than just once a day, for example the phenols in green tea last only 4 to 6 hours.
The chemicals can be extracted from peels, seeds, and other processing leftovers, called citrus
molasses, which currently hold little value are have uses such as ingredients in cattle feed.
Source: Manners, G et al: Citrus Compound: Ready To Help Your Body! Agricultural Research, Feb 2005.
Biological control of Varroa mites of bees
The honey bee is critical to maintaining natural vegetation, transferring polJen between flowers
as it collects the pollen and nectar for its hive. And numerous agricultural plants are pollinated
by honey bees.
Parasites known as Varroa mites infest honey bee colonies, sucking blood from the bees and
causing weight loss, deformities, diseases. and reduced lifespan. These mites, which can
nearly destroy an entire colony within a few fTIonths, now infest honey bee colonies across most
of North America and much of Europe including Britain.
Since 2000, scientists in the USA have been looking for a pathogen, that can stop Varroa mites.
The mite has developed resistance to the only approved chemicals-fluval inate and
coumaphos-now used for control in the USA, and coumaphos is on the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's "hit list" for possible removal from the market. So the researchers have
looked at various disease agents, tried different dosages and application methods, and
conducted toxicity tests. Finally, they selected a strain of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
that was highly pathogenic to Varroa mites.
This potent fungus, which also kills termites, doesn't harm bees or affect their queen's
production. To test it, the scientists coated plastic strips with dry fungal spores and placed
them inside the hives. Since bees naturally attack anything entering their hives, they tried to
chew up the strips, spreading the spores throughout the colony. In field trials, once the strips
were inside the hives, several bees quickly made contact with the spores. Within 5 to 10
minutes, all the bees in the hive were exposed to the fungus, and most of the mites on them
died within 3 to 5 days. The fungus provided excellent control of Varroa without impeding
colony development or population si ze.
Tests showed that Metarhizium was as effective as fluvalinate pesticide, even 42 days after
application. The scientific team is now finetuning the strategy for transfer to producers.
Source: Flores, A: Saving Bees: Fungus Found To Attack Varma Mites. Agricultural Research, Oct 2004.
Medicinal uses of Cornel ian cherry
Cornelian cherry (Comus mas) is a tall deciduous shrub or small tree which is grown mostly in
Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece), the Caucasus and
Middle East (Turkey, Iran), Central Asia and South America. Its northern limit in Europe is the
UK, southern Belgium and central Germany.
Cultivation of Cornelian cherry in the Caucasus and central Asia has occurred for centuries,
mainly for food and medicine, but also as an ornamental and honey plant. The wood is hard
and is used for making furniture, jewellery and traditional musical instruments. Most often used
are the fruits; in its native habitat yields of 500 to 1000 kg per hectare occur, though in orchard
plantings yields can reach 5000 kg/ha.
In the traditional medicine system of the Caucasus and Central Asia, carnelian cherry has been
used for more than 1000 years. Products made from the leaves, flowers and fruit are used to
treat sore throats. digestion problems. measles, chickenpox, anaemia, rickets, hepatitis A and
pyelonephritis. The fruit juice is used for diabetes. Products from the leaves, dried and
powdered fruits and dried ground drupes (fruit plus seed) are used for diarrhoea and
haemorrhoids. Products from the bark and evaporated juice are used to treat skin wounds and
Researchers in the former USSR noted that the flesh of the fruit and seed oil are useful for
recovery and regeneration of damaged skin, and have been used successfully to cure difficult-
to-heal wounds, stomach ulcers and colitis. The fruit, bark and leaves have also demonstrated
antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus and E.coli bacteria.
A study in Azerbaijan of the properties of the fatty oil obtained from the drupes (which contain
34-35% of the oil) showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and E.cali
Source: Mamedov, N & Craker, l ' Carnelian Cherry: A Prospecti ve Source for Phytomedicine. Acta Hort.
629, ISHS 2004, pp 8386.
Health benefits of apples
The Apple Cancer Research Project in New Zealand is investigating two lines of research into
apples as a medicinal fruit.
A 36 year study in Finland has reported that components found in apples appear to reduce the
risk of many diseases including cancer, heart disease, strokes and asthma.
The flavonoid quercetin was highlighted as the phytonutrient with the best health-promoting
capabilities. This is found most abundantly in apples (especially the skins) , onions, tea and red
wine; in the study, those that had the highest quercetin intake had the lowest risk of total
mortality (ie the lowest risk of dying of any cause) during the 36 years.
Apples varieties can vary considerably in the levels of quercetin and other flavonoids they
contain, and can also be affected by cfimate and growing conditions. Varieties with high levels
of phenolic compounds. like. often have yell.ow or red flesh , and there is now work
going on to breed varietIes hIgh In these health-promotmg compounds.
A further possible anticancer compound is found in apple pips (and the pips from apricots,
peaches, nectarines, plums, cherries etc.), which is amygdalin. This is the substance which
supposedly makes such pips toxic, as it has cyanide locked within it However, locked within
the amygdal in molecule, the cyanide is chemically inert and harmless to normal Jiving tissue. (In
the same way, salt is safe to eat but it contains the toxic chemical chlorine locked within it). Of
you eat too much salt or amygdalin, you would be ill; however amygdalin is less toxic
than salt or sugar.
If amygdal in is eaten and there are cancer cells in the body, these cells have within them an
enzyme which unlocks the cyanide, which then targets only the cancer cells that have unlocked
it, destroyi ng them. Normal cells have a different enzyme which unlocks the amygdal in in a
different way and releases nutrients and a neutralising agent which would neutralise any
cyanide it came into contact wit h. Any cyanide which escaped into the bloodstream would be
quickl y neutralised by the liver. The concept of the cyanide in apple pips eliminating any cancer
cells in the body, before their presence in the body may even be apparent, is a very attractive
option. Mark Christensen of the ACRP recommends that whenever we eat an apple, we should
always eat the pips.
Source: Christensen. M: Ambitious Plans to Further Apple Research. The Tree Cropper, 40, 19-27.
Soil fertility changes in forest gardens
A recent study examined changes in soil properties of new woodlands established on former
agricultural land. This might be of use in looking at such changes likely to occur in forest
garden systems, which are usually set up in gardens or on former agricultural land with similar
Changes occurred most rapidly in the first 40 years after planting with trees, and more slowly
thereafter . The changes noted were:
Increased soil organic matter
Increased total nitrogen contents
Decreased available phosphorus and potassium in soil
Decreased soil pH (ie more acid over time)
Our own experience in Devon is that over the last 10 years, soil organic matter has increased
and soil pH has not decreased. By the deliberate inclusion of many deep rooting mineral
accumulating plants, decreases in soil nutrients should be minimised; however if the forest
garden contains many fruiting plants, which require good sources of potassium in particular, as
well as phosphorus, it is possible that in time extra sources of these nutrients may be required
to maintain fruiting capability.
Source: Hipps, N et al : Soil fertility and wild plants in new woodlands. EMRA Farm Woodlands report 2004.
Lime bast cordage in Northern Europe
Manufacture of lime bast cordage (string and rope made from the bark of lime trees, Tilia spp)
has been an unbroken tradition from the Mesolithic (9000-3000 Be) to the present day.
The cordage was usually manufactured by stripping off the bark in midsummer, submerging it in
water to dissociate the adjacent bast layers, then peeling off the outer bark and separating the
bast (inner bark) layers in narrow bands; these were then spun to make cords, which in turn
were twisted to make cordage.
Ume bast cordage is characterised by pliability, low specific weight, low extensibility and limited
water absorbance.
Cordage was one of the most important tools of stone age man as it was crucial for fishing and
construction of traps ; later it paved the way for ploughing, sailing and artificial irrigation, all
important technical milestones.
Historically, cordage has been produced from a wide variety of plant fibres, but the bast layer of
certain species provides the unique combination of volume, strength and pliability, with lime,
elms, oaks, juniper and willows as the main sources. Due to its superior strength, lime has
been by far the most important of these sources in Europe.
Anatomically, bast is part of the secondary phloem of trees (the vascular system between the
dead outer bark and the xylem.) The primary function of the phloem is the transport of
assimilates and nutrients; it is composed mostly of sieve tubes (parenchyma and sclerenchyma
cells). The latter of these types form dead strengthening tissue which consists of short sclerids
and long lignified fibres with thick cellulose walls. The bast is composed mostly of these fibres.
In contrast to the other phloem tissue components, the bast does not take part in the process of
In lime, the bast grows in 10-12 successive layers, more or less separated by softer layers of
vascular tissue, wi th the most recent and smoothest part of the bast layer near the wood, and
the coarsest part near the outer bark. Bast from trees or branches over 15-20 years old is
generally coarse, stiff and less durable than bast from trees and branches 10 years old or less.
Bast quality is also affected by growing conditions.
Lime bast cordage has been found on Viking ships from the 9
century and has been a very
important article of trade and use in Norway, Sweden and other northern European countries
until very recently. It was mainly produced in rural areas and sold to city dealers, and was
exported, for example to England, during medieval times.
During the days of sailing ships, demand was high - the cordage was used for mooring ropes
and for the complete rigging of small wooden vessels. In larger vessels it was used in the
standing parts of the rigging. Despite the introducti on of hemp cordage in the 15
t h
century, lime
bast cordage retained its popularity in fishing and agriculture in Norway, Sweden and the Baltic
countries, due to its pliability and limited water absorbance.
In more recent times, the cordage has been made throughout the 20
t h
century in Norway and
the eastern Baltic area and used domestically nets, bags, pots, indoor shoes,
paper, weaving, grafting etc. It was an especIally Important product durmg World War II when
other cordage was unavailable.
Silviculture of lime trees for bast
The bast was usually obtained from young lime trees or from thicker branches of older trees
which ..yere pollarded or coppiced, resulting in new straight shoots. The high stump from
pollarding prevented new shoots being browsed by deer and cattle. Lime trees can tolerate
drastic cutting.
Cultivated trees that yielded the best bast were re-cut every 5- 10 years and produced a bast
layer about 2 mm thick. Over the years and many cycles of cutting and re-growth, the trees
developed a characteristic appearance with a thick stump, comparatively thin branches and
dense crown.
In lime forests cultivated for bast production, trees were carefully spaced to give good
conditions for growth. Trees on moist sites were said to produce the toughest bast.
Bast manufacture
There were 3 principal ways of obtaining the bast:
1. Most commonly, the trees or branches were cut in early summer, around the beginning
of June, when the leaves had just grown to full size. The bark was stripped off the
wood and submerged in fresh water or sea water for 4-6 weeks for retting, a process
during which the pectin and lignin components degraded sue to bacterial decay. This
caused a separation of the individual bast layers, and released the bast from the outer
bark. The relting partly delignified the bast , weakening it, but this was reduced in sea
water, hence this was preferred over fresh water. The speed f relting depended on
the temperature of the water, and warm weather could speed the process to a few
weeks. If whole tree segments were submerged, the relting took longer.
When the relting was finished, the. bast was peeled off the bark in long paper-thin
bands and the outer bast layers were separated from the stronger and more pliable
inner bast to distinguish the different qualities.
2. Trees or branches could be cut in early spring (during the ascent of the sap). The
bark was stripped and the bast layers could be freed from the outer bark without prior
3. The trees were cut in winter and were subjected to warm smoke in chimney-l ess
stoves for 24 hours. Again, the bast could be separated from the outer bark without
The latter two techniques, though not requiring retting, produced strong but stiff bast which
could be spun to form cords without further treatment. It was usually the first technique which
was used though, even though it was more work, because this filted in better with farmers'
schedules, with tree cutting scheduled after hay making.
The next step was spinning the bast to make cords, and in turn the cordage was made by
twisting the cords. The most usual construction was three 3-4 mm thick cords (three plied)
twisted anti-clockwise. However, lime bast cordage was made in all dimensions, from thin and
slender two-lied cordage of 6 mm, to 70 mm thick four-plied cordage. Cordage could also be
supercoiled to make cables; these consisted of two or more strands of cordage (each made up
of 2-8 cords) twisted together to form a much stronger product up to 160 mm thick.
These techniques enabled the production of a wide range of qualities in softness, thickness and
strength, depending on processing and purpose. However, manufacture of bast cordage was
very labour intensive.
Cordage properties
Lime bast cordage is not as strong as hemp, manila or nylon, but is lighter with less elongation
under strain. It is also nearly 50% stronger when wet than when dry, making it by far the
strongest bast fibre from European trees in wet conditions. Dry lime bast cordage has a
specific gravity under 1 - it floats.
Breaking load (N)
Elongation (%)
Approx weight (kg/220 m)
Specific gravity
Lime bast
Hemp Manila Nylon
8624 10457 29400
15 45
25.0 23.0 20.6
1.48 1.14
Lime bast cordage is resistant to decay. Water absorption is minimal - a crucial factor for
releasing knots. Limited swelling and low weight made the cordage ideal for use in fisheries.
Due to the retting, it was softer to handle and probabl y superi or in this respect than any
contemporary alternatives. This softness would have been appreciated in non-industriali sed
agriculture which included a substantial amount of manual work without gloves.
The low extensibility of lime bast cordage was highly valued during the days of sailing ships.
Low resistance to wear, laborious manufacture, and continued competition from hemp limited its
role as cordage in the 20
century. However, the craft is still maintained in parts of Norway,
where cordage is sold for about 14 Euros per metre. The demand is partly due to the increased
interest in traditional wooden vessels where bast cordage is used for mooring. Manufact urers
are not able to meet the current demand and younger people are now learning the craft.
Myking, T et aJ: History, manufacture and properties of lime bast cordage in northern Europe.
Forestry, Vol 78, No.1 , 2005.
Fibre sources from bark
Many trees and shrubs have been recorded as being a source of fibre from the bark. Usually it
is the inner bark used in the same way as lime (see the previous article for more details). The
table below lists all recorded trees and shrubs from zones 1-9 used in the past or present as a
fibre source.
Latin name Common Decl Height Hardy IBark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Acer glabrum Rock maple D 9 5 ~ fibre obtained from the bark is used!
for making mats, rope etc.
Acer Oregon D 30 6 A fibre obtained from the inner bark is
macrophyllum maple used for rope making.
Asimina triloba Pawpaw D 4.5 5 A fibre from the bark is used for making
Betula papyrifera Paper birch D 20 1 IA fibre is obtained from the inner used in
making paper. The branches of the tree
can be harvested in spring or summer,
the leaves and outer bark are removed,
the branches are steamed and the fibres
stripped off.
Betula pendula Silver birch D 20 2 Cordage can be made from the fibres of
the inner bark. This inner bark can also
be separated into thin layers and used
as a substitute for oiled paper.
Betula pubescens White birch D 20 1 Cordage can be made from the fibres of
the inner bark. This inner bark can also
be separated into thin layers and used
as a substitute for oiled paper.
Broussonetia Kozo D 4.5 7 A fibre from the bark is used in making
kazinoki paper, cloth, rope etc. I
Broussonetia Paper D 9 8 A fibre from the bark is used in making
papyrifera mulberry paper, cloth, rope etc. The fibre can be
produced by beating strips of bark on a
flat surface with a wooden mallet. A very
fine cloth can be made in this way, the
more the bark is beaten the finer the !
cloth becomes. Larger sizes can bel
made by overlapping 2 pieces of bark !
and beating them together. When used
for making paper branches are
harvested after the leaves have fallen in
he autumn, they are steamed and the
fibres stripped off. In humid areas this
can be done without steaming the
branches. The inner and outer bark are
then separated by scraping (or simply
peeling in humid areas) and the fibres
are cooked for 2 hours with lye before
J . ~
being hand pounded with mallets.

latin name Common Decl Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Icaragana boisii
0 6 2 A fibre is obtained from the bark, used
for cordage.
Caragana 0 2 2 !A fibre is obtained from the bark , used
fruticosa for cordage.
Caragana jubata Shag-spine 0 1 3 1ft. fibre is obtained from the bark, used l
for cordage, gunny bags etc.
Castanea sativa Sweet
0 30 6
Inner bark used to make a soft flexible ,
chestnut cordage.
Chamaecyparis Nootka E 15 5
The fibre of the inner bark is fine and
nootkatensis cypress soft, it is used for making blankets,
clothing, mats etc.
Clematis Western 0 6 5 String is made from the stems.
ligusticifolia white
Cornus sericea Red osier 0 2.5 2 A fibre obtained from the bark is used as
dogwood cordage.
Corylus avellana Hazel 0 10 5 Inner bark used to make cordage.
Corylus corn uta California 0 8 4 IA fibre is obtained from the inner bark
californica hazel and is used to make paper. The
branches are removed in the autumn,
the leaves removed and the branches
steamed then the fibre is removed. The
fibres are cooked for two hours with lye
and then put through a blender. It makes
a brown paper. The fibre is also used for
Cytisus scoparius Broom 0 2.4 5 excellent fibre is obtai ned from the
bark of stems and root s, it is used in the
manufacture of paper, cloth and nets.
The branches are harvested in late
summer or autumn, the leaves removed
and the stems steamed until the fibres
can be stripped. The fibres are cooked
for 3 hours in lye then put in a ball mill
for 3 hours. The paper is pale tan in
Daphne bholua Nepal paper E 2 8 A very good quality paper is made fromi
plant the inner bark; also used to make rope.
Daphne E 2 8 ft. very good quality paper is made from
papyracea the inner bark.
A fibre is obtained from the bark. It is
hypoleuca used for twine and rope.

9 A strong fibre is obtained from the bark,
twine and rope.
- ~
- ~
!Latin name Icommon
Dec! Height Hardy Bark fibre uses ,
name Ever (m) zone
Oebregaisea E !A strong fibre is obtained from the bark,
wallichiana used for twine and rope.
Desmodium D 1.5 6 IA fibre from the bark is used for ropes j
elegans and paper making.
Dirca occidentalis Leather D 1.8 7 iA rope and paper can be made from thei

wood bark fibres. The stems are harvested in
summer, the leaves are removed and
the stems steamed until the fibres can
be stripped. The outer and inner barks
are separated by scraping or peeling.
The fibres are cooked for 2 hours or less
with soda ash and then beaten with
mallets or put through a blender. The
paper is greenish cream in colour .
Dirca palustris Leather D 1.8 4 A rope and paper can be made from the I
wood bark fibres. The stems are harvested in
summer, the leaves are removed and
the stems steamed until the fibres can
be stripped. The outer and inner barks
are separated by scraping or peeling.
The fibres are cooked for 2 hours or less l
with soda ash and then beaten with
mallets or put through a blender. The
paper is greenish cream in colour.
Edgeworthia D 2 8 A high-class paper is made from the
chrysantha bark. The stems are harvested in spring
or early summer, the leaves are
removed and the stems steamed until
the fibres can be stripped. The outer
bark is removed from the inner by
peeling or scraping. The fibres are
cooked for 2 hours with soda ash and
then beaten with mallets or put through
a blender. The paper is off white in
Edgeworthia E 2 8 A high-class paper is made from the
gardneri bark. The stems are harvested in spring
or early summer, the leaves are
removed and the stems steamed until
the fibres can be stripped. The outer
bark is removed from the inner by
peeling or scraping. The fibres are
cooked for 2 hours with soda ash and
then beaten with mallets or put through
a blender. The paper is off white in
Latin name Common Decl Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Edgeworthia Paperbush D 2.5 8 A high-class paper is made from the
papyrifera bark. The stems are harvested in spring
or early summer, the leaves are
removed and the stems steamed until
the fibres can be stripped. The outer l
bark is removed from the inner by
peeling or scraping. The fibres are
cooked for 2 hours with soda ash and
then beaten with mallets or put through
a blender. The paper is off white in
Elaeagnus Silverberry D 3 2 The fibrous bark is used in weaving and
commutata rope making.
Eucalyptus Red E 45 10 A fibre is obtained from the bark. Used
macrorhyncha stri ngybark for rough cordage, matting, packing etc.
Firmiana simplex Chinese D 15 9 A fibre is obtained by retting the bark,
parasol tree used for coarse cordage and cloth.
Fitzroya Alerce E 10 8 A fibre from the inner bark is used for
cupressoides caulking boats.
Fraxinus excelsior Ash D 40 4 Inner bark and wood is used for
cordage. Logs are stripped of outer
bark, then soaked in water for 2 months.
It is taken out and allowed to dry; as it
does so the rings of each years growth
separate and split into strips. These can
be split further until the right width for
binding or weaving.
Fremontodendron California E 7 8 Cordage is made from the bark.
californicum flannelbush
Grewia D 9 !A fibre is obtained from the bark, it is
oppositifolia used in paper and rope making but is not
very durable. The fibres are 1 - 1.6mm
Gynatrix pulchella Hemp bush E 2.5 8 fA. fibre obtained from the bark is soft,
glossy and long. It is used for tying, as a
coarse string etc.
Hibiscus mutabilis Cotton rose E 3 8 fA fibre from the bark is used for making
Hoheria populnea Lacebark E 5 8 A very strong fibre is obtained from the
inner bark, used for ropes, cord etc. The
fibre is also used as ornamentation in
basket making and for bonnets etc.
Hoheria Ribbonwood E 8 8 A very strong fibre is obtained from the
sexstylosa inner bark, used for ropes, cord etc. The
fibre is also used as ornamentation in
~ " . "
basket making and ..!.or b o n n e ~ etc.

Latin name Common Dec! Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Juniperus One-seed E 18 4 Thin strips of the fibrous bark are
monosperma uniper for making sleeping mats etc.
Juniperus Western E 12 5 Bark is made into cordage and cloth.
occidentalis uniper
Morus alba White D 18 4 A fibre is obtained from the bark of

mulberry year stems, it is used in weaving.
Morus alba White D 18 4 A fibre is obtained from the bark of
multicaulis mulberry year stems, it is used in weaving.
Morus nigra Black D 10 5 A fibre used in weaving is obtained from I
mulberry the bark.
Pinus sylvestris Scot's pine E 25 2 IA fibre from the inner bark is used tal
make ropes.
Plagianthus D 18 8 !A fibre obtained from the inner bark is '
regius used for making ropes, twine etc.
Populus Balsam D 30 2 The bark is used to make a cloth.
balsamifera poplar
Populus Black D 35 5 The bark is used with cedar bark to
trichocarpa cottonwood make cordage.
Populus Quaking D 20 1 The bark is used to make cordage and
tremuloides aspen cloth.
Purshia mexicana Mexican D 3 6 The bark is used to make rope and cloth.
Purshia Stansbury D 3 6 The bark is used to make rope and cloth.
stansburiana cliffrose
Purshia tridentata Antelope D 3 6 The bark is used to make rope and Cloth. ]
Quercus petraea Sessile oak D 5 45 Inner bark used to make a soft flexible
Quercus robur English oak D 30 5 Inner bark used to make a soft flexible
Salix alba White willow D 25 2 Inner bark used to make a soft flexible
Salix bebbiana Bebb willow D 5 2 The bark is used to make cordage and
Salix discolor Pussy willow D 7 2 The bark is used to make rope.
Salix exigua Coyote D 9 2 The fibres in the bark have used to make l
willow rope and have been woven to make
clothing, bags and blankets. I
Salix fragalis Crack willow D 25 5 Inner bark used to make a soft flexible

Salix hookeriana D 1 6 Fibres from the inner bark can
be l
twisted into long ropes.
Salix lasiandra Pacific D 15 5 Bark made into cordage.
Latin name
Decl Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Salix lasiolepis Arroyo 0 12 5 Inner bark is used to make cordage and
willow cloth.
Salix nigra Black willow 0 12 4 A fibre obtained from the stems is used
in making paper. The stems are
harvested in spring or summer, the
leaves are removed and the stems
steamed until the fibres can be stripped.
The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with
lye and then beaten with mallets or put
through a blender. The paper is
red/brown in colour.
Salix scouleriana Scouler's 0 10 6 Bark made into cordage.
Salix sitchensis Sitka willow 0 7 4 The bark is used for cordage.
Sequoia Coastal E 110 8 The fibrous bark is used for making
sempervirens redwood paper. Branches can be harvested at
any time of the year from logged trees,
the bark is cut into useable pieces and
soaked in clear water prior to cooking for
6 or more hours with lye. The fibres are
beaten for six hours in a ball mill and the
paper is a brown colour.
Taxodium Bald cypress 0 40 6 The bark is used to make cordage.
Thuja occidentaJis Eastern E 20 2 he tough stringy bark is used to make j
arborvitae fibre bags etc.
Thuja plicata Western red E 60 6 The fibrous inner bark is used for
cedar making blankets, ropes , sanitary towels ,
nappies etc. It is also used in thatching
and as a stuffing material for
A fibre obtained from the bark is used in
making paper. Branches can be
harvested at any time of the year, they
are cut into usable pieces and pre-
soaked in clear water prior to cooking.
They are then cooked for six hours or
more with lye. It is difficult to rinse it to
clear water because it seems to be a
dye material. The fibre is then hand
pounded with mallets, or put through a
blender or a ball mifl for six hours. It is
difficult to hydrate properly. The
resulting paper is a rich deep brownlred.
Tilla americana American 0 25 3 IA tough fibre is obtained from the inner
basswood bark. The bark is soaked in water and
the fibres can then be removed. These
are used for making nets, shoes,
--........ -.. -. _om

latin name Common Decl Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Tilia caroliniana Carolina 0 20 7
A fibre is obtained from the tough innerl
basswood bark It can be made into diverse items i
such as mats, shoes and coarse cloth. i
Tilia chinensis 0 5 !A fibre is obtained from the inner bark l
and used for making sandals, nets etc.
Tilia cordata Small leaved 0 30 3 fA fibre from the inner bark is used to i
make mats, shoes , baskets, ropes, cloth. I
It is harvested from trunks that are 15
30cm in diameter. The fibre can also be ,
used for making paper. The stems arei

steamed until the fibres can be stripped.
The outer bark is removed from the inner
bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres
are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then
beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige
in colour.
Tilia heterophylla White 0 30 5
ill fibre is obtained from the tough innerj
basswood bark It can be made into diverse items
such as mats, shoes and coarse cloth.
Tilia japonica Japanese 0 20 6 IA fibre is obtained from the inner barkj
lime and used for sandals, cordage etc.
Tilia mongolica Mongolian 0 15 3 IA fibre is obtained from the tough inner
lime bark It can be made into diverse items
such as mats, shoes and coarse cloth.
Tilia oliveri 0 20 6 iA fibre is obtained from the tough inner
bark It can be made into diverse items
such as mats, shoes and coarse cloth.
Tilia platyphyllos Large leaved 0 30 5 A fibre from the inner bark is used to
lime make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes, cloth.
It is harvested from trunks that are 15 -
30cm in diameter. The fibre can also be
used for making paper. The stems are
harvested in spring or summer, the
leaves are removed and the stems
steamed until the fibres can be stripped.
The outer bark is removed from the inner
bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres ,
are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then 1
beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beigel
in colour.
Tilia tomentosa Silver lime 0 25 6 jA fibre is obtained from the tough innerl
bark It can be made into diverse items I
such as mats, shoes and coarse cloth.
Tilia tuan 0 16 6 A fibre IS obtained from the Inner
and is used in making
sandals __
.-- -

Latin name Common Decl Height Hardy Bark fibre uses
name Ever (m) zone
Tilia x vulgaris Common 0 35 3
As for T.cordata.
Trachycarpus Chusan palm E 12 8 The fibres cloaking the trunk are used to !
fortunei make ropes and cloth. I
Trachycarpus E 12 8 The fibres cloaking the trunk are used to !
latisectus make ropes and cloth.
Trachycarpus E 12 8 The fibres cloaking the trunk are used tO
martianus make ropes and cloth. !
Ulmus americana American 0 25 3 JA fibre obtained from the stems is used I
elm in making paper. The stems are
harvested in spring, the leaves are
removed and the stems steamed until
the fibres can be stripped. The outer
bark is removed from the inner bark by
scraping or peeling. The fibres are
cooked for 2 hours with lye and then
beaten with mallets. The paper is beige
in colour.
The inner bark is very fibrous and iS
used in making string and strong ropes. .
Ulmus davidiana Japanese 0 15 5 JA fibre is obtained from the inner bark.
elm The bark is soaked for 7 - 10 days in
water, the inner and outer barks are then
separated and the inner bark is stripped
into strands and made into thread. It is
made into a coarse fabric
Ulmus glabra Wych elm 0 30 5 IA fibre from the inner bark is used for
mats and making ropes.
Ulmus japonica Japanese 0 35 5 IA fibre is obtained from the inner bark. I
elm The bark is soaked for 7 - 10 days in
Iwater, the inner and outer barks are then
separated and the inner bark is stripped
into strands and made into thread. It is
made into a coarse fabric
Ulmus procera English elm 0 35 6 A fibre from the inner bark is very tough
and is used for making mats and ropes.
Ulmus rubra Slippery elm 0 20 3 A fibre obtained from the inner bark is
used to make a twine.
Ulmus wallichiana 0 35 6 II strong fibre is obtained from the innerl
bark. It is used for cordage, slow
matches and sandals.
Viburnum 0 3 5 A fibre obtained from the inner bar:..:!
dilatatum used for making ropes. _
- - ~ -
Pine nuts: present and future prospects
Pine nuts (edible seeds of certain pine species) have been harvested for food for thousands of
years by native American tribes and indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Russian far east.
Pine n,uts continue to be harvested in many northern hemisphere regions today and are
marketed on domestic and international markets as a gourmet product.
All pine (Pinus) trees bear edible kernels but only a selection are large enough to be worth
bothering with for human food , about 20 species in Eurasia and North America. These range
from shrubs (eg. P.pumila) to large trees with straight boles (eg. P.sibirica, P.koraiensis), and
are adapted to a variety of conditions, from the harsh cold climate of East Siberia (P.pumila) to
the hot dry deserts of Nevada and Mexico (P.cembroides).
The pines perform important ecological functions , and many nut pines make good ornamentals
(eg. P.sibirica, P.armandii etc.) and are planted both within and outside their natural range.
Main economic species
The five commercially important nut producing species are:
1. Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica)
2. Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)
3. Italian stone pine (Pinus pineal
4. Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana)
5. Pinyon pines (Pinus cembroides edulis, P.c.monophylla etc.)
Productivity of these pines varies greatly. Pinyon pines can yield up to 335 kg/ha, Korean pine
to 100 kg/ha, Siberian pine 5q-60 kg/ha.
A number of these pines, in addition to being important nut producers, are valuable timber
species, especially P.sibirica and P.koraiensis, which are valued for their fragrance, durability,
dense grain and rot resistance of the wood, widely used in wood carving, flooring, and
expensive furniture making. ,
Some pines are of exceptional cultural, symbolic and spiritual importance. Pinyon pines appear
in the lore of several North American tribes, while Russian monks planted Siberian pine in
monasteries as sacred trees and distributed seeds to pilgrims for planting (the importance of
Siberian pine as a cultural and spiritual symbol was popularised recently in the series of books
'Ringi ng Cedars of Russia' by Vladimir Megre).
Pine nut products
Pine nuts are used worldwide as a nutritious healthy snack (raw or roasted) and as an
ingredient of many oriental and Mediterranean dishes. They are also added to gourmet
Pine nuts are cholesterol-free, contain 53-68% fat (of which 93% is unsaturated), multiple
mi cronutrients are vitamins.
Nuts of different species vary in size, nutritional & medicinal value and taste, however
consumers are not usually sophisticated enough to distinguish between nuts of different
species, therefore in commerce the nuts are lumped together are referred to as "pine nuts".
They are usually marketed shelled, but sometimes in shell (especially the softshelled nuts such
as pinyon pines ).
Species Protein (%)
Fat (%) Carbohydrate (%)
Pinus sibirica 19 51-75 12
Pinus koraiensis 17 65 12
Pinus pinea 34 48 7
Pinus gerardiana 14 51 23
Pinus cembroides edulis 14 62-71 18
Pinus cembroides monophylla 10 23 54
Pine nut oil is obtained by pressing and is available as an expensive gourmet cooking oil or a
medicine (in bottles of capsules). Cold pressing in allwooden presses is preferred to retain the
medicinal properties of nuts and derive high quality oi l. Although little research has been done,
it is thought that Siberian pine nuts yield oil of the highest medicinal value - this has been used
traditionally to cure a wide array of ailments, ingested (decreasing blood pressure, boosting
immune system resistance etc) or applied externally (a range of dermatological disorders). Pine
nut oil contains pinolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, and is marketed in the USA as a
means to stimulate cell proliferation, prevent hypertension, decrease blood lipid and blood
sugar, and inhibit allergic reactions.
Apart from cooking and medicine, pine nut oil is also used in cosmetics and as a massage oil ,
and has a number of speciality uses such as a wood finish, paint base for paintings and
treatment of fine skins in the leather industry.
The byproduct of pine nut oil pressing is pine nut flakes, used in granolas, chocolates etc. The
flakes still contain up to 30% oil; when crushed further to extract oil, they turn into pine nut meal
or flour, which has a range of culinary uses. It can be substituted for wheat or rye flour in
pastries, pancakes etc giving them a rich nutty flavour. Mixed with water, the meal becomes a
pine nut milk, a milk-like drink with a rich sweet nutty flavour.
World markets for pine nuts
Total world production of pine nuts is around 20,000 tonnes of kernels annually, though this
fluctuates widely from year to year because most good harvests occur biennially).
Demand is significantly greater than supply, and the world market is often completely out of
stock for months before the new harvest. The consequence is a high price (pine nuts are one of
the most expensive nuts on the market) - retail prices of shelled nuts range from 1018 per
kg ($20$35 per kg). Retail prices for pine nut oil range from 4080 per litre ($70$140 per
litre) and are substantially higher for oil marketed in capsules as a medicine or supplement.
The limi ted supply of pine nuts also means that the market can absorb fluctuations in production
with very little price alterations.
Much of the pine nuts exported from China are originall y harvested in Russia and brought to
China for processing and packaging. Russia's vast Siberian and Korean pine forests are under
heavy logging pressure, with an estimated 20 million cubic metres of timber harvested illegally
annually, most of it shipped to China and Japan. Russian domestic demand has also increased
since Vladimir Megre's books, making it more profitable to sell on the domestic market rather
than export, hence the exports from China are likely to decrease in future years.
U.S. sales of pine nuts are valued at $100 million annually, despite them being considered a
speciality product and marketed through specialised distributors such as health food stores. 80
90% of pine nuts consumed in the USA are currently imported, mainly from China.
~ Average annual
World pine nut production
ro c

~ :i2

0 c
. ~

c >-

OJ ~
(f) ~ OJ
0 f-
Potential for new pine nut production
The growing worldwide demand for pine nuts indicates there is good potential for looking at new
pine nut plantations of both known and the lesser-known species, as well as agroforestry
systems incorporating these species.
It is worth noting that most of the commercially harvested pine nuts are harvested by pickers
from natural forests, hence they are able to harvested the nuts without incurring the expenses
of plantation forestry (although they may well have to pay for a license to harvest). Plantations
of nut pines are generally rare (small stone pine orchards in Italy and France are an exception,
where the growers capitalize on speciality uses).
Another drawback is that most pine species start bearing crops at 30-40 years of age, although
it may then bear economic crops for several hundred years, albeit at irregular interval of 2-5
In the USA, there is also much potential for pinyon pine ranges to be extended. Vast areas of
pinyon-juniper woodlands have been cleared for grazing, even though the value of nuts
produced significantly exceeds the value of cattle.
Where new pine species .are to be tried, it is important to choose species which are well
adapted to the local climate. Siberian and Korean pine, two major nut producers and timber
trees of Eastern Siberia may well be adapted to northern regions (the former does well in
Canada, for example) , but they do very poorly in southern Russia with its Mediterranean
It i s well known that Siberian and Korean pine (and probably other species too) have very high
genetic variability even within a given stand; there are individuals which are prolific seeders and
produce heavy crops, sometimes even annually. There is thus good potential to select good nut
producers and propagate them vegetatively, for example by grafting.
Sharashkin, L & Gold, M: Pinenuts: Species, Products, Markets and Potential for U.S.
Production. NNGA 95
Annual Report.
www.pinenut.com Pine nut values and Species.
Bamboo utilisation in China
Bamboo is an important worldwide non-timber forest product with significant commercial val ue,
leading to over-exploitation in some areas. In contrast, indigenous communities in China highl y
value their bamboo resources and use methods and strategies for their sustainable utilisation
and development.
In Chinese culture, bamboo is referred to as 'gentleman' and together with orchid,
chrysanthemum and plum, referred to as the Four Noble Plants of Chinese garden lore.
Bamboo, plum and the pine together are referred to as the Three Friends of Winter.
The indigenous uses and practices with bamboo in China reflect the experiences and
accumulated body of knowledge that are based on the understanding of the characteristics and
quality of bamboos and their environments.
Building materials and housing tools
Bamboo i s the oldest and most widespread building material because it is cheap, readily
availabl e and easy to work with. Many tradi tional bamboo houses are two-storied constructions,
usuall y square shaped. People live in the upper storey, and the lower storey has only pillars
without walls; the open space is used for the storage of agricultural tools, firewood, or as a shed
for domestic animals and poultry.
Factors affecting the use of bamboo for building include;
(1) Choice of species - different bamboo species are used for different parts of the
building. Bamboo culms (canes) of large diameter, thick-walled and relat ively shorter
internodes (te gaps between nodes on the canes) are often used for pillars,
scaffolding, or other support framework. For roofs and walls, species are used with
durable and smooth culms. Species with smart diameter, thick-walled and more
durable culms are often used for raft ers.
(2) Cutting season. Bamboo is best cut at the end of a wet season so that it can easily
dry out in the air or in airy sheds.

(3) Water leaching and culm curing. The cut bamboo culms are often immersed in muddy
or stagnant water for several months, then in running water for several weeks to allow
the starch content of the culms to leach out - this deters insect infestations.
(4) Stone base. Large stones that protect the culms against decay are often used as a
base to support the pillars.
(5) Fumigation , Many houses feature a fire in the centre of the house. The smoke turns 1
culms above black and destroys starch in them.
Bamboo foods
Young bamboo shoots are high in protein, minerals (eg. Calcium, phosphorus, iron), vitamins
(thiamine, ascorbic acid - vitamin C), 17 kinds of amino acids, and low in fat. They are widely
used as palatable vegetables. A number of products are prepared from bamboo shoots based
on their characteristics.
(1) Fresh bamboo shoots both from sweet or neutral flavoured shoots (eg. Phyllostachys
and from bitter shoots (eg. Phyllostachys violascens). The latter
require more cooking or roasting to remove the bitterness.
(2) Sour bamboo shoots. The bamboo shoots are cut into pieces and cleaned, mixed with
salt, chilli, ginger, water and other flavourings, then put into jars. This product is
sometimes coked with meat, fish and other ingredients as traditional meals in festivals.
(3) Dry bamboo shoots. The bamboo shoots are cut into pieces, leaned and dried.
Before cooking they may be soaked in hot water for several hours.
(4) Pickled bamboo shoots. Some bitter bamboo shoots are immersed in hot water for
days or placed in running water for days before cooking and pickling to remove the
(5) Pressed bamboo shoots. The flakes or pieces of bamboo shoots are pressed into a
bamboo tube and left for 3-4 months before cooking.
(6) Bamboo tube. Glutinous rice is cooked in certain bamboo culms to produce bamboo
tube rice. A species with long internodes is chosen. Certain species have a thin
scented coating inside the culms which gives the rice a unique aroma.
Agricultural tools and handicrafts
Bamboo is used in every aspect of agriculture. It is used for fences , to make crates, baskets
and as a carrying pole. In the field, people put bamboo mats of the ground onto which
harvested rice is laid for drying and cleaning. The people working in the forest drink water from
a bamboo tube.
Bamboo poles are used as props to support heavily laden fruit tree branches and as trellises for
climbers like pumpkins, gourds, cowpea and passion fruit vines.
Bamboo is also indispensable in fishing and hunting. Fishing traps, fishing rods, fish pens,
fishing pots, fishing nets, harpoons, arrows, bird-call snares, crossbows and bird cages are all I
made from bamboo.
Tools made from bamboo include open weave baskets, backpacks, bamboo casks, fish baskets, I
hand baskets, winnowing trays for cleaning grains, bamboo rafts and hanging bridges over
streams and rivers. Bamboo containers are used to keep rice longer and in better condition
than other containers. Bamboo pipes are used for transporting and fetching water . In the field ,
water containers made of bamboo are very common while bamboo culms and strips are used for
fencing .
- tt 5
In some parts of China, bamboo is widely used as firewood. Where the production of bamboo
shoots is commercially important there are many less mature bamboo culms, hence bamboo is
much less likely to be used for firewood there.
Many species are used for medicine; the famous Oai medicine book, ' Oanhaya', documents the
uses of bamboo for curing many diseases including fevers, oedema, irregular menstruation,
food poisoning etc. Some leaves of bamboos (eg. Phylfostachys nigra) are used for curing
Musical instruments
A number of instruments are made from bamboo culms including gourd pipes, mouth harps and
Folk beliefs and religious activities
Parts of bamboos are used in many communities in Buddhist or similar ceremonies; sometimes
a species of bamboo is treated like a sacred tree and never harmed. Bamboos often playa part
in funeral ceremonies too.
Horticulture & environment stabilisation
Bamboo forests have many influences on the ecological and social systems. Certain
ornamental cultivars are used to beautify the landscape and are cultivated in home gardens,
temples and vi llage groves.
Cultivation of bamboo around houses and villages creates a good and healthy environment ,
giving protection from strong winds, conserving moisture, maintaining warmth in winter and
coolness in summer. It also controls soil erosion on slopes.
In bamboo forest areas, most households own 1-2 hectares (2.5-5 acres) of bamboo
In some parts of China, particularly remote rural parts, the production of bamboo shoots is the
main source of income for most people. Many households have to hire extra labour to assist in
harvesting bamboo shoots during peak production. A typical household can produce 1-2 cubic
metres of dried bamboo shoots per year.
Formerly in parts of China, the tax a household paid was determined by the volume of dried
bamboo shoots the household produced; now it tends to be determined by the area of bamboo
plantations that the household owns. The laUer situation leads to beUer management of
plantations which is being encouraged.
Li, R S et al: The role of Phyllostachys heterocyc/a var. pubescens in the life of local residents
in Guilin TownShip, Shaowu, P.R.China. J.Bamboo and Rattan, Vol 1 No 4, pp 351-
360 (2002).
Wang, K et al: Diversity and indigenous utilisation of bamboo in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan
Province, Southwest China. J. Bamboo and Rattan, Vol 1, No 3, pp263-273 (2002).
Processing plant materials into fibres
Plant fibres are long, hollow cells that provide structural support and/or conduct water and
nutrients through the plant. The cell walls of fibres consist primarily of lignocellulose. To utilise
fibres i n ~ m a k i n g paper and other cellulose-based products they must be liberated from the
remaining plant material.
The disintegration of plant material to recover fibres is known as pulping, a process that can be
accomplished mechanically or chemically.
Mechanical pulping
Mechanical pulping, which physically separates the lignocellulose fibres from one another, has
yields of 91-98%. Mechanical pulp produces smooth printing surfaces of good opacity and has
traditionally been used in the production of newsprint. Mechanical pulp is usuaJty supplemented
with about 5% chemical pulp to provide the strength required to survive modern highspeed
printing presses.
Germany introduced groundwood pulping in 1840, where wood is mechanically ground by
large stones. The pulp is then screened to remove knots and other large pieces of wood
followed by washing and bleaching in preparation for papermaking.
Thermomechanical pulping was developed in the 1930's. In this process, wood chips are
ground under high pressure. producing heat that weakens the lignin in the wood chips and
makes the separation of fibres easier. This yields relatively cheap fibres suitable for newsprint.
Refiner mechanical pulping was developed in the 1960's. Here wood chips are passed
repeatedly through a series of rotating discs to remove fibres.
Although mechanical pulping provides high yields of fibre , it is energy intensive and does not
remove lignin, which degrades paper strength and is responsible for the darkening of newsprint
with time.
Herbaceous plant parts were often pulped in the past and on a small scale using a ball mill .
This is a simple rotating drum, into which are placed the plant parts along with several metal
balls. The action of the falling balls in the drum performs the pulping. Water is added to
improve the process and sometimes lye or sodium hydroxide.
Chemical pulping
Chemical pulping dissolves lignin, an adhesive in cell walls, thus liberating cellulose fibres. An
advantage of chemical pulping in that cellulose fibres are some 10 times stronger than
lignocellulose fibres, however the process only yields 3560%. Chemical pulping is used for the
production of paper for packing, writing, hygienic products etc and accounts for 70% of the
worldwide production of pulp.
The two principal chemical pulping processes are the sulphite process and the sulphate
process (also known as the kraft process). Until recently the sulphite process was preferred
because it produced a much lighter, easier to bleach pulp; however, the environmental impact is
greater than for the kraft process, which has well established methods for recovering processing
chemicals and utilising lignin that would otherwise be discharged to the environment. Despite
this, and the fact that the kraft process now accounts for over 80% of chemical pulp, there are
possible valuable uses for the sulphite process by-products.
r am not going to go into the detailed chemistry of what occurs in these processes in this article
but will give a general overview of each process.
Sulphite pulping
The process is itlustrated below. It is used with hardwood or softwood chips, not herbaceous
fibres because of inferior yields and fibre strengths. The sulphite pulping liquor is added to
wood chips in a digester at 160C for about 2 hours. The pulp is then filtered from the spent
liquor and further processed to paper or cellulose-derivatives. As for the by-products, sulphonic
acids can be used as a binder and glue substitute, also as a raw material for the production of
medicinal compounds; ethanol can be used as a fuel (until 1958 it was used from Scandinavian
mills for use as a 25% blend with petrol).
l. illl .:sc.,n.:.

hy.ll .... ,i,k.
SI,,1;, ' hh. Ilf

Kraft pulping
W.,utl <"lUI'S
Sulphite pulping (from Brown)
This was developed in Germany in the late 19
century to improve upon an earlier pulping
process known as the soda process or alkaline pulping, which used sodium hydroxide to pulp
wood. The soda process was expensive compared with sulphite pulping. Kraft pulping
produces a strong pulp ('kraft' is the German word for strong). , and was soon adopted in the
USA to pulp southern pines , which do not fare well in the sulphite process due to their high
resin content.
The kraft process is Illustrated below. Biomass is first steamed before being continuously
added to a digester. Pulping is performed with a hot mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium
sulphide known as white liquor. Roughly half the biomass is degraded and dissolved to form a
mixture of lignin, polysaccharides and other compounds. The pulp of cellulose fibres is washed
to remove the spent liquor and screened to remove knots. Additional processing of the pulp
may include bleaching.
W"1 ,hi,,> C:t llsti:cillg

WI, ile


Oigc.stcr ot--- Steam
Mi ... illg
Inurg;lIl i..:
Sodium I'lI lp I liquur
sulli J..:
Multiple clfcel

ToIII pi'
( d lui llse
The kraft process (from Brown)
Pulping herbaceous biomass
Herbaceous materials like straw have relatively Jaw lignin content , often only half that of woody
material. and pulping takes a fraction (2533%) of the time it takes for woody material. In fact.
pulping is so rapid that the simpler soda process, using only sodium hydroxide, is often used to
pulp herbaceous biomass. Silica in herbaceous residues can cause severe problems in
recovery operations in the kraft process.
In principal , both woody and herbaceous plant materials can be used for the production of pulp
- indeed, agricultural residues were a major source in Europe and North America until the
1920's when issues of quality and supply began to favour woody biomass. Today over 90% of
pulp and paper is produced from woody biomass.
Although the lengths of fibres from herbaceous materials are comparable to those in
hardwoods, they are typically shorter than those from softwoods; thus paper made from
herbaceous plant fibres has relatively low tear strength. Herbaceous materials also contain
about 30% by weight of pith or parenchyma cells and about 5% by weight of dense epidermis
malerials, neither of which is fibrous in nature and which, when left in the pulp, have an adverse
effect on paper quality.
Another factor in the demise of herbaceous biomass pulping was the increased labour costs
associated with securing supplies. These materials (eg. Straw) have very low bulk density,
resulting in a tremendous volume to handle, and they degrade rapidl y when exposed to the
weather and so require special storage.
Depithing processes can substantially overcome many of the fibre quality issues with
herbaceous biomass and it is quite possible that herbaceous biomass materials will become
important again in time.
Prior to depithing the plant parts (usually stalks) are usually crushed.
Dry depithi ng separates the pith from the stalks after they have been dried to 10-25% moisture
content. Although widely used prior to 1960, the method produced a poor quality pulp.
Moist or humid depithing uses fresh crushed stalks whish may have a moisture content of
50%. It is the most economical type of depithing.
Wet depithing employs a slurry of water and stalks to improve depithing. This has the
advantage of removing epidermis cells as well as pith if stalks are well broken up in the milling
Many commercial operations employ a two-stage depithing operation consisting of moist
depithing, economically removing most of the pith, followed by wet depithing, removing the
residual pith and epidermal cells from the fibre. Fresh plant material is fed into a depithing
machine consisting of a rotor to which are attached swinging or rigid hammers. The mechanical
action rubs or breaks loose the pith from the fibre, whi ch is flung radially outwards through
screens or perforated plates.
The fibre and water are then continuously added to a hydrapulper, which thoroughly wets the
mixture and helps break l oose dirt and remaini ng pith. The resul ting slurry is pumped to
agitated chests where rocks and other heavy materials settle out. After draining some of the
liquid off, the slurry is then pumped to the wet depither, again consisting of hammers attached
to a rotor enclosed in a perforated drum. Pith and epidermal cells pass through the
perforations, while the clean fibre slurry flows out at the bottom and is taken for pulping. The
wet pith stream is sometimes used for irrigation.
Brown, R C: Biorenewable Resources . Iowa State Press, 2003.
Mulberries in China and Japan
I ntrod uction
Mulberries are important trees in China and Japan, for silkworm production, fruit and a number
of other uses. Asian classifications of the Marus genus list 24 mulberry species in total.

