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• Independence Days of Different Countries

The vast majority of the countries on earth became independent after 1800. Only
20 were independent before the start of the 19th century, a mere 10%. By 1900,
only 49 or 25% of the world's countries of today were independent.
Many countries became independent following World War II when European
powers granted independence to their vast colonial holdings, especially Africa.

Here are the independence days for every country, from the oldest to the

660 BCE - Japan

221 BCE - China
301 CE - San Marino
843 CE - France
976 CE - Austria
10th Century CE - Denmark
1001 - Hungary
1143 - Portugal
1206 - Mongolia
1238 - Thailand
1278 - Andorra
August 1, 1291 - Switzerland
1419 - Monaco
15th Century - Spain
1502 - Iran
June 6, 1523 - Sweden

Ravindra 1
January 23, 1579 - Netherlands
1650 - Oman
May 1, 1707 - United Kingdom
January 23, 1719 - Liechtenstein
1768 - Nepal
July 4, 1776 - United States of America
January 1, 1804 - Haiti
July 20, 1810 - Colombia
Sept. 16, 1810 - Mexico
Sept. 18, 1810 - Chile
May 14, 1811 - Paraguay
July 5, 1811 - Venezuela
July 9, 1816 - Argentina
July 28, 1821 - Peru
Sept. 15, 1821 - Costa Rica
Sept. 15, 1821 - El Salvador
Sept. 15, 1821 - Guatemala
Sept. 15, 1821 - Honduras
Sept. 15, 1821 - Nicaragua
May 24, 1822 - Ecuador
Sept. 7, 1822 - Brazil
August 6, 1825 - Bolivia
August 25, 1825 - Uruguay
1829 - Greece
October 4, 1830 - Belgium
1839 - Luxembourg
February 27, 1844 - Dominican Republic

Ravindra 2
July 26, 1847 - Liberia
March 17, 1861 - Italy
July 1, 1867 - Canada
January 18, 1871 - Germany
May 9, 1877 - Romania
March 3, 1878 - Bulgaria
1896 - Ethiopia
June 12, 1898 - Philippines
January 1, 1901 - Australia
May 20, 1902 - Cuba
November 3, 1903 - Panama
June 7, 1905 - Norway
Sept. 26, 1907 - New Zealand
May 31, 1910 - South Africa
November 28, 1912 - Albania
December 6, 1917 - Finland
November 11, 1918 - Poland
December 1, 1918 - Iceland
August 19, 1919 - Afghanistan
December 6, 1921 - Ireland
February 28, 1922 - Egypt
October 29, 1923 - Turkey
February 11, 1929 - Vatican City
Sept. 23, 1932 - Saudi Arabia
October 3, 1932 - Iraq
November 22, 1943 - Lebanon
August 15, 1945 - Korea, North

Ravindra 3
August 15, 1945 - Korea, South
August 17, 1945 - Indonesia
Sept. 2, 1945 - Vietnam
April 17, 1946 - Syria
May 25, 1946 - Jordan
August 14, 1947 - Pakistan
August 15, 1947 - India
January 4, 1948 - Burma
February 4, 1948 - Sri Lanka
May 14, 1948 - Israel
July 19, 1949 - Laos
August 8, 1949 - Bhutan
December 24, 1951 - Libya
November 9, 1953 - Cambodia
January 1, 1956 - Sudan
March 2, 1956 - Morocco
March 20, 1956 - Tunisia
March 6, 1957 - Ghana
August 31, 1957 - Malaysia
October 2, 1958 - Guinea
January 1, 1960 - Cameroon
April 4, 1960 - Senegal
May 27, 1960 - Togo
June 30, 1960 - Congo, Republic of the
July 1, 1960 - Somalia
July 26, 1960 - Madagascar
August 1, 1960 - Benin

Ravindra 4
August 3, 1960 - Niger
August 5, 1960 - Burkina Faso
August 7, 1960 - Cote d'Ivorie
August 11, 1960 - Chad
August 13, 1960 - Central African Republic
August 15, 1960 - Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
August 16, 1960 - Cyprus
August 17, 1960 - Gabon
Sept. 22, 1960 - Mali
October 1, 1960 - Nigeria
November 28, 1960 - Mauritania
April 27, 1961 - Sierra Leone
June 19, 1961 - Kuwait
January 1, 1962 - Samoa
July 1, 1962 - Burundi
July 1, 1962 - Rwanda
July 5, 1962 - Algeria
August 6, 1962 - Jamaica
August 31, 1962 - Trinidad and Tobago
October 9, 1962 - Uganda
December 12, 1963 - Kenya
April 26, 1964 - Tanzania
July 6, 1964 - Malawi
Sept. 21, 1964 - Malta
October 24, 1964 - Zambia
February 18, 1965 - Gambia, The
July 26, 1965 - Maldives

Ravindra 5
August 9, 1965 - Singapore
May 26, 1966 - Guyana
September 30, 1966 - Botswana
October 4, 1966 - Lesotho
November 30, 1966 - Barbados
January 31, 1968 - Nauru
March 12, 1968 - Mauritius
Sept. 6, 1968 - Swaziland
October 12, 1968 - Equatorial
June 4, 1970 - Tonga
October 10, 1970 - Fiji
March 26, 1971 - Bangladesh
August 15, 1971 - Bahrain
Sept. 3, 1971 - Qatar
November 2, 1971 - United Arab Emirates
July 10, 1973 - Bahamas
Sept. 24, 1973 - Guinea-Bissau
February 7, 1974 - Grenada
June 25, 1975 - Mozambique
July 5, 1975 - Cape Verde
July 6, 1975 - Comoros
July 12, 1975 - Sao Tome and Principe
Sept. 16, 1975 - Papua New Guinea
November 11, 1975 - Angola
November 25, 1975 - Suriname
June 29, 1976 - Seychelles
June 27, 1977 - Djibouti

Ravindra 6
July 7, 1978 - Solomon Islands
October 1, 1978 - Tuvalu
November 3, 1978 - Dominica
February 22, 1979 - Saint Lucia
July 12, 1979 - Kiribati
October 27, 1979 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
April 18, 1980 - Zimbabwe
July 30, 1980 - Vanuatu
January 11, 1981 - Antigua and Barbuda
Sept. 21, 1981 - Belize
Sept. 19, 1983 - Saint Kitts and Nevis
January 1, 1984 - Brunei
October 21, 1986 - Marshall Islands
November 3, 1986 - Micronesia, Federated States of
March 11, 1990 - Lithuania
March 21, 1990 - Namibia
May 22, 1990 - Yemen
April 9, 1991 - Georgia
June 25, 1991 - Croatia
June 25, 1991 - Slovenia
August 20, 1991 - Estonia
August 21, 1991 - Kyrgyzstan
August 24, 1991 - Russia
August 25, 1991 - Belarus
August 27, 1991 - Moldova
August 30, 1991 - Azerbaijan
Sept. 1, 1991 - Uzbekistan

Ravindra 7
Sept. 6, 1991 - Latvia
Sept. 8, 1991 - Macedonia
Sept. 9, 1991 - Tajikistan
Sept. 21, 1991 - Armenia
October 27, 1991 - Turkmenistan
November 24, 1991 - Ukraine
December 16, 1991 - Kazakhstan
March 3, 1992 - Bosnia and Herzegovina
January 1, 1993 - Czech Republic
January 1, 1993 - Slovakia
May 24, 1993 - Eritrea
October 1, 1994 - Palau
May 20, 2002 - East Timor
June 3, 2006 - Montenegro
June 5, 2006 - Serbia
February 17, 2008 – Kosovo

Important Days
January 12 : National Youth Day. January 15 :Army Day.
January 26 :India's Republic Day and International Customs day.
January 30 :Martyrs' Day
February 24 :Central Excise Day.
February 28 :National Science Day.
March 8 :International Women's Day.
March 15 :World Disabled Day.

Ravindra 8
March 21 :World Forestry Day.
March 21 :International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
March 23 :World Meteorological Day.
April 5 :National Maritime Day.
April 7 :World Health Day.
April 18 :World Heritage Day.
April 22 :Earth Day.
May 1 :Workers Day (International Labor Day).
May 3 :Press Freedom Day.
May (2nd Sunday) : Mother's Day.
May 8 :World Red Cross Day.
May 11 :National Technology Day.
May 15 :International Day of the Family.
May 17 :World Telecommunication Day.
May 24 :Commonwealth Day.
May 31 :Anti-Tobacco Day.
June 4 :International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression.
June 5 : World Environment Day.
June(2nd Sunday) : Fathers Day.
June 26 :International day against Drug abuse & Illicit Trafficking.
June 27 :World Diabetes Day.
July 6 :World Zoonoses Day.
July 11 :World Population Day.
August 3 :International Friendship Day.
August 6 :Hiroshima Day,
August 9 :Quit India Day and Nagasaki Day.
August 15 :Independence Day.
August 29 :National Sports Day.
September 5 :Teachers' Day.
September 8 :World Literacy Day.
September 16 :World Ozone Day.
September 21 :Alzheimer's Day.

Ravindra 9
September 26 : Day of the Deaf.
September 27 : World Tourism Day.
October 1 : International day of the Elderly.
October 3 :World Habitat Day.
October 4 :World Animal Welfare Day.
October 8 :Indian Air Force Day.
October 9 :World Post Office day./October 10 :National Post Day.
October 13 :UN International Day for National disaster reduction.
October 14 :World Standards Day.
October 15 :World White Cane Day( guiding the Blind).//October 16 :World Food Day.
October 24 :UN Day, World development information Day.
October 30 :World Thrift Day.
November 14 : Children's Day ( in India )
November 20 :Africa Industrialization Day.
November 29 :International Day of Solidarity with Palestinian People.
December 1 :World Aids Day.
December 4 :Navy Day. December 10 :Human Right Day.
December 7 :Armed Forces Flag Day. December 23 :Kisan Divas Farmer's Day).

• Books And Authors

Books Authors
A Bend in the river V.S. Naipaul
A Brush with Life Satish Gujral
A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib S.S. Kohli
A Foreign Policy for India I.K. Gujral
A Fortune Teller Told Me Tiziano Terzani
A Gender Lens on Social Psychology Judith A Howard and Jocelyn A.Hollander
A General and His Army Georgy Vladimov

Ravindra 10
A Himalayan Love Story Namita Gokhale
A Last Leap South Vladimir Zhirinovsky
A Nation Flawed-Lesson from Indian History P.N. Chopra
A Peep into the Past Vasant Navrekar
A Possible India Partha Chatterjee
A Psychoanalysis of the Prophets Abdulla Kamal
A Reveolutionary Life Laxmi Sehgal
A Secular Agenda Arun Shourie
A Simple Path Lucinda Vardey
A Suitable Boy Vikram Seth
A Tale of Two Gardens Octavio Paz
A Tribute to People's Princess: Diana Peter Donelli
A Tryst With Destiny Stanley Wolfer
Abbot Walter Scott
Absalom, Absalom William Faulkner
Absalom and Achitophel John Dryden
Acoession to Extinction D.R. Mankekar
Across Borders, Fifty-years of India's Foreign Policy J.N. Dixit
Adam Bede George Eliot
Adhe Adhure Mohan Rakesh
Adonis P.B. Shelley
Adrain Mole-The Wilderness Years Sue Townsend
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Adventures of Sally P.G. Wodehouse
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mark Twain
Adversary in the House lrving Stone
Advice and Consent Allen Drury
Aeneid Virgil
Affairs C.P.Snow
Affluent Society J.K.Galbraith
Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid R.H. Magnus & Eden Naby

Ravindra 11
Africa's Challenge to America Chester Bowles
After All These Years Susan Issacs
After the Dark Night S.M. Ali
Against the Grain Boris Yeltsin
Age of Reason Jean Paul Sartre
Agni Pariksha Acharya Tulsi
Agni Veena Kazi Nazrul Islam
Agony and the Ecstasy Irving Stone
Ain-i-Akbari Abul Fazal
Airport Arthur Hailey
Ajatshatru Jai Shankar Prasad
Akbarnama Abul Fazal
Alaska Unbound James Michener
Alchemist Ben Johnson
Alexander Quartet Lawrence Durrel
Alexander the Great John Gunther
Alice in Wonderland Lewis Carroll
Alien Nation Peter Brimelow
All for Love John Dryden
All is Well that Ends Well William Shakespeare
All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque
All the King's Men Robert Penn Warren
All the President's Men Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward
All things Bright and Beautiful James Herroit
All Under Heaven Pearl S.Buck
Along the Road Aldous Huxley
Altered States Anita Brookner
Amar Kosh Amar Singh
Ambassador's Journal J.K. Galbraith
Ambassador's Report Chester Bowles
Amelia Henry Fielding
American Capitalism J.K. Galbraith
An American Dilemma Gunnar Myrdal

Ravindra 12
An American Tragedy Theodore Dreiser
An Apology for Idlers Robert Louis Stevenson
An Autobiography Jawaharlal Nehru
An Eye to China David Selbourne
An idealist View of Life Dr.S. Radhakrishnan
Anandmath Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Anatomy of a Flawed inheritance J.N. Dixit
Ancient Evenings Norman Mailer
Ancient Mariner Samuel Taylor Coleridge
And Quiet Flows the Don Mikhali Sholokhov
And Through the Looking Glass Lewis Carroll
Androcles and the Lion George Bernard Shaw
Angry Letters Willem Doevenduin
Anguish of Deprived Lakshmidhar Mishra
Animal Farm George Orwell
Anna Karenina Count Leo Tolstoy
Another Life Derek Walcott
Answer to History Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Antic Hay Aldous Huxley
Antony and Cleopatra William Shakespeare
Ape and Essence Aldous Huxley
Apple Cart George Bernad Shaw
Arabian Nights Sir Richard Burton
Area of Darkness V.S. Naipaul
Arion and the Dolphin Vikram Seth
Arms and the Man George Bernard Shaw
Around the World in Eighty Days Jules verne
Arrangement Elia Kazan
Arrival and Departure Arthur Koestler
Arrow in the Blue Arthur Koestler
Arrow of Good Joseph Conrad
Arrowsmith Sinclair Lewis
Arthashastra Kautilya

Ravindra 13
As I Lay Dying William Faulkner
As You Like It William Shakespeare
Ascent of the Everest Sir John Hunt
Ashtadhyayi Panini
Asia and Western Dominance K.M. Panikkar
Asian Drama Gunnar Myrdal
Aspects of the Novel E.M. Forster
Assassination of a Prime Minister S.Anandram
Assignment Colombo J.N. Dixit
Assignment India Christopher Thomas
Athenian Constitution Aristotle
Atoms of Hope Mohan Sundara Rajan
August 1914 Alexander Solzhenitsyn
August Coup Mikhali S. Gorbachev
Author's Farce Henry Fielding
Autobiography of an Unknown Indian Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Autumn Leaves O.Pulla Reddi
Avanti Sundari Dandin
Babbit Sinclair Lewis
Baburnama Babur
Baby and Child Penelope Leach
Back to Methuselah G.B. Shaw
Backward Place Ruth Prawer Jhabwala
Bandicoot Run Manohar Malgonkar
Bang-i-Dara Mohammad lqbal
Bangla Desh-The Unifinished Revolution Lawrence Lifschultz
Banyan Tree Hugh Tinker
Beach Boy Ardesher Vakil
Beast and Man Murry Midgley
Beating the Street Peter Lynch
Beginning of the Beginning Acharya Rajneesh
Beloved Toni Morrison
Ben Hur Lewis Wallace

Ravindra 14
Bend in the Ganges Manohar Malgonkar
Bermuda Triangle Charles Berlitz
Berry Patches Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Best and the Brightest David Halberstan
Betrayal of Pearl Harbour James Rusbridger and Eric Nave
Between Hope and History Bill Clinton
Between Hope and History Bill Clinton
Between the Lines Kuldip Nayar
Bewildered India-Identity, Pluralism, Discord Rasheedud-din Khan
Beyond Boundaries: A Memoire Swaraj Paul
Beyond the Horizon Eugene O'Neill
Beyond Modernisation, Beyond Self Sisir Kumar Ghose
Beyond Peace Richard Nixon
Bhagwat Gita Veda Vyas
Bharal Aur Europe Nirmal Verma
Bharat Bharati Maithili Sharan Gupta
Bharaitya Parampara Ke Mool Swar Govind Chandra Pande
Big Fisherman Lloyd C. Douglas
Big Money P.G. Wodehouse
Bill the Conqueror P.G. Wodehouse
Billy Albert French
Biographia Literaria Samuel Taylor coleridge
Birds and Beasts Mark Twain
Birth and Death of The Sun George Gamow
Birth and Evolution of the soul Annie Besant
Birth of Europe Robert, S. Lopez
Bisarjan R.N. Tagore
Bitter Sweet Noel Coward
Black Arrow Robert Louis Stevenson
Black Diaspora Ronald Segal
Black Holes and Baby Universes Stephen Hawking
Black Sheep Honore de Balzac
Black Tulip Alexander Dumas

Ravindra 15
Bleak House Charles Dickens
Blind Ambitions John Dean
Blind Beauty Boris Pasternak
Blind Men of Hindoostan-indo-Pak Nuclear War Gen. Krishnaswamy Sundarji
Bliss was it in that Dawn Minoo Masani
Bloodline Sidney Sheldon
Blood Sport James Stewart
Blue Bird Maurice Macterlink
Bofors: The Ambassador's Evidence B.M. Oza
Bone People Keri Hulme
Book of the Sword Sir Richard Burton
Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition Ritu Menon & Kamla Bhasin
Born Free Joy Adamson
Bostaan Sheikh Saadi
Bread, Beauty and Revolution Khwaja Ahmed Abbas
Breaking the Silence Anees Jung
Breakthrough Gen.Moshe Dayan
Bride for the Sahib and Other Stories Khushwant Singh
Bridge's Book of Beauty Mulk Raj Anand
Bridges of Madison Country R.J. Waller
Brif History of Time Stephen Hawking
Brishbikkha Bankim Chandra Chatterji
Britain's True History Prem Bhatia
Broken Wings Sarojini Naidu
Brothers Karamazhov Fyodor Dostoevski
Bubble Mulk Raj Anand
Buddha Charitam Ashvaghosha
Bunch of Old Letters Jawaharlal Nehru
Bureaucrazy M.K. Kaw
Butterfield 8 John O'Hara
By God's Decree Kapil Dev
By Love Possessed James Gould Cozzens
Byzantium W.B. Yeats

