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Unit 3B: Chemistry Laboratory Skills I Alternative

Unit 1 Practical Methods and Procedures

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.1
A.
25cm3 of 1 mol dm3 H2SO4 n H2SO4 =
MV 1000

B.

1 mol H2SO4 reacted with 1 mol NiCO3 answer from A = n NiCO3 Mass of NiCO3 = n NiCO3 Mr NiCO3; weight it with slight excess

0.00

2.00

~3.00 g
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.1
C.
Add little by little, stir continuously until the solid dissolves and stop heating for a while. Then continue the same steps until all solid finishes.
XXXXXXXXXXX

D. to G.
Hot mixture

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.1
Let the mass of the crystal obtained is 4.55 g. A green shiny crystal obtained. 1) The theoretical yield of hydrated nickel sulfate is
0.025 [58.7 + 32.1 + 4(16) + 7(18)] = 7.02 g

2) The percentage yield of the crystal obtained from this experiment is 3) It was found that the actual yield is much lower than expected due to some reason:
4.55 7.02

100% = 64.8 %

a. Some product left behind in the apparatus when transferring the product from one apparatus to another. b. Some reactant may be loss during the experiment.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.2 (1)


A.
25cm3 of 2 mol dm3 H2SO4
MV 1000
XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX

n(H2SO4) =

1:1 reaction; n(H2SO4) = n(Fe) m(Fe) = n(Fe) Ar Fe Do the same step until all solid is added

B.

XXXXXXXXXXX

XXXXXXXXXXX

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.2 (1)


C.
Addition of 10% of acid

D.

XXXXXXXXXXX

5cm3 of 2 mol dm3 H2SO4

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Practical 1.2 (2)


A.
25cm3 of 2 mol dm3 H2SO4 ammonia solution

V(NH3) =

B. & C.
Gently heat in the fume hood until it became concentrated
XXXXXXXXXXX

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.2 (3)


A.
Solution from (1)

B. & C.
XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX

Solution from (2)

Allow to cool

D. to F.

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Practical 1.2
Result and observation: A light green shiny crystal obtained. Let the mass of the crystal obtained is ________ g. When both the crystal and iron(II) sulphate were exposed to air overnight, it was found that the crystal does not change colour but iron(II) sulphate turns colour from light green to brown. Discussion 4) The reaction between ammonia solution and sulphuric acid is neutralization. This is due to the fact that the oxidation number of all element remain unchanged. Whereas the reaction between iron sulphuric acid is redox. This is because there is a change of oxidation number where iron changing from 0 to +2 (oxidation) and hydrogen changing from +1 to 0 (reduction). 5) The ions present in the double salts are ammonium ion (NH4+), iron(II) ion (Fe2+), and sulphate ion (SO42)

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.2
Discussion 6) Theoretical yield of the crystals which could be made is as follows:
Mr (NH4)2SO4FeSO46H2O = 392 1 mole (NH4)2SO4 requires to react with 1 mole FeSO4 n(NH4)2SO4 = 0.05 mol Theoretical yield = 0.05 392 = 19.59 g

7) Percentage yield =

19.6

100%

8) The pure iron(II) sulphate turns colour from light green to brown because Fe2+ ion was oxidized to Fe3+ ion when exposed to air.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.3
Solubility and Precipitation Reactions
Insoluble Soluble Result and Observation:
Name
Copper(II) chloride Iron(II) sulphate Magnesium carbonate Iron(III) nitrate Iron(III) oxide Potassium carbonate

Dispose to sink NaOH

Formula Appearance Solubility


CuCl2 FeSO4 MgCO3 Fe(NO3)3 Fe2O3 K2CO3 Soluble Soluble Insoluble Soluble Insoluble Soluble
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Colour of Solution

Addition of NaOH

No change

Practical 1.3
Solubility and Precipitation Reactions
Discussion: 1) There were some of the metal compounds are coloured (copper and iron compounds). Metals that give colour to the compounds are the transition metals 2) The formulae for copper(II) chloride, iron(II) sulphate and iron(III) nitrate all contain water which indicate that they are hydrated compounds. These compounds might reasonably by expected to be soluble in water. 3) All compounds provided in this experiment obeyed the solubility rules.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.3
Further precipitation reactions
Result and Observation:
Combination of solution NaCl + Pb(NO3)2 NaCl + CuSO4 NaOH + Pb(NO3)2 NaOH + CuSO4 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 Pb(NO3)2 + CuSO4 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 CuSO4 + Na2SO4 CuSO4 + Na2CO3
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Observation