Mulberries are distributed in a wide range of tropical. subtropi cal , temperate and sub-arctic
Most mulberries cultivated in Japan belong to M.bombysis (primarily in cold regions). M.afba
(widespread) and M.latifofia (primarily in warm regions). In addition. M.acidosa grows naturally
and is culti vated in the southwest islands; and M.kagayamae and M.boninensis are indigenous
to remote islands.
Mulberr.y is distributed in all parts of China, and there are more than 1,000 culti vated varieties.
Most of these originate from the four main species: Lu mulberry (M.multicaulis) , white mulberry
(M.a/ba), Mountain mulberry (M.bombyds) and Guandong mulberry (M.atropurpurea) .
Breeding work in Japan has concentrated on developing cultivars for leaf production (f or
silkworm fodder) with the aims of high yield, high nutritional value, and resistance against pests
and diseases. Varieties have been released in recent decades for warm, temperate, cold and
snowy regions.
Leaf production for silkworm fodder
The production of silk from silkworms feeding on mulberry leaves is called sericulture.
Silkworms eat only mulberry leaves (of several species, but not the black mulberry, M.nigra) to
make their cocoons, producing silk. Mulberry leaves are rich in protein and amino acids and
there is a high correlation between l eaf protein level and production efficiency of cocoon shelt.
China is the largest producer of mulberry and sil k in the world, with some 626,000 ha (1.56
million acres) of mulberry resulting in some 432,000 tonnes of fresh cocoon production per year.
In Japan there are approximately 15,000 Ha (38,000 acres) of mulberries for sericulture,
including 1,200 Ha (3,000 acres) of densely planted fields. The normal planting density of trees
is 60-100 plants per Ha (24-40 plants/acre, ie trees at 10-13 m spacing apart). In densely
planted orchards, aimi ng at earl y hi gh yield and mechanical harvesting, over 250 plants/ha (100
plants/acre, ie trees at 6 m or less) are used.
Standard practice of fertiliser application in Japan is to appl y 3 Kg of Nitrogen, 1.4-1.6 Kg of
phosphate and 1.2-2 Kg of potassium per ha per year, in addition to at least 150 kg of compost
per ha.
Mulberry plantings in China are of 4 main types:
(1) Chinese mulberry plantations for leaf production are planted at a much higher density,
10,000-15,000 plants/ha (4000-6000 plants/acre, ie plants at spacings of 0.8 to 1 m),
using F1 hybrid seedli ng stock, and pruning to a trunk height of 50-80 cm.
(2) Scattered planting. Mulberries are also planted at fieldsides, roadsides, around
houses, along irrigation canals etc. In Szechuan, the biggest sericulture province in
China, millions of mul berry trees are scattered in hill y and mountainous areas. In this
way mulberries do not compete with other crops in cultivated land.
(3) Intercropping. Mulberries are intercropped with grains, white chrysanthemums and
winter vegetabl es in vari ous regi ons.
(4) Dyke and pond system. This ecosystem has been developed over several hundred
years . The proportion of pond:dyke is 6:4 or 7:3 according to conditions. Mulberry
trees are planted on the dykes. After feeding the sil kworms, the faeces of the larvae
and the wasted leaf are used to feed fish i n the pond. The pond silt is used to fertilise
the mulberry trees.
Chinese field management includes fertilisation with N:P:K at a ratio of 10:4:6. Generally
speaking 1.5-2 kg of N is needed to produce 100 kg of leaf. In dry regions irrigation is essential
in the dry season.
There are various training forms used. Maintenenace of stump height is one of the typical forms
used, with either a low cut (15-30 em above soil), a medium low cut (30-50 em) or a medium cut
(50-100 em). Another typical form is the fist shape method, where the plant is pollarded back to
the same place each year, forming a fist from where the shoots emerge. The non-fist training
method is similar except that the pruning height is raised each year, allowing a bud above each
previous cut to remain. Finally, there is a lateral branch training method, where branches in line
with the row are tied down to wires, allowing shoots to emerge from the horizontal branch buds.
Mechanical harvesting demands low pruning near to ground level to prevent stump formation.
Harvesti ng methods vary with si lkworm rearing scale and frequency. The two main methods are
spring pruning (for the summerautumn rearing season) and summer pruning (for both spring
rearing and late autumn rearing) . There are also the circle harvesting method (spring pruning
and summer pruning alternately every year) and alternate harvesting method (alternating spring
and summer pruning to half of the same plant). These two methods are adopted to secure
enough yi eld by sustaining the tree vigour.
Annual Chi nese leaf yields from high density plantati ons are in the region of 2550 tonnes/ha
( 10-20 tonnes/acre).
Mulberry contains all the necessary nutrients for the growth and development of the silkworm
(Bombyx mon) , and sericulture has been carried out for more than 5,000 years. In China it
takes 15 to 18 kg of fresh leaves to produce 1 kg of fresh cocoon at the farmer level.
Mulberry fruits turn red, white or purplish-black when they ripen , and on average contain 12%
sugars (mainly glucose), through in some varieties in can exceed 20%. They are also rich in
carotene, vitamins 81,82 and C.
Mulberry fruits are eaten fresh, made into jam or mulberry wine. Mulberry fruit juice is made
commercially on a large scale in China where it is very popular; it keeps fresh without
preservatives for several months. The fruit s have recently been found to possess anti-oxidant
Medicinal uses
Mulberri es have been used medicinally in the region since ancient times. The root bark in
particular has been used as a herbal medicine to reduce high blood pressure. Mulberry leaves
are ri ch in gamma-aminobutylic acid, effective against high blood pressure, and in alanine,
effective against hangovers. The leaves also contain compounds which can l ower the blood
sugar level and thus they are now an important health food, taken as mulberry leaf tea, for
Other uses
Baled or fried dried mulberry leaf powder is rich in protein and carbohydrate, and has a distinct
fragrant smell . It is used in China as a food additive for making buns, bread, cakes and
bi scuits.
The litter of silkworm faeces and wasted leaf i s also used as a supplementary feed for cattle.
Mulberry branches are used as raw material for paper production.
The stems and stem powder are a good media for mushroom production. In China, the edible
Jew's ear (Auricularia auricula judae) and the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum are
produced on mulberry logs or powder.
Sanchez, M D: Mulberries for animal production. FAO, 2002.
Page 27
A power driven nut cracker
I ntrod uction
Whereas in most of Europe, nut growers belong to cooperatives, who process their nut crops
with large centralised machines (costing tens of thousands of pounds) , there is very little in the
way of , smaller scale machinery commercially available for individual or small groups of nut
g r o w e r ~ . The A.R.T. decided in 2004 to try and develop a small machine which could be easily
built, rugged, and fairly efficient at cracking many types of nuts.
The machine
OUf starting point was a promising design by Harry Lagerstedt , published in a 1992 issue of
WThe NutsheW magazine in the USA. Martin Crawford took the plans to a local engineering
company in Totnes, Peter Tanner Engineering. Peter and Carl there studied the plans and
made several suggestions to improve the design and make it safer. Over the next 6 months the
machine was built , testing it and altering the design slightly as time went by until completed.
The two important parts of the machine are a rotating metal wheel and an ~ a n v i r . The heavier
the wheel the better, since the more mass it has, the less likely it is to slow down as nuts are
fed in. The wheel in our machine is 5 cm (2M) wide and 25 cm (10") in diameter; too small a
diameter will not work well. The wheel has 8 beads, about 2 mm high, welded across its
surface. These were placed not straight across (as in the original design) but were Vshaped,
so that nuts would be funnelled towards the centre of the wheel as they were cracked, and were
less likel y to travel to the edges of the wheel where pieces might conceivably get trapped
between the outer side of the wheel and the casing.
The wheel shaft is mounted in two bearings and fitted with a large pulley. A belt connects this
to the electric motor. The motor itself was second hand, having been salvaged from an
industrial paint mixing machine, and run at about 2000 r.p.m., so the pulley ratios were made so
that the cracking wheel rotates at about 400 r.p.m. which seemed, by trial and error, to be the
most suitable cracking speed.
The anvil is the hard place against which the nut is squeezed. It is hinged so that the space
between the anvil and wheel can be adjusted, via a threaded bolt that can be moved against the
anvil , pushing it towards the rotating wheel. This is the adjustment used for cracking different
sized nuts. The anvil is made from 10 mm thick steel, and is hinged at its top with a 10 mm
steel pin going through two heavy metal plates welded to the frame. Thi s pin can be easily
removed if any nuts get jammed, and the anvil opened to its widest to allow access into the
cracking zone.
The finished machine note 1 m ruler in left hand picture. Right hand picture shows the anvil ,
Lshaped anvil pin and adjusting bolt.
Page 29
The whole mechanism is mounted on an angle iron frame and is enclosed by a sheet metal
housing. The lower part of the wheel and anvil are also enclosed to guide the cracked nuts into
a container . A sheet metal hopper on top of the housing holds the nuts prior to cracking.
Throughput of nuts is impressive. I have measured walnuts being cracked at about 45 kg/ hour
and hazelnuts at 90 kg/hour. The quality of the resulting cracked nuts is dependent on a fairly
uniform size, so much better results are obtained when nuts are graded first. Graded hazels
can be cracked with about 95% of whole kernels; ungraded hazels come though at 85-90%.
Walnuts come through with a good proportion of halves. Dried chestnuts go through the
machine too, with kernels broken into small pieces (small enough to go through an electric grain
mill) and whole or large parts of skins; cracking rate is intermediate between hazels and
walnuts. Once one has a fast nut cracker, the time consuming process becomes separating the
shells from the kernels. Inclined boards, pneumatic (air blown) separators and vibrating grading
tables are all possible answers, but again there seem to be no well tested low cost designs -
that will be a future project.
Building the machine cost about 1500, but this included lots of experimentation. To have it
built from scratch again would cost no more than 10qO. For a grower of a few acres of nuts
who needs to process nuts for adding value to the product, this is a highly promising machine.
Bamboo as a building material in Europe
Traditionally in the European building industry, costs and durability have been the main factors
determining the selection of building materials. However, as sustainability becomes a key
issue, the environmental performance of building materials is becoming an important criterion.
Bamboo, as a fast growing renewable material with a simple production process, has been
suggested as a sustainable alternative for more traditional materials like concrete, steel and
timber. This article reports on a study using a Ufe Cycle Assessment (LCA) for bamboo and
comparing this with LeA's for the commonly used building materials.
In Europe and the USA, bamboo is being used more often, either in its natural form (the culm)
or as part of an industrial product (eg. In interior wall panels or flooring tiles like parquet). In
Europe, there have also been some recent building projects based on bamboo construction.
These projects can give useful information about potential problems with using bamboo.
The study
In the study, bamboo was environmentally assessed in its natural form (culm) as in an industrial
form (panel). The culm was assessed in the structural function as a column, transverse and
longitudinal beam and rail in a footbridge in Holland. This was compared with steel , timber
(sustainably produced) and concrete. For example, for the column a single 100 mm diameter
culm sufficed whereas the standard materials required were 140 x 140 mm timber (Robinia) or
120 x 120 x 3 mm steel or 150 x 150 mm prefabricated concrete. The bamboo column lifespan
is 20 years compared with 15 years for the timber, and 50 years for the steel and concrete.
Use of bamboo culms is shown to be the most sustainable alternative by far in all functions . In
some applications a 20-fold ' environmental improvement' is achieved. The good environmental
performance of bamboo culm has two distinct causes:
(1 )
- ~
Us natural holl ow design i s structurally far more efficient than a rectangu lar massive
section, ego In the case of timber. This means that bamboo contains far less material
mass in a certain function compared with steel, concrete and timber.
The simple, short production process (cutting, removal of foliage, preservation,
drying). The culms are of course air dried whereas most timber is dried with extra
heat (and energy usage).
These results are with using bamboo grown in Costa Rica, and about 90% of the environmental
costs are due to the sea transport involved.
Production of bamboo panels are far more complex. The culms need to be sawn, smoothed,
bleached. sandpapered, glued, pressed etc. Hence the environmental costs of 1 kg of bamboo
panel are about 7 times those of 1 kg of culm.
Comparing bamboo panels with other materials, the results show that the environmental
performance is slightly worse than most wood-based panels for internal walls.
These results lead to a dilemma: a problem with using bamboo culms in Western countries is
the irregular, hollow, round form, leading to problems in joints. By laminating a rectangular
section can be created, making joining easier. However, from an environmental point of view,
the bamboo culm should be chosen, accepting possible problems.
Financial costs
In terms of purchasing costs, bamboo is by far the cheapest alternative. In terms of annual
costs, bamboo is similar of slightly below that of sustainable timber. However, because of the
shorter lifespan and higher labour costs of assembling, on an overall cost level steel is the least
expensive material (about a half to two-thirds the price of a bamboo equivalent).
Potential problems with bamboo culms for building
(1) Joining is more labour intensive hence building costs increased
(2) Purchase of the bamboo can cause problems with quality control etc. although the
costs are low.
(3) Testing and bearing capacity. Until now, loading and bearing capacities of
bamboo have had to be tested and calculated for each project.
(4) Building regulations. These may require tests on fire safety etc. as it is an
unknown building material here.
(5) Wet bamboo is quite slippery, making it more demanding to handle the material in
wet weather.
Most problems encountered on recent projects were due to the shape of the material (round,
hollow and tapered) and its irregularity. These cannot be eliminated but good plantation control
and management, in addition to straightening the culms though treatment and good quality
control can reduce problems.
Because bamboo is not a regular material , it is most easily used in projects where exact
measurements are not necessary, eg. In temporary building and small civil projects such as
Work is progressing on building codes for bamboos and ISO standards have been set. More
work on classifications for quality and strength for culms and joints is in progress.
Van de Lugt, P et al: Bamboo as a building material alternative for Western Europe? J. Bamboo
and Rattan, Vol 2 No 3, pp 205-223 (2003).
Bamboo fibre
Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulose fibre produced from bamboo pulp.
F i b r ~ production
Bamboo canes of 3-4 years old are cut in Yunnan and Szechuan in China for processing there.
The bamboo pulp is refined from bamboo through a process of hydrolysis-alkalisation and multi-
phase bleaching. The pulp is then processed into fibre, which is sold in bales and appears as a
fluffy mass, white and silky to handle.
The production process claims to be a 'green' process without any pollution.
The fibre dyes easily.
Bamboo fibre is strong, durable, and stable. The thickness and whiteness of the fibre is similar
to viscose. The fibres are thinner than human hairs and have a round smooth surface, hence
there is little rubbing against skin.
The fibre also has anti-bacterial and deodorisation properties; in tests, after 50 washes the fibre
still shows excellent antibacterial properties. These properties come without the allergic side
effects which often appear when fibres with chemical bactericides added are worn.
The fibre also has a high abrasion-proof capacity and spins nicely wither on its own or blended
with other materials such as ..cotton, hemp, silk etc. It has also been noted that it absorbs uv
radiation extremely well.
Bamboo fibre has an unusual breath ability and coolness when worn. Because the cross section
of the fibre is filled with various micro-gaps and micro-holes, it has excellent moisture
absorption and ventilation properties, and can absorb and evaporate sweat very quickly. Such
garments feel cool and comfortable in hot weather, and don't stick to the skin.
End uses
The raw fibre can be used in masks, mattresses, sanitary products etc where its antibacterial
properties may be particularly valued. Similarly the spun fibre can be used in bandages,
surgical clothes etc.
Clothing uses include sweaters, underwear, t-shirts and socks. Mats, blankets, towels also
utilise its excellent water absorbance properties.
Curtains, wallpaper etc. made from bamboo fibre will not easily go mouldy due to dampness.
Compendium of edible fruits
(3) climber shrubs
This compendium tabulates all known climbing shrubs for temperate or continental climates
which have edible fleshy fruits . It is undoubtedly not definitive as there are probably many
climbers with edible fruits which have never been written about. Perennial s will be covered in
the next issue. The informati on for this compendium comes from our database of useful plants
and previous articles in Agroforestry News.
l ' ~



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!Aclinidia arguta Siberian 0 N 15 4 raw, cooked or dried for later use;
gooseberry contains up to 5 times the vitamin C
content of blackcurrants. Excellent
flavour. 20-25 mm long.
iActinidia arisanensis 0 N 5 8 raw or cooked. 23-35 mm long.
Actinidia callosa 0 N 9 7 raw or cooked, also dried; good
flavour. 18-25 mm long.
Actinidia chinensis 0 N 7. 8 raw or cooked - good flavour. To 30
5 mm across.
Actinidia deliciosa Kiwi fruit 0 N 9 7 raw or cooked - good flavour. Fresh
fruits contain 100 - 420mg vitamin C
per 100g and 8 - 14% carbohydrate;
acidity is 1 - 2%, mainly citri c acid.
Actinidia eriantha Velvet vine 0 N 10 7 raw or cooked. To to 35 mm long x
30 mm wide.
Actinidia hemsleyana 0 N 9 6 raw or cooked. To 27 mm x 15 mm.
Actinidia holotricha 0 N 5 6 raw or cooked.
Actinidia kolomikta Manchurian 0 N 10 4 raw, cooked or dried for later use -
gooseberry good flavour. To 20 mm diameter.
Actinidia lati folia 0 N 7 8 raw or cooked. 30 - 40 mm long and
20 - 30 mm wide.
jActlOldla melanandra jRed kiWI 10 IN 17 16 Iraw or cooked To 30 mm long
Actinidia polygama Silver vine 0 N 6 4 raw or cooked - good flavour. To 30
mm across.
Actinidia rubricaulis 0 N 10 6 raw or cooked; small and sweet. 16
mm long by 13 mm wide.
Actinidia strigosa 0 N 6 raw or cooked - nice flavour.
iActinidia tetramera 0 N 13 5 raw or cooked. To 20 mm long.
I .5
Acti nidia venosa 0 N 9 6 raw or cooked. To 15 mm long.
Page 33

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Akebia x pentaphylla 01 N 10 5 Pulp is eaten - raw; sweet , delicate
E flavour. Skin bitter. 60-120 mm long
purple pod.
Akebiat quinata
Chocolate vine 01 N 12 5 pulp is eaten - raw; sweet , delicate
E flavour. Skin bitter. 50-100 mm long
purple pod.
Akebia trifoliata Three leaf akebia 01 9 5 pulp is eaten - raw; sweet, delicate !
E flavour. Skin bitter. 70-150 mm long
purple pod.
Ampelopsis arborea Pepper vine E 10 7 raw or cooked; poor flavour. 8 mm in I
diameter in small bunches.
Ampelopsis 0 20 4 raw or cooked; poor flavour. 6-8 mm j
brevipedunculata in diameter in small bunches.
Berchemia tineata 0 5 8 raw or cooked; 8 mm.
Berchemia racemosa 0 12 6 raw or cooked; 8 mm.
Billardiera longiflora Appleberry E 2. 8 raw; mealy. poor. Remove seeds !
4 first. Deep blue, to 25 mm long.
Holboelfia coriacea Sausage vine E 7 9 raw; sweet , insipid. The fruit is at
purple pod with white seedy pulp, 50 !
mm long and 25 mm wide.
Holboellia grandiflora
E 9 raw; sweet, insipid. The fruit is a !
purple pod with white seedy pulp, 50
mm long and 25 mm wide.
Holboellia latifolia E 9 raw; sweet, insipid. The fruit is al
purple pod with white seedy pulp, 50-
100 mm long and 25 mm wide.
Lapageria rosea Chilean bellflower E 5 9 raw or cooked. A sweet white juicy j
pulp, the yellow fruits are 50 mm bYl
35 mm ..
Lardizabala biternata Zabala fruit E N 3. 9 raw or cooked; sweet and pulpy,
5 good flavour. Deep purple pods, 50 - 1
80 mm long.
lonicera caprifolium Perfoliate 0 6 5 Eaten in small quantities.
lonicera ciliosa Western trumpet E 10 5 raw or cooked; mediocre. 5 mm
honeysuckle across.
Muehlenbeckia Pohuehue 0 N 5 8 raw or cooked; sweet and juicy.
Parthenocissus 0 18 9 raw or cooked; poor flavour. 6mm in
himalayana diameter in bunches.
Parthenocissus Virginia creeper 0 30 3 raw or cooked; poor flavour.
6mm in l
quinquefolia diameter in bunches.
E ~


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Passiflora caerulea Blue passion E 10 7 Fruit pulp - raw or cooked; pleasant
flower flavour. 60 mm tong and 40 mm
wide, contains only a little pulp.
Rubus australis Bush lawyer E 9 Raw or cooked; jui cy.
Schi sandra chinensis Magnolia vine 0 N 9 4 raw or cooked, also dried a
sweet/sour flavour. 6mm diameter in
Himalaya magnolia 0 N 6 8 raw or cooked; pleasantly acid
grandiflora vine flavour. 6mm diameter in bunches. I
ISChlsandra henrYI
Schisandra repanda 0 N 6 7 raw or cooked.
Sinofranchetia 0 N 15 6 raw; insipid. 20 mm in diameter.
Smilax bona-nox Bristly greenbrier 0 N 8 raw; rubbery texture! 5mm in
diameter in heads.
Smilax china China root 0 N 4. 6 raw; eaten to quench the thirst. 9mm
5 in diameter.
Japanese staunton E N 10 9 raw or cooked; sweet, watery,
hexaphylla vine honey-like flavour. To 50 mm long.
Viti s acerifolia Bush grape 0 10 6 raw or dried; sweet. 16mm in
Vitis aestivalis Summer grape 0 20 3 raw, cooked in jellies, jams, pies etc
or dried for later use; taste is best
after a frost. 8mm in diameter
in !
Vitis amurensis Amur grape 0 15 4 raw, cooked or dried; succulent but
usually bitter. About 16 mm long and
10 mm wide.
Vitis arizonica Arizona grape 0 5 6 raw or dried; luscious. 10 mm in
Vitis baileyana 0 10 6 raw or dried. 40 - 70 mm in diameter.
Vitis berlandieri Spanish grape 0 10 7 raw or dried; a rich pleasant flavour,
slightly bitter skin. Small , but borne
in very large clusters.
Vitis californica California grape 0 9 7 raw, cooked or dried, also be made
into jellies, pies etc. 8mm in
diameter, but it has a thin flesh.
Vi tis cinerea Downy grape 0 5 raw or dried, also be used in pies ,
. ellies etc. 4 - 6mm in diameter in
fairly large bunches.
Vi tis coignetiae Crimson glory vine 0 20 5 raw or dried; poor. 12mm in
Page 35
., ....

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Vilis cordifolia Chicken grape 0 20 5 raw, cooked or dried; best after a!
frost. 8 - 12mrn in diameter in fairly
large bunches.
Viti s d<1vidii Chinese bramble 0 15 7 raw or dried; variable flavour.
About I
grape 16mm in diameter.
Vais flexuosa 0 8 6 raw or dried. 7mm in diameter.
Vitis girdiana
0 12 8 raw or dried. 4 - 7mm in diameter. I
Vitis labrusca Fox grape 0 15 7 raw or dried; also be made into pies,
preserves etc. A distinctive musky
aroma and taste, best after a frost.
To 20 mm in diameter in fairly large
Vilis labruscana 0 15 5 raw or dried ; musky flavour, often
used to make wine. 25mm in
[Vitis monti cola Mountain grape 0 10 6 raw or dried; sweet. 12mm in
Vili s munsoniana Scrub grape 0 9 raw or dried; thin-skinned with an
acid flavour, it can be eaten raw
when fully ripe,
Viti s mustangensis Mustang grape 0 10 5 cooked or dried; tough skinned, poor
flavour. About 16mm in diameter.
Viti s palmata Cat grape 0 20 5 raw or dried. To 10mm in diameter in l
small bunches.
Vitis parvifolia 0 7 raw or dried. 7mm in diameter,
Vitis riparia Ri verbank grape 0 15 2 raw or dried; juicy and somewhat l
acid, flavour is best after a frost. 6 -
12 mm in diameter.
Vilis romanetii 0 10 6 raw or dried. 8 - 12 mm in diameter.
Vitis rotundifolia Southern fox grape 0 Y 25 5 raw or dried; thick-skinned with al
pleasant musky flavour, excellent in
'ellies, pies etc. To 25 mm in
diameter in small bunches.
Vitis rupestris Sand grape 0 2 5 raw or dried; very sweet , pleasant I
flavour. 6 - 12mm in diameter.
Vilis thunbergii 0 5 6 raw or dried. About 9mm in diameter. I
Vilis vinifera Grape vine 0 15 6 raw or dried for winter use; delicious. I
Widely used in making wine.
Vili s vulpina Chicken grape 0 25 5 raw or dried; sweet and nice after l
frost. 5 - 10 mm in diameter in small
- ---
The nettle: Urtica dioica
Stingi ng nettles need little in the way of introduction to most folk , as they are widespread in
most parts of the world, though native to Europe and Asia, and are usually regarded as weeds.
'Urtica' derives from the Latin, to burn; ' nettle' is thought to derive from the old Anglo-Saxon or
Dutch word for needle.
The nettle (also known as the bigsting nettle and great neUle) is a perennial and very stubborn
weed growing up to 1.8 m (6 ft) high, preferring soil rich in nitrogen and growing in sun or part
shade. The stems are four-angled. It spreads via both seeds and by creeping branching
rhizomes just beneath the soi l surface. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers are
borne on separate plants) ; the flowers are green and are wind pollinated.
The stinging hairs on nettles are in fact rough thin hollow silica tubes containing a mixture of
histamine, acetylcholine, serotonin and formic acid. When the plant is touched, the tubes are
broken, releasing this chemical mixture onto the skin, causing at first a strong burning feeling,
followed by swelling, a rash and itching. The concentrat ion of formic acid is especially high in
Edible uses
Fresh nettles have long been used for food in
Britain since early Christian times , often eaten in a
broth made with oats or oatmeal.
The cooked young shoots (or tops/l eaves of older
shoots with the youngest leaves) and a very
healthy and nutritious food , and are rich in vitamins
A, 82, C, E and K1 as well as various minerals
including iron and calcium. The very best shoots to
pick are the very young ones, no higher than 10 cm
(4") . To cook as a vegetable, wash the leaves and
simmer in a pan without water for 10 minutes,
turning all the time. Cooking destroys the stinging
properties. Butter and seasoning improves the
Used on their own they can be bitter (especially
after June) or dull , so they are best added to other
foods - stews etc. Nettle soup, made with onions,
garlic, potatoes, nettles and stock, is an excellent
di sh; it is very popul ar in Sweden, where for many
people it is the only sure sign that spring has
arrived. Another traditional European dish is a
baked mixture of eggs, breadcrumbs, chopped ham
and chopped nettle at easter time.
Nettle leaves are used as a wrapping for cheese, notably for Cornish Varg.
Nettle tea is now an important commercial product , with more than one UK manufacturer
marketing nettle tea bags in wholefood shops etc.
Page 37
Nettle leaf curd is an interesting food produced on a small
commercial scale in England. Nettle leaves are juiced and the
jui ce coagulated, producing a rich dark green curd with a texture
like cheddar cheese. It is used like a stock cube, adding richness,
flavour and green colour to food, improving its nutritional vale.
The curd itself is rich in minerals and Vitamins.
The u i ~ e of the leaves, or a decoction of the herb, can be used as
a rennet substitute in curdling plant milks.
It is not advisable to eat fresh raw nettles even in small quantities
(though see the BBC article about the nettle eating competition in
the text box).
Older leaves contain crystals of calcium oxalate, which give a
gritty texture, even after cooking.
Medicinal uses
Nettle has long been used medicinall y - the Greek physiCian
Oioscoroides listed a range of uses.
The whole plant, including leaves and roots, can be used. For
medicinal use, whole plants are cut as fl owering begins in summer
and dried for use in infusions, liquid extracts, ointments, powders
and tinctures; roots are harvested in autumn. The key
constit uents are flavonoids (quercitin), amines (histamine, choline,
acetylcholine, serotonin), glucoquinone, minerals (calcium,
potassium, silicic acid, iron), plant sterols (stigmast-4-enzone,
stigmasterol) and phenols.
It is an astringent, diuretic, tonic herb that controls bleeding,
clears toxins, and slightly lowers blood pressure and the blood
sugar level. It increases the haemoglobin in the blood and
improves the ci rculation. The leaves 'increase breast milk
production. Recent research has proven the value of neUle roots
as medicine for benign prostate enlargement.
Nettle beer
This takes only a
week from picking to
drinking and makes
a light , refreshing,
ginger beer-type
100 nettle stalks
(with leaves)
12 litres water
1 Yz kg sugar
50 g cream of tartar
15 9 yeast
Boil nettles with
water for 15
minutes. Strain, add
sugar and cream of
tartar. Heat and stir
until dissolved.
When tepid add
yeast and stir well.
Cover and leaves for
4 days. Remove
scum and decant,
without disturbing
sediment, into beer
bottles with
Can be drunk within
a few days, serve
with a sprig of mint
and ice.
Medicinally they are used internally for anaemia (leaves), haemorrhage (especially of the
uterus), heavy menstrual bleeding, haemorrhoids, arthritis, rheumatism, skin complaints
(especially eczema) and allergies. Nettle is anti-allergenic and used to treat hay fever, asthma,
itchy skin conditions and insect bites. Externally for arthri tic pain, gout, sciatica, neuralgia,
haemorrhoids, scalp and hair probl ems, burns, insect bites and nosebleeds.
Recent studies have shown that neUles have a powerful antioxidant activity and contain very
effective scavengers of free radicals. They also show significant antibacterial activity, antiulcer
activity and analgesic effects.
Nettles are a common component of shampoos; traditi onally a decoction of nettles was used to
combat dandruff and hair loss.
A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves of the closely related U.urens, the annual
nettle, which has the same properties as stinging nettle. It is used in the treatment of bites &
stings, breastfeeding problems. burns, hives and prickly heat.
Fibre uses
NeWe fibre has been used to weave cloth for centuries
- a Danish Bronze Age grave contained nettle fabric.
The fibre is similar to hemp and it served a variety of
purposes in the home from coarse sheets and cloth to
sacking and fishing nets. Nettle fibres are strong and
have sometimes been used commercially to produce a
fibre (notably in World War I in Germany, when some
2,500 tannes of nettles were collected.) Nettle is
cultivated still to produce neWe cloth on a small scale.
Recently fashion designers have been experimenting
with nettle cloth.
The netties are harvested in autumn, reUed in water
(soaked for several weeks to release the fibres), then
the fibres are combed out. For simple cordage and
rope, the fibres can be used straight away, but for
making paper or cloth, they need pounding, rolling or
crushing to pulverize any brittle woody cells that
remain; then they are beaten and scraped (scutching)
to remove the woody bits; and the final step is hackling
(drawi ng the fibres across a series of vertical pins to
separate and align them). The line fibres, as they are
now called, can then be twisted into hanks and stored
ready for spinning. This process is common to all
herbaceous fibres used for cloth.
On a small scale for short-term usage, there is an
easier way to utilise neUies for cordage. Select tall
nettles, best collected in autumn just before they start
to dry and decay. Remove the stingi ng hairs and
leaves by drawing the stem through a clenched gloved
hand. Flatten the stems gently by squeezing or rolling
a small stick over them on a log. Then bend the nettle
in the middle to break the strong fibrous pith inside.
Remove the pith, leaving the fibres attached to the
outer bark, then peel the bark into four equal lengths.
The fibres can be used as they are for tying or can be
twisted together to make a strong cord.
Nettles can also be used to make a fine paper.
For a good quality fibre, nettles should be grown on a
good rich deep soil.
The plant matter left over after the fibres have been
extracted are a good source of biomass and have been
used in the manufacture of sugar, starch, protein and
ethyl alcohol.
Other uses
Chopped neUles are sometimes fed to goslings, while
goats are fond of browsing on the plants, seemingly
BBC News website 16/6/2002
Nettle chomping champ
keeps crown
The reigning champion
stinging nettle eater has
retained his title by munching
hi s way through a record
amount of the fiery plants.
Simon Sleigh, from
Forkchurch, Dorset, took on a
field of a dozen tough-
mouthed competitors at a
country pub and ate his way
through 76ft of the uncooked
After his win at the Bottle Inn
in the tiny Dorset village of
Marshwood, population 300,
Sleigh, an organic vegetable
grower in his early forties, said
he felt no pain.
"I made every effort to make
sure it did not hurt, it comes
with experience," he said,
admitting that washing the
leaves down with beer was a
factor which "helped
enormously". There is said to
be a secret method of eating
the leaves which prevents
competitors sustaining injury.
But one false move and the
plucky contestants risk
swollen lips and gums.
"I hate the bloody things,
honest," he added.
Sleigh came second in his
debut year of competition
before his first win last year,
and today beat his nearest
rival by about 20ft of nettles.
He and hi s competitors were
faced with the challenge of
stripping and eating the leaves
of as many 2ft long speciall y
nurtured stinging nettle stalks
as they could in the allotted
Page 39
unaffected by the stings. Hay made from nettles is an excellent addition to the diet of cattle and
rabbit s (dried leaves contain up to 20% protein); dried and powdered they can be mixed in with
chicken and duck food, whife pigs thrive on the boiled plant.
Nettles can be made into a liquid fertiliser feed in the same way as comfrey leaves . Soak
freshly picked nettles in water at the ratio of 1 kg nettles to 10 litres of water (1 Ib per gallon).
After two weeks, strain the (smelly) liquid off. Liquid nettle fertiliser is more or less a complete
fertiliser (the phosphorus content can be a little low) and is best used dituted ten times on
in growth. As well as providing nutrients, nettle fertiliser has a growth stimulating
effect on plants (some 20% increase over standard fertilisers) , perhaps due to specific
hormones present or greater accessibility of the nutrients. Dried nettles can also be used to
the fertili ser. Nettles in spring have a higher content of ammonium-nitrogen, phosphorus
and potassium than in summer. They are also an excellent addition to compost heaps, working
as activators.
Nettles are commercially exploited for their large amounts of chlorophyll, used as a colouring in
foods and medicines (code E140).
Nettles are an important food plant for various caterpillars including those of the red admiral,
tortoiseshell and peacock. Other insects supported include hoverflies, lacewings, parasitic
wasps and ladybirds - all very useful garden insect pest controllers .
The juice of the stems and leaves has been used to produce a permanent green dye - in Britain
it was used to colour camouflage nets that were needed in the run up to the D-Day landings in
1944. The leaves give a fast yellow-green dye with an alum mordant and a fast grey-green dye
with an iron mordant on wool. A yellow dye can also be obtained from boiling the roots, used
with an alum mordant, which has been used in Europe for centuries.
The growing plant reportedl y increases the essential oil content of other nearby plants, thus
making them more resistant to insect pests.
Bown, D: The RHS New Encyclopedia of Herbs & their uses. Darling Kindersley, 21002.
Chevalier, A; The Encycl opedia of Medicinal Plants. Darling Kindersley, 1996.
Gulcin, I et al: Antioxidant, antomicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettie (Urfica
dioica L.). Journal of Ethnopharm<;lcology 90 (2004), 205-215.
Hemenway, R: Fibe Plants for the Permaculture Landscape. Permacuiture Activist, 43 (2000),
pp 45-47.
Lavelle, M: The nettle - friend or foe? Herbs, Vol 28 No 3 (2003), pp 18-19.
Lennartsson, M: Make more use of nettles. HDRA Newsletter 112, 1998, pp 26-27.
Mears, R: Bushcraft. Hodder & Stouhgton, 2002.
Phillips, R: Wild Food. Pan, 1983.
www.leafcycle.co.uk - nettle leaf curd information
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Agroforestry News
Volume 13 Number 4
August 2005
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 13 Number 4 August 2005
2 News: Origins of domestic apples I Squirrel meat I
More pigs in woodland
3 Food value of annual and perennial vegetables
12 Horse chestnut: Aesculus hippocastaneum
16 Silvopasture in Shropshire
18 Dehesa agroforestry systems
22 Physalis: Ground cherries
28 Lithocarpus: the tanbark oaks
31 Compendium of edible fruits: (4) perennials and
35 Woolly aphid of apple
37 Pine resin - sources and uses
40 Book review: The Woodland House
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
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reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
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illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
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Origins of domestic apples
The cultivated apple, Malus domestica or more correctly Malus pumi/a, appears to have arisen
from the wild apple Malus sieversii on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan range,
geograpbically spanning Uzbekistan, Khirghistan, Kazakhstan and the Xinjiang Province of "/
China. Amoung the wild apples sti ll remaining in this region are fruits of the size, colour and
sweetness that would merit cultivation. It seems that M.sieversii did not hybridise with related
Middle Eastern or European apple species.
Recent genetic analyses of apple now explains how these fruits reached Western Europe and
beyond. M.sieversii is closely related to the Siberian crab, M.baccata, and it may have
originated from a trapped population of the latter and the Tien Shan range rose upwards. Over
a period of 710 million years the mammals, ego bears, selected the largest and juiciest fruits: a
small, birddistributed cherrysized fruit (Siberian crab) giving way to a large mammal
distributed one.
By the time man began to occupy the area 58,000 years ago, the early evolution of the apple
was almost complete and its migration, assisted by the now domesticated horse, was under
way . In the late Neolithic or early Bronze age, travellers on the great trade routes carried apple
pips west. Grafting was probably discovered in Mesopotamia some 3,800 years ago. From
there, the fruits are necessary technology passed through the Persians and Greeks to the
Romans, who perfected orchard economies. The Romans brought the whole package to
Western Europe. Two thousand years more of conscious and unconscious selection have led to
the varieties in existence today.
Source: B E: The Origin of the Domestic Apple. National Orchard Forum, 6.
Squirrel meat
Squirrel (grey) meat is becoming the health food of choice for waistwatching celebrities after
nutritionists named it among the best sources of protein. At just 173 calories per 100 grammes,
it is said to be preferable to rump steak for taste and healthy as squirrels feed on nuts and
It's on the menu at some Conran eateries in London and yesterday the Tapster bistro near
Faversham , Kent , where diners include Sir Bob Geldof, served squirrel sausages and pate
during a local festival.
The Daily Express, June 2005
More pigs in woodland
The Goodwood Estate in Sussex is converting 180 ha (460 acres) of the estate's woodland for
pigs. Trials started 18 months ago using primarily Saddlebacks, a hardy outdoor breed
providing very good tasting meat. Groups of 3 sows and their offspring have a 2.5 - 3 hectare
(6.2-7.5 acre) block of electrically fenced woodland top roam around for 6-8 months, clearing
the floor of ivy and bramble. The pigs live in straw huts, which are warmer in winter and cooler
in summer than traditional tin arks. The boar is moved from pen to pen to serve the sows, and
the offspring are taken away after 12 weeks. When the sites are clean they are moved to
another area and during winter live in stubble fields. The woodland provides a cool , relaxing
and uncrowded envi ronment, while the forest floor is cleared of unwanted vegetation.
Source: Rudman, J: Down to Earth. NFU Countryside Magazine, August 2005.
Food value of annual and
perennial vegetables
One would expect that many perennial vegetables, with their permanent and often more
extensive root systems, would contain higher levels of minerals and vitamins than conventional
annual vegetables. And despite the lack of information on more unusual foods, this turns out
generally to be the case. Below are presented graphs showing the mineral , vitamin and protein
levels for a range of annual vegetables and perennial plants. Information is given on the
following perennials:
Bamboo shoots
Dead nettle
Fat Hen
Garden orach
Garl ic mustard
Phyllostachys spp.
Cynara carduncu/us
Anlhriscus cere folium
Stellaria media
Allium schoenoprasum
Tussi/ago farfara
Bellis perennis
Taraxacum officinale
Lamium album
Chenopodium album
Alrip/ex hortensis
Alliaria petio/ala
Good king Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus
Greater burnet Sanguisorba officinalis
Ground elder Aegopodium podagraria
Ground i vy Glechoma hederacea
Hogweed Heracleum sphondylium
Lemon balm Melissa officinalis
Lesser celandine Ranunculus ficaria
Red clover Trifolium pratense
Ribwort plantai n Plantago lanceolafa
Rosebay willowherb Epilobium angustifolium
Silverweed Potentilla anserina
Sorrel Rumex acetosa
Stinging nettle Urtica dioica
Wood mallow Malva sylvestris
Each graph below displays annual vegetables in the bottom half and perennials in the top. Of
course, nutrient levels in plants vary during the year, and also vary with climate, cultivation
methods etc. It is common to find analyses for a particular plant differing by as much as 50%
due to such variation, so don't treat these figures as precisely accurate at all times; they
represent average values.
With Potassium, the perennials contain on average nearly twice the amount than conventional
annual s. Note though that the highest levels come from chickweed and fat hen, two annual
weeds! With Magnesium, Calcium, Iron, vitami n C and protei n levels, the difference is even
more pronounced, with perennials containing on average 2-3 times the amounts that
conventional annuals contain. With Phosphorus and vitamin A the differences are less
pronounced, though the perennials still contain signifi cantly more.
Weise, V: Cooking Weeds. Prospect Books, 2004.
Lanska, D: The Illustrated Guide to Edible Plants. Chancellor Press, 1992.
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference at
Stinging nettle
Rosebay willowhb.
Good king Henry
t Dandelion
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Curly kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Page 4
200 400 600 800 1000
milligram/100g Potassium
Stinging netlle
Rosebay willowhh.
Good king Henry
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Spi nach
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Cur1y kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
milligram/100g Phosphorus
Page 5
Stinging nettle
Rosebay willowhb.
Good king Henry
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
lambs lettuce
Curly kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Page 6
20 40 60 80 100
milligram/100g Magnesium
Stinging nettie
Rosebay willowhb.
Good king Henry
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Cuny kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
200 400 600
milligram/100g Calcium
Page 7
Stinging nettle
Rosebay wi llowhb.
Good king Henry
~ Dandelion
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Curly kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
2 4 6
8 10
milligram/100g Iron
Wood mallow
Stinging nettle
Rosebay willowhb.
Red dover
Lesser celandine
Ground etder
Greater burnet
Good king Henry
Dead nettie
Bamboo shoots
White cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Cuny kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
o 500 1000 1500 2000
microgram/100g Vitamin A
Page 9
Ribwort plantain
Lemon balm
Ground ivy
Garden orach
Garlic mustard

Stinging nettle
Rosebay willowhb.
Ground elder
Greater burnet
Good king Henry
D;,, :11 II
CheMl 1 = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
cardoon I
Bamboo shoots
FalHen ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : : ~ ~ ~ : J I
White cabbage J
Swiss chard 0
Red cabbage
LambS lettuce
CUr1y kale ~ ~ ~ ~ b
cress ]
Chinese cabbage ~ I
Chicory P I I
Gaulinower : b ~ ~ ~ ~
"'"01 JI I I
o 100 200 300 400 500
microgram/100g Vitamin C
Page 10
Wood mallow
Stinging nettle
Rosebay wil1owhb.
Ground elder
Good king Henry
Dead nettle
Bamboo shoots
Fat Hen
While cabbage
Swiss chard
Red cabbage
Lambs lettuce
Curly kale
Chinese cabbage
Brussels sprouts
~ I
4 6
gram/100g Protein
Page 11
Horse chestnut
Aesculus hippocastaneum
Introduction and origin
Amoung the Aesculus species, the horse chestnut is important, used widely as an ornamental
and landscape plant in parks and gardens all over the world due to its beauty and hardiness. It
is a majestic tree with a great ornamental presence as a result of its growth habit, the thick
foliage that develops early in spring, the high shading capacity, the abundant showy flowers ,
and the longevity of the plant.
The horse chestnut is becoming increasingly important as a source of medicinal compounds
which have been widely investigated and are used in dermatology and pharmacology.
In the last century, botanists believed that the tree came originally from Asia, hence the Italian
common name for fruit "Castagna d'lndia
In reality, this species is native to the mountains of
Albania, Bulgaria and the north of Greece, where it grows wild in mixed woods with alder (Alnus
glutinosa), walnut (Juglans regia), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and maple (Acer platanoides).
The species was introduced into western Europe in the 16
century and in many countries now
it is rare for a town or village to be without a specimen. There a number of named ornamental
Horse chestnut is a deciduous tree that can live for more than 200 years and grow to a height of
25-30 m (85-100 ft) and width of 15 m (50 ft). Trees grows a large rounded crown and are
densely branched, with the lower branches usually pendulous.
Distinctive buds are ovoid, pointed, 3-5 cm long, dark
reddish-brown and very sticky.
Leaves are palmate with 5-7 leaflets on long stalks, each
up to 20 em (8") long.
White flowers (speckled yellow and red), usually appear on
trees over 14-15 years of age in late April-early June, are
hermaphrodite or male, about 2 cm long and combined in
large erect, terminal racemes. Not all flowers are ferUle.
Pollination is via bees, including honey bees and wild
The fruit consists of 1-4 seeds enclosed in a dry leathery
husk, green at first, turning brown externally when ripe. It
can reach 6 cm in diameter, and has small spines and a
fine down on the surface. At maturity the husk splits into
three valves to release the seeds.
Seeds are brown, rounded or faceted , with two irregular large fleshy and oily cotyledons that
are often joined. Heavy seed yields are obtained every 2-3 years.
The tree is very hardy, to zone 3 (-35C). The horse chestnut i s a relatively short-lived trees,
with decl ine starting soon after 100 years of age.
Medicinal uses
Horse chestnut is li sted as a medicinal herb in the herba
pharmacopoeias of many countries, with the dried leaves, the oi
extracted from peeled seeds, the fresh and dried seeds, the bark anI
the fresh flowers all being utilised.
Horse chestnut seeds have a sour, bitter taste and are toxic as ;
consequence of a high level of saponins, notably escin. They aisl
contain coumarin glycosides, flavonoid derivatives, starch (23-48%)
tannins, oil (4-6%), cellulose (3%), protein (8-12%), sucrose (8-17%)
glucose (5-6%). The dried seeds are antioxidant,
vasoprotective, decongestant and astringent, notably due to the esc;n content. Gels or
ointments are most often used for the treatment of varicose veins, contusions, haematomas,
haemorrhoids and in dermatology.
The industrial demand for horse chestnut seeds to process for medicinal compounds is rising
and currentfy more than 2000 tonnes of dry seeds are required, mostly supplied from roadside
and garden trees in Hungary and Poland. The ripe seeds are dried at 60C.
The oil extracted from the peeled seeds consists of the following acids: oleic (65%), linoleic
(21%), palma tic (4.5%), stearic (3.7%), linolenic (2.3%) and 2-3% of other compounds.
The bark contains numerous substances including glycosides and coumarins. It is collected in
spring or autumn from two to three year-old branches and dried in ambient air. The bark is
tonic, astringent, detergent, antiseptic, narcotic, febrifuge, anti-haemorrhagic and anti-
haemorrhoidaf. It is used as an infusion to treat diarrhoea, enteritis and haemorrhoids; and
externally for ulcers and chilblains.
The leaves and flowers are collected in spring and dried. They are used in tinctures or
ointments to treat vari cose veins, inflammation, haemorrhoids and cramps.
The buds and flowers are used in Bach flower remedies.
Domestic uses
The ffour obtained from the seeds has been long known as a means for washing fin en and wool.
During WWII, the fl our was mixed with clay (kaolin) to form a soap (known as ' Bolous' soap)
that was effective against spots of fat but not suitable for washing white garments because the
iron in the clay discoloured the cloth. The flour is also a constituent of snuff.
The leaves are sometimes used to adulterate tobacco and the young leaves have been used as
a hop substitute (safety unknown).
Dry seeds are traditionally put in wardrobes to combat moths.
Following leaching of the ground peeled seeds and drying at 40C, a raw flour is obtained that
resembles corn flour. Drying at 100C gives a flour of different character. Both are used for
soup, cakes and confectionary in general. A traditional method of leaching was to mix the bitter
flour with soda water and allow to stand for 12 hours, then filter the flour off and repeat a further
5-7 times; finally, wash the flour with water, filter and dry in the sun or in an oven. The flour
was traditionally made into bread using a 1:1 mixture with corn flour.
The oil extracted from seeds has also been used for human nutrition.
In many countries, particularly ex-Czechoslovakia, the flowers are a useful source of nectar for
bees and a moderate source of pollen in spring. Honey yields of over 380 kg/ha are achieved.
The tree is sometimes used to consolidate erosion-prone slopes and for environmental forestry
plantings in Europe. It is also sometimes used to provide arboreal barriers as defence against

The fresh seed lather well in fresh water and can be used as a soap; the
can also be chopped into pieces and infused in hot water. The mal
drawback is that they impart a strong odour of horse chestnuts!
Children love to play 'conkers' with the seeds.
The saponins in the seeds are toxic to fish; the seeds have been use<
usually crushed and thrown into dammed-up streams, to kill fish or forc
them to the surface for easy catch.
Cosmetic and industrial uses
Escin and other seed extracts are widely used in cosmetics and are frequent constituents of
bath foams, shampoos, scalp lotions, toothpastes, body lotions, sun creams etc.
The dextrins contained in the seeds are used for the production of liquors and for the
preparation of flues used by bookbinders, by flax weavers and by box manufacturers. The raw
flour, after boiling in water, yields a rot-resistant and solid glue recommended for labels and for
the adhesive boards of herbaria. The powder from the seeds also serves as a foaming agent
for extinguishers and for the perparation of concrete.
The oil from seeds is an emuls1fying agent for whale oil , paraffin oil , drilling oil, detergent cream
and for pastes used in cleaning materials in the galvanizing industry. It is also used in the
manufacture of soap, as a lubricating oil for machinery and for animal feed.
The seeds are also used for the preparation of anti-parasitic and insecticidal agents and in the
textile dyeing industry.
The leaves have been used in the past to dye wool a pale chestnut colour. The bark extract is
used for tanning and for dyeing wool yellow.
The wood from the tree is yellowish-white, soft and fairly light, waxy, with a fine compact and
uniform grain and sometimes with a shiny surface. Considered by many to be one of the worst
timbers for industry and fuel , according to others it is not appreciated only because it is liUle
known. The timber is easily worked, but cannot be cut cleanly because the lumber twists and
warps easily and decays rapidly when exposed to the elements. The yield of timber in the UK is
similar to that of beech.
The wood, which is particularly dry, burns vigorously but only for a short time. Timber from
horse chestnut is well adapted for using in the interior of furniture, trellising, cooking
implements and pianos; but is seldom used except for the production of boxes/crates for
vegetables and fruit and for pyrography. It makes good charcoal and is traditionally used for
shel ving in fruit stores in the UK. The wood takes a good polish and readily absorbs a black
stain, indicating why the wood is used to imitate ebony. In the past, the wood was used for
sculpture because the white paint used as a cover before gilding concealed any defects.
Page 14
Animal food uses
The seeds fe used as fodder for fattening cattle and game animals and especially for pigs,
goats, sheep and fish . In Eastern Europe they are used for feeding horses and cattle. The
cattle become habituated to the fodder, a little at a time, and results in an increase in milk
production. Pigs decisively reject the seeds; chickens grow poorly and ducks die on eating
seeds; deer do not like them.
In preparation for use as feed, seeds are soaked in limewater to remove the bitter flavour,
ground into meal , then mixed with normal rations. Alternatively, seeds can be partially crushed,
soaked in cold water overnight, then boiled up in the mixture for 1 % hours then removing the
water; the residue can be subsequently dried, partially peeled, and reduced to a flour which,
although slightly bitter, has a pleasant taste and appearance.
In central Europe, the tree is sometimes planted in hunting reserves and in wooded avenues to
nourish the game that eat the seed.
Horse chestnut is a very adaptable plant and is spread throughout all the temperate and cold-
temperate regions of the world. For optimum growth they prefer deep, light (but moist) and
fertile soils and shelter from strong winds. It does very well in the UK on deeper soils over
chalk and other alkaline soils. Full sun is preferred (and necessary to good seed production) ,
though part shade is tolerated. The range extends to 1300 m in altitude and to 65N in Norway
and Sweden where the tree still ripens fruit. The tree does not like drought, salinity, or severe
pruning. Young growth in spring can be damaged by late spring frosts. Growth is fairly fast ,
about 5 m in the first 10 years.
Trees in mainland Europe can suffer from leaf blotch (caused by the fungus Guignardi a aescull)
and the insect pest Cameraria ohridella. One tree in SE England has recently been found
infected by ramorum dieback (Phytophthora ramorum) . In 2004, trees were found in several
European cities suffering from a serious and fatal dieback disease which may turn out to be
ramorum dieback or a similar species.
Propagation is normally by seed, and is easy. Ripe seeds should be sown immediately and
allowed to experience winter chilling. Grafting is also fairly easy and cuttings can also be taken
in summer.
Experimental trials of growing plantations of horse chestnut have shown that trees adapt well to
different pruning and training systems. Shaping trees to a modified central leader form fit best
wi th the natural growth habit.
Seed yields from trees vary widely, from 2-3 kg to 25 kg of fresh seeds per tree annually. Seed
quality also varies (in terms of escin content) and there are attempts being made to select high
escin culti vars. Seed production starts at the age of about 20 years.
Bellini , E & Nin, S: Horse Chestnut: Cultivation for Ornamental Purposes and Non-Food Crop
Production. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, Vol 11 (112) 2004 ,
pp 93-120.
Crawford, M: A.R.T. Species database, 2005.
Macdonald, J et al: Exotic Forest Trees in Great Britain. Fe Bulletin 30, HMSO. 1964.
Tiffany. N et al: Horse Chestnut: A Multidisciplinary Clinical Review. Journal of Herbal
Pharmacotherapy. Vol 2(1) 2002. pp 71-85.
Silvopasture in Shropshire
Peter Aspin
The Holli es is a small farm in North Shropshire which untit the mid-nineties had a dairy herd but
now carries about 35 beef cattle. The nature of the project here is designed to bring together
elements of the open-field system of agriculture common in Britain until the Enclosure Acts, and
the agroforestry practices of especially Asia.
The irregular field patterns of much of Britain today leads to an inefficient use of land with ever
larger tractors wasting time and fuel negotiating unnecessary corners and angles. The previous
field system at The Hollies has been completely redesigned to create a rectilinear landscape,
with long narrow strips of land based on the selions of the open-field of the past ; and in the
process greatly simplifying land management in terms of both livestock and machinery.
Silvopasture at the Hollies
The selions - remnants of which sti ll remain in many counties of England, not least Shropshire
- measured about one furlong (220 yds) by 8 to 11 yards wide - a third to half an acre in area
(200 x 7-10 metres, = 0.14 to 0.2 hal. The redesigned strips here measure 20 metres in width
and up to 400 m in length (ie up to 0.8 ha, 2 acres in area) - actually the length of the farm.
The main difference is that the strips are divided by rows of trees spaced at 5 metres within the
The trees that have been planted are for a wide variety of purposes to see how they can be
managed successfully under the, imposed conditions. The primary purpose is to provide fodder
for the cattle. Bovines are not exclusively grazing animals but also prefer to spend time
browsing the foliage of trees and shrubs. So there are elms (not the English elm though it has
probably been the main grazing tree for much of the last two millennia) , zelkovas, liquidambars,
hazels, gleditsias, mulberries and not least the ash - though some of these have recently
(June-July) been grazed by caterpillars.
Nut trees planted include walnuts (20 varieties), sweet chestnut (15), almonds ( 15), ginkgos (4),
hazels (10) and araucarias. There are fruiting trees such as hackberries, diospyros,
amelanchiers, sorbus and trees for timber and sap production.
Planting has taken place over the last 4 years but as all fields had previously been ploughed
East-West. it has been preceded by ploughing and reseeding on a North-South axis (trees in
rows must be planted as close to the North-South as possible so that sunlight distribution is
equal). A small area was ploughed after planting and the shallow Iynchets formed have proved
very attractive for rabbit excavating.
On a practical level I have found it best to plant trees 1-2 feet (30-60 cm) in height. Taller
transplants require much more attention, especially wateri ng in dry periods which is impossible
in a project like this, and inevitably suffer often severe diehack. They are quickly overtaken by
shorter trees . Visitors often comment how well the trees survive when planted straight into
grass/clover swards without mulching. The answer is twofold - being an organic farm all
swards contain high levels of clover which fixes nitrogen for both the grasses and trees; and
secondly a very strict rotational grazing system is practiced so that immediately after defoliation
the sward is allowed to regenerate for 30 days plus before re-grazing. So the fields never
completely dry out and high pasture cover encourages ground shading and heavy dew fall
during dry weather, especially in humid of high diurnal temperature condit ions. Many parks and
arboreta make the fatal mistake of scalping lawns during dry weather.
The trees are planted in groups of the same species, usually 3 or 4, but occasionally more,
within a row or adjacent rows but never adjacent to one another. This i s to allow for pollination
and the collection of organic tree seed, and also to prevent the spread of pests and diseases.
The recent infestation of ash by caterpillars only affected S trees in one row and one in the next.
The cattle are prevented from grazing the young trees by electric fences alongside the rows and
thus dividing the strips or alleys of forage. Occasionally I have put wires too close to the trees
with the frustratingly early coppicing of specimens. The whole process is very much trial and
error. As mentioned the trees are not mulched at planting, but in summer, deposits
convenientfy left by the cattle nearby are placed close to, but not touching, the trunk. This is
felt to be essential as the land here is light and sandy with low levels of summer rain - a week
without precipitation constitutes a drought. The trees are fertilized in winter by spreading slurry
along the rows , which might sound drastic but is effective and camouflages the tree shelters - it
is also the onl y fertil i zer that the grass al ongside the trees receives.
This is essentially a very long-term project. There will be the effects of the trees on herbage
production in terms of shading at different times of the year, and how the shading affects the
behaviour of the cattle - the Aberdeen Angus cattle here spend most of the hot summer days
inside whereas the continentals such as Brown Swiss, Belgian Blues and Simmentals continue
to graze. The walnut is a very important tree in this regards as the pungent foliage smell will
hopefully reduce the effect of fl y-st ri ke and disturbance during late summer and autumn.
Similarly, under anticyclonic conditions in late autumn/early winter, cattle usuall y congregate
overnight under in-leaf deciduous trees where the air and soil temperatures are higher than in
It is widely accepted that the taste of beef has changed over the last 50 to 100 years as the diet
of cattle has become more and more based on herbage - one aspect of this project is to
redefine the taste and texture of beef by diet manipulation. Further long-term I hope to see the
monkey puzzles fruit. I think I will leave the Ginkgos for a generation or two down the line.
Other interesting trees planted for educational research and seed collection interest include
sassafras (2 species), paulownias (6). liriodendrons (2) , ostryas (2), koelreuterias (2) , idesia,
celtis (3) , macluras, nyssas (2), ailanthus, eucommias and cercidiphyllum (2). A tiny but well-
established forest garden has been rather pillaged for out planting in the fields and a small
October 2004 planted grove of ol i ves has been intermixed with birches and zanthoxylums.
The farm is open to group visits by prior notice throughout the year. The nursery - all trees and
plants are grown from seed and to organic (Soil Association) standards - is open during visits
or at almost any time by appointment. Any information on silvopastoral strategies I tree
browsing observations would be very welcome.
Contact details:
Phone: 01948 840073
Address: The Hollies, Soulton, Wem, Shropshire, SY4 SRT.
E-mail: silvaspinpeter@aol.com