Ravindra 16
Caesar and Cleopatra G.B. Shaw
Call the Briefing Martin Fitzwater
Cancer Ward Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Canterbury Tales G.Chaucer
Canvass of Life Sheila Gujral
Caravans James A. Michener
Cardinal Henry M. Robinson
Castle Franz Kafka
Catch-22 Joseph Heller
Catcher in the Rye J.D. Salinger
Centennial James Michener
Chance Joseph Conrad
Chandalika Rabindranath Tagore
Chemmeen Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai
Cherry Orchard Anton Chekhov
Chidambara Sumitranandan Pant
Chikaveera Rajendra Masti Venkatesh lyengar
Child Who Never Grew Pearl S. Buck
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage George Byron
Childhood Maxim Gorky
Children of Gabelawi Naquib Mahfouz
Children of the Sun Maxim Gorky
China Passage J.K. Galbraith
China-Past and Present Pearl S. Buck
China's Watergate Leo Goodstadt
Chinese Betrayal B.N. Mullick
Chitra Rabindranath Tagore
Choma's Drum K. Shivaram Karanath
Christabel Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Christmas Tales Charles Dickens
Chronicle of a Death Foretold Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Chithirappaavai P.V. Akilandam
City of Joy Dominique Lapierre

Ravindra 17
City of Saints Sir Richard Burton
Class Erich Segal
Climate of Treason Andrew Boyle
Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess
Clown Heinrich Boll
Cocktail Party T.S. Eliot
Colonel Sun Kingsley Amis
Comedy of Errors William Shakespeare
Common Sense Thomas Paine
Communist Manifesto Karl Marx
Confessions J.J.Rousseau
Confessions of a Lover Mulk Raj Anand
Comus John Milton
Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit S.T. Coleridge
Confessions of an English Opium Eater, Thomas De Quincy
Confidential Clerk T.S. Eliot
Confrontation with Pakistan Gen. B.M. Kaul
Conquest of Happiness Bertrand Russell
Conquest of Self Mahatma Gandhi
Conservationist Nadine Gordimer
Continent of Circle Nirad C.Chaudhuri
Coolie Mulk Raj Anand
Count of Monte Cristo Alexander Dumas
Coup John Updike
Court Dancer Rabindranath Tagore
Coverly Papers Joseph Addison
Cranford Mrs. Gaskell
Creation Gore Vidal
Crescent Moon Rabindranath Tagore
Crescent Over Kashmir Anil Maheshwari
Cricket on the Hearth Charles Dickens
Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky
Crisis in India Ronald Segal

Ravindra 18
Crisis into Chaos E.M.S. Namboodiripad
Critical Mass William E. Burrows
Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant
Crossing in River Caryl Phillips
Crossing the Sacred Line-Women's
Abhilasha & Sabina Kidwai
Search for Political Power
Crossing the Threshold of Hope Pope John Paul II
Crown and the Loincloth Chaman Nahal
Crown of Wild Olive John Ruskin
Cry, My Beloved Country Alan Patan
Cuckold Kiran Nagar Kar
Culture and Anarchy Matthew Arnold
Culture in the Vanity Bag Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Curtain Raisers K. Natwar Singh
Damsel in Distress P.G. Wodehouse
Dancing with the Devil Rod Barker
Dangerous Plaqce Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Dangerous Summer Emest Hemingway
Dangling Man Saul Bellow
Daniel Deronda Geroge Eliot
Dark Room R.K. Narayan
Dark Debts Karen Hall
Dark Home Coming Eric Lustbader
Dark Side of Camelot Seymour Hersh
Darkness at Noon Arthur Koestler
Das Kapital Karl Marx
Dashkumar Charitam Dandi
Daughter of the East Benazir Bhutto
David Copperfield Charles Dickens
Day in Shadow Nayantara Sehgal
Day of the Jackal Frederick Forsyth
Days of Grace Arthur Ashe & Arnold Rampersad
Days of his Grace Eyvind Johnson
Days of My Yers H.P. Nanda

Ravindra 19
De Profundis Oscar Wilde
Dean's December Saul Bellow
Death and After Annie Besant
Death Be Not Proud John Gunther
Death in the Castle Pearl S. Buck
Death in Venice Thomas Mann
Death of a City Amrita Pritam
Death of a Patriot R.E. Harrington
Death on the Nile Agatha Christie
Death of a President William Manchester
Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller
Death-The Supreme Friend Kakasaheb Kalelkar
Death Under sail C.P. Snow
Debacle Emile Zola
Decameron Giovannie Boccaccio
Decline and Fall of Indira Gandhi D.R. Mankekar and Kamala Mankekar
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibbon
Decline of the West O' Spengler
Democracy Means Bread and Freedom Piloo Mody
Democracy Redeemed V.K. Narsimhan
Descent of Man Charles Darwin
Deserted Village Oliver Goldsmith
Desperate Remedies Thomas Hardy
Detective Arthur Hailey
Devadas Sarat Chandra Chatterjee
Dharmashastra Manu
Dialogue with Death Arthur Koestler
Diana-Her Time Story in Her Own Words Andrew Martin
Diana-Princess of Wales : A Tribute Tim Graham
Diana-The Story So Far Julia Donelli
Diana-The True Story Andrew Morton
Diana Versus Charles James Whitaker
Die Blendung Elias Canetti

Ravindra 20
Dilemma of Our Time Harold Joseph Laski
Diplomacy Henry Kissinger
Diplomacy and Disillustion George Urbans
Diplomacy in Peace and War J.N. Kaul
Disappearing Acts Terry McMillan
Discovery of India Jawaharlal Nehru
Distant Drums Manohar Malgonkar
Distant Neighbours Kuldip Nayar
Divine Comedy A.Dante
Divine Life Swami Sivananda
Doctor Faustus Christopher Marlowe
Doctor's Dilemma G.B.Shaw
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Robert Louis Stevensan
Dr. Zhivago Boris Pasternak
Doll's House lbsen
Dolly-The Birth of a Clone Jina Kolata
Don Juan George Byron
Don Quixote Cervantes
Don't Laugh-We are Police Bishan Lal Vohra
Double Betrayal Paula R. Newburg
Double Helix J.D. Watson
Double Tongue William Golding
Double Teeth U.B. Sinclair
Drogon's Seed Pearl S. Buck
Dream in Hawaii Bhabani Bhattacharya
Dram of Fair to Middling Women Samuel Beckett
Dreams, Roses and Fire Eyvind Johnson
Drunkard Emile Zola
Durgesh Nandini Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Ravindra 21

Book and Authors [ E - H ]

Books Authors
Earth Emile Zola
Earth in the Balance: Forging a New
Al Gore
Common Purpose
Earth Mother Pupul Jayakar
East of Eden B.N. Mullick
East West Salman Rushdie
East Wind Pearl S. Buck
Economic Planning of India Ashok Mehta
Economics of Peace and Laughter John K. Galbraith
Economics of the Third World S.K. Ray
Education of Public Man Hubert Humphrey
Edwina and Nehru Catherine Clement

Ravindra 22
Egmont J.W. Von Goethe
Eight Lives Rajmohan Gandhi
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Thomas Gray
Emile J.J. Rousseau
Eminent Churchillians Andrew Roberts
Emma Jane Austen
Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys in India Paul William Roberts
Ends and Means Aldous Huxley
End of a Beautiful Era Joseph Brodsky
End of an Era C.S. Pandit
End of History and the Last Man Francis Fukuyama
End of the Chapter John Forsyte
Enemies Maxim Gorky
English August Upamanyu Chatterjee
Envoy to Nehru Escott Reid
Erewhon Samuel Butler
Escape John Forsyte
Eassay on Life Samuel Butler
Essays for Poor to the Rich John Kenneth Galbraith
Essays in Criticism Matthew Arnold
Essays On Gita Aurobindo Ghosh
Essays of Elia Charles Lamb
Estate Issac Bashevis Singer
Eternal Himalayas Major H.P.S.Ahluwalia
Eternal India Indira Gandhi
Eternity Anwar Shaikh
Ethics Aristotle
Europa Time Parks
Eugenie Grandet Honore de Balzac

Ravindra 23
Everlasting Man G.K. Chesterton
Executioner's Song Norman Mailer
Exile and the Kingdom Albert Camus
Expanding Universe Arthur Stanley Eddington
Eye of the Storm Patrick White
Eyeless in Gaza Aldous Huxley
Faces to Everest Maj. H.P.S. Ahluwalia
Facts are Facts Khan Abdul Wali Khan
Fairie Queene Edmund Spencer
Faith & Fire: A Way Within Madhu Tandon
Fall of a Sparrow Salim Ali
Family Moskat Issac Bashevis Singer
Family Reunion T.S.Eliot
Famished Road Ben Okri
Far From the Madding Crowd Thomas Hardy
Far Pavilions M.M.Kaye
Faraway Music Svetlana Allilueva
Farewell to the Trumpets James Morris
Farewell to a Ghost Manoj Das
Farewell to Arms Ernest Hemingway
Farm House George Orwell
Fasana-i-Azad Ratan Nath Sarkar
Fathers and Sons lvan Turgenev
Faust J.W. Von Goethe
Faustus Chirstopher Marlow
Fidelio L.Beethoven
Fiesta Ernest Hemingway
Fifth Column Ernest Hemingway
Fifth Horseman Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre

Ravindra 24
Final Days Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
Final Passage Caryl Phillips
Finding a Voice-Asian Women in Britain Amrit Wilson
Fine Balance Rohinton Mistry
Fire Next Time James Baldwin
Fire Under the Snow: Testimony of a Tibetan Prisoner Palden Gyatso
First Circle Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Flags in the Dust William Faulkner
Flames from the Ashes P.D. Tandon
Flounder Gunder Grass
Follywood Flashback Bunny Reuben
Food, Nutrition and Poverty in India V.K.R.V. Rao
For the President's Eyes Only Christopher Andrew
For Whom the Bell Tolls Emest Hemingway
Forbidden Sea Tara Ali Baig
Forsyte Saga John Galsworthy
Fortynine Days Amrita Pritam
Franklin's Tale Geoffrey Chaucer
Fraternity John Forsyte
Free Man's Worship Bertrand Russell
Freedom at Midnight Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre
French Revolution Thomas Carlyle
Freedom Behind Bars Sheikh Mohd. Abdullah
Freedom from Fear Aung San Suu Kyi
French Leave P.G. Wodehouse
Friend Samuel Tayelor Coleridge
Friends and Foes Sheikh Mujibur Rehman
Friends, Not Masters Ayub Khan
From Hero to Eternity James Jones

Ravindra 25
From india to America S.Chandrashekhar
From Raj to Rajiv Mark Tully and Zaheer Masani
From Rajpath to Lokpath Vijaya Raja Scindia
Frozen Assets P.G. Wodehouse
Full Moon P.G.Wodehouse
Future of NPT Savita Pande
Gambler Fyodor Dostoevsky
Ganadevata Tara Shankar Bandopadhyaya
Gandhi and Stalin Louis Fisher
Gardener Rabindra Nath Tagore
Garrick Year Margaret Drabble
Gathering Storm Winston Churchill
Geeta Govind Jaya Dev
Ghasiram Kotwal Vijay Tendulkar
Ghosts in the Machine Arthur Koestler
Girl in Blue P.G. Wodehouse
Girl On the Boat P.G. Wodehouse
Gita Rahasya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Gitanjali Rabindra Nath Tagore
Gladiators Arthur Koestler
Glimpses of Indian Ocean Z.A. Quasim
Glimpses of World History Jawaharlal Nehru
Go Down Moses William Faulkner
Goa Asif Currimbhoy
God and the Bible Mattew Arnold
Godan Munshi Prem Chand
Godfather Mario Puzo
Godrej: A Hundred Years B.K. Karanjia
Gold Bat P.G. Wodehouse

Ravindra 26
Golden Borough James Frazer
Golden Gate Vikram Seth
Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu
Gone Away Dom Moraes
Gone with the Wind Margaret Mitchell
Good Earth Pearl S.Buck
Goodbye, Mr Chips James Hilton
Gora Rabindra Nath Tagore
Grace Notes Bernard Mac Lavarto
Grammar of Politics Harold Joseph Laski
Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck
Grapes and the Wind Pablo Neruda
Great Challenge Louis Fischer
Great Depression of 1990 Ravi Batra
Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald
Great lllusion Norman Angell
Great Tragedy Z.A. Bhutto
Grey Eminence Aldous Huxley
Grub Street Henry Fielding
Guide R.K. Narayan
Guide for the Perplexed E.F. Schumacher
Gul-e-Naghma Raghupati Sahai 'Firaq' Gorakhpuri
Gulag Archipelago Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Gulistan Boston Sheikh Saadi
Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift
Gulzari Lal Nanda: A Peep
Promilla Kalhan
in the Service of the People
Gurusagaram O.V. Vijayan
Gypsy(poem) Pushkin

Ravindra 27
Hamlet William Shakespeare
Hard Times Charles Dickens
Harsha Charita Bana Bhatt
Hamsters C.P. Snow
Handful of Dust Evelyn Waugh
Happy Death Albert Camus
Harlot High and Low Honore de Balzac
Harvest Majula Padmanabhan
Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad
Heavem Has No Favourites Eric Maria Remarque
Heat and Dust Ruth Prawer Jhabwala
Heavy Weather P.G. Wodehouse
Henderson the Rain King Saul Bellow
Heritage Anthony West
Hero of Our Times Richard Hough
Heroes and Hero worship Thomas Carlyle
Henry Esmond Thackeray
Heir Apparent Dr. Karan Singh
Higher than Hope Fatima Meer
Himalayan Blunder Brig J.P. Dalvi
Hindu View of Life Dr. S.Radhakrishnan
History of Hindu Chemistry Sir.P.C. Ray
Hitopadesh R.K.Narayan
Hindi Sahitya Aur Samvedna Ka Vikas R.S. Chaturvedi
Hind Swaraj M.K.Gandhi
Hindu Civilisation J.M. Barrie
Hinduism Nirad C.Choudhury
His Excellency Emile Zola
History of the English Speaking Peoples Sir Winston Churchil

Ravindra 28
Home Comings C.P. Snow
Honest Thief and Other Stories Fyodor Dostoevsky
Hornet's Nest Patricia Cornwell
Hot Water P.G. Wodehouse
Hound of the Baskervillese Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
House for Mr. Biswas V.S. Naipaul
House of the Dead Fyodor Dostoevsky
House of Spirits Isabel Allende
House Divided Pearl S. Buck
How Late It Was, How Late James Kelman
Human Factor Graham Greene
Human Knowledge Bertrand Russell
Humboldt's Gift Saul Bellow
Humour Ben Johnson
Hunchback of Notre Dame Victor Hugo
Hungry Stones Rabindra Nath Tagore

Books and Authors [ I - L ]

Books Authors
I am not an Island K.A Abbas
I Dare Parmesh Dangwal
I follow the Mahatma K.M. Munshi
Idylls of the King Tennyson
I Muse; Therefore I am V.N.Narayanan

Ravindra 29
Idiot Fyodor Dostoevsky
Idols Sunil Gavaskar
If I am Assassinated Z.A. Bhutto
Imperial Woman Pearl S. Buck
Importance of Being Earnest Oscar Wilde
In Afghanistan's Shadow Salig S. Harrison
In Confidence Anatolyu Dobrynin
In Evil Hour Gabriel Garcia Marquez
In Light of India Octavio Paz
In Retrospect-The Tragedy
Robert S. McNamara
and Lessons of Vietnam
In Search of Gandhi Richard Attenborough
In Search of Identity Anwar el-Sadat
In the Afternoon of Time Dr.Rupert Snell
In the Bluest Eye Toni Morrison
In the Light of the Black Sun Rohit Manchanda
In the Shadow of Pines Mandeep Rai
India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam & Dr. Y.S. Rajan
India-A Wounded Civilisation V.S. Naipaul
India discovered John Keay
India-Facing the Twenty-First Century Barbara Crossette
India-From Curzon to Nehru and After Durga Dass
India-From Midnight to the Millennium Shashi Tharoor
India-Independence Festival (1947-1997) Raghu Rai
India in Transition PRof.Jagdish Bhagwati
India is for Sale Chitra Subramaniam
India of Our Dreams M.V. Kamath
India Remembered Percival & Margaret Spear
India Today Rajni Palme Dutt

Ravindra 30
India We Left Hymphry Trevelyan
Indian Home Rule M.K. Gandhi
Indian Philosophy Dr.S.Radhakrishnan
India's China War Neville Maxwell
India's Culture the State the Arts & Beyond B.P. Singh
India's Economic Crisis Dr. Bimal Jalan
India's Economic Reforms and Development
I.J.Ahluwalia & I.M.D. Little
Essay's for Manmohan Singh
India's Rise to Power in the Twentieth
Sandy Gordon
Century & Beyond
Indian Arms Bazaar Maj-Gen, Pratap Narain
Indian Mansions Sarah Tiloston
India Changes Taya Zinkin
India Divided Rajendra Prasad
India Wins Freedom Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Indian Muslims Prof. Mohd.Mujeeb
India, the Critial Years Kuldip Nayar
Indo-Pakistan Conflict Russen Brines
Indica Megasthenes
Indira Gandhi's Emergence and Style Nayantara Sehgal
Indira's India S.Nihal Singh
Inferno Alighieri Dante
Inner Circle Jonathan First
Innocence of Father Brown G.K.Chesterton
Inside the CBI Joginder Singh
Inside the Third Reich Albert Spencer
Insider P.V. Narasimha Rao
In Memoriam Tennyson
Inside Asia John Gunther

Ravindra 31
Inside Europe John Gunther
Inside Africa John Gun ther
Insulted and the injured Fyodor Dostoevsky
Intelligence Services Dr. Bhashyam Kasturi
Interpreters Wole Soyinka
Intimacy Jean Paul Sartre
Intruder in the Dust William Faulkner
Invisible Man H.G. Wells
Iron in the Soul Jean Paul Sartre
Ironhand J.W. Von Goethe
Is Paris Burning Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre
Isabella John Keats
Islamic Bomb Stev Weissman & Herbert Krousney
Island inthe Streams Ernest Hemingway
It is Always Possible Kiran Bedi
Ivanov Anton Chekhov
Ivanhoe Sir Walter Scott
Jack and Jackle-Portrait of an American Marriage Chirstopher Anderson
Jai Somnath K.M. Munshi
Jaguar Smile Salman Rushdie
Jajar, Churashir Maa Mahashweta Devi
Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte
Jankijeevanam Prof. Rajendra Mishra
Jawaharlal Nehru-A Communicator
A.K. Damodran
& Democratic Leader
Jawaharlal Nehru, Rebel and Statesman B.R. Nanda
Jazz Toni Morrison
Jean Christopher Romain Rolland
Jesus Rediscovered Malcolm Muggeridge

