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Living World Year 9 9A Cells and Ecology

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All living things share the characteristics described in MRS C GREN

Biology is the study of living things A living object is an object that caries out life functions A non-living object is an object that has not been alive A dead object is an object that was once alive
All living organisms are composed of cells. A cell is a small, membrane-bound compartment that contains all the chemicals and molecules that help support an organism's life.
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All living things share the characteristics described in MRS C GREN

Life function Movement Respiraton Sensitivity Circulation Growth Reproduction Excretion Nutrition
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Gives us the ability to.


move through space

obtain energy through biochemical reactions


respond to stimuli

move nutrients, oxygen, heat and water around the body


increase in size create more living things dispose of waste chemicals extract useful chemicals from the environment

Living things are classified into groups based on similarities / features Biologists classify all living things into overall groups, called Kingdoms. The members of each kingdom are alike in fundamental ways, such as the nature of their cells or the way they obtain energy. Kingdoms have been further broken down into Phylum based on levels of similarity and then further broken down to another 5-8 levels
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The main groups that living things are classified into; Bacteria (Monera), Protists, Animals, Plants, Fungi
Traditional classification of organisms into 5 kingdoms is based on differences in morphology (body structure). After the development of microscopes, scientists discovered there was more differences at cellular level within the Monera (Bacteria) Kingdom than between all the other 4 kingdoms put GZ Science Resources 2013 together.

The main groups that living things are classified into; Bacteria (Monera), Protists, Animals, Plants, Fungi Recent advancements in Science have lead biologists to develop a new classification system, grouping organisms into domains. The Prokaryotes are divided into Bacteria and the more primitive Archaea. These were once combined as the Monera kingdom. The Eukaryotes share similar cell structure with organelles and a nucleus. These were once divided into the Fungi, Protist, Plant and Animal kingdoms
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Using a simple dichotomous identification key.


Dichotomous means branched. The Dichotomous keys are used as tools to help identify unknown organisms using careful observations and matching those observations in an organised manner against choices given at each step. Each two choices are known as a couplet. Rules for Using Dichotomous Keys: 1.Read both choices in a couplet carefully. 2.When reading a couplet, make sure you understand all of the terms used. 3.If you are unsure of which choice to make in a couplet, follow both forks (one at a time). After working through a couple of more couplets, it may become apparent that one fork does not fit your sample at all. 4.Work with more than one sample if at all possible. This will allow you to compare. 5.When a measurement is given make sure that you take the measurement and do not take a guess
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Using a simple dichotomous identification key.


Animals to be keyed out (spider, cow, bee, kangaroo)

Internal skeleton

No Internal skeleton

Pouch present

Pouch absent

Six legs

Not six legs

Different types of living organisms have common ancestors from which they evolved through the process of Natural Selection.
Biological evolution proposes that through the process of natural selection stretching over thousands and millions of generations, living things diversify, branching from one species into many. Natural selection acts on variation in a species so that those best adapted to current conditions have a better chance of surviving to reproduce and pass on the favourable trait to the next generations.

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All living organisms are made up of cells.

All living organisms are made up of cells, the smallest structural and functional unit. Organisms can be Unicellular consist of one independent cell, or be multicellular organised networks of cells with differentiated function and structure; humans have 100 trillion cells.
Organisms are divided into two groups by their cell type; Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

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All living organisms are made up of cells.

Unicellular
>fully functioning (MRS C GREN) independent cell unit >can be grouped into colonies (eg algae) but are still able to separate and survive >most kingdoms have examples of unicellular organism
Paramecium - Protist

Multicellular
>cells within an organism are specialised to perform a life function (or part of one) >single cells cannot live independently >all cells co-ordinate into one organism to collectively perform all the functions of life. >generally Plant and Animal kingdoms are multicellular Human - Animal

All living organisms are made up of cells.

Animal
enclosed by a plasma membrane and containing a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. >small vacuoles, no chloroplasts, no cell wall.

Plant
similar to the animal cell, but >does not have centrioles, lysosomes, cilia, or flagella. >It does have a rigid cell wall, central vacuole, and chloroplasts.

Bacteria
Does not have nucleus or organelles (except ribosomes).

Virus
Not considered living or consisting of cells but contains genetic material (RNA/DNA) similar to all other living things.