Dehesa agroforestry systems
The dehesas of southern Spain and Portugal (where they are call ed montados) are manmade
ecosystems characterised by a savannah-like structure and very high biodiversity, where the
trees (mainly holm oak, Quercus ilex) are viewed as an integrated part of the system, and as a
result ani planted, managed and regularly pruned. They are traditionally grazed by mixed
livestock at low densities, and are probably the oldest agroforestry systems still in existence in
Europe, having been developed some two thousand years ago and changed very little until the
last 30-40 years.
The dehesa system
The dehesa system is characterised by a savannah-like open tree layer, mainly dominated by
Mediterranean evergreen oaks - holm oak (Quercus i/ex) and cork oak (Q.suber) and to a
lesser extent by the deciduous
q.pyrenaica and Q.faginea. Other
trees which may be included are
wild olive (Olea europaea 44-
si/vestris), stone pine (Pinus
pineal and wild pear (pyrus
bourgaeana). Shrubs include the
strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
and Quercus coccifera. The holm
oak trees have been selected over
centuries for the production of 40
sweet acorns as a high quality
stock feed. These trees will hSlve
been planted deliberately or may
have self-seeded. Below the tree
layer is a grass layer used for
grazing, or occasionally cultivated
cereals. These systems occupy 36-
over 6 million ha (60,000 square
kilometres) in the west and south
west of Spain and southern
The high biodiversity is due to a
variety of grazed, shrubby and
cultivated types of dehesas and
8 4 0 4
The dehesa region of the Iberian peninsula
from differences in stand composition, density and structure. The mosaic of habitats supports a
rich diversity of plants and animals.
The traditional system was highly diversified in terms of livestock types (sheep, goats, pigs and
cattle). Hardy local breeds were used - merino sheep (for wool), retinta, avilena and morucha
cattle and iberico (iberian) pigs. The pigs and sheep were tended by herders. The herders
and the sheep migrated in summer to northern mountain ranges due to the scarcity of forage
during drought. The average stocking levels were equivalent to 2 suckling ewes/ha in winter
and 0.7-1 suckling ewe/ha in summer. The pigs graze the seasonal acorn production between
October and February, gaining about 60 kg live weight in 75 days (9 kg of Q.ilex acorns
corresponds to the production of 1 kg of pork meat). Today the grazing of the high value
Iberian pig is the most profitable component of the dehesa system.
Page 18
The herbaceous layer is usually composed of native annual vegetation (grasses - Lolium,
Bromus, Hordeum etc., legumes - clovers, medicagos, serradela [Ornitophus sp] etc., crucifers)
which are used for grazing. Sometimes cultivated cereals (oats, barley, wheat, rye) are grown
(occupying 9% of the total land area) , traditionally in long rotations and closed nutrient cycles
without external inputs of fodder, fertilisers and chemicals (often using fallows of 3 years or
more between crops). Control of invasion of the dehesa by shrubby species, -matorral
Cistus /adaniferus, C.salviaefofius and C.monspeliensis) , has traditionally been by (1) manually
uprooting and (2) clearing and horse ploughing by landless peasants. The peasants were
granted rights to grow cereals in exchange. Pasture productivity was traditionally managed by
directing livestock manure to selected places by nocturnal penning (for example, penning sheep
in an area of 2 m
per ewe for 2-3 successive nights).
The oak trees are pruned several times during their lives. Cork oak is pruned quite differently to
holm oak; in the former the main product is cork, while in the latter it is acorn production. Holm
oak is formation pruned in the early years to achieve a crown with three main vertical branches:
this favours the horizontal spread of the fruiting branches. Maintenance pruning every 7 to 9
years aUows opening of the crown and sustainability of acorn production. Production pruning
provides firewood and browse during severe droughts, reduci ng the leaf area hence aiding tree
survival. With appropriate pruning, tree cover can extend to 40% of the land area, but still allow
96% of the soil surface to grow grasses. Trees reduce the ambient and ground temperature
beneath them, act as nutri ent pumps, increase soil organic matter and reduce wind speed.
Several other secondary products such as firewood , charcoal and tannin production, hunting
(partridges, wood pigeons, rabbits, wild boar) , fish farming and raising of poultry are still
important in the dehesa economy.
Oehesa stand with 45-50 trees per ha in a 750 mm annual rainfall area (from Joffre)
A typical dehesa farm with the average of about 45 trees per ha produces annually (per
Page 19
1500-3000 kg grasses
450-500 kg acorns from holm and cork oaks
150-300 kg tree leaves for fodder
30 kg cork from cork oaks
37 kg charcoal from pruned branches
40-70 kg livestock
The 9% area of cul tivated land produces about 100 kg grains (fed to animals) and 115 kg
as bedding or sold).
The animal component produces some 570 kg manure.
Any land use system in this region has to cope with the high variability of the Mediterranean I
Continental climate, and the density of trees is a critical factor in the system being able to
survive droughts. The density varies depending on the average annual rainfall , rising with the
annual rainfall until annual rainfall levels reached 650-700 mm, when the tree density reached
40-50 per ha. Where annual rainfall is below 600 mm, the tree density is low, under 20 per ha.
Rainfall under SOD mm can only support very scattered trees which don't really form an
integrated system.
The soils in dehesa regions are generally poor, especially in phosphorus and calcium, and low
in organic matter. Soils under the tree canopies are richer in nutrients and organic matter, due
partly to the trees acting as nutrient pumps (mineral accumulators), and partly due to the
attraction of shade for grazing animals who leave their dung there. Moisture retention beneath
trees is better, and in droughts the soi ls under trees are slower to dry than in the open.
Dehesa system with under 10 trees per ha in a 500 mm annual rainfall area (from Joffre)
Changes since the 1950's
Since the mid 1950's there have been big changes in the dehesa areas, more than in the
previous 1700 years. These have been
a) a decrease in agro-pastoral management
b) an increase in deforestation and clearing in order to extend cropping lands
c) reforestation
d} a huge decrease in human population, not least because of inequitable land
ownership, with much of the land still owned by relatively few people.
When grazing pressure is removed, dehesas are invaded by Mediterranean matorral species,
which in turn increase the fire risk.
Modern trends are a specialization towards lamb and beef production and use of techniques
such as free range grazing at high stocking levels or cross-breeding with high-performance
breeds (rather than using hardy regional breeds.) A wider range of livestock is usually found on
public owned lands (about 18% of the total) . Fodder concentrates are used and increasingly
chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. are being used, with the result that biodiversity is
decreasing, soil degradation is increasing.
Shrubby species are now controlled entirely by mechanical means - ploughing etc.
One major problem for the continuation of the dehesas is the gradual decay of the tree canopy.
With the decline of pig raising, farmers lost the fundamental interest in the acorn crops from the
holm oaks, hence the trees are neglected and ageing; new trees are rarely planted, and the
intensification of grazing makes natural regeneration unlikely.
Climate models for southern Europe show that a doubling of carbon dioxide would increase the
probability of extreme events such as severe drought ; and that in the dehesa regions , a
decrease in total annual rainfall can be expected. A doubling of CO
in 70 years might lead to a
reduction in rainfall of 80 mm - enough to cause problems in many of the dehesas with annual
rainfall currently under 700 mm (about 88% of the entire region).
Overall, the dehesas are under severe threat over the next 100 years. Although various
regional , national and EU programmes are being targeted at helping farmers retain the systems,
all thi s may come to little if climate changes make their sustainability impossible.
Joffre, R et al: The dehesa system of southern Spain and Portugal as a natural ecosystem
mimic. Agroforestry Systems 45: 57-79, 1999.
Plieninger, T & Wlibrand, C: Land use, biodiversity conservation, and rural development in the
dehesas of Cuatro Lugares, Spain. Agroforestry Systems 51: 23-34, 2001
Garcia Trujillo, R & Mala, C: The Dehesa: an extensive livestock system in the Iberian
Peninsula. Proceedings of the 2
NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, 8-11 January 2000.
Physalis: Ground cherries
The genus Physalis consists of some 80 annuals and perennials, characterised by their very
distinctive papery sacs (lanterns or calyces) which completely surround the fruils. Originating
from North and South America, Asia and Europe, several species have edible fruit , a few well
known such as the cape gooseberry and tomatillo. Some of the perenni al types are consi dered
weedy in some climates. This article considers the edible species and other species of use.
Warning: Physalis species are part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) , and all foliage and
the unripe fruits of most species is poisonous, containing solanine and other alkaloids (tomato
and potato foliage is toxic too, of course). Only the ripe fruits of the species described as a
edible in this article should be eaten. Do not eat if allergic to potatoes or tomatoes. There are
occasional reports of stock being poisoned from eating the foliage, however animals usually
avoid it and only eat the fruits.
The common names for these species are often a source of confusion, many being shared by
several species. The Latin names, too, are sometimes a nightmare with numerous synonyms!
General description
Plants are often much branched and spreading at the top. Leaves are alternate and simple;
flowers are whitish-yellow or whitish-violet. The fruit is a round yellow, green, red, purple, or
blue-black berry surrounded by a papery sac. The fruit contains numerous seeds. Ripe fruits of
some species are edible, generally considered at their finest when cooked in sauces or
preserves. Several species have been used medicinally in the past but the powerful toxins in all
parts (except ripe fruits) make this inadvisable in terms of herbal medicine. The spreading
perennial s can be used for ground cover.
All species like a well-drained soil and sun or light shade.
The less hardy annuals, grown from seed, should be started under cover and transplanted out
when robust enough; they can be treated like outdoor tomatoes. Hardier annuals can be sown
outside and will self-seed if allowed. The hardier perennials, once established, may require
division every few years, else they will stop flowering.
Flowering and fruiting is best in soils that are not too fertile. Pollination is via wind and insects,
including bees. Fruits can be harvested quickly by shaking plants over a net or cloth; ripe
berries in husks will drop. Fruit picked green may ripen but never with as good a flavour.
Weedy perennial species can be controlled by spading out underground runners in autumn.
Plants are susceptible to many of the same diseases and pests as tomatoes (though not potato
blight). New growth is susceptible to slug damage in spring.
Most species are grown from seed, which germinates easily.
The species
Physalis acutifolia - Sharp leaf ground cherry, Wright ground cherry
Annual from the SW of North America.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis alkekengi - Chinese lantern,
Winter cherry, Bladder cherry,
Strawberry ground cherry
A perennial growing to 60 em (2 ft) high with a
creeping branched rhizome. Bears yellow-cream
flowers and orange sacs (calyces) up to 5 em long.
within which are round edible scarlet fruits, 17-20 mm
across, red to scarlet. ripening in summer. Native to
southern and Central Europe and Asia to Japan.
Hardy to zone 6 (about -18C)
' Bunyardii' - compact, free flowering.
'Franchettii' - vigorous plant. Sacs are huge, to 70
mrn long, with larger fruits.
'Gigantea' ('Monstrosa') - bears large fruit.
The fruits are edible but lack much flavour.
The plant is valued for floristry. the stems are cut as
the sacs change colour and dried.
Physalis angulata - Cut leaf ground
cherry, Wild tomato, Winter Cherry
A perenni al often grown as an annual, to 90 cm (3 tt)
high. Bears small yelloworange edible fruit.
Native to South America.
P. alkekengi
The fruits are similar to cape gooseberries, with a sweetish flavour, and are used in the same
ways raw or cooked.
Physalis angustifolia - Coastal ground cherry
Perennial from SE North America. found on sand dunes.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis arenicola - Cypresshead ground cherry
Perennial from SE North America (Florida).
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis carpenteri - Carpenter's ground cherry
Annual from SE North America.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis caudella - Southwestern ground cherry
P e r e n n i ~ 1 from southern N.America.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis crassifo/ia - Thickleaf ground cherry
Perennial from SW North America, growing 30 em high.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis divaricata
Annual growing to 1 m (3 tt) high from Asia (Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan).
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis foetens - Tropical ground cherry
Annual from southern North America.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis hederifolia - Ivyleaf ground cherry
Perennial from SW North America. growing 30 em (1 tt) high.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis heterophylla - Clammy ground cherry
A Rhizomatous perennial to 90 em (3 tt) high, densely hairy and sticky. Yellow flowers are
followed by a greenish-brown sac. The fruit inside ripens yellow in summer-autumn and is
edible. Native to the SE USA; hardy to zone 8 (about -10C).
The fruits are edible with a sweet distinctive flavour. They are ripe when the sac turns brown
and the berry inside turns yellowish.
Physalis ixocarpa - Tomatilio, Jamberry, Mexican husk tomato
An annual growing to 120 cm (4 ft) high, with spreading branched stems. Yellowish-purple
flowers are followed by greenish sacs, inside which are edible sticky green fruits, 2-6 cm
across, ripening to yellow or violet. Native to Mexico and the southern USA in areas hardy to
zone 8 (about -10C). Sometimes included in P.philadelphica, this may have derived from it
through cultivation.
' Indian' - fast maturing.
' Large green' - large fruit.
Page 24
'Purple' - purple fruit, slightly sharper.
'Purple husk' - has purple husks.
'Rendidora' - large fruits, fast maturing.
'Toma Verde' - fast maturing. large fruits.
'Verde Puebla' - large fruits.
The fruits are used in their green state (presumably they do not contain toxins) when they have
a tart flavour something like green apples with a hint of tomato. The best flavour is when they
are still deep green and when the husk has changed from green to tan. They are used raw or
cooked and traditionally used in many ways in Mexican cooking in salads, tacos, sandwiches
and sauces, especi ally salsas. The green fruits keep for months in a cool well venti lated
location. For longer preservation they are sometimes canned.
If allowed to ripen the sacs split and fruits turn yellow or purple and develop a sweet bland
taste, when they are sometimes used in pies and preserves.
Physalis latiphysa - Broadleaf ground cherry
Native to S. North America.
The ripe fruits are edibl e.
Physalis longifolia subglabrata - Smooth ground cherry, Bladder
ground cherry
Perennial to 120 em (4 ft) high. Yellowish-purple flowers are followed by sacs containing
reddish-purple edible fruits in summer & autumn. Native to Eastern North America, hardy to
zone 5 (-23C).
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis minima - Pygmy ground cherry
Annual from Eastern Asia.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis missouriensis - Missouri ground cherry
Annual from S. North America, growing to 1 m (3 ft) high.
The ripe fruits (to 20 mm across) are edible.
Physalis mol/is - Field ground cherry
Native to S North America.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Showing sac opened
Physalis peruviana - Cape gooseberry, Purple ground cherry,
Peruvian ground cherry
An erect perennial growing to 1 m (3 ft) high. sometimes grown as an annual. Whitish-yellow
flowers are followed by greenish-brown sacs, inside which are edible purplish or golden fruits to
2 cm across, ripening in summer. Native to tropical south America, hardy to zone 8 (about
The plant is widely grown throughout the world. In India it is often interplanted with vegetables.
' Giallo Grosso' (, Large Golden Italian' ) - fruits large.
' Giant' - very large fruit, needs a long season.
'Golden Nugget' - small fruits, sweet.
' Goldenbtrry' - fruits large, sweet , golden.
The fruits are edible with a very nice distinctive sweet grapepineapple-tomato flavour. Used
like tomatoes, raw in salads and desserts or (more commonly) cooked in jams, jellies, pies etc.
They are high in pectin. The fruits can also be dried. A single plant can yield up to 300 fruits.
The food value of the fruits per 1 O g is approximately:
0.16 9 Calcium 8.0 mg Carotene 1.61 mg
Protein 0.05 9 Phosphorus 55.3 mg Thiamine 0. 1 mg
Fibre 4.9 9 Iron 1.23 mg Riboflavin 0.03 mg
Niacin 1.73 mg
Vitamin C 43.0 mg
Physalis philadelphica - Purple ground cherry, Jamberry, Tomatillo,
Mexican ground cherry, Miltomate
An annual growing to 60 cm (2 tt) high. Yellowish violet flowers are followed by green sacs,
veined violet; inside is an edible yellow to purple fruit. Native to Mexico but naturalised in
eastern N.America in areas hardy to zone 7 (-15C).
'Purple de MHpa' - fruit small , purple tinged, sharp flavoured, keeps well.
'Tepehuan' - Mexican variety.
' Zuni ' - prolific cropper.
The fruits are edible raw or cooked.
Physalis pubescens - Ground cherry, husk tomato, strawberry tomato,
Downy ground cherry
An annual growing to 90 cm (3 ft) high. Yellowpurple flowers are followed by green sacs
containing yellow edible fruits to 1.5 cm across in summer and autumn. Native to the Americas
in areas hardy to zone 7 (-15C). P.pubescens integrifo/ia has the synonym P.pruinosa and is
known as the dwarf cape gooseberry; it grows only 34 cm ( 1 % tt) high and is native to Eastern
N.America in areas hardy to zone 5 (-23C).
'Aunt Molly's' - very sweet and tangy fruit, tangerine flavour.
'Cossack Pineapple' - fruit small , yellow, pineapple flavour.
'Eden' - fruits small , yellow, sweet.
'Goldie' - fruit medium sized, good flavour, plants prolific.
'Huberschmidt' - heirloom variety from Pennsyl vania.
' New Hanover - fruits small , yellow, good flavour.
' Sweet Amber' - small orange fruits, good flavour.
Page 26
The ripe fruits (15 mm across) are edible. When ripe, the tight-fitting husk turns brown, peels
back and the fruit drops from the plant. If left in the husk it will keep for several weeks. Yields
are typically 500 g per plant. The flavour is distinctive and pleasant, resembling apples, and
fruits are used raw in cocktails or as a dessert; and cooked in jams, pies and sauces.
Physalis pumila - Dwarf ground cherry
Perennial from SE North America, growing 30 cm (1 ft) high.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis subulata - Chihuahuan ground cherry.
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis virginian a - Virginia ground cherry
Perennial to 120 cm (4 ft) high with hairy stems. Yellowish-purple flowers are followed by sacs
containing reddish-purple edible fruits in summer & autumn. Native to Eastern North America,
hardy to zone 5 (-23C).
The ripe fruits are edible.
Physalis viscosa - Grape ground cherry, prairie ground cherry
Perennial growing to 60 em (2 ft) high with creeping roots, forming colonies. Flowers yellowish-
green, fruits (in papery husks) turning purple when mature, sticky. Tolerates drought, shade
and trampling. Native to California.
Ripe fruits are edible.
Common synonyms
P.edufis = P.peruviana
P.greenei = P. erassifolia
P.fanceo/ata = P.virginiana
P.subglabrata = P./ongifolia subglabrata
P.maerophysa = P./ongifolia subglabrata
P.pruinosa = P.pubescens integrifolia
P. variovestia = P.mollis variovestia
P.virginiana sonorae = P.fongifolia /ongifolia
P.wrightii = P.acutifolia
Crawford, M: A.R.T species database, 2005.
Dremann. C: Ground Cherries, Husk Tomatoes and Tomatilloes. Redwood City Seed Co, 1985.
Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998.
Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) at www.itis.usda.gov
Manandhar, N: Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, 2002.
Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998.
Morton, J: Fruits of Warm Climates. 1987.
Munier, I: Physalis, adorable amour en cage. Fruits Oublies No.2 - 2002.
University of Minnesota Extension Service, Yard & garden brief: Physalis. 2005.
Page 27
Lithocarpus: the tanbark oaks
The tanbark oaks are evergreen trees that botanically form a link between the chestnuts
(Castanea) and the oaks (Quercus); they have flowers similar to chestnut and bear acorns like
oaks. There are some 300 species of Uthocarpus in the world but most are tropical trees and
only a handful are hardy. The common names comes from the high levels of tannins in the
bark. for which many species have long been utilised.
Although only a small number of species are described here, there are almost certainly other
hardy species which will have edible acorns and tanninrich bark.
General description
Leaves are leathery and dark green.
Trees are monoecious, bearing male and female flowers. Male catkins are long and erect,
appearing in summer from the axils of leaves on new shoots. Female flowers are borne at the
base of the catkins.
Although trees bear both male and female flowers,
it is very likely that good crops of acorns will only
occur with cross pollination between trees (as with
chestnuts and oaks).
The seeds, which are similar to oak acorns, ripen in
the second autumn. They sit in fringed cups with
thin scales, and have hard shells. Seeds are
usually borne singly, in twos or in threes. Heavy
crops are often borne every other year. The s.eeds
are attractive to various wildlife including insects
like weevils and worms that also attack oak acorns.
Tanbark oaks develop deep tap roots and intricate
systems of lateral roots which may approach the
soil surface.
The sapwood of trees in extremely thick (up to 66%
of the total wood), which helps trees to live after
the bark has been stripped for tannin production.
L.edulis acorns
Tanbark oaks grow well on a variety of soils, but they prefer deep, well-drained, loamy, sandy of
gravelly soils. They are shade tolerant, but prefer light conditions, at least overhead, and
require good light for good fruiting. Trees are wind firm and relatively free from insect attack
and fungal disease if uninjured. The shoots and leaves contain tannins and are not very
attractive to browsing animals.
Trees coppice and regenerate vigorously.
Like oaks, tanbark oaks are easy to grow from seed. Fresh seed should be sown in autumn or
kept moist and cold over winter before sowing. Germination occurs in spring.
Grows to 20 m (70 ft) high in its native range of central China. Acorns 20-25 mm across in
dense clusters. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C).
There are no written records of this being used but almost certainly the acorns can be used for
food after leaching, and the bark is rich in tannins.
Grows to 15 m (50 ft) high in its native range of southern China and Taiwan. Probably hardy
only to zone 9 (-5C). Syn. L./sangii.
Acorns are used for food after leaching, in soups, bread etc.
L.densiflorus - Tanoak, tanbark oak
Grows up to 45 m (150 ft) high (more usually 20m, 70 ft) in its native range (California and SW
Oregon, where it is often associated with coast redwood or Douglas fiLl Much smaller in the
UK, to about 10m (33 tt) in height and spread. It grows best on the humid moist slopes of the
coastal ranges, where trees can live 300-350 years. Acorns are 25-50 mm long, bears good
crops in the UK in hot summers. Hardy to zone 7 (-15C).
L.densiflorU5 var. echinoides is a shrubby variety only growing 3 m (10ft) high with smaller
The Native American Indians in California obtained one of their principal foods from the tanoak.
The large acorns were ground, leached, and then prepared as a soup, cooked mush, or a kind
of bread. The leached acorns are said to have an agreeable acid taste, and contain large
amounts of oil.
Ground tanoak acorns have also been fed to chickens.
The bark is peeled off logs and used for tanning, containing up to 29% tannins. The tannin from
tanoak has intermediate properties between chestnut tannin and oak tannin, and is considered
the best for tanning heavy leathers (eg. sole or saddle leather). The superiority of tanoak bark
is attributed to the presence of certain other acids, such as gallic and acetic, with the tannic
acid. Tanoak tannin has also been used as a brown dye and medicinally as an astringent.
The wood is hard (though softer than that of true oaks) , strong and fine grained, though not
durable; but it does resemble oak. The sapwood and heartwood are reddish-brown and the
wood has wide rays. It has been used successfully for flooring and furniture, also cross ties,
mine timbers, baseball bats and veneers. It makes a good fuel and is also currently used for
L.edulis - Japanese stone oak
Small tree or shrub from Japan, growing to 7 m (24 ft) high in the UK. Acorns 25 mm long x 8
mm wide, rare in the UK (because of lack of pollination?) Hardy to zone 7 (-15C).
Acorns are used for food after leaching (they contain less tannin than L.densiflorus.)
Grows to 16 m (55 ft) high in its native range of the
Himalayas to southern China. Probably hardy to zone
9 (-7' C).
The acorns are used for food in Nepal, often roasted.
The oil fr.om the seed in used medicinally to treat skin
The plant is lopped for fodder.
Small tree or shrub from southern China. Taiwan and
Japan, growing to 7 m (24 tt) high in the UK. Acorns
12-25 mm long x 8-15 mm wide, rare in the UK
(because of lack of pollination?) Hardy to zone 7 (-
15' C).
Acorns are used for food after leaching.
L.henryi - Henry tanbark oak
Grows to 20 m (70 tt) high in its native range in central
China. Acorns 20 mm long in shallow cups. Hardy to
zone 6/7 (-16C), probably the hardiest of all the
Lithocarpus. Uthocarpus edulis
There are no written records of this being used but almost certainly the acorns can be used for
food after leaching, and the bark is rich in tannins.
This species is used ornamentally in the USA as a specimen tree.
Formerly Quercus pachyphyl/a. Native to The Himalayas and China (Yunnan) where it grows to
25 m (80 tt) high. Acorns are up to 20 mm x 30 mm. Hardy to zone 9 (_7C).
Acorns are used for food after leaching. The roasted acorns are used to make a coffee.
The bark is a source of tannins and has been used medicinally as an astringent.
The branches are lopped for fodder in Nepal.
The wood is moderately hard and durable, used for flooring etc.
Dirr, M: Dirr' s Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates. Timber Press. 2002.
Flora of China at www.eFloras.org
Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999.
Manandhar, N: Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, 2002.
USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654: Silvics of North America. 1990.
USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Technical Sheet: Lithocarpus densiflorus.
Compendium of edible fruits
(4) perennials and annuals
Thi s compendium tabulates all known perennials and annuals for temperate or continental
climates which have edible fleshy fruits. It is undoubtedly not definitive as there are probably
many species with edible fruits which have never been written about. The information for this
compendium comes from our database of useful plants and previous art icles in Agroforestry



"iji e

r ~

E. . ~ ~
'E2 -'- x
0; .E


E- <
Arali a racemosa American spikenard 1.8 4 raw or cooked - pleasant but small (4 I
mm across)
Astelia nervosa E N 0.5 9 raw - sweet, juicy, pleasant.
Astelia solandri E N 2 9 raw - sweet, juicy, pleasant.
Carpobrotus Hottentot fig E 0.1 9 raw (astringent before full ripeness)
Carpobrotus Pig's face E 0.2 8 raw - strawberry flavour
Carpobrotus deliciosus Sweet Hottentot fig E 0.2 8 raw, dried and made into jams and
Carpobrotus edulis Hottentot fig 0.1 8 raw, dried and made into jams and
preserves (astringent before fully ripe)
IComandra umbellata ISastard toadnax
10.3 1
lraw- sweet
Comus canadensis Creeping dogwood 0.2 2 raw or cooked - pleasant, sweet but not I
much flavour. High in pectin. 6 mm
Comus suecica Dwarf cornel 0.2 2 raw or cooked - bitter, poor.
Duchesnea filipendula Y 0.1 7 raw or cooked - juicy, has crunchy
seeds on outside, little flavour. Nice in
salads. 10-13 mm across.
Duchesnea indica E Y 0.1 6 raw or cooked juicy, has crunchy
seeds on outside, little flavour. Nice in
salads. 10-13 mm across.
Fragaria x ananassa Garden strawberry 0.3 6 raw or cooked - delicious
Fragaria chiloensis Chilean strawberry N 0.3 4 raw or cooked - sweet, succulent.
delicate flavour.
Fragaria daltoniana Y 0.3 raw - poor flavour. To25x15mm.
IFragaria iinumae IStrawberry
lraw-little flavour. S x 15 mm.
Fragaria mandshurica N Raw- acid
Fragaria moschata Hautbois strawberry 0.5
6 raw - sweet, succulent, excellent
aromatic flavour.
------ -
Page 31

!Fragaria moupinensis
!Fragaria nilgerrensis
Fragaria nubicola

IFragaria orienta lis
IFragaria pentaphylla
Fragaria vesca
Fragaria vesca ssp.
Fragaria virginiana
Fragaria virginiana
ssp. glauca
Fragaria viridis
jMltchella undulata
Moneses uniflora
Opuntia compressa
Physalis alkekengi
Physalis heterophylla
jPhysalls lanceolata
Physalis peruviana
!Physahs vlrglnlana
Physalis viscosa
Podophyllum pel tatum
!Rubla cordlfolla
Page 32
Wood strawberry Y
Californian Y
Wild Strawberry
Rocky Mountain
Wi ld strawberry N
Ice plant
Prickly pear cactus E
Wild ground cherry
Cape gooseberry
Sticky ground cherry
Himalayan may
IRaw - small. little flavour.
IRaw - small, delicate flavour
Raw or cooked - similar to F. vesca
Iraw - sweet, succulent, good flavour.
IRaw - little flavour
5 raw, cooked or used in preserves.
Sweet, succulent, good flavour.
raw - aromatic, sweet, succulent. 15
mm across.
3 raw, cooked or used in preserves.
Sweet, succulent, good flavour. To 20
mm across.
raw, cooked or used in preserves.
Good flavour but small.
6 raw or cooked - sweet, succulent,
excellent flavour.
10 11 61poor flavour
0.1 28 mm across
0.2 4 raw, cooked or dried. Sweet,
gelatinous. To 40 x 30 mm. Unripe
fruits can be used as a thickener.
Beware of spines.
0.3 6 raw or cooked - variable flavour, high in j
vitamin C. Up to 17 mm in diameter.
0.9 8 raw or cooked - pleasant though small.
Also used dried and in preserves etc.
10 41 Iraw or cooked
1.2 8 raw or cooked - delicious bitter-sweet
flavour. Also used dried. 20 mm
10.6 1 71raw or cooked
0.6 raw or cooked - pleasant sub-acid
cherry-like flavour
0.5 6 raw; eaten fully ripe but caution
advised. 50 mm long.
0.3 4 raw; eaten fully ripe but caution
advised. 50 mm long.
! . 61 8 mm across. Climber.
Rubus arcticus Arctic blackberry
IRubus chamaemorus !Cloudberry
Rubus xanthocarpus
Sambucus ebulus Dwarf elder Y
Smilax herbacea Carrion flower N
Streptopus Liver berry
Streptopus roseus Rose mandarin
!Thladiantha dubia IRed hail stone
Trichosanthes kiri lowii Mongolian snake
Abelmoschus Okra
AbuUlon theophrasti Vel vet leaf
Benincasa hispida Chinese fuzzy gourd Y
Capsicum annuum Mango pepper E
Capsicum frutescens Chiffi pepper
Capsicum pubescens Chilli pepper
Chenopodium Strawberry blite
0. 1
2 1

raw or cooked; very sweet, juicy,
pineapple aroma, delicious.
2 1raw or cooked' sour but good
6 raw or cooked; raspberry flavour.
mm across.
5 cooked, used as a flavouring. 6 mm
across in large dusters. Caution
4 raw or cooked and used ;n preserves;
pleasant flavour, 10 mm across
5 raw or cooked in soups, stews etc;
'uicy, cucumber flavour. To 15 mm
3 raw or cooked; sweet watermelon
flavour. 12 mm across
40 x 25 mm.
9 young fruits pickled. Climber.
1 10 Young fruits cooked or dried; used as a
thickener for soups, stews etc. High in
pecUn & vitamin A.
0.9 4 young fruit (seed pod) - raw
6 10 raw or cooked as a vegetable. Used
young and mature; juicy, mild flavour.
1 9 raw or cooked - peppery. Perennial
normally grown as an annual.
1 9 raw or cooked - very peppery. Perennial
normally grown as an annual.
3 9 raw or cooked - very peppery.
Perennials normally grown as an annual.
0.6 5 raw or cooked - sweet, not much flavour,
1012 mm across.
0.6 5 raw or cooked - sweet , not much flavour,
to 12 mm across.
Page 33

Cucumis anguria West Indian gherkin Y
Cucumis m!?lo Muskmelon Y
Cucumis metuliferus Horned cucumber Y
Cucumis sativus Cucumber Y
Cucurbita maxima Squash Y
Cucurbita moschata Squash Y
Cucurbita pepo Courgette Y
Cydanthera pedata Climbing cucumber
Lagenaria siceraria Long handled dipper
Lycopersicon Tomato Y
Physalis anguJata Cutleaf ground
Physalis ixocarpa Tomatillo
Physalis philadelphica Wild tomatiIJo
Physalis pruinosa Dwarf ground cherry
Physalis pubescens Ground cherry
Proboscidea Unicorn plant
Solanum americanum Glossy nightshade
Solanum melongena Aubergine
Solanum nigrum Black nightshade
Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain Y
Tri chosanthes ovigera Entire leaf snake
Page 34