Ionic equation

Practical 1.3
Redox Reactions
Result and Observation:
Solution Ionic equations Colour of Solution Ionic equation after adding NaOH

Before H2O2 2Fe2+ 2Fe3+ + 2e2H+ + H2O2 + 2e- 2H2O 2Fe2+ + 2H+ + H2O2 2Fe3+ + 2H2O
Green solution

After
Brown solution

Fe3+(aq)+ 3OH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) (Brown ppt) Fe3+(aq)+ 3OH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) (Brown ppt) Fe3+(aq)+ 3OH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) (Brown ppt)

KMnO4

5Fe2+ 5Fe3+ + 5e8H+ + MnO4- + 5e- Mn2+ + 4H2O Green solution 5Fe2+ + 8H+ + MnO4- 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O 6Fe2+ 6Fe3+ + 6e8H+ + 2NO3- + 6e- 2NO + 4H2O 6Fe2+ + 8H+ + 2NO3- 6Fe 3+ + 4H2O + 2 NO
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Brown solution

Warm conc. HNO3

Green solution

Brown solution

Practical 1.3
Reduction
Result and Observation:
Substance Ionic Eqation Colour of Solution Addition of NaOH Before After Ionic equation after adding NaOH

Zinc, warm

2Fe3+(aq)

+ Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e2Fe3+(aq)+Zn(s) 2Fe2+(aq) + Zn2+(aq)

2e-

2Fe2+ (aq)

Brown solution

Green solution

Fe2+(aq)+ 2OH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) (green ppt) Fe2+(aq)+ 2OH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) (green ppt)

NaSO3, warm

2Fe3+ + 2e- 2Fe2+ H2O + SO32 SO32 +2H+ + 2e- Brown 2Fe3+ + H2O + SO32 2Fe2+ solution + SO32 +2H+

Green solution

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.4
The reaction between: 1) copper(II) sulphate and zinc
m(Zn) = 0.01 Ar Zn

2) Citric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate


m(NaHCO3) = 0.01 Mr NaHCO3
Thermometer

Beaker

Reaction mixture Foam polysterene cup and lid

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.4
Results:
Experiment Moles used Initial temperature (oC) Final temperature (oC) Temperature change, T (oC) 1 (Limiting reagent: CuSO4) MV 1000 2 (Limiting reagent: C6H8O7) MV 1000

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.4
Calculation:
Experiment Energy transfer, q Enthalpy change Thermochemical equation 1 (Limiting reagent: CuSO4) m(solution) 4.18 T H1 =
(CuSO4)

2 (Limiting reagent: C6H8O7) m(solution) 4.18 T H2 =


(C6 H8O7 )

Cu2+(aq) + Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) H1 = _____

C6H8O7(aq) + 3NaHCO3(s) C3H5O7Na3(aq) + 3CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) H2 = _____

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.4
Discussion: 4) The reaction between copper(II) sulphate and zinc is _______ whereas the reaction between citric acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate is ________. 5) As excess of solid is used in each experiment is to ensure that all solution is completely reacted. 6) The things that we should ignore when doing the calculation include the mass of solid reactant added and the specific heat capacity of the solution.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.4
Discussion: 7) A large container was used for the second experiment is because the carbon dioxide gas is formed which may produces bubbles or effervescences. 8) The main sources of error in this experiment include heat losses to the surrounding (environment) such as air, glass, calorimeter or even the products of the reactions, the concentration of the solutions are assumed to be correct, and slight inaccuracies in weighing the solid reactants should make little difference, as long as there is still excess.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

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Practical 1.4
Discussion: 9) The percentage error for each enthalpy change are as follows:
Experiment 1: % error =
20.1 1

100%

Experiment 2: % error =
20.1 2

100%

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.5
Results:
Alcohol Initial mass of spirit lamp + alcohol + cap (g) Final mass of spirit lamp + alcohol + cap (g) Mass of alcohol burned, m (g) Initial temperature of water (oC) Final temperature of water (oC) Propan-1-ol Butan-1-ol Octan-1-ol