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SJ

Gaze

The structure of a typical plant cell includes a cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall, vacuole, and chloroplast.

chloroplast
nucleus Cell membrane Cell wall vacuole

cytoplasm
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The structure of a typical animal cell includes a cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and Mitochondria.

nucleus

cytoplasm Cell membrane mitochondria


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The functions of the parts of plant cells.


Cell Wall Gives the cell rigidity and a more angular appearance. Chloroplasts The site of photosynthesis, gives the cell its characteristic green colour Vacuole Assists with storage and structure
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SJ

Gaze

The functions of the parts of animal cells.


Cell membrane Surrounds cell and controls passage of nutrients and chemicals. Flexible and allows cell to change shape.

Mitochondria
Organelle where respiration occurs. Sugar is broken down and energy is released.
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Chloroplast.

Location:

Spread within the cytoplasm of plant cells only. Most found in plant leaves. Can be seen with a light microscope, about 10 micrometers. Site of photosynthesis converting sunlight into stored energy for the organism.

Relative size:

Function:

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Plant Cell Wall.

Location: Relative size: Function:

The rigid, outermost covering of plant cells. Much thicker than the cell membrane, varies with position on plant. Protects the intracellular contents and gives rigidity to the plant.

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Cell Membrane.

Location: Relative size: Function:

Surrounding the cytoplasm of all cells (between cell wall and cytoplasm in plants) Very thin layer only a few molecules in width. Approx 1nm (1mm = million nm) Controls transport of specific molecules and nutrients to enter the cell and waste materials to leave the cell. Small molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water, are able to pass freely across the membrane

Cytoplasm.

Location: Relative size:

Contained within the cell membrane, organelles located within it. Dependant on cell size and number and size of vacuoles within it.

Function:

Contains the organelles of the cell as well as the material that the cell uses for growth and reproduction. Assists the movement of materials around the cell. Gives the cell its shape.

Nucleus.

Locati Often found in the central area on of the cell within the

cytoplasm.
Relati ve size

Large enough to be seen with a light microscope, often the most visible structure in the cell. Takes up to 10% of cells volume.

Functi It stores the cell's hereditary on material, or DNA, and it

coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth and reproduction (cell division).
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Vacuole.
Location:

Found within the cytoplasm of a cell

Relative size:

Can take up most of the cell in plants but tend to be much smaller in animal cells
In plants: important in providing structural support, as well as serving functions such as storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth. In animals: temporarily store materials or to transport substances.

Function:

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Plant and animal cells similarities and differences. Similarities


1.All cells have a 'skin', called the plasma membrane, protecting it from the outside environment. 2. At the center of all cells is the cell nucleus. The 'brain' of the cell. 3. Cytoplasm, a fluid that protects the inside of the cell. 4. Mitochondria, turns food into energy.

Differences
1. Plants have a cell wall that help define the shape and give structure to the plant. 2. The plant cell contain an organelle called chloroplast that helps in the plants photosynthesis. 3. Plant cells are larger than animal cells. 4. Vacuole, collects water for the plant.

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The significance of the differences in structure between animal and plant cells.

Animal Cell
Shape: Chloroplast:

Plant Cell

Vacuole: Cell wall: Plasma Membrane:


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Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape) to interlock for support. Plant cells have chloroplasts Animal cells don't have because they make their own chloroplasts food One or more small One, large central vacuole vacuoles (much smaller taking up 90% of cell volume than plant cells). which is required for storage Absent Present because a plant doesnt have a skeleton.
only cell membrane cell wall and a cell membrane

Biological drawings are a useful way of recording information from your observations. Rules for drawing 1. Use unlined paper. 2. Draw in pencil. 3. Always print. 4. Give the drawing a title 5. Center the drawing on the page. 6. Label the parts and never cross lines. 7. Name the specimen 8. Print your name and other Information such as scale

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An ecosystem is the habitat and the community considered together.


An ecosystem includes all of the living organisms in a specific area. These systems consist of a living component called the community made up of all the plants and animals which interact with their non-living environments (weather, Earth, Sun, soil, atmosphere) which determine the habitats available. An ecosystem depends on the energy that moves in and out of that system. Ecosystems can be large or small , for example you could have an entire ecosystem in a puddle or as large as the Pacific Ocean.

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An ecosystem is the habitat and the community considered together.