10 raw, cooked or pickled; cucumber
flavour. To 50 x 40 mm.
10 raw - refreshing delicate flavour.
10 raw - variable flavour, often poor.
10 raw or cooked; watery.
9 cooked - delicious, sweet potato type
flavour. Also dried and made into a flour
for baking.
10 cooked - delicious, sweet potato type
flavour. Also dried and made into a flour
for baking.
10 raw or cooked - mild flavour, watery.
10 Young fruits raw or cooked - cucumber
flavour. 60-150 mm long.
10 Young fruits cooked; variable quality.
Pulp around the seeds not eaten.
9 raw or cooked, also dried, made into
'uice etc.
raw or cooked - juicy, sub-acid, to 30
mm across.
8 raw or cooked - delicious. Used young
and mature. To 25 mm across.
7 raw or cooked - delicious.
5 raw or cooked - bitter-sweet. delicious.
7 raw or cooked - bitter-sweet, delicious.
To 15 mm across
10 young fruits cooked or pickled, also used
as a thickening agent. 4-6 mm long.
eaten fully ripe; toxic unripe - caution
9 cooked. Perennial usually cultivated as
an annual
eaten fully ripe cooked in preserves etc;
musky flavour. Toxic unripe - acution
used cooked as a flavouring (pungently
aromatic); 20 mm long.
10 young fruits pickled
Pest & disease series:
Woolly aphid of apple
The apple woolly aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, is one of several species of aphids that can infest
apple trees, but it can be a more serious problem then others. Native to eastern North America,
it is now widespread throughout the world.
Woolly aphid weakens trees by feeding on bark and roots , which reduces tree health, prevents
wounds from healing, and can transmit apple canker.
In spring and summer, breeding colonies of the aphid secrete strands of a white protective wax,
appearing like fluffy white masses on trunks , branches and shoots, where they feed on tender
bark, particularly where it is wounded. If touched, the aphid colony squashes to an unpleasant
sticky mess. In bad infestations, colonies can be found in leafaxi ls on water shoots and
terminal shoots; the foliage can turn yellowish on infested branches. The problem tends to
persist on the same tree from year to year, not spreading far.
Swellings of galls may appear on twigs and branches; if these crack open then they may allow
an entry point for other diseases like apple canker. Galling can cause serious disfigurement on
young trees.
Secondary damage can occur via the development of black sooty mold. As aphids feed, they
excrete sap known as honeydew, and this sap on leaves and fruits provides a medium for
growth of black sooty mold, which can affect photosynthesis and fruit yield and quality.
Occasionally, woolly aphid can infest fruit cores of some cultivars,
particularly those with an open calyx, ego Red Delicious ..
In addition to feeding on small branches and wounds, woolly aphid can
attack roots where they go unnoticed. Mature trees suffer little damage,
but young stock can be severely stunted or killed. Swollen galls also
form on roots. This type of infestation is more serious than the above-
ground form, but very often only the above-ground type takes place.
Life History adult woolly aphid
Nymphs and adult wax less aphids overwinter in cracks and under loose bark, also underground
on roots. They become active and start feeding in late March/early April in the UK and by May,
colonies can be well established. Several generations occur during the season. Only a few
winged aphids are produced, so most spread is by wingless aphids crawling or being blown
from tree to tree.
The wingless adult is small and purple-brown, some 1.8 mm long, densely covered with white
waxy fluff. Wingless females give birth to large number of nymphs through the spring and
summer (on average, 100 to 120 nymphs per female) , and winged adult females are produced
when colonies become crowded. The newly emerged nymphs are called crawlers due to their
mobility and mainly account for the dispersal of woolly aphid; they may crawl over branches or
the ground for up to 3 days before settling at a site to feed. There are several generations per
Page 35
The young wingless aphids overwinter and carryon the life cycle.
When elms were common, this insect often alternated between elm as a winter host and apple
as a summer host, overwintering in the egg stage on elm; now elms are rare, it lives on apple all
year and the egg stage rarely occurs.
Susceptible plants
As w e l l ~ as apples (including crab apples), Chaenomeles (oriental quince), Cotoneaster
(especially C.horizontalis), Crataegus (hawthorn). Pyracantha, Serbus aucuparia (rowan) and
Ulmus (elm) can be infested.
Little damage is done to mature trees.
Various small parasitic wasps attack aphids, parasitizing them. Other natural enemies of
various aphids (including woolly aphid) include predators such as hoverfly larvae, lacewing
larvae, syrphid larvae, ladybird larvae and adults. Planting a diverse ground cover layer
beneath or nearby to trees will help attract such predators. Cool wet springs favour aphid
development as these conditions slow the build up of predator populations.
A small chalcid wasp (Aphelinus maIJ) is a parasite on woolly aphid and can give effective
complete control. Native to North America, this was introduced to England in the 1920's, is now
naturalised and common in southern England. Parasitized aphids will have a tiny hole in the
back if the wasps are active. Chemical sprays should be avoided to allow populations of this
wasp to build up.
If the problem is only on an isolated tree, hand picking can achieve good control. Scrape off the
white colonies or attack them with a stiff brush.
A soft insecticidal soap can be used but may need to be repeated 2-3 times; use a high
pressure spray to try and penetrate the white waxy fluff. An old gardeners remedy was to rub
over colonies with a rag soaked in methylated spirits.
Severely affected branches can be pruned out. Regular pruning of suckering shoots and water
shoots help discourage the pest.
Resistant apple rootstocks can be used to prevent underground infestations; the MM rootstock
series provides resistance, and some apple varieties are resistant, ego Ben Davis; Crimson
King; Northern Spy and its sports, Winter Majetin, Yarlington Mill. The apple cultivars Allington
pippin, Winter Banana and Yellow Newtown are noted as a being particularly susceptible.
Wide spacing of trees and a thick growing ground cover plant layer inhibit the spread between
Root infestations are more likely on soils prone to cracking in dry weather; improving soil
organic matter levels, and mulching to maintain moist conditions, can often prevent soil
Buczacki , S & Harris, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. HarperCollins, 1998
Culpan, G: Pests, Diseases and Common Problems. Hamlyn, 1995.
HDRA: Factsheet PCB - Woolly Aphid. At www.hdra.org.uk
Ohio State University: OSU Extension Fact Sheet HYG-2208-94.
North Carolina State University: NC Integrated Pest Management Information Factsheet.
Pine resin - sources and uses
The resin harvested from various species of Pinus is the oldest and most important of the n o n ~
wood products from conifers, dating back at least to biblical times. Resin products from pines
are still referred to as naval stores, dating back to the days when the British Royal Navy used
large quantities of resin products from pines to waterproof ships.
Three classes of naval stores are defined by their source:
1. Gum naval stores - obtained by tapping the trunks of living pine trees. This is the
traditional source of resin and is a labour intensive process. About 60% of current world
production is via tapping, producing some 720,000 tannes of rosin annually. China is by
far the largest producer. 2005 wholesale prices are around US$900/t (ie 90 cents per kg).
2. Sulphate naval stores - obtained during the conversion of pine wood chips to pulp via
the sulphate or kraft pulping process (see Agroforestry News, Vol 13 No 3). Sulphate
turpentine is condensed from the cooking vapours. A product known as 'tall oil' is
obtained from the alkaline liquors and fractionated into products such as tall oil rosin and
tall oil fatty acids. About 35% of current production is from this source.
3. Wood naval stores - obtained from resin-saturated pine stumps long after a tree has
been felled. About 5% of current world production comes from this source.
Crude resin is a thick, sticky, fluid material, opaque and milky-grey in colour.
Whole unprocessed resin has a number of traditional uses. Numerous medicinal uses have
been documented, including use as plasters and internall y for coughs, urinary problems etc.
The Indians of SW USA used resin as a non-stick cooking surface, and to repair broken pottery.
In Greece, the addition of pine resin to white wine, to make retsina, is a national tradition.
About 2 parts per thousand of pine resin from Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) is added to the
must at the start of fermentation. Ancient Greeks noted that pine resin used to seal amphorae
also helped preserve the wine. The recent trend is towards very lightly resinated retsinas, since
the bitter-tasting drink is not always appreciated by foreigners.
Pine resin is usually distilled to yield two products: turpentine and rosin, in the ratio one part
turpentine to 4-6 parts rosin. For many years these were used in an unprocessed form in the
manufacture of soaps, paints, papers and varnishes; but nowadays they are the raw materials
used in the production of a wide range of products.
This is a clear liquid with a pungent odour and bitter taste, composed primarily of compounds
called terpenes. The chemical composition varies depending on the Pinus species from which
it is harvested. In some pines, the terpene composition is fairly simple, mainly the two common
terpenes (alpha and beta pinenes). Resin from P.contorta contains a terpene found in the
parsley family and has a grassy fragrance; that of P.pinea has a lemon fragrance; that of
P.ponderosa is sweet smelling. P.jeffreyi and P.sabiniana have no terpene components, but
instead contain aldehydes which are diluted with a petrol-like material heptane which is
Turpentine is currently used in many different ways:
Page 37
Chemicals and pharmaceuti cals
Gums and synthetic resins
Adhesives and plastics
Paint, varnish and Jacquer
Products for railways and shipyards
Printing inks
Asphaltic products
Insecti cides
7 u==z
Shoe polish and related materials
A of chemical products are derived from turpentine and rosin. The alpha and beta
pinene cbnstituents of turpentine, isolated via fractional distillation, are the starting materials for
the synthesis of a wi de range of fragrances, flavours , vitamins and other products; the largest
single derivative is synthetic pine oil, used in disinfectants, cleaning agents etc. with a 'pine'
Rosin is the involatile residue that remains after the distillation of turpentine. Rosin is a brittle,
transparent, glassy solid, insoluble in water but soluble in a number of organiC solvents. It is
graded and sold on the basis of colour, the palest shades of yellow-brown being the better
quality. Most rosin is now modifi ed and used in a vari ety of ways:
M;&or uses Minor uses
Paper sizinQ Applied to ballet shoes to prevent sl ippa e
Chemicals and pharmaceuticals Paper production
Adhesives Ester gums and synthetic resins
PrintinQ inks Paint, varnish and lacquer
Rubber compounds Soap
Surface coatings Solders and fluxes
Brewing Chewing gum
Mineral beneficiation Linoleum and floor coverings
Applied to bows of musical instruments Plastics
Applied to beltin to prevent slippaQe Oils and greases
Shoe polish and related materi als
Pine species used
Vi rtually all pines wi ll yield resin if tapped. Key factors that determine the feasibility for tappi ng
are the quality (terpene content) and quantity of resin obtained. Nowadays, only the hard
(diploxylon) pines are commercially tapped, in both plantations and natural stands.
Important hardy commercial species now are:
Main species Countries where important Resin quality Resin quantity
P.brutia Turkey
P.halepensi s Greece
P.massoniana China Quite good Quite good
P .pinaster Portugal Good Quite good
P.radiata Kenya (introduced) Very good Quite. good
P.roxburohii India, Pakistan Quite oood Quite good
P.syl vestri s Lithuania, Poland, Russia Reasonable Reasonable
Minor species
P .tabulaeformis China
P .yunnanensis China
Tapping the trees
In generals, the greater the diameter of the tree and the larger the crown, the greater the resin
yields. Trees are normally only tapped when they are at least 20-25 em (8_10") in diameter and
1520 years old. Considerable tree-la-tree variations exist in terms of yield, but on average
such trees yield 3 to 4 kg of resin per tree, hence for any king of processing plant , a farge
number of pine trees are required.
High resin flow is aided by warm summer temperatures , whereas long periods of high rainfall
slow resin flow. In temperate regions, tapping can take place for 8-9 months of the year.
If done properly, using methods which involve removal of bark only, tapping trees causes little
damage to trees and they may be tapped for up to 20 years or more. Traditional methods which
involve some removal of woody tissue may not affect tree survival much and trees with old
tapping scars often grow healthily.
Tapping scars can attract insect pests (beetles and borers) which can tunnel into the wood and
cause damage, reducing resin yields and ruining timber value of the trees.
The tapping procedure is:
1. Preparation of the tree.
Initially the rough outer bark is first removed from the area at the base of the tree and
slightly up the tree to make collection easier.
A wide or narrow face can be prepared, depending on the intended use of trees.
Plantation pines destined for saw timber of pulpwood often have a wide face cut for
intensive tapping for 4-8 years before felling . Alternatively a narrow face can be cut for
long term (20 years or more) tapping at a lesser rate. A wide face may be up to one third
the circumference of the tree, while a narrow face is typically 10 cm ( 4 ~ ) wide.
2. Installation of the resin collecting system
Traditionally, two iron gutters are nailed to the tree just below where the face is to be cut,
and an iron collecting reservoir held in place beneath by nails to collect the resin. More
modern methods involve tying a specially designed plastic bag to the tree, held flush
beneath the face with wire tied around the tree; this is simpler, cheaper and quicker, and
does not risk contamination of resin with iron; though it is more difficult to remove the
resin from the bags without waste.
3. Wounding of the tree to induce resin flow
A horizontal strip of bark, 20-25 mm high, is removed across the width of the face , just
above the collection system, to cause resin to flow.
4. Application of a chemical formulation
A paste of sulphuric acid with various lubricanUsurficanUadhesive materials is applied to
the top edge of the freshly exposed face (the 'streak') to stimulate and maintain resin flow.
This is optional - without it, flow is less and for a shorter time; in the past , the wood was
wounded instead, which damaged trees much more.
5. Maintaining the tapping
This involves collection of the resin, re-wounding of the tree, and application of the
stimulant at suitable intervals, usually about every 2 weeks. On each visit , a further 20
mm of bark is removed above the existing face, and sulphuric acid paste applied to the top
edge. Thus an 8 month tapping season would necessitate 16 visits to the tree and would
result in a vertical face about 32 cm high, down which the resin would flow into the
container. A shorter tapping interval , ego 10 days instead of 2 weeks, would use a streak
proporti onally less high than 20 mm.
During the tapping, some resin solidifies on the face of the tree before reaching the
collector, which may be scraped off periodically or left until the end of the tapping season.
It yields a slightly lower quality of rosin.
At the end of the season, the collection system is re installed where the last removal of
bark was made, so a second season of tapping can be carried out. This is repeated each
y e ~ r until the height of the face is too great for a person to reach comfortably. Where
narrow faces have been cut, it is then possible to start another face next to the first, thus it
is possible to work a total of 4 or 5 faces, each for 4-5 years, if trees are large enough.
A Single person can attend 200-800 faces per day, hence can tap 2000-8000 trees as a full time
occupation, collecting 6,000-30,000 kg of resin annually.
Non-wood forest products from conifers. FAD, 1995.
Gum naval stores: turpentine and rosin from pine resin. FAD, 1995.
Les Derives Resiniques et Terpeniques website: http://www.drt-france.com
Book review
The Woodland House
Ben Law
Permanent Publications, 2005; 96 pp; 14.95.
ISBN 1 85623 031 7
Ben Law' s house was featured on Channel 4's Grand Designs, making it the most watched
programme in the series; and the presenter, Kevin McCloud, has written a glowing introduction
to this great book.
With lots of good quality colour photographs, this is a visual guide to how Ben built his home in
the woods, utilising mainly on site materials in a highly sustainabl e example of self-build.
Details are given of the evolving design process, the identifying of materials, castings,
preparation of the site, project management and the actual building; also reflections on the
process 2 years on. It shows that low cost, low impact and aesthetics can go hand in hand and
that it is possible to build green and build affordably.
The book is well organised, very readable, with beautiful pictures and useful appendices
including organisations, resources and technical drawings.
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce a
diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, m:>terials, timber and
other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter,
shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of
tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected
and productive system.
Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a
year in November, February, May and August. Subscription rates are:
20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (16 unwaged)
24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling)
34 per year for institutions.
A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on
request for 3 x 1 st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including
postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry
Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon,
Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776.
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk.
Agroforestry Research Trust
The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to
research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and
to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other
publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and
plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.
Agroforestry News
The myrtles
Volume 14 Number 1
November 2005
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 14 Number 1 November 2005
2 News: Hops for food I Lacquer-based agroforestry in China I
Silvopasture in Appalachia I Livestock and aspen in BC I
Nut orchard management in California I Hazels on multiple
stems I ART research site - 2005 season
7 Chestnut variety trial results - 2005
13 Insect control by bats
15 Passiflora: passion flowers and passion fruits
20 Bacterial disease control by plants
29 The myrtles
35 Swamp cypress: Taxodium distichum
37 Storage of organic apples and pears
40 Book review: Nutshell Guide to Growing Blueberries,
Cranberries & Lingonberries
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published Quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes. Devon. TQ9 6JT. UK Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: WW'vV.agroforestry.co.uk
Hops for food
Hop asparagus - the young shoots harvested as they come out of the ground before they grow
into tough bines - are now to be found in spring on sale in northern supermarkets. The tips are
and then served with garlic, butter or lemon. The dish, in season from early
April until late May, resembles asparagus, and contains various anti-cancer compounds, also
phyto-oestrogens which can alleviate symptoms of the menopause. Suppliers are hopi ng the
vegetable can find its way on to the menus of top London restaurants.
Source: Herbs, Vol 30 No 3 (2005)
Lacquer-based agroforestry in China
The lacquer tree (Rhus vernaciflua*) is central in an economically important agroforestry system
in western Yunnan, southwest China. The Lemo people (a branch of the Bai minority
nationality) traditionally grow lacquer trees interplant ed with upland food crops in swidden fields
(fields which are cultivated for several years and then left as fallow for several years to regain
During a 10-15 year fallow period, farmers can harvest various products from lacquer trees,
including resin for selling or trading, leafy shoots for a vegetable, pericarps for making wax,
roots and leaves for pesticide, dry resin for medicine, and seeds for vegetable soil extraction.
The Lemo people believe that the lacquer tree is the most important crop in their community,
providing food, cash income and environmental benefits.
Rhus vernaciflua sap is highly toxic and trees should not be tapped or pruned unless
precautions are taken.
Source: Long, C et at: LaCQuer-based agroforestry system in western Yunnan, China. Agroforestry Systems, Vol 57 No 2.
Silvopasture in Appalachia ,
Scientists at the USDA-ARS Appalachian Farming Systems Research Centre in Beaver,
Virginia, USA, have been experimenting with silvopasture systems since 1991. Silvopastures
are normally created by planting trees in open pastures, but at Beaver they are also planting
forages among thinned stands of mature trees to extend grazing into exiting forest.
Initial planting in 1991 involved black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) planted in pastures, and
grazing with sheep and goats. There are now some 80 acres involved in silvopasture
experiments in a patchwork of forest, open pasture and si l vopasture.
Experimenters are in the fourth year of raising lambs on oak silvopastures. They start in April
with 4-month-old lambs that weigh about 25 kg, and their study compares traditional open
pasture to sil vopasture. So far, they have found that the lambs gain weight at about the same
rate and end up at a similar market weight - about 45 kg - on both systems.
The team uses sheep and goats to control existing forest understorey plants and prepare the
land for seedi ng mixes of orchard grass, white clover, tall fescue and other forage plants. Hay
and corn are scattered around the site to keep the animals moving; as they move around, the
animals disturb the forest litter and bury the forage seeds with their hooves, essentially helping
Page 2
plant their own silvopastures. Once the forage seeds sprout the animals are moved to other
areas while the forage establishes.
The silvopastures are designed carefully, with the amount and quality of light allowed to reach
the forest floor manipulated through pruning and thinning trees. Too much shade causes slower
forage growth, too much nitrate and lower sugar content in plants. The researchers have found
that a maximum of about 25% shade is appropriate.
The team have noted that trees appear to help the shallower grass roots grow by drawing up
water and getting it within their reach during drought (a process known as hydraulic lift) . They
have also found that the forage from sitvopastures had more protein than from open pastures
during the heat of July and August, indi cating that the shade may have helped maintain forage
quality. Overall they have found that most silvopastures can only support about half the
numbers of animals on open pastures of the same area.
The silvopastures serve as buffers for seasonal weather extremes. The researchers have found
that the climate in the partially wooded pastures is markedly different from that in open
pastures. Spring comes about 2 weeks earlier in the wooded pastures because the tree canopy
bounces back heat radiated from the land and pasture plants; canopy temperature can be up to
goC (16F) warmer in silvopastures than in open pastures. In addition, hard frosts are delayed
by about 2 weeks in autumn. Hence silvopastures might provide an extra 4 weeks of forage
growth and grazing time over open pasture.
Source: Don Com is: A Sylvan Scene in Appalachia. Agricultural Research Magazine. August 2005.
Livestock and aspen integration in British Columbia
In the Peace Forest District of British Columbia, overlapping forest and range tenures often
result in conflict between livestock and timber interests. Efforts in the past to resolve overlap
issues, including forage accessibil ity in dense aspen stands and livestock damage to
regenerating trees, have not been successful.
Regional stakeholders have been brought together and a new initiative is
li vestock production utilising alley cropping in regenerating aspen stands.
integrate and actively manage both the agriculture and forestry crops in
minimises negative and maximises positive interactions in the system.
being tested -
The goal is to
a manner that
Mulching machines, normally used in the oil and gas industry to clear seismic lines, are being
used to establish 1.7 m wide alleys, 30 m apart , over three sites containing regenerating aspen
stands. These alleys are being seeded with a grassllegume seed mix (25% creeping red
fescue; 23% timothy; 15% birdsfoot trefoil ; 15% alfalfa; 12% red clover; 10% crested
wheatgrass) in order to promote and ensure optimal forage production. The alleys are oriented
such that some will receive near full sun during morning hours while others will receive near full
sun around midday. The corridors will provide livestock with unimpeded access and enhanced
forage production.
At the same time, the system will ensure successful regeneration as the aspen stands. At
maturity, and average aspen stand in this area contains 600-800 stems/ha, equating to an inter-
Otree distance of 3.8 - 4.4 m. Given that the alleys are only 1.7 m wide, there should be no net
loss of merchantable aspen volume at harvest. Keeping livestock production concentrated
wit hin the alleys should also minimise any unintended browsing and trampling damage
elsewhere in the blocks.
Each year, grazing by approximately 100 cows is expected to commence at each site around
June and will continue for 3 months. It is expected that livestock will target pea vine, vetch,
timothy and alfalfa in the forage stand. Vegetation monitoring will assess the species utilised
as well as annual forage production. The density of the tree belts between the alleys is such
that livestock use of these areas is expected to be very limited. Annual sampling will also
determine the level of livestock forage use in the tree belt areas, and tree growth and any
damage will also be recorded.
Source: Agroforestry Update, September 2005. British Columbia AIDI.
Nut orchard management changes in California
Hopeton Farms in Snelling, California, includes 2,00 acres of almonds and 65 acres of walnuts.
Up until 1993, the nut orchards were managed with high levels of pesticides and herbicides.
In 1993, one of the owners read about a project (BIOS) to develop more sustainable orchard
systems, funded by the US EPA. A 28 acre block of almonds was entered into the project.
When the BIOS team first visited, they reported that there was "no apparent life in the soil" and
that the soil was badly depleted of nutrients; they recommended applying compost on the 28
acre block.
The owners were so shocked by this alarming diagnosis that they decided to start applying
compost to the whole 2,100 acre almond orchard. They purchased composted cow manure and
applied 2-3 tons per acre.
Traditionally, almond orchards in California have very little plant cover on the soil, and what
there is mowed very close for ease of harvest. The Hopeton owners decided to use cover crops
as a key way to improve the soil. After experimenting, they found that a low-growing mix of
annual clovers and small amounts of low-growing grasses worked best. They now use this, plus
an insectary row every tenth row.
After the original test plot of 28 acres, they have put an additional 300-400 acres of almonds
under cover crops each year. They plant the cover crops in October and November, the mow
them to about 10 cm (4") high in February. ~ y mowing the cover crops before the trees bloom,
they improve air circulation during a critical period for potential frost damage. The orchard floor
is then mowed again in early June before the nut harvest in August and September. If mowing
is delayed long enough, plants self-seed to become a virtual permanent cover and re-seeding is
unnecessary. This 'late' mowing is a paradigm shift for almond growers, because usually if any
low plants are not mown by May, there is no chance of the residues breaking down before
harvest (because the soils are essentially dead, without worms and microorganisms) and they
then interfere with nut harvesting.
Instead of removing and burning tree prunings, they now chip up the prunings and apply back
on the soil.
The 65 acres of walnuts was managed organically from 1993, with fungicides stopped and
herbicides stopped too - the wide spaced trees are easily mown beneath. Walnut husk flies are
managed by mass trapping. The organic walnuts receive a premium price 50-100% higher than
commercial walnuts.
The almonds are not quite organic - disease pressures still force use of occasional fungicides,
and weed-free areas around each tree are maintained with herbicides. Insect and disease
damage is much reduced though.
Page 4
Organic matter levels in the sandy loam soil are improving slowly and life has returned to the
soi l - earthworms are everywhere. Owls and hawks have returned too. New blocks of almonds
are being planted with more open spacing and an orientation to the wind to encourage air
circulation, and the process of reducing harmful chemical use is continuing.
Source: The New American Farmer, 2
Edition. www.sa ve.org
Hazelnuts on multiple stems
In recent decades, most hazelnut growers plating new trees have tended to grow them on single
stems, mainly for ease of harvesting from the ground by machinery. The main drawbacks with
this are slightly delayed cropping and a constant necessity of pruning our sucker growth every
year. Also, any heartwood rot in the single stem can cause whole tree failure.
Phil Walker in Oregon, on the other hand, is firmly in favour of letting trees grow in a more
natural form. with multiple stems. Apart from a reduction in work needed to control sucker
growth, this has other advantages -damage to a single trunk via machinery. wind or disease will
not remove the whole aerial parts of the tree, but just a single stem. In the USA, Eastern Filbert
Blight is a damaging disease, and by having multiple stems, trees can survive attacks of the
fungus for much longer. Cropping starts a year or two earlier by growing in this multi-stemmed
form too.
As for yield comparisons, there is little between the two methods - yields are more dependent
on soil conditions than tree form.
Source: Pacific Nut Producer, January 2005.
A.R.T. Research site - 2005 season
The year has been unusual weather-wise, in that we had an exceptionally cool and wet spring,
which must have been largely responsible for the poor hazel and walnut crops this year.
Overall , however, weather records again show that this year has been well above average in
temperature, and as I now write, on November glh, we are still in an exceptionally mild autumn,
with green leaves still on many trees. A very late variety of sweet chestnut is still ripening its
nuts and I have just harvested the first cones from our 10 year old stone pine (Pinus pinea)
trees for pine nuts. Another first on our research site this year were fruits from the seedling
American persimmon trees (Oiospyros virginiana) . These (and those from date plums,
Oiospyros lotus, which have been fruiting for 3-4 years) were picked at the end of October and
are beginning to ripen indoors. Both these look like miniature oriental persimmons and have a
similar flavour when ripe.
Sweet chestnut crops were again extremely good - they appear more reliable croppers than
other nuts. mainly because they flower in July. Details of the cropping appear later.
The holm oaks in the selection trial again did well , and taste tests of the acorns are still ongoing
- the tannin levels in acorns continue to fall for several weeks after harvest with after-ripening
of the nuts.
A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 14 No 1 Page 5
Global warming and plants In Britain
The RHS web site (www.rhs.org.uk) indicates which plants the RHS thinks we will see more of,
and less of, over the next decades as global warming continues and Britain has increasingly
hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.
Fruits that will become more commonly grown include:
~ Apricots
Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica)
Date palms (Phoenix roebe/enii - pygmy date palm, and Phoenix canariensis - Canary
Island date palm)
Jujube I Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba)
Giant reed (Arundo donax) will become well suited to using for windbreaks.
Acacias and myrtles (see article in this issue) will become more widely used for hedging
Drought tolerant trees which will be grown more widely will include:
Acacia dealbata (silver wattle) - we have just planted 4 of these in our forest garden
Melia azedarach (Neem tree).
Shrubs which will withstand hotter summers and warmer wetter winters include:
Laurus nobilis (bay)
Ground covers which are drought tolerant and happy in mild wet winters will become more
common, and include:
Carpobrotus edulis (Hottentot fig)
Coronilla varia (crown vetch)
Hippocrepis comosa (horseshoe vetch)
Juniperus communis (juniper)
Juniperus conferta (shore juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper)
Some plants which prefer cool summers and are likely to suffer increasingly include:
Alpine plants
Fescue grasses
Chestnut variety trial results
Our chestnut variety trial in Dartington, Devon was planted in the winter of 1995-6, with at least
two trees of each variety planted (more of some to ensure good pollination). 2005 represents
the tenth year of growth for most of the trees.
Cropping dates
Cropping started relatively earl y and lasted over a longer period than usual due to mainly fine
settled weather. The exceptionally mild autumn meant that the very late ripening vari ety
continued ripening nuts well into November.
Belle Epine
Bouche de Be\izac
Marron Comballe
Marron de Lyon
Marron de Redon
Marron Goujounac
Precoce Migoule
Rousse de Nay
' Unknown late'
--- September --- ------------- ----------------- -
23Q4 125Q6 7
29 1:3 011 2 134 5 78 910 11
Octo b er ----------------- --- --- ---- -----
23 1415167892021 Q2 Q3
242S '26 27
, ,
x x x
xxxxxxxxxxxx l x l
x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
xxxxxxxx xx xx
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx i
x x x x xx xxxxxxx x xx xx x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x i x x x l
x x
x ,
, x
x x x x
x xxxxxxxx
x x xxxxx l x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x X X i X
I "X
x x x x x x
, , , ,
, x
x x x x ix
x x x x x
, x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x
x l XIX
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
X x x
x XI
x x
x x
x ,
x - total period of harvesting
x - indicates the period of heaviest cropping.
Page 7
Grading for sale
A home made grader, using thin plywood drilled with holes of a specified diameter, was made to
speed up the process of grading nuts. Various hole sizes were experimented with, 30 mm was
too large and 25 mm just too small. 26 mm and 28 mm worked well and we settled on using the
26 mm grading screen. Nuts which easily fell through this were too small to sell and were
separated off to use for dried nuts and some was used as bait for squirrel traps.
The two-varieties which required grading the most were Bournette and Marlhac. The nuts from
these were extremely variable in size and 3035% of them were too small to sell as fresh nuts.
As the yield table shows, they both yielded very highly and even the graded nut yields compare
favourably with other varieties. Larger si zed nut varieties generally required little or no grading.
- Oct ---
Date 28' 930'31
------ November ---------
, 2 3 4 5 6 7 'I' 10 " ' ,,
Maridonne x x x x x x
Marki x
Marron de lyon x
Marron de Redan x
Numbo x
' Unknown late' x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x
Yields and nut weights/counts
Yields were in general excellent, but there is great variability between cultivars. Bouche de
Betizac, Bournette, Marigoule, Marlhac and Vignals had the highest yields, but Marron
Corn balle, Marron Goujounac, Maridonne, Rousse de Nay and Verdale all cropped heavily with
good yields. Belle Epine cropped much less than in 2004, possibly indicating a biennial trend.
This and Rousse de Nay were the only major cultivars cropping less than in 2004.
Nut weights were also very good. For selling as fresh chestnuts, average weights of about 8.5-
99 (ie 118 or less nuts per kg) are necessary (achieved with a 26 mm grading screen as
described above) and many varieties achieved this. Most of the graded nuts were sold through
a local farm shop, retailing at 3.95 per kg, while the smaller nuts were dried in a dehydrator (in
batches of about 10 kg) for long term storage and utilisation. Total crop from our one acre of
trees was over 450 kg.
2005 data
Average Average
total yield
~ q ~ t weight
Cultivar per tree (kg) Nuts/kg Nuts/lb
Belle EDine 6.290 11 .17 90 41
Bouche de Betizac 24.560 11.16 90 41
Bournette 34.930 6.22 161 73
Bournette - oraded 22.705 9.55 105 48
Ederra 1.480 10.70 93 42
Herria 2.720 9.60 104 47
Laaueoie 0.690 5.67 176 80
M Comballe 13.325 9.57 104 47
M de Lvon 6.590 10.82 92 42
M de Redan 1.000 12.94 77 35
M Gouiounac 10.330 12.08 83 38
Maraval 9.955 8.04 124 56
Maridonne 12.930 13.14 76 34
MariQoule 19.270 11.80 85 39
Marki 1.470 8.38 119 54
Marlhac 47.010 6.59 152 69
Marlhac - Qraded 32.949 9.05 110 50
Marsol 0.875 6.96 144 65
Numbo 6.220 12.33 81 37
Precoce MiQoule 1.025 6.22 161 73
Rousse de Nav 10.800 10.75 93 42
Verdale 11.500 9.06 110 50
Vianols 27.430 13.53 64 29
Unknown Late 1.060 8.33 120 55
The data above is displayed graphically in the following three bar charts.
Unknown Late
Rotsse de Nay
Precoce Migoufe
Marlhac graded
Marron Goujounac
Marron de Redon
Marron de Lyon
Marron Combal1e
Bournette graded
Bouche de Betizac
Bell e Epine
" 5
] .0 5
.8 5
2. 4 ~
9 7
2. 3
9. 5
, . ' ~
] 1.6
, . 8
2. 0
4. 3
~ . 6
6 2
o 10 20 30 40 50
Total yield (kg)
Average total yield per tree from chestnut cultivars in 2005
Page 10
Unknown Late
Rousse de Nay
Precoce Migoule
Marso I
Marlhac graded
Mark i
11111111111 " 1I111 I
I I I I I I I I 'I I I 11" 1 1
1 1 1 1 III I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I
II 1111
I I I I I I I 111
I I I I I 11
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1111111
Marron Goujounac
Marron de Redan
Marron de Lyon
Marron Cornballe
Bournette graded
Bouche de Betizac
Belle Epine
I I I I I I111111 I I I I I I I I
2 4 6 8 10
Average nut weight (g)
12 14 16
Average nut weight for chestnut cultivars in 2005
Page 11
Unknown late

Rousse de Nay
Precoce Migoule
Marlhac graded
M Goujounac
M de Redon
M de Lyon
M Comballe
BourneUe graded
Bouche de Betizac
Belle Epine
I' I I I I I
I I I I I 1 I I I I
1 I I I I I I I II
50 100 150 200
Nut count (nuts I kg)
Average nut count for chestnuts in 2005
Page 12

I nsect control by bats
Insect pests cause costry damage to a wide range of crops, from annuals to tree crops. One
avenue worth pursuing to control insect pests is to utilise insectivorous bats for control.
The best known incidence of bat insect control is in Texas, where some 100 million bats, living
in large cave systems, eat an estimated one thousand tonnes of moths (corn ear-worm and
tobacco budworm moths) each night in spring. Each female bat has to eat at least 70% of her
body weight each night to sustain herself and her single pup to maturity. These massive
quantities of moths would cause tremendou damage on cotton, corn, pumpkin, tomato and other
vegetable crops grown in the area.
Another researched case, in California, found that pear orchard farmers suffered crop losses of
under SO/o due to the corn ear moth when a bat colony was within 2 km of the orchard; when the
colony was over 4 km away, losses of over 60% were reported.
Bats are the major predators of night flying insects. They are nocturnal , hunting in the hours
between sundet and sunrise. A single bat can consume 1200 insects an hour, and 3000-7000
insects in a single night. Leafhoppers, moths (including codling moths), and mosquitoes are
just some of their favoured foods. Most bats have to consume between 60-100% of their
bodyweight in insects every night, because their flight activity and echolocation navigation
system is very energy demanding. Bats hibernate during winter.
Because bats have highly specialised habitat requirements , bats are not adept at adjusting to
environmental change. Populations in countries with industrialised agriculture have declined
due to loss of roosting habitat, loss of wetlands (which serve as insect breeding grounds) and
pesticide poisoning. There are 17 species of bat living in the UK, all of which are voracfious
insect eaters.
There are several ways to aUract bats:
Bats prefer habitats with different types of cover, such a mix of fields and woods. Plant a
variety of perennials, herbs, niagh-blooking flowers to lure insects.
Bats are drawn to aquatic areas where insect populations tend to be greater. Add a pond,
make a bog etc if the site is dry.
Avoid using chemical presticides.
Erect manmade bat houses - see below for instructions on making and siting them. They can
also be purchased - the larger boxes may house up to 10-12 bats. The design below is by
the Suffolk Wildlife Trust.
Bats need a range of roosting sites, including summer daytime roosts, winter hibernation
ones and breeding sites. You will need to make several boxes to provide the range of
conditions bats need. Make the box from rough sawn timber to give a rough interior for
the bats to cling to. Make sure you only use untreated wood - some wood preservatives
can kill bats!
Siting bat boxes
Choosing the right location for your boxes will improve your chances of them being used by bats.
The best place to position a bat box is on a tree. Place them in groups round three sides of a tree -
bats like to move from one box to another during the day and from season to season as
temperatures change.
Put the boxes as high as possible above the ground to avoid predators - some species of bat such
as noctules prefer roosts at least Sm off the ground.
Clear away surrounding branches to give them a clear flight path.
You <?n also put boxes on buildings. A good position is under the eaves to protect them
from bad weather.
Bats can take a while to investigate new premises, but if your box is not occupied within
three years, try moving it.
uwe./,Q in tfmb.,
/orban to
e1itJg :0
. ..! .
'. :
, '
f! Sm
i" '
I i\','i
1/ ,:"
References ..
Abell, J A: Bats Solve Insect Problems in the Garden, Arne h
The Bat Conservation Trust. www.bats.org.uk < . 1\\. !.f,,'I. ';t>q::w: .... ,. :,
Sources of bat boxes: www.alanaecology.com, www.noansarKgaroens.co.uk,
Page 14
passion flowers and passion fruits
Some 10-12 species of the total (about 500-600) number of Passiflora species have been
exploited for their fruit. although most have edible fruit (not always good quality). In particular
the subgenus Tacsonia contains over 40 species with edible fruit ; these originate from the cool,
mid to high altitude regions of the Andes and are better suited to oceanic-intruenced climates.
Passifloras are woody or herbaceous vines with tendril s in the leaf axi ls, which prefer to climb
over a structure - they do poorl y sprawling on the ground. Leaves can be very variable in size.
The flowers, located in the leafaxils, are extremely colourful and elaborate in most species -
there are hundreds of ornamental varieties. Pollination is by hummingbirds, bats, bees, moths
and other insects.
Passion fruit have been grown in south American for thousands of years as a fruit crop, the
most widely grown there and elsewhere in the worl d today are the hard shell ed P.edulis
In Britain, plant Passifloras close to a south facing wall or fence. They need well drained soil -
add sharp sand if necessary to improve drainage, andlor plant on a mound. All Passiflora hate
having wet cold roots. They can also be grown in large pots. There is no prospect of growing
commercial fruit here but they make an interesting and ornamental addition to a home garden.
Tacsonia subgenus members can be planted in warm climes at a spacing of 3 x 1.8 m and
trelli sed. Each vine can be expected to produce 50120 fruits, giving potential yields of 1623
Hand pollination can increase fruit set and fruit si ze. In Britain bees, moths etc. often pollinate
flowers. Some species are selfsteri le so two clones are required.
Heavily fruiting plants should be fed similar to tomatoes (ie high potassium feed) , eg, use a
comfrey f eed or seaweed extract feed. Wi th too much nitrogen they may not flower. Once
established they should not require watering in summer.
Various pests and diseases can attack plants in Britain; slugs and snails are sometimes partial
to nibbling leaves. Ants climbing up plants should be regarded as a healthy sign for they are
attracted by the nectar and have a protective role re disposing of other insects' eggs etc.
Fruits can be harvested underripe and they wi ll continue to ripen off the vine - indeed, even
with ripe fruit, the flavour can improve by keeping for some days after harvest. Normally, let
ripe fruit drop before harvesting. Although most Passiflora fruits are edible some, like
P.caerulea and its hybrids, are bland, some are delicious and a few taste awful.
Species with known edible fruit
(t) indicates part of the tacsonia subgenus.
Species I hybrid Origin or parentage
P.actinia Or9a05 mountains, Brazil
P.ampulfacea (t) Ecuador, high altitude
P. antioquiensis (tJ Columbia, high altitude
P.caerulea Brazif
P.caerufea 'Constance Eliott'
P.x co/villi; P.caerulea x P.incarnata
P.cumbafensis (l) South America, high altitude
P.edulis f. fJavicarpa
P.edulis 'Black Beauty'
P.edulis ' Black Knight'
P.edulis 'Frederick'
P.edulis 'Nancy Garrison'
P. 'Elizabeth' P.phoenicea x P.incarnata
P.x exoniensis P.antiqyuiensis
P.herbertiana Australia
P.incarnata USA
P.1ncense' P .cincinnata x P .incarnata
P. 'Justine Lyons' P .caerulea & P .amethystina
P.manicata (t) Andes, mid-hiQh altitude
P. membranacea Mexico
P.rnixta (t) Columbia, high altitude
P. mol/issima (t) Andes, . high altitude
=P .tripartita var.mollissima
P. 'Pink Panther' P.mollissima
P. 'Paulo' P.edulis f.flavicarpa x
P.pinnatistipula Andes, high altitude
P.schlimiana Columbia, hiQh altitude
P. 'Smythiana ' P.manicata x P.mollissima
P.trifoliata t Peru, hi h altitude
P.triparlita (t)
P. 'White Queen' P.caerulea x P.eichleri ana
The hardiest species
Cold tolerance
( 18F)
-8C 18F)
_2e or less
-3 to -SoC (24-2rF)
_3G (2rF) or less
-15C WF)
_4C or less
_8C or less
_7C (20F)
_4 to -SoC
Of the 500 species of Passiflora, only a small number are tolerant of sub-zero conditions. The
following can all tolerate winter temperatures bel ow OC and represent the species best able to
survive in outdoor conditions in the UK.
Of the species described here, those only hardy to between -1 and _4C can usually only
f *t
50ecies I hvbrid Fruit aualitv
P.actinia Small , vellow, sliahtlv acid, araDe flavour, verv fraarant
P.amDulfacea Laroe, thick rind
P.antioquiensis To 12 crrylong, ovoid, yellow, excellent flavour. Tolerates
P.caeru/ea Brlcht oranqe, 60 mm 10nCl , sHqht blackberrv flavour
P.caeru/ea 'Constance Eliott' Briqht orange, 60 mm long, slight blackberry flavour
P.x co/villi; Yellow, 50-60 mm lono
P.cumbalensis Red, banana sha ed, 100 x 35 mm.
P.edulis PurDIe, ovoid or round, 50-60 mm, qood flavour
P.edulis f. flavicarpa Yellow, ovoid or round, 50-60 mm. more acid the P.edulis
P.edulis 'Black Beautv' Deeo curole-black, aood flavour
P. edulis 'Black Knlcht' Dark curole-black. laroe, excellent flavour
P. edu/is ' Frederick' Red, very larqe, (load flavoured
P.edulis 'Nancy Garrison'
P.x exoniensis
Banana shaped, 75-90 mm long, yellow, very good flavour
P. ' Elizabeth' Larqe, very sweet. (load flavoured
P.herbertiana Elliesoidal, oreen with whi te fragrant pulp
P.incarnata Ovoid, yellow or lime green, 60 mm long, slightly acid,
P. 1ncense' Egg shaped, 50 x 40 mm, olive green, lightening
rine. Pule with rose aroma, sweet and Sl-ightly acid.
P.'Justine Lvons'
P.manicata Small, 25 x 50 mm, oood flavour
P.membranacea Green, ovoid, 40-90 x 30-40 mm, very sweet. delicious
P.mixta Ovoid, yellow, to 100 x 25 mm, good flavour, raspberry
P.molfissima Yellow, to 150 x 35 mm, very good fl avour, good for juice
P. Paulo '
P----:iiinnatistTiiula EciO shaped, 4-5 em lona, aood flavour.
P.'Pink Panther'
P.sehlimiana Yellow, to 12 em lona, uice blackberrv flavour
P. 'SrTlVthiana' Yellow, to 75 x 35 mm, verY aood flavour
P.trifoliata EOa shaped, 35 x 50 mm.
P.lr;nartita (I) Yellow, to 150 x 35 mm, tart flavour
P.'White Queen'
tolerate light ai r frosts and cannot tolerate frozen soiL In many parts of the UK they can be
grown best by being in containers, and placing outdoors in summer and autumn" but kept in a
cool greenhouse or
simitar conditions over winter and spring. In milder parts they are best against a waiL The most
easy to grow are P .caerulea, P .actinia, P .caerulea 'Constance El iott' and P .'Amethyst' - these
are all free flowering and usually set fruit easily.
All species need well drained condi tions, especially over winter.
Species with probable edible fruit
P. 'Amethyst' ?P .amethystina x P .caerulea 3r:> C (27 F) or less
P.capsularis Vanilla Cream'
P.'Floral Fountain' P.phoenicea x P.actinia
P.qracilis Americas Annual vine
P.hahnii South America
3C (27 F)
P.jamesonii South America, high altitude ?
P.loefgrenii Brazil -3C (27 F
P.lutea USA -1S C (S F or less
P.parritae Columbia
3C 27"F
P. 'Pretty Ball erina' P .phoeniea x P .actinia _4C
P. ' Purple Rain' P.amethystina x P.caerulea
P.rosea South America, high altitude ?
P.rubra South America
P.schlimiana Columbia, hiQh altitude ?
P. 'Silvie' P .caerulea x (P .caerulea x -SoC
P. 'Sonia' P.caerulea & others -SoC
P.suberosa Dominica -SoC
(23 F)
P.tarminiana Hawaii
-3C (27 F)
P.tucumanensis Argentina -1S C (SF)
P.umbilicata South America, high altitude
Commercial passion fruit juice is made almost entirely from P.edulis (purple form) and P.edulis
f. flavicarpa (yellow form). The juice and fresh pulp (with or without seeds) are used in tropical
drinks, cordials, liqueurs, chocolates, sauces, ice creams, sorbets etc. Nutritional information is
not available for most species but P.edulis fruit contain, per 1009 portion of pulp:
Protein 2.909 Thiamin 0.03 mg Sodium 28 mg
Fat 0.50 g Riboflavin 0.10 mg Potassium 350 mg
Carbohydrate 7.39 9 Niacin 1.50 mg Magnesium 39 mg
Water 84.70 9 Vitamin C 20.0 mg Calcium 16 mg
Fibre 3.30 9 Vitamin E 3.0 mg Phosphorus 54 mg
Sugars (total) 7.39 g Iron 1.1 mg
Glucose2.90 9
Fructose 2.20 9
Sucrose2.29 9
The maypop (P.incarnata) is a herbaceous vine from North America, and has a long tradition of
medicinal uses. Recently. analysis of the leaves of maypop have revealed various compounds
that act as a sedative (one of its traditional uses), also as an antispasmodic and analgesic.
Other traditional uses include use as an aphrodisiac and as a cough suppressant. Modern
herbalists prescribe it for insomnia, muscle cramps, neuralgia, hyperactivity in children etc.
P.edulis leaves have similar properties and are used similarly in South America.
Species Fruit description
P. 'Amethyst' Ellipsoidal, 50-60 by 20-25 mm, briQht oranQe when ripe
P.capsularis Vanilla Cream' Hexagonal ellipsoidal, dark brown or purple brown, 50-60 x
15-20 mm
P.'Floral Fountain'
P. raci/is Ellipsoidal, ri ening bright scarlet , 25 x 15 mm
P.hahnii Round, deep purple when ripe, 30-35 mm across
PJamesonii Oval, oreen when ripe
P.lutea Round, small 8 mm across deep purple when ri e
P. 'Pretty Ballerina'
P.'Purple Rain'
P.rubra Ovoid. pink or red, 20-50 x 15-18 mm
P. 'Silvie '
P.suberosa Small. 8 mm across, dark pur Ie-blue when ripe
P.umbilicata Ovoid, yellow when ripe. 60-70 x 40 mm.
Seed is not dormant and should be sown in spring or fresh in autumn.
Cuttings from young, newly mature wood can be rooted with mist of a humid environment and
Air layering often succeeds.
Fisch, M: Passionfruit The World Over. CRFG Yearbook, 1975.
Lost Crops of the Incas. National Academy of Sciences, 1989.
Taylor, L: The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. 2005. http://rain-tree.com/maracuja.htm
The International Passi fl ora Register (2003). Passiflora Society International.
Bacterial disease control by plants
Below is a table of plants with anti-bacterial properties, along with any known bacterial disease
they can at least partially control. Of course, in the UK it is illegal to utilise plants as antifungal,
antibacterial or insecticidal agents unless they have been "approved" - a ridiculous state of
affairs, as there are very few plants dangerous enough to cause problems when utilised as a
decoction or similar preparation. Essential oils are another matter, as they are so concentrated,
and should never be used to control plant bacterial diseases unless highly diluted.
Many of the plants listed below have known antibacterial properties, but to date have been used
medicinally by people rather than as a bactericide against plant diseases, however, they all
have good potential as plant bactericides. A lot more research is needed!
Although the table below li sts only plants with known antibacterial activity, there are bound to
be many more which have not been tested, for example the essential oil from most pine trees is
probably effective.
In the following table,
Habit: An = Annual, Bi = Biennial. P = Perennial, S = Shrub, T = Tree, CP = climbing perennial ,
CA = Climbing annual.
DIE: Deciduous or Evergreen (shrub or tree)
Disease controlled:
'Medicinal' indicates that the plant has been recorded as being used medicinally as an
Crown gall = Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Fireblight = Erwinia amy/ovora
Potato soft rot = Erwinia carotovora
Bacterial canker (of stone fruit) = Pseudomonas syringae (also causes sotrage rots)
Potato scab = Streptomyces scabies
Bacterial spot (of stone fruit) = Xanthomonas campestris pv. Pruni
The plant parts with antibacterial are noted if known.
latin name Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
IAchiliea sibirica P Medicinal (whole plant)
Acarus calamus Calamus root P Medicinal (essential oil)
Acarus gramineus P E Medicinal (root)
Adiantum capillus-veneris Maidenhair fern P Potato soft rot (l eaves)
Agastache rugosa Korean mint P Medicinal (leaves & stems)
Agrimoni a pilosa P Medicinal (leaves & stems)
trifoliata Akebia CP D Medicinal (stems)
Aleurites fordii Chinese wood-oil tree T E Medicinal (fruit extracts)
Alisma plantago-aquatica Great water plantain P Medicinal (leaves)
Alkanna tinctoria Alkanet P Medicinal (root)
Allium cepa Onion P E Other plant fungal disease

Latin name Common name
Allium cernuum Nodding onion
~ l I i u m fislulosum Welsh onion
Allium sativum Garlic
Allium tricoccum Wild leek
Allium tuberosum Garlic chives
loe vera Aloe vera
Ampelopsis japonica
iAnethum graveolens Dill
IAngelica anomala
[Angelica archangelica Angelica
IAngelica dahurica
[Arctium lappa Great burdock
iArctium minus Burdock
!Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry
iArisaema consanguineum
IAristolochia debilis
Artemisia annua Sweet wormwood
Artemisi a capillaris
Asarum sieboldii
Asparagus lucid us Chinese asparagus
Aster macrophyllus Bigleaf aster
Aster tataricus
Atractylodes lancea
Atractylodes macrocephala
Atractylodes ovata
Barbarea vulgaris Yellow rocket
Bassia scoparia Summer cypress
Belamcanda chinensis Leopard lily
Berberis spp. (all)
Berberis thunbergii
Berberis vulgaris Barberry
Blechnum spicant Hard fern
OlE Disease controlled
Crown gall, Potato soft rot
Medicinal (whole plant)
Crown gall . Fireblight,
Potato soft rot
Crown gall , Potato soft rot
Medicinal (whole plant)
E Medicinal (leaf juice)
0 Medicinal (roots)
Medicinal (essential oil)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (essential oil)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
E Medicinal (leaves)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (whole plant)
0 Medicinal (leaves & young
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant I flowers)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
Medicinal (root)
Crown gall, Potato soft rot
(whole plant)
Medicinal (leaves & stems)
Medicinal (root)
DI E Medicinal (roots, seed)
D Crown gall , Potato soft rot
(frui t & sap)
0 Fireblight , Medicinal (roots,
E Other plant fungal disease
Page 21
Latin name Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
Bupleurum falcatum Thorow-wax P Medicinal (root)
Cannabis sativa Hemp An Medicinal (whole plant)
Cannabis sativa Hemp An Other plant fungal disease
Carpinus tschonoskii
T D Bacterial canker, Potato
soft rot (shoots)
Carthanfnus tinctorius Safflower An Medicinal (flowers)
Celastrus scandens Climbing bittersweet CS D Potato soft rot (fruit & sap)
Chamaemelum nobile Roman chamomile P Medicinal (essential oil)
Chimaphila maculata Spotted wintergreen S E Medicinal (leaves)
Chimaphila umbellata Pipsissewa S E Medicinal (leaves)
Cimicifuga dahurica P Medicinal (root)
Cimicifuga foetida Foetid bugbane P Medicinal (root)
Citrus aurantium Bitter orange S E Medicinal
Citrus limon
Lemon S E Medicinal (essential oil)
Commelina communis Day flower P Medicinal
Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed CP Crown gall, Potato soft rot
(stems, leaves, sap)
Coptis chinensis
Chinese goldenthread P E Medicinal (root)
Coptis trifolia
Goldthread P E Medicinal (whole plant)
Coriandrum sativum Coriander An Medicinal (essential oil)
Cornus officinalis Japanese cornel S D Medicinal (fruit)
Corydalis solida Fumewort P Medicinal (tubers)
Crataegus pinnatifida Chinese haw T D Medicinal (fruit)
Cuminum cyminum Cumin An Medicinal (essential oil)
Cyperus rotundus Nut grass P Medicinal (roots & tubers)
Cyrtomium fortunei P E Medicinal
Davidia involucrata Handkerchief tree T D Crown gall, Fireblight,
Potato soft rot , Bacterial
canker. Bacterial spot
Dendranthema x grandiflorum Chrysanthemum P Medicinal (flowers)
Dianthus chinensis Chinese pink Sf Medicinal (whole plant)
Drosera rotundifolia Sundew P Medicinal (flowering plant)
Dryopteris crassirhizoma P Medicinal (roots)
Dryopteris cristata Crested wood fern P E Medicinal (roots)
Dryopteris felix-mas
Male fern P E Medicinal, Other plant
fungal disease (roots)
Echinacea angustifolia Cone flower P Medicinal (roots, whole
Page 22
Latin name
Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
Echinacea pallida Cone flower P Medicinal , Other plant
fungal disease (roots,
whole plant & flowers)
Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower P Medicinal (roots, whole
Eleutherococcus gracylistylus S D Medicinal
Elsholtzia ciliata An Medicinal
Epirnedium grandiflorum Horny goatweed P Medicinal (leaves)
Eriobotrya japonica Loquat T E Medicinal (leaves)
Eruca vesica ria sativa Rocket An Medicinal (seeds)
Erythronium americanum Trout lily P Potato soft rol (leaves &
fl owers)
Eucalyptus citriodora Lemon-scented gum T E Medicinal (essential oil)
Eucalyptus globulus Tasmanian blue gum T E Medicinal (essential oil)
Eucalyptus spp. T E Medicinal (essential oil)
Euodia daniellii T D Crown gall, Fireblight ,
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
Eupatorium fortunei P Medicinal (leaves)
Eupatorium purpureum Gravel root P Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant & flowers)
Euphorbia pekinensis P Medicinal (root)
Gentiana manschurica P Medicinal (root)
Gentiana triflora
Medicinal (root)
Geranium maculatum Spotted cranesbill P Other plant fungal disease
Geranium nepalense P Medicinal (whole plant)
Ginkgo biloba Maidenhair tree T D Medicinal (fruit)
Gleditsia sinensis T D Medicinal
Glycine max Soya bean An Potato scab (leaves)
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Chinese liquorice P Medicinal (root)
Hedera helix Ivy CP E Medicinal (leaves)
Helianthus annuus Sunflower An Other plant fungal disease
(whole planl)
Helichrysum angustifolium 1m martelle P Medicinal (essential oil)
Heuchera americana Rock geranium P E Other plant fungal disease
(whole planl)
Hibiscus moscheutos Swamp rose mallow P Other plant fungal disease
(fl owers & aerial parts)
Houttuynia cordata Tsi P Medicinal (whole plant)
Humulus lupulus Hops CP Medicinal (flowers,
essential oil)
Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal P Medicinal (root)
Latin name Common name Habit DIE Di sease controlled
Illicium anisatum Star anise S E Medicinal (leaves, seeds)
Imperata cylindrica P Medicinal
Inula britannica P Medicinal (flowers)
I nula helenium Elecampane P Medicinal (essential oil)
Isatis tinctoria Woad Bil P Medicinal (leaves)
Juglans (l igra Black walnut T FirebJight (leaves)
Lauru5 nobilis
Bay tree T E Medicinal (essential oil)
Lavandula angustifolia Lavender P E Bacterial canker (essential
oi l)
Lavandula x intermedia Lavandin P E Medicinal (essential oil)
Lavandula latifalia Spike lavender P E Medicinal (essential oil)
Leonurus heterophyllu5 An/S;
Leonurus sibiricus Chinese motherwort An/Si Medi ci nal (whole plant)
Lepidium apetalum An/S; Medicinal
Leptospermum liversidgei Lemon-scented tea S E Medicinal
Leptospermum petersonli Lemon tea-tree S E Medicinal (leaves,
essential oil)
liatris spicata Gayfeather P Medicinal (leaves, root)
Ugusticum sinense Kao-pau P Medicinal (root)
Ugustrum japonicum S E Medicinal
Ugustrum lucidum Chinese pri vet S E Medicinal (fruit)
Umonium carolinianum Sea lavender P Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Uquidambar orientali s Oriental sweet gum T D Medicinal (resin from
wood, essential oil)
Lonicera japonica CP E Medicinal (stems, flower
Lycium barbarum Box thorn S D Medicinal (fruit)
Lycium chinense Chinese boxthorn S D Medicinal (fruit)
Magnolia grandiflora T E Crown gall , Fireblight,
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
Mahoberberis aquisargentii S E Medicinal (root. seed)
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape S E Medicinal (root , root bark,
Mahonia bealei S E Medicinal (root, root bark.
Mahonia fortunei S E Medicinal (root, root bark.
Mahonia fremontii S E Medicinal (root, root bark,
Latin name
Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
Mahonia haematocarpa Mexican barberry S E Medicinal (root, root bark ,
Mahonia japonica S E Medicinal (root , root bark,
Mahonia lomariifolia S E Medicinal (root, root bark,
Mahonia napaulensis S E Medicinal (root, root bark,
Mahonia nervosa Oregon grape S E Medicinal (root, root bark ,
Mahonia nevinii S E Medicinal (root . root bark,
Mahonia pinnata S E Medicinal (root , root bark ,
Mahonia rep ens Creeping Oregon S E Medicinal (root . root bark,
grape seed)
Mahonia swaseyi Texas mahonia S E Medicinal (root , root bark,
Mahonia trifoliolata Mexican barberry S E Medicinal (root, root bark,
Mahonia x media S E Medicinal (root , root bark.
Malus pumila Crab apple T D Medicinal (teaves)
Malus sylvestris Crab apple T D Medicinal (leaves)
Malus sylvestris domestica Apple T D Medicinal (leaves)
Medeola virginica Indian cucumber root P Potato soft rot (whole
Medicago lupulina Black medick An/P Medicinal
Medicago sativa Alfalfa P Medicinal (leaves)
Melaleuca linariifolia S E Medicinal
Melissa officinal is Lemon balm P Medicinal (leaves & young
Morus alba White mulberry T D Medicinal (leaves)
Morus alba multicauli s White mulberry T D Medicinal (leaves)
Morus nigra Slack mulberry T D Medicinal (leaves)
Myrtus communis Myrtle S E Medicinal (essential oi l )
Nardostachys jatamansi Spikenard P Medicinal (essential oi l)
Nuphar ad vena Common spatterdock P Other plant fungal disease
Nuphar lutea Yellow water lily P Other plant fungal disease
Page 25
~ -
Latin name
Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
Nymphaea odorata Fragrant water lily P Crown gall, Fireblight ,
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
Ocimum basilicum Basil An Medicinal (essential oil)
Oldenlandia diffusa
Snakeneedle grass An Medicinal (whole plant)
Origanum majorana. Sweet marjoram P Medicinal (essential oil)
Origanum vulgare Oregano P Medicinal (essential oil)
Oxalis corniculata Yellow sorrel An/P Medicinal (whole plant)
Pachysandra t erminali s
S E Crown gall , Fireblight "
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
Paeonla delavayi
Tree peony S 0 Medicinal (root)
Paeonia japonica
P Medicinal (root)
Paeonia lactiflora
Chinese peony P Medicinal (root)
Paeonia Jutea
Tree peony S 0 Medicinal (root)
Paeonia obovata
Medicinal (root)
Paeonia ostii
Tree peony S D Medicinal (root)
Paeonia potaninii
Tree peony S 0 Medicinal (root)
Paeonia suffruticosa
Moutan S D Medicinal (root)
Paeonia szechuanica
Tree peony S D Medicinal (root)
Paeonia veitchii P Medicinal (root)
Panax pseudoginseng P Medicinal (roots, flowers)
Patrinia scabiosaefolia P Medicinal
Patrinia villosa
P Medicinal
Perilla frutescens
Shiso An/P Medicinal (leaves, stems,
Perilla frutescens nankinensis
Purple shiso An/P Medicinal (leaves, stems,
Peucedanum praeruptorum P Medicinal (root)
Phellodendron amurense Amur cork tree T D Medicinal (bark)
Phellodendron chinense T D Medicinal (bark)
Phyla nOdiflora
Frogfruit P Medicinal
Phytolacca acinosa Indi an poke P Medicinal (root)
Phytolacca esculenta P Medicinal
Pinus palustris
Longleaf pine T E Medicinal (essential oil)
Pinus sylvestris
Scots pine T E
Medicinal (essential oil)
Plantago asiatica
Medicinal (leaves, seeds)
Plantago lanceolata
Ribwort plantain P Medicinal
Platycladus orientalis Biota T E Medicinal (leaves)
Polygala tenuifolia
P Medicinal (root)
Polygonatum sibiricum P Medicinal (root)
Latin name
Common name Habit OlE Disease controlled
polygonum multiflorum CP Medicinal (roots. stems)
Portulaca oleracea
Green purslane An Medicinal (whole plant)
Portulaca oleracea sativa Golden purslane An Medicinal (whole plant)
Prostanthera rotundifolia Mint bush S E Medicinal (leaves)
Prunella vulgaris Self-heal P Medicinal (whole plant)
Prunus mume Japanese apricot T 0 Medicinal (unripe fruit)
Psoralea corylifoJia P Medicinal (seeds)
Ptelea trifoliata Hop tree T 0 Medicinal (root bark)
Pteridium aquilinum Bracken P Potato soft rot (leaves)
Punica granatum Pomegranate T D Crown gall, Fireblight,
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot;
Medicinal (bark, whole
plant )
Pyrola rotundifolia Round-leaved P E Medicinal (leaves)
Quercus glandulifera T D Crown gall , Fireblight ,
Potato soft rot. Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
Raphanus sativus Radish An Medicinal (whole plant)
Rehmannia glutinosa Chinese foxglove P Medicinal (roots)
Rheum officinale P Other plant fungal disease
Rhus glabra Smooth sumach S D Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Rhus typhina Stag's horn sumach S D Fireblight , Other plant
fungal disease (whole
Rosa carolina Pasture rose S D Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Rosa centifolia Cabbage rose S D Medicinal (essential oil)
Rosa damascena Damask rose S D Medicinal (essential oil)
Rosa gallica French rose S D Medicinal (petals)
Rosa laevigata Cherokee rose S D Medicinal (fruit)
Ruta graveolens Rue S E Crown gall , Fireblight.
Potato soft rot, Bacterial
canker, Bacterial spot
(whole plant)
Salsola kali Saltwort An Other plant fungal disease
Salvia sclarea Clary sage Bi/ P Medicinal (essential oil)
Sargentodoxa cuneata CP D Medicinal
Satureja hortensis Summer savory An Medicinal (essential oil)
Satureja montana Winter savory P E Medicinal (essential oil)
Satureia thymbra Thyme-leaved savory S Medicinal (leaves)
Latin name Common name Habit DIE Disease controlled
Saxifraga stolonifera Strawberry saxifrage P E Medicinal (whole plant)
Scirpus americanus P Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Scirpus lacustris BulruSh P Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Scrophularia ningpoensis P Medicinal (root)
ScuteJiaria baicalensis P Medicinal (root)
Sinapis alba White mustard An Medicinal (seed)
Solanum tuberosum Potato P Other plant fungal disease
(whole plant)
Sophora flavescens S E Medicinal (root)
Sophora japonica Japanese pagoda tree T D Medicinal (flowers)
agetes rninuta French marigold An Medicinal (essential oil)
araxacum mongolicum P Medicinal
araxacum sinicum P Medicinal
axus canadensis Canadian yew T E Potato soft rot (whole
hlaspi arvense Pennycress An Medicinal (whole plant)
hymus capitatus Spanish oregano P E Medicinal (essential oil)
hymus vulgaris Thyme P E Medicinal (essential oil)
Trachelospermum jasminoides Star jasmine CP E Medicinal
Trichosanthes kirilowii CA Medicinal (fruit)
richosanthes kirilo"";i CA Medicinal (fruit)
ropaeolum majus Nasturtium CA Medicinal (leaves)
Valeriana officinalis Valerian P Medicinal (essential oil)
Verba scum thapsus Great mullein Bi Crown gall, Potato soft rot
(whole plant)
Verbena officinalis Vervain P Potato soft rot , medicinal
(whole plant)
Viola yedoensis P Medicinal (whole plant)
anthium strumarium Cocklebur An Medicinal (fruits)
anthoxylum alatum Winged prickly ash S D Other plant fungal disease
Crawford, M: Bacterial canker of plum & cherry. Agroforestry News, Vol 7 No 2.
Crawford, M: Fireblight. Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 1.
Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control properties. John Wiley, 1988.
Lawless, J: The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils. Element , 1992.
Seilar,W: The Dictionary of Essential Oils. Saffron Walden, 1992.
The myrtles
The myrtles are a group of related evergreen aromatic plants, covered here as a whole and
once all placed in the genus Myrtus but now split into several genuses;
Amomyrtus (2 species) , Luma (4 species) and Ugni (5-15 species) , from temperate
rainforests of Chile and Argentina
Austromyrtus, from Australia - some 8 species
Lophomyrtus, from New Zealand - 2 species and their hybrid
Myrtea/a, from Chile and the Falkland Islands
Myrtus - the original Eurasian myrtle
The species covered in this article are those of known hardiness to at least -SoC (zone 9). It is
Quite likely there are others which could be added to this list which are yet to be documented.
The evergreen myrtles like most well -drained or dry soils; wet and frozen winter soi ls can kill
plants. They also need sunny condition sin the UK, though in hotter climates they can tolerate
some shade. They are best planted in spring, after the last spring frosts. Any pruning is best
carried out in the spring.
Plants are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Myrtle species
Amomyrtus luma (Syn. Myrtus lechleriana) - Luma
An evergreen shrub from Chile and Argentina growing to 7.5 m high in ins native habitat. Has
strongly aromatic leaves. Fl owers in May (self fertile) are followed by black fruits in autumn, 5-
10 mm in diameter, containing a few hard seeds. Probably hardy to _5C or so (zone 9) - will
grow outdoors in mild maritime areas of Britain.
The fruits are edible, raw or cooked; very aromatic
but rather seedy.
Bee plant.
Austromyrtus dulcis (Syn. Myrtus
dulcis) - Midgen Berry
An evergreen shrub from Eastern Australi a (New
South Wales northwards to Queensland). Grows to
about 2 m tall and wide. Has dark glossy green
aromatic leaves. Flowers in summer are followed by
fruits 10 mm across, white with blue spots. Hardy to
Austromyrtus dulcis
Page 29
The fruits are edible, with an excellent sweet aniseed flavour.
Lophomyrtus bullata (Syns. L.aotearoana, Myrtus bullata) -
large e.vergreen shrub from New Zealand, growing there to 5 m high and 3 m in width. Flowers
in May-tiune are folfowed by fruits in autumn, 10 mm across. Hardy to perhaps -SoC or so (zone
9), succeeding in mild areas of Britain.
' Matai Bay' is one of several ornamental varieties.
The fruits are edible, raw or cooked, with a guava fla vour when ripe.
The plant has been used medicinally (see L.obcordata below).
Bee plant.
Lophomyrtus obcordata (Syn. Myrtus obcordata) - Rohutu
An evergreen large shrub or small tree
from New Zealand, growing there to 5 m
tall. Flowers are followed by red to
black fruits, 6-7 mm across. Hardy to
perhaps -SoC or so (zone 9).
The plant has been used medicinally -
the bark and berries used for
dysmenorrhoea. The essential oil has
been found to have some antibiotic
Bee plant.
Lophomyrtus X ralphii
Evergreen large shrubs (a naturally occurring hybrid of L.bullata x L.obcorda/a) from New
Zealand growing up to 5 m high and 3 m wide. Flowers in May-June are followed by dark red
fruits 7 mm across in late autumn through to spring. Hardy to perhaps -SoC or so (zone 9).
There are a number of ornamental forms - ' Sundae' fruits well in mild areas of Britain.
The fruits are edible - sweet, aromatic and pleasant.
Bee plant.
The plant probably has the same medicinal uses as its parents.
Luma apiculata (Syns. Myrtus apiculata, Myrtus luma) - Arrayan
A large evergreen shrub from Argentina and Chile, growing there to 6 m high and 4 m wide.
Has cinnamon-like bark. Flowers from July onwards (self fertile) are followed by bluish-black
fruits that ripen in October and November, 10 mm in diameter. Hardy to about -lOoe (zone 9).
Grows in any reasonable soil with shelter and succeeds (fruiting well) in mild parts of Britain.
' Glanleam Gold', 'Variegata' - ornamental variegated forms .
The fruits are edible, raw or cooked - the best are aromatic, sweet and succulent (though there
is much variability).
Bee Plant.
Luma chequen (Syn. Myrtus chequen)- Chequen, Arrayan blanco
A large evergreen shrub or small tree from Chile. Bears numerous bluish-black fruits, 6-10 mm
in diameter. Hardy to -lOoe (zone 9).
The bark and leaves are used medicinally. the bark as an astringent; the leaves are highly
aromatic. containing an essential Oil consisting largely of pinene and cineol.
Recent analyses have shown the essential oil obtained from the leaves to be fungicidal and
antifeedant against certain species.
Myrteola nummularia (Syn. Myrtus nummularia)
A prostrate evergreen shrub from Southern Chile and the Falkland Islands. growing only 10 cm
high and 50 cm or more in spread. Flowers in May-June (self fertile) are followed by fruits in
autumn. Hardy to about -1O
e (zone 9) - grows well to the south and west of London in
The fruits are edible, raw or cooked with a sweet and pleasant flavour.
Leaves are used to make a tea.
Ground cover plant in a well drained site. Space plants about 45 cm apart.
Bee plant.
Myrtus communis - myrtle
A very variable evergreen shrub From southern Europe and Asia, typically found in maquis and
scrub communities, growing up to several metres tall and wide, but usually less in Britain.
White flowers in July-August are followed by fruits ripening in October, usually bluish-black, 8-
10 mm in diameter.
Hardy to between -10 and _15C (zone 8) as long as the plant is sheltered from cold drying
winds. It is very tolerant of mild winds and maritime exposure though. Grows well in large
Fairly fast growing when young, slowing with age.
There are a number of ornamental forms, including:
'Tarentina' - has small narrow leaves and is hardier than the type (to -15C, zone 7) ; fruits
small, white; especially wind-resistant.
Selection and breeding work in Sardinia has now named several forms suitable for fruit and/or
production and these are described below .