Edexcel AS Chemistry

11

Practical 1.5
Calculation:
1) a) n(propan-1-ol) =
b) Energy produce, q = answer from (1) (2021kJmol1) c) Energy produce, q = heat capacity of apparatus, C temperature rise
(propan1ol) (propan1ol)

C= 2)

d) Energy produce for butan-1-ol, q1 = answer from (3) T Energy produce for octan-1-ol, q2 = answer from (3) T e) n(butan-1-ol) = Hc butan-1-ol
(butan1ol) (butan1ol) 1 = (butan1ol)

(2)

n(octan-1-ol) = Hc octan-1-ol

(octan1ol) (octan1ol) 2 = (octan1ol)

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.5
Discussion:
1) Complete combustion may not have taken place where carbon of carbon monoxide might have been formed instead. 2) The main sources is the heat losses to the surrounding and the precautions which should be taken is to use a chimney or other methods of draught proofing. 3) The heat loss and incomplete combustion both will tend to give results that are less negative than the true value.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

12

Practical 1.5
Discussion:
4) It was found that the enthalpy change of combustion increase with the number of carbon atom. The difference is about 655 kJ for each extra carbon atom. 5) This is because more energy is needed to break bonds in the reactants as the number of carbon atoms increases. However, proportionally more energy is released when the new bonds form in the products. So overall reactions becomes more exothermic.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.6
Results:
Experiment Moles used Initial temperature (oC) Maximum temperature (oC) Temperature change, T (oC) 1 (Solid reagent: Ca) m Ca 2 (Solid reagent: CaCO3) m CaCO3

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13

Practical 1.6
Discussion: 1) to 4) The enthalpy change for both reactions are as follows:
Experiment Energy transfer, q Enthalpy change 1 m(solution) 4.18 T H1 =
(Ca)

2 m(solution) 4.18 T H2 =
(CaCO3)

Thermochemical Ca(a) + 2HCl(aq) equation CaCl2(aq) + H2(g) H1= _____

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) H2 = _____

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.6
Discussion: 5) The Hesss cycle for the formation of calcium carbonate is shown below: 3 Ca(s) + O2(g) + C(graphite) CaCO3(s)
2
2HCl(aq) 2HCl(aq)

CaCl2(aq) + H2O(g) + CO2(g) + H2(g) 6) From the Hesss cycle above, the [CaCO3(s)] is calculated as follows:

Hf

Hf [CaCO3(s)] + H2 = H1 + Hf [CO2(g)] + Hf [H2O (g)]

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14

Practical 1.6
Evaluation: 1) The two assumptions that must be made in this experiment are that the specific heat capacity of HCl is same as that of water and that there is no heat loss to the surroundings. 2) The reliability of this experiment could be improved by repeating the experiment and averaging them. 3) Error could be minimised by using a lid to minimise heat loss and by a cooling curve method. 4) The precision of the experiment could be increased by using apparatus which has a low in precision error such as pipette or thermometer that measures to 0.1oC.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.7
Result and Observation:
Experiment Observation Inferences Combustion of cyclohexane gives a yellow (luminous) and 1 Cyclohexane has a high sooty flame. The poly(ethene) Combustion C:H ratio softens and slowly becomes a liquid on gentle heating. 2 Oxidation 3 Action of bromine No changes observed but Alkane does not react slightly brown solution with the oxidising observe when react with agent. poly(ethene) No changes observed but Alkane does not react bromine water colour fades with the bromine water when react with poly(ethene) at room condition

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Practical 1.7
Result and Observation:
Experiment 4 Action of bromine in sunlight Observation The colour of bromine water fades and white fume evolve when the test tube was irradiate under sunlight but no changes observe when test tube leave in a dark place No changes observed Inferences Alkane reacts with bromine through free radical substitution and the white fume is the hydrogen bromide. Alkane does not react with the sulphuric acid. Alkane does not react with the alkali.

5 Action of sulphuric acid


6 Action of alkali

No changes observed

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.7
Result and Observation:
Experiment 7 Catalytic cracking Observation a) Flammability test The gas obtained flammable. is Inferences The gas obtained hydrocarbon. is

b) Bromine test The bromine colour fades then Alkene is present. colourless.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

16

Practical 1.8
Result and Observation:
Experiment Observation Inferences Combustion of cyclohexene 1 and limonene gives a yellow Cyclohexene has a low Combustion (luminous) and slightly sooty C:H ratio. flame. 2 Oxidation 3 Action of bromine The colour of potassium Alkene reacts with the manganate(VII) decolourised. oxidising agent due to Two layers observed. the presents of C=C. The colour of bromine water Alkene reacts with the decolourised. Two layers bromine water due to observed. the presents of C=C.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 1.8
Result and Observation:
Experiment Observation Inferences 4 The solution turns dark and Alkene react with the Action of the bottom of the test tube is sulphuric acid. sulphuric acid hot. CH3 n CH2=C 5 Polymerisation CO2CH3 CH3 ~ CCH2 ~ CO2CH3 n
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The product have the same empirical formula as the starting material.