Ravindra 32
Jewel Danielle Steel
Jhoota Sach Yashpal
Jobs for Millions V.V. Giri
Joke Milan Kundra
Judge's Miscellany M. Hidayatullah
Julius Caesar William Shakespeare
Jurassic Park Michael Crichton
Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling
Junglee Girl Ginu Kamani
Kadambari Bana Bhatt
Kamadhenu Kubernath Ray
Kamasutra Vatsyayan
Kagaz Te Kanwas Amrita Pritam
Kamayani Jai Shankar Pandit
Kaleidoscope of India Tomoji Muto
Kali Aandhi Kamleshwar
Kanthapura Raja Rao
Kanyadaan Vijay Tendulkar
Kapal Kundala Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Kashmir-A Tale of Shame Hari Jaisingh
Kashmir-Behind the Vale M.J.Akbar
Kashmir Diary: Psychology of Militancy Gen.Arjun Ray
Kashmir-The Wounded Valley Ajit Bhattacharjee
Kashmir in the Crossfire Victoria Shaffield
Kashmir A Tragedy of Errors Tavleen Singh
Katghare Main Ram Sharan Joshi
Kayakalp Munshi Prem Chand
Kayar Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai
Keepers of the Keys Milan Kundera

Ravindra 33
Kenilworth Sir Walter Scott
Killer Angels Michael Shaara
Kissinger Years T.N. Kaul
Kidnapped R.L. Stevenson
King of Dark Chamber Rabindra Nath Tagore
Kiratarjuniya Bharavi
Kim Rudyard Kipling
King Lear Shakespeare
Kipps H.G.Wells
Kitni Navon Main Kitni Bar S.H.Vatsyayan
Koraner Nari Taslima Nasreen
Kore Kagaz Amrita Pritam
Kubla Khan S.T. Coleridge
Kulliyat Ghalib
Kumar Sambhava Kalidas
La Divine Comedia A. Dante
La Peste Albert Camus
Lady of the Lake Sir Walter Scott
Lady with the Lapdog Anton Chekhov
Lady Chatterly's Lover D.H.Lawrence
Lajja Taslima Nasreen
Lal Bahadur Shastri C.P. Srivastava
Last Analysis Saul Bellow
Last Burden Upamanyu, Chatterjee
Last Maharaja Jean Louis Nou & Jacques Pouchepadass
Last Orders Graham Swift
Last Days of Pompeii Edward George Lytton
Last Phase Pyare Lal
Last Things C.P. Snow

Ravindra 34
Law, Lawyers & Judges H.R. Bhardwaj
Laws Versus Justice V.R. Krishna lyer
Leaders Richard Nixon
Leaves of Grass Walt Whitman
Lead Kindly Light Cardinal Newman
Le Contract Social (The Social Contract) J.J. Rousseau
Les Miserables Victor Hugo
Legacy of a Divided Nation Prof. Mushirul Hasan
Latter from Peking Peral S. Buck
Letters From the Field Margaret Mead
Leviathan Thomas Hobbes
Liberty or Death Patrick French
Life and Death of Mr. Badman John Bunyan
Light That Failed Rudyard Kipling
Like Water for Chocolate Laura Esquivel
Life Divine Aurobindo Ghosh
Life is Elsewhere Milan Kundera
Life of Samuel Johnson James Boswell
Lines of Fate Mark Kharitonov
Lipika Rabindranath Tagore
Living Room Graham Greene
Long Shadow inside Stalin's Family Svetlana Allilyuyeva
Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela
Look Back in Anger John Osborne
Lord Jim Joseph Conrad
Lord of the Files William Golding
Lost Child Mulk Raj Anand
Lost Honour John Dean
Lost lllusion Honore de Balzac

Ravindra 35
Lotus Eaters A.Tennyson
Love and Longing in Bombay Vikram Chandra
Love in A Blue Time Hanif Khureshi
Lolita V.Nabokov
Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner Allan Sillitoe
Long Day's Journey into Night Eugene O'Neill
Love, Truth and A Little Malice Khushwant Singh
Lycidas John Milton

Books and Authors [ M - P ]

Books Authors
Macbeth William Shakespeare
Magic Mountain Thomas Mann
Mahabharata Vyasa
Malati Madhav Bhavabhuti
Magic Fishbone Charles Dickens
Magnificent Maharaja K.Natwar Singh
Mahatma Gandhi Girija Kumar Mathur
Major Barbara George Bernard Shaw
Making of a Midsummer Night's Dream David Selbourne
Malavikagnimitra Kalidas
Main Street Sinclair Lewis
Man, The Unknown Lewis Carroll
Man and Superman G.B. Shaw
Man for Moscow G.Lynne
Man of Property John Galsworthy
Man, Beast and Virtue Luigi Pirandello

Ravindra 36
Man eaters of Kumaon Jim Corbett
Marriage and Morals Bertrand Russell
Managing of the Future Peter, F. Drucker
Mama Terry McMillan
Man for All Seasons Robert Bolt
Man of Destiny George Bernard Shaw
Mandarin Simon de Beauvoir
Mankind and Mother Earth Arnold Toynbee
Mansfield Park Jane Austen
Manviya Sanskriti Ke Rachnatmak Aayam Prof. Raghuvansh
Many Worlds K.P.S. Menon
Masters C.P. Snow
Mati Matal Gopinath Mohanty
Maurice E.M. Forster
Mayor of Casterbridge Thomas Hardy
Meghdoot Kalidas
Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler
Memoris of the Second World War Churchill
Memoris of a Bystander: Life in Diplomacy lqbal Akhund
Momories of Hope Charles de Gaulle
Men Who Kepl the Secrets Thomas Powers
Men Who Killed Gandhi Manohar Malgonkar
Meri Rehen Meri Manzil Krishna Puri
Middle March George Eliot
Middle Ground Margaret Drabble
Midnight's Children Salman Rushdie
Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare
Mill on the Floss George Eliot
Million Mutinies Now V.S. Naipaul

Ravindra 37
Mirror of the Sea Joseph Conrad
Miser Moliere
Missed Oppertunites: Indo-Pak War 1965 Maj-Gen, Lakshman Singh
Mistaken identity Nayantara Sehgal
Moby Dick Herman Melville
Modern Painters John Ruskin
Mother India Katherine Mayo
Mod Classics Joseph Conrad
Modern South Asia: History, Culture,
Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal
Political Economy
Modernity Morality And The Mahatma Madhuri Santhanam Sondhi
Mondays on Dark Night of Moon Kirin Narayan
Mookhajjiva Kanasugalu K. Shivram Karanth
Moon and Six Pence W. Somerset Maugham
Moonlight Sonata L.Beethoven
Moonwalk Michael Jackson
Moor's Last Sigh Salman Rushdie
Mother Maxim Gorky
Mountbatten and Independent India Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre
Mountbatten and the Partition of India Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre
Mrinalini Bankim Chandra Charrerjee
Mritunjaya Shivaji Sawant
Mrs. De Winter Susah Hill
Mrs. Gandhi's Second Reign Arun Shourie
Much Ado About Nothing Shakespeare
Mudra rakshasa Vishakhadatta
Murder in the Cathedral T.S. Eliot
Mughal Maharajas And The Mahatma K.R.N. Swami
Murder on the Orient Express Agatha Christie

Ravindra 38
Murky Business Honore de Balzac
Murder of Aziz Khan Zulfikar Ghose
Muslim Law and the Constitution A.M. Bhattacharjea
My Days R.K. Narayan
My Early Life M.K. Gandhi
My Experiment With Truth M.K. Gandhi
My Life and Times V.V.Giri
My Own Boswell M.Hidayatullah
My Father, Deng Xiaoping Xiao Rong
My India S. Nihal Singh
My Music, My Love Ravi Shankar
My Presidential Years Ramaswamy Venkataraman
My Truth Indira Gandhi
Mysterious Universe James Jeans
My Several Worlds Pearl S. Buck
My Son's Father Dom Moraes
My South Block Years J.N. Dixit
My Struggles E.K. Nayanar
Myths of sisyphus Albert Camus
My Prison Diary J.P Narayan
Naari Humayun Azad
Nana Emile Zola
Naganandan Harsha Vardhana
Naku Thanthi D.R. Bendre
Nai Duniya Ko Salam & Pathor Ki Dewar Ali Sardar Jafri
Naivedyam (The Offering) N. Balamani Amma
Naked Came the Stranger Penelope Ashe
Nacked Face Sydney Sheldon
Naked Triangle Balwant Gargi

Ravindra 39
Napoleon of Notting Hill G.K. Chesterton
Nature and the Language Politics of India Robert D.King
Nehru Family and Sikhs Harbans Singh
Nelson Mandela: A Biography Martin Meredith
Netaji-Dead or Alive Samar Guha
Never At Home Dom Moraes
New Dimensions of Peace Chester Bowles
New Dimensions of India's Foreign Policy Atal Behari Vajpayee
Nice Guys Finish Second B.K. Nehru
Nicholas Nickelby Charles Dickens
Night Manager John le Carre
Nile Basin Sir Richard Burton
Nine Days Wonder John Mansfield
Nisheeth Uma Shankar Joshi
Niti-Sataka Bhartrihari
Nineteen Eighty-Four George Orwell
1999-Victory Without War Richard Nixon
Nirbashita Narir Kabita Taslima Nasreen
Non-Violence in Peace and War M.K. Gandhi
North Seamus Heanev
Northanger Abbey Jane Austen
Nothing Like The Sun Anthony Burgess
No Full stops in India Mark Tully
Nuclear India G.G. Mirchandani and P.K.S. Namboodari
Nurturing Development Ismail Serageldin
Nursery Alice Lewis Carroll
O'Jerusalem Larry Collins and Dominique Lepierre
Occasion for Loving Nadine Gordimer
Odessa File Frederick Forsyth

Ravindra 40
Odakkuzal G.Shankara Kurup
Odyssey Homer
Of Human Bondage W.Somerset Maugham
Oh, Le Beaux Jours Samuel Beckett
Old Curiosity Shop Charles Dickens
Old Goriot Honore de Balzac
Old Man and the Sea Ernest Hemingway
Old Path: white Clouds Thich Nht Hanh
Oliver's Story Erich Segal
Oliver Twist Erich Segal
Oliver Twist Charles Dickens
Omeros Derek Walcott
On History Eric Hobswan
One Day in the Life of lvan Denisovich Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
One-eyed Uncle Laxmikant Mahapatra
One World to Share Sridath Ramphal
One the Threshold of Hope Pope john Paul
One Hundred Years of Solitude Gabriel Garcia Marquez
One Upmanship Stephen Potter
One World and India Arnold Toynbee
One World Wendell Wilkie
Only One Year Svetlana
Operation Bluestar-the True Story Lt-Gen.K.S. Brar
Operation Shylock Philip Roth
Origin of Species Charles Darwin
Oru Desathinte Katha S.K. Pottekatt
Other Side of Midnight Sydney Sheldon
Othello Shakespeare
Our Films, Their Films Satyajit Ray

Ravindra 41
Our India Minoo Masani
Out of Dust F.D. Karaka
Paddy Clarke Ha, Ha, Ha Reddy Doyle
Padmavati Malik Mohammed Jayasi
Painted Veil W. Somerset Maugham
Painter of Signs R.K. Narayan
Pair of Blue Eyes Thomas Hardy
Pakistan in the 20th Century
Lawrence Ziring
Political History
Pakistan Crisis David Loshak
Pakistan Papers Mani Shankar Aiyer
Pakistan-The Gathering Storm Benazir Bhutto
Panchagram Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya
Panchtantra Vishnu Sharma
Paradise Lost John Milton
Pakistan Cut to Size D.R. Mankekar
Paradiso Alighieri Dante
Paradise Regained John Milton
Passage to England Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Passage to India E.M. Forster
Past and Present Thomas Carlyle

Past Forward G.R. Narayanan

Pather Panchali Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyaya
Path to Power Margaret Thatcher
Patriot Pearl S. Buck
Pavilion of Women Pearl S. Buck
Peculiar Music Emily Bronte
Peter Pan J.M. Barrie

Ravindra 42
Personal of Democracy P.C. Alexander
Personal Adventure Theodore H. White
Persuasion Jane Austen
Pickwick Papers Charles Dickens
Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan
Pillow Problems and the Tangled Tale Lewis Carroll
Pinjar Amrita Pritam
Plague Albert Camus
Plans for Departure Nayantara Sehgal
Pleading Guilty Scott Turow
Poison Belt Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Politics Aristotle
Portrait of India Ved Mehta
Possessed Albert Camus
Post Office Rabindranath Tagore
Power and Glory Graham Greene
Power of Movement in Plants Charles Darwin
Power That Be David Halberstan
Prathama Pratishruti Ashapurna Devi
Prem Pachisi Prem Chand
Prelude William Wordsworth
Premonitions P.N. Haksar
Preparing for the Twentieth Century Paul Kennedy
Price of Partition Rafiq Zakaria
Price of Power-Kissinger in the Nixon White House Seymour M. Hersh
Princess in Love Ann Pasternak
Prison and Chocolate Cake Nayantara Sehgal
Prison Diary Jayaprakash Narayan
Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope

Ravindra 43
Prisoner's Scrapbook L.K. Advani
Primary Colors Anonymous
Prince Machiavelli
Prithviraj Raso Chand Bardai
Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen
Principia Isaac Newton
Professor Charlotte Bronte
Profiles & Letters K. Natwar Singh
Promises to Keep Chester Bowles
Punjab, The Knights of Falsehood K.P.S. Gill
Purgatory Alighieri Dante
Pyramids of Sacrifice Peter L.Berger
Pygmation G.B. Shaw

Books and Authors [ Q - T ]

Books Authors
Quarantene Jim Crass
Quest for Conscience Madhu Dandavate
R Documents Irving Wallace
Rabbit, Run John Updike
Radharani Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Rage of Angels Sydney Sheldon
Ragtime E.L. Doctorow
Raghuvamsa Kalidas
Rajtarangini Kalhana
Ram Charit Manas Tulsidas
Ramayana Maharishi Valmiki (in Sanskrit)

Ravindra 44
Ramayana Dharshanam K.V. Puttappa
Rangbhoomi Prem Chand
Rains Came Louis Bromefield
Rain King Saul Bellow
Rainbow Pearl S. Buck
Raj : The Making & Unmaking of British India Lawrence James
Rang-e-Shairi Raghupati Sahai 'Firaq' Gorakhpuri
Rape of the Lock Alexander Pope
Rape of Nanking: An undeniable
Shi Young
History of Photographs
Rape of Bangladesh Anthony Mascarenhas
Rare Glimpses of the Raj Pran Nevile
Ratnavali Harsha Vardhan
Ravi Paar (Across the Ravi) Gulzar
Razor's Edge Somerset Maugham
Rebel Albert Camus
Rebirth Leonid Brezhnev
Red and Black Stendhal
Red Star Over China Edgar Snow
Red Wheel Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Rediscovering Gandhi Yogesh Chadha
Reflections on the Frence Revolution Edmund Burke
Red Badge of Courage Stephen Crane
Remembering Babylon David Malouf
Reminiscences Thomas Carlyle
Reminiscences Thomas Carlyle
Reminiscences of the Nehru Age M.O. Mathai
Rendezvous with Rama Arthur C. Clark
Reprieve Jean Paul Sartre

Ravindra 45
Republic Plato
Rescue Joseph Conrad
Resurrection Leo Tolstoy
Return of the Aryans Bhagwan S. Gidwani
Return of the Native Thomas Hardy
Returning to the Source Acharya Rajneesh
Revenue Stamp Amrita Pritam
Rich Like Us Nayantara Sehgal
Riding the Storm Harold MacMillan
Rights the Man Thomas Paina
Rise and Fall of the Great Powers Paul Kennedy
Ritu Ka Pehla Phool Vijendra
Ritu Samhara Kalidas
Rivals R.B. Sheridan
River Sutra Gita Mehta
Road to Folly Leslie Ford
Road to Freedom K.K. Khullar
Robe Lloyd C. Douglas
Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare
Room at the Top John Braine Roots
Rubaiyat-i-Omar Khayyam Edward Fitzgerald
Rukh Te Rishi Harbhajan Singh
Sader-i-Riyasat Karan Singh
Sardar Patel and Indian Muslims Rafiq Zakaria
Sakharam Binder Vijay Tendulkar
Saket Maithili Sharan Gupta
Satyartha Prakash Swami Dayanand
Smaler's Planet Saul Bellow

Ravindra 46
Sanctuary William Faulkner
Sands of Time Sidney Sheldon
Santa Evita Tomas Eloymartinez
Satanic Verses Salman Rushdie
Savitri Aurobindo Ghosh
Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne
Scarlet Pimpernel Baroness Orczy
Scenes from a Writer's Life Ruskin Bond
Sceptred Flute Sarojini Naidu
Schindlr's List Thomas Keneally
Scholar Extraordinary Nirad C. Chaudhuri
School for Scandal R.B. Sheridan
Scope of Happiness Vijayalakshmi Pandit
Search for Home Sasthi Brata
Second World War Winston Churchill
Secret Agent Joseph Conrad
Sense of Time S.H. Vatsyayan
Sesame and Lilies John Ruskin
Seven Lamps of Architecture John Ruskin
Seven Summers Mulk Raj Anand
Tale of a Tub Jonathan Swift
Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens
Tales from Shakespeare Charles Lamb
Tales of Sherlock Holmes Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Talisman Sir Walter Scott
Tamas Bhisham Sahni
Tar Baby Toni Morrison
Tarkash Javed Akhtar
Tarzan of the Apes Edgar Rice Burroughs