'Angela' - heavy fruit production (whitish-green, non pigmented) , fruit moderately large, and
high vigour - suited for biomass production.
' Barbara' - selected for fruiting abi lity. A shrub of low vigour, 50 cm high and 80 cm wide.
Fruit yields are about 800 g , per plant on 3-4 year old plants. The fruits are oval shaped,
medium sized (about 1 cm), wit h a dark blue skin and white flesh. It contains a fairly low
number of seeds (average 8). The fruits contain, on average, 785 mg/1 anthocyanin
pigments, 45g/100g tannins, 0.06% malonic acid. Flowering is early (April-May in Italy) and the
fruits mature early (October) and uniformly. Propagation by cuttings is highly effective.
' Daniella' - selected for fruiting ability and for vegetation production for essential oil extraction.
A shrub of moderate vigour, growing to 130 cm high and 150 cm wide. Fruit yields are about
1000 g per plant on 3-4 year old plants. The fruits are round, medium sized (about 1 cm) with
bluish-black skin and white flesh. They contain many seeds (average 13). The fruits contain,
on average, 583 mg/l of anthocyanin pigments, 121 mg/1 tannins and 0. 11 % malonic
acid. Flowering is late (May-June in Italy), though leaf growth starts early and continues late
into autumn. Fruits mature early (early October) over several weeks. Propagation by cuttings
is moderately effective.
'Giovanna' - heavy fruit production (fruit light purple) , fruits large, and medium high vigour-
also suited for biomass production.
' Grazia' - heavy fruit production (fruits whitish-yellow, non pigmented) , fruits very large, and
high vigour - suited for biomass production.
'Haria' - quite vigorous, medium fruit production (fruits dark bl ue, medium sized); a useful dual
purpose cultivar.
' Maria Antonietta' - quite vigorous, medium fruit production (fruits large, dark blue); a useful
dual purpose cultivar.
' Maria Rita' - heavy fruit production (fruits medium size, dark blue), moderate vigour - suited
for fruit production.
Myrtle is mainly used for its medicinal and aromatic properties - the foliage is strongly aromatic.
Its essential oil , obtained mainly from the leaves and shoots but also from the fruit , is utilised in
cosmetics (perfumery, soaps) and the pharmaceutical industry (skin care products). Yield is
low, 10 g of oi l from 100 kg of leaves. It is harvested commerciall y mainly in North
The fruit is often used as an aromatic food flavouring, especially in the Middle East , and can
also be made into an acid drink. The leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked savoury
The dried fruits and flower buds are used to flavour sauces, syrups, jams etc. An essential oil
from the leaves and twigs is used as a condiment, especially when mixed with other spices
(caution advised). In Italy the flower buds are eaten.
In Sardinia, a commercial myrtle liqueur is made by infusion of the pigmented berries in alcohol.
The success of this industry has been the main spur to efforts to breed heavily fru iting cultivars
wi th dark fruits like 'Barbara' and ' Oaniella'.
Myrtle has an important ecological role in the Mediterranean maquis, and is often used as an
ornamental. The plant is very tolerant of regular clipping(200] and can be grown as a hedge in
the mitder parts of Britain. In the Mediterranean the plant is regarded as a symbol of love and
peace and is much prized for use in wedding bouquets; in the past , it has been held as the
emblem of honour and authority, and was worn by the Athenian judges in the exercise of their
functions, and it constituted the wreaths of the Grecian and Roman victors. in the Olympian and
other festivities.
The leaves are antibiotic, anticatarrhal , antiseptic (urinary. pulmonary). aromatic, astringent,
balsamic, bactericidal, expectorant. haemostatic. regulator, slightly sedative and tonic. Used
internally in the treatment of urinary infections, vaginal discharge, bronchial congestion,
sinusitis and dry coughs; externally, it is used in the treatment of acne (the essential oil is
normally used here), gum i nfections and haemorrhoids. The leaves are harvested from wild
plants from late spring to early autumn and usuall y distilled immediately or dried.
An essential oi l obtained by steam disti llation of the leaves and twigs, which is pale yellow or
orange with a fresh, clear, camphoraceous scent similar to eucalyptus. It is antiseptic. It
contains the substance myrtol this is used as a remedy for gingivitis. The oil is used as a local
application in the treatment of rheumatism. The oil is used in perfumery, soaps and skin-care
products, as a food flavouring in meat sauces and seasonings and in alcoholic drinks. Oil yields
are about 0.5- 1.1 % from fresh leaves and twigs; or 5-11 kg per ha of crop.
The fruit is carminative, and is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids,
internal ulceration and rheumatism.
The wood is hard, elastic, very fine grained. Used for walking sticks, tool handles, furniture
etc. and it makes a high quality charcoal.
Bees pollinate the flowers: plants are sel f-fertile.
Ugni molinae (Syn. Myrtus ugni) - Chilean guava, Ugni
An evergreen shrub from Argentina and Chi l e, reaching to 2 m high and 1 m in width, with a
fibrous root system. Leaves are glossy green, 12-25 mm long. Flowers in May-Jul y (self fertile)
are followed by fruits that ripen August-October, 15 mm in diameter, containing small seeds.
Flower and fruits are borne freely on quite young plants. Hardy to about -10"C (zone 9): good
in containers.
Tolerates a wider range of soi l s that many other myrtles, succeeding in any reasonably good
soil. Fairly tolerant of maritime exposure.
' Flambeau' is a variegated form which is hardi er than the type.
- -p-
The fruits are edible, raw or cooked, with a delicious aromatic strawberry/guava flavour and
crisp texture. They are commonly seen in the markets of Chile, where they are mostly used in
pies and jellies. In the past this was cultivated commercially in Cornwall - it was one of Queen
Victoria' s favourite jams.
Leaves are used to make a tea .

The roasted seeds are used to make a coffee-like drink.
Plants are tolerant of trimming and can be used to make a low hedge in mild areas.
Bee plant.
Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in warm water and sow in early spring with heat. Grow plants on
under cover for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last
expec;led frosJs.
Semi-ripe cuttings, 7 - 10 cm long with a heel , taken in July/August and given mist or a moist
environment often succeed. Overwinter under cover.
Hardwood cuttings can be taken of the current seasons growth, 7 - 12 cm long with a heel , in
November in a shaded warm environment. Plant out in late spring or early autumn.
Layering can often succeed.
Australian National Botanic Gardens website at http://www.anbg.gov.au/
Crawford, M: Medicinal Shrub Crops. Agroforestry News, Vol 8 No 3.
Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Reference, 1999.
Labbe, C et al: Bioactive flavanones from Luma chequen. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical
Communications 67(1 ):115-123. 2002.
Mulas, M et al: 'Barbara' and ' Daniella'; Two Cultivars for Myrtle Berries Production. Acta. Hort
576, ISHS 2002.
Mulas, M et al: Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) as New Aromatic Crop: Cultivars Selection.
Journal of Herbs. Spices & Medicinal Plants, Vol 9 Nos 2/ 3, 2002.
Munier, I: La Myrte. Fruits Oublies, NO.3 - 2002.
Otago University School of Pharmacy: New Zealand Medicinal Plants. At
http: //ou066065.otago.ac.nzledmedia/HxPharmacy/Jibrary.htm
The Chilean guava. Quandong, Vol 21 No 2 (1995).
Swamp cypress: Taxodium distichum
There are few trees which will grow permanently in wet swampy conditions, yet be at home in
ordinary soils too. and bear valuable timber and other products. The swamp or bald cypress
from North America is one such tree, related to the American redwoods and sharing many of
their properties.
Native to southeastern USA (Delaware & Indiana to Texas) and fairly hardy (to -20C, zone 6),
it grows well and very healthily in the UK.
The swamp cypress is a large deciduous coniferous tree, growing up to 40 m high and 8-10 m
wide in its native range, though less in the UK; conical growing at first . becoming broad and
irregular with age. The single trunk has thick bark, rusty brown colour, which falls off in strips.
It is a fast growing tree (5 m in the first 10 years), and very long lived - over 1000 years in the
wild, while in Britain there are numerous trees over 250 years old.
Young shoots are green at first, becomi ng rust-brown.
There are two types of leaves (see picture) - on
deciduous shoots they are crowded in 2 rows in a
feather-like arrangement, needle-like, pale green
becoming rust-brown in autumn, to 2 cm long. On
persistent shoots, leaves are spirally arranged, small
and scale-like, pressed against the branches. Buds
often begin to break in March, but trees do not come
properly into leaf until June and growth in height rarely
starts before June.
Flowers are produced from late winter to spring - male
flowers are up to 20 cm long; pOllination is via the
wind. Cones are ovoid to round, 10-25 mm in
diameter, brown when ripe, when they break up.
Seeds are irregular, to 15 mm long, rough, oozing oily
orange resin droplets.
Trees are often buttressed grown beside or in water often produce 'knees' - conical roots or
pneumatophores, domes of spongy tissue which apparently help the aeration of roots
permanently under water.
Swamp cypress is a tree of flooding river valleys and coastal swamps, often with brackish
water. In cultivation. though, it requires neither waterside or flooding soils - any ordinary soil
which doesn't dry out too quickly and is deep will be fine. Once trees are established, it can be
kept in up to 60 cm (2 ft) of permanent water. The branches are brittle and subject to wind
damage, but the tree usually recovers well.
Spread roots well on planting for future stability.
Some frost damage can occur at temperatures below -1QC.
Page 35
Swamp cypress has been used for a long time in England as a tree planted by streams, lakes
and ponds. It is very tolerant of city air pollution and the high pH of chalk streams.
It has been planted as a timber tree in Southern Europe, especially on alluvial soils. Unlike
most conifers , it regenerates well from cutting and can be regularly coppiced.
The wObd is yellowish or reddish, light , soft , not strong, moderately hard, easily worked, straight
and fine grained, extremely durable in damp soil , and takes a good polish. There is little resin
the wood. It not given to excessive warping or shrinking.
Traditionally the wood is used for construction (of building, decks, bridges), water pipes, joinery,
flooring, cooperage, sleepers, ' shingles, water tanks, vats, shipbuilding, pumps etc. The durable
wood makes an excellent fencing and estate timber, trees can be regularly coppiced to supply
suitable sized roundwood. The wood grown in Britain has is of good quality.
In traditional medicine, resin from the cones is used as an analgesic for wounds. More recently,
an essential oil has been extracted from the leaves and cones of swamp cypress; this has been
shown to have strong antifungal properties against various human skin pathogenic fungi (more
effective than common synthetic antifungal drugs.)
Recent research has shown the essential oil to have a strong antitermite effect, and an
antifungal effect against plant fungi including Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp. And
Penicillium sp.
By seed - easy, not dormant.
Cuttings can be taken in late summer if there has been good summer growth in warm
Alfazairy, A A: Antimicrobial activity of certain essential oils against hindgut symbionts of the
drywood termite Kalotermes f1avico/lis Fabr. and prevalent fungi on termiteinfested
wood. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128 (8), 2004.
Crawford, M: A.R.T. Useful Plants database, 2005.
Huxley, A: the New RHS Dictionary of Gardening
Pandey, K P et al: Antifungal efficacy of Taxodium and Mentha oils against some human
pathogenic fungi. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17: 443444, 2002.
Storage of organic apples and pears
I ntrod uction
The majority of organic top fruit growers in the UK either have or hire refrigerated storage - the
high value of the crop combined with the high risk of not being able to sell all the crop at harvest
tend to justify the cost. Some varieties of pear, ego Conference retain a very firm texture in
refrigerated storage and can keep until MarchI/April but others such as Beurre Hardy will only
store until December. Storage for longer periods than this would require controlled atmosphere
storage (ie control of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen levels) which mainstream growers
use routinely.
Storage requirements are often overlooked but ideally they should be considered during orchard
design. Many storage rots which can infect fruit prior to harvest are favoured in the mild wet
climate of the UK and as a result , fungal storage rots are likely to be a problem in organic fruit.
Prior to various fungicides introduced in the early 1970's, fungal storage rots (the most common
of which was due to G/oeosporium spp.) could cause up to 30% losses. Physiological disorders
such as superficial scald and bitter pit were also potential problems. The extent of loss
depends on several factors, one of which is the nutritional status of the fruit which is potentially
harder to manipulate under organic conditions.
The main storage diseases
The most common storage rots in conventional apples and pears are:
Infection in orchard Infection after harvest
Brown rotlMonilinia fruct;oena) Botrvtis rot (Botrvtis cinerea)
Gloeosporium rot G/oeosnorium snn.) Blue mould (Penicillium expansum)
Nectria rot Nectria alii ena Mucor rot Mucor Dvriformis)
Phvtoohthora rotfpiiVtiiiihthora SVrinaaef Fusarium rot (Fusarium SOD.)
BotrVtis rot (Botrvtis cinerea)
Black rot (Botrvosohaeria obtusa)
Diaoorthe rot Dia orthe erniciosa
The profile of storage diseases may differ in organically grown fruit. Prior to the widespread
use of post-harvest fungicides, Gloeosporium rot and brown rot caused most losses. Other
diseases, most noticeably Phytophthora rot (Phytophthora syringae) which is now common in
conventional fruit. were insignificant because there was little bare soi l beneath trees in the past.
Physiological storage disorders
Superficial scald
This can affect apples and pears and is characteri sed by browning of the skin, with russeWng or
pitting in severe cases. The lesions readily become infected with rot-producing fungi. Fruit
picked too early suffers more as do some varieties (eg. Bramleys). Excess nitrogen nutrition
also favours the disorder (not so likely in organic systems.) Hot water dips at 54C inhibit scald
in some varieties, as does pre-storage heat treatment for 4 days at 38C (though the laUer
especially will cause considerable extra cost.)
Bitter bit of apple
This disorder is caused by a calcium deficiency in the fruit, resulting in brown flecks developing.
Again, the disorder is favoured by picking fruit too earl y and excess nitrogen; also by over acid
soil s and very dry seasons.
Orchard design and management to promote storage
The rootstock determines the overall height , vigour, rooting system, precociousness and the
earliness of the fruit to ripen. For an organic system the tree needs to be vigorous and tall
enough to compete with weeds during establishment , yet provide a tree of a suitable height to
allow access without using ladders, making pruning, picking, spraying and inspection for pests
and d i ~ e a s e s much easier.
For apples, the extremely dwarfing rootstock M27 is not very suitable for commercial orchards -
it needs very good soils, and the fruit tends to be near the ground and therefore more prone to
Phytophthora rot which contaminates fruit by rain splash. M9 (dwarfing) is used by some
growers, usually with a permanent polythene mulch along the rows. M26 and MM106 (semi
dwarfing) are both used, the latter sometimes preferred as it is more wind firm. MM111 (semi
vigorous) is also used, and is tolerant of low nitrogen levels in the soil, but it must be pruned
heavily to be kept to a reasonable size. The type of rootstock is known to affect the storage of
varieties, possibly by partition of nutrients in the fruit - for example, apples on MM111 are more
prone to scald than on M26.
Variety choice
Varieties should be chosen which are not too susceptible to the major diseases (scab, canker,
mildew), as well as storage rots and physiological disorders. Apples susceptible to scab can
suffer from fruit cracking which then allows entry of storage rot fungi.
Most organic systems either mulch directly around the tree and have a grass/clover strip
between the rows, or grass is grown right up to the tree. Large areas of bare ground should be
avoided as they favour storage diseases dispersed by rain splashing up from the soil. A
permanent understorey encourages earthworm populations which are important for the
decomposition of fallen leaves on which diseases spores may be located. In some areas urine
is used to speed the breakdown of leaves beneath trees.
Nutrient supply
Supplying of nutrients to trees will affect the nutritional composition of fruits. Levels of Calcium
in fruits affect physiological disorders suchas scald but it also affects the resistance of fruit cell
walls to some rot fungi. Correct mineral status of fruits also render them more resistant to
lenticel-invading fungi such as Nectria gal/igena or G/oeosporium spp.
All dead, damaged and diseased wood should be pruned out and mummified fruit removed and
burnt . Several of the storage diseases persist over winter in diseased wood, cankers and
mummified fruit, to become the source of infection the following year (notably Monilinia, Nectria
and G/oeosporium.) Dead wood can be chipped and left on the orchard floor to rapidly decay.
Summer pruning, if undertaken, should be undertaken carefully in dry weather because of the
risk of spreading Gloeosporium spp. Etc. Secateurs should be sharp to lessen the risk of
Prune out low hanging branches to reduce rain splash infection risk.
Spraying to prevent storage diseases
Sprays to control scab and powdery mildew are routinely used in some organic orchards.
Typically, sulphur is used (eg. 4 kg per acre in 227 litres of water every 10-14 days from bud
burst until green cluster stage and then from petal fall until early August) , sometimes with
seaweed solution mixed in. Sulphur is know to reduce G/oeosporium spp and Monilinia
fructigena. Copper fungicides , ego Bordeaux mixture, is effective, but is gradually being
withdrawn from organic use by the certifying bodies. Calcium chloride foliar sprays are also
allowed to control scald and bitter pit.
There is good evidence that sprays of horsetail (Equisetum spp.), as used by biodynamic
growers, enhance the plants natural immunity to a range of fungal diseases. It is likely that
routine horsetail sprays wi ll reduce storage rot problems.
Pest control
Woolly aphids can spread Nectria galligena and can be controlled using MM resistant rootstocks
and soft soap sprays. Other pests such as codling moth can cause damage and encourage rots
such as Monilinia fructigena.
correct maturity
Fruit should be picked at optimum maturity - fruit picked immature is more prone to shrivell ing
in storage; late picked fruit will not store as long and will be more prone to rot fungi. The longer
the fruit is left on the tree, the greater the risk of exposure and infection by rot fungi , especially
those spread by rain. In pears an iodine t est is used by commercial growers to indicate the
ratio of starch to sugar. and thus the correct maturity.
Fruit should not be harvested when wet. Any wet fruit should be dried before being stored.
Postharvest handling
The crop should be handled very carefully at harvesting. Only healthy fruit should be selected
for storage. Many rot fungi, particularly brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) , mucor rot (Mucor
pyriformis) and blue mould (Penicillium expansum) enter fruits through wounds caused either by
rough handling, or through natural cracking and russetting.
Care should be taken to avoid fruit touching soil, which can introduce Phytophthora syringae
and Mucor. Bulk bins contaminated with previous years rotten fruit are also sources of rot fungi
especiall y Penicillium and Botrytis - bins should be steam cleaned then disinfected before use.
Cold stores should be inspected regularly and any rotting fruit removed. Many storage rots
produce spores which are easily blown around the store, so move infected material carefully.
Dormant spores will infect the crop if conditions become favourable, ego any condensation on
the crop or if store temperatures rise.
Refrigerated fruit are best packed for sale at room temperature - cold packed fruit is more liable
to bruise injury damage.
Cold storage
Clamps and ambient air cooled stores cannot be sufficiently controlled to avoid shrivelling of
fruit and loss of firmness. Refrigerated storage of fruit is the norm by commercial growers with
a humidifying system. Costs usually work our about 30-40 per tonne.
Ideally each variety would have its own store, as mixing varieties reduces the storage life of the
later storing varieti es. Practically, though, this won't be possible for smaller growers. Apple
varieties fall into two groups which store best at 1C and 3C respectively, though there is only
information on a small number of varieties:
Store at 1C: Fiesta, Gala, Grenadier, Spartan, Worcester Pearmain.
Store at 3C: Bramleys, Cox, Charles Ross, Discovery, Edward VII , Egremont Russet , Howgate
Wonder, Ingrid Marie, James Grieve, Jonathon, Jupiter, Katy, Kidd's Orange, Laxton's Fortune,
Laxton's Superb, Lord Derby, Sunset, Tydeman's Late Orange, Wi nston.
Pears store best at between _1 C and -O.soC. The crop should be cooled quickly, to 4C within
2-3 days and to the storage temperature within a further 7-10 days. The relative humidity
should be above 90% and as near 96% as possible. After storage, pears should be conditioned
at a higher temperature before distributi on and sale.
As with apples, ideally pears varieties should be stored separately - different varieties release
different levels of ethylene and show differing sensitivities to this ripening-inducing gas .

Biological control of fruit storage diseases
A range of biological control agents have been researched to control blue mould, grey mould,
mucor rot, brown rot and Rhizopus rot. These are micro-organisms, usually yeasts or fungi.
There are potential problems with the use of such organisms, though - some produce
antibiotics (and would not be licensed), they have to be fully (and expensively) tested.
Yeasts which are used in some parts of the world, to control Penicillium spp. and Botrytis
cinerea, are Candida oleophi/a; Cryptococcus infirmno-miniatus and C.laurentii; and
Rhodotorula glulinis. It is not clear, however, if any of these would control the main storage
diseases in the UK.
Benbow, J & Sugar, D: Fruit Surface Colonization and Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases
of Pear by Preharvest Yeast Applications. Plant Disease, September 1999.
Bevan, J R et al: Storage of Organically Produced Crops. HDRA, 1997.
Crawford, M: Bitter pit of apples. Agroforestry News, Vol 9 No 3.
Kupferman, E: How to Prevent Diseases of Fruit in Storage.
Book review
Nutshell Guide to Growing Blueberries, Cranberries &
Clive Simms
Orchard House Books, 2005; 36 pp; 3.50.
ISBN 0-9544607-3-1
Once again Clive Simms has come up with a guide for the everyday gardener to growing fruits
which many are unsure about, this time in the blueberry family.
Soil conditions are the critical factor when growing these acid-loving plants, and this is
emphasised in initial sections on soil and siting plants. Feeding, pruning, propagation, pests
and diseases, and harvesting are then all covered simply but with enough detail to make a
success of growing these great fruiting plants.
ThiS book is available from the AR. T. for 3.99 (UK price) including postage & packing.
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce a
diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and
other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter,
shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of
tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected
and productive system.
Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a
year in November, February, May and August. Subscription rates are:
20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (1!3 unwaged)
24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling)
34 per year for institutions.
A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on
request for 3 x 1 st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including
postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry
Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon,
Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776.
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk.
Agroforestry Research Trust
The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to
research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and
to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other
publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and
plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.
Agroforestry News
Volume 14 Number 2
February 2006
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 14 Number 2 February 2006
2 News: A new silva-poultry system / Black walnut in
Britain / Squirrel collars for trees / New plants from the
A.R.T. / Fungal titbits / First pine nut harvest / Forest
garden slide show / Edible Forest Gardens / Walnuts in
south west France / Walnut timber processing in Italy /
A.R.T. courses in 2006
7 Soil Influences on Tree Roots
9 Hops
13 Cultivation
22 Pests & Diseases
27 Varieties
38 Book Reviews: Sil vopastoralism and Sustainable
Land Management / Woodland Management: A
Practical Guide / Edible Forest Gardens
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, anrl should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many arti cles in Agroforestry News refer to edibl e and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefull y before major use, and medicinal plants should onl y be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Marti n Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterl y by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editori al, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K. Fax & telephone: +44 (0) 1803840776
Email; mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: WNW.agroforestry.co.uk
Page 1
A new silvo-poultry system
An experimental silva-poultry system, combining trees and chickens, is generating much
interes,t from farmers, foresters and policy makers. Aiming to rear broiler (meat) chicken in
newly planted farm woodlands, the system set up in Oxfordshire is both commercial and part of
a joint research project PINE (Poultry in Natural Environments), though this had funding for only
2 years.
Two replicated trials have been set up in Oxfordshire in late 2002 incorporating a randomised
complete block design incorporating the following factors:
Two tree type treatments - (1) broadleaves ash, silver birch, cherry and oak; and (2)
conifers Corsican pine, Douglas fir and western red cedar. Trees were planted at 2 x
2 m in 75 cm treeshelters.
Two poultry density treatments - (1) 1.2 m
per bird (similar to free-Orange design
standards) and (2) 2.5
per bird (organic density standard). The birds are housed in
mobile poultry arks each containing 600 birds.
Trees: presence and absence.
Poultry: presence and absence
In existing free-range broiler systems, birds are reluctant to range even when provided with
shelter, hedges etc - recent research shows less than 15% of birds observed outside.
However, the number of birds ranging was positively correlated with the amount of tree cover in
a range area - not surprising as our domestic poultry originate from red jungl e fowl (Gallus
gal/us). The trees provide shade, dry areas for dust bathing, act as a windbreak, and provide
shelter from predators.
Potential benefits to trees may include a fertilising effect from chicken manure, and less manual
input in weed control.
At the end of 2004, trees wee on average over 1 m tall, showing 30 cm of growth above the
treeshelters. Birds were observed usi ng the shade even from these small trees in 2004.
1200 free-range birds are distributed every week through a supermarket and the capital
investment costs of the project should be repaid within 5 years. Estimated income per unit area
of land far exceeds that generated by conventional land use.
Source: Hemery, G: A novel silvo-poultry system. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 99 No 2 (April 2005).
Black walnut in Britain
Black walnut has the potential to produce high quality and valuable timber over a fairly short
rotation, as such it could have e place in the production of home grown timber.
Trials are underway to identify and select good quality black walnut trees (Jug/ans nigra) for
timber production in Britain. Filed trials are under way, managed by East Mailing Research and
others, using seedling trees from several provenances in North America and Europe, to asses
performance, with emphasis on good form, vigour and late flushing. An improvement
programme is planned over the next ten years, with the aim of establ ishing clonal trials and
grafted seed orchards of the best performing trees.
The improvement programme also offers the hope of substantial reductions in rotation length,
from about 90 years at present to 50 or 60 years, and higher proportions of veneer grade and
higher class timber.
Source: Clark, J el at: The Future of Black Walnut in Britain. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 99 No 3
(July 2005),
Squirrel collars for trees
Smooth collars placed around the trunk of trees to prevent squirrels climbing trees have been
used sometimes in North America to stop squirrels eating nut crops and have been advocated
by Clive Simms (he calls them squirrel baffles) in his booklet 'Nutshell Guide to Growing
Walnuts'. Research is now under way by the Forest Commission to use this technique on trees
to prevent bark stripping damage.
Collars or baffles are only suitable for using on trees with isolated crowns, ie with crowns a
minimum of 3 m (10 ft) apart, because squirrels can jump from tree to tree if the distance is
less. Bear in mind that branches laden with nuts or blowing in the wind may move position, so
give a generous 3 m of space. Trees should obviously be planted or thinned to a wider than
normal spacing and/or pruned appropriately.
As to the baffle itself , Clive Simms
suggests using pieces of thin sheet
metal (used aluminium litho plates
from printers are recommended)
attached around the tree in a
continuous band, starting 1.5 m (5 ft)
above ground level and making the
total collar about 1 m (3 ft) high.
Sheets are overlapped with upper
sheets overlapping lower ones to
prevent toeholds being formed; small
nails are used to attach the collar to
the tree, which is removed after
Recently, the Forestry Commission in
England have been experimenting
with using collars made out of
corrugated plastic tree guards and
testing them with grey squirrels.
These are strapped or taped (eg,. using 'Gripastrip', a plastic tape with similar properties to
velcro) around the trunk of the tree.
Squirrels were first attracted to an t'nprotected elevated feeding station, 2 m up on a wooden
platform mounted on two fence stakes. Hoppers were filled with food twice a week for 2-3
weeks to acclimatise the squirrels to feeding there. Following this, collars made from 75 mm
diameter plastic treeshelters, of different lengths, were fixed on the upright supports in an
attempt to prevent the squirrels climbing. The collars were taped tightly to make sure there
were no gaps.
In one trial, 1.2 m long collars were attached to the stakes for 3 weeks, then 0.9 m long collars
for 3 weeks, the 0.6 m long collars for 3 weeks, then 0.15 m long collars for 3 weeks. As soon
as the 1.2 m l ong collars were attached, all feeding ceased from the stations - they were 100%
successful. More surprisingly, feeding remained entirely ceased for all the following shorter
collars too, although the squirrels made 7 attempts to climb the 0.6 m collar and 40 to climb the
0.3 m collar. It appears the squirrels soon became conditioned to the fact that a collar could not
be climbed.
In another trial, the length of the collar was progressively increased from 0.6 m (4 days) to 0.75
m (3 days) to 1 m (7 days to 1.3 m (4 days). The 0.6 m collar reduced squirrel feeding to about
25% of the unprotected level; the 0.75 m collar reduced it to about 12%, the 1 m collar to under
5% and the 1.3 m collar to zero.
Contrary to expectations, squirrels did not gnaw the bottom of the plastic collars. The plastic
collars themselves probably do not have a prolonged life, perhaps only a season or two,
because the plastic degrades in time and roughens I becomes brittle, provi ding squirrels with
enough grip to climb them. The forestry commission has patented this idea for use on forestry
trees and is hoping to develop suitable products in the future.
Sources: Clive Simms: Nutshell Guide to Growing Walnuts
Pepper, H & Kerr, G: Preliminary studies on collars to protect trees from grey squirrel
bark-stripping damage. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 99 No 2 (April 2005).
New plants from the A.R.T.
Regular customers will know that some of the rarer plants we list for sale in our catalogue sell
out by Christmas time, despite the fact that each year we aim to propagate more! An up to date
stocklist of what is available in on our website and customers can check this before ordering to
make sure we have what you want available. If we have sold out of what you want, please
email us or drop us a line and we are happy to reserve items for the following season.
A few plants became available too late to be listed in out print ed catalogue, though they are
listed on our website. These include:
Eleutherococcus senticosus : Aureomarginata' - Siberian ginseng
Fuchsia magel/anica - three more cuUivars which fruit well in Britain: Gracilis, Phyllis, and
Fungal titbits
A poor harvest and soaring demand for white truffles has sparked a turf war in the forests of
Piedmont in northern Italy. Car tyres have been slashed, paths scattered with nail barbs and
poi soned meatballs planted in undergrowth to kill rival hunters' dogs.
Wholesale prices have jumped from 980 Euro to 1640 Euro per kilo in 2 weeks.
One 2.400 year old honey mushroom (Armiffaria ostoyae) is reported to cover over 890 hectares
in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. The fungus, spreading underground through an extensive
network of hyphae, is believed to be the largest single organism on earth.
Source: The Tree Cropper. December 2005.
First pine nut harvest
The first pine nut harvest from the Agroforestry Research Trust's trial grounds in Devon was
made in late November 2005. It came from two stone pine trees (Pinus pinea) . both 10 years
old, grown from seed. Since the average expected age of stone pine starting to fruit is 10
years, these trees were right on time. The trees are about 3 m (10 ft) high.
5 large cones were harvested from each tree. Each cone was typically about 11 em long and
7.5 em in diameter and weighed 250 g. Stone pine cones do not open readily when ripe (they
would rather wait for a fire, though after a year or so they will open when dry) but have to be
physicalJy broken apart to harvest ripe seeds. Each cone yielded on average 130 seeds,
weighing 105 9 (including the shell). The weight of shelled seeds (ie kernels) averaged 35 g
per cone. Now you know why pine nut seeds are so expensive to buy!
Forest Garden slide show
You can now see a series of photos taken of our Dartington Forest Garden this winter online at
http://www.flickr.com/photos/6538 7153@NOO/
Edible Forest Gardens
This important two-volume text is available from the A.R.T. See Book Reviews in this issue for
a review of the seminal work on forest gardens. The volumes are 50 each, post free from the
A.R.T. until July 2006.
Walnuts in south west France
In south west France approximately 3,000 growers produce walnuts on approximately 8,000 ha
(20,000 acres) with a production on 15,000 tonnes of walnuts per year, about half of French
production. Despite many new plantings, French production has reached a plateau due to older
trees dying out.
At the walnut research station at Creysse, trials are taking place with cultivars including the
older Franquette and Marbot, along with the more recent Fernor, Fernette and Lara. Trees of
Franquette and Fernor are planted at 8 x 8 m or 8 x 6 m, with the aim of thinning every second
tree to give an eventual spacing f 16 x 16 m or 16 x 12 m. Franquette and Lara have been
planted in a hedgerow system at 8 x 4 m, and two pruning systems are being tested, vertical
axis pruning and a hedgerow type pruning between the rows with no pruning between the trees.
The hedgerow pruning is being tried one year in three and one year in four; hedging must start
early (3-4 years old maximum) to avoid cutting of large limbs. Yields from the hedgerow trials
have reached 5 t/ha (Lara) and 3.5 t/ha (Franquette).
Self rooted trees of Lara, Fernor and Fernette have also been tested, and they tended to have a
larger trunk circumference but s l o w ~ r production. Two CTIFL cloned rootstocks of J.regia, RG2
and RG6, are also being tested and look promising. Their characteristics include good vigour
and resistance to walnut blight. Currently the hybrid rootstock NG23 (J.nigra x regia) is
considered the best rootstock, despite potential problems with black line disease causing a graft
incompatibility later in life.
Shallow bark canker (Erwinia nigrifluens) and deep bark canker (Erwinia rubrifaciens) affect a
wide range of the walnut family. DBC can cause deep longitudinal cracks in the bark of the trunk
and scaffold limbs, and a black exudate can often be seen. SBC, also causing an exudate, is
becoming a problem in young Fernor trees in France, with symptoms appearing when trees are
stressed due to hot weather or frost damage. Research on walnut blight includes testing copper
formulations, spray frequency, use of bacillus (biological control) and studies of .copper toxicity;
too much nitrogen applied to the soil increase blight severity.
Researchers at Creysse are engaged in extensive field trials on canopy management. Walnut
trees will often grow naturally as a central leader. Limb bending by flexing shoots by hand to
decrease the limb angle is a useful technique to induce early bearing and increase nut set.
Limbs bent beyond their elastic limit will remain at a lower angle, become less vigorous, more
precocious and high yielding. Using string, tying of limbs to a defined angle (slightly below the
horizontciJ) is another way to maintain the optimum limb angle. The best time for limb bending
or tying is August. Any ties are removed in December once the limb angle is fixed.
Source: Adem, H et al: A Study tour of the walnut industry in France. Australian Nutgrower September
Walnut timber processing in Italy
Traditionally in the south of Italy, walnut trees are grown for both nut and timber production.
Trees are trained for combined production by removing lower limbs for a distance of 2 to 3
metres up the trunk. Nuts are harvested for several decades unti l either production declines or
a decision based on the value of the walnut timber encourages the farmer to fell the tree.
The milling process starts by grading the walnut logs into those best suited to veneer or solid
board production. The maturity, colour, grain, density and flaws in the timber determine the end
use of the product. For board production, a bandsaw is often used to cut the logs into planks
approximately 75 mm thick across the width of the log. The outer bark is removed by hand and
the planks dried for about 40 hours in a kiln heated by steam to stabilise the timber at a
moisture content of 15%. The best quality timber is selected and cut into gunstocks for the
Italian firearms manufacturer Beretta. Historically, walnut timber has been highly prized as the
first choice for gunstocks because of its exceptional qualities in strength, colour, grain and
stability. It is also regarded as the highest class of timber for furniture making and parquet
Walnut veneer is produced in a planing machine where a reciprocating blade, approximately 3
metres wide, shaves a 3 mm thick veneer longitudinally at right angles from a walnut log. The
moisture content of. the log is monitored to ensure that the cutting is done at the optimum time.
The pieces of veneer are then kiln dried, cut into pieces measuring 80 x 30 em, graded and tied
into bundles. Walnut veneer is often used to enhance the appearance of furniture as an overlay
on less expensive timber. In inlaid furniture, different species of timber veneer, including
walnut, are used to construct pictures or geometric patterns by a careful mix of timber grain and
Source: Adem, H et al: A Study tour of the walnut industry in France. Australian Nutgrower September
. 2005.
A.R.T. Courses taught by Martin Crawford in 2006
Forest Gardening - 20'h_21" May
Based at our Darlington forest garden, Jearn to design, implement and maintain a forest garden.
A few places still left!
Forest Gardening - 9'h_10th September
Growing Nut Crops _14'h_1S'h October
Based at Dartington where we have our own nut groves to demonstrate how growing nuts can
be easy and profitable.
Soil influences on tree roots
Although there has been pitifully little research on the extent and form of tree root systems in
different species, enough research has been carried out to enable the commonly held idea of
tree root systems to be challenged. Much of the data collected on root dimensions have been
derived from mechanically lifted root plates or windthrown trees.
Root distribution
Many factors are involved in creating the final root structure including soil type, tree species,
age, health, environmental stresses, planting density and silvicultural management.
A common misconception is that the volume and distribution of the roots reflects that of the
trunk and branches as in (1) below. More typically and accurately, trees have shallow but
widespread root systems as in (2) below. It is uncommon for roots to penetrate deeper than 2
m (6Y2 tt), with 80-90% found within the top 60 cm (2 tt) of the soil profile.
(1 )
------ ----.-- - -- - --- - --
~ ; : , > r _____________ _
The initial root systems of all tree sep.dlings start with a taproot, from which lateral roots grow to
form an extensive branched system; but in most species the dominance of the taproot
diminishes very quickly, and is replaced by secondary roots. A few species, notably English
oak, some pine, fir and walnut , have taproots which persist into adulthood. In general, root
systems are one of three types:
Taproot systems - where a strong main root descends vertically from the underside of the
trunk. Examples include English oak, Scots pine and silver fir.
Heart root systems - where both large and smaller roots descend diagonally from the
trunk. Examples include birch, beech, larch, lime and Norway maple.
Page 7

Surface root systems - where large, horizontal lateral roots extend just below the soil
surface, from which small roots branch down vertically. Examples include ash, aspen,
Norway spruce and white pine.
For a given species, most trees will fit into one of these categories but there will always be
Soil ,properties
These effect rooting patterns and especially rooting depth. Factors involved
Mechanical resistance - roots cannot grow through layers of bedrock, excessively
stony soils of fine sands, ironpans or compacted clay.
Aeration - all tree roots need oxygen to respire, though some flood-tolerant species
can cope with lower levels. For most, root growth is inhibited when oxygen levels in soil
fall below 10-15% and stops completely at 3-5%. Such conditions occur when air spaces
in soil are replaced by more soil (compaction), water or other gases.
Fertility - infertile soils produce root systems with long, poorly branched surface
roots, whereas fertile ones produce more vigorous well-branched roots that may descend
deeper into the soil.
Moisture - soils with permanently high water tables cause trees to develop very
shallow, widespread rooting systems. Drought conditions may also cause some trees to
produce shallow root systems to maximise rainfall interception near the soil surface. Soils
which are moisture retentive - ie containing clay - can reduce the need for roots to extend
far in search of water, whereas well drained soils may promote a more extensive and
deeper root system.
Root depth and spread
Very few tree roots occur at depths greater than 2 m (6Y: tt), and 90-99% of all roots occur in
the upper 1 m (3 tt) of soil. Soil properties as-above have the greatest impact on rooting depth.
Lateral growth of tree roots varies between species but it can extend well beyond the canopy
perimeter: in ash and poplar, lateral roots can spread three times as far as crown radius. There
is some evidence that the maximum extend of lateral roots is reached before the crown has
completed expanding, hence the lateral root:crown radius ratio may reduce in time.
Crow, P: The Influence of Soils and Species on Tree Root Depth. Forestry Commission
Information Note, November 2005.
Page 8
Introduction and history
The earliest written evidence on hop cultivation dates back to 736 AD in Germany, although
there is a Finnish saga, 3000 years old and passed down orally for 2800 years, mentioning hops
in brewing. From Germany and central Europe the practice of growing and using hops spread
to the rest of Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. Hops were not cultivated
commercially in England until about 1524, when Flemish planters introduced their techniques.
From Europe the cultivated hop was introduced into North America in 1629 (although wild hops
are native to north America and have recently been placed as a sub-species of Humulus
Although grown now almost exclusively for brewing, hops were first cultivated for their herbal
and medicinal properties. Initially their use in brewing was as a preservative to protect against
bacterial spoilage; un hopped beer was known as ale, and hopped beer as beer, though that
distinction is no longer valid as no un hopped ale is made now.
Hops are al so one of the perennial crops still normally grown with the use of numerous
herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Intensive plantings of hop monocultures, the standard
commercial production method, inevitably leads to the risk of serious disease and pest
problems. There are only a few organic hop growers, and it is possible, though, to grow hops
without recourse to agrochemicals (especially on a smaller scale) and this article emphasises
the methods required, including the use of resistant varieties and other techniques.
The hop, Humulus lupulus, is indigenous throughout much of
the northern hemisphere between latitudes 35 and 700N
and is hardy to zone 5, so will tolerate winter temperatures
down to -20C or more. There are two other hop species,
H.japonicus and H.yunnanensis, but these of little use and
are not described here. The genus Humulus is part of the
Cannabinaceae family, the only other member of which is
hemp (Cannabis sativa), and there are many similarities
between hemp and the cultivated hop.
The hop is a dioecious perennial climbing plant (ie individual
plants are male or female, and the whole plant dies back to
the ground in winter.) It does not have tendrils, instead the
stems (or bines) twine around any available support in a
clockwise direction with the aid of hooked hairs on the
stems. Hops can grow up to 6 m ft) high with suitable
The below-ground perennial rootstock is in fact part stem
tissue. In a mature plant the root system can extend down
for 1.5 m (5 tt) or more and laterally for 2-3 m (6-10 ft)
although on deeper soils the lateral spread is less. There
are 2 types of roots: horizontal roots are tough, wiry and
branching, producing much fibrous growth in the top 20-30
cm of soil. Vertical roots, arising from the crown or
from horizontal roots, are fleshy, irregularly swollen and
Page 9
easily broken. The roots do not produce buds and regeneration each spring is from buds on the
branched stem tissue below ground forming part of the rootstock. These buds produce a mass
of shoots in spring - many more than are needed to grow a crop - hence some shoots are
usually removed (see below for more details). Some buds can develop into runners which can
spread sideways, just below ground level, usually emerging close to the rootstock.
Stem tissue
Horizontal roots
Vertical roots
Hop rootstock 'Fugg!e' cone
Bines usually start growing in early April in England, and are susceptible to damage from sharp
late frosts. Hop growth is stroQgly influenced by the amount of daylight - they require at least
13 hours of daylight for vegetative growth to occur.
The leaves are normally borne in pairs at each node; they have toothed margins and usually
have lobes.
Small male flowers, are produced in branched bunches and produce large
quantities of pollen which is
The female flowers occur in bunches that consist of a condensed central axis, with a pair of
bracts at each node. Each bract and its bracteoles hides a small flower at its base. Flowering
takes place in July. As the bunches of flowers mature, the central axis lengthens and the bracts
enlarge to produce the strobiles (commonly called 'cones') which form the commercial product
of the plant. Flowers which are pollinated develop to form a seed enclosed in a papery shell
and cause the bracteoles to develop differently to those in unpollinated flowers , hence seeded
and seedless cones are easily distinguished. Commercially, un pollinated flowers are usually
required (see later for more details why.) Cones vary in size with different cultivars between 25
50 mm (1-2") long by 12-25 mm (JI,-1") wide.
The commercial value of hops lies in the lupulin glands which contain resins (the most important
being aacid) which give beer its bitterness and essential oils which contribute hop flavour.
While male flowers develop few resin glands, on female flowers they are abundant, mostly on
the bracts and bracteoles (these account for some 90% of aacid content.) There are a few
resin glands on the undersides of leaves, but not enough for commercial use.
Use in brewing
When hops began to be used as a preserving agent in beer, also making it bitter, they were
replacing other traditions of using herbs and other plant parts for preserving and as
bittering/flavouring agents (for example the fruits of bog myrtle (Myrica gale), still used in
Modern commercial brewing techniques, though, rely so heavily on hygiene that the original
preservative function of the hops is now of little importance (though for amateur brewers they
may stili be important), and they are used for the bitter taste and hop flavour that they impart.
These are derived from the resins and essential oils that are produced in the lupulin glands of
the hop cone.
Alpha and aroma hops
In beer making, hops are traditionally boiled with wort (the mashed malted grain, usually barley,
and hot water) for 1Y:z-2 hours, during which time some of the resins go into solution to provide
the bittering principles of beer, but the bulk of the essential oils are evaporated. To overcome
this loss of essential oil flavour, many brewers reserve a portion of choice 'aroma' hops and add
them late in the boi l, 15-20 minutes before the end (called late hopping or finish hopping).
British and American brewers may add 'dry' hops to the cooled wort during fermentation, to
introduce more essential oil components into the beer. Dry hopping adds a fresh hops
aromalflavour which cannot be matched by hop additions to the hot wort. Hops added at the
start of the boil, rich in resin but with a poorer aroma, are called alpha, bitter or kettle hops,
although the distinction between these and aroma hops added late is blurred.
Hop resins
Hop resins are not found in any other plant species. The lupulin glands consist largely of a
mixture of soft and hard resins and from the brewing point of view it is the soft resins that are
important, which contain a-acids, J3-acids and other resins . The biUering agents of beer consist
of at least 6 compounds found within these acids.
The ability of hops to give a bitter taste to beer is their principle function and many hops are
used solely for this purpose. Their a-acid content is then of prime importance and this can vary
from as low as 3% in old traditional cultivars to as much as 14% in the newer sorts. It is now
common practice for the contract price for such 'bitter' hops to be based of the weight of a-acid
they contain rather than the weight of the hops themselves. Various analytical methods are
used to measure the a-acid content.
Hops undergo oxidation and degradation in storage, some cultivars more rapidly than others.
The minimise deterioration, many brewers keep their hops in cold store or have them processed
into pellets or extract. Old hops can develop a typical 'cheesy' aroma. The bittering properties
of older cultivars are retained longer in store than in newer cultivars due to differences in the
ratio of a-acids and J3-acids.
Essential oils
The other important hop product is the essential oil , also produced in the lupulin glands, and
normally representing 0.5-1.5% of the weight of the dried cones. Some cultivars contain more
than others while seedless hops have considerably more than seeded cones of the same
Whereas hop resins give beer its bitterness, the essential oil gives it aroma and flavour. The
essential oil is a complex mixture of 200 or more components, not all of which have been
identified. They consist of three classes of compound: (a) hydrocarbons; (b) oxygenated
derivatives; and (c) compounds containing sUlphur. In most cultivars the hydrocarbons
dominate but they are also the most volatile and few survive wort boiling, even with late
addition, though some will dissolve during 'dry' hopping. The oxygenated compounds contribut e
to floral , spicy and astringent flavour characteristics. The sulphur compounds have potent
aromas and can influence the flavour too.
Hop processing
Hops pressed into conventional bales are bulky to store and gradually lose (lacid and aroma
through \l xidation which can be slowed but not stopped by cold storage. To overcome these
drawbacks, hops are sometimes processed for use by commercial brewers. Organic solvents
are sometimes used to extract the brewing materials, giving a green viscous liquid containing as
much as 50% aacid; a lot of essential oils are lost and some solvent residues may be left.
More recently, carbon dioxide has been used as a solvent, giving a much purer product.
Another process, which retains most of the character of the hop cones, is to grind them into a
powder which is then compressed into pellets, often with a standard aacid content. Hop pellets
are also sold by homebrew shops.
Other uses
The young shoots and leaves can be eaten raw, or better, cooked lightly like asparagus, with a
pleasant flavour. The tender underground shoots are the most favoured, and plants are
sometimes cultivated specificall y for the edible shoots by earthing up in spring or to lengthen
the underground part of the shoot, or by blanching shoots like sea kale shoots.
The female hop cones were used in bread making (and still are in some countries) probably
before they were used in brewing. Their role (apart from flavouring) is not entirely clear, but
probably their preservative properties helped keep yeast cultures free from contamination.
Cones are also sometimes used in pickles to add a ~ h o p p y ~ flavour and aroma.
The fleshy rhizomes have been .eaten in the past as a famine food.
Hop compounds are now extracted and used as food-grade antibacterial compounds. These
are very active against the range of bacteria found during alcoholic fermentation and are now
utilised in fuel ethanol production.
Hop cones are reputed to be anodyne, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic,
nervine, sedative, stomachic and tonic. In traditional medicine, hops have been used for:
Antibacterial activity (against Gram-positive bacteria) - this has been confirmed as
Sedative action (the soporific effect that hops are reputed to have is in some doubt;
studies on humans have found ~ n o sleep inducing effects")
. Antiinflammatory activity (this has recently been confirmed by cl ini cal trials of hop
extracts which were effective against osteoarthritis pain)
Stimulation of the digestive tract
Activity on the central nervous system (anti-depressive activity)
Relief of migraine
Influence on the skin (diaphoretic activity) - used as a poultice to ulcers, boils, painful
swellings etc .
Antituberculosis activity
Anti-obesive effect
Relief of bladder problems
Against hypersensitivity and nervous conditions
Diuretic effect
Remedy against infections
Against symptoms of the menopause
Increases milk flow lupulin contains a hormone that could account for this effect
Hop cones and leaves can be made into a herb tea for self-treatment.
Hop constituents have been found to be highly effective against oral streptococci (more so than
most other plant extracts) and they have been suggested as a mouthwash constituent.
Recent research has found that some of the compounds found in hops have anticancer and
cancer-preventative actions.
The blnes (stems) contain fibres similar to those of hemp, but not quite as strong, which can be
used to make coarse cloth and sacking. The fibre is very durable but it is difficult to separate,
the stems need to be soaked beforehand for a whole winter. A brownish paper can also be
made from the fibre, the stems are harvested in the autumn, the leaves removed and the stems
steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibre is cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand
pounded with mallets or ball milled for hours.
An extract of the leaves and bines has been used to dye wool a cinnamon brown colour and for
tanning light skins.
An essential oil from the female cones is used in perfumery. Yields from recent varieties are as
high as 1 to 1.5%.
Although wind-pollinated, honey bees are sometimes attracted to the flowers as a pollen
The dead bines can be used in basketry and wickerwork, they are still very strong when they die
back in autumn but become brittle when dry. Soak before using as with dry willow.
Fresh hop leaves are attractive to livestock - in Australia and New Zealand, sheep are used to
graze and defoliate the lower part of the bines.
Ornamentally, there are variegated and golden forms, and a recent dwarf golden form ('Golden
Hop waste, the residue from beer making, is a good garden fertiliser and mulch, containing
significant amounts of nitrogen.
Hops will thrive on a wide range of soils including light sandy soils (though irrigation may be
required) and heavy clays . Mediunl textured soils (Ioams) are easiest to work with and most
importantly soils should be of a reasonable depth and moisture retentive but not waterlogged.
Hops prefer neutral conditions and liming should be carried out if necessary to raise the soil pH
to between 6 and 7.5. The reason for the localisation of hop production in England is due to the
historical proximity of sufficient labour and is not to do with specific soil requirements.
Before planting, the site should be free of perennial weeds; once the hops are planted it is
better not to have to dig up weeds and disturb the hop root system. The hops will be productive
for 10-20 years or more.
Hop cultivation requires supports of some sort. Originally this was done by providing each plant
with a pole or poles up which it could climb; these were pulled from the ground at harvest time
and stored until the following spring. There is good potential for utilising this technique still on a
small scale, especiall y for dwarf cultivars.
A brief overview of commercial cultivation methods is followed by description of small-scale
cultivation methods (including dwarf culti vars), utilising non-chemical methods.
Comrpercial cUltivation
Bear in mind here that hops are singularly unsuited to monoculture production using massed
rows of plants. Hops are woodland edge plants, which like their roots in moist soil, and which
like to climb into good light conditions. Hop diseases and pests can spread rapidl y from plant to
plant. Hence nearly all commercial production relies heavily on chemical herbicides, defoliants,
insecticides and fungicides.
Since the end of the 19
century it has become standard practice to provide a permanent
structure of poles and wires to which each year string or thin wi re is attached to provide support
for the hop bines. The height of such wirework varies: in continental Europe it is usually 7-8 m,
in England 4.5 - 5 m and in the USA about 6 m. If the wires are not high enough, the top of
each hop shoot bends over or breaks off, stimulating lateral branching which leads to tangled
growth and harvesting problems. Between poles either low-tensile wi re is strained tight, or
hi gh-tensil e wire is used over greater spans and strained lightl y so they sag in a catenary as
shown below.
\ I
\ I
\ \
\ I
\ I
I \ I
\ I
1""1";1""1"" 1"/",, / / /
0 /
/ .
Plants 1 m apart in row
Typical English modern wirework system
In England, coir stri ng is used for the hops to climb, attached at the bottom to a ground peg and
at the top to a hook clamped on to the top wires; stringing is carried out from the ground using a
continuous length of string and a long pole. Highest yields are borne on bines which are trained
up supports at angles between 65 and 80 from the horizontal.
Spacing of rows and plants varies in different countries. Traditionally in continental Europe
rows were 1.6 m apart with plants 1.4 m apart in the row, with one wire provided for each plant.
In England a traditional Worcester system used rows 2 m apart , plants 2 m apart in the row, and
4 strings for each plant. These systems have changed to allow for tractor access, typically now
using rows 3 m apart and plants 1-1.5 m in the row, and using 2 strings/wires per plant.
American growers often plant at a square spacing of 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft). Most systems allow
about 1.5 m
per bine, but variations between 1 and over 2 m
can be found.
The newer dwarf varieties only grow 2 - 2.5 m high and these can be grown using wirework
about 2.5 m high. Commercial growers are exciting by these developments because they allow
for lower harvesting machinery and better coverage for spraying operations.
Traditionally, hops had the ground either side of the rows ploughed, and had side shoots
trimmed, to prevent spread of the hop plants and too many shoots emerging. Most hops in
England are now grown under a non-CUltivation system. Weeds are controlled by herbicides
and a strong root system develops near the surface in soil with a good soil structure. Another
advantage of non-cultivation is that cultivation was an important cause of the spread of wilt
To control the problem of the spread of runners, plants are now planted out inside a piece of
open-ended polythene tubing, which allows the roots to descend but controls the spread of
horizontal runners.
Usually 2-3 bines (shoots) are trained up each of the supporting string/wires to produce the
optimum density of growth for good yield and quality. The bines are trained when they are
about 50 cm long and with tall varieties it is usually found best not to select the most vigorous of
all. Once training is completed, it is necessary to remove the surplus bines, usually by use of
chemical defoliants. Leaving the excess shoots to form a dense growth around the base of the
plants would create a major disease problem as mildew diseases would develop there.
In addition to removing surplus bines, the lower leaves and laterals are removed, usually using
a chemical defoliant , to increase airflow and reduce disease problems. On young plants this
may not be done so they build up more reserves in the rootstock. Stripping (as it is called)
starts when bines are about 2 m high and is carried out about once a month up to a height of 1-
2 m eventually.
Traditionally in England, hops were fed with enormous amounts of manure and/or chemical
fertilisers, which have now been shown to be extreme. Many English growers now use 100-120
kg of N per ha per year , while in the USA this is about the maximum ever used and on soils with
high organic matter levels much less is used. Too much nitrogen leads to excessive growth,
pest and disease troubles and shading problems.
Phosphorus is important for root development and there should be enough for newly planted
hops. Again, in the past excessive amounts were added such that there are large residual
amounts in English hop gardens and they now need much less. Current recommendations for
new plantings in England are to provide about 225 kg P
per ha per year (which appears
excessive) although in the USA this is way above the maximum and for rich soils little or none is
Potassium is required for healthy growth and cropping. As with phosphorus, excessive amounts
were used in the past. For new plantings the recommendations are to supply 270-450 kg K
per ha per year but in the USA 150 kg is the maximum and for rich soils little or none is used.
Irrigation is not required in western Europe, though it is used in Eastern Europe and other drier
Wild hops growing nearby are usually cut down or grubbed up by mid June to prevent
pollination occurring, since most brewers demand seedless hop crops (ie less than 2% seeded).
Seeded hops, although heavier, are prone to shattering on harvest and have other
characteristics most brewers dislike.
Commercial hops are sold wholesale to brewers for about 4+ per kg.
Machine harvesting
Mobile harvesters have proven of little importance for tall varieties, the main drawback being
the enormous height they must achieve to drive over the wirework system, although some
mobile harvesters have been tried for dwarf cultivars on a lower system.
Static harvesting machines are usually used, requiring the bines to be cut and transported to
the machine. Bines are cut at 1-1.Sm high, since there are few hop cones below this height.
The m a c h j ~ e then uses wire loops ('fingers')mounled on rolating drums to remove the hop
cones. The material then has to be cleaned of leaves, stem etc.
Small-scale cultivation
For growers of a few to a few hundred hop plants, totally different cultivation methods are
applicable and the scale makes organic cultivation possible through various techniques. This
section emphasises the growing of dwarf varieties.
Bear in mind that any supports used must bear the weight of the full y grown bines which can be
10 kg (22 Ib) for tall varieties and 5 kg (11 Ib) for dwarf varieties.
Training systems
1. Wirework similar to commercial growing for dwarf varieties.
Parallel wire systems are set up using heavy
duty posts every 7 m or so, and high
tensile wire at a height of 2 to 2.4 m.
Rows of hop plants are typically
planted at 2.4 m wide spacing
(wide enough for small tractor
access), with plants densely
planted in the rows as close
as 45 cm apart.
Two strings or wires are placed
for each hop plant, and two
bines are trained up each of
these in spring.
Using a line of plastic netting
(14 cm squares) instead of
using. strings etc. can be
used, and leads to slightly
higher yields and better self-
training; however, it is almost
impossible to remove the old
bines from the netting at the
end of the season as they
are very tough. Commercial
growers of dwarf varieties
like using netting as it saves
them labour and they don't
need to remove old bines
View down the rows of hops. The hops are
planted on narrow hills or raised beds with a
large access track between.
because they are so highly sprayed that no insects or diseases can overwinter on them.
Page 16
This system is time consuming and expensive to set up but once erected, has a long life span.
There i s little or no room for growing insectary plants in the hop rows, but there may be in the
centre of the access track where they are not driven over.
If a wire system is used but tractor access is not required, the rows could be closer, as close as
1.6 m apart. and the hop raised beds could be wider, ego 1 m, with a narrower track, in this case
0.6 m wide, between. This would give more scope for integrating insectary plants.
Tall vari eti es can also be grown on low wirework but not so successfull y, as their vigour leads to
excessive bushy grown on the upper part of the bine.
2. Pyramid canes/poles
This is a system for small scale production
of hops without requiring machine
access. Bines are trained up pyramids
of bamboo canes or hazel poles in
much the same way as runner beans.
The canes/poles should be between 2
and 2.4 m long (6-8 ft) and are simply
pushed into the ground in spring.
Each pyramid of 4 canes/poles is tied
tightly with twine or wire at a convenient
height (1.5 to 1.8 m, 5-6 It) so that the
tops of the canes/poles are higher than
the ties.
For each bed, the two rows of hop plants
are spaced about 1 m apart, with plants
80 cm apart in the row. Each hop plant
has two canes/poles placed near which
are tied in adjacent pyramids. Two blnes
are trained up each of these canes/poles
in spring.