17

Unit 3B: Chemistry Laboratory Skills I Alternative


Unit 2 Practicals

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Practical 2.1 Finding the effect of electrostatic force on jets of liquid 1) The liquid is deflected towards the plastic rod. 2) Alcohols and ketones show deflection while hydrocarbons show no deflection. 3) This is because polar molecules posses a permanent dipole moment and the molecules tends to align its dipole moment along the field of the nearby charged object. Hydrocarbons do not posses a permanent dipole moment may be observed to be very slightly deflected, as a result of the induced dipole. However, hydrocarbons that show no deflection indicate that the structure is symmetry and the dipole moment are cancel out.
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18

Practical 2.2 Solubility of simple molecules in different solvents


Water Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Insoluble Soluble Ethanol Slightly soluble; solution is slightly brown Slightly soluble Slightly soluble; slight white precipitate observed Cyclohexane Soluble; purple solution obtained Insoluble Insoluble; no precipitate form

Experiment Soluble; dense white 3 precipitate obtained

1) Iodine and sugar both have covalent bond whereas calcium chloride is ionic. 2) Iodine molecules are held together by London forces. Sugar has hydrogen bonding and calcium chloride does not have intermolecular force.
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Practical 2.2 Solubility of simple molecules in different solvents

3) Iodine dissolves in cyclohexane due to the ability for the molecules to interact with hexane molecules through van der Waals forces. It does not dissolve in water or very well in ethanol because the molecules are both polar and therefore cannot form hydrogen bonds to the iodine molecules. Sugar is the opposite and dissolves only in polar solvents like water and ethanol (to some extent). Calcium chloride, being ionic, dissolves in polar solvents because the water molecules interact with the ionic lattice, therefore breaking the lattice and dispersing the ions.
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Procedures: Little amount of carbonate compound are added into a test tube and heated. The gas emitted was allow to bubble through a delivery tube into another test tube containing a small quantity of limewater
Effect MgCO3 CaCO3 SrCO3 BaCO3 Limewater turns cloudy No change No change No change Ionic radius of cation/nm 0.072 0.100 0.113 0.136

Practical 2.3 Thermal decomposition of group 2 nitrates and carbonates

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Procedures: weigh certain amount of nitrate compound with crucibles. The compound are strongly heated in crucibles for few minutes and allow it to cool then reweighing the crucible.
Effect Mg(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Ba(NO3)2 Brown fumes observe No change No change No change Ionic radius of cation/nm 0.072 0.100 0.113 0.136

Practical 2.3 Thermal decomposition of group 2 nitrates and carbonates

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Practical 2.3 Thermal decomposition of group 2 nitrates and carbonates Interpretation: As going down the group, the size of the cations increases, the charge density decrease. This makes the cation decrease in polarizing power and therefore less able to polarize the neighbouring anion. Hence, within the anion, less able to weaken the bonds, making the anion having less easily to be decomposed. MgCO3 (s) MgO (s) + CO2 (g) 2 Mg(NO3)2 (s) 2 MgO (s) + O2 (g) + 4 NO2 (g)

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Practical 2.4 Flame tests on compounds of group 1 and 2


Compound Li+ Na+ K+ Rb+ Cs+ Observation Deep red Yellow Lilac Bluish red Blue Compound Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Observation Brick red Blood red Apple green

1) The coloured flame produced due to electronic excitations of electrons in the metal to a higher electronic energy levels when electrons absorb energy and then return to the lower energy levels with the emission of light energy in the visible region that corresponds to a particular colour. 2) Fireworks.
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21

Practical 2.5
1) 2) 3) 4)