Ravindra 47
Tehriq-e-Mujahideen Dr. Sadiq Hussain
Temple Tiger Jim Corbett
Tess of D'Urbervilles Thomas Hardy
Thank You, Jeeves P.G. Wodehouse
The Age of Extremes Eric Holsbawm
The Assassination K. Mohandas
The Agenda-Indide the Clinton White House Bob Woodward
The Agony and Ecstasy Irving Stone
The Best and the Brightest David Malberstam
The Beach Tree Pearl S. Buck
The Betrayal of East Pakistan Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi
The Calcutta Chromosome Amitav Ghosh
The Career & Legend of Vasco de Gama Sanjay Subramanyam
The Commitments Roddy Doyle
The Cardinal Henry Morton Robinson
The Changing World of Executive Peter Drucker
The Chinese Betrayal B.N. Mullick
The Congress Splits R.P. Rao
The Dark Side of Camelot Seymore Hersh
The Defeat or Distant Drumbeats Bhaskar Roy
The Diplomatic Bag John Ure

Books and Authors [ U - Z ]

Books Authors
Ugly Duckling H.C. Anderson
Ulysses James Joyce
Uncle Tom's Cabin Mrs.Hariet Stowe

Ravindra 48
Unconsoled Kazuo Ishiguro
Under Western Eye Joseph Conrad
Unhappy India Lala Lajpat Rai
Universe Around Us James Jeans
Until Darkness Parvin Ghaffari
Utouchable Mulk Raj Anand
Upturned Soil Mikhail Sholokov
Urvashi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Uttar Ramcharita Bhava Bhuti
Utopia Thomas More
Unto This Last John Ruskin
Untold Story Gen.B.M.Kaul
Valley of Dolls Jacqueline Susanne
Vanity Fair Thackeray
Vendor of Sweets R.K.Narayan
Venisamhara Narayana Bhatt
Very Old Bones William Kennedy
Victim Saul Bellow
Victory Joseph Conrad
Video Nights in Kathmandu Pico Lyer
View from Delhi Chester Bowles
View from the UN U Thant
Vikram and the Vampire Sir Richard Burton
Village by the Sea Anita Desai
Village Mulk Raj Anand
Vinay Patrika Tulsidas
Virangana Maithili Sharan Gupta
Virginians William Thackeray
Vish Vriksha Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Ravindra 49
Voice of Conscience V.V. Giri
Voice of Freedom Nayantara Sehgal
Voice of the Voiceless Rutsh Harring
Waiting for Godot Samuel Becket
Waiting for the Mahatma R.K. Narayan
Waiting to Exhale Terry McMillan
Wake up India Annie Besant
Walls of Glass K.A. Abbas
War and Peace Tolstoy
War and No Peace Over Kashmir Maroof Raza
War Minus the Shooting Mike Marquesee
War of Indian Independence Vir Savarkar
War of the Worlds H.G.Wells
Waste Land T.S. Eliot
Way of the World William Congreve
We, Indians Khushwant Singh
We, the People N.A. Palkhivala
Wealth of Nations Adam Smith
Week with Gandhi Louis Fischer
West Wind Pearl S. Buck
Westward Ho Charles Kingsley
Where the Grass is Greener David M. Smith
While England Sleeps David Leavitt
Whispers of the Desert Fatima Bhutto
White House Years Henry Kissinger
Widening Divide Rafiq Zakaria
Wild Ass's Skin Honore de Balzac
Wings of fire, an Autobiography Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam & A. Tiwari
Winston Churchill Clive Ponting

Ravindra 50
Witness to History Prem Bhatia
Without Fear or Favour Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Witness to an Era Frank Moraes
Woman's Life Guy de Maupassant
Women and Men in My Life Khushwant Singh
Wonder That Was India A.L. Basham
World According to Garp John Irving
World Within Words Stephen Spender
Worthy it is Odysseus Elytis
Worshipping False Gods Arun Shourie
Wreck Rabindra Nath Tagore
Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte
Yajnaseni Dr. Pratibha Roy
Yama Mahadevi Verma
Yashodhara Maithili Sharan Gupta
Yayati V.S. Khandekar
Year of the Upheaval Henry Kissinger
Year of the Vulture Amita Malik
Years of Pilgrimage Dr.Raja Ramanna
Yesterday and Today K.P.S. Menon
Zool: The Final Odyssey Arthur C. Clarke
Zhivago,Dr. Boris Pasternak
Zlata's Diary-A Child's Zlata Filipovic Life in Sarajero
Zulfi, My Friend Piloo Mody
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto & Pakistan Rafi Raza

Ravindra 51
• Countries and their capital, currencies, Principal
languages, Religions

Ravindra 52

New Delhi

Islam &

Persian (Farsi)

Iraqi Dinar
Arabic (Official)
Judaism & Islam


Jamaican Dollar

Shintoism &

Ravindra 53
Ravindra 54
Buddhism &

Yemen (N)
Rial & Dinar


French &
& Animism

Bantu &
& Islam

English &
Tribal &

Ravindra 55
• Foreign banks operating In India
Sr. No. Name No of Branches in India
1 ABN AMRO Bank 28
2 Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Ltd. 2
3 Arab Bangladesh Bank Ltd. 1
4 American Express Banking Corp. 1
5 Antwerp Diamond Bank N.V. 1
6 Bank International Indonesia 1
7 Bank of America 5
8 Bank of Bahrain & Kuwait BSC 2
9 Bank of Nova Scotia 5
10 Bank of Tokyo- Mitsubishi Ltd. 3
11 BNP Paribas 8
12 Bank of Ceylon 1
13 Barclays Bank Plc. 5
14 Calyon Bank 5

Ravindra 56
15 Citi Bank N.A. 39
16 Shinhan Bank 2
17 Chinatrust Commercial Bank 1
18 Deutsche Bank 11
19 DBS Bank Ltd. 2
20 HSBC 47
21 J.P.Morgan Chase Bank N.A. 1
22 Krung Thai Bank Public Co.Ltd. 1
23 Mizuho Corporate bank Ltd. 2
24 Mashreq bank PSC. 2
25 Oman International Bank SAOG 2
26 Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) 90
27 Sonali Bank 2
28 Societe Generale 2
29 State Bank of Mauritius 3

• Rivers, Lakes, Water falls

River Leng Lengt Drainag Averag Outflow Countries
th h e area e in the
(km) (mile (km²) dischar drainage
s) ge basin
1 Nile 6,650 4,135 3,349,0 5,100 Mediterrane Ethiopia ,
.** 00 an Sea Eritrea ,
Sudan ,
Uganda ,
Tanzania ,
Kenya ,
Rwanda ,
Burundi ,
Egypt ,
Republic of
the Congo
2 Amazon 6,400 3,980 6,915,0 219,000 Atlantic Brazil , Peru ,
.** 00 Ocean Bolivia ,
Colombia ,

Ravindra 57
Ecuador ,
Venezuela ,
3. Yangtze 6,300 3,917 1,800,0 31,900 East China P.R. China
(Chang Jiang) 00 Sea
4. Mississippi 6,275 3,902 2,980,0 16,200 Gulf of United
- Missouri 00 Mexico States
5. Yenisei - 5,539 3,445 2,580,0 19,600 Kara Sea Russia ,
Angara - 00 Mongolia
6. Yellow 5,464 3,398 745,000 2,110 Bohai Sea P.R. China
(Huang He) (Balhae )
7. Ob - Irtysh 5,410 3,364 2,990,0 12,800 Gulf of Ob Russia,
00 Kazakhstan ,
P.R. China,
8. Congo - 4,700 2,922 3,680,0 41,800 Atlantic Democratic
Chambeshi 00 Ocean Republic of
(Zaire) the Congo,
Republic ,
Angola ,
Republic of
the Congo ,
Tanzania ,
Cameroon ,
Zambia ,
Burundi ,
9. Amur - 4,444 2,763 1,855,0 11,400 Sea of Russia, P.R.
Argun 00 Okhotsk China,
(Heilong Mongolia
10. Lena 4,400 2,736 2,490,0 17,100 Laptev Sea Russia
11. Mekong 4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 South China Laos ,
(Lancang Sea Thailand ,
Jiang) P.R. China,
Cambodia ,
Vietnam ,
12. Mackenzie - 4,241 2,637 1,790,0 10,300 Beaufort Canada

Ravindra 58
Peace - 00 Sea
13. Niger 4,200 2,611 2,090,0 9,570 Gulf of Nigeria
00 Guinea (26.6%),
d'Ivoire ,
Benin , Chad
14. Paraná 3,998 2,486 3,100,0 25,700 Atlantic Brazil
(Río de la 00 Ocean (46.7%),
Plata ) Argentina
15. Volga 3,645 2,266 1,380,0 8,080 Caspian Sea Russia
00 (99.8%),
16. Shatt al- 3,596 2,236 884,000 856 Persian Gulf Iraq
Arab - (40.5%),
Euphrates Turkey
17. Purus 3,379 2,101 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru
18. Murray - 3,370 2,094 1,061,0 767 Southern Australia
Darling [1]
00 Ocean
19. Madeira - 3,239 2,014 850,000 17,000 Amazon Brazil,

Ravindra 59
Mamoré Bolivia,
20. Yukon 3,184 1,980 850,000 6,210 Bering Sea United
21. Indus 3,180 1,976 960,000 7,160 Arabian Sea Pakistan
(Sindhu) (93%),
India , P. R.
(Kashmir ),
22. São 3,180 1,976 610,000 3,300 Atlantic Brazil
Francisco * * Ocean
(2,90 (1,802
0) )
23. Syr Darya - 3,078 1,913 219,000 703 Aral Sea Kazakhstan,
Naryn Kyrgyzstan ,
Uzbekistan ,
24. Salween 3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153 [2]
Andaman P.R. China
(Nu Jiang) Sea (52.4%),
25. Saint 3,058 1,900 1,030,0 10,100 Gulf of Saint Canada
Lawrence - 00 Lawrence (52.1%),
Niagara - United
Detroit - States
Saint Clair - (47.9%)
Marys -Saint
26. Rio Grande 3,057 1,900 570,000 82 Gulf of United
(2,89 (1,799 Mexico States
6) ) (52.1%),
27. Lower 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia
28. Brahmaputr 2,948 1,832 1,730,0 19,200 Bay of India

Ravindra 60
a * * 00 Bengal (58.0%),
P.R. China
29. Danube 2,850 1,771 817,000 7,130 Black Sea Romania
* * (28.9%),
Bosnia and
a (4.8%),
30. Tocantins 2,699 1,677 1,400,0 13,598 Atlantic Brazil
00 Ocean,
31. Zambezi 2,693 1,673 1,330,0 4,880 Mozambique Zambia
(Zambesi) * * 00 Channel (41.6%),

Ravindra 61
e (11.8%),
Namibia ,
32. Vilyuy 2,650 1,647 454,000 1,480 Lena Russia
33. Araguaia 2,627 1,632 358,125 6,172 Tocantins Brazil
34. Amu Darya 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400 Aral Sea Uzbekistan ,
Tajikistan ,
35. Japurá 2,615 1,625 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil,
(Rio Yapurá) * * Colombia
36. Nelson - 2,570 1,597 1,093,0 2,575 Hudson Bay Canada,
Saskatchew 00 United
an States
37. Paraguay 2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Paraná Brazil,
(Rio Paraguay,
Paraguay) Bolivia,
38. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 East Russia
39. Ganges 2,510 1,560 907,000 12,037 Brahmaputr India,
(Ganga) [4]
a , Bay of Bangladesh,
Bengal Nepal
40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay ,
41. Upper Ob 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia
42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Irtysh Kazakhstan,
43. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil
44. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Caspian Sea Russia,
45. Arkansas 2,348 1,459 505,000 1,066 Mississippi United
(435,122) States
46. Ubangi - 2,300 1,429 4,003 Congo Democratic
Uele Republic of
the Congo,

Ravindra 62
47. Olenyok 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 Laptev Sea
48. Dnieper 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Black Sea
Belarus ,
49. Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Lena Russia
50. Negro 2,250 1,450 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil,
51. Columbia 2,250 1,450 415,211 7500 Pacific United
(1,95 (1,214 Ocean States,
3) ) Canada
52. Colorado 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 Gulf of United
(western California States,
U.S.) Mexico
53. Pearl - Xi 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China P.R. China
Jiang Sea (98.5%),
54. Red 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United
55. Ayeyarwad 2,170 1,348 411,000 13,000 Andaman Myanmar
y Sea
56. Kasai 2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Congo Angola ,
Republic of
the Congo
57. Ohio - 2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957 Mississippi United
Allegheny States
58. Orinoco 2,101 1,306 880,000 30,000 Atlantic Venezuela,
Ocean Colombia,
59. Tarim 2,100 1,305 557,000 Lop Nur P. R. China
60. Xingu 2,100 1,305 Amazon Brazil
61. Orange 2,092 1,300 Atlantic South
Ocean Africa ,
Namibia ,
Botswana ,
62. Northern 2,010 1,249 Paraná Argentina
63. Vitim 1,978 1,229 Lena Russia
64. Tigris 1,950 1,212 Shatt al- Turkey ,
Arab Iraq , Syria ,

Ravindra 63
65. Songhua 1,927 1,197 Amur P. R. China
66. Tapajós 1,900 1,181 Amazon Brazil
67. Don 1,870 1,162 425,600 935 Sea of Azov Russia
68. Stony 1,865 1,159 240,000 Yenisei Russia
69. Pechora 1,809 1,124 322,000 Barents Sea Russia
70. Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 Volga Russia
71. Limpopo 1,800 1,118 413,000 Indian Mozambiqu
Ocean e,
Zimbabwe ,
Africa ,
72. Guaporé 1,749 1,087 Mamoré Brazil,
(Itenez) Bolivia
73. Indigirka 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 East Russia
74. Snake 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 Columbia United
75. Senegal 1,641 1,020 419,659 Atlantic Senegal ,
Ocean Mali ,
76. Uruguay 1,610 1,000 370,000 Atlantic Uruguay ,
Ocean Argentina,
77. Blue Nile 1,600 994 Nile Ethiopia ,
77. Churchill 1,600 994 Hudson Bay Canada
77. Khatanga 1,600 994 Laptev Sea Russia
77. Okavango 1,600 994 Okavango Namibia ,
Delta Angola ,
77. Volta 1,600 994 Gulf of Ghana ,
Guinea Burkina
Faso , Togo ,
d'Ivoire ,
82. Beni 1,599 994 Madeira Bolivia
83. Platte 1,594 990 Missouri United
84. Tobol 1,591 989 Irtysh Kazakhstan,

Ravindra 64
85. Jubba - 1,580 982* Indian Ethiopia ,
Shebelle * Ocean Somalia
86. Içá 1,575 979 Amazon Brazil, Peru,
(Putumayo) Colombia,
87. Magdalena 1,550 963 Caribbean Colombia
88. Han 1,532 952 Yangtze P. R. China
89. Lomami 1,500 932 Congo Democratic
Republic of
the Congo
89. Oka 1,500 932 Volga Russia
90. Pecos 1,490 926 Rio Grande United
91. Upper 1,480 920 Yenisei Russia,
Yenisei Mongolia
92. Godavari 1,465 910 Bay of India
93. Colorado 1,438 894 Gulf of United
(Texas) Mexico States
94. Río Grande 1,438 894 Ichilo Bolivia
95. Belaya 1,420 882 Kama Russia
96. Cooper - 1,420 880 Lake Eyre Australia
97. Marañón 1,415 879 Amazon Peru
98. Dniester 1,411 877 Black Sea Ukraine ,
(1,35 (840) Moldova
99. Benue 1,400 870 Niger Cameroon ,
99. Ili 1,400 870 Lake P. R. China,
(Yili) Balkhash Kazakhstan
99. Warburton - 1,400 870 Lake Eyre Australia
1 Sutlej 1,372 852 Chenab China,
02. India,
1 Yamuna 1,370 851 Ganges India
1 Vyatka 1,370 851 Kama Russia
1 Fraser 1,368 850 3,475 Pacific Canada

Ravindra 65
05. Ocean
1 Kura 1,364 848 Caspian Sea Azerbaijan ,
06. Georgia ,
Armenia ,
Turkey , Iran
1 Grande 1,360 845 Paraná Brazil
1 Brazos 1,352 840 Gulf of United
08. Mexico States
1 Cauca 1,350 839 Magdalena Colombia
09. River River
1 Liao 1,345 836 Bo Hai P. R. China
1 Yalong 1,323 822 Yangtze P. R. China
1 Iguaçu 1,320 820 Paraná Brazil,
12. Argentina
1 Olyokma 1,320 820 Lena Russia
1 Rhine 1,320 820 198,735 2,330 North Sea Germany ,
12. France ,
, Austria ,
Belgium ,
n , Italy
1 Northern 1,302 809 357,052 3,332 White Sea Russia
13. Dvina -
1 Krishna 1,300 808 Bay of India
14. Bengal
1 Iriri 1,300 808 Xingu Brazil
1 Narmada 1,289 801 Arabian Sea India
1 Ottawa 1,271 790 Saint Canada
16. Lawrence
1 Zeya 1,242 772 Amur Russia
1 Juruena 1,240 771 Tapajós Brazil

Ravindra 66
1 Upper 1,236 768 Mississippi United
19. Mississippi States
1 Athabasca 1,231 765 Mackenzie Canada
1 Elbe - 1,231 765 148,268 711 North Sea Germany ,
21. Vltava Czech
1 Canadian 1,223 760 Arkansas United
22. States
1 North 1,220 758 Saskatchew Canada
23. Saskatchew an
1 Vaal 1,210 752 Orange South Africa
1 Shire 1,200 746 Zambezi Mozambiqu
25. e , Malawi
1 Nen 1,190 739 Songhua P. R. China
26. (Nonni)
1 Green 1,175 730 Colorado United
27. (western States
1 Milk 1,173 729 Missouri United
28. States,
1 Chindwin 1,158 720 Ayeyarwady Myanmar
1 Sankuru 1,150 715 Kasai Democratic
32. Republic of
the Congo
1 James 1,143 710 Missouri United
33. (Dakotas) States
1 Kapuas 1,143 710 South China Indonesia
33. Sea
1 Desna 1,130 702 88,900 360 Dnieper Russia ,
35. Ukraine
1 Helmand 1,130 702 Hamun-i- Afghanistan
35. Helmand , Iran
1 Madre de 1,130 702 Madeira Peru,
35. Dios Bolivia
1 Tietê 1,130 702 Paraná Brazil
1 Vychegda 1,130 702 Northern Russia
35. Dvina
1 Sepik 1,126 700 77,700 Pacific Papua New

