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MRSM BALING, KEDAH

PBS BAND 6

Name : Siti Mazenah Dienta Rochani binti Mohamed Tajudin Class: 2D (Jauzi) Teacher: Miss Wan Nor Akmal Evidence: B6D1E1 Title: Technological Devices Which Are Suitable For Overcoming The Limitations Of Sight And Hearing

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES TO OVERCOME THE LIMITATIONS OF SIGHT


1. Ultrasound Machine
(Source : The Internet- http://www.howstuffworks.com/ultrasound.htm)

How Does It Work?

To scan and see the condition of the baby in a pregnant mother. A cyclic sound pressure wave with frequency greater than the upper limit of the hearing range. Used for obstetrics, biopsy and for heart. Ultrasonic waves create images of organ or fetus. Microphone-shaped device pressed again mothers belly to scan. The device sends out high frequency sound area into the area scanned. The wave bounces back upon hitting the fetus and an image of the fetus is then seen.

2. Periscope
(Source : The Internet- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_does_a_periscope_work)

How Does It Work?

To see a view behind an obstructing object. An instrument for observation from a concealed position. Consists of mirrors parallel at each end that is set to each other at 45 degree angle. Reflective objects like mirrors work by bouncing light so it carries on in a straight line but alters it's route, according to the angle of the mirror to the light source. Light hitting a mirror at an angle is reflected off at twice the angle of the mirror.

3.

Microscope

( Source : Newspaper The News Straits Times, 06 May 2009)

4.

Telescope

( Source: Newspaper The Star, 18 August 2010)

5. Magnifying Glass

( Source: Magazine- HWM Malaysia, Issue 17)

Technological Devices To Overcome The Limitations Of Hearing


1. Hearing Aid/ Cochlear Implants
(Source: The Internet - http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern-technology/hearingaid4.htm)

How Does It Work?

The cochlear implant is made up of two main systems: an external system and an internal system. The external system is composed of three parts: a sound processor, a microphone and a transmitter. The internal system features a receiver and an electrode array. The microphone, which is attached to the sound processor, captures sound and sends it to the sound processor, a small device that can be inconspicuously clipped over the outer ear. The transmitter sits behind the sound processor and connects to the scalp directly outside where the internal receiver is implanted under the skin. The transmitter is fitted with a magnet that holds it onto the internal receiver. (Instead of being fastened to the scalp and ear, the external system can also be carried in a shirt pocket or hip pouch.) The receiver, which is about the size of a quarter, is implanted under the skin in the bone behind the ear. And the electrode array is a wire that runs from the implant into the cochlea. The microphone picks up sound and sends it to the sound processor, which translates sound into digital information. It sends this digital information to the implanted receiver, which changes the digital information into electrical signals and sends these signals to the electrode array. The electrode array sends these signals to the auditory nerve, which then passes along the signals to the brain.

2. Tactile Devices
(Source: The Internet - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090227112311.htm)

How Does It Work?

This device is still under development by the MIT researches, but should be out by the end of July this year. Tactile devices translate sound waves into vibrations that allow the user to distinguish between vibratory patterns associated with different sound frequencies. The MIT researchers are testing devices that have at least two vibration ranges, one for high-frequency sounds and one for low-frequency sounds. Using such handheld devices, deaf people can more easily follow conversations than with lip reading alone, which requires a great deal of concentration. Current prototypes can be held in the user's hand or worn around the back of the neck, but once the acoustic processing software is developed, it could be easily incorporated into existing smart phones, according to the researchers. To lay the groundwork for such future applications, the researchers are investigating the best way to transform sound waves into vibrations. Existing tactile aids have been in use for decades, but the MIT team hopes to improve the devices by refining the acoustic signal processing systems to provide tactile cues that are tailored to boost lipreading performance.

3.

Stethoscope

( Source: Magazine- HWM Malaysia, Issue 32)

4.

Earphone

(Source: Newspaper- The Star, 21 April 2008)

References from Different Sources


1. 2. 3. 4. http://www.sightandsound.co.uk/ http://www.inclusive.co.uk/articles/technology-for-the-visually-impaired-a281 http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2012/08/03/2003539338 http://www.nrccnrc.gc.ca/eng/irap/success/2011/technologies_humanware_braillenote_apex.html 5. http://dbs.myflorida.com/resources/web-links/adaptive-technology.php 6. http://www.szb.ch/en/our-services/aids-for-visually-impaired-people.html 7. http://www.wati.org/content/supports/free/pdf/Ch13-Hearing.pdf 8. http://www.cpcc.edu/disabilities/deafness-101/support-services 9. http://www.start-american-sign-language.com/deaf-technology.html 10. http://www.michdhh.org/assistive_devices/hearing_assistive_tech.html 11. http://www.summitdeafaids.co.uk/ 12. http://www.deafwebsites.com/technology/technology-for-deaf.html 13. http://www.sense.org.uk/content/communication-aids 14. http://literacy.kent.edu/Oasis/deaf/devices.html 15. http://www.actiononhearingloss.org.uk/your-hearing.aspx 16. https://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/590w/10sp/deaf-tech10.pdf 17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearing_aid 18. http://thestar.com.my/ 19. http://www.nst.com.my/ 20. http://www.writeonmedia.com.my/magazine/hwm/

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