Simple acid-base titration

Observation: T = 24 25oC; metyl orange: yellow reddish orange bromophenol: blue yellow Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l) 2 mol HCl reacted with 1 mol Ca(OH)2 1 mol HCl reacted with 0.5 mol Ca(OH)2 Number of moles HCl = Number of moles in Ca(OH)2 in 10.0 cm3 = 0.5 answer from (3) = x In 1000.0 cm3, number of moles Ca(OH)2 = 5) 6) 7)
1000 10 0.050 1000

Molecular mass of Ca(OH)2 = 40 + 2(16) + 2(1) = 74 Mass of Ca(OH)2 in 1000.0 cm3 = answer from (4) 74 answer from (5) g dm3 at 24 oC Percentage error =
0.12

100%

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.6 Oxidation of metal and non-metallic elements and ions by halogens
Chlorine Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Solution turns orange/brown The colour turns from pale yellow to colourless Reaction with KI: solution turns from colourless to brown; Addition of hexane: Top layer: purple, bottom layer: pale yellow to colourless Bromine Solution turns orange/brown The colour turns from orange to colourless Iodine No change The colour turns from brown to colourless

Experiment 3

Experiment 4

Addition of starch: Black; addition of sodium thiosulfate: colourless

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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1)

Experiment 1 Ox. half equation: 2 Fe2+ (aq) 2 Fe3+ (aq) + 2 e Red. Half equation: Cl2 (aq) + 2 e 2 Cl (aq) Br2 (aq) + 2 e 2 Br (aq) Overall ionic equation: 2Fe2+(aq)+Cl2(aq)2Fe3+(aq)+2Cl(aq) 2Fe2+(aq)+Br2(aq)2Fe3+(aq)+2Br(aq)

Practical 2.6 Oxidation of metal and non-metallic elements and ions by halogens

Experiment 2 Ox. half equation: 2OH (aq) + Cl2 (aq) ClO (aq) + H2O (l) + e Red. Half equation: Cl2 (aq) + e Cl (aq) Overall ionic equation: 2OH (aq) + Cl2 (aq) ClO (aq) + Cl (aq) + H2O (l)
Edexcel AS Chemistry

1) Experiment 3 Ox. half equation: 2I (aq) I 2 (aq) + 2 e Red. Half equation: Cl2 (aq) + 2 e 2 Cl (aq) Overall ionic equation:2I(aq)+Cl2(aq)I2(aq)+2Cl(aq) Experiment 4 Ox. half equation: 2 S2O32 (aq) S4O62 (aq) + 2 e Red. Half equation: I2 (aq) + 2 e 2 I (aq) Overall ionic equation: 2 S2O32 (aq) + I2 (aq) S4O62 (aq) + 2 I (aq)

Practical 2.6 Oxidation of metal and non-metallic elements and ions by halogens

Edexcel AS Chemistry

23

2) From the reaction, 2NaOH(aq)+Cl2(aq) NaClO(aq)+NaCl(aq)+H2O(l) 0 +1 1 The oxidation number of chlorine changes from 0 to +1 and 1 where chlorine act both as oxidizing and reducing agent simultaneously. 3) Oxidizing strength of the halogens decreases down group 7 4) The liberated iodine reacts with the starch turning it to black.

Practical 2.6 Oxidation of metal and non-metallic elements and ions by halogens

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Practical 2.7 Disproportionation reactions with cold and hot alkalis


Halogen solution Chlorine Bromine Iodine Observation on adding alkali The colour turns from pale yellow to colourless The colour turns from orange to colourless The colour turns from brown to colourless Equation 2NaOH(aq)+Cl2(aq) NaClO(aq)+NaCl(aq)+H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq)+Br2(aq) NaBrO(aq)+NaBr(aq)+H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq)+I2(aq) NaIO(aq)+NaI(aq)+H2O(l)

1) 2OH (aq) + Cl2 (aq) ClO (aq) + Cl (aq) + H2O (l) 2) The chlorine undergoes two change: part of it changes from 0 to 1 and part from 0 to +1. 3) Chlorine changes in oxidation number from 0 to +5 and from 0 to 1. 4) 6KOH(aq) + 3I2(aq) 5KI(aq) + KIO3 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
Edexcel AS Chemistry

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1) 2)

A well-mixed, accurately made solutions prepared from good quality reagents is required in order to have an excellent result. The oxidation number of sulfur in sodium thiosulfate is +2 and in sodium tetrathionate is +2.
0.010

Practical 2.8 Iodine/thiosulfate titration and the determination of purity of potassium iodate(V)