Ravindra 67
40. Ocean Guinea ,
1 Cimarron 1,123 698 Arkansas United
41. States
1 Anadyr 1,120 696 Gulf of Russia
42. Anadyr
1 Jialing 1,119 695 Yangtze P. R. China
43. River
1 Liard 1,115 693 Mackenzie Canada
1 White 1,102 685 Mississippi United
45. States
1 Huallaga 1,100 684 Marañón Peru
1 Kwango 1,100 684 263,500 2,700 Kasai Angola,
46. Democratic
Republic of
the Congo
1 Gambia 1,094 680 Atlantic The
48. Ocean Gambia ,
Senegal ,
1 Chenab 1,086 675 Indus India,
49. Pakistan
1 Yellowstone 1,080 671 Missouri United
50. States
1 Chu River 1067 663 62,500 none Kyrgyzstan ,
51. Kazakhstan
1 Donets 1,078 670 Don Ukraine ,
52. (1,05 (654) Russia
1 Bermejo 1,050 652 Paraguay Argentina,
53. Bolivia
1 Fly 1,050 652 Gulf of Papua New
53. Papua Guinea ,
1 Guaviare 1,050 652 Orinoco Colombia
1 Kuskokwim 1,050 652 Bering Sea United
53. States
1 Tennessee 1,049 652 Ohio United
57. States
1 Daugava 1,020 634 Gulf of Riga Latvia ,
58. Belarus ,

Ravindra 68
1 Gila 1,015 631 Colorado United
59. (western States
1 Vistula 1,014 630 Baltic Sea Poland
1 Loire 1,012 629 Atlantic France
61. Ocean
1 Essequibo 1,010 628 Atlantic Guyana
62. Ocean
1 Khoper 1,010 628 Don Russia
1 Tagus 1,006 625 Atlantic Spain ,
64. (Tajo/Tejo) Ocean Portugal
1 Colorado 1,000 620 Atlantic Argentina
65. (Argentina) Ocean

Oceanic 'lakes'
Two bodies of water commonly considered lakes are hydrologically
ocean (Maracaibo) or geologically ocean (the Caspian Sea).
Name Country Regio Water volume
1. Caspian Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, 78,200 km 3
Sea [2]
Turkmenistan, Iran (18,800 cu mi)
20 Maracaibo Venezuela 280 km 3 (67 cu
. [3]
Continental lakes
The following are geological as well as geographic
lakes .
Name Country Region Water volume
2. Baikal [4]
Russia Siberia 23,600 km 3 (5,700
cu mi)
3. Tanganyika Tanzania, DRC, 18,900 km 3 (4,500
Burundi, Zambia cu mi)
4. Superior United States, 11,600 km 3 (2,800
Canada cu mi)
5. Michigan- United States, 8,260 km 3 (1,980
Huron Canada cu mi)
6. Malawi Malawi, 7,725 km 3 (1,853
Mozambique, cu mi)

Ravindra 69
7. Vostok Antarctica 5,400±1,600 km³
(~1,300 cu mi)
8. Victoria Kenya, Tanzania, 2,700 km 3 (650 cu
Uganda mi)
9. Great Bear Canada Northwest 2,236 km 3 (536 cu
Lake [ 5 ] Territories mi)
10 Issyk-Kul Kyrgyzstan 1,730 km 3 (420 cu
. mi)
11 Ontario United States, 1,710 km 3 (410 cu
. Canada mi)
12 Great Slave Canada Northwest 1,580 km 3 (380 cu
. Lake [ 5 ] Territories mi)
13 Ladoga Russia 908 km 3 (218 cu
. mi)
14 Titicaca Bolivia, Peru 710 km 3 (170 cu
. mi)
15 Van [ 6 ] Turkey Southeast 607 km 3 (146 cu
. Anatolia mi)
16 Kivu Rwanda, DRC 569 km 3 (137 cu
. mi)
17 Erie United States, 545 km 3 (131 cu
. Canada mi)
18 Khövsgöl Mongolia 480 km 3 (120 cu
. mi)
19 Onega Russia 295 km 3 (71 cu
. mi)
21 Toba [ 7 ] Indonesia 240 km 3 (58 cu
. (Sumatra) mi)
22 Argentino Argentina 219.9 km 3 (52.8 cu
. mi)
23 Turkana Kenya 204 km 3 (49 cu
. mi)
24 Vänern Sweden 180 km 3 (43 cu
. mi)
25 Nipigon Canada Ontario 165 km 3 (40 cu
. mi) [ 8 ]
26 Tahoe United States California, 151 km 3 (36 cu
. Nevada mi)
27 Dead Sea Jordan, Israel, 147 km 3 (35 cu
. Palestine mi)
28 Albert Uganda, DRC 132 km 3 (32 cu
. mi)
29 Winnipeg Canada 127 km 3 (30 cu
. mi)

Ravindra 70
30 Nettilling Canada Nunavut (Baffin 114 km 3 (27 cu
. Island) mi)
31 Balkhash Kazakhstan 112 km 3 (27 cu
. mi)
32 Athabasca Canada Alberta- 110 km 3 (26 cu
. Saskatchewan mi)
33 Nicaragua Nicaragua 108 km 3 (26 cu
. mi)


Name Height ( so rt ) State Country
Drop ( so rt )

3,212 feet / 2,648 ft / Venezuel

1 . Angel, Salto Bolivar
979 meters 807 m a
3,110 feet / 1,350 ft / Kwazulu South
2 . Tugela Falls
948 meters 411 m Natal Africa
Tres Hermanas, 3,000 feet /
3 . Ayacucho Peru
Cataratas las 914 meters
2,953 feet /
4 . Olo'upena Falls Hawaii USA
900 meters
2,938 feet /
5 . Yumbilla, Catarata Amazonas Peru
896 meters
2,822 feet / 1,378 ft / More Og
6 . Vinnufossen Norway
860 meters 420 m Romsdal
2,788 feet / 1,482 ft /
7 . Baläifossen Hordaland Norway
850 meters 452 m
2,756 feet /
8 . Pu'uka'oku Falls Hawaii USA
840 meters
2,755 feet / British
9 . James Bruce Falls Canada
840 meters Columbia
10 2,744 feet / 800 ft / New
Browne Falls South Island
. 836 meters 244 m Zealand
11 Strupenfossen 2,690 feet / Sogn Og Norway

Ravindra 71
. 820 meters Fjordane
12 2,685 feet / 1,968 ft / Sogn Og
Ramnefjellsfossen Norway
. 818 meters 600 m Fjordane
13 2,600 feet / 2,600 ft /
Waihilau Falls Hawaii USA
. 792 meters 792 m
14 Colonial Creek 2,584 feet /
Washington USA
. Falls 788 meters
15 2,535 feet / 2,535 ft / M?re Og
Mongefossen Norway
. 773 meters 773 m Romsdal
16 2,531 feet /
Gocta, Catarata Amazonas Peru
. 771 meters
17 2,499 feet / 1,572 ft / Zimbabw
Mutarazi Falls Manicaland
. 762 meters 479 m e
18 2,477 feet / 490 ft / Sogn Og
Kjelfossen Norway
. 755 meters 149 m Fjordane
19 2,465 feet / 800 ft /
Johannesburg Falls Washington USA
. 751 meters 244 m
20 2,425 feet / 1,430 ft /
Yosemite Falls California USA
. 739 meters 436 m
21 Trou de Fer, 2,380 feet / 1,000 ft / Cirque de
. Cascades de 725 meters 305 m Salazie
22 2,362 feet / 2,362 ft / Møre Og
Ølmäafossen Norway
. 720 meters 720 m Romsdal
23 2,360 feet / 2,360 ft /
Mana'wai'nui Falls Hawaii USA
. 719 meters 719 m
24 2,345 feet / 2,345 ft /
Kjeragfossen Rogaland Norway
. 715 meters 715 m
25 Avalanche Basin 2,320 feet / 1,000 ft /
Montana USA
. Falls 707 meters 305 m
26 Harrison Basin 2,320 feet / 1,120 ft /
Montana USA
. Falls 707 meters 341 m
27 2,297 feet /
Haloku Falls Hawaii USA
. 700 meters
28 Lake Chamberlain 2,297 feet / New
South Island
. Falls 700 meters Zealand
29 2,296 feet / 2,296 ft / British
Alfred Creek Falls Canada
. 700 meters 700 m Columbia
30 2,296 feet / 656 ft / M?re Og
D?ntefossen Norway
. 700 meters 200 m Romsdal
31 Brufossen 2,289 feet / 787 ft / Hordaland Norway

Ravindra 72
. 698 meters 240 m
32 2,264 feet / Sogn Og
Spirefossen Norway
. 690 meters Fjordane
33 Lake Unknown 2,230 feet / 492 ft / New
South Island
. Falls 680 meters 150 m Zealand
34 2,211 feet / 2,211 ft / Venezuel
Kukenaam, Salto Bolivar
. 674 meters 674 m a
35 2,200 feet / Venezuel
Yutaj?, Salto Amazonas
. 671 meters a

36 Deserted 2,198 feet / 670 British

. River Falls meters Columbia
37 Sulphide 2,182 feet / 665
Washington USA
. Creek Falls meters
38 2,165 feet / 660 New
Hidden Falls South Island
. meters Zealand
39 2,165 feet / 660
Kahiwa Falls ft / Hawaii USA
. meters
183 m
40 2,165 feet / 660 Sogn Og
Krunefossen ft / Norway
. meters Fjordane
150 m
41 Mardalsfoss 2,154 feet / 657 M?re Og
ft / Norway
. en meters Romsdal
358 m
42 Snow Creek 2,140 feet / 652
ft / California USA
. Falls meters
152 m
43 2,132 feet / 650 British
Francis Falls Canada
. meters Columbia
44 Silver Lake 2,128 feet / 649
Washington USA
. Falls meters
45 Tyssestreng 2,120 feet / 646
ft / Hordaland Norway
. ene meters
312 m
46 2,100 feet / 640
Aimoo Falls Hawaii USA
. meters
47 Blanche, 2,100 feet / 640 1,312 Cirque de Reunion

Ravindra 73
ft /
. Cascade meters Salazie
400 m
48 Pitchfork 2,093 feet / 638
Alaska USA
. Falls meters
Ytste 1,246
49 2,034 feet / 620 Sogn Og
Tinjefjellfos ft / Norway
. meters Fjordane
sen 380 m
50 2,008 feet / 612
Langfoss ft / Hordaland Norway
. meters
612 m
51 Gold Creek 2,001 feet / 610 British
. Falls meters Columbia
52 Kakaauki 2,000 feet / 610
ft / Hawaii USA
. Falls meters
183 m
53 Roraima, 2,000 feet / 610 Venezuel
ft / Bolivar
. Salto meters a
305 m
54 1,968 feet / 600 New
Bluff Falls South Island
. meters Zealand
55 Iguapo, 1,968 feet / 600 Venezuel
. Salto del meters a
56 Levo Savice, 1,968 feet / 600
. Slapovi meters
57 Wishbone 1,968 feet / 600 New
South Island
. Falls meters Zealand
58 Keana'awi 1,960 feet / 597
ft / Hawaii USA
. Falls meters
451 m
59 1,935 feet / 590 Sogn Og
Kve?fossen ft / Norway
. meters Fjordane
590 m
60 1,920 feet / 585
Sentinel Fall ft / California USA
. meters
152 m
61 Sutherland 1,904 feet / 580 New
ft / South Island
. Falls meters Zealand
270 m
62 Chinata, 1,903 feet / 580
Amazonas Peru
. Cataratas la meters
63 Wailele Falls 1,903 feet / 580 Hawaii USA

Ravindra 74
. meters
64 1,900 feet / 579
Aa Falls Hawaii USA
. meters
65 Madden 1,900 feet / 579 British
ft / Canada
. Falls meters Columbia
152 m
66 Lægdafosse 1,886 feet / 575 Sogn Og
ft / Norway
. n meters Fjordane
125 m
67 Gietro, 1,850 feet / 564 Switzerla
. Cascade du meters nd
68 Monument 1,840 feet / 561
ft / Montana USA
. Falls meters
354 m
69 1,837 feet / 560 Sogn Og
Tjotafossen ft / Norway
. meters Fjordane
560 m
70 1,837 feet / 560 Sogn Og
Tinjefjellfos Norway
. meters Fjordane

feet /
71 Hordalan
Sundefossen 557 Norway
. d
feet /
72 Sogn Og
Ormelifossen 551 Norway
. Fjordane
feet /
73 ft /
Waimanu Falls 550 Hawaii USA
. 120
1,800 1,04
feet / 0
Lahomene Falls 549 ft / Hawaii USA
meter 317
s m

Ravindra 75
feet /
Papala Falls 549 Hawaii USA
feet /
76 South New
Douglas Falls 540
. Island Zealand
feet /
77 ft /
Pumpelly Basin Falls 536 Montana USA
. 219
feet /
78 M?re Og
Tyssefossen 533 Norway
. Romsdal
feet /
79 Santa
Pilao, Cachoeira do 524 Brazil
. Catharina
1,706 1,70
feet / 6
80 British
Kingcome Valley Falls 520 ft / Canada
. Columbia
meter 520
s m
feet /
81 ft /
Schwartzenbach Falls 520 Nunavut Canada
. 200
feet /
82 British
Swiftcurrent Falls 520 Canada
. Columbia
83 Kakeha Falls 1,700 Hawaii USA
. feet /

Ravindra 76
1,680 1,68
feet / 0
Ahern Glacier Falls 512 ft / Montana USA
meter 512
s m
feet /
Lake Frances Falls 512 Montana USA
feet /
86 Venezuel
Montoya, Salto 505
. a
1,644 1,11
feet / 5
Papalaua Falls 501 ft / Hawaii USA
meter 340
s m
feet /
88 ft / Switzerla
Engstligenfäll 500 Bern
. 300 nd
feet /
89 Sogn Og
Grinddalsfossen 500 Norway
. Fjordane
feet /
Hannoki-no-taki 500 Honshu Japan
feet /
91 Venezuel
Matahushi, Salto 500 Bolivar
. a
92 Walcherfall 1,640 328 Salzburg Austria
. feet / ft /

Ravindra 77
feet /
93 ft / Washingt
Boston Creek Falls 496 USA
. 183 on
feet /
94 ft /
Lake Frances Falls 495 Montana USA
. 178
feet /
95 ft / Hordalan
Tjornadalsfossen 495 Norway
. 235 d
feet /
96 Washingt
Louis Creek Falls 494 USA
. on
1,612 1,61
feet / 2
Ribbon Fall 491 ft / California USA
meter 491
s m
feet /
98 ft / Hordalan
Voldefossen 490 Norway
. 150 d
1,601 1,60
feet / 1
99 Sogn Og
Thorfossen 488 ft / Norway
. Fjordane
meter 488
s m
feet /
10 Washingt
Otter Falls 488 USA
0 . on

Ravindra 78
1,600 1,60
feet / 0
10 Ventisquero Colgante, Cascada
488 ft / Aisen Chile
1 . de
meter 488
s m
1,600 1,60
feet / 0
Wall of Tears 488 ft / Hawaii USA
2 .
meter 488
s m
1,591 1,59
feet / 1
10 Hordalan
Krokfossen 485 ft / Norway
3 . d
meter 485
s m
feet /
10 Washingt
Torment Falls 483 USA
4 . on
feet /
10 British
Kiwi Falls 480 Canada
5 . Columbia

• Nick Names of Important Indian


Ravindra 79
Ravindra 80


Ravindra 81
• National Emblems

Ravindra 82

Water Lily

Head of trident


White Lily

Candor and huemul


Sisserou Parrot


Corn Flower

Canje Pheasant

Lioned Capital




White Lily

Ravindra 83
• Towns on Rivers in other Countries

Ravindra 84




Chao Praya








Buenos Aires
La Plater




Ravindra 85
• State-CM’S

In India, there are a total of thirty Chief Ministers selected by all

twenty-eight states and two out of the seven union territories. They
State Name Assuming Date Party
Y. S.
Indian National
Andhra Pradesh Rajasekhara 5/14/2004
Arunachal Indian National
Dorjee Khandu 4/9/2007
Pradesh Congress
Tarun Kumar Indian National
Assam 5/17/2001
Gogoi Congress
Janata Dal
Bihar Nitish Kumar 11/24/2005
Bharatiya Janata
Chhattisgarh Raman Singh 12/7/2003
Indian National
Delhi Sheila Dikshit 12/3/1998
Indian National
Goa Digambar Kamat 6/8/2007
Bharatiya Janata
Gujarat Narendra Modi 10/7/2001
Bhupinder Singh Indian National
Haryana 3/5/2005
Hooda Congress
Himachal Prem Kumar Bharatiya Janata
Pradesh Dhumal Party
Jammu and
President rule 2008
Jharkhand Mukti
Jharkhand Shibu Soren 2008-08-27
Karnataka B.S. Yedurupaya 2008-05-28 BJP
V.S. Communist Party
Kerala 5/18/2006
Achuthanandan of India (Marxist)
Madhya Pradesh Shivraj Singh 11/29/2005 Bharatiya Janata

Ravindra 86
Chauhan Party
Vilasrao Indian National
Maharashtra 11/1/2004
Deshmukh Congress
Okram Ibobi Indian National
Manipur 3/2/2002
Singh Congress
Indian National
Meghalaya D.D. Lapang 3/10/2007
Mizo National
Mizoram Pu Zoramthanga 12/4/1998
Nagaland Neiphiu Rio 3/6/2003
People`s Front
Orissa Naveen Patnaik 5/17/2004 Biju Janata Dal
Indian National
Pondicherry Vaithilingam 2008-09-04
Parkash Singh Shiromani Akali
Punjab 2/28/2007
Badal Dal
Vasundhara Raje Bharatiya Janata
Rajasthan 12/8/2003
Scindia Party
Pawan Kumar
Sikkim 12/12/1994 Democratic
Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi 5/12/2006 DMK
Tripura Manik Sarkar 3/11/1998 CPI-M
Bharatiya Janata
Uttarakhand B. C. Khanduri 3/12/2007
Bahujan Samaj
Uttar Pradesh Mayawati 5/13/2007
West Bengal 10/6/2000 CPI-M

• Country-Minister’s

Ravindra 87
1 Dr. Manmohan Singh Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/
Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any
Minister viz.:

(i) Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions;

(ii) Ministry of Planning;
(iii) Department of Atomic Energy;
(iv) Department of Space;
(v) Ministry of Coal;
(vi) Ministry of Environment and Forests; and

(vii) Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

2 Shri Pranab Mukherjee Minister of External Affairs and Minister of Finance.
3 Shri Arjun Singh Minister of Human Resource Development.
4 Shri Sharad Pawar Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food
& Public Distribution.
5 Shri Lalu Prasad Minister of Railways.
6 Shri A.K. Antony Minister of Defence
7 Shri A.R. Antulay Minister of Minority Affairs.
8 Shri Sushilkumar Shinde Minister of Power
9 Shri Ram Vilas Paswan Minister of Chemicals & Fertilizers and Minister of Steel.
10 Shri S. Jaipal Reddy Minister of Urban Development.
11 Shri Sis Ram Ola Minister of Mines.
12 Shri P. Chidambaram Minister of Home Affairs.
13 Shri Mahavir Prasad Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
14 Shri P.R. Kyndiah Minister of Tribal Affairs.
15 Shri T.R. Baalu Minister of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways.
16 Shri Shankersinh Vaghela Minister of Textiles.
17 Shri Vayalar Ravi Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs and Minister of
Parliamentary Affairs.
18 Shri Kamal Nath Minister of Commerce & Industry.
19 Shri H.R. Bhardwaj Minister of Law & Justice.
20 Shri Sontosh Mohan Dev Minister of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises.
21 Prof. Saif-ud-din Soz Minister of Water Resources.
22 Shri Raghuvansh Prasad Minister of Rural Development.
23 Shri Priyaranjan Dasmunsi Minister without Portfolio.
24 Shri Mani Shankar Aiyar Minister of Panchayati Raj and Minister of Development of
North Eastern Region. .
25 Smt. Meira Kumar Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment.
26 Shri Murli Deora Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas.
27 Smt. Ambika Soni Minister of Tourism and Minister of Culture.
28 Shri A. Raja Minister of Communications and Information Technology.
29 Shri Kapil Sibal Minister of Science & Technology and Minister of Earth

Ravindra 88
30 Shri Prem Chand Gupta Minister of Corporate Affairs.


