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Gerund & To Infinitive

A.Gerund
Gerund is the –ing form of a verb(Example: talking, playing,
understanding).

The functions of gerund is to replace noun, so sometimes in the


sentences you can find a gerund replacing noun.

Gerund as the object of (a) We talked about going


preposition. to Canada for our
vacation.
(b) Steve is in charge of
organizing the meeting.
(c) I’m interested in
learning more about
your work.
“to” is a preposition, not part of (d) I’m used to sleeping
an infinitive form, so a gerund with the window open.
follows. (e) I look forward to
going home next home
next month.
(f) They object to
changing their plans at
this late date.
Negatife form: “not” precedes a (g) We talked about not
gerund. going to the meeting,
but finally we decided
we should go.
Verbs that Usually Followed By a Gerund

(a) I enjoy playing tennis. Gerunds are used as the objects


of certain verbs.
Enjoy is not followed by an
infinitive.
INCORRECT: I enjoy to play
tennis.
(b) Joe quit smoking. (b) and (c) have the same
(c) Joe gave up smoking. meaning, and followed by
gerunds.

Examples List:
a. Enjoy
b. Appreciate
c. Mind
d. Quit(Give up)
e. Finish(Get through)
f. Stop*
g. Avoid
h. Postpone(Put off)
i. Delay
j. Keep(Keep on)
k. Consider(Think about)
l. Mention
m.Suggest

*More examples for “Stop”:


a. Stop + gerund : When the professor entered the room, the
students stopped talking. (The room become
quiet)
b. Stop + infinitive : While I was walking down the street, I ran
an old friend. I stopped to talk to him.
(I stopped walking in order to talk to him)
Go + Gerund

(a) Did you go shopping? “Go” is followed by a gerund in


(b) We went fishing certain expressions, for most
yesterday. part, recreational activities.

Examples List:
a. Go birdwatching
b. Go boating
c. Go bowling
d. Go camping
e. Go canoeing
f. Go fishing
g. Go dancing
h. Go hiking
i. Go hunting
j. Go jogging
k. Go mountain climbing
l. Go running
m.Go sailing
n. Go shopping
o. Go sightseeing
p. Go skating
q. Go skiing
r. Go sledding
s. Go swimming
t. Go tobogganing
u. Go window shopping
B. Infinitive
Infinitife is the “to + the simple form of a verb(Example: to talk,
to play, to understand.

Example of the sentences:


a. Verb + Infinitive
1. I hope to see you again soon.
2. He promised to be here by ten.
3. He promised not to be late.
b. Verb + (Pro)Noun + Infinitive
1. Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock.
2. The police ordered the driver to stop.
c. Verb + Infinitive
1. I was told to be here at ten o’clock.
2. the driver was ordered to stop.
d. Negative form:
Just add “not” before the infinitive. Like, “He promised not
to eat before finishing his task”.

Examples List of Verb + Infinitive:


a. Hope to p. Need to
b. Plan to
c. Intend to*
d. Decide to
e. Promise to
f. Agree to
g. Offer to
h. Refuse to
i. Seem to
j. Appear to
k. Pretend to
l. Ask to
m. Expect to
n. Would like to
o. Want to
Examples List of Verb + (Pro)Noun + Infinitive:
a. Tell someone to
b. Advise someone to**
c. Encourage someone to
d. Remind someone to
e. Invite someone to
f. Permit someone to
g. Allow someone to
h. Warn someone to
i. Require someone to
j. Order someone to
k. Force someone to
l. Ask someone to
m. Expect someone to
n. Would like someone to
o. Want someone to
p. Need someone to

• “Intend” is usually followed by an infinitive.


Example : I intend to go to the meeting.
• But sometimes may be followed by a gerund.
Example : I intend going to the meeting.

** A gerund is used after “advise” if there is no (pro) noun


object. Compare:
1. He advised me buying a Trueno AE86 car.(Gerund)
2. He advised me to buy a Trueno AE86 car. (Infinitive)
Common Verbs That followed By infinitive:

1. Verb +Infinitive or Gerund(With No Difference In Meaning)


* Begin * Prefer*
* Start * Hate
* Continue * Can’t stand
* Like * Can’t bear
* Love

Example:
a. It began to rain/It began There is no difference of the
raining. meaning, if the sentence uses a
b. I started to work/I gerund or an infinitive.
started working.
c. It as beginning to rain.

2. Verb + Infinitive or Gerund( With a Difference In Meaning)


* Remember * Regret
* Forget * Try

Example:
a. Arthur always remembers Remember + infinitive =
to lock the door. remember to perform
responsibility, duty, or task.
b. Patrick often forgets to Forget + infinitive = forget to
lock the door. perform a responsibility, duty, or
task.
c. I remember seeing the Remember + gerund =
Alps for the first time. remember(recall) something that
happened in the past.
d. I’ll never forget seeing Forget + gerund = forget
the Alps for the first time. something that happened in the
past.
e. I regret to tell you that Regret + infinitive = regret to
you failed the test. say, to tell someone, to inform
someone of some bad news.
f. I regret lending him some Regret + gerund = regret
money. He never paid something that happened in the
back. past
g. I’m trying to learn Try + infinitive = make an
English. effort.
h. The room was hot. I tried Try + gerund = experiment with
opening the window, but a new or different approach to
that didn’t help. So I tried see if it works.
turning on the fan, but I
was still hot. Finally, I
turned on the air
conditioner.

* Patterns of using “prefer”:


a. Prefer + gerund = I prefer staying home to going to the concert.
b. Prefer + infinitive = I prefer to stay home than (to) go to the
concert.

FINISH
________I’M DONE WITH THIS HELL OF A S**T______