Part 1

1) n Na2S2O3 = 1000 ; v = average titre 2) 2 mol Na2S2O3 reacted with 1 mol I2 answer from step 1 divided with 2 3) 3 mol I2 produced from 1 mol KIO3 answer from step 2 divided with 3 4) Molecular mass of KIO3 = 40 + 127 + 3(16) = 214
Mass of KIO3 in 10 cm3 = answer from step 3 214 Mass of KIO3 in 1000 cm3 =
1000 Mass of KIO3 in 10 cm3 10 3 1 3 4 100% 3
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5) Percentage purity =

1) a) Observation: Cl2 with KCl: no changes Cl2 with KBr: the colour of the solution turns from colourless to yelloworange Cl2 with KI: the colour of the solution turns from colourless to brown 2KBr (aq) + Cl2(aq) Br2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq) 2KI (aq) + Cl2(aq) I2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq) Addition of hydrocarbon helps in reaching a decision as the halogen dissolve well in hydrocarbons due to the formation of intermolecular interaction.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides

25

1) b) Observation: All solutions give out two layer Cl2 with KCl: top layer: pale green bottom layer: light green to colourless Cl2 with KBr: top layer: orange bottom layer: light yellow to colourless Cl2 with KI: top layer: purple bottom layer: light yellow to colourless Halogen mixed well with hydrocarbon because both halogen and hydrocarbon having London force with similar strength which allows them to interact easily between the molecules.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides

2) A definite trend in reactivity is clearly observed in this experiment because as the atomic radius of the halogen increases down the group, the tendency to accept electron decreases which also decreases the oxidizing power of the halogens.

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides

2I (aq) + Br2 (aq) I2 (aq) + 2Br (aq)

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
The reactions between halogens and halide ions
Action on Solution added Water Potassium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium iodide

With water: soluble forming light green solution; Chlorine Addition of followed hexane: Top by layer: pale hexane green, bottom layer: light green to colourless

No changes

With Cl: With Cl: solution turns solution turns from colourless from colourless to yellowto brown; orange; Addition of Addition of hexane: hexane: Top layer: Top layer: purple, bottom orange, bottom layer: pale layer: pale yellow to yellow to colourless colourless

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
The reactions between halogens and halide ions
Action on Solution added Water Potassium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium iodide With Br: solution turns from colourless to brown; Addition of hexane: Top layer: purple, bottom layer: pale yellow to colourless

With water: soluble and forms orange to light brown Bromine solution followed Addition of by hexane: Top hexane layer: orange, bottom layer: pale yellow to colourless

No change

No change

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
The reactions between halogens and halide ions
Action on Solution added Water With water: insoluble in cold water but slightly soluble in hot water and forms brown solution Addition of hexane: Top layer: purple, bottom layer: pale yellow to colourless Potassium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium iodide

Iodine followed by hexane

No change

No change

No change

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
Some reactions of the halides 1) The silver halides
Action on Solution Potassium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium iodide Silver nitrate White precipitate obtained Cream precipitate obtained Yellow precipitate obtained Concentrated ammonia solution The precipitate is soluble The precipitate is soluble The precipitate is insoluble Exposure to light Silver substance observed *Yellow substance observed No change observed

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
Some reactions of the halides 2) The action of concentrated sulfuric acid on potassium salts
Action on Potassium chloride Lead(II) ethaonoate Acidified potassium dichromate(IV) Ammonia solution No change No change White fume observe Potassium bromide No change Turns from orange to green No change Potassium iodide Turns from clear to brown No change No change

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.9 Reactions between halogens and halide ions/some reactions of the halides
Some reactions of the halides 3) The properties of the hydrogen halides
Action on Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Solubility in Water Reaction with Ammonia gas Thermal stability Soluble Dense white fume observed Slightly soluble Dense white fume observed Hydrogen iodide Slightly soluble Dense white fume observed

Little amount of Vast amount of No change brown gas purple gas observed; the gas is observed; the gas is observed; the gas is stable less stable unstable

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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Practical 2.10 Factors that influence the rate of chemical reactions


1) MnO2 and PbO2 2) A catalyst works by providing an alternative reaction route of a lower activation energy

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Practical 2.11 Effect of temperature, pressure and concentration on equilibrium