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The roles of and links between organisms in a community - Niche

The niche of a species describes how members make a living in the environment in which they are found. Describing the niche of a species would include: The habitat, which means where the species lives and reproduces. The environmental conditions that the species experiences; these are called environmental factors. The feeding role that the species has in the community.
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The New Zealand kiwi is a flightless bird that lives in a NZ bush habitat that has a temperate climate. The kiwi is an omnivore and is nocturnal.

The roles of and links between organisms in a community - Habitat


A habitat is a specific place, location or environment that a species may be found.

Some species have more precise requirements of a habitat than others.

Emperor penguins found only in the Antarctic polar region A NZ keas habitat is in South Island alpine regions
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Species have adaptations to allow them to survive better in their habitat


An adaptation is something that allows an organism to survive better. Adaptations can be: Structural, Physiological (or functional), Behavioural

Structural

Physiological

Behavioural

These are things the animal has in or on its body. E.g.: the long beak of a kiwi to get food in the ground

These are things that the animal can do with its body. E.g.: bad tasting chemicals inside beetles to stop being eaten

These are ways the animal behaves or acts things that it does to get what it wants or needs. E.g.: fish swimming in groups for safety

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The role of producers, consumers and decomposers in food chains and webs. Three feeding roles that species can have in a community are as producers, consumers or decomposers.

Producers

Consumers

Decomposers

Plants that make food from carbon dioxide, light and water

Herbivores that eat plants and carnivores that eat other animals

Fungi and bacteria that break down the bodies of dead plants and animals

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Gaze

The definition of consumers

Herbivores Herbivores are animals that eat plants only. (plant eaters) In a food web they are directly above the producers

Omnivores Omnivores eat both plants and other consumers. They obtain their food from more than one source.

Carnivores Carnivores eat only other consumers (meat eaters). This also includes birds that eat only insects.

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Energy enters an ecosystem in sunlight, which is transferred to energy in plants by photosynthesis and that this energy is then passed along food chains. Trophic levels are the feeding position in a food chain such as primary producers, herbivore, primary carnivore, etc. Green plants and phytoplankton form the first trophic level, the producers. Herbivores form the second trophic level, while carnivores form the third and even the fourth trophic levels, the consumers. Energy is passed from one trophic level to another starting from the producers. Food webs and food chains are used to show which species of organism is at each level and how energy moves between them.

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The importance of plants as producers.

Food entering the food chain


There are also photosynthetic protists and bacteria (called phytoplankton )that start food chains. These will be found floating on the surface of the ocean acting as food for small unicellular animals called zooplankton.

Producers are at the beginning of a food chain. On land Producers are plants. Plants are at the beginning of every food chain that involves the Sun. All energy comes from the Sun and plants make food with that energy using the process of photosynthesis. Energy in the form of nutrients and food are passed onto other organisms when they eat (consume) the plants.

The role of producers, consumers and decomposers in food chains and webs.

producer

A food chain is a series of organisms through which energy flows; first link is always a plant.

The role of producers, consumers and decomposers in food chains and webs. Food Chains The feeding of one organism upon another in a sequence of food transfers is known as a food chain. Another definition is the chain of transfer of energy (which typically comes from the sun) from one organism to another.

Food Webs In an ecosystem there are many different food chains and many of these are crosslinked to form a food web. Ultimately all plants and animals in an ecosystem are part of this complex food web.
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Energy losses occur along a food chain

All energy that enters an ecosystem originates from the sun (with a few rare exceptions) The energy that drives an ecosystem is ultimately converted to heat, which cannot be reused and is radiated out into space. Energy flow is one way.

Energy losses occur along a food chain


Most sunlight is reflected back into space by the atmosphere, plant and earth surfaces

A small percentage of incoming sunlight is converted to matter by photosynthesis in plants and plankton

10% of energy gets passed on to each trophic level by consumption. The remaining 90% is lost as heat through respiration

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SJ

Gaze

We can use pyramid diagrams to gain information about an ecosystem.


Energy in ecosystems flows from producers (photosynthetic organisms) to consumers (herbivores and carnivores). Ecological pyramids of energy usually show the amount of living material (or its energetic equivalent) that is present in different trophic levels.

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We can use pyramid diagrams to gain information about an ecosystem. Because of the ever decreasing amounts of energy available at each trophic level to the next, the numbers of organisms are often smaller at each successive level.

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