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# Vibrations and Waves MP205, Assignment 6 Solutions

1. Two identical pendulums are connected by a light coupling spring. Each pendulum has a length of 0.4 m, and they are at a place where g = 9.8 ms2 . With the coupling spring connected, one pendulum is clamped and the period of the other is found to be 1.25 sec exactly. (a) With neither pendulum clamped, what are the periods of the two normal modes? (b) What is the time interval between successive maximum possible amplitudes of one pendulum after one pendulum is drawn aside and released? (a) We nd the EOM for mass A when B is clamped and A is free as in the gure.

2 The restoring forces on A, FA are m0 xA kxA , where 0 is the natural pendulum frequency given by 0 = g/ . The EOM for mass A is

d 2 xA 2 + m0 xA + kxA = 0 dt2

d 2 xA 2 2 + 0 xA + C xA = 0 dt2

d 2 xA 2 2 + ( 0 + C )xA = 0 dt2

where c = k/m is the coupling frequency. We note that the above equation is now in the form d2 x/dt2 = 2 x and we can read the new angular frequency of 2 2 the system to be = 0 + C = g/ + k/m. A solution to the above EOM is xA = D cos( t). We are given the period of this system to be 1.25 sec, therefore TA = 2 = 1.25 1.25 = 2
2 0

2 C

2 2 0 + C = 25.2661

(i) We now can study the normal modes. The rst one occurs when both masses are free and move in the same direction as in the gure below.

In this case it is clear that the spring exerts no force on either mass, we have the same distance between them at all times. So it is like they are uncoupled and we have their natural frequency 0 = g/ . So the EOM for mass A is simply d 2 xA 2 + 0 xA = 0 dt2

and a solution is xA = C cos(0 t). So we know that the rst normal angular frequency is just 1 = 0 = g/ and hence the rst normal period is T1 = 2 = 2 1 = 2 0.4 = 1.27 s 9.8

(ii) The second normal mode occurs when both masses are free and move in opposite directions as in the gure below.

In this case we see that the spring is stretched a distance 2x (x on each side) and 2 xA 2kxA and the EOM for A is just so the restoring forces on A, FA are m0 m d 2 xA 2 + m0 xA + 2kxA = 0 dt2 d 2 xA 2 2 + ( 0 + 2C )xA = 0 dt2

Again we directly read o the angular frequency of this system, it is the angular 2 2 + 2C = g/ + 2k/m. frequency of the second normal mode given by 2 = 0 Also a solution to this EOM is xA = D cos(2 t) and xB = D cos(2 t) for B since it is just the mirror image. We nd the period of the second normal mode. It is T2 = 2 = 2 2
2 0 2 + 2C

## 2 2 2 2 We already know that 0 + C = 25.2661, so C = 25.2661 0 = 25.661 g/ = 0.7661. So we have

T2 =

2 = 1.23 s 5.102

(b) This is the case described in the rst diagram. A is set into motion, pulling and pushing B. Spring also pulls + pushes A, sometimes helping, sometimes hindering its motion. The motion is like beats of two SHMs of same amplitude and dierent frequency. The time between successive maximum amplitudes is just the beat period. T = 2 2 T2 T1 (1.27)(1.23) = = = = 39 s |1 2 | 2 |1/T1 1/T2 | T2 T1 1.27 1.23

2. Two equal masses on an eectively frictionless horizontal air track are held between rigid supports by three identical springs, as shown. The displacements from equilibrium along the line of the springs are described by coordinates xA and xB , as shown. If either of the masses is clamped, the period T for one complete vibration of the other is 3 sec.

(a) If both masses are free, what are the periods of the two normal modes of the system? Sketch graphs of xA and xB versus t in each mode. At t = 0, mass A is at its normal resting position and mass B is pulled aside a distance of 5 cm. The masses are released from rest at this instant. (b) Write an equation for the subsequent displacement of each mass as a function of time. (c) What length of time (in seconds) characterises the periodic transfer of the motion from B to A and back again? (a) When one is clamped the restoring force on the other is F = 2kx since the spring is stretched a distance 2x. The EOM is then just m d2 x + 2kx = 0 dt2 d2 x + 2 2 x = 0 dt2

We are told that the period is 3 sec so T = 2/ = 2 m/2k = 3 s. We now nd the periods of the two normal modes. When coupled the restoring forces on A, FA are kxA k (xA xB ) and the restoring forces on B, FB are kxB k (xB xA ). So the equations of motion are d 2 xA m 2 + kxA + k (xA xB ) = 0 dt d 2 xB m 2 + kxB + k (xB xA ) = 0 dt