1) Initially, brown gas is observed. When a hot water bath is used to heat up the test tube containing the gas, the intensity of brown colour is increased. When a ice bath is used to cool down the test tube, the intensity of brown colour decreasing until it reaches colourless. 2) When high pressure is applied, the intensity of brown colour decreases until it reaches colourless. But when lower pressure is applied, the intensity of brown colour increases.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

30

Practical 2.12 Reactions of alcohols


1) Solubility in water
Alcohols Ethanol Methanol Propan1ol Butan1ol Pentan1ol Observation With water Soluble Soluble Slightly soluble, two layer observed Slightly soluble; two layer observed Less soluble, two layer observed pH 7 7 7 7 7

The alcohols with shorter carbon chain are more soluble than the others due to their ability to form hydrogen bonds to water molecules. As the carbon chains is getting longer, the solubility decreases. This is because the carbon chain will interrupt (break) the hydrogen bonding and replace with London forces. Thus, the trend solubility of the alcohols is decreasing as the number of carbon chain increase.
Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.12 Reactions of alcohols


2) Reaction with sodium
Alcohols Ethanol Methanol Propan1ol Butan1ol Pentan1ol Observation Sodium dissolve vigorously in ethanol Sodium dissolve vigorously in methanol Sodium dissolve slightly vigorous in propan1ol Sodium dissolve slightly vigorous in butan1ol Sodium dissolve less vigorous in pentan1ol

The sodium reacts vigorously with alcohols with shorter carbon chain. As the carbon chains is getting longer, the reaction is getting less reactive. The products produce are the alkoxide compounds. It is predicted that alcohols behave similarly with water however the reaction between alcohol and sodium is less vigorous than that between sodium and water. When the alcohols react with sodium, the OH breaks. Thus, the trend reactivity of the alcohols is decreasing from methanol to pentan1ol as the number of carbon chain increase.
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Practical 2.12 Reactions of alcohols


3) Reaction with sodium
Alcohols Ethanol Methanol Propan1ol Butan1ol Pentan1ol Observation The solution turns colour from orange to green. The solution turns colour from orange to green. The solution turns colour from orange to green. The solution turns colour from orange to green. The solution turns colour from orange to green.

The acidified dichromate(VI) solution oxidized alcohols readily. However, the reaction of the alcohols becomes progressively slower with increasing length of carbon chain but reaction with methanol is also quite slow. The products obtained produce a mild fruity smell indicate that aldehydes are form.

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.13 Preparation of an organic liquid (reflux and distillation)


1) The dehydration of propan1ol
Reagent Bromine water Acidified potassium manganate(VII) Observation The colour of bromine water decolourized. The colour of the solution decolourized.

The product obtained from this experiment has the ability to decolourized both of the reagent indicates that the product obtained having C=C. The name of the product is ___________.

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Practical 2.13 Preparation of an organic liquid (reflux and distillation)


2) The oxidation of propan1ol
Reagent Sodium carbonate Fehling solution Observation A mild effervescence observed No change

sour smell neutralises a relatively large volume of sodium carbonate solution. It does not give any change to the Fehling solution. indicate carboxylic acid obtained The name of the product is __________,

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.14

Preparation of a halogenoalkane from an alcohol

1) A halogenoalkane from a primary alcohol


pungent smell Milky globules observed at the bottom of the conical flask

C2H5OH (aq) + HBr (aq) C2H5Br (aq) + H2O (aq) CO bond is broken in ethanol 2) A halogenoalkane from a tertiary alcohol
~16.5 g Reasons:
The reactant used may not be pure The reaction may not be complete Product maybe left behind on the apparatus Product maybe evaporate Parallax factor

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33

Practical 2.15 Reactions of the halogenoalkanes


1) Combustion
Halogenoalkanes 1-chlorobutane 2-chloro-2-methylbutane 1 bromobutane 1 iodobutane Observation Readily burn with yellow flame Readily burn with yellow flame Burn with yellow flame Burn with yellow flame and emission of purple fume

2) Reaction with aqueous alkali


The product obtained is alcohol Iodo, bromo, chloro Tertiary, secondary, primary

3) Comparison of halogenoalkanes

Edexcel AS Chemistry

Practical 2.15 Reactions of the halogenoalkanes


4) Reaction with alcoholic alkali The product obtained is alkene Elimination reaction take place Due to the presents of unchanged reactant which may be caused by strong heating

Edexcel AS Chemistry

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