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Lossy Medium

EE142
Dr. Ray Kwok

reference: Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics, David K. Cheng (Addison-Wesley) Electromagnetics for Engineers, Fawwaz T. Ulaby (Prentice Hall)

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Ohms Law
V = IR
A E

l El = (JA ) A r r E = J resisitivity r 1r J= E r r conductivity J = E

Low resistivity => conductor ~<10-5 -cm ( T ) High resistivity => insulator ~>1010 -cm Intermediate resistivity => semiconductor typical ~10-3 to 105 -cm ( eEg/kT ) unit of conductivity = S/m = Siemens/meter = mho/m = (-m)-1

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

EM Wave through medium


r E = f r r H E = t r H = 0 r r r E H = Jf + t
(homogeneous, linear, isotropic) 0, J 0

r E = 0 r r E = jH r H = 0 r r r H = J f + jE

r r r r H = ( + j)E = j + j E = jcE finite means complex c j ' j"

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Loss Tangent
" tan = '
good conductor >> good insulator <<

Low tan low dielectric loss the smaller, the better !!!

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example
A sinusoidal E-field with amplitude of 250 V/m and frequency 1 GHz exists in a lossy dielectric medium that has a r = 2.5 and loss tangent of 0.001. Find the average power dissipated in the medium per cubic meter.

tan = 0.001 = = = o r = 1.39 10 4


S/m

9 9 10 2 10 36 (2.5)

The average power dissipated per unit volume is

Pave 1 r r 1 2 1 2 = J E = E = 1.39 10 4 (250) V 2 2 2 Pave = 4.34 W Note: V

Pave

1 V 2 1 (El ) 1 = = = E 2 (lA ) 2 R 2 l / A 2
2

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Wave Equation
r r H E = t r r E H = c t r 2 r E 2 plane wave equation still holds with modification of E = c 2 t r r j( t k r ) r jt r c allow k be complex since is E(r, t ) = E o e E oe e

jk c = j c + j
phase constant attenuation constant propagation constant

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Complex Propagation Constant


" = j c = j 1 j = j 1 j = j (1 j tan ) = + j '
The phasor

r r r r r jr E(r ) = E oe = E oe e
attenuation

e-r

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

dB scale
power intensity ratio in log scale, not a unit !!

P V I (dB) = 10 log I = 10 log P = 20 log V o o o


sound intensity power voltage

> 0 gain < 0 loss

10 log(2) 3, 3 dB = double 10 log(1/2) -3, -3 dB = half 10 log(10) = 10, 10 dB = 10x 10 log(100) = 20, 20 dB = 100x 10 log(0.1) = -10, -10 dB = 1/10 What is 6 dB? 9 dB? 7 dB? 44 dB? 4x 1/8 5x 4 x 10-5

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

dBm & dBW


P dBW 10 log 1W P dBm 10 log 1mW
become real units

0 dBm = 1 mW 30 dBW = 1 kW -30 dBm = 1 W

What is 40 dBW? -7 dBm? -26 dBm? 21 dBm? 10 kW 0.2 mW 4 W 1/8 W

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example
Isotropic 100 W

How much electricity generated by the solar cell? What if a 40 W bulb is used? 200 W bulb? Intensity = power/area =
1m

100 100 W = = 7 . 96 4 R 2 4 (1)2 m2

Power generated in solar cell W = 7.96 2 100cm 2 (40% ) = 31.8mW m

solar cell 10 x 10 cm2 40% efficiency

In terms of dB

0.0318W = 10 log = 35dB 100 W

40 W bulb? 35 = 10 log

P 40

system gain

Power of electricity generated = 12.6 mW

P 35 = 10 log 200 W bulb? 200


Power of electricity generated = 63.2 mW

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Attenuation
r r r r r jr E(r ) = E o e = E o e e r E(r ) A(r )[dB] = 20 log r = 20 log e r E ( 0) log c (b) log a (b) = log c (a ) 20r A(r )[dB] = = 8.686r ln(10)
For example, if the electric field intensity going through a medium attenuates at a rate of 0.4 dB/m, what is ? -0.4 dB = -8.686 (1 m) = 0.4/8.686 = 0.046 nepers/m Note: nepers (np) is not a real unit. similar to radians !!! Note also is a positive number for attenuation.

[dB/m] = 8.686 [np/m]

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Low-loss dielectric

(<<) or (<<)

" = j 1 j = j 1 j = j (1 j tan ) ' n n! n (n 1) 2 n (1 + x ) = x n k = 1 + nx + x + ..... 2 k = 0 k!( n k )! (1 + x ) n 1 + nx " = j 1 j ' =


for small x
1/ 2

1 " j 1 j + j 2 '
small

" = = 2 ' 2 2

= / v " c = = 1 j c (1 j" / ' ) '


1 / 2

j " 1 + 2 '

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Good Conductor
= j 1 j j j 1 j j = e j / 2 = e j / 4 = 2

(>>)

1 j = j = ( j + 1) + j 2 2 == 2 c = c (1 j / ) 1 + j j = (1 + j) = (1 + j) 2 2

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Skin Depth
1 2 = = s

r r r j r E(r ) = E o e e
At r = , |E| decreases to 1/e (or 63% drop).

r E(r ) A(r )[dB] = 20 log r = 20 log e r = 8.686r E ( 0)


At r = , |E| decreases by -8.7 dB. At r = 2, |E| decreases by -17.3 dB.