Adding both together gives the rst normal mode angular frequency. (occurs when xA = xB ) m d2 (xA + xB ) + k (xA + xB ) = 0 dt2 d2 q1 2 + 1 q1 = 0 dt2

where 1 = k/m and q1 = xA + xB . Subtracting one from the other gives the second normal mode frequency. (occurs when xA = xB ) m d2 (xA xB ) + 3k (xA xB ) = 0 dt2 d2 q2 2 + 2 q2 = 0 dt2

where 2 = 3k/m and q2 = xA xB . The normal mode periods are then simply T1 = T2 = 2 = 2 2 m 3k 2 m = 2 = 2T = 3 2 s 1 k 2 m/3k T2 2 = = T2 = T 3 2 m/2k

2 T = 3

2 3= 6 s 3

## 1 (q + q2 ) = 1 A cos(1 t + 1 ) + 2 A2 cos(2 t + 2 ). (b) Had xA = 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 (q1 q2 ) = 1 A cos( t + ) A cos(2 t + 2 ). Also xb = 2 1 1 2 1 2 2

At t = 0, A1 = 0 cm, A2 = 5 cm (=B0 ). Told released from rest so xA = 0, xB = 0, dxA B = 0, dx = 0. Filling in these conditions we get that: dt dt 1 2 dxAB = A1 sin(1 t + 1 ) A2 sin(2 t + 2 ) dt 2 2 which must equal 0 due to boundary conditions. Set 1 = 2 = 0. 1 1 xA = 0 at t = 0 A +2 A2 = 0. 2 1 1 1 A 2 A2 = B0 . xB = 0 at t = 0 2 1 Adding both equations gives A1 = B0 and subtracting one from the other gives A2 = B0 . Therefore: xA = xB 1 B0 [cos(1 t) cos(2 t)] 2 1 = B0 [cos(1 t) + cos(2 t)] 2

Using trigonometric identities we can rewrite them as: xA = B0 sin xB = B0 cos 1 2 1 + 2 t sin t 2 2 1 2 1 + 2 t cos t 2 2

(c) The time taken is just the time between successive maximum amplitudes which is the beat period. (3 2)( 6) 2 3 3 2 T2 T1 = = = = T = |1 2 | 2 |1/T1 1/T2 | T2 T1 63 2 1 3 3. Two objects, A and B , each of mass m, are connected by springs as shown. The coupling spring has a spring constant kc , and the other two springs have spring constant k0 . If B is clamped, A vibrates at a frequency A of 1.81 sec1 . The frequency 1 of the lower normal mode is 1.14 sec1 .

(a) Satisfy yourself that the equations of motion of A and B are d 2 xA = k0 xA kc (xA xB ) dt2 d 2 xB m 2 = k0 xB kc (xB xA ) dt m

(b) Putting 0 = k0 /m, show that the angular frequencies 1 and 2 of the normal modes are given by 1 = 0 ,
2 2 = [0 + (2kc /m)]1/2 ,

and that the angular frequency of A when B is clamped (xB = 0 always) is given by
2 + (kc /m)]1/2 . A = [0

(c) Using the numerical data above, calculate the expected frequency (2 ) of the higher normal mode. (The observed value was 2.27 sec1 ). (d) From these same data calculate the ratio kc /k0 of the two spring constants. (a) Look at the restoring forces on both masses. Restoring forces on A, FA are k0 xA kc (xA xB ) and on B are k0 xB kc (xB xA ), therefore we get their equations of motion to be: d2 xA m 2 = k0 xA kc (xA xB ) dt d2 xB m 2 = k0 xB kc (xB xA ) dt (b) Use simultaneous equations of EOMs to nd the normal mode angular frequencies. Adding both together gives the rst normal mode angular frequency. (occurs when xA = x B ) m d2 (xA + xB ) + k0 (xA + xB ) = 0 dt2 d2 q1 2 + 1 q1 = 0 dt2

where 1 = 0 = k0 /m and q1 = xA + xB . Subtracting one from the other gives the second normal mode frequency. (occurs when xA = xB ) m d2 (xA xB ) + k0 (xA xB ) + 2kc (xA xB ) = 0 dt2 d2 q 2 2 + 2 q2 = 0 dt2 d2 q2 + dt2 k0 2kc + m m q2 = 0

2 where 2 = (0 + 2kc /m) and q2 = xA xB . When B is clamped, xB = 0 and therefore the EOM for A becomes:

d2 xA + k0 xA + kc xA = 0 dt2 So: A = k0 kc + m m

d2 xA + dt2
2 0 +

k0 kc + m m

xA = 0

kc . m

## (c) We know that A = 1.81 sec1 and 1 = 1.14 sec1 .

1 A A = = = TA 2 1 0 1 = = T1 2 2 1 = = 2 = T2 2

2 + kc /m 0 2

2 0 +

kc = 129.335 m kc = 78.0292 m

0 = 2 (1.14) = 7.1628 s1

## (c) We know that 0 =

kc 78.0292m = = 1.52 2 k0 m0