1.4 m bed
The hop beds themselves are about 1.4 m 1 m path
wide, and pathways of 1 m allow sufficient
light in to the hops and give the same blne density as the wire system above. The hop beds
can be partially utilised for insectary plants and/or nitrogen fixing plants.
In the autumn, dead bines are cut at ground level and the pyramids dissembled. The bines are
easily removed for composting. Canes/poles can be stored in the dry for use the next season,
how'ever using poles runs a greater iisk of insect pests overwintering in cracks etc. It would be
wise to spray canes or poles with a disinfectant before re-use the following spring.
3. Wheel/wigwam planting
Here there is a l arge central pole, with hop plants pl aced in a
circle around it and strings tied from each plant to the top of
the pole. Some gardeners use similar systems for climbing
The central pole should be sturdy, at least 7.5 cm (3") across,
and 2.5 Ii> 3 m long (8-10 tt ). with 60 em (2 tt) buried in the
ground. A circle of hop plants is placed around the pole at a
specific radius to make sure the angle of the strings is at least
70. With an above-ground pole 2.4 m (8 ft) high, the radius is
87 cm and when 2 m the radius is 73 cm. The two radii give
the number of plants needed for a complete circle as 12 and
10 respectively when planted at 45 cm spacing.
Strings are tied to the top of the pole and can be pegged down
with tent pegs of home made wire pegs near each hop plant.
Two bines are trained from each plant up each string.
Yields are likely to be lower with this system, as the inner edge of the hops becomes very
shaded; also the plants at the northern side of the wigwam will receive much less sun.
However, it is an economical way of training several plants using just one pole.
4. Training up shrubs/trees
The low maintenance version of training hops
is to let them climb by themselves up the
southern edge of a tree or shrub. This may
be suitable for growing hops in a forest
Plant the hop plant below the southern
canopy edge (drip line) of the tree or shrub.
Tall hop varieties need a tree at least 6 m (20
ft) high and will probably require a pole or
cane to help them climb into the canopy.
Dwarf hops are better trained into shrubs at
l east 2.4 m (8 tt) high and may require a short
Once the hops have grown into the canopy, they can be left to grow as they wish (this is how
hops grow in the wild after all). The forced low density of planting means that problems of
mildew diseases are much reduced.
The problems with this method come at harvesting and after. With a dwarf hop, harvesting
cones is relatively easy, though some will be hidden behind leaves in the shrub canopy. With a
tall hop variety, harvesting is very difficult - the bines cannot be pulled down, they will be too
intertwined with the tree branches; the only option is to get up high on a ladder and pick there.
In late autumn the problem is removing the old bines - it is near impossible to get them out of
the shrub/tree canopy as they are too intertwined and just pulling them risks damaging the host
shrub/tree. The only practical thing to do is cut out the bines between ground level and where
they enter the canopy, and leave the rest.
5. Chinese training
In China, a totally different method of supporting hops is used. A wirework structure is erected,
with wires only 2 m high, but strung every 30 em apart making, in effect, a horizontal trellis.
The plants are grown in rows 3 m apart with 1 m spacing in the row. Two bines are trained from
each plant up a vertical wire, and on reaching the top they are trained horizontally in opposite
directions so that a complete canopy is created. All side shoots are stripped from the vertical
growth, so that the cones are formed entirely on the horizontal area, mostly on the upper
Chinese trellis system for vigorous cultlvars
Planting, training and feeding
As with commercial cultivation, it may be worth planting young plants within a piece of open-
ended polythene tubing, which allows the roots to descend but controls the spread of horizontal
runners. A polythene bag with the end cut off, of width 15-20 cm, should suffice. Make sure
that the top edge of the bag is about level with the soli surface.
Commercial hop growers keep the ground bare with herbicides but for the small scale and
organic growers this is not desirable. The hop plants themselves should be mulched in late
spring each year to keep competition near them to a minimum (don't mulch earlier as it delays
soli warming and increases the risk of Verticillium wilt). Ina wire system like (1) above, the
whole hop bed can be mulched, but with a larger hop bed as in (2) above, individual plants can
be m u l c ~ e d and the rest of the bed planted with nitrogen fixing plants (eg. white clover) andlor
insectary plants (see under 'pests' below f or more details) to keep the ground covered. Paths
between can be planted too, though it may make access problems; they could be, for example,
white clover which is mown and the mowings placed on the hop bed.
Train bines up the supports when they are 30-50 cm long. For dwarf varieties, select the first
bines to appear - do not remove any as is common wi th tall varieties. Training should only take
a few seconds per support. Once training is completed, remove the surplus bines by hand,
cutting out at ground level every few weeks until late Mayor after, to avoid problems with
mildew diseases. Also check for bines which have blown off their supports and need re-
Removing the lower leaves & laterals, except on young plants, is a good idea because mildew
diseases in particular usually start near to ground level, where airflow is poor and disease
spores may reside, and work upwards through hop plants. Start when bines are about 2 m high,
then once a month remove leaves and laterals by hand stripping up to a height of about 1.5 m
(0.7-1 m for dwarf cultivars). In Australia and New Zealand, sheep are often put into hop
gardens to graze and defoliate the bottoms of the bines and this is another interesting option.
In terms of f eeding, hop plants are similar in their needs to a heavil y fruiting fruit tree in terms of
nutrients per m
required. Exact requirements depend on the soil and other conditions but
generall y each hop plant should be fed with 1-2 kg of compost plus cut comfrey mulches (from
1-2 plants cut) and/or wood ash (100 g) to supply extra potash. If phosphate levels in the soil
are very low then an extra source may be required too. Old bines should be cut down in
autumn, removed and composted; this can then be returned as a surface dressing to maintain
organic matter levels. Irrigation should not be required in England, but in drier regions it is
sometimes used.
Hand harvesting
With vigorous full size cultivars, most hop cones are produced out of reach from the ground, so
the bines have to be lowered so the cones can be picked. If the hops are grown up poles, the
poles themselves must be lowered; if grown up wires or strings, these can be lowered, than the
picking is done on the ground. It is labour intensive on a large scale, which lead to its phasing
out in commercial hop gardens except in China.
With dwarf cultivars, though, the crop is within reach and easy to harvest; this is much better for
the small scale grower.
Commercial harvesting of hops is done by machine in one parse, however hop cones ripen over
a period of 5-10 days, thus the single parse effectively wastes unripe cones. With hand
harvesting of small crops, though, the plants can be harvested several times so no cones need
be wasted; this also makes drying much easier because the quantities are more spread out.
Cones are mature and ready to pick when two changes take place. First, immature hops have a
damp, soft feel and when squeezed tend to stay compressed. Mature cones feel more like
paper, the bracts rustle and spring back when squeezed, and feel noticeably lighter. The

second key test is to pick a cone and cut it lengthways down the centre. When ready to pick the
yellow powder (the lupulin sacs containing the essential oils and will be a dark
shade of yellow (as in yellow highway lines) and it witl be pungent. If it light yellow then the
hops are probably not mature. Other changes to show ripeness are the bracts and bracteoles
closing towards the axis of the cone, making it more compact; and the bracteoles (and to a
lesser exlent the bracts) changing colour to yellowish-green. Overripe cones are prone to
shattering on harvest and cones left too long will brown, begin to oxidise, and spoil. Ripe cones
should be picked within 10 days.
When they are mature, individual cones can be cut off the plant (with a knife or scissors to
avoid jarring the cone and knocking lupulin powder out) straight into a sack or other collector.
Touching hops can cause skin irritation in some people, so wear long sleeves and latex gloves
if necessary.
Research has shown that hand harvesting leads to larger yields of a-acid than machine
harvesting, by 8 - 25%, due to loss of lupulin through contact with harvesting machinery.
Another advantage of hand harvesting is that the bines are left in situ to take advantage of a
further 4-6 weeks of photosynthesis, allowing more energy to be transferred to the rootstock
and leading to higher yields of hop cones.
Yields vary between cultivars with older types generally yielding less. A good harvest will yield
about 1500-2500 kg of dry hop cones per ha (hop yields are usually measured, bizarrely, in
Zentners , with 1 Zentner = 50 kg, so a good yield is 30-50 Zentners.) This works out at 0.5-1.5
kg per plant depending on variety and spacing. The yield varies very little with respect to
training method, density of planting or how many bines are trained up each support. The
biggest factor with respect to yield variation is loss of crop through pests or diseases.
Drying the cones
Hop cones at harvest have a moisture content of nearly 80% and this needs to be reduced
quickly to no more than 10% otherwise the hops will not keep in good condition in storage. Not
only can they go mouldy, but the a-acid levels fall significantly if the final moisture content is
over 11%.
Years ago in some Central and Eastern European countries, hops were dried with cold air in
lofts and other such spaces, but in Western Europe the air temperatures are lower and the air is
more humid, so heat is required. The familiar Oast houses in Kent were built to dry hops using
a coal fire beneath a loft where the hop cones were placed in a layer, and originally the hot air
from the fire passed directly through the hops, potentially contaminating them. Nowadays most
commercial growers dry the hops in specially designed oil-fired kilns, using a heat exchanger to
avoid any oil fumes coming into contact with the hops. Dried hops are packed in dense bales in
England by the grower or loosely in sacks in Europe to send to a merchant who will process
them further.
The temperature at which hop cones are dried is important; the higher the temperature, the
greater the loss of a-acid. Commercial kilns use a multi-stage drying schedule, with different
temperatures at different time. On a smaller scale, though, it is most economical to try and dry
hops at temperatures between 40 and 50" C; the drying time at 50" C is roughly half of that at
40" C. As with all efficient drying, as well as warmth a steady air flow is usually required, which
is limited by the fact that the hop cones blow about if air flow is too high.
Since harvesting takes place in September, when weather conditions are often still fine, an
obvious place to dry cones would be in a glasshouse or poly tunnel. Because cones should be
dried out of sunlight (which causes degradation of essential oils) a poly tunnel or glasshouse
should be temporarily covered, ego with a black plastic, or have a permanent dark cover as for a
mushroom tunnel. Such a dark cover will substantially increase temperatures inside. The soil
inside should also be covered to reduce the humidity. An attic may be a good alternati ve for
small quantities. Without any extra heating such a site can easily get to 40-50
e on a sunny
day, and in such conditions a thin layer of hops will dry in a few hours. On cloudy or rainy days
an extra source of heat and/or a fan to provide airflow may be needed.
Hops should be laid in a thin layer (only a 2-3 cones deep at most) in such a drier because air is
not being blown through the layer itself (whereas in commercial driers, layers can be up to 1 m
deep). A thin layer of hop cones should dry at sooe within 9-10 hours, and double that at 40
Test that the cones have reach a maximum of 10% moisture by weighing a sample throughout
the process: it should be dry enough when it has reached 28% or under of the starting weight.
When the cones are dry enough they should be conditioned, by allowing them to stand for
several days in a cool room: this allows the moisture levels to equalise, because the bracts
('petals') are usually much drier than the strigs (central stems within the cones), and also allows
the aroma and appearance to improve.
It would not be difficult to build a heated drier, which could even be placed inside a poly tunnel
or greenhouse to save energy. Such a drier, probably using gas as a fuel, could be
thermostatically controlled to heat air to the correct temperature and use a fan to force warm air
through one or more layers of hop cones.
Dried hops should be stored at as Iowa temperature as possible, even in a freezer for small
amounts. Before storing, seal them in airtight packages, removing as much air as possible.
Small vacuum-sealing units may be viable for the small scale specialist grower.
Because commercial growers have mostly used ,.lowerful insecticides for decades, not only
have pests been controlled but most predators have vanished from hop gardens, so when
spraying stops or is delayed, various pests become problematical, many of which would be
normally controlled by natural predators in a non-spray system of cultivation. The main pest of
note is the damson-hop aphid (see below). Spider mite, a problem for some commercial
growers, will normally be controlled by predator anthrocorid bugs. Slug damage to young
shoots can be significant in wet springs; control by using biological control (nematode) or by
using Ferramol (a new type of slug pellet which is approved for organic use in most of Europe
and available to growers in the UK).
Damson-hop aphid (Phorodon humuli)
This aphid is capable of completely destroying the crop. Aphids feed on the leaves, causing
defoliation and weakening the plants; after cone formation, they can feed within the cone and
cause serious damage to the crop, for the honeydew they produce is a medium for sooty mould,
which colours the cones at harvest. Aphids can also be a vector for virus diseases, especially
where plants are near to commercial or other large numbers of hop plants.
The aphid overwinters on various Prunus, principally sloe (P.spinosa) but also damsons and
plums, by laying eggs in the bud axils in autumn. These hatch in spring and the young feed on
Prunus leaves and reproduce asexually; after one or two generations they produce winged
females which can then migrate to hop when the temperature is over 13e , starting late May
and early June in England and continuing until late July or early August.
Most aphids which reach the hop plants start to feed on the y
the top of the bine. Damage is usually worse on dense grow
one bine per support. In September and October migration
oung rapidly expanding leaves at
th and where there are more than
back to the Prunus winter host
takes place.
lied on a battery of insecticides to For many decades nearly all commercial hop growers have re
control aphids, many of which leave residues in the hop cone
biological control methods and for the smaller scale and org
s. There is now some interest in
anic growers these methods can
effectively control the aphids.
hrocorid bugs, earwigs, hoverflies The main predators of damson-hop aphids are ladybirds, ant
(syrphid flies), lacewings and damsel bugs. With all these
response to aphids, hence there is often a period of pot
predators get the upper hand. Sprays of soft soap, for e
necessary to keep the aphid population on the hops low enoug
, numbers tend to build up as a
ential aphid damage before the
xample, can be used in June if
h for predators to rapidly control.
01 agents, for example lacewings, Some of these predators can be bought in as biological contr
which give excellent control, and trials with lacewings have b
be attracted with suitable flowering plants (se below), which w
hops should there be a lull in the number of aphids for them t
including strips of flowering plants to attract predators interpl
or between individual hops within the row. Try to use mostly
plants will slow air flow around the hops and increase the chan
een successful. Predators should
ill keep them in the vicinity of the
a eat. There is good potential for
anted between rows of hop plants
low plants, as lots of tall flowering
ces of mildew diseases.
In general, most species in the Asteraceae and Umbellifera
predatory insects. Some specific good attractant plants are lis
e families are
ted below.
good at attracting
Lad birds
Anthrocorid bu s
Damsel bu s
Attractant plants
Nettles, alfalfa, comfre ,coriander.
Diverse nectar and allen bearin flowers.
Chickweed, chico ,tans , nectar and all
Yarrow, bugle, cow parsley, borage, m
comfre , red clover, nettles. Nectar and
Bora e, alfalfa, nectar-bearin flowers.
en bearing flowers.
usk mallow, evening primrose,
011 en all season.
The main hop diseases are the mifdews, which can potentially
of the hop breeding programmes in the last few decades
resistant varieties. Choosing resistant varieties to begin w
grower. Most commercial growers spray extensively.
cause severe loss of crop. Many
have concentrated on producing
ith should be a priority for any
Downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora humu Ii)
This fungal disease appeared in Europe in the 1920's and spr
the world. Some resistant cultivars have been developed.
ead to most hop growing areas of
e of the shoots the plants produce The first appearance of the disease is in the spring when sam
develop 'basal spikes' with a characteristic stunted form an
silvery upper surface. The lower leaf surfaces turn black as
formed. The spike will not grow further and if not removed w
are the primary source of infection each year, spreading the s
lateral or terminal buds on bines, in each case causing anothe
d pale down curled leaves with a
dense masses of sporangia are
ill soon die; however, the spikes
porangia to other new shoots or to
r spike to form and growth to
Page 23
cease. Leaves can also become infected and they will form black angular spots on their
underside as sporangia form there too. The cones can become infected and turn brown.
The fungus overwinters as mycelium within the rootstock.
Diseased rootstocks will still produce sufficient healthy
bines, as long as any basal spikes are controlled, though
their vigour may be reduced a little. The sporangia require
wet conditions to start growing and infections are worst
after l,flng periods of rain or leaf wetness.
The best control is daily inspections in the spring for any
basal spikes, and their swift removal by pulling or cutting
at ground level. Make sure that tools and gloves (use
plastic ones) are disinfected after removing a spike.
Spores of the disease are released on a daily basis from
leaves on the spike starting at around 09.00 hours, hence
an early morning inspection before this time is best.
Stripping of the lower leaves should be carried out as
described above. Thus the leaves that would be closest
to any basal spikes and most prone to infection are
removed, and air flow is increased, reducing the time that
the foliage is wet.
Hop infected with downy mildew
Bordeaux mixture can be used as a fungicide, though it causes slight damage to young leaves.
Sadly diseased plants can be grubbed up and replaced with new clean stock.
Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca humuli)
This fungal disease is the oldest of the fungal diseases of hops and is commonly called 'mould'
in England. It can be a serious problem in England and Belgium but is less so further east in
Europe. In the USA it was a serious problem on the East coast and was one of the reasons the
American hop industry moved to the west coast, where it is not a significant problem. Recently,
several resistant cultivars have been developed.
The first sign of infection on young leaves is the appearance of raised humps or blisters, on
which the white sporulating mycelium the appears. If the cones are infected their development
is almost completely inhibited, hence late infections are not so serious. Infected cones can
darken and spoil the crop with an unpleasant mushroom-like aroma.
Spores overwinter on old plant material and in the soil and initial infection occurs in spring,
especially during wet weather. Secondary infections are not so dependent on wet conditions as
in downy mildew.
Good hygiene is the best line of defence. Try and collect and burn dead leaf and cone material
from beneath the plants in late autumn, or if growing using removable supports (eg. canes),
take these out and mow over the dead material.
As for downy mildew, stripping the lower leaves off bines removes some of the primary sources
and those leaves most liable to secondary infection.
Sulphur is a good control and is usually acceptable to organic growers, used in mid May and
later if necessary.
Page 24
Verticillium wilt (Vertici/lium albo-atrum)
This fungal disease has been a serious problem at times in the main hop growing areas. It can
cause the death of plants. The fungus is soil-borne and spread via cultivation, hence it was
much worse when hop gardens were traditi onally cultivated.
Dead diseased leaves or bines are all potential sources of infection, so good hygiene, as for the
mildew diseases, is the best control. The disease is favoured by high nitrogen levels, hence
keeping nitrogen input moderate is important. There is some evidence that seaweed solution
can suppress the disease.
Some varieties are more resistant than others.
Virus diseases
Hops can be infected with several virus diseases and the long history of hop cultivation in
specific areas meant that many old traditional vari eties were often infected, and growers spread
the infection by propagating their own infected plants. These days, commercial growers use
certified virus-free plants, and other propagators of hops plants use these as mother plants to
propagate from, hence new plants are not infected.
Once a hop plant in the ground is infected with a virus there is no cure; if yields fall to low levels
then grubbing up the plant and replacing it is the only option. Viruses are spread by aerial-
borne aphids or soil -borne nematodes over distances of up to 100 m or so; if there are no other
hops within this distance, then viruses are unlikely to arri ve.
Viruses which can infect hops include:
Hop mosaic virus, causing
and strongly down-curled.
pale vein-banding of leaves, which then become mottled
Plants become stunted and unproductive. Spread by
Arabis mosaic virus, causing Netuehead disease (where bines climb poorly, are
stunted, with small leaves, margins upturned; crops are reduced by up to 75%), Split
leaf blotch (where yellow oily blotches develop on some leaves, causing up to 50%
l oss of crop), and Bare bine or spidery hop (where plants are weak and spindl y, with
few shoots and small retarded leaves, crops reduced by up to 75%). Spread by the
dagger nematode.
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, usually symptomless but causing a 10-20% loss of
yield. First detected in the 1960's, when most commercial varieties in England were
found to be infected.
Hops are nearly always propagated vegetatively because named cultivars are nearly always
much better croppers than seedlings. Several methods are possible:
Bines can be earthed up in late summer, inducing the covered bases to thicken and
develop perennial buds. These bine bases can then be cut off to provide 'strap cuts'
which can be planted out in their final position (usually with 2 or 3 in each position), or
they can be grown on for a further year to produce 'bedded sets'.
Division: underground runners can be removed from the stock during the winter and
early spring and planted out in their final positions.
Page 25
Bines can be lowered in summer, laid on the ground and covered with soil, while the
tip is trained to grow upwards again. The whole of the layered portion thickens up and
in winter can be cut into single node sections to provide several 'layer cuts'.
Similar to the above, bines can be serpentine layered in and out of several pots
successively during the spring. Good rooting occurs in the pots, which are detached
in winter and planted out.
Softwood cuttings can be taken in midsummer. Best success is with mist systems.
Micropropagation is now used for some of the recent cultivars.
A+ Hops, Inghams Farm, Valley Road, Little Blakenham, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP8 4LR.
Tel: 01473 831523. www.aplus-hops.co.uk Hop plant specialist
A.R.T. Sell four traditional varieties and will have First Gold dwarf available autumn 2006.
Alford, D et al: Pest and Disease Control in Fruit and Hops. BCPC Publications, 1980.
Bhattacharya, S et al: Inhibi tion of Streptococcus Mutans and other oral streptococci by hop
constituents. Economic Botany 56 (1) , pp 118-125. 2003.
Blackman, J & Wilson, D: Support Systems and training methods for dwarf hops (Humulus
lupulus l.) Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology (2002) 77 (3) 310-313.
Briggs, D et al : Brewing Science and Practice. CRC Press, 2004.
Byrnes, M S: The Versatile Hop. The Herbarist, 64 (1998).
Carter, P et al: Hop. Alternative Field Crops Manual. Univ of Wis/Minn Extension.
www.hort.purdue.edu/newcropfafcm/hop.htm I
Haunold, A & Nickerson, G: Factors Affecting Hop Production, Quality and Brewer Preference.
Brewing Techniques MayfJune 1993.
Keukeleirer, D et al: Prenylflavonoids Account for Intriguing Biological Activities of Hops. Acta
Hart. 668, 175-187, 2005. .
Neve, R A: Hops. Chapman and Hall , 1991.
Ruckle, L: Hop acids as natural antibacterials in ethanol fermentation. International Sugar
Journal, Vol 107 No. 1275 (2005).
Tripp, M et al: Hop and Modified Hop Extracts Have Potent In Vitro Anti -Infl ammatory
Properties. Acta Hart. 668, 217-224, 2005.
Walton: 8eltring Hop Farm - 150 Years of History. C Swift, 2002.
Wheatley, D: Medicinal plants for insomnia. Journal of Psychopharmacology 19(4) (2005).
www.charlesfaram.co.uk Charles Faram and Co Ltd are hop merchants and their site is a
mine of information. You'll find essential oil breakdown for varieties here.
http://realbeer.com A U.S. home brew site with lots of useful information on hops and
www.hops.co.uk The National Hop Association of England site has a good overview of hop
production and common English varieties.
Page 26
Hops: varieties
The geographic region where they are grown, and specific microclimates, affect the quality and
characteristics of hop cones. Some varieties come out very similar in different locations, while
others have markedly different alpha acid and oil contents. Most hop varieties are not well
adapted to be productive in a wide range of environments.
Key to varieties table
Varieties are li sted by country_ Recent dwarf varieties are underlined.
Alpha-acid content: given as a range, as it varies with climate and location.
Storage stability:
All hops lose alpha-acids in storage.
gd (good stability) indicates a loss of 15-20% alpha-acids after 6 months storage at 20C.
md (moderate stability)
pr (poor stability) - will not store very long
Time of ripening: e = early, em = earlymid, m= mid, ml = mid-late, I = late. In England there is
about a 2-3 week gap between early and late ripening varieties, with the earliest ripening at the
start of September and the latest about 3 weeks to the end of September.
vg (very good)
gd (good)
md (moderate)
pr (poor)
Yield: Approximate average yields of dry cones.
vg (very good) = 35+ zr (1750+ kg/hal
gd (good) = 30 zr (1500 kg/hal
md (moderate) = 20-25 zr (1000-1250 kg/hal
pr (poor) = 10 -15 zr (500-750 kg / hal
Downy mildew, powdery mildew, verticiliium wilt:
vs = very susceptible
s = susceptible
sr = some resistance
r = resistant
vr = very resistant
Bitter: ticked if used as a bittering hop
Aroma: ticked if used as a aroma hop
Late: ticked if used as a late or finishing hop in the wort
Dry: ticked if used as a dry hop after the wort has cooled.
us ...... ~ , g .
Admi ral 13.5-16.0 gd m gd
Boadicea 8.0-10.0 md
Bramling Cross
5.0 7.0 md e md
Brewers Gold
5.5 - 8.5 pr I pr
Bullion 6.0 - 9.0 pr I pr
First Gold 5.6 - 8.7 md m vg
Fuggle 4.5 - 5.5 gd em gd
Goldings (includes 4.5 - 6.0 gd ml gd
Cobbs, Eastwell. Mathon
Herald 11.0-13.0 e
Northdown (Wye N.) 7.5 -10.0 gd m gd
Northern Brewer 6.5 - 10.0 gd m md
Omega 9.0-11.5 gd I gd
Phoenix 12.0-15.0 e vg
I vg
Pioneer 8.0-10.0 gd ml gd
Pilot 9.0-12.0 md
Page 28

I r
I r


(i5 ;,

r ./ ./ ./
./ ./
r ./ ./ ./
s ./
s ./
r ./ ./ ./ ./
s ./ ./ ./ ./
s ./ ./ ./ ./
vr ./ ./ ./
s ./ ./ ./
s ./
vr ./ ./ ./
Ivr 1./
r ./
./ ./
Variety Characteristics & example of use
Very good high alpha hop, gives a very pleasant happy character.
Small compact cones for easy machine harvest. Recent variety.
Dual purpose hop with average aroma. Very recent variety, aphid
Bramling Cross
Aroma hop giving strong spicy I blackcurrant flavours. Use: all
styles of beer.
Brewers Gold
Gives a well-balanced bitterness, also spicy and fruity flavour. Use:
often in lagers, with a late aroma hop, ego Pete's Wicked Ale.
Mainly grown in Germany.
Gives a strong tomcat I blackcurrant aroma (!) Use: as used for
many years in Guinness Extra Stout.
First Gold
Good dual purpose hop, gives a well-balanced bitterness and a
(Prima Donna) fruity, slightly spicy & orangey/citrus notes. Proving the best dwarf
hop to date. Use: all beers. Eg. in Adnams's bottled Broadside IPA,
YounQ's First Gold.
Old aroma hop gives a clean, refreshing, full-bodied flavour and a
delicate, minty, grassy, floral aroma. Use: often with Goldings, ego
in Samuel Smith's Pale Ale. Also used in Theakston's Old Peculiar
and on its own in McMullen's Gladstone and others.
Goldings (. ) Old aroma hop valued for its smooth (almost sweet), delicate,
(includes Cobbs, earthy, slightly spicy aroma. Use: Samuel Smiths's Pale Ale,
Eastwell, M a t h o ~ ) Fuller's ESB; on its own in Fuller's IPA, Hoq's Back TEA and others.
Herald Dual purpose hop with a good flavour and bittering balance, giving a
well-rounded slight grapefruit/citrus flavour. Recent variety, difficult
to grow.
Northdown (Wye N.) Excellent dual purpose hop with good aroma and alpha properties.
Use: many beers on its own or with another aroma variety. Eg.
Northern Brewer Good dual-purpose variety with excellent dry, clean bittering
properties & pleasant fragrant aroma. Mainly grown in Germany,
Belgium & Spain. Use: ego Theakston's Old Peculiar.
Phoenix Good bittering or dual purpose hop, producing good sized cones.
Recent variety.
Pilgrim Good bittering or dual purpose hop, like Target but with a 'happier'
aroma. Recent variety.
Pioneer Dual purpose hop giving a mild, well -balanced bitterness, a very
pleasant lemon, citrus aroma and good happy flavour. Recent
variety. Some plants die at 3-4 years old.
Pilot Dual purpose high alpha hop with average aroma. Very recent

5.0 - 7.5
Target (Wye Target) .9.5 - 13.0
WGV 5.5 - 7.0
Wye Challenger 6.5 - 8.5
Yeoman 10.0-12.0
Hallertauer (Mittlefruh) 3.5 - 5.5
Hersbrucker 3.5 - 6.0
Huller Bitterer 4.5 - 7.5
Magnum 12.0-14.0
Orion 7.0-10.0
Perle 6.0 - 8.5
Spalter (Spart) 4.0 - 5.5
Taurus 12.0-15.0
Tettnanger 3.5 - 5.5
Page 30

i.f.j ..... ~ . a . d
md m md
pr I md
gd m gd
gd I gd
vg e gd
gd em gd
gd I gd
md m md
gd I md
vg m gd
gd em vd
gd e vg
O ~ a...E ~ a; ~

gd s s r ./ ./ ./ ./
gd s r r ./ ./ ./
md s s r ./ ./ ./
gd r s s ./ ./ ./
pr sr
md s s s ./ ./
gd s s sr ./ ./
md r s sr
gd r s sr
gd r s sr ./
md s s sr ./ ./ ./
md s s s ./
Characteristics & example of use
Aroma hop giving similar results to Fuggle, but slightly sweeter with
a slightly softer bitterness. Use: pale ales, light bitters, wheat beers,
porters. Eg. on its own in Hop Sack's Thunderstorm & Wood
Brewery's Hopping Mad.
Target (Wye Target)
Excellent bittering hop, slightly harsh aroma with citrus notes. Use:
ego Young's Special London Ale; on its own in Caledonian's Golden
Aroma hop similar to Geldings but not as delicate, with a happier
more robust aroma, and more alpha-acids. Use: pale ales, light
bitters, wheat beers, ego on its own in McMullen's AK Original.
Wye Challenger
Excellent dual purpose hop, gives a refreshing full-bodied rounded
bitterness. Added late gives crisp fruit characteristics. Use: often
on its own ego in Wychwood's Old Devil , Brakspear's Coniston
Hallertauer (MitUefruh) Delicate aroma hop with pleasant, spicy, mild herbal aroma. Use:
lagers & lighter English cask conditioned ales.
Hersbrucker Delicate aroma hop with a floral, slightly fruit y flavour. Use: lagers &
lighter English cask conditioned ales. Eg. Wheathook Wheaten Ale.
Huller Bitterer
Magnum Bittering hop.
Perle Excellent aroma hop with moderately high alpha-acids. slightl y
spicy, almost minty bittering action. Use: ego Pale Bock.
Spalter (Spalt) Excellent aroma hop similar to Hallertau (Mittlefruh). Also grown in
the USA (WA). Use: lagers, ego Dusseldorf Altbiers.
Taurus High alpha bittering hop.
Tettnanger Very fine traditional aroma hop with spicy aroma. Use: European
lagers & li ghter English cask ales.
, , ~
Record 5.5 8.5
3.0 5.0
Czech/Slovak Reps
Saazer (Saaz) 3.0 4.5
Styrian Geldings 4.5 -7.0
Ahtanum 5.0 7.0
Amarillo 3.0-7.0
Aquila 5.0 - 8.0
Banner 8.0-12.0
Cascade 4.5 - 7.0
Centennial 6.0-11.5
Page 32
- ~
0.= ~
c oE
(;)- e
md I md
gd m gd
gd e vd
gd em gd
gd ml gd
md m md
mdl m md
pr m md
m md

ci e a:'e :> iii <1

md s s s
md s s s ./ ./
md s s s ./ ./
md sr s s ./ ./ ./ ./
md r s s ./ ./
gd ./
gd ./ ./
vg r s sr ./ ./ ./ ./
sr ./ ./
Variety Characteristics & example of use
StrisselspaJt Aroma hop, similar to Hersbrucker. Grown in Alsace region.
Czech/Slovak Reps
Saazer (Saaz) High quality aroma variety, gives an earthy hop flavour. Use: in
European lagers, ego Czech Budweiser; also in UK beers.
Styrian Goldings Aroma variety which gives a perfumed pine/lemon/citrus happy
character. Use: lagers, less malty golden beers. ego Ind Coope
Burton Ale, Timothy Landlord.
Ahtanum An aroma hop with moderate bittering qualities. Bears small
compact cones.
Amarillo Aroma hop giving unique very floral/spicy powerful aroma and good
bittering quality.
Cascade Good aroma hop with a unique floral, spicy/citrus aroma and
perfumed happy flavour. Good bittering qualities. Susceptible to
aphids. Use: American style ales, ego Sierra Nevada Pale Ale.
Centennial Dual purpose hop with floral aroma qualities similar to Cascade.
Medium size dense compact cones. Use: ego Sierra Nevada
Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Bigfoot Ale.
Vi- ,c.
<1 5' o'E en :>
<1 0
Che1an 14.5
Chinook 8.0-14.0 gd m md vg sr s ./ ./
Cluster 4.5 - 9.0 vg m md vg s s s ./ ./
Columbus (Tomahawk) 14.0-17.0 vg r sr ./ ./
2.0 - 6.0 ml gd sr ./ ./
Eroica 11.0-13.0 pr I md vg r s r ./ ./
Galena 11.0-15.0 m gd sr sr ./ ./
Horizon 10.0-17.0 gd m gd s ./ ./
Uberty 2.5 - 5.0 em md sr ./ ./
Miltenium 15.5
Mount Hood 4.0 - 8.0 md m gd md sr ./ ./
Nugget 12.0-14.0 gd m gd vg sr r s ./ ./
Olympic 11.5-13.5 md m md gd sr s s ./
Santiam 5.0 - 7.0 em gd r ./
Simcoe 12.0-14.0 ./
Sterling 6.0 - 8.5
Talisman 7.5 10.0 md I md md sr s ./ ./
Ultra ./
Vanguard 4.0 - 6.0 ./
Page 34
Characterist i cs & exampl e of use
Hi gh alpha recent vari ety.
Hi gh alpha aci d hop giving unusual aroma with a strong grapefruit
character. Cones are long. Not too aphid susceptible. Use: ego
Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Stout.
Excell ent dual purpose hop with medium well -balanced ,bitteri ng
potential and a deep fruity hop aroma. Cones medium sized. Use:
ego Winterhook Christmas Ale.
Columbus (Tomahawk) Good very high alpha-acid hop. Virtually sterile. Very aromatic as
late hops in cask ales.
Crystal Aroma hop wi th delicate flavour and hints of tangerine. Cones
small. Recent variety.
Eroica Clean bittering hop. Recent variety. Use: ego Ballard Bi tter,
Blackhook Porter.
Good bittering hop giving a balanced bitterness with strong tomcat I
blackcurrant aroma (!) Aphid susceptible. Recent variety. Use: ego
Catamount Porter, Devil's Mountain Railroad Ale.
Horizon Dual use hop, aromatic with good bitteri ng. Cones small, compact.
Recent variety.
Liberty Aroma hop simi lar to Hallertauer, giving mild, clean aroma and a hint
of lemon/citrus flavour. Susceptible to aphids. Use: finishing for
German style laQers, eQ. Pete' s Wicked LaQer.
Mitlenium High alpha recent variety.
Mount Hood Aroma hop similar to Hall ertauer, gi vi ng a pleasant mild, herbal,
floral aroma. Not so susceptible to aphids. Use: finishing for
German style lagers, ego Anderson Vall ey High Rollers Wheat Beer.
Nugget High alpha acid hop with a good heavy. spicy, herbal aroma. Has a
heavy cone structure. Use: ego Sierra Nevada Porter & Bigfoot Ale.
Olympic Produces excessive male flowers and susceptible to pests. Recent
Santiam Aroma hop giving a delicate aroma. Recent variety.
Talisman Dual purpose hop. Recent variety.
Ultra Fine aroma hop, similar to Hall ertauer (Mittelfruh). Very recent
variety. Use: finishing for German style lagers.
Vanguard Aroma hop bred from Hallertauer.
Iii- ,0 .-
Warrier 14.5-16.5
WiJlamette 3.0 - 7.0 gd em
Opal 13.0
Pride of Ringwood 9.0-1 1.0 pr ml
Super Pride 13.9
Topaz 11.5
Victoria 11.0-14.0
New Zealand
Green Bullet 12.5-13.5 I
NZ Halietauer Aroma 6.0 B.O e
Pacific Gem 14.0-16.0 em
Pacific Hallertauer 3.0 - 6.0 e
Southern Cross
Sticklebract 13.5-14.5 m
Super Alpha 12.5-13.5 em
Page 36