1 Smt. Renuka Chowdhury Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of
Women & Child Development.
2 Shri Subodh Kant Sahay Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Food
Processing Industries.
3 Shri Vilas Muttemwar Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy .
4 Kumari Selja Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of
Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
5 Shri Praful Patel Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Civil
6 Shri G.K.Vasan Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of
Statistics & Programme Implementation and Minister of State
(Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Labour & Employment.
7 Dr. M. S. Gill Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Youth
Affairs & Sports.

1 Shri E. Ahammed Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs.
2 Shri B.K. Handique Minister of State in the Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers and
Minister of State in the Ministry of Mines..
3 Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi Minister of State in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
4 Dr. Shakeel Ahmad Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs..
5 Shri Rao Inderjit Singh Minister of State in the Ministry of Defence.
6 Shri Naranbhai Rathwa Minister of State in the Ministry of Railways.
7 Shri K.H. Muniappa Minister of State in the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport &
8 Shri Kantilal Bhuria Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public
9 Shri Shriprakash Jaiswal Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs.
10 Shri Prithviraj Chavan Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and
11 Shri Taslimuddin Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public
12 Smt. Suryakanta Patil Minister of State in the Ministry of Rural Development and
Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
13 Shri Md. Ali Ashraf Fatmi Minister of State in the Ministry of Human Resource

Ravindra 89
14 Shri S.S. Palanimanickam Minister of State in the Ministry of Finance.
15 Shri S. Regupathy Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
16 Shri K. Venkatapathy Minister of State in the Ministry of Law & Justice.
17 Smt. Subbulakshmi Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice &
Jagadeesan Empowerment.
18 Shri E.V.K.S. Elangovan Minister of State in the Ministry of Textiles.
19 Smt Kanti Singh Minister of State in the Ministry of Tourism and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Culture..
20 Shri Namo Narain Meena Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment & Forests.
21 Shri Jay Prakash Narayan Minister of State in the Ministry of Water Resources.
22 Dr. Akhilesh Prasad Singh Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public
23 Shri Pawan Kumar Bansal Minister of State in the Ministry of Finance and Minister of
State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs..
24 Shri Anand Sharma Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs and
Minister of State in the Ministry of Information and
25 Shri Ajay Maken Minister of State in the Ministry of Urban Development.
26 Shri Dinsha J. Patel Minister of State in the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas.
27 Shri M.M. Pallam Raju Minister of State in the Ministry of Defence.
28 Shri Ashwani Kumar Minister of State in the Department of Industrial Policy &
Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
29 Shri Chandra Sekhar Sahu Minister of State in the Ministry of Rural Development.
30 Smt. D. Purandeswari Minister of State in the Ministry of Human Resource
31 Shri M.H. Ambareesh Minister of State in the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.
32 Smt. V. Radhika Selvi Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs.
33 Shri V. Narayanasamy Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs and
Minister of State in the Ministry of Planning.
34 Shri Santosh Bagrodia Minister of State in the Ministry of Coal.
35 Shri Raghunath Jha Minister of State in the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public
36 Dr. Rameshwar Oraon Minister of State in the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
37 Shri Jyotiraditya Minister of State in the Ministry of Communications and
Madhavrao Scindia Information Technology.
38 Shri Jitin Prasada Minister of State in the Ministry of Steel.

Ravindra 90


A recession is a decline in a country's gross domestic product

(GDP) growth for two or more consecutive quarters of a year. A
recession is also preceded by several quarters of slowing down.

What causes it?

Ravindra 91
An economy which grows over a period of time tends to slow down
the growth as a part of the normal economic cycle. An economy
typically expands for 6-10 years and tends to go into a recession for
about six months to 2 years.

A recession normally takes place when consumers lose confidence in

the growth of the economy and spend less.

This leads to a decreased demand for goods and services, which in

turn leads to a decrease in production, lay-offs and a sharp rise in

Investors spend less as they fear stocks values will fall and thus stock
markets fall on negative sentiment.

'Financial warfare' triggers global economic crisis

As financial markets continue to tumble and as national

economies sink deeper into recession, it is clear that the East
Asian crisis has developed into a global economic crisis. The
international money managers whose speculative activities
have heavily contributed to this development, have been
abetted by the IMF with its push for the deregulation of
international capital flows. After having whittled away the
capacity of national governments to effectively respond to
such 'financial warfare', these powerful forces are working to
secure even greater control of the Bretton Woods institutions
and a more direct role in the shaping of the international
financial and economic environment.
by Michel Chossudovsky
'PRACTICES of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted
in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds
of men.' (Franklin D Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address, 1933)
Humanity is undergoing in the post-Cold War era an economic
crisis of unprecedented scale leading to the rapid
impoverishment of large sectors of the world population. The
plunge of national currencies in virtually all major regions of
the world has contributed to destabilising national economies
while precipitating entire countries into abysmal poverty.
The crisis is not limited to South-East Asia or the former Soviet
Union. The collapse in the standard of living is taking place
abruptly and simultaneously in a large number of countries.

Ravindra 92
This worldwide crisis of the late 20th century is more
devastating than the Great Depression of the 1930s. It has far-
reaching geo-political implications; economic dislocation has
also been accompanied by the outbreak of regional conflicts,
the fracturing of national societies and in some cases the
destruction of entire countries. This is by far the most serious
economic crisis in modern history.
The existence of a 'global financial crisis' is casually denied by
the Western media, its social impacts are downplayed or
distorted; international institutions, including the United
Nations, deny the mounting tide of world poverty: 'The
progress in reducing poverty over the [late] 20th century is
remarkable and unprecedented....' 1 The 'consensus' is that the
Western economy is 'healthy' and that 'market corrections' on
Wall Street are largely attributable to the 'Asian flu' and to
Russia's troubled 'transition to a free- market economy'.

Evolution of the global financial crisis

The plunge of Asia's currency markets (initiated in mid- 1997)

was followed in October 1997 by the dramatic meltdown of
major bourses around the world.
In the uncertain wake of Wall Street's temporary recovery in
early 1998 - largely spurred by panic flight out of Japanese
stocks - financial markets back-slided a few months later to
reach a new dramatic turning point in August with the
spectacular nose-dive of the Russian ruble. The Dow Jones
plunged by 554 points on 31 August (its second largest decline
in the history of the New York Stock Exchange) leading in the
course of September to the dramatic meltdown of stock
markets around the world. In a matter of a few weeks (from the
Dow's 9,337 peak in mid-July), $2,300 billion of 'paper profits'
had evaporated from the US stock market. 2
The ruble's free-fall had spurred Moscow's largest commercial
banks into bankruptcy, leading to the potential takeover of
Russia's financial system by a handful of Western banks and
brokerage houses. In turn, the crisis has created the danger of
massive debt default to Moscow's Western creditors, including
the Deutsche and Dresdner banks. Since the outset of Russia's
macroeconomic reforms, following the first injection of IMF
'shock therapy' in 1992, some $500 billion worth of Russian
assets - including plants of the military industrial complex,
infrastructure and natural resources - have been confiscated
(through the privatisation programmes and forced
bankruptcies) and transferred into the hands of Western

Ravindra 93
capitalists. 3 In the brutal aftermath of the Cold War, an entire
economic and social system is being dismantled.

'Financial warfare'

The worldwide scramble to appropriate wealth through

'financial manipulation' is the driving force behind this crisis.
It is also the source of economic turmoil and social
devastation. In the words of renowned currency speculator and
billionaire George Soros (who made $1.6 billion of speculative
gains in the dramatic crash of the British pound in 1992),
'extending the market mechanism to all domains has the
potential of destroying society'. 4
This manipulation of market forces by powerful actors
constitutes a form of financial and economic warfare. No need
to recolonise lost territory or send in invading armies. In the
late 20th century, the outright 'conquest of nations', meaning
the control over productive assets, labour, natural resources
and institutions, can be carried out in an impersonal fashion
from the corporate boardroom: commands are dispatched from
a computer terminal, or a cellphone. The relevant data are
instantly relayed to major financial markets - often resulting in
immediate disruptions in the functioning of national
economies. 'Financial warfare' also applies to complex
speculative instruments, including the gamut of derivative
trade, forward foreign exchange transactions, currency
options, hedge funds, index funds, etc. Speculative
instruments have been used with the ultimate purpose of
capturing financial wealth and acquiring control over
productive assets. In the words of Malaysia's Prime Minister
Mahathir Mohamad: 'This deliberate devaluation of the
currency of a country by currency traders purely for profit is a
serious denial of the rights of independent nations.' 5
The appropriation of global wealth through this manipulation
of market forces is routinely supported by the IMF's lethal
macro-economic interventions which act almost concurrently in
ruthlessly disrupting national economies all over the world.
'Financial warfare' knows no territorial boundaries; it does not
limit its actions to besieging former enemies of the Cold War
era. In Korea, Indonesia and Thailand, the vaults of the central
banks were pillaged by institutional speculators while the
monetary authorities sought in vain to prop up their ailing
currencies. In 1997, more than $100 billion of Asia's hard
currency reserves had been confiscated and transferred (in a
matter of months) into private financial hands. In the wake of
the currency devaluations, real earnings and employment

Ravindra 94
plummeted virtually overnight, leading to mass poverty in
countries which had in the post-war period registered
significant economic and social progress.
The financial scam in the foreign exchange market had
destabilised national economies, thereby creating the
preconditions for the subsequent plunder of the Asian
countries' productive assets by so-called 'vulture foreign
investors'. 6 In Thailand, 56 domestic banks and financial
institutions were closed down on the orders of the IMF, and
unemployment virtually doubled overnight. 7 Similarly in Korea,
the IMF 'rescue operation' has unleashed a lethal chain of
bankruptcies, leading to the outright liquidation of so-called
'troubled merchant banks'. In the wake of the IMF's 'mediation'
(put in place in December 1997 after high-level consultations
with the World's largest commercial and merchant banks), 'an
average of more than 200 companies [were] shut down per day
(...) 4,000 workers every day were driven out onto [the] streets
as unemployed'. 8 Resulting from the credit freeze and 'the
instantaneous bank shut-down', some 15,000 bankruptcies are
expected in 1998, including 90% of Korea's construction
companies (with combined debts of $20 billion to domestic
financial institutions). 9 South Korea's Parliament has been
transformed into a 'rubber stamp'. Enabling legislation is
enforced through 'financial blackmail': if the legislation is not
speedily enacted according to the IMF's deadlines, the
disbursements under the bailout will be suspended, with the
danger of renewed currency speculation looming.
In turn, the IMF-sponsored 'exit programme' (i.e., forced
bankruptcy) has deliberately contributed to fracturing the
chaebols, which are now invited to establish 'strategic
alliances with foreign firms' (meaning their eventual control by
Western capital). With the devaluation, the cost of Korean
labour had also tumbled: 'It's now cheaper to buy one of these
[high- tech] companies than [to] buy a factory - and you get all
the distribution, brand-name recognition and trained labour
force free in the bargain....' 1 0

The demise of central banking

In many regards, this worldwide crisis marks the demise of

central banking, meaning the derogation of national economic
sovereignty and the inability of the national State to control
money creation on behalf of society. In other words, privately
held money reserves in the hands of 'institutional speculators'
far exceed the limited capabilities of the world's central banks.
The latter acting individually or collectively are no longer able

Ravindra 95
to fight the tide of speculative activity. Monetary policy is in
the hands of private creditors who have the ability to freeze
State budgets, paralyse the payments process, thwart the
regular disbursement of wages to millions of workers (as in the
former Soviet Union) and precipitate the collapse of production
and social programmes. As the crisis deepens, speculative
raids on central banks are extending into China, Latin America
and the Middle East with devastating economic and social
This ongoing pillage of central bank reserves, however, is by no
means limited to developing countries. It has also hit several
Western countries including Canada and Australia where the
monetary authorities have been incapable of stemming the
slide of their national currencies. In Canada, billions of dollars
were borrowed from private financiers to prop up central bank
reserves in the wake of speculative assaults. In Japan - where
the yen has tumbled to new lows - 'the Korean scenario' is
viewed (according to economist Michael Hudson) as a 'dress
rehearsal' for the takeover of Japan's financial sector by a
handful of Western investment banks. The big players are
Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Deutsche Morgan Grenfell,
among others, who are buying up Japan's bad bank loans at
less than 10% of their face value. In recent months, both US
Secretary of the Treasury Robert Rubin and Secretary of State
Madeleine K Albright have exerted political pressure on Tokyo,
insisting 'on nothing less than an immediate disposal of Japan's
bad bank loans - preferably to US and other foreign "vulture
investors" at distress prices. To achieve their objectives, they
are even pressuring Japan to rewrite its constitution,
restructure its political system and cabinet and redesign its
financial system.... Once foreign investors gain control of
Japanese banks, these banks will move to take over Japanese
industry...' 11

Creditors and speculators

The world's largest banks and brokerage houses are both

creditors and institutional speculators. In the present context,
they contribute (through their speculative assaults) to
destabilising national currencies, thereby boosting the volume
of dollar denominated debts. They then reappear as creditors
with a view to collecting these debts. Finally, they are called in
as 'policy advisers' or consultants in the IMF- World Bank-
sponsored 'bankruptcy programmes' of which they are the
ultimate beneficiaries. In Indonesia, for instance, amidst street
rioting and in the wake of Suharto's resignation, the

Ravindra 96
privatisation of key sectors of the Indonesian economy ordered
by the IMF was entrusted to eight of the world's largest
merchant banks, including Lehman Brothers, Credit Suisse-
First Boston, Goldman Sachs and UBS/SBC Warburg Dillon
Read. 1 2 The world's largest money managers set countries on
fire and are then called in as firemen (under the IMF 'rescue
plan') to extinguish the blaze. They ultimately decide which
enterprises are to be closed down and which are to be
auctioned off to foreign investors at bargain prices.

Who funds the IMF bailouts?

Under repeated speculative assaults, Asian central banks had
entered into multi-billion-dollar contracts (in the forward
foreign exchange market) in a vain attempt to protect their
currency. With the total depletion of their hard currency
reserves, the monetary authorities were forced to borrow large
amounts of money under the IMF bailout agreement. Following
a scheme devised during the Mexican crisis of 1994- 95, the
bailout money, however, is not intended 'to rescue the country
'; in fact the money never entered Korea, Thailand or
Indonesia; it was earmarked to reimburse the 'institutional
speculators', to ensure that they would be able to collect their
multi-billion-dollar loot. In turn, the Asian tigers have been
tamed by their financial masters. Transformed into lame ducks,
they have been 'locked up' into servicing these massive dollar-
denominated debts well into the third millennium.
But 'where did the money come from' to finance these multi-
billion-dollar operations? Only a small portion of the money
comes from IMF resources: starting with the 1995 Mexican
bailout, G7 countries, including the US Treasury, were called
upon to make large lump-sum contributions to these IMF-
sponsored rescue operations, leading to significant hikes in the
levels of public debt. 13 Yet in an ironic twist, the issuing of US
public debt to finance the bailouts is underwritten and
guaranteed by the same group of Wall Street merchant banks
involved in the speculative assaults.
In other words, those who guarantee the issuing of public debt
(to finance the bailout) are those who will ultimately
appropriate the loot (e.g., as creditors of Korea or Thailand) -
i.e., they are the ultimate recipients of the bailout money
(which essentially constitutes a 'safety net' for the
institutional speculator). The vast amounts of money granted
under the rescue packages are intended to enable the Asian
countries to meet their debt obligations with those same
financial institutions which contributed to precipitating the
breakdown of their national currencies in the first place. As a

Ravindra 97
result of this vicious circle, a handful of commercial banks and
brokerage houses have enriched themselves beyond bounds;
they have also increased their stranglehold over governments
and politicians around the world.