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

General Material
= j c = j (' j" ) + j 2 = 2(' j" ) = 2 2 + 2 j 2' = 2 2 j " = j2
2

real imaginary
2

2" 2' tan 2 2 = 2 = 2 1 + tan 2 1

2" 2 2 2 2 = ' = ' 2 4 4 + 4 2 2' 2" = 0 = 2 =


2

( 1 + tan + 1) = 2( 1 + tan 1) ( 1 + tan + 1) ' tan ( 1 + tan + 1) =


2' tan 2
2 2 2 2 2 2

42'
2

( ) (4 ')
2 2

2 1 + tan 2 1

+ 16 2"

2' = 1 + tan 2 + 1 2
2

' 1 1 + tan 2 2 2 ' 1 + tan 2 1 2 = 2

( (

c = = ' c (1 j tan ) c = (1 j tan )1/ 2 '

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Summary

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example - The skin depth of a certain nonmagnetic conducting


material is 2m at 5 GHz. Determine the phase velocity in the material. What is the attenuation (in dB) when the wave penetrates 10 m into the material? phase velocity v = / for conductor, = = 1/ v = = (2)(5 x 109) (2 x 10-6) = 6.28 x 104 m/s

r E (r ) A(r )[dB] = 20 log r = 20 log e r = 8.686r E (0) A(r )[dB] = 8.686r / = 8.686(10 / 2) = 43.4dB
in just 5 skin depth. ( 43 dB = 1 / 20,000 !!!) Only surface current on conductors.

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example (a) Calculate the dielectric loss (in dB) of an EM


wave propagating through 100 m of teflon at 1 MHz. (b) at 10 GHz ? Teflon: r = 2.08, tan = 0.0004 at 25oC assuming frequency independence. (a) tan = 9 8 6 10 S/m ( )( ) = o r tan = (2 10 ) 2 . 08 0 . 0004 = 4 . 6 10 36
o 4.6 10 8 (377 ) = = = = 6.04 10 6 2 2 r 2 2.08

np/m

A(dB) = 8.686r = 8.686 6.04 10 6 (100) = 0.005 dB


(b)

10 9 4 ( )( ) = o r tan = 2 10 = 2 . 08 0 . 0004 4 . 6 10 36

10

S/m

o 4.6 10 4 (377 ) = = = = 6.04 10 2 2 2 r 2 2.08

np/m dB

A (dB) = 8.686r = 8.686 6.04 10 2 (100) = 50

Coaxial cable works well at low freq (TV to antenna) but not so well at high freq. !!

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example

In a nonmagnetic, lossy, dielectric medium, a 300-MHz plane r j4z )e 2 y e j9 y A/m. wave is characterized by the magnetic field phasor H = (x Obtain time-domain expressions for the electric and magnetic field vectors. What is the polarization state of this wave?

r r j4z )e 2 y e j( t 9 y ) H(r , t ) = e (x r r e 2 y cos(t 9 y) + z 4e 2 y sin(t 9 y) H(r , t ) = x

t = 0+ y, k t=0 x

= 2, = 9

2' = 2 2 2" = 2 " 2 2(2)(9) = 2 = = 0.468 = tan 2 2 2 ' 9 2 ' 2 2 77c 2 77(3 108 ) 2 r = = 2 = 2 = = 1.95 o oo (2 300 106 ) 2 c =

LHEP

(1 j tan )1/ 2 = o (1 j tan )1/ 2 = 377 (1 j0.468)1/ 2 ' 1.95 r

c = 25712.5o = 257e j0.22

r c e 2 y cos(t 9 y) x 4c e 2 y sin(t 9 y) E=z r 257e 2 y cos(t 9 y + 0.22) x 1028e 2 y sin(t 9 y + 0.22) E=z

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Surface resistance for conductors


J

J = E = J o e z e jz = J o e (1+ j) z / r r J w J o w j / 4 I = J da = J o w e (1+ j) z / dz = o = e (1 + j) 2 0
w L w /2

Jo

Jo V = EoL = L on surface V 1+ j L L Z= = Zs similar to R & I w w 1+ j Zs = surface impedance ()

Lossy Medium - Dr. Ray Kwok

Homework
1. Determine the frequency at which a time-harmonic electric field intensity causes a conduction current density and a displacement current density of equal magnitude in (a) seawater with r = 72 and = 4 S/m, and (b) moist soil with r = 2.5 and = 10-3 S/m. Calculations concerning the electromagnetic effect of currents in a good conductor usually neglect the displacement current even at microwave frequencies. (a) Assuming r = 1 and = 5.7 x 107 S/m for copper, compare the magnitude of the displacement current density with that of the conduction current density at 100 GHz. (b) Write the differential equation in phasor form for magnetic field intensity H in a source-free good conductor.

2.