a::'E "5
5 5
5 5

:. 0
./ ./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
Variety Characteristics & example of use
Waffler High alpha recent variety.
Willamette Good aroma hop giving a estery I blackcurrant I herbal aroma,
somewhat similar to Fuggle. Not so susceptible to aphids. Use:
Sierra Nevada Porter. Ballard Bitter.
Opal High alpha hop_
Pride of Ringwood Clean bittering hop with citric aroma. Use: ego Foster's Lager,
Victoria Bitter.
Super Pride High alpha hop, sterile.
Victoria High alpha hop.
New Zealand
Green Bullet Excellent dual purpose hop giving a pine/lemon crispness and
excellent aroma. Use: lagers & pilsners.
NZ Hall etauer Aroma Very good aroma hop giving a floral , vanilla flavour. Use: lagers &
lighter coloured beers , ego Coors, Coors Light.
Pacific Gem High alpha hop with a pleasant aroma, gives very fruit flavour with
distinct berry fruit aroma.
Pacific Hallertauer Excellent aroma hop. Use: lagers.
Southern Cross Strong bittering hop with fine aroma qualities.
Sticklebract Similar to Northern Brewer, a strong bittering hop with aroma uses
Super Alpha Dual purpose hop. Use: ego Stein lager, Hahn Premium.
Book Reviews
Silvopastoralism and Sustainable Land Management
M R, Mosquera-Losada, J McAdam & A Riguerio-Rodriguez
CABI Publishing, 2005; 432 pp; 75.00 (US$ 140.00).
ISBN 1 84593 001 0
This book contains over 125 papers presented at an international conference
held in Spain in April 2004, examining the productivity and quality of
silvopastoral systems (ie gl'8zing systems incorporating trees) . and outlining
successful ways of managing forestry and agronomic areas. It also examines
the ecological benefits of silvopastoral systems and their cultural , economic
and social implications. Silvopasture, as a form of agroforestry, is an ancient
yet sustainable way of managing forest land, which increases productivity in
the short, medium and long terms compared with forest, and have a higher biodiversity than
Many of the papers deal with European and North American systems. There are overviews of
silvopastoral systems in Northwest Europe, Southeast USA and the Mediterranean regi on, and
more specific examples such as forest grazing in Hungary and Ukraine, tradit ional silvoarable
systems in Greece, dehesa systems in Spain, goat silvopasture in Portugal, French upland
silvopasture. Other papers deal with qualitative issues such as the nutritive value of trees and
shrubs for ruminants, and the effects of tree density and pruning regimes on herbaceous
Ecological implications of silvopastoral systems are discussed in papers covering topics like
carbon storage, soi l ecology and quality, indigenous breeds, stocking rates. In the economic
section is good to see a paper dealing with cultural aspects of silvopastoral systems, as these
are an important factor often overl ooked. A fascinating paper on non-wood products from
Russian forests is also found here. Finally,. the future outlook for silvopasture i s covered.
Silvopasture is an often overlooked agroforestry system, of which there are many living and
ancient examples. This book emphasises the use and value of both ancient and modern
systems and i s a welcome additi on to the li terature.
Woodland Management: A Practical Guide
Chris Storr
The Crowood Press, 2005; 192 pp; 16.99.
ISBN 1 861267894
This practical book, written in an easy-to-read style, is an excellent guide to the
management of woodland in Britain. More readable than Forestry Commission
bulletins, it begins by reviewing the history of Briti sh woodlands and how they have come to be
as they are today. After a chapter about the different forestry systems (high forest, coppice
etc), there are two useful chapters on the broadleaves and the conifers, covering both
and species. with brief notes on each specie.
Page 38
Management objectives are then discussed, followed by useful chapters on getting to know your
woodland (looking at the site, soil, etc) and issues of biodiversity. I would have liked to see
more on the issue of climate change in relation to forestry, but at least it gets a mention.
Following chapters cover woodland management , including regenerating and creating
woodland, seasonal maintenance, si l viculture and stewardship. Finally there are chapters on
generating an income from woodland, and on buying and owning a woodland.
Well illustrated with photos and line drawings, the book, aimed at the non-specialist, will be
valuable for anyone involved in woodland m.anagement or thinking about buying their own piece
of woodland.
Edible Forest Gardens
Dave Jacke with Eric Toensmeier
Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2005.
Distributed in the UK by Green Books.
Volume one: Vision and Theory
378 pp; 50.00 (US$ 75.00)
ISBN 1-931498-79-2
Volume two: Design and Practice
656 pp; 50.00 (US$ 75.00)
ISBN 1-931498-80-6
Available from the A.R. T. post-free in the UK until July 2006.
When Dave Jacke and Eric Toensmeier visited our Dartington forest garden in 1997, soon after
it was started, their first comment was: The trees have been planted at the right sort of
Their experience of touring around Britain looking at forest gardens, notably Robert
Hart's, had up till then appeared sobering, if not depressing at times, as they saw overcrowded
and unproductive trees making so much shade that little could be grown beneath. It soon
became clear to me as I showed them around that these were not run-of-the-mill
permaculturalists. They already had good knowledge of the theory of forest gardening and of
different species to utilise, and they told me they were planning a book on forest gardening
which might take a year or two to complete.
Dave Jacke soon found it impossible to write a 150-page manual and do justice to the subject
as he wanted. So the book grew and grew, finally becoming two volumes and over 1000 pages
in the 7 years it has taken to complete. Dave asks in the preface, book defies easy
categorization. Is it a gardening book? An ecology text for teachers and students? A visionary
testament? A manual for hard core eco-designers and back-to-the-Ianders? A manifesto for
the next two centuries of agroforestry research and breeding work? It is all these and more. In
fact, these two volumes are to forest gardening what Bill Mollison's classic texts on
PermacuUure are to that movement.
The authors define the purpose of these volumes as -to offer you the inspiration, information
and tools you need to successfully grow your own forest garden-. The scope of the book is
humid temperate regions anywhere, although the emphasis is on eastern North America
between hardiness zones 3 and e, formerly covered by the eastern deciduous forest. The
books aim to be a manual spelling out key concepts of forest ecol ogy and how to apply them to
a North American forest garden.
Volume 1 is divided into two parts, 'Vision' and ' Ecology' . In the first the authors look at the
ecological and cultural context for forest gardening, focussing on eastern North America. They
layout a vision of forest gardening's potential for reintegrating oursel ves into the natural world,
and goals for edible forest garden design arising from that vision.
The; second part of volume 1 explores the ecology of the forest and the forest garden. The
authors build soli d theoretical foundations from which to deri ve guidelines for forest garden
design and management. Th ey discuss the elements of forest architecture, species niches and
relationships, plant communiti es and polycultures, natives and exotics (thankfully, the authors
take a less radical view than many North Americans), soils and the rhizosphere (with a detailed
l ook at plant roots). succession
Throughout the volume there are boxes and feature articles that go into greater depth on
particular topics. There are al so three case studies scattered through the text to provide
concrete examples of forest gardens - these include our forest garden at Darlington.
Volume 1 concludes with 3 appendices. The first describes forest gardening's "Top 100"
species for eastern North Ameri ca, to give a sense of forest gardening's food-production
potential. Plant hardiness maps for North Ameri ca and Europe follow this, as well as a list of
publications and organisations.
Volume 2 is essential ly a forest gardener's ~ t o o l kW, containing 7 chapters explaining how to
design, plant and manage a forest garden. These chapters place all the implications of the
ecological analysis in volume 1 into a gardening and garden-design context. The authors seek
to answer the questions: What do we need to know to design forest gardens? How do we deal
with weeds in this new gardening paradigm? How do we prevent and manage pests and
diseases? What are the key points to consider in designing an overyielding polyculture? What
site preparation problems might we face, and how might we solve them? What are the key
ideas we need t o keep in mind to manage our forest gardens well?
The chapters explai n how to mimic ecosystem structure and function, offer patterns for design,
frameworks and step-by-step guidelines for designing a forest garden, site preparation and
design challenges, planting and maintaining the garden.
Five appendices are also included in vol ume 2, which offer detailed information and resources
to help map a site, select and find over 600 plant species, and create beneficial animal habitat.
Both volumes contai n their own extensive index.
The writing style is friendly, informative and undogmatic, and the layout of the book sis
excellent. One drawback of these volumes' extensive nature is the price - 100 for the pair -
which will unfortunately put some people off. However, these volumes comprise the most
extensive texts published on forest gardening and should be on the bookshelf of every designer
and practitioner of forest gardening in temperate regions.
The authors conclude in their introduction: "We invite you to join in a lifetime of quiet
adventure. We seek t o learn .. the ways in which living things have adapted to our climate and
land. We want to mimic these habitats with productive garden ecosystems. A low-energy, high-
yield agriculture is a possible aim for the temperate humid forest biomes of the world. The goal
is t o create mutually beneficial communiti es of multipurpose plants for our own sustenance, and
thereby to include ourselves in the natural worl d. We seek to recreate the Garden of Eden and,
.. why not? It is a practical prospect for any of us in our lifetimes - if we only appl y our human
energy and intellect
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce a
diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and
other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter,
shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of
tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected
and productive system.
Agroforestry News is 'published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a
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Agroforestry News
Rose hips
Volume 14 Number 3
May 2006
.- - ---
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 14 Number 3 May 2006
2 Using mixed species cropping to manage pests
and diseases
4 Sap production from Black walnut
5 Rose hips: properties and culture
10 Apples in agroforestry systems
22 Book reviews: Nutshell Guide to Growing Hazelnuts /
Hedgerow History / The Black Poplar
24 Chestnuts: post-harvest quality
27 World hazelnut culture
32 Plants for windy sites: Trees (1)
39 Oriental persimmon in Europe
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K. Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk
Page 1
Using mixed species cropping to
manage pests and diseases
Mixed species cropping is the growing of two or more plant species in the same field in the
same year and, at least in part. at the same time.
Mixed species cropping allows for an intensification of the farm system, which results in
increased overall productivity and biodiversity in cropped fields . Mixed species cropping is a
promising technique to develop sustainable farming systems because it often has
multifunctional roles and can potentially provide a number of ecoservices within the farm
system. Examples may include the addition and recycling of orgamc material, water
management , protection of soi l from erosion and pest or di sease suppression. This functional
diversity contributes to ecological processes to promote the sustainability of the whole farm
Mixed species cropping systems
Mi xed intercropping systems where two or more species are grown intermingled without distinct
rows are very commonly used in the tropi cs but are not generally used in temperate organic
horticulture. Although productivity can be high they usually require more or less intensive
husbandry regimes.
Row intercropping, growing two or more crops together in rows, and strip cropping, cropping
growing two or more species in strips sufficiently wide to allow separate management regimes
but sufficiently close to influence each other, have been more widely investigated in the EU and
USA in recent years as they have greater potential for mechanisation. These latter two types of
mixed species cropping have also been used to manipulate the system to deliver other eco-
services such as nitrogen (N) supply where for instance a legume is used as an intercrop to
supply N that is used by subsequent food crops. They have also been extensively studied as a
pest management tool and, to a lesser extent, as a disease management option. Other benefits
can also include improved soil structure, improved weed control, microclimate manipulation
(e.g. growing a tall crop to provide a wind barrier), providing habitat for natural enemies and
even as a trap crop.
In general, as the cropping system moves from a random mix of plants to a monoculture the
biodiversity of the system decreases, and the total productivity also tends to decrease. Organic
growers in the UK and northern Europe have not generally adopted mixed species cropping
systems, because increased intensity of production often implies increased use of manual
labour - a significant immediate cost for organic growers. At present it is difficult to directly
offset thi s cost against the benefits provided because they have not been quantified, except in a
few limited cases.
Mixed species cropping and pest attack
Studies on the effect of intercropping on pest attacks are numerous and often contradictory due
to the difficulty of teasing out the ecol ogical factors that can affect insect-plant relations.
However, in order to develop mixed species cropping as a tool it is necessary to understand the
underlying mechanisms involved.
The two mechanisms involved appear to be:
(1) resource concentration - insects are attracted to and concentrated on their food plant
resources which are more easily found or more apparent in simple (monocul ture)
systems. Insect pests settle on plants only when various host plant factors such as
visual stimuli, taste and smelt are satisfied. This is more likely in monocultures than
polycultures where the chance of encountering a 'wrong' stimulus is much increased.
The complexity of the overall picture makes it difficult to specifically design intercrops
for pest control without practical knowledge of pest and crop biology.
(2) natural enemies - these are more effective and numerous in diverse systems.
Examples of intercropping that effectively prevents pests are the use of clover undersowing to
deter cabbage root fly and Medicago litoralis to deter carrot root fly. The use of trap crops,
usually in strip cropping systems, shows variation in effectiveness.
Mixed species cropping and disease attack
Mixed species cropping has been shown to be an effective disease management tool, especially
in cereal s. For example, mixtures of winter-rye/winter-wheat and spring-barley/oats reduce
fungal leaf diseases and a mixture of wheat and Medicago lupulina reduces the incidence of
take-all disease of wheat, a soil borne pathogen.
The underlying epidemiology has also been extensively modelled from the perspective of
varietal mixtures and can simply be explained as the reduced chance of fungal spores
encountering a susceptible plant in a mix. The effect tends to improve with increase in the
number of genotypes in the mix and the randomness of the mix.
Mixed species cropping is often perceived as a viable tool to increase on-farm biodiversity in
organic agriculture and is a potentially important component of any sustainable cropping
Apart from increasing total farm productivity, mixed species cropping can bring many important
benefits such as improvement of soil fertility management and suppression of pests and/or
diseases. In this sense it can be seen as performing different eco-services in the farm system.
Mixed species cropping, particularl y row intercropping and strip intercropping, could be an
important tool for pest and disease management in organic farming systems. However, it is
only likely to be widely adopted by organic growers once the potential benefits and eco-services
have been fully evaluated and can be shown to outweigh the increased management and labour
input that will to be necessary for the more complex cropping system.
Ramer!, B., Lennartsson, M, and Davies,G. The use of mixed species cropping to manage
pests and diseases theory and practice. In: Powell et a1. (eds), UK Organic Research
2002: Proceedings of the COR Conference, 26-28th March 2002, Aberystwyth, pp.
Page 3
Sap production from Black walnut
Native Americans enriched their diet of wild game, nuts and berries with sugary products from
the sap of the native maples (Acer spp.) in the Eastern USA. As Europeans settled the land,
t h ~ y too tapped maple trees, eventually improving on the methods of collection. Nowadays,
most commercial maple syrup ' is made from the sap of the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) ,
although most other maples can also be used. The sap of black walnut (Jug/ans nigra) can be
used similarly and this article reports on some recent experiments with that species.
Black walnut tapping
Twenty black walnut trees in Kansas were tapped from the middle of February and the sap
collected for 5 weeks. The trees were approximately 23 years old and 2530 cm (1012-)
diameter at breast height.
Trees were tapped about 1 m (3 ft) above the ground on the east side. A carpenter's brace
with a No.10 bit (approx 4.9 mm diameter) was used to drill the holes, which were drilled deep
enough to fully penetrate the sapwood. Doublemale hose splicing inserts were used to insert
into the hole, and the sap collected in plastic milk jugs with lids to minimise contamination.
Sap was initially collected daily when it flowed freely, but later collection was coordinated with
cold nights and warm days. A standard brewer's hydrometer was used to estimate the sugar
content in percentage by weight. Then the sap was mixed together for refrigerated storage until
processing. When a suffici ent quantity was collected, it was boiled down to 25% of the original
volume. Later a cast iron saucepan was used to concentrate the sap further.
The sap quantity varied by individual trees and days; all trees produced sap but with great
variation. Most trees produced under 2.0 litres, with the highest producer yielding 13.2 litres
and the lowest 0.43 litres. The average sugar content was 2.08% with a 1 :60 sugar:sap ratio.
Sap production was highly correlated with the thickness of the sapwood. The finished walnut
syrup was dark coffee brown in colour, sweet, without any hint of walnut flavour.
Sensory tests
The syrup was evaluated by a panel of over 100 consumers who compared it with maple syrup.
The maple syrup was preferred because it was sweeter and had a greater aftertaste. A diluted
version of the walnut syrup, diluted 50:50 with water, was indicated as more desirable for being
a paler colour and having no woody, nutty of musty/earthy flavours.
Naughton, G et al: SugarBushing Black Walnut. In: Black Walnut in a New Century, USDA
Forest Service General Technical Report NC243. 2004.
Rose hips: properties and culture
Members of the Rosaceae family have long been used for food and medicine. Rose hips, the
fruits of rose species, are used in many European countries, being a rich source of vitamins and
minerals, and can be consumed in many food products including j ams, jellies, marmalades,
teas, powders, baked goods, ice creams, yoghurts, candies, pulps, nectars, juices, wines,
liqueurs etc.
Properties & health benefits
In general, the importance of rose hips in nutrition comes from theif vitamin content since they
contain C, P, 8
, B
, E, K and U vitamins, and are very rich in calcium, phosphorus and
More specifically, they have the highest vitamin C content (417-3062 mgf100g) amount fruits
and vegetables, with light-coloured mature fruit having a higher content than dark-coloured hips.
Rose hip pulp is used for vitamin C enrichment of some fruit and vegetable juices. Vitamin C is
important is collagen synthesis, boosts the immune system, against common cold and flu,
strengthens arteries along with polyphenols, potentially lowers the risk of cancer due to
antioxidant properties, helps dietary iron to function in the body, works in adrenaline synthesis
and lowers blood cholesterol.
Minerals also play an important role in human metabolism and health. Calcium is necessary for
healthy bones and teeth and potassium is needed to maintain the acid-base balance of body
fluids and in metabolism. Rose hip pulp contains 940-1380 ppm calcium, 3370-9340 ppm
phosphorus, 7950 ppm potassium and 560- 1240 ppm magnesium.
Rose hips contain high levels of
nine carotenoids including beta-
carotene, which is red in colour
but is known to produce yell ow
colours in various foods; since it
does not change the flavour or
taste of the food , it has the
potential for being used as a
natural food colourant. Beta-
carotene also have provitamin A
activity and can be used for
vitamin A enrichment of foods.
Because carotenoids have high
antioxidant activity, they are
capable of protecting components
in food including fruits from
oxidation. They exert this
antioxidant activity by stopping
free radical chain r.eactions and by
quenching singlet oxygen.
Relatively high levels of the
carotenoid Iycopene have been reported
in rose hips which could contribute to the
prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
Rosa canlna
Page 5
The flavonoids in rose hips act as antioxidants on free radicals and prevent lipid peroxidation
(which is implicated in arteriosclerosis, cancer and chronic inflammations). Bioflavonoids
having vitamin P properties have been found in rose hips at levels of 1100-3320 mgf100g fruit.
A recent survey of a variety of dietary plants found that rose hips showed the highest total
antioxidant properties.
Rose hips are a rich source of phenolic compounds, with some varieties having as much as
3200-4900 mgf1 O g total phenolics. Rose hips improve the flavour of wine significantly and
cotltribute with a high level of phenolic compounds.
Rose hips are also a good source of pectin. Pectin is an important hydrocolloid in the food
industry and is used to improve consistency since it acts as a thickening agent. Its
haemostatic, antiseptic and cell renewal properties allows for its usage in treatments of cuts
and burns, and it can be safely given to patients with ulcers due to its anli-inflammatory
properties, ability to l ower blood cholesterol, and binding capabi lities in metal poisoning.
Malic, citric and acetic acids impart the characteristic flavour of rose hips, which are also a good
source of easily digestible carbohydrates (7.55-21.29% reducing sugars, 1.08-2.-1% saccharose
and 8.68-22.44% total sugars ).
Rose hips are not a rich source of protein but the pollen of Rosa laxa has been found to contain
a total of 18 amino acids, of which 15 are free and at least 8 are essential amino acids.
Glutamic acid makes up 13-14.6% of the total amino acids, and is known to play an important
role in cerebral tissues during biochemical metabolism, and is involved in the synthesis of
physiologically active substances and acid detoxification.
Seed oils have been proven to be more stable when they conlain natural vitamin A and C,
carotenoids and flavonoids. Seed oil extracted from roses has been found to contain
unsaturated fatty acids, and can be used efficiently against contact dermatitis and in food
products. Rose seed oil contains approximately 50% linoleic, 20% arachodonic and 19% oleic
acids, and thus has a h ~ h e r oxidative stability than other unsaturated oils. This oil could
conceivably be used as a gourmet oil, adding a special flavour to food products.
Two recent clinical studies on rose hips have been reported. In the first , a probiotic drink
containing Lactobacillus planfarum fermented oats and rose hips was fed to volunteers. An
increase in the amount of short-chain fatty acids was observed - these fatty acids lower the
colonic pH and control proliferation of pathogens and colon cancer. The second study involved
patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis. When these patients were fed a standardised rose hip
powder (prepared from the hips and seeds of Rosa canina fruits), inhibition of leukocyte
functions that cause cell injury in osteoarthritis was observed along with a reduction of the pain
level in 64% of patients.
Rose hips are beneficial to the digestive system, causing no irritation; lower cholesterol ; have
an astringency that is considered to strengthen the stomach, are useful for treating diarrhoea
and dysentery, and have pectoral quali ties that make them efficient against coughs and spitting
of blood.
Rose bushes require relatively low levels of maintenance and grow in most regions.
In many areas of the worl d, rose hips are still harvested by hand for commercial trade, for
example in Chile, where about 6800 tons of dried rose hips are exported annually, mainly to
Germany and other European countries. The species harvested in Chile are mainl y Rosa
canina, R.moschata and R.rubiginosa, with most fruits harvested from wild plants, using home
Page 6
made harvesting tools called (literally scratcher). An adult can harvest up to 100 kg
per day. Trucks collect the fruits and take them to processing factories, where the hips are
dried, and then the fruit flesh is separated from the seeds. The seeds are used as energy for
the drying and for the extraction of seed oil.
Recent field trials in Chile have used dog rose (Rosa rubiginosa). The highest yields, both for
irrigated and non-irrigated fields, was obtained with plants set out at 3 m x 0.75 m (10 ft x 2Y2
tt) , ie 4444 plants per ha. For this species , expected yields are: 2
year - 0.1-0.2 kg
fruits/plant ; 3'd year -1-1.5 kg fruits/plant; 4th year - 3 kg fruits/plant.
Work was carried out in Sweden in the 1990's to develop techniques for commercial scale
production, with some 130 ha (325 acres) of plantations established, mainly using selections of
Rosa dumalis and R.rubiginosa.
Swedish research recommends the rose plants being planted 0.7 m apart in the row, with
rows 3-4 m (10-13 tt) apart for mechanical harvesting. The close plants in rows results in them
supporting each other. Early ripening cultivars (in August) are less damaged, since the plants
can grow and recover after harvesting, whereas later ripening cultivars suffer from winter
damage in Sweden. Young plants are vulnerable to browse damage from rabbits and deer, so
plantings must be protected for the first few years. Good weed control , however, is obtained by
grazing cows without damage to plants when they are 2-3 years old.
High labour costs and relatively low prices for the unprocessed rose hips makes it necessary to
use mechanical harvesting for commercial rose hip production in Sweden. Mechanical
harvesters use the ushake and method similar to that used for other small fruits.
Plants start to fruit in the second year after planting. The first mechanical harvest is make 3-4
years after planting. Highest yields are from plants 4-6 years old.
Every second year, the sides and top of the bushes should be pruned with a tractor-mounted
hedge trimmed (or on a smaller scale with a petrol powered hand operated hedge trimmer) to
ensure a suitable plant shape. Plants that have become too large or too old to yield properly
can be rejuvenated by cutting back to 5-10 em (2-4") above the ground. Rose hip plantations
can thus have a good longevity.
With mechanical harvest, the power needed to separate the rose hips from the branches in
much higher than that needed for ego blaekcurrants. Unharvested rose hips can remain on the
branches in the following season and can seriously decrease the quality of the new harvest
Pests and diseases
In Sweden, the most severe pes I is the rose fruit fly (Rhagoletis alternata) , which is a common
tephritid fl y in central Europe, and it damages th e fruits of wild and cultivated Rosa species.
The rose fruit fly can cause serious damage in plantations. Adults emerge from June to August,
femal es then lay an egg under the skin of a nearly ripe rose hip. The egg hatches into a larva
which eats within the rose hip.
In commercial fields, Ihe apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi) may cause damage to
flowers. The larvae nip the flowers which can reduce fruit yields.
Wild and ornamental roses are affected by the same fungal diseases, one of the most serious
being black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae and characterised by black spots on the leaves.
Infected leaves produce large quantities of ethylene and the plants defoliate. Powdery mildew
(Sphaerotheca pannosa) can reduce flower production and cause a weakening of plants; it can
al so attack the fruits. Leaf spot (Sphaceloma rosarum) causes a serious spotting of leaves,
and attacks the leaves, stems and fruits, but is not usually very serious.
The principal selection criteria for efficient harvesting and processing of fruits are usually
considered to be (1) fresh fruit weight - ie the larger the better; and (2) the percentage of dry
peel or the ratio of peel to seed mass. Although there is plentiful information on the former,
there is rather little on the laUer. All rose hips can be utilised, though of course there are bound
to ,be flavour and vitamin/mineral compositions variations. The following table lists a selection
of1Species, including most with the very largest fruits .
(zn = hardiness zone)
Specie _
Common name
IMax hI (m>l zn I
R.acicularis N.Temp regions Prickly rose
2 15 mm long
!Rarkansana lu.s.A. ILow prairie rose
14-5115 mm
Rarvensis Europe Field rose 2 6 6-20 mm long
Rbanksiae China Banks' rose, Banksia rose 5+ 7 6mm
Rblanda E.N.America Meadow rose, Labrador rose 2 2 10mm
R.bracteata China,Taiwan Macartney rose 3+ 7 35 mm diameter
R.britzensis Kurdistan 3 6 to 30 mm long
IR.callformca ICalJfomla
Rcanina Europe Dog rose, Doghip
Rcarolina E.N.America Carolina rose, Pasture rose
IR.caudata Iw.China
120-25 mm long
ICabbage rose, Holland rose 112mm
IR chinensis
IR.coriifolia IEurope-Asia
IChina rose
R.corymbifera Europe-Asia 3 6 12-20 mm
Rcymosa China 8
R.damascena Asia minor Damask rose 2 4-5 25 mm long
[R.dumahs IEurope-Asla
1 12
IR.eglanteria IEurope,Asia Isweet briar, Eglantine 12 16 110-20 mm
IRfoetida IS.w.Asia !Austrian briar 11 5
14 112mm
IRgalliea IC. Europe IFrench rose, Apothecary rose!1.5 15-6112 mm
IRgigantea Is.w .China !Manipur wild tea rose 110
jR.gymnocarpa IW.N.America IWood rose 13 Is IS-10 mm
R.hardii (Hybrid)
IRhemsleyana IChina I
IRhighdownensis I( Hybrid) I
IR.laevigata IChina,Taiwan ICherokee rose
Rluciae Japan,China,Korea 6mm
IRmaerophylia IHimalaya 125-30 mm long
Specie Origin Common name Max hi (m) zn Fruit
Rmanca W.N.America
R.micrantha Europe,Asia 3.5 6 12-18 mm
R.moschata Asia minor. Musk rose 4 6-7
JR moyesll Iw China ]Moyes rose
15615060 mm longl
lR.multifiora IJapan,Korea
13 15
lR.nitida IE.N.America 1 13-4 10 mm
R.nutkana IW. N.America Ash leaved rose, Nootka rose 2+
15-20 mm
IRoxyodon IE. Caucasus
12 16
135 mm long
Rpaulii (Hybrid) 4
R.pimpinellifolia Europe,Asia Scotch rose, Burnet rose 1 4-5
R.pisocarpa W.N.America Mortar rose 2.5 6 Bmm
R.roxburghii China Burr rose, Chestnut rose 2.5 5-6 30-40 mm
R.rugosa N.China,Japan,Korea Ramanas rose, Rugosa rose 2.5 2 25+mm
Rsericea Nepal 2.5 6-7 8-15 mm
C.China 3 6 25-75 mm
Rsherardii Europe 2 6 12-20 mm
Rspinulifolia (Hybrid) 3 6
R.sweginzowii China
5 6 to 25 mm long
Rtomentosa Europe 3 6 18-25 mm
Rviilosa C.lS.Europe Apple rose, Soft-leaved rose 2 5-6 25mm
!Rvirginiana !E.N.America !Virginia rose
R.webbiana Himalayas 2 6 15-25 mm
R.wichuriana Japan,Kora,China Memorial rose 5-6 15mm
Rwintoniensis (Hybrid) 2 6
R.woodsii C. & W. N.America Wood's rose 2 4 10mm
Storage of hips
Recent studies have shown that free-drying, also drying at 50C and 75C all preserve the
antioxidant activity in rose hips at a high level. Boiling the hips in water for 2-10 minutes (also
microwaving for 2 minutes ) also preserves the antioxidant activity at a high level.
Vitamin C levels in hips start to fall as soon as the hips are harvested, and they should be
processed for storage or utilisation within a few hours if possible.
Cinae, I & Colakoglu, S: Potential Health Benefits of Rose Hip Products. Acta Hort. 690,
pp 253-257. ISHS 2005.
Gao, X et al: Antioxidant activity of Dried and Boiled Rose Hips. Acta Hort. 690, pp 239-241,
ISHS 2005.
Joublan, J & Rios, D: Rose Culture and Industry in Chi le. Acta Hort. 690, pp 65-70, ISHS 2005.
Uggla, M & Martinsson, M: Cultivate the Wild Roses - Experiences from Rose Hip Production in
Sweden. Acta Hort. 690, pp 83-86, ISHS 2005.
Apples in agroforestry systems
In temperate climates, apples are one of the most reliable tree crops and as such are likely to form a major
component of many agroforestry systems, whether traditional systems involving grazing livestock beneath
trees, or forest gardens where apples may be found in several of the vertical layers. This article looks at
choice of rootstock and cultivar, general cultivation, and disease resistant cultivars.
The use of different rootstocks enables apples to be grown as different sized shrubs or trees depending on
the agroforestry system. Rootstock choice is largely governed by the desired final size of the tree (itself
dependent on the vigour of the curtivar). soil type, and other local factors such as microclimate.
For undergrazed systems (silvopasture) or intercropped systems (silvoarable), small trees are often
chosen since they allow good access beneath for animals or machinery. For these trees (height 6-10m,
20-32 ft), rootstocks MM111, M25, Seedling stock or similar are used. These are extremely vigorous
stocks which will tolerate and may even benefit from ground cover competition; they are the normal stocks
used for traditional orchard grazing systems.
Apples can be used in forest gardens in several different vertical layers. For the medium shrub layer
(height 1.2-2.5m, 4-8 ft), Rootstocks M27 or M9 (or similar) are used. These both need good soil, and do
not tolerate competition from ground covers - they must always have a clear mulch around them. They
normally need staking for their entire lives, although in a sheltered forest garden the stakes need not be too
sturdy. Such dwarfing rootstocks are usually quite drought-prone, though this should not be a problem in a
forest garden environment.
The larger shrub layer (height 3-6m, 10-20 ft) needs plants with stocks M26 or MM106 (or similar). These
require staking for several years to begin with, and are vigorous enough to tolerate some ground cover
competition. They are more likely to be the mainstay stocks in a forest garden.
Cultivar choice
Five main factors must be taken into account when choosing apple cultivars for an agroforestry system or
forest garden:
1. Disease resistance: the most important factor. A listing is given later in this article of recommended
cultivars. In a forest garden, cultivars with resistance to or tolerance of apple scab are most important,
as this disease is favoured by moist climates - forest gardens are likely to have moister air than the
2. Pollination: Most cultivars require cross pollination for fruiting, and even self-fertile cultivars have
fruiting improved when they are cross pollinated. Cultivars should be chosen so Ihat all have at least
one other cultivar in the same pollination group; triploids need two compatible pollinators nearby.
3. Fruit ripening time: a range of ripening times over the year is usually desirable: if storage is available,
fruit can be stored until late spring the following year. Late ripening apples are the best cultivars for
storage late into the eating season. Note that in shaded locations, fruit will ripen later than usual, so
dwarf trees may not be able to fully ripen very late ripening varieties.
4. Tip bearers: because tip bearers require minimal pruning. they may be appropriate cultivars to choose
for vigorous rootstocks, thus reducing the work needed to maintain the larger apple trees. Some
cultivars which are not tip bearers are known however to thrive and crop well with minimal or zero
pruning. Un pruned trees tend to bear as heavy a crop as pruned trees, however the fruits usually
become smaller, hence the most suitable application for tip bearers is for cider and juice production.
The common tip-bearing cultivars and those which crop well with minimal pruning are listed below.
(P) = part tip bearing; (N) = enjoys minimal pruning; synonyms of cultivar names are in italics.
Alford (= Sweet Alford) Hardy Cumberland
Barnack Beauty Herring's Pippin (N)
Barnack Orange Irish Peach
Beauty of Bath Kerry Pippin
Bess Pool (= Norman's Pippin) Kidd's Orange Red (N)
Bismarck Lady Sudeley (P)
Blenheim Orange (P) Laxton's Early Crimson (P)
Bramley's Seedling (P) Laxton's Fortune (= Fortune) (P)
Cheddar Cross (P) Lord Lambourne (P)
Cornish Gilliflower Lyman's Large Summer (= Lyman Large)
Delcon (N) Pearl
Discovery (= Thurston August) (P) Queen (= The Queen) (P)
Ellison's Orange St Edmund's Russet (= St Edmund's Pippin) (P)
Exeter Cross Tompkins King
George Cave (P) Tydeman's Early Worcester (= Tydeman's Early,
Gladstone (P) Tydeman's Red, Tydeman's Early Red) (P)
Golden Noble (P) Tydeman's Michaelmas Red (P)
Golden Russet (= English Golden Russet) Winston (= Winter King)
Grenadier Worcester Pearmain (P)
5. The local climate is another factor to take into account: low-chill cultivars exist for warmer climates,
whereas in colder climates many of the later ripening fruit will not mature. To some extent you can be
guided by local cultivars and knowledge, however climate change means that we should be
increasingly looking to regions to the south of us and using their cultivars.
Planting is best carried out with bare-rooted stock in late autumn; container grown trees may be planted at
any time but will need substantial watering in dry weather. On planting, trees should be staked if
necessary (dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks), and mulched for at least a diameter of 1 metre (3 ft),
preferably 2 metres (6 ft) around each tree. The mulch may initially be of black plastic, but after two or
three years this should be replaced with an organic mulch. Mulching materials should not touch the trunks
of trees. as thi s may encourage collar rots.
Apple trees will require some overhead light - they will not tolerate full shade, for instance of another tree
canopy overhead. Dwarf trees can be planted between larger trees and at the edges of any clearings
within the garden. In many gardens, trees on vigorous rootstocks, 6-10m (20-32 ft) high are likely to form
the upper canopy and should all succeed fainy well.
Ground covers should be prevented from competing with tree roots for several years (always with trees on
very dwarfing rootstocks), and should never be allowed to encroach right up to trunks. Trees on vigorous
rootstocks which are allowed a ground cover beneath are likely to have growth slowed and start to bear
fruit at an eanier age than those with bare soil beneath.
Feeding should be in the fonn of an annual mulch of compost, manure or other organic material; tip
bearers require rather less in the way of feeding, as too much growth is not to be encouraged. Irrigation
should not be necessary at present in the UK once trees are established, however with hotter drier
summers predicted as part of climate change, this may become an issue.
In general, pruning is normally carried out to:
1. Form a strong framework of branches for future cropping;
2. Thin out overcrowded growth (as a result of past pruning!);
3. Induce flower and fruit bud formation;
4. Stimulate shoot growth;
5. Remove dead and diseased branches.
Cultivars on the very dwarfing rootstocks (M27, M9) require very little pruning after the first few years
because of their low vigour.
Most damage from pests can be prevented by maintaining healthy plants and by attracting predators such
as beetles (which thrive in ul)disturbed ground), ladybi rds (which appreciate a nettle patch in the spring to
help build up numbers), birds (should be plenty of these in a forest gardenl), predatory wasps and
hoverflies (which should have sources of nectar provided nearby) etc. With plenty of predators, problems
with aphids, capsid bugs (Lygocoris pabulinis) and red spider mite (Panonychus ulml) will be minor.
In addition, codling moth (Cydia pomonella) can be controlled if necessary with a combination of
pheromone traps in Spring, grease bands in Summer, and pupae traps (corrugated card tied to trunks);
and winter moth (Operophtera brumata) is controlled very well with the use of grease bands from mid
Autumn onwards. Moths are also controlled by bats, so encouraging these with bat boxes high in trees is a
good idea.
Cultivars for organic cul ti vation
A major factor to take into account when growing apples organically is disease resi stance.
There isn't much point in 8Jitain trying to grow, say, Cox's Orange Pippin which is susceptible to
almost everything under the sun. Although Ihe health of apple trees can be improved by good
methods of cultivation, many cultivars are 100 susceptible to the diseases whi ch are most
prevalent in Britain - scab, canker and mildew. Fi reblight may also become a significant
problem in future years. The main diseases differ in high and l ow rainfall areas with scab,
canker and fireblight all worse in the damp' cli mate of western Britain. Mildew is worst in the hot
dry summers experienced more often in the east of Britai n.
The use of sulphurbased fungicides has increased recently, with several being accepted as
' organic' . It should be noted that the following cultivars are 'sulphur-shy' ie will be damaged by
sulphur: Beauty of Bath, Charles Ross, Dabinette, Lane's Prince Albert , Marston Scarlet.
Newton Wonder, Saint Cecilia, Stirling Castle, Sweet Coppin.
Key to cultivar tables
Use: C = Cooker, 0 = Dessert , Ci = Cider, Po = Poll inator (crab)
Season: E = earl y (July-August), M = Mid (September). L = Late (October onwards)
Flower: This number indicates the optimum pollination time. In south east England, 0
corresponds to April 30th, 1 to May 1st. 31 to May 31st . 42 to June 11th. The flower date
should not be regarded as exact dates (even in SE. England). but as relative flowering times.
These numbers can be useful in calculating whether culti vars will be good poll inators for each
other, alt hough this will often be easier using the floweri ng groups (see below) . Two cultivars,
assuming they both have viable pollen (ie aren't triploids). will pollinate each other very well if
their flowering dates are within 3 of each other. [ego If one cultivar has a flowering date of 12,
then any culti var . except parents - with a flowering date of 9 to 15 will pollinate it and be
pollinated.) Where the flowering date is not known, the abbreviations VE = very early, E = early,
M = mid, L= late, VL = very late - are used if known.
The diseases:
Abbreviations used are VR=very resistant, R=resistant , SS=slightly susceptible, S=susceptible,
VS=very susceptible.
Scab - Venturia inequalis, a fungus which thrives in warm, moist climates (like Britain), causing
damage to leaves, shoots and fruits. The fungus overwinters on fallen leaves. Good control is
achieved by removing fallen leaves; alternatively, many cuttivars show good resistance. The
mnois! conditions in forest gardens can favour this disease and canker too, so choosing
resistant cultivars is vital in these systems.
Canker - Nectria gaJligena, another fungus which causes lesions and cankers on stems which
can seriously damage trees. It is much worse on poorly drained, heavy soils in a moist climate.
Affected branches should be cut out. Very susceptible cultivars should be used with caution.
Mildew - (Apple powdery mildew), Podosphaera leucotricha, another fungus but which prefers
warm, dry climates and is worst in hot dry summers. It can cause significant damage to leaves
and shoots, and overwinters in buds so is not easy to eradicate. It is worse where soils are low
in organic matter or nutrients. Many cultivars show resistance.
Flrebllght - Erwinia amy/ovora, a serious bacterial disease of North America which was
brought to the U.K. in 1957 and is now widespread in southern England. It causes dieback of
shoots and branches, but doesn't often kill apple trees as it can do to pears. Warm moist
conditions favour fireblight; whitebeam (Sorbus aria) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) are
susceptible and should not be grown near orchards. Susceptible cultivars should be avoided in
southern England.
High rainfall areas
The main diseases in these areas (the west of Britain) are scab and canker. The following
cultivars are resistant or tolerant to BOTH scab and canker. In addition to their type of use,
season of use and flowering date, any resistance or susceptibility to mildew and fireblight are
listed (VR=very resistant , R=resistant , SS=slightly susceptible, S=susceptibte, VS=very
Cultivar Us. Season Flower Mildew Firebllght
Alfriston C L 10 R
Annie Elizabeth C L 16 R
Arkansas D L 10 R VR
Bardsey D M
Beauty of Bath D E 9
Ben's Red D E 6
Bramley's Seedling C L 12
Brownlees' Russet CD L 9 R
Bulmer's Foxwhelp 10
Captain Broad
Catshead C L 11
Cheddar Cross D E B VS
Cockle Pippin D L 11 R
Cornish Aromatic D L 15
Cornish Longstem C L
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Mildew Fl reblighl
Court of Wick
D L 15
Crawley Beauty
C L 29 R
Crimson Beauty of Bath
D E 9
Crimson King
D M 14 R
Crimson King
C M 10 R
Crimson Newton Wonder
C L 14 5
Egis Bitter
M 20
Emneth Early
C E 10 R
Fair Maid of Devon
Ci M M
Farmers Glory CD L
CD M 15
CD M 55 R
Gladstone D E 13
Golden Bittersweet D E 13
Golden Harvey
D L 13
Golden Noble C M 16 R V5
Golden Nugget
D L 10 R V5
Golden Pippin
CD L 11
Golden Russet CD L 7 R
C E 11 R
Hall's Pink
Halstow Natural DCi L
Hoary .Morning CD L 12
Hollow Core CD L
Isle of Wight Pippin D L 4
John Standish D L 9 R
Johnny Andrews DCi L
Katy D M 9
Keswick Codlin CD E 5
Kit trio D R
Lady's Finger CD M
Lane's Prince Albert C L 12 5
London Pippin CD L 15
Longkeeper D L
Lord Derby C M 14 R
Lord Derby Spur Type C M 14 R
Marston Scarlet C L 14 5
May Queen D L 12
Merton Russet D L 9 V5
Newton Wonder C L 14 5
Northwood D L 15
Novamac D M 5 R
Orleans Reinette CD L 16 R 5
Payhembury C L
Pear Apple D M
Perrine Yellow Transparent CD E 6 R
Pig's Nose (III JE) D M
Pine Apple Russet of Devon D M R
Plum Vite D E
Ponsford C L
Powell's Russet D L R
Queen CD M 9
Cultivar Use Season Flower Mildew Flrebllghl
Rebella D VR VR
Red Belle de Boskoop CD L 8
Red Devil DCi L
Red Newton Wonder C L 14 S
Redhill Sops in Wine D M 8
Regine D R VR
Reka D R SS
Releika D SS R
Releta D S SS
Relinda D L R SS
Rene D L S VR
Resi D SS SS
Reverend W.Wilks C E 7 R
Rewena D L VR VR
Rival CD M 11
Rosemary Russet D L 10 R
Ross Nonpareil D L 8
Roundway Magnum Bonum D L 11
Saint Edmund's Pippin D M 8 R
Sam Young D L 9 R
Sanspareil CD L
Saw Pit CCi L
Scruptious D L
Sidney Strake C M 10
Sour Bay CCi L
Spurkoop CD L 8
Sweet Bay DCi M
Taunton Cross D M 14
Tom Putt C M 10
Tommy Knight DCi L 10
Wellington Ci E E
Winston D L 14 VR
Winston Sport D L 14 VR
Wolf River CD M 10 R VS
Wool brook Pippin D M 10 R
In addition, the following cultivars are very resistant to scab and not very susceptible to canker.
Their use, season of use and flowering date. resistance or susceptibility to mildew and fireblight
are listed.
Cultivar Use Season Flower Mildew Flreblighl
All Doer CD L
Antonovka CD M 8 R
Ariwa D R SS
Ashton Bitter E 15
Beaujade D
8edwyn Beauty CD L 21
Breakwell's Seedling M 10
Britegold D 8 R
Brown's Apple C E 18
Buckley Giant CD VS
8urrowhill Early E 15
Centennial CD E M
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Mildew Firebllghl
Charles Ross CD M 11
Chehalis CD M 12 R
Claygate Pearmain D L 12
Crimson Beauty D E 9
Crimson Beauty of Bath D E 9
Crimson Beauty of Bath (LARS) D E 9
Duke of Devonshire D
L 11 S
Ea(lijon CD
L 10 S S
Egremont Russet D M 7 R
Enterprise D
M 15
D L 13 R
George Neal
CD E 7
Gertinde D
Goldrush D L L SS SS
Goring M
Hangy Down M L
Hudson's Golden Gem D i R VS
Jefferies D M 9 R
Jonafree D VS SS
Judaine D L E R
Judeline D L E R R
King of Tompkin's County CD L 10 SS
Leathercoat Russet D L
Liberty D M 9 S VR
Limberland CD E
Lord of the Isles C L
Lucky Jon CD L 10 S S
Macfree Mcintosh D VS R
Malus floribunda Po E VR VR
McShay D M VR
Moira D L 10 S
Murray D M 7 VR
Nine Square D M
No Pip C L 14
Northcott Superb D
Northfield Beauty D L
Nova Easygrow CD L 12 VR R
Novaspy CD L
Nured Jonathon CD L 10 S S
Paignton Marigold D M
Peter Lock CD L 6
Pig's Snout CD M L
Pilot D L
Prairie Fire C VR
Primicia D M 10 R
Pristine D E R R
Raritan D E 14 R VS
Red Baron CD L R
Red Beauty of Bath D E 9
Red Ruby D M
Redfree D E 14 R R
Richelieu CD M R R
Cultivar Us. Season Flower Mlld.w Flr.bllght
Rouville CD M
Santana D
Scarlet O'Hara D M 19 S VS
Shay D M M R
Sir Prize D L 17 R SS
Stirling Castle C M 11 SS
Stockbearer C M
Stoke Red M 25 S
Tale Sweet M 15
Tan Harvey M
Tim's Early D E 9
Transparente de Croncels C M 7
Trent CD L 10 VR
Yanda D 14 R
Wagener CD L 6 S
Warrier CD E
White Close Pippin M M
Williams' Pride D E 10 R R
Worcester Cross D M 8
Wynooche Early D E
Low rainfall areas
In these areas the main disease problem is mildew during hot dry summer spells.
cultivars have some to mildew (see main table for a complete listing); the following
cultivars are very resistant to mildew. In addition to their type of use, season of use and
flowering date, any resistance or susceptibility to scab, canker and fireb/ight are listed.
Cultlvar Us. Season Flower Scab Canker Flr.blt
Alexis C VR
Barnack Beauty CD L 14 R
Beauty C VR
Belle de Boskoop CD L 8 VR R
Bountiful CD M 3
Calville Blanc d'Hiver CD L 12 R VS
Discovery D E 11 R
Discovery Spur Type D E 11 R
Early Mcintosh D E 9 S
Ellison's Orange D M 13 VR S
Fairy C VR
Gloster CD L 17
Golden Hornet CD M R
Haralson CD L 12 VR
Hibernal C M 6
Hunter Spartan D L 12 R VS VR
Isle of Wight Pippin D L 4 VR
Jamba 69 D M 14 R
Joan C E VR
Lord Lambourne D M 8 S
Malus floribunda Po E VR VR
McShay D M VR
Nova Easygrow CD L 12 VR R
Ozark Gold D L 20 VR
Use Season Flower Scab Canker Flreblt
Red Delicious; Apex Spur D L 12 VS VR
Red Delicious; Lory Super
D L 12 VS VR
Red Ellison
D M 13 R S
Red Sentinel
ReVo{ena D L VR VR VR
Spartan D L 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N No 3
D L 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N Scotland D L 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N Sweden
D L 12 R VS VR
Spartan Compact D L 12 R VS VR
D L 15
Starkrimson Delicious D L 12 S VR
Tydeman's Early
D E 12 R VS
Tydeman's Early Spur Type D E 12 R VS
Wealthy CD M 11 R S
Winston D L 14 VR VR
Winston Sport D L 14 VR VR
Worcester Pearmain D E 11 S S
Yellow Siberian C E R
Fireblight-prone areas
The following are very resistant to fireblight. In addition to their type of use, season of use and
flowering date, any resistance or susceptibility to scab, canker and mildew are listed.
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Scab Canker Mlldw
Ace Spur Delicious D L 12
Acey Mac D M 7 S S
Adams Apple D L 12
Alexis C VR
Alexis D M 7 S S
Anderson Red Delicious D L 12 VS R
Arkansas D L 10 R R R
Atwood Spur D L 12 VS R
Beauty C VR
8elgolden No 17 CD L 12 R R
Ben Davis CD L 15 S
Bisbee Red Delicious D L 12 VS R
Black Ben CD L 15 S
Black David CD L 15 S
Black Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Black Mickey D M 7 S S
Blackmack D M 7 S S
Blaxtayman CD L 12 VS S
Bovey CD L 12 R R
Captain Kidd D L 12 R VS R
Caravel D E 7
Chelan Red D L 12 S
Chick-A-Dee Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Classic Red Delicious D L 12 S
Courtagold CD L 12 R R
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Scab Canker Mlldw
Crown Empire D L 9
Dark Red Staymared CD L 12 VS S
Delbard CD L 12 R R
Delcon CD
Delicious D L 12 VS VS R
Derman Delicious D L 12 VS R
Dermen Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Dermen Winesap CD L 10 VS S
Detroit Red D M
Dianaspur CD L 12 R R
Donald Wyman Po M
Double Red Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Double Red Stayman CD L 12 VS S
Doud Golden Delicious CD L 12 R R
Dugamel D L 10 S S
Earlibrite D L 12
Earlichief D L 12 VS R
Earlistripe D L 12
Ed Gould Golden CD L 12 R R
CD L 12 R R
Elliot Spur
CD L 12 R R
D L 9
Empress Spur
CD L 12 R R
Enterprise D
Ervin Red D L 12
Evarts Red D L 12
Fairy C
Fameuse D L 7 VS R
Frazier's Spur CD L 12 R R
Gardner D L 12 VS R
Gold Spur CD L 12 R R
Golden Auvilspur CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious (4E-26-18-N) CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious (LARS) CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious Gibson Strain CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious Russet Form CD L 12 R R
Golden Delicious: Horst No 2 CD L 12 R R
Golden Glory CD L 12 R R
Golden Morspur CD L 12 R R
Goldenir CD L 12 R S
Goldensheen CD L 12 R R
Goldenspur CD L 12 R R
Grimes Golden D L 11 S
Haralred CD L 12
Haralson CD L 12 VR
Hardispur D L 12 S
Harrold Red D L 12 S
Heubner D L 12 S
Hi-Early D L 12 S
D L 12 S
Hoople's Antique Gold CD L 12 R R
Houser Red D L 12 S
Hunter Spartan D L 12 R VS VR
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Scab Canker Mlldw
Idaho Delicious D L 12 VS
It Delicious D L 12 VS R
Joan C E
Johnson Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Jonadel D L 16 R
Kidd's Orange Red
D L 12 VR VS R
Kimttall Mcintosh D M 7 S S
King David
CD L 11
Kinnard's Choice
Lalla D L 12 VS R
liberty D M 9 VR S
lindaMac D M 7 S S
Lutz CD L 12 R R
Lysgold CD L 12 R S
Macoun D M 11 S S
Macspur Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Malus floribunda Po E VR VR
Marshall Mcintosh 0 M 7 S S
Marstar 0 L 10 S S
Mcintosh 0 M 7 S S R
Merrigold CO L 12 R R
Midnight Spur Delicious 0 L 12
Miller Sturdyspur 0 L 12 S
Minjon 0 M 13
Morspur CD L 12 R R
Morspur Mcintosh D M 7 S S
Murray 0 M 7 VR
Nured Spur Delicious 0 L 12 VS R
Nured Winesap CD L 10 VS S
Okanoma D L 12 VS R
Oregon Spur Delicious 0 L 12
Ozark Gold D L 20 VR
Pagsup Spur Type 0 L 12 VS R
Penco CD L 12 R R
Perleberg CD L 12 R R
Pioneer Mac 0 M 7 S S
Prairie Fire C VR
Quemoni CD L 12 R R
Razor Golden Delicious CD L 12 R R
Realka 0 VR SS S
Reanda D L VR SS R
Rebella D VR VR VR
Red Delicious; Apex Spur 0 L 12 VS VR
Red Delicious; Lory Super 0 L 12 VS VR
Red Fameuse 0 L 7 S
Red Haralson CD L 12
Red King 0 L 12 S
Red Prince 0 L 12 VS R
Red Queen 0 L 12 S
Red Sentinel C E R VR
Red Spur D L 12 S
Red Stayman CD L 12 VS S
Redchief Delicious D L 12 VS R
Redmax McIntosh D M 7 S S
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Scab Canker Mlldw
Regine 0 VR R R
Remo 0 M VR SS VR
Rene 0 l VR R S
Rewena 0 l VR VR VR
Richared Delicious 0 l 12 VS R
Rogers Mcintosh 0 M 7 S S
Royal Empire 0 l 9
Royal Red 0 l 12
Ruble Red Winesap CO l 10 VS S
Ruby 0 l R
Ryan Red 0 l 12 S
Sali Delicious 0 l 12 VS VS R
SaJi Spur 0 l 12 S
Sandidge 0 l 12 VS R
" Scarlet Spur Delicious 0 l 12 VS VS R
Scarlet Staymared CD l 12 VS S
Schlecht Spur Delicious 0 l 12 VS VS R
Scotian Spur Mac 0 M 7 S S R
Shotwell 0 l 12 VS R
Simon's Russet CD l 12 R R
Sky Spur 0 l 12
Skyline Supreme 0 l 12 S
Smokehouse 0 m 7 S
Smoothee CD l 12 R R
Snapp Stayman CD l 12 VS S
Spartan 0 l 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N No 3 0 l 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N Scotland 0 l 12 R VS VR
Spartan 4N Sweden 0 l 12 R VS VR
Spartan Compact 0 l 12 R VS VR
Spencer 0 M 12 SS
Starking 0 l 12 S
Starkrimson Delicious 0 l 12 S VR
Starks pur Golden Delicious CD l 12 R R
Starkspur Mcintosh 0 M 7 S S
Starks pur Red 0 l 12 VS R
Starkspur UltraRed Delicious 0 l 12 S
Staybrite Stayman CD l 12
Stayman's Winesap CD l 12 VS S
Sterling 0 l 12 S
Summer Mac 0 M 7 S S
Summerland Mcintosh 0 M 7 S S
Sundale CD l 12 R R
Super Chief Delicious 0 l 12 VS R
Super Chief Delicious 0 l 12 VS R
Super Starking 0 l 12 S
Sweet Delicious 0 l 15
Testerspur Golden Delicious CD l 12 R R
Tex Red Winesap CD l 10 VS S
Thome Empire 0 l 9
Topred 0 l 12
Topspur Delicious 0 l 12 VS R
Trent CD l 10 VR
Turner 0 l 12 VS R
Cultlvar Use Season Flower Scab Canker Mlldw
Vallee Spur Delicious D L 12 VS R
D L 12 VS R
Virginia Beauty
Washington Spur
D L 12
Wayne Spur
D L 12 S
Wellington (USA)
CD E 1
Wellspur Delicious
D L 12 S