Strong economic medicine

Since the 1994-95 Mexican crisis, the IMF has played a crucial
role in shaping the 'financial environment' in which the global
banks and money managers wage their speculative raids. The
global banks are craving for access to inside information.
Successful speculative attacks require the concurrent
implementation on their behalf of 'strong economic medicine'
under the IMF bailout agreements. The 'big six' Wall Street
commercial banks (including Chase, Bank America, Citicorp and
J P Morgan) and the 'big five' merchant banks (including
Goldman Sachs, Lehman Brothers, Morgan Stanley and Salomon
Smith Barney) were consulted on the clauses to be included in
the bailout agreements. In the case of Korea's short-term debt,
Wall Street's largest financial institutions were called in on
Christmas Eve (24 December 1997) for high-level talks at the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 1 4
The global banks have a direct stake in the decline of national
In April 1997, barely two months before the onslaught of the
Asian currency crisis, the Institute of International Finance
(IIF), a Washington-based think-tank representing the interests
of some 290 global banks and brokerage houses, had 'urged
authorities in emerging markets to counter upward exchange
rate pressures where needed...' 15 This request (communicated
in a formal letter to the IMF) hints in no uncertain terms that
the IMF should advocate an environment in which national
currencies are allowed to slide. 1 6
Indonesia was ordered by the IMF to unpeg its currency barely
three months before the rupiah's dramatic plunge. In the words
of American billionaire and presidential candidate Steve
Forbes: 'Did the IMF help precipitate the crisis? This agency
advocates openness and transparency for national economies,
yet it rivals the CIA in cloaking its own operations. Did it, for
instance, have secret conversations with Thailand, advocating
the devaluation that instantly set off the catastrophic chain of
events? Did IMF prescriptions exacerbate the illness? These
countries' moneys were knocked down to absurdly low levels.' 17

Deregulating capital movements

Ravindra 98
The international rules regulating the movements of money
and capital (across international borders) contribute to
shaping the 'financial battlefields' on which banks and
speculators wage their deadly assaults. In their worldwide
quest to appropriate economic and financial wealth, global
banks and multinational corporations have actively pressured
for the outright deregulation of international capital flows,
including the movement of 'hot' and 'dirty' money. 18 Caving in
to these demands (after hasty consultations with G7 finance
ministers), a formal verdict to deregulate capital movements
was taken by the IMF Interim Committee in Washington in April
1998. The official communique stated that the IMF will proceed
with the amendment of its Articles with a view to 'making the
liberalisation of capital movements one of the purposes of the
Fund and extending, as needed, the Fund's jurisdiction for this
purpose'. 19 The IMF managing director, Mr Michel Camdessus,
nonetheless conceded in a dispassionate tone that 'a number
of developing countries may come under speculative attacks
after opening their capital account' while reiterating (ad
nauseam) that this can be avoided by the adoption of 'sound
macroeconomic policies and strong financial systems in
member countries' (ie. the IMF's standard 'economic cure for
disaster'). 20
The IMF's resolve to deregulate capital movements was taken
behind closed doors (conveniently removed from the public eye
and with very little press coverage) barely two weeks before
citizens' groups from around the world gathered in late April
1998 in mass demonstrations in Paris opposing the
controversial Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI)
under Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) auspices. This agreement would have granted
entrenched rights to banks and multinational corporations
overriding national laws on foreign investment as well as
derogating the fundamental rights of citizens. The MAI
constitutes an act of capitulation by democratic government to
banks and multinational corporations.
The timing was right on course: while the approval of the MAI
had been temporarily stalled, the proposed deregulation of
foreign investment through a more expedient avenue had been
officially launched: the amendment of the Articles would for all
practical purposes derogate the powers of national
governments to regulate foreign investment. It would also
nullify the efforts of the worldwide citizens' campaign against
the MAI: the deregulation of foreign investment would be
achieved ('with a stroke of a pen') without the need for a
cumbersome multilateral agreement under OECD or World

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Trade Organisation (WTO) auspices and without the legal
hassle of a global investment treaty entrenched in
international law.

Creating a global financial watchdog

As the aggressive scramble for global wealth unfolds and the

financial crisis reaches dangerous heights, international banks
and speculators are anxious to play a more direct role in
shaping financial structures to their advantage as well as
'policing' country-level economic reforms. Free-market
conservatives in the United States (associated with the
Republican Party) have blamed the IMF for its reckless
behaviour. Disregarding the IMF's intergovernmental status,
they are demanding greater US control over the IMF. They have
also hinted that the IMF should henceforth perform a more
placid role (similar to that of the bond-rating agencies such as
Moody's or Standard and Poor's) while consigning the financing
of the multi-billion-dollar bailouts to the private banking
sector. 2 1
Discussed behind closed doors in April 1998, a more perceptive
initiative (couched in softer language) was put forth by the
world's largest banks and investment houses through their
Washington mouthpiece (the Institute of International
Finance). The banks' proposal consists in the creation of a
'Financial Watchdog' - a so-called 'Private Sector Advisory
Council'- with a view to routinely supervising the activities of
the IMF. 'The Institute [of International Finance], with its
nearly universal membership of leading private financial firms,
stands ready to work with the official community to advance
this process.' 22 Responding to the global banks' initiative, the
IMF has called for concrete 'steps to strengthen private sector
involvement' in crisis management - what might be interpreted
as a 'power-sharing arrangement' between the IMF and the
global banks. 2 3
The international banking community has also set up its own
high-level 'Steering Committee on Emerging Markets Finance'
integrated by some of the World's most powerful financiers,
including William Rhodes, Vice Chairman of Citibank, and Sir
David Walker, Chairman of Morgan Stanley. The hidden agenda
behind these various initiatives is to gradually transform the
IMF from its present status as an intergovernmental body into
a full-fledged bureaucracy which more effectively serves the
interests of the global banks. More importantly, the banks and
speculators want access to the details of IMF negotiations with
member governments, which will enable them to carefully

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position their assaults in financial markets both prior to and in
the wake of an IMF bailout agreement.
The global banks (pointing to the need for 'transparency') have
called upon 'the IMF to provide valuable insights [on its
dealings with national governments] without revealing
confidential information...' But what they really want is
privileged inside information. 2 4
The ongoing financial crisis is not only conducive to the demise
of national State institutions all over the world, it also consists
in the step-by-step dismantling (and possible privatisation) of
the post-war institutions established by the founding fathers
at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. In striking contrast
with the IMF's present-day destructive role, these institutions
were intended by their architects to safeguard the stability of
national economies. In the words of Henry Morgenthau, US
Secretary of the Treasury, in his closing statement to the
Conference (22 July 1944): 'We came here to work out methods
which would do away with economic evils - the competitive
currency devaluation and destructive impediments to trade -
which preceded the present war. We have succeeded in this
effort.' 2 5

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The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors)
is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 economies: 19 of the world's
largest national economies, plus the European Union (EU). It also met twice at heads-of-
government level, in November 2008 and again in April 2009. Collectively, the G-20 economies
comprise 85%[3] of global gross national product, 80% of world trade (including EU intra-trade)
and two-thirds of the world population.[2]

The G-20 is a forum for cooperation and consultation on matters pertaining to the international
financial system. It studies, reviews, and promotes discussion among key industrial and emerging
market countries of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability,
and seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.


The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The chair rotates annually among
the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The chair is part of
a revolving three-member management group of past, present and future chairs referred to as
the Troika. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term,
which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to
ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years.

Members of G-20

In 2009, there are 20 members of the G-20. These include the finance ministers and central bank
governors of 19 countries:[2]

• Argentina • Japan
• Australia • Mexico
• Brazil • Russia
• Canada • Saudi Arabia
• China • South Africa
• France • South Korea
• Germany • Turkey
• India • United Kingdom
• Indonesia
• United States
• Italy

The 20th member is the European Union, which is represented by the rotating Council
presidency and the European Central Bank.

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In addition to these 20 members, the following forums and institutions, as represented by their
respective chief executive officers, participate in meetings of the G-20:[2]

• International Monetary Fund

• World Bank
• International Monetary and Financial Committee
• Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank


The membership of the G-20 comprises:

• the finance ministers and central bank governors of the G7, 12 other key countries, and
the European Union Presidency (if not a G7 member)
• the European Central Bank
• the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund
• the Chairman of the IMFC
• the President of the World Bank
• the Chairman of the Development Committee

Membership does not reflect exactly the top 19 national economies of the world in any given
year. The organization states:[1]

“ In a forum such as the G-20, it is particularly important for the number of countries
involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its
activity. There are no formal criteria for G-20 membership and the composition of the
group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the
G-20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for
the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance
and population representation also played a major part. ”

All 19 nations are amongst the top 24 economies by purchasing power parity[4] in the 2007
World Bank ranking. Iran(17) and Thailand(23) are not included while Spain(11),
Netherlands(19), and Poland(20) are included only as part of the EU.


The G-20, which superseded the G33, which had itself superseded the G22, was foreshadowed at
the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, but was formally established at the G7 Finance
Ministers' meeting on September 26, 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on December 15-
16, 1999 in Berlin. In 2008 Spain and The Netherlands were included by French invitation for
the G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy and then were admitted
as members de facto by the UK.[citation needed]

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G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington, D.C. on 15
November 2008.

In 2006 the theme of the G-20 meeting was “Building and Sustaining Prosperity”. The issues
discussed included domestic reforms to achieve “sustained growth”, global energy and resource
commodity markets, ‘reform’ of the World Bank and IMF, and the impact of demographic
changes due to an aging population.

Trevor A. Manuel, MP, Minister of Finance, Republic of South Africa, was the chairperson of
the G-20 when South Africa hosted the Secretariat in 2007. Guido Mantega, Minister of
Finance, Brazil, was the chairperson of the G-20 in 2008; Brazil proposed dialogue on
competition in financial markets, clean energy and economic development and fiscal elements of
growth and development. In a statement following a meeting of G7 finance ministers on October
11, 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting of the G-20 would be
important in finding solutions to the (then called) economic crisis of 2008. An initiative by
French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown led to a special
meeting of the G-20, a G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, on
November 15, 2008.[5] G20 leaders met again in London on 2 April 2009.[6] Another G20
summit is scheduled to be held in New York City in September 2009. [7]

Locations of G-20 meetings

• 1999: Berlin, Germany • 2006: Melbourne, Australia
• 2000: Montreal, Canada • 2007: Cape Town, South Africa
• 2001: Ottawa, Canada • 2008: São Paulo, Brazil
• 2002: Delhi, India • 2008: Washington, D.C., United States[9]
• 2003: Morelia, Mexico • 2009: London, United Kingdom
• 2004: Berlin, Germany
• 2009: New York, United States
• 2005: Beijing, China

G8 Summit

The Group of Eight (G8, and formerly the G6 or Group of Six) is a forum, created by France in
1975, for governments of eight nations of the northern hemisphere: Canada, France, Germany,
Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; in addition, the European
Union is represented within the G8, but cannot host or chair.[1] "G8" can refer to the member
states or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. The former term, G6, is
now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union (see G6
(EU)). G8 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet
four times a year), G8 foreign ministers, or G8 environment ministers.

Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 rotates through the member states in the
following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy, and
Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and

Ravindra 104
determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Lately, both France and the United
Kingdom have expressed a desire to expand the group to include five developing countries,
referred to as the Outreach Five (O5) or the Plus Five: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South
Africa. These countries have participated as guests in previous meetings, which are sometimes
called G8+5. Recently, France, Germany, and Italy are lobbying to include Egypt to the O5 and
expand the G8 to G14.[2]


The first G6 meeting in Rambouillet

The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized democracies emerged following the
1973 oil crisis and subsequent global recession. In 1974 the United States created the Library
Group, an informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United
Kingdom, West Germany, Japan and France. In 1975, French President Valéry Giscard
d'Estaing invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United
Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet. The six leaders agreed to an annual
meeting organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). The following
year, Canada joined the group at the behest of Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and U.S.
President Gerald Ford[3] and the group became the 'Group of Seven' -or G7. The European
Union is represented by the President of the European Commission and the leader of the country
that holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The President of the European
Commission has attended all meetings since it was first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977[4]
and the Council President now also regularly attends.

Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of
the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) -
or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair and
US President Bill Clinton[5], Russia formally joined the group in 1997, resulting in the Group of
Eight, or G8.

Structure and activities

Leaders of the G8 on 7 June 2007, in Heiligendamm, Germany

The G8 is intended to be an informal forum, and it therefore lacks an administrative structure

like those for international organizations, such as the United Nations or the World Bank. The
group does not have a permanent secretariat, or offices for its members. In 2008, the president of
the European Union Commission participated as an equal in all summit events.

The presidency of the group rotates annually among the member countries, with each new term
beginning on 1 January of the year. The country holding the presidency is responsible for
planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit
attended by the heads of government. Japan held the G8 presidency in 2008, Italy is the 2009
president, and Canada will be president in 2010.

Ravindra 105
The ministerial meetings bring together ministers responsible for various portfolios to discuss
issues of mutual or global concern. The range of topics include health, law enforcement, labor,
economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior,
terrorism, and trade. There are also a separate set of meetings known as the G8+5, created
during the 2005 Gleneagles, Scotland summit, that is attended by finance and energy ministers
from all eight member countries in addition to the five "Outreach Countries": Brazil, China,
India, Mexico, and South Africa.

In June 2005, justice ministers and interior ministers from the G8 countries agreed to launch an
international database on pedophiles.[6] The G8 officials also agreed to pool data on terrorism,
subject to restrictions by privacy and security laws in individual countries.[7]

Global warming and energy

Main articles: International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation and Climate
Investment Funds

At the Heiligendamm Summit in 2007, the G8 acknowledged a proposal from the EU for a
worldwide initiative on energy efficiency. They agreed to explore, along with the International
Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year
later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 along with China, India, South Korea and the European
Community established the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the
Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan holding 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori. [8]

G8 Finance Ministers, whilst in preparation for the 34th Summit of the G8 Heads of State and
Government in Toyako, Hokkaido, met on the 13 and 14 June 2008, in Osaka, Japan. They
agreed to the “G8 Action Plan for Climate Change to Enhance the Engagement of Private and
Public Financial Institutions.” In closing, Ministers supported the launch of new Climate
Investment Funds (CIFs) by the World Bank, which will help existing efforts until a new
framework under the UNFCCC is implemented after 2012. [9]

The Annual Summit

At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for
world leaders -- Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dmitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany),
Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George Bush (US), Stephen Harper (Canada),
Nicolas Sarkozy (France), José Barroso (EU) -- July 7, 2008.

The annual G8 leaders summit is attended by eight of the world's most powerful heads of
government. However, as noted by commentators the G-8 summit is not the place to flesh out the
details of any difficult or controversial policy issue in the context of a three-day event. Rather,
the meeting is to bring a range of complex and sometimes inter-related issues. The G8 summit
brings leaders together not so they can dream up quick fixes, but to talk and think about them

Ravindra 106
The G8 summit is an international event which is observed and reported by news media, but the
G8's relevance is unclear.[11] The member country holding the G8 presidency is responsible for
organising and hosting the year's summit, held for three days in mid-year; and for this reason,
Tony Blair and the United Kingdom accumulated the lion's share of the credit for what went
right (and wrong) at Gleneagles in 2005. Similarly, Yasuo Fukuda and Japan hope to garner the
greater part of the credit for what went well (and what did not) at the Hokkaido Summit in 2008.

Each of the 34 G8 summit meetings could have been called a success if the events had been re-
framed as venues to generate additional momentum for solving problems at the other
multilateral conferences that meet throughout the year. The G8 summit sets the stage for what
needs to be done and establishes an idea of how to do it, even if that idea is, at best, rough and

The summits have also been the site of numerous, large-scale anti-globalization protests.

Date Host country Location held Website Notes
November Valéry
1st 15–17, France Giscard Rambouillet G6 Summit
1975 d'Estaing
June 27– United Gerald R. San Juan, Canada joins the group,
28, 1976 States Ford Puerto Rico forming the G7
President of the European
May 7–8, United James
3rd London Commission is invited to join
1977 Kingdom Callaghan
the annual G-7 summits
Bonn, North
July 16– West Helmut
4th Rhine-
17, 1978 Germany Schmidt
June 28– Masayoshi
5th Japan Tokyo
29, 1979 Ōhira
June 22– Francesco
6th Italy Venice
3, 1980 Cossiga
July 20– Pierre E. Montebello,
7th Canada
21, 1981 Trudeau Quebec
June 4–6, François
8th France Versailles
1982 Mitterrand
May 28– United Ronald Williamsburg,
30, 1983 States Reagan Virginia
June 7–9, United Margaret
10th London
1984 Kingdom Thatcher
Bonn, North
May 2–4, West Helmut
11th Rhine-
1985 Germany Kohl
May 4–6, Yasuhiro
12th Japan Tokyo
1986 Nakasone
13th June 8– Italy Amintore Venice

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10, 1987 Fanfani
June 19– Brian Toronto,
14th Canada
21, 1988 Mulroney Ontario
July 14– François
15th France Paris
16, 1989 Mitterrand
July 9–11, United George H.
16th Houston, Texas
1990 States W. Bush
July 15– United John
17th London
17, 1991 Kingdom Major
July 6–8, Helmut Munich,
18th Germany
1992 Kohl Bavaria
July 7–9, Kiichi
19th Japan Tokyo
1993 Miyazawa
July 8–10, Silvio
20th Italy Naples
1994 Berlusconi
June 15– Jean Halifax, Nova
21st Canada
17, 1995 Chrétien Scotia
International organizations'
debut to G8 Summits
periodically. The invited
June 27– Jacques ones here were: United
22nd France Lyon
29, 1996 Chirac Nations, World Bank,
International Monetary
Fund and the World Trade
June 20– United Bill Denver, Russia joins the group,
23rd [1]
22, 1997 States ClintonColorado forming G8
May 15– United Birmingham,
24th Tony Blair [2]
17, 1998 Kingdom England
Cologne, North
June 18– Gerhard First Summit of the G-20
25th Germany Rhine- [3]
20, 1999 Schröder major economies at Berlin
26th July 21– Japan Yoshiro Nago, Okinawa [4] Formation of the G8+5
23, 2000 Mori starts, when South Africa
was invited. Since then, it
has been invited to the
Summit annually without
interruption. Also, with
permission from a G8
leader, other nations were
invited to the Summit on a
periodical basis for the first
time. Nigeria, Algeria and
Senegal accepted their
invitations here. The World
Health Organization was

Ravindra 108
also invited for the first time,
Leaders from Bangladesh,
Mali and El Salvador
July 20– Silvio accepted their invitations
27th Italy Genoa [5]
22, 2001 Berlusconi here.[12] Demonstrator
Carlo Giuliani is shot and
killed by police.
June 26– Jean Kananaskis, Russia gains permission to
28th Canada [6]
27, 2002 Chrétien Alberta officially host a G8 Summit.
The G8+5 was unofficially
made, when China, India,
Brazil, Mexico and South
Africa were invited to this
Summit for the first time.
June 2–3, Jacques
29th France Évian-les-Bains [7] Other first-time nations that
2003 Chirac
were invited by the French
president included: Egypt,
Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Malaysia and
A record number of leaders
from 12 different nations
accepted their invitations
here. Amongst a couple of
June 8– United George W. Sea Island,
30th [8] veteran nations, the others
10, 2004 States Bush Georgia
were: Ghana, Afghanistan,
Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan,
Turkey, Yemen and
The G8+5 was officially
formed. On the second day
of the meeting, suicide
bombers killed over 50
people on the London
July 6–8, United Gleneagles, Underground and a bus.
31st Tony Blair [9]
2005 Kingdom Scotland Nations that were invited for
the first time were Ethiopia
and Tanzania. The African
Union and the International
Energy Agency made their
debut here.[12]
32nd July 15– Russia Vladimir Strelna, St. [10] First G8 Summit on Russian
17, 2006 Putin Petersburg soil. Also, the International
Atomic Energy Agency and
UNESCO made their debut

Ravindra 109
A record seven different
international organizations
accepted their invitations to
this Summit. The
June 6–8, Angela Organisation for Economic
33rd Germany Mecklenburg- [11]
2007 Merkel Co-operation and
Development and the
Commonwealth of
Independent States made
their debut here.[12]
Nations that accepted their
Toyako (Lake G8 Summit invitations for
July 7–9, Yasuo
34th Japan Toya), [12] the first time are: Australia,
2008 Fukuda
Hokkaido Indonesia and South
July 8-10, Silvio Official website is now
35th Italy La Maddalena [13]
2009 Berlusconi online.
36th 2010 Canada [14]
37th 2011 France TBD
38th 2012 TBD
39th 2013
40th 2014 Russia
41st 2015 Germany
42nd 2016 Japan
43rd 2017 Italy
44th 2018 Canada

G8 member facts

Seven of the nine leading export countries are in the G8[13] (Germany, US, Japan, France,
Italy, UK, Canada). The UK, the USA, Canada, France, and Germany have nominal per capita
GDP over US$40,000 dollars.[14] Five of the seven largest stock exchanges by market value are
in G8 countries[15] (US, Japan, UK, France, Canada). The G8 countries represent 7 of the 9
largest economies by nominal GDP[16] (Russia isn't one of the 9 largest economies by nominal
GDP but has the 7th largest real GDP; Canada was 8th in 2006 but in 2007 it lost 8th place to
Spain, as it did in 2003,[16] prompting the previous government headed by José María Aznar to
request Spain's entrance in the G8).