Wijcik Mcintosh
D M 7 S S R
Williams Favourite
D E 13
CD L 10 VS S
Yellow Delicious: Stauffer strain
CD L 12 R R
CD L 12 R R
Crawford, M: Directory of Apple CuUivars. Agroforestry Research Trust, 2001.
Crawford, M: Apple cultivar disease-resisance trial results. Agroforestry News, Vol 13 No 1.
Crawford, M: Apples: use in agroforestry systems. Agroforestry News, Vol1 No 3.
Book Reviews
Nutshell Guide to Growing Hazelnuts
Clive Simms
Orchard House Books, 2006; 36 pp; 3.50. '
ISBN 0-9544607-5-8
(Available from the A.R. T. for 4.50 including P & P. )
For beginners to growing hazels, Clive Simms' new guide is an excellent introduction to all
aspects of hazel cultivation. Clive is an advocate of single stemmed trees and even suggests
growing trees on a high single stem so that they can be protected from squirrels by using
baffles - an interesting idea, but one I have not seen in practice yet.
Pruning (for a single stem tree) is handled nice and succinctly; and the section on propagation
includes the use of (hybrids of the Turkish hazel) as rootstocks, something which
occasionally happens in North America, but which is some way off in Europe, especially as
nobody sells trazels.
A brief guide to suitable varieties, then harvesting and storing nuts finishes this short but
impressive guide.
Page 22
Hedgerow History
Ecology, History & Landscape Character
Gerry Barnes & Tom Williamson
Windgather Press, 2006; 152 pp; 18.99.
ISBN 1-905119-04-6.
From the Scots pine rows of Breckland to the ancient earth and stone banks of the West
Country, hedgerows are an essential component of regional landscape character in Britain.
The authors ask why hedgerows vary across different parts of Britain, and investigate the
ecological, economic and hi storical reasons for these differences. They use" a computerised
analysis of hedges in Norfolk to explore how hedges came into existence and how they have
changed over time.
The myth that a hedge can be dated simply by counting species is firmly rebutted, and the
authors devel op a new more sophisticated account of hedgerow history, pointing out marked
geographic variations in species content and diversity, and explore the reasons for these
Of interest to all who are involved with hedges, especially in Norfolk as there is a marked
emphasis on this area of the country.
The Black Poplar
Ecology, History & Conservation
Fiona Cooper
Windgather Press, 2006; 152 pp; 18.99.
ISBN 1-905119-05-4
This book is a cultural and ecological biography of the black poplar in Britain. The black poplar
is one of Britain's largest, most charismatic trees, and also one of the rarest.
Fiona Cooper explores the black poplar's historical place in the landscape, and how it has
played a role in folklore and in the work of well known poets. She explains how the tree has
been used through the centuries as timber and in medicine, and then addresses the question of
its conservation.
The decline of the black poplar is investigated, and the author focuses in particular on important
populations in the Vale of Aylesbury and in Manchester, which is in danger of losing completely
trees which for a century have been a distinctive feature of the urban landscape.
The author conctudes that the key to the species' survival in Britain may lie in our applying and
understanding its genetic make-up. Essential reading for all involved in tree conservation.
Chestnuts: post-harvest quality
The quality of chestnuts purchased by consumers can sometimes be poor because of the tricky
nature of chestnut storage. Selling fresh chestnuts 1-2 weeks old is not usually a problem; this
article addresses longer term s t o r a g ~ for weeks or a few months.
There are two major components of ' quality' , namely characteristics (primarily genetically
determined by the cultivar) and condition (resulting from pre- and post-harvest treatment).
At harvest time. chestnuts are Hving, respiring seeds, composed of about 50% water, 40%
carbohydrates (mainly starch) and the balance protein, fats and other substances. The kernel is
an embryo consisting of two large cotyledons attached to a small but easily visible embryonic
plant. The kernel is surrounded by a fuzzy, papery cover called the pellicle which is actually the
seed coat (testa). Outside the pellicle is a brown leathery shell, which is actually the fruit. The
chestnut is designed to overwinter at or beneath the soil surface and germinate in the spring,
consequently it has a chilling requirement. In contrast to many seeds, chestnuts lose viability if
they dry much below 35% moisture. Proper storage of fresh chestnuts essentially involves
mimicking the conditions they would encounter in their natural environment, that is, keep them
cool, moist, and eat them before they germinate.
Pre-harvest care
Before harvest, chestnuts are subject to several potential problems, including shell splitting,
fungal attack, insect attack (weevils, moth larvae) and physiological breakdown.
Early season growing conditions affect flower bud formation which translates into next year's
crop load.
Late season grown conditions, especially soil moisture, affect nut size. Half of kernel growth
occurs during the last two weeks before ripening, hence soil moisture is critical during this
period. During this rapid kernel growth period, some shells sometimes split at the stylar end
(pointy end). Chestnuts with split shells usually mould after 1-2 weeks, so must be used rapidly
or culled out of storage. Shell splitting is most influenced by cultivar (and possibly polliniser
too). If there is a severe lack of soil moisture during this critical period, the kernels may stop
growing with resulting wrinkled chestnuts which are difficult to sell.
Because of this rapid period of kernel growth, chestnuts cannot be harvested early, but only
when the burrs begin to split , revealing the brown chestnuts inside.
While they are still on the tree, chestnuts are subject to three types of fungal attack for which
there is no control:
Blossom end rot - shows first as a brown spot on the stylar end of the burr before
ripening. At harvest , the stylar end of the chestnut is dark coloured and the tip of the
kernel is decayed. Damage is related to cultivar and the type of season.
Kernel spotting - some chestnuts, though always a low percentage, can exhibit small
brown spots on the kernel surfaces (only visible after peeling), which are small fungal
infections. They do not necessarify develop into more extensi ve decay, but if not they
can impart slight off-flavours to the kernel.
Soft rot - at or shortly after harvest, some chestnuts exhibit a soft rot which may give
the shell a dark or watersoaked appearance. When squeezed, such nuts are soft or
mushy, not very firm like sound chestnuts. If cut open, it will look like mashed
potatoes, have a fermented smell , and be inedible. This disease seems more common
under conditions of excessive moisture and excessive nitrogen fertilisation.
Chestnut weevi ls (Ba/aninus e/ephas) are serious chestnut pests in most chestnut production
regions of the world. Eggs are laid shortly before harvest in the kernels through tiny holes
dri ll ed in the shells. The eggs hatch into cramcoloured grubs which grow and tunnel through
the chestnut kernels until they emerge. The unexpected discovery of grubs in chestnuts usually
elicits a response ranging from disgust to hysteria. The chestnut codling moth (Cydia
sp/endana) also results in larvae eating the kernels. Most consumers have zero tolerance for
wormy chestnuts. A postharvest hot water dip (50C for 4550 minutes) will kill the larvae. It is
difficult to identify infested chestnuts before emergence, which may take 2 or more weeks'.
Another problem exhibited by chestnuts at harvest time id a 'brown kernel' condition that
appears to be some sort of internal physiological breakdown. When cut open, an affected nut
shows a degree of browning and discolouration, somewhat resembling bitter pit of apples. The
texture is somewhat soft and the fl avour is bitter, making them inedible. Some EuroJapanese
hybrids can suffer from this, with only a proportion of nuts affected on a tree.
Post-harvest care
At time of ripening, chestnuts are about 50% water. The fact that they do not Quickly mould
indicates that living chestnut kernel tissue has some ability to resist fungal invasion, just as
living fruits and vegetables do. This 'live kernel resistance' is lost if chestnuts dry to below 35%
moisture, when seed viability is lost. Once below this level, viability cannot be restored by
rehydration. So if chestnuts are to be stored fresh, they must not be allowed to dry below 35%
moisture (the pint at which the kernel just begins to shrink away from the shell). Storage life
can be enhanced by levels of high humidity, soaking, or even allowing free moisture on the
For maximum storage life and seed viability, chestnuts should be harvested promptly after they
fall (or are shaken from trees), at least every 2 days; in Britain, harvest lasts 10-14 days for a
particular cultivar, though this is considerably less in warmer and drier regions.
After harvest, the nuts can be cleaned if necessary. Fresh sound chestnuts are slightly denser
than water - ie they sink. In Europe, the normal procedure is to place the chestnuts in water at
50C for 45-50 minutes, following by quenching in cold water, to kill any larvae inside the nuts;
this also rehydrates the nuts if there has been a fall in moisture during harvest. Next, the
chestnuts are carefully and slowly dried until the shell surfaces are dry. The soaking treatments
can affect the flavour of the nuts, introducing fermented flavours and bitter flavours (from
tannins in the shells) which can take several days or a few weeks to diminish - hence these
treatments are not good for nuts destined for eating immediately.
After water treatment, the chestnuts should be allowed to 'rest' for 3-4 days in a cool shady
building where there is enough ai r ci rculation that they do not heat but not so much that they
dry. A layer of nuts up to 30 cm deep is acceptable. During this period, most of the free
moisture will disappear from the shells and any mouldy or soft rotted chestnuts will becomes
covered with fungal hyphae, making them easy to identify and cull. While it may appear that
some chestnuts become mouldy during this period, what reall y happens is that already mouldy
chestnuts make themselves known. The nuts can be sized now if desired. The chestnuts
should be glossy and firm at this point. If the shells have dulled and the kernels begun to shrink
inside the shells, the chestnuts have begun to cure - they wi ll be difficult to store but are good
to eat, and should be used within 23 weeks.
Fresh chestnuts harvested at Darlington: top row - Bouche de BeUzac, Verda/e, Marron
Comballe, Ederra; bottom row - Vigno/s, Rousse de Nay, Marigou/e
Chestnuts which are glossy and firm - ie fully hydrated - are relatively to store and transport.
For long-term storage (4 weeks or more) they should be kept cool and moist with ample air
circulation through the nuts. Properly stored chestnuts will be begin to germinate in cold
storage in January to February. They should not be stored in deep piles or large bags. this
leads to fungal decay. Although the best storage temperature is lightly below OC. fresh
chestnuts must not be allowed to freeze - this kills them. and after thawing they rapidly decay.
The freezing point of chestnuts is _3C or lower.
Chestnuts should be transported in some breathable container, such as woven poly. burlap or
mesh bags. During transport the chestnuts will of course lose weight which can be an issue
between buyer and seller.
There are numerous spoilage fungi which can attack chestnuts, most commonly Fusarium spp.
and Penicillium spp. These fungi produce mycotoxins (usually only in very mouldy kernels) as
well as off flavours. It is not easy to distinguish mouldy chestnut kernels from good ones white
they are in the shell, unless they are in an advanced stage of decay.
Up to now this article has concentrated on keeping chestnuts from moulding by keeping them
moist. For best eating. though, chestnuts are better slightly dried, a process called curing.
During drying, the kernel sugar content increases as starch is converted to sugar (mostry
sucrose). When the moisture level reaches about 25% (dry weight basis) , the sugar content
reaches 20% (dry weight basis) . and the kernel achieves a soft, crunchy texture. At this point ,
chestnuts are properly cured and at the ideal stage to eat. Cured chestnuts are very
susceptible to moulding and must be refrigerated if not consumed. Once chestnuts are cured,
do not attempt to rehydrate them at all, this only increases moulding.
Ideally, chestnuts should be cured over a period of weeks in cool temperatures, and then
promptry consumed or processed. Longer curing times often result in increased moulding.
Chestnuts can be cured in days with warm dry air, but the flavour is not as good, and the
drying is uneven in different sized nuts. .
In practice, if the grower ships chestnuts in a fully hydrated, condition, then during the
several days to several weeks which elapses before the consumer buys and consumes them,
curing is likely to have taken place. If already cured chestnuts are shipped, the often mould or
are too dry by the time they are consumed.
From a practical and quality standpoint, drying is perhaps the best way to preserve chestnuts.
When the moisture is reduced to the kernels become hard, and stable at
room temperature. Prompt harvesting followed by quick drying is the best way to minimise
mould losses; drying also kills any larvae in the nuts.
Dried nuts are easy to peel (shell) and can be stored shelled or unshelled. Once shelled, cull
nuts are easily removed. The nuts can be stored for several years.
Miller, G: quality of chestnuts, Australian Nutgrower, Vol 19 No 3 (September
World hazelnut culture
This article looks at the state of hazelnut production in Italy, Spain, Oregon (USA), France and
the Netherlands.
Italy is the world's second hazelnut producer (after Turkey), with 14% of world production.
Spain is the fourth largest with 3%, the USA second with 5%.
Areas of production
Italy: In Italy, there is currently about 69,000 ha dedicated to hazelnut production (from about
74,000 farms). with several thousand ha including hazelnut in mixed production systems. Most
of the production is now concentrated in four areas: Piedmont . Latium, Campania and Sicily.
Total Italian production is about 110,000 t per year. Average production per ha is 1.87 t for
Campania, 1.78 t for Latium, 1.75 t for Piedmont and 0.90 t for Sicily. Overall , Italy is a net
importer of hazelnuts, however around 23,000 t are exported to other European countries, and
cheaper Turkish nuts are imported into Italy. This is due to strong domestic consumption by
chocolate industries.
Spain: Some 22,000 t of nuts are produced annually. The main area is Catalonia, in northeast
Spain, with the province of Tarragona being the main producing region, having 20,000 ha of
hazelnuts. In Catalonia there are about 7,000 small hazelnut farms with orchards of 1 to 5 ha.
Hazelnuts are grown under typical Mediterranean conditions of low rainfall (400-600 mm/year),
high summer temperatures (30-35C), a wide range of soil types (mainly clay loam), basic soil
pHs (7-8) and medium-high calcium levels. Over half of the Spanish crop is exported to other
European countries.
France: Produces over 5000 t per year. Most production takes place in the south west of the
country in Aquitaine and Mid-Pyrenees regions (between Bordeaux and Toulouse) with average
orchards around 14 ha in size. France is a larger importer of nuts from Turkey, Italy and Spain.
Type of cultivation
Italy: In Campania, hazelnut is cultivated mostly on small plots of land with other plants such as
walnut, cherry and grapes' at the edges ; 70% of land is in high hills on sloping soil (not suited to
mechanisation) on part-time managed farms, the other 30% is in plain areas where
mechanisation is used. In Latium, cultivation is concentrated around the Cimini Mountains.
where there are high levels of specialisation; farm sizes and land type allow a high degree of
mechanisation. In Piedmont, hazelnut clllture is on small family farms located in the hilly areas
of Cuneo and Asti provinces; in the last decade there has been a marked expansion here in
areas of low hills due to the increasing demand for quality nuts from Piedmont's confectionary
Spain: Tarragona' s orchard divide into two types. Firstly, the orchards of the inland mountain
areas which are located on hilly slopes and typically have little
mechanisati on, dry farming (around 400 mm of annual rainfall) and low production (SOD-BOO
kg/hal . Most growers of this type are engaged in part time agriculture. Secondly there are the
flat area orchards of the uCamp de Tarragona " which are located near the coast, have high
levels of mechanisati on, heavy production (2000-25000 kg/hal and modern cultivation
techniques including drip irrigation
Oregon USA: most traditional orchards are grown as low input systems, many by part time
farmers. Production remains steady despite the devastating effects of Eastern filbert blight ,
since infected orchards are quickly replaced using resistant varieties.
France: the hazelnut industry here is fairly recent, with the firs I commercial plantations in the
1970's. Most orchards are owned by cooperatives.
Netherlands: there are few commercial plantings, but the new EMOA varieties are being
recommended for organic growing. One commercial planting made in 19967 used these
varieties successfully interplanted with walnuts and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides);
walnut rows had hazelnut trees included between the walnuts, and the sea buckthorn rows
alternated with the walnut/hazelnut rows. Early cropping and income from the sea buckthorn
fruits and hazelnuts offsets the longer time it takes for the walnuts to reach good cropping
levels. Eventually the hazels and sea buckthorn will be removed.
Italy: In Campania, varieties grown are:
'Mortarella' (late ripening with long nuts, good pellicle removal and excellent aroma)
'San Giovanni' (early ripening, long nuts, good pellicle removal)
'Tonda Rossa' (round nuts, good flavour)
'Camponica'(round nuts, good flavour)
'Riccia di Talanico' (round nuts, good flavour)
' Tonda di Giffoni' (adaptable, good pellicle removal, excellent nut qualities) is grown
almost exclusively in the Picentini Mountains
In Latium, fewer varieties are grown:
'Tonda Gentile Romana' (medium vigour, round nuts, good aroma, moderate pellicle
removal) represents about 85% of production
'Nocchione' (low kernel percentage) is used as a polJiniser
'Tonda di Giffon;' (adaptable, good pellicle removal, excellent nut qualities) is used as
polJiniser of main cultivar too.
In Piedmont, one variety dominates (wild trees growing close by in woods are used for
pollination): .
'Tonda Gentile delle Langhe' (very adaptable and excellent nut quality).
Spain: Most production is based on traditional varieties of smallmedium sized nuts for
industrial uses. In the past, most traditional orchards were located in hilly areas and included a
mixture of varieties that ensured good pollination; recent orchards with only 2 varieties suffer
from somewhat irregular production through pollination problems. The following are all
important varieties in Spain:
' Negret' (almost 80%), 'Gironelt', ' Pauetet' , 'Culpla', 'Morell', 'Grifoll', 'Trenet' and
'Tonda di Giffoni' has been planted in new orchards recently.
' Ennis' (American) is planted in the north of Spain (Navarra) for large nuts for table
Oregon USA: Several varieties planted in the 1990's are no longer
susceptibi lity to Eastern filbert blight (EFB), including 'Casina' (from
'Ennis'. Oregon State University is breeding resistant varieties.
concentrating on resistant varieties:
planted due to their
northern Spain) and
New plantings are
' Barcelona' - for a long time the most important variety, and moderately resistant to
'Lewis' - now the most common in new plantings
France: Growers typically plant 812% of their orchards with pollinators. The most common
varieties are:
'Fertile de Coutard' (Syn. 'Barcelona', 'Castanyera') - 308 ha
'Segorbe' - 331 ha and used as a pOllinator
'Ennis' - 613 ha
'Corabel' - 538 ha
'Pauetet' - 584 ha
' Butler' - 79 ha and used as a polJinator
'Daviana' is used as a pollinator
'Merveille de BollwiJjer' (Syn. 'Halls Giant', 'Hallesche Riesen') is used as a pollinator
'Jemtegaard 5' is used as a pollinator
Netherlands: three cultivars selected from wild plants in the 1970's and 1980's are proving very
protmising. 'EMOA 1', 'EMOA 2' and 'EMOA 3' are all heavy yielding with good quality nuts and
good pellicle removal. they have a low susceptibility to disease and are being recommended for
organic cultivation.
Italy: In most areas the materials for new plantation are suckers taken from existing orchard
Training systems & pruning
Italy: In Campania the main training system is the Mceppaia- with 4-5 trunks arising from the
ground and with 300-400 trees per ha. New plantations use a single trunk system and densities
of 300-1000 trees per ha. Pruning is generally applied every 3-4 years, though sucker removal
is annual. Diseased or unproductive trees are replanted or pruned low allowing the growth of 4-
5 suckers.
In Latium, bushes tend to have more diffuse training systems, with 3 or more trunks arising from
the ground very close together. Tree density varies from 150 per ha on old plantations to 600
per ha on new ones. Pruning is generally neglected or is applied with light cuts to eliminate
suckers and remove damaged and crossing branches. Canopies are normally dense. with little
light penetration.
In Piedmont the prevalent training system in old plantations in a bush with 10 trunks arising
from the ground, while on new ones 3-4 trunks are used at 5-6 m by 5 m spacing.
Spain: Traditional training consists of a multistemmed bush with 4 or more stems per tree
according to natural growth habit. In new orchards trees are trained in a single stem vase to
facilitate mechanical harvesting and sucker control. Tree spacing ranges from 6 x 3 m to 7 x 4
m (350-550 trees/hal. Mature trees are usually not pruned in traditional orchards, though
suckers are removed by hand in winter.
Oregon USA: Trees are forced to grow with single trunks to allow for mechanisation. New
orchards are sometimes planted at Mdouble density6 with tree spacing at 3 x 6 m.
France: Hazelnuts are usually planted at 5 x 3 m spacing, sometimes 6 x 3 m or 5 x 4 m
depending on soil fertility. Trees are usually trained to an open centre vase on a single trunk,
with 3-4 scaffold branches per tree. Suckers are usually killed with herbicides or sometimes by
Italy; In Campania, nitrogen is used commonly, with mixE'd and organic fertilisers used
increasingly recently. In Latium, soil analyses are often used to determine fertiliser
Page 30
Spain: Practices are very diverse. Some orchards apply Nitrogen only while others also apply
potassium and phosphorus. 60 Kg N/ha is considered sufficient to maintain good production
Oregon USA: traditionally hazelnuts are grown as a low input crop.
Italy: In the hills of Campania, irrigation is only used during the first years after planting in order
to increase the initial growth. On the plains its is often applied one or twice to overcome dry
periods in summer. In Latium, irrigation is widespread in both young and old plantations; here
and in Campania, drip systems are often used. In Piedmont there is no irrigation due to scarce
water availability.
Spain: Drip irrigation is used in Tarragona between May and September.
France: Orchards are irrigated using drip systems or micro-sprinklers.
Soil management
Italy: In Campania all plantations are subjected to light soil tillage (10-15 cm deep)and soil
compacting before nut drop, and weeds below the canopy are controlled with strimmers I brush
cutters. In Latium, the natural weed cover is retained to reduce soil erosion, increase soil
fertility, and reduce dust during mechanical harvesting, though sometimes herbicides are used
prior to mechanical harvesting. In Piedmont, to overcome the lack of irrigation, the soils are
regularly tilled, and before harvest herbicides may be applied along rows.
Spain: herbicides are usually used below tree canopies, with tillage (less hilly areas) or green
cover between the rows.
France: Grass is usually grown between rows and herbicides used in the tree rows.
Pest & disease control
Italy: In all regions the most common pests are the hazelnut weevil (Curculio nanum), big bud
mite (Phylopus avellanae), Gonocerus acuteangulatus and Pafomena prasina. Most growers
control these wit h pesticides when infestation rates exceed acceptable levels.
Spain: Important pests include big bud mite, aphids (MyzocaJlis coryli), leopard moth (Zeuzera
pyrina) and nut weevil (Bafaninus nucum). Diseases include "Boro sec
(Cryptosporium corily),
mildew (Labella coryli, Septoria sp.) and Sol cuW (Cytospora corylicofa.) Most growers spray
pesticides 3-4 times a year for control. In Catalonia, most hazelnut trees ate infected by the
apple mosaic virus (ApMV) which reduces tree productivity.
Oregon USA: The main problem is Eastern filbert blight (EFB) which can devastate orchards. It
is continuing to spread southwards in the Willamette Valley. 'Ennis' is highly susceptible and in
unl ikely to be planted much now, as 'Ennis' orchards quickly succumb to the disease. Some
pests are controlled using biological controls, for instance the parasitic wasp Trioxys palJidus is
used to control filbert aphid.
Harvesting arid nut drying
Italy: In Campania, in hilly areas sweeping machines are used to gather nuts and vacuum
machines to collect them - this system is also widely used in Piedmont. In the plains machines
are used to shake nuts from trees and to collect them off the ground. On most farms the nuts
are dried in the open air, though there are a few cooperati ves with drying plants.
In latium, harvesting is highly mechanised using machines with high harvesting capacities.
Nuts are dried by farm drier or at a grower cooperative, only occasionally in the open air.
Spain: Harvest takes place from early September to mid October, with nuts picked from the
ground in one or two operations. The flatter areas use mechanical harvesters, mostly vacuum
harvesters on tractors of at least 40 HP which can collect 300-500 kg/hour of nuts.
Most, growers send their nuts to cooperatives or large private processors. Nuts are then
c l e a ~ e d , graded, and are dried to reduce their moisture content to 7%. Dryers use heated air at
40C blown through nuts for about 18 hours. They can then be stored ate room temperature for
up to 8 months until shelling.
France: Harvesting is carried out mechanically. First a machine blows and sweeps the nuts on
the ground into a windrow, then a second machine picks them up. Husks, twigs and weed
remains are then separated using fans. The nuts are washed and dried either by the grower or
the cooperative.
Mehlenbacher, A: The Hazelnut Situation in Oregon. Acta Hart. 686, pp 665-668, ISHS 2005.
Sarraquigne, J: Hazelnut Production in France. Acta Hart. 686, pp 669-673, ISHS 2005.
Shepers, H & Kwanten, E: Selection and Breeding of Hazelnut CulHvars Suitable for Organic
Cultivation in The Netherlands. Acta Hart. 686, pp 87-90, ISHS 2005.
Tombesi, A: World Hazelnut Situation and Perspectives: Italy. Acta Hort. 686, pp 649-657,
ISHS 2005.
Taus, J: Hazelnut Production in Spain. Acta Hart. 686, pp 659-664, ISHS 2005.
Plants for windy sites:
Trees (1)
I ntrod uction
When agroforestry systems, whether they be forest gardens or larger scale systems, are first
established, there are very often exposed and windy conditions where sites are not surrounded
by existing tree cover. In such situations, it makes sense to initially plant mainly those species
which can tolerate windy conditions, even if they are treated as nurse crops to shelter other
more tender crops. This series of articles lists those plants which are tolerant of exposure and
useful in such instances. Most of these trees can be used in windbreaks too.
The table below lists latin and common names, a code for deciduous (0) or evergreen (E) ,
whether or not maritime exposure (salt-laden winds) is tolerated, the maximum height and width
of the tree, whether it is nitrogen-fixing, has edible and medicinal uses, and hardiness zone
number. In most of the UK, trees hardy only to zones 8-9 arc not suitable for windy sites, but
they they will be in milder climes.
Abies grandis
Abies pracera
Acacia longifolia
Acacia mucronata
Acer campestre
Acer platanoides
Acer pseudo platanus
Acer saccharinum
!Aesculus hippocastanum
Albizi a julibrissin
Alnus cordata
Alnus glutinosa
Alnus incana
Alnus japonica
Alnus rhombifol ia
Alnus rubra
Araucaria araucana
Arbutus unedo
Banksia integrifolia
IBanksia marginata
Betula occidentalis
Betula pendula
Betula platyphylla
Betula pubescens
Betula utilis
Bumelia lanuginosa
Castanea sativa
ICasuarina glauca
Casuarina littoral is
Casuarina verticillata
Cedrus deodara
Cedrus libani atlantica
ICeltis occidentalis
]Ceratonia siliqua
Grand fir
Noble fir
Sidney golden
Field maple
Box elder
Norway maple
Silver maple
IHorse chestnut
Italian alder
Grey alder
White alder
Red alder
Monkey-puzzle tree
Strawberry tree
Coast banksia
ISilver banksia
Water birch
Silver birch
White birch
Indi an paper birch
Sweet chetsnut
Atlas cedar
E 75 8
E 60 5
E 9 6
E 9 6
D 15
D 21 8
D 21 15
30 15
D 30 15
D 12 10
25 8
25 10
18 5
D 22
D 12
30 15
9 8
D 9
D 20 10
D 20
D 20 10
D 20 3
30 15
E 33 10
E 25 10
120 120
, ./
Page 33
" E
:E w
. .,
U 0
x :0 '6

-= '6
'" Z W
Cercpcarpus ledifolius Mountain E
./ ./
Chamaecyparis Lawson cypress E 25 4
Chamaecyparis Nootka cypress E 15 6 5 I
IChamaecypans thyOides IWhlte cypress
0 13
1 1
ICordyline australis lCabbage tree
IE 1./ 115
J.! I
ICordyline indivisa ICabbage tree
IE 1./
18 12
J.! I
[Corn us capitata !Bentham's cornel
1./ 112 112 1./
1Corylus americana IAmerican hazel
ID 13
I J.! J.!
!Corylus avellana IHazel
ID 16 13
J.! J.!
ICorylus aveJlana pontica
!Corylus chinensis IChinese hazel
ID 124
I J.! I
!Corylus colurna ITurkish hazel
ID 120 17 1./
ICoryrus ferox IHimalayan hazel
ID 110
ICoryrus heterophylla lSiberian filbert
ID 17
I J.!
1./ 15
ICoryrus jacquemontii Iindian tree hazel
ID 125
I J.! I
ICorylus tibetiea
ID 115
I J.! I
!Corylus x colurnoides IT,azel
Corylus x vilmorinii Chinese trazel D 25 5
[Crataegus aprica
ID 16
I J.!
1./ 16
[Crataegus armena
I I J.!
ICrataegus arnoldiana
ID 17
1./ 1./ 15
ICrataegus atrosanguinea
1./ 1./
!Crataegus azarolus IAzarole
ID 110
I J.!
ICrataegus calpodendron
ID 16
I J.! J.!
!Crataegus canadensis
ID 19
1./ 1./
!Crataegus champlai nensis I
ID 16
I J.! J.!
ICrataegus chrysocarpa
ID 16
1./ 1./ 15
ICrataegus coccinoides [Kansas hawthorn
ID 16
I J.!
ICrataegus columbiana
ID 15
I J.! J.!
ICrataegus dilatata
ID 16
1./ 1./
!Crataegus dispessa
ID 18
1./ 1./
!Crataegus douglasii [Black hawthorn
ID 19
1./ 1.1 15
!Crataegus ellwangeriana
ID 16 16 1./ 1./

'" E

Crataegu5 heterophylJa
Crataegus hupehensis
Crataegus iIIinoensis
Crataegus jonesiae
Crataegus laciniata
Crataegus macrosperma
Crataegus maximowiczii
Crataegus missQuriensis
Crataegus mol l is
Crataegus nigra
Crataegus parvifolia
Crataegus pensylvanica
Crataegus pentagyna
Crataegus phaenopyrum
ICrataegus pinnatifida
Crataegus pinnatifida
Crataegus pantiea
Crataegus pringlei
Crataegus pruinosa
ICrataegus pubescens
Crataegus pubescens
Crataegus punctata
ICrataegus ri vularis
Crataegus rotundifolia
ICrataegus sanguinea
Crataegus schraderlana
ICrataegus stlpulosa
ICrataegus submollls
ICrataegus subvlliosa
ICrataegus tanacetifotia
ICryptomeria japonica
ICupressocyparis teylandii
lCupressus macrocarpa
IEhretia anacua
'" E
Red haw
Washington thorn
IChinese haw
Frosted hawthorn
!Manzani lla
Dotted hawthorn
IRiver hawthorn
ITansy-leaved thorn ID
IJapanese cedar
ILeyland cypress
IMonterey cypress
IAnaqua IE
18 I
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
../ ./
./ ./
I' I'
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
./ ./
1./ 1./
1./ 1./
I 1./
1 1
' 5
~ 6

Page 35
<1> C
IEriobotrya japonica Iloquat
Eucalyptus coccifera Mt. Wellington
IEucalyptus gunnii ICider gum
1Eucalyptus johnstonii IYellow gum
)Eucalyptus pauciflora ICabbage gum
niphophi la
pauciflora Snow gum
IFagus sylvatica
IFraxinus americana IWhite ash
IFraxinus angustifolia IN arrow-leaved ash
Fraxinus chinensis
IFraxinus excelsior
lFraxinus floribunda
IFraxinus hookeri
lFraxinus latifolia 10regon ash
IFraxinus longicuspis
IFraxinus nigra IBtack ash
IFraxinus ornus 1M anna ash
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Red ash
!Fraxinus quadrangulata IBlue ash
IFraxinus sieboldiana
IFraxinus sinensis
IFraxinus velutina lArizona ash
!Fraxinus xanthoxyloides
IHippophae goniocarpa
1Hippophae gyantsensis
IHippophae neurocarpa
Hippophae salicifolia Willow-leaved sea
Hippophae sinensis Chinese sea
Hippophae tibetana Tibetan sea
IHohena populnea Ilacebark
Page 36
C <1>
w :E
x :0
-= 15
'" 0 I Z w
IE 19 15
10 16
10 18
1.1 1.1
10 1.1 1.1
0 15
.I .I .I
0 15
.I .I .I
0 15
.I .I .I
1.1 18 _ J
" E
E co
E w :E Ii;
E tl . ~
" '" ...J U 0
I Z w
Juniperus accidentalis Western juniper E 18
./ ./
Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain E 10 4
./ ./
Juniperus silicicola Southern red cedar E 20 8
./ ./
Juniperus virginiana Pencil cedar E ,20 8
./ ./
Koelreuteria paniculata Golden rain tree D 10 10
./ ./
Laburnum alpinum Scotch laburnum D 5 6
./ ./
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum D 6 6
./ ./
Larix decidua Larch D
45 15
./ ./
Larix gmelinii D 30 1
Larix laricina Tamarack D 18
./ ./
Larix occidental is Western larch D 45
Larix potaninij Larch D 35 5
Larix x marschlinsii Dunkeld hybrid D 50 4
Lauru5 nobilis Bay tree E 12 10
./ ./
Maclura pommifera Osage orange D
15 12
./ ./ ' 5
Magnolia grandiflora E 10 10
./ ./
' 6
Mespitus germanica Medlar D 6 6
./ ./
Metrosideros excelsus Pohutukawa E
7 15
./ ./
Metrosideros robustus Northern rata E
6 15
Metrosideros umbellatus Southern rata E
i 9
Morus alba White mulberry D 18 10
./ ./
' 4
Myrica nagi E 12
./ ./ ./
Phillyrea latifolia E
8 8
./ ./
Picea abies Norway spruce E
30 10
./ ./
Picea asperata Chinese spruce E 40
Picea brachytyla Sargent spruce E 40
Picea breweriana Weeping spruce E 15 5
Picea engelmannii Mountain spruce E 20 6
Picea glauca White spruce E 15 5
./ ./
Picea glehnii Sakhalin spruce E 30
Picea jezoensis Yezo spruce E 35
./ ./
Picea mariana Black spruce E 20 4
./ ./
Picea omorika Serbian spruce E 25 5
Picea p u n g e ~
2 1ue... spruce_
E 20 5


Pioea purpurea Purple-coned
]Picea rubens IRed spruce
IE 130
1.1 13
]Picea sitchensis ISitka spruce
150 110 1.1 17
]?icea smithiana ]Morinda spruce
IE 130 16
]?inus albicaulis IWhite-bark pine
IE 120
aristata IBristle-cone pine
IE 112
]Pinus ba':lksiana ]Jack pine
]Pinus cembra jSwiss stone pine
IE 115 16 1.1 14
IPinus contorta IBeach pine
IE 115
Is 1.1 17
IPinus flexilis lUmber pine
IE 125
]Pinus halepensis IAleppo pine
IE 115
]Pinus lambertiana jSugar pine
IE 175
1.1 17
]Pinus monticola IWestern white pine IE
1.1 14
Pinus mugo Dwarf mountain E
IPinus muricata IBishop's pine
Pinus nigra ' Austrian pine
IPinus nigra maritima ]Corsican pine
]Pinus pinaster IMaritime pine
IPinus pinea Iitalian stone pine
Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine
IPinus radiata IMonterey pine
[Pinus resinosa IRed pine
Pinus strobiformis
S.outhwestern white IE
IPinus sylvestris jScot's pine
Pinus thunbergii Japanese black 6
IPinus veitchii I I 125 Is
[Pinus wallichiana blue IE I j25 1./ [./ 1
!Pittosporum tenuifolium ITawhiwhi IE j.r 17 14 I 1.1 I 18
Ip,ttosporum undulatum ICheesewood IE 1.1 112 18 I I I I
- - - - To be '(;onlinued in Volume 14 No 4 -----
Crawford, M: A.R.T. species database, 2006.
Plants for a Future: plant database 2006.
Oriental persimmon in Europe
Historical perspective
The deliberate spread of Oriental persimmon, Diospyros kaki, and of the Chinese date plum
(D. lotus) is not well documented, but it is possible that some persimmon trees were introduced
into ancient Rome where there are references to and Mthe nice shade they
The first known importations of Oriental persimmon occurred in 1860 when trees were brought
to France, after which the cultivation of persimmon developed in Provence and other
Mediterranean regi ons of the country. Persimmon trees were introduced to Italy in 1870 and
from 1884 were widely disseminated around the country; later on, persimmon was cultivated as
a fruit tree in some regions (Campania, Emilia Romagna) and as an ornamental tree in others
(Tuscany, Lazio).
Persimmon appeared in Spain around the end of the 19!h. century but may have been introduced
earlier because of the strong relationship between that kingdom and Oriental countries. The
introduction of persimmon in Balkan countries did not take place until the mid 201h. century.
Most of the material introduced into Europe in the 19!h century came from Japan, often via North
America. Some 40 cultivars were imported and present by the early 201h. century, and in the last
30 years many of these have been reintroduced in Italy mostly from Japan and California.
Development as a fruit crop
Italy, where the first orchards were planted at the beginning of the 20
h. century in the Salerno
area (Campania region) is still the main European producer, although production has declined
since the 1950's to about 55,000 tonnes per year form 3000 ha. The decrease in production is
attributed to competition from other fruits, the high cost of marketing due to many manual
operations, and the strong productivity of Spanish orchards. The Italian persimmon industry is
based on the cultivar ' Kaki Tipo', a PVNA variety; its fruits are marketed both as non-pollinated
(sold as soft fruits in northern Italy or exported) and pollinated fruits (sold as hard fruits in
Campania and southern Italy). 'Kaki Tipo' accounts for 90% of production, with the remaining
10% shared by other PVNA local varieties ('Vainiglia', 'Mercatelli', ' Mora') and some PCNA
cultivars (,Hana Fuyu' , ' Jiro', 'Gosha'). In the last few years, new orchards have been planted
with the Spanish cultivar 'Rojo Brillante',
In Greece, the persimmon industry is in its infancy, with fruits obtained mainly from isolated
trees in gardens or in mixed family orchards. Recently 'Hana Fuyu' and 'O'Gosho' orchards
have been planted.
A similar situation is found in Portugal, where persimmon is found scattered allover the country,
but is more abundant in the north. About 224 ha of commercial orchards produce some 5400
tonnes/year. The most important cultivar is 'Coroa de Rei', an astringent type. Other cultivars
grown are 'Triumph', ' Hana Fuyu' , 'O'Gosho' and recently 'Raja Brillante'.
Spain has experienced a fast expansion of persimmon production in recent years, now with over
8000 ha of orchards producing 45-50000 tonnes of fruit per year. The main areas of production
are Valencia, Malaga and Granada, with some production in Castellon, Huevla and
7Barcelona/Tarragona. Much of the fast expansion has been in Valencia, mainly in the Ribera
del Xuquer, an area of long traditional expertise in the growing of stone and citrus fruits, This
expansion is attributed to (1) the high value PVA cultivar 'Raja Brillante', a bud sport from
t he Spanish variet y 'Cristalino', that has replaced the apricot and Japanese plum trees affected
by the sharka virus; and (2) the technological developments for removing the astringency of
fruits without loss of firmness, which allows marketing over long distances.
Persimmon is cultivated in small amounts in other European countries such as Cyprus, Slovenia
(areas of Istrija and Nova Gariea, where 'Kaki Tipe' , 'Lycopersicon' and other cuftivars are
used), Montenegro, and Macedonia (where about 2000 lennes of fruits per year are produced
from the astringent cultivar 'Costata' I 'Kostata',

The origins of the persimmon cultivars used in Europe are mostly uncertain. Ongoing studies
on the relationships between European va rieties and ancestral Japanese cullivars are being
carried out.
Most persimmon breeding work is still carried out in Italy at the University of Florence. The
main objectives are: PCNA type, low vigour trees, early ripening time, high productivity,
resistance to chill injuri es, compatibility on both D.kaki and D./otus rootstocks, tree hardiness.
Desirable traits for fruits include size, round or slightly flattish fruits,
skin colour, hard orange flesh without black spots, good storage and drying properties, low
susceptibility to apex cracking and calyx separation.
Persimmon astringency: the pomological classifications of Japanese Persimmon distinguish
between astringent and not astringent cultivars. Astringent cultivars are those containing
soluble tannins and they can be eaten only after physiological ripening, when fruits are soft.
The non astringent cultivars can be eaten soon after harvesting, since their tannins are
insoluble and the content is low. Each group has been divided into two in relation to
the effect of pollination on tannin content: pollination constant and pollination variant cultivars.
The Pollination Constant cultivars do not show any change in the flesh colour if pollinated, while
the fruits of Pollination Variant cultivars bring a pale flesh colour if the fruit is not pollinated
(seedless fruits) and an orange brown flesh if the fruit was pollinated. When poll ination is not
enough (one or two seeds) the flesh changes its colour only around the seeds, while the other
parts of the flesh remain pale. Hence cultivars can be divided into:
Pollination Constant Non Astringent (PCNA): fruits are edible (not astringent) at harvest time
and the flesh is pale regardless the presence of seeds. Some PCNA cultivars are ' Fuyu', 'Jiro',
' Hana Fuyu', 'O'Gosho'.
Pollination Constant Astringent (PCA): fruits are always astringent, regardless the presence of
seeds. The flesh is pale and fruits are edible only after softening or after artificial astringency
removal. Some peA cullivars are ' Hachiya', 'Atago', 'Yokono'.
Pollination Variant Non Astringent (PVNA): at harvest time the flesh is not astringent only if fruit
contains seeds. In that case the flesh is brown. Seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits can be eaten
only after softening or after astringency removal. Some PVNA cultivars are ' Kaki Tipo' ,
'Amankaki', 'Mikatani Gosha'.
Pollination Variant Astringent (PVA): fruits are always astringent at harvest time, and the flesh
change the colour into brown only around the seeds. Even if the number of seeds is high, flesh
is never completely edible at harvest time. Fruits can be eaten after softening or after
astringency removal. Some PVA cultivars are 'Aizumishirazu', ' Hiratanenashi', 'Tone Wase'.
Bellini, E & Giordana, E: Germplasm and Breeding of Persimmon in Europe. Acta Hart. 685,
ISHS 2005.
EC Project GENRES 29: htlp:!!www.unifi.itlprojectlueresgen29rwelcome.hlml
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture to produce a
diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and
other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter,
shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of
tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected
and productive system.
Agroforestry News is pUblished by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a
year in November, February, May and August. Subscription rates are:
20 per year in Britain and the E.U. (16 unwaged)
24 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling)
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A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on
request for 4 X 1st class stamps. Back issues cost 4.00 per copy including
postage (5.00 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry
Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon,
Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/telephone: +44 (0)1803 840776.
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk.
Agroforestry Research Trust
The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to
research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and
to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other
publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and
plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.
Agroforestry News
ii! at' f
New Zealand flax
Volume 14 Number 4 August 2006
Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
Volume 14 Number 4 August 2006
2 News: Birch agroforestry in Canada / The ringing
Cedars - trees for self-reliance I Climate change
papers I Forest farming of Alliums
5 Deep pipe irrigation
7 Cloudberries
9 Malva: the mallows
15 Plants for windy sites: trees (2)
20 Trees and aquaculture systems
22 Zanthoxylum: temperate pepper trees
31 New Zealand flax
36 Spice bush: Lindera benzoin
38 Tree pruning in broadscale agroforestry
The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the
Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format.
Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the
reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered
on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame
species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any
illness caused by the' use or misuse of such crops.
Editor: Martin Crawford.
Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust.
Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington,
Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K. Telephone & fax: +44 (0)1803840776
Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: 'WWW.agroforestry.co.uk
Page 1
Birch agroforestry in Canada
Paper birch, Betula papyrifera, is abundant on both private and public lands within the interi or of
British. Columbia, t ypi cal ly growing on lowlands and lower mountain slopes. It is a shade
intol erant species, thriving on burned or harvested sites where it can form pure stands. As the
forest matures it is usually restricted to clearings.
Commercially, paper birch use is mainly limited to small amounts of wood products including
flooring, lumber, oriented stand board (OS8) and fuelwood. However. there is growing interest
and demand for non-timber products from birch, notably birch syrup obtained by tapping trees.
There are currently two commercial birch syrup businesses. coll ecting approximately 68,000
litres of raw sap and producing about 790 litres of finished syrup. Both sell most of their
product directly to the consumer and through a variety of retail outlets, farmers markets and
fairs throughout British Columbia. Demand currentl y exceeds production.
Work is starting in the area to compile a production manual for prospective birch agroforestry
practitioners. Further products are also being researched including sap drinks (bi rch tonic,
birch wine, birch sap-fruit juice blends), crafts (from wood and bark) and non-traditional wood
products. It is hoped that an expansion in birch agroforestry may offset to some degree the
serious economic damage caused by the move north of the mountain pine beetle and which is
expected to reduce timber harvesting by at least 40% in 10 years.
Source: Agroforestry Update, June 2006.
The ringing cedars: trees for self-reliance
Micro scale farming is widespread in Russia where Mdacha gardens" are responsible for 40% of
the country's agricultural output. One of the leading advocates of micro scale farming is
Russian entrepreneur Vladimir Megre who over the last decade has published eight books in a
series entitled The Ringing Cedars. The books advocate a return to the land and rural living as
consistent with Russia' s traditional millennia-old lifestyle and the economic, social, cultural, and
spiritual needs of human nature. They also promote greater environmental awareness and a
realization of the significance of trees and nontimber tree products t o achieving the goals of
those returning to the land.
The Ringing Cedars present a holistic philosophy of a harmonious relationship between
humanity and nature and propose a model of economic organization based on a decentralized
national economy comprised of sustainable rural settlements that are in turn composed of
indi vidual family-owned homesteads rkin estates/ rodovoe pomest'e). The Ringing Cedars
books have sold more than 10 million copi es in Russia, and have been met with a powerful
societal response and sparked a fast-growing ecoviUage movement by the same name.
The ecoviltage movement, while growing oul of the dacha movement and sharing many of its
traits, is also different in a number of important characteristics. For example, while the typical
size of a dacha plot is 0.06 ha, and the maximum size of a subsidiary plot i s 0.5 ha, in the newly
forming ecovillages each family privately owns at least 1 ha of land. This larger size is
warranted by the participants' aspiration to integrate human habitat with the agroecosystem,
and -by growing a wide variety of crops and trees and tClking advantage of other opportunities
such as agritourism-to create a self-reliant land-based household, approaching self-sufficiency
Page 2
not onl y in food, but also in technical crops (e.g., flax. sunflower), timber, firewood , medicinal
plants, and other products. It is also recognized that maintaining contact with one's own piece
of land and establishing a circular flow of matter, energy, and information between each family
and their kin estate's ecosystem is important for both physical and psychological well-being of
the residents. The shared goals of ecovillages also include stewardship over local natural
resources and a commitment to creating a social organization conducive t o independent ,
economically secure, socially rich, and personally rewarding lifestyles.
Both the Ringing Cedars books and the social movement they have given rise to place a special
emphasis on integrating trees into agroecosystems. It is recognized that trees provide a wide
range of food and non-food products, plus many other benefits, and are imbued with a deep
symbolic meaning. The latter is especially true for the Siberian cedar (Siberian pine, Pinus
sibirica), which has been traditionally valued not only as a multipurpose tree producing high
quality timber and pine nuts, but also as a spiritual symbol. In the vision of Vladimir Megre and
the new ecovillage settlers, each kin estate must be surrounded by a windbreak and represent a
multilayer perennial polyculture system with a wide variety of plants, both herbaceous and
woody. As an example of the potential long-run sustainability and producti vi ty of such a
system, Vladimi r Megre cites 19th century agroforestry practices in central Russia, for example
a 200-year-old system of apple orchards surrounded by windbreaks Pinus sibirica in the
Vladimir region, 250 km east of Moscow. The local residents reported that with no fertilization
or maintenance these orchards, abandoned shortly after 1917, were still produci ng better crops
and better-tasting apples than the carefully tended trees in the nearby villages. The orchards
also provided high-quality hay. The exceptionally cold winter of 1976, which killed most fruit
trees in this regi on, did no damage to the windbreak-protected orchards.
In Megre's vision, a properly designed agroecosystem would be self-sustaining and productive
with minimal inputs of labour and other resources. Megre was also instrumental in popularizing
the economic potential of nontimber forest products, particularly pine nut oil.
Megre has observed that both dachniks and the new ecovillagers can derive their li velihood
from a combination of subsistence growing and taking advantage of niche market opportunities.
In a country traditionally placing very high value on homegrown produce, there are vast
opportunities for direct marketing of these products directly to the consumer. Megre has
described an ever more widespread practice of wealthy urbanites without a garden contracting
with a particular dachnik or rural resident to grow an organic food supply for them (including
canned food for the winter). This practice is all the more important given the absence of
organic food certi fication and labelling in Russia. Apart from growing one's own food supply,
personally knowing the grower may be the best available assurance of the food quality. As an
extension of this practice, Megre suggested branding the products produced by individual
growers. When marketed through stores and other outlets, the branded products allow the
consumers to express their preferences by choosing a product produced by a certain family.
Such family-labelled products-notably family-produced pine nut oil-are al ready available on
the market.
Reference: Sharashkin, L Gold, M & Barham, E: ECOFARMING AND AGROFORESTRY FOR
SELF-RELIANCE: Small-scale, Sustainable Growing Practices in Russia. Presented at the
North American Agroforestry Conference in MN 2005.
Climate change papers
Crop models typically suggest that increased temperature and decreased soil moisture will
reduce global crop yields by 2050, but that the rising carbon dioxide (C0
) levels will increase
plant productivity, thereby offsetting these losses. However, Long et al explain that the older
experiments were conducted over 20 years ago, and that technology has improved since then,
enabling major crops (eg. rice, wheat, soybeans and maize) to now be grown under higher CO2
Page 3
concentrations in open-air field conditions. Results from these new trials show that elevated
increased yields some 50% less than in previous smaller-scale experiments. This result
casts serious doubt on the projection that rising CO
will fully offset yield losses due to future
warmer, drier conditions.
Source: Long, S.P. et al: Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield simulation with rising
concentrations. Science 312: 1918-1921 (2006).
The 2005 hurricane season was the most active on record by several measures. Trenberth and
Shea investigate the sources of variability influencing the frequency and intensity of hurricanes,
and consider the question of attribution of changes in hurricane behaviour to human-induced
climate change. They conclude that -the global warming influence provides a new background
level that increases the risk of future enhanced activity".
Source: Trenberth, K.E. & Shea, D.J., 2006: Atlantic Hurricanes and natural variability in 2005.
Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L 12704.
The recently published "The Handbook of Climate Trends across Scotland", assesses changes
in Scottish climate over the last 40 years and shows:
Heavy rainfall events have increased significantly in winter, particularl y in northern and
western regions;
The snow season has shortened across the country since 1961, with the season
starting later and finishing earlier in the year. The greatest reductions have occurred in
northern and western Scotland;
Since 1961 there has been more than a 25% reduction in the number of days of frost
(both air and ground frost) across the country. At the same time, the growing season
length has increased significantly, with the greatest change occurring at the beginning
of the season.
Forest farming of A/liums
Marty Travis' cousin, the owner of a 26 acre Illinois woodlot, approached Marty and her
husband Kris to ask them to help reduce the large and expanding area of wild onions or ramps
(Allium tricoccum) to encourage other wildflowers. Today these greens provide almost 70% of
their total farm income.
Ramps are bulbs native to Eastern North America, found in patches of rich, moist , deciduous
forests from Canada to Tennessee and South Carolina. In late winter or very early spring, each
plant sends up 2-3 broad, smooth ovate leaves which grow 20-30 cm tall. Ramps reproduce by
bulb division as well as by seeds, and large colonies can blanket a whole hillside. By late may
or early June, as the shade from the tree canopy maximises, the ramp leaves die back. Ramps
is very similar to the European ram sons (Allium ursinum) in all respects.
Originally, Kris and Marty Travis had no intention of harvesting ramps commercially. In March
2003, they harvested 1590 kg (3500 lb) of ramps from 0.1 acres (about 400 m
). They sold then
to a distributor (wholesaler) for $14,000 (twice as much income as generated from the rest of
their farm's 100 acres of corn and soya bean). In 2004 they harvested fewer ramps but
generated a higher price-per-pound by selling them directly to restaurants in addition to
distributors (restaurants paid $8 to $10 per pound, distributors paid $4.25 per pound). In 2005
they harvested 1800 kg (just under 4000 Ib), as well as several pounds of seeds to sell to
interested entrepreneurs.
In recent years, the market for ramps has grown from a local item to a delicacy on the menus of
restaurants in cities such as Atlanta, New York and Chicago. Since 2004, the Travis's have
hosted a "Chefs d a y ~ for nearly 30 chefs; the chefs help dig, wash and package ramps in the
morning, and in the afternoon the prepare recipes. They hope to expand these days, and are
also going to test market ramp flowers.
Digging the ramps is labour intensive and hard work. Harvest takes 4-5 weeks, mostly by the
Travis's themselves, with some part time hired workers. The whole plant, bulb and ali, is dug
and taken to be washed before sale. This harvest method significantly affects regeneration _
studies have shown that a ramp population needs many years to recover from a single harvest
of this nature. Rather than harvest a large block of plants on a long rotation, it may be more
sustainable to harvest narrow alleys of plants, so that regeneration can take place from either
side more quickly.
Source: Inside Agroforestry. Vol 15 Issue 2. USDA NAC. 2006.
Deep pipe irrigation
The drought conditions in the south and east of England this spring and summer have focussed
grower's minds there on irrigation. Although established trees in Britain rarely need sustained
irrigation, newly planted trees are vulnerable to drought conditions, and if they are planted in
fields some distance from a water supply, then watering them may not be an easy job. In
addition, water supplies can become very low in some areas during droughts, so there may be
only limited applies available. On site water supplies, ego from streams or springs may also
reduce in quality with water shortages. The task then becomes how to water young trees most
efficiently, and this is where deep pipe irrigation comes in.
What is deep pipe irrigation?
Deep pipe irrigation is a system that uses an open vertical or near vertical pipe to deliver
irrigation water to the deep root zone. It encourages a much larger root volume than other
forms of irrigation and helps develop a plant that is better adapted to survive after watering is
terminated. By delivering irrigati on water through deep pipes rather than on the surface, tree
roots tend to grow down rather than at the surface, which can also benefit any intercropping
annuals which tend to be shallow rooted. Weed competition is reduced by avoiding surface
irrigation. Deep pipe irrigation works just as well on steep slopes as on level ground.
Deep pipe irrigation is commonly done with 2.5-3 cm diameter plastic pipe placed vertically 30-
50 cm deep in the soil near a young tree. A screen cover (1 mm mesh) can be added to keep
animals out. Alternatives to plastic pipe include bamboo with the node partitions drilled or
punched out, or even a bundle of tightly tied straight twigs.

)0 _.n
The pipe should be fairl y close to the small tree (2.5 - 7.5 em away for seedling trees, up to 12
em away for larger trees) . Several pipes can be used for a larger tree if necessary, arranged
around the tree symmetrically.
A seri es of 1-2 mm holes or slots should be spaced about 5-7.5 em apart down the side of the
pipe nearest the plant to allow water to weep into the soil at alileveJs (not only at the bottom) to
facilitate root growth early on. If shallow-rooted plants from containers are planted next to a
deep pipe without weep holes, the roots may not make contact with the wetted soil. Similarly, a
young seedling can dry out if a drip emitter is used to deliver water into the pipe, even if it has
weep holes. Growing pl ants in deep containers can minimise these problems.
Deep pipes can be filled from, hoses, watering cans or fitted with a drip emitter. If a dri