The 2nd and 3rd largest oil producers (USA and Russia) and the country with the 2nd largest
reserves (Canada) are in the G8.[17] Seven of the nine largest nuclear energy producers are in
the G8[18] (USA, France, Japan, Russia, Germany, Canada, UK). The 7 largest donors to the
UN budget are in the G8[19] (US, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada).

Ravindra 110
Cumulative influence of member nations

Together the eight countries making up the G8 represent about 14% of the world population, but
they represent about 65% of the Gross World Product[20] as measured by gross domestic
product, being all 8 nations within the top 12 countries according to the CIA World Factbook.
(see the CIA World Factbook column in List of countries by GDP (nominal)), the majority of
global military power (seven are in the top 8 nations for military expenditure[21]), and almost all
of the world's active nuclear weapons.[22] In 2007, the combined G8 military spending was
US$850 billion. This is 72% of the world's total military expenditures. (see List of countries and
federations by military expenditures) Four of the G8 members United Kingdom, United States of
America, France and Russia together account for 96-99% of the world's nuclear weapons. (see
List of states with nuclear weapons)

Criticism and demonstrations

Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit
in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit

As the annual summits are extremely high profile, they are subject to extensive lobbying by
advocacy groups and street demonstrations by activists.

The best-known criticisms centre on the assertion that members of G8 are responsible for global
issues such as poverty in Africa and developing countries due to debt and trading policy, global
warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the AIDS problem due to strict medicine patent policy
and other issues related to globalization. During the 31st G8 summit in Scotland, 225,000 people
took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade
Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging
the legitimacy of the G8.[23]

Of the anti-globalization movement protests, one of the largest and most violent occurred for the
27th G8 summit [15]. Since that G8 Summit and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attacks on
the United States occurred months apart in the same year, the G8 have gathered at some forms of
remote locations every year since then. The 7 July 2005 London bombings were timed to coincide
with the 31st G8 summit in Scotland.

The group has also been criticized for its membership, which critics argue has now become
unrepresentative of the world's most powerful economies since Canada was overtaken by China,
India, Brazil, Spain, Mexico and South Korea by PPP adjusted GDP.[24] Furthermore, Russia
was allowed into the group despite only being in 11th place in terms of nominal GDP.

Ravindra 111
Repo rate
Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. Repo rate is the
rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to
get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more

Reverse Repo rate

Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which Reserve Bank of India (RBI) borrows money from banks.
Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money are in safe hands with a good
interest. An increase in Reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due
to this attractive interest rates. It can cause the money to be drawn out of the banking system.
Due to this fine tuning of RBI using its tools of CRR, Bank Rate, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo
rate our banks adjust their lending or investment rates for common man

Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. If RBI
decides to increase the percent of this, the available amount with the banks comes down. RBI is
using this method (increase of CRR rate), to drain out the excessive money from the banks.

Ravindra 112
SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) is the amount a commercial bank needs to maintain in the form
of cash, or gold or govt. approved securities (Bonds) before providing credit to its customers.
SLR rate is determined and maintained by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) in order to control
the expansion of bank credit

Inflation is as an increase in the price of bunch of Goods and services that projects the Indian
economy. An increase in inflation figures occurs when there is an increase in the average level
of prices in Goods and services. Inflation happens when there are less Goods and more buyers,
this will result in increase in the price of Goods, since there is more demand and less supply of
the goods..

Deflation is the continuous decrease in prices of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the
inflation rate becomes negative (below zero) and stays there for a longer period.

India's Top CEO's

Jaspal Bindra - Standard Chartered

Kiran Mazumdar Saw - Biocon

Anuradha Desai - Venkateshwara Hatcheries

NR Narayana Murthy - Infosys Technologies

Mukesh Ambani - Reliance Industries

Ratan Tata - Tata Group

Ravindra 113
KV Kamath - ICICI Bank

Azim Hasham Premji - Wipro

Nandan Nilekani - Infosys Technologies

Rahul Bajaj - Bajaj Auto

Vijay Mallya - UB Group

Kumar Mangalam Birla - AV Birla Group

Sunil Mittal - Bharti Enterprises

Deepak Parekh - HDFC

Anil Ambani - ADAE

Rajiv Bajaj - Bajaj Auto

Lalitha Gupte - ICICI Bank

S Ramadorai - TCS

Jagdish Khattar - Maruti Udyog

Subir Raha - ONGC

Adi Godrej - Godrej Group

GR Gopinath - Air Deccan

Subhash Chandra - Zee Telefilms

Venu Srinivasan - TVS Motors

Brij Mohal Lall Munjal - Hero Group

K Anji Reddy - Dr. Reddy's Labs

Naresh Goyal - Jet Airways

Shiv Nadar - HCL Technologies

Yogesh C Deveshwar - ITC

Anand Mahindra - Mahindra & Mahindra

Ravindra 114
Peter Mukerjea - Star TV India

Aditya Puri - HDFC Bank

Uday Kotak - Kotak Mahindra Bank

AM Naik - Larsen & Toubro

SB Mathur - UTI

Harish Manwani - Hindustan Lever

Renuka Ramnath - ICICI Ventures

AK Khandelwal - Bank of Baroda

AK Purwar - State Bank of India

Suresh Krishna - Sundaram Fasteners

Ashok Sinha - Bharat Petroleum

Kishore Biyani - Pantaloon Retail

B Ramalinga Raju - Satyam Computers

YV Reddy - Reserve Bank of India

M Damodaran - SEBI

AK Sinha - BSNL

Naina Lal Kidwai - HSBC India

Jeh & Ness Wadia - Bombay Dyeing

Asim Ghosh - Hutch

VK Mittal - Ispat Industries

RS Lodha - Birla Corp

VC Burman - Dabur

Venugopal Dhoot - Videocon Industries

Ravindra 115
Gautam Singhania - Raymond

Ravi Venkatesan - Microsoft India

BVR Subbu - Hyundai India

FV Vandrewala - Motorola India

Niall Booker - HSBC India

Shikha Sharma - ICICI Prudential

Ashwin Dani - Asian Paints

Rajeev Bakshi - Pepsi Co.

B Muthuraman - Tata Steel

SP Hinduja - Hinduja Group

Anil Agarwal - Vedanta Resources

YK Hamied - Cipla

AC Muthaiah - SPIC

Bharat Puri - Cadbury India

Sanjay Nayar - Citigroup India

Karsanbhai Patel - Nirma

Brian Tempest - Ranbaxy

NS Sekhsaria - Gujarat Ambuja Cement

Proshanto Banerjee - GAIL

R Seshasayee - Ashok Leyland

MB Lal - Hindustan Petroleum

BN Kalyani - Bharat Forge

Onkar S Kanwar - Apollo Tyres

Shashi Ruia - Essar Group

Ravindra 116
Vinita Bali - Britannia

Gautam Thapar - Cromptom Greaves

Ajay Piramal - Nicholas Piramal

BS Nagesh - Shoppers' Stop

VS Jain - SAIL

Shobana Bhartia - HT Media

KR Kim - LG India

Rana Kapoor - Yes Bank

Hemendra Kothari - DSP Merrill Lynch

K Ramachandran - Phillips India

Mallika Srinivasan - TAFE

Hans-Michael Huber - Diamler-Chrysler India

Nimesh Kampani - JM Morgan Stanley

Scott Bayman - GE India

Zia Mody - AZB Partners

Noel Tata - Trent

Sarthak Behuria - IOC

Harsh Goenka - RPG Group

Arun Maira - BCG India

Adil Zainulbhai - McKinsey India

MV Subbiah - EID Parry

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• Economic functions of the bank

Commercial banks play an important role in the financial system and the economy. As a key
component of the financial system, banks allocate funds from savers to borrowers in an efficient
manner. They provide specialized financial services, which reduce the cost of obtaining
information about both savings and borrowing opportunities. These financial services help to
make the overall economy more efficient.

Imagine a World Without Banks

One way to answer your question is to imagine, for a moment, a world without banking
institutions, and then to ask yourself a few questions. This is not just an academic exercise;
many former eastern-block nations began facing this question when they began to create
financial markets and develop market-oriented banks and other financial institutions.

If there were no banks…

• Where would you go to borrow money?

• What would you do with your savings?
• Would you be able to borrow (save) as much as you need, when you need it, in a form that
would be convenient for you?
• What risks might you face as a saver (borrower)?

How Banks Work

Banks operate by borrowing funds-usually by accepting deposits or by borrowing in the money

markets. Banks borrow from individuals, businesses, financial institutions, and governments
with surplus funds (savings). They then use those deposits and borrowed funds (liabilities of the
bank) to make loans or to purchase securities (assets of the bank). Banks make these loans to
businesses, other financial institutions, individuals, and governments (that need the funds for
investments or other purposes). Interest rates provide the price signals for borrowers, lenders,
and banks.

Through the process of taking deposits, making loans, and responding to interest rate signals,
the banking system helps channel funds from savers to borrowers in an efficient manner. Savers
range from an individual with a $1,000 certificate of deposit to a corporation with millions of
dollars in temporary savings. Banks also service a wide array of borrowers, from an individual
who takes a loan of $100 on a credit card to a major corporation financing a billion-dollar
corporate merger.

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The table below provides a June 2001 snapshot of the balance sheet for the entire U.S.
commercial banking industry. It shows that the bulk of banks' sources of funds comes from
deposits - checking, savings, money market deposit accounts, and time certificates. The most
common uses of these funds are to make real estate and commercial and industrial loans.
Individual banks' asset and liability composition may vary widely from the industry figures,
because some institutions provide specialized or limited banking services.

Commercial roles of the bank

A commercial bank can be found in all countries on this planet and provides services that range
a lot. The services provided by banks are so many that it is hard to think a life with out them.

A bank was established at the first place for the purpose of keeping people's money and earning
profits on that money by lending them to the needy ones. Since its establishment though, the
bank has kept this service but has added dozen more services.

Commercial Banks today provide its users with services of car financing which is another form
of a loan; however a user is given more luxury on spending. From the time visa cards have been
introduced, the commercial banking has evolved into a totally new industry.

Providing and giving people the power to spend and pay the banks back when they are viable to
do. This not only helps the increase in purchasing power but it increases the economy of the
country on the whole. With ATM machines all over the place, it is not necessary for people of
today to take the risk of carrying money and thus has started the culture of plastic money.

In some countries, commercial banks provide the services of paying utility bills which adds to the
convenience that banking sector provides. As technology increases, banks have also enhanced
their technique of providing more services, with internet banking being the latest. The role and
importance of banks is unquestionable in the world today and it is unthinkable to have a world
without them.


Provisions in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934:Section 28:

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Notwithstanding anything contained in any enactment or rule of law
to the contrary, no person shall of right be entitled to recover from
the Central Government or the Bank, the value of any lost, stolen,
mutilated or imperfect currency note, provided that the Bank may,
with the previous sanction of the Central Government, prescribe the
circumstances in and the conditions and limitations subject to which
the value of such currency notes or bank notes may be refunded as of
grace and the rules made under this proviso shall be laid on the table
of Parliament.

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Section 58:

(1): The Central Board may, with the previous sanction of the Central
Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, make regulations
consistent with this Act to provide for all matters for which provision
is necessary or convenient for the purpose of giving effect to the
provisions of this Act.

(2): In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the

foregoing provisions, such regulations may provide for all or any of
the following matters, viz.-




the circumstances in which, and the conditions and limitations subject

to which the value of any lost, stolen, mutilated or imperfect currency
note of the Government of India or bank note may be refunded.

Provisions in the RBI (Note Refund) Rules:

In exercise of the powers conferred by the proviso to Section 28 of

the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), read with clause (q)
of the sub-section (2) and sub-section (1) of Section 58 of the said
Act, the Central Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of India, with
the previous sanction of the Central Government hereby makes the
following rules prescribing the circumstances in and the conditions
and limitations subject to which, the value of lost, imperfect or
mutilated notes may be refunded as a matter of grace.

Given below are the important provisions of the RBI (Note Refund)
Rules, for the benefit of the members of the public.

Rule 2: Definitions:

In these rules,

‘Bank’ means the Reserve Bank of India constituted by the Reserve

Bank of India Act, 1934.

‘Bank note’ means any note issued by the Bank, but does not include
a Government note.

(ba) ‘Essential features’ means the features which are necessary for
the identification of a note, namely:-

the name of the issuing authority in Hindi or English, that is, Reserve
Bank of India or Government of India, as the case may be;

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the guarantee clause in Hindi or in English;

the promise clause in Hindi or in English;

the signature in Hindi or in English;

the Ashoka Pillar emblem or the Mahatma Gandhi portrait, as the case
may be;

the water mark of the Ashoka Pillar emblem or the Mahatma Gandhi
portrait, as the case may be.

Explanation: The essential features of a note have been enumerated

with a view to making the application of Rule 9 easier. The definition
should be read with Rules 9(1)(a) and 9(2)(a). If any one of the Hindi
or the English versions of an essential features is slightly damaged,
but the other version is intact, the essential feature in question shall
be deemed to be available on the note. In the case of the water-mark,
minor damage should be ignored and in applying the Rules, if a major
portion of the water-mark is identifiable, the water-mark may be
treated as being available.

(d) ‘Half note’ means either portion of a note, which has been divided
through or near the centre into two pieces, either vertically, that is to
say, along a line parallel or nearly parallel to the width of the note or
horizontally, that is to say, along a line parallel or nearly parallel to
the length of note, provided that such portion is itself in one piece.

Explanation: In case of doubt where the mutilation caused to the note

is irregular, area of a mutilated piece (note) should be measured by
using a transparent plastic sheet on which square centimetres are
etched. The plastic sheet should be placed on the note and number of
squares counted to obtain the area of the piece. For the purpose of
arriving at the total area, half the number of incomplete squares
should be added to the number of complete squares. The dimensions
of the current design notes are the following:

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Denominati Length Width No. of squares
on (cm) (cm) (cm2)

1 9.7 6.3 61

2 10.7 6.3 67

5 11.7 6.3 74

10 13.7 6.3 86

20 14.7 6.3 93

50 14.7 7.3 107

100 15.7 7.3 115

500 16.7 7.3 122

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1000 17.7 7.3 129

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(e) ‘Half the area’ means an area which represents fifty percent of the
total area of a note, including non-printed potions thereof;

(f) ‘Imperfect note’ means any note which is wholly or partially

obliterated, altered or undecipherable but does not include a
mutilated note;

(fa) ‘Major portion of the number’ means the prefix and any three
digits of the number or, where the prefix is not identifiable, any four
digits of the number;


(i) This definition should be read with Rules 9(1) (c), 9(2)(b), 9(2)(c)
and 9(3);

(Complete number: 58V 569747)

Examples of major portion of the number:

58V 569xxx; 58V xxx747; 58V 5x9x4x; 58V xx974x; 58V 5xxx47; 58V
56xxx7; xxV 5697xx; 5xx xx9747; xxx 5x974x; xxx x697x7.

It should be noted that the entire prefix is treated as one unit.

(ii) Sometimes, a portion of a digit or letter of the alphabet may be

missing. In such cases, if the visible portion can be identified with
definiteness as belonging to a particular digit or letter to the
exclusion of other digits/letters, the digit or letter may be treated as

Example: (5), (7), (3)

(g) ‘Mutilated note’ means a note of which a portion is missing or

which is composed of pieces;

Explanation: Note in two pieces having number(s) intact is now

classified as a soiled note.

(i) ‘Number’ means the complete serial number of the note, namely
the letters and numerals of the prefix and digits following the prefix;

(j) ‘Prescribed Officer’ means the officer in charge of the Issue

Department at any Office or branch of the Bank or any other person
designated by the Bank in this behalf.


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The prescribed officer is the officer who has been authorised to pass
or reject the mutilated notes under the Note Refund Rules.

Rule 3: Presentation and disposal of claims

A claim in respect of any note may be presented to the Issue

Department of any office or of any branch of the Bank.

Note: Reserve Bank of India has also authorised public sector bank
branches and designated branches of other banks having currency
chests (list available on websites of Regional Offices of the Bank) to
accept and exchange mutilated notes under these Rules.

Rule 4: Right to call for information or to hold enquiries

The prescribed officers either at the designated commercial bank

branches or the Reserve Bank of India dealing with a claim may, if it is
considered necessary so to do, call for any information or hold any
inquiry relating to any claim presented under these rules.

Rule 5: General provisions in relation to all claims

A claim in respect of a note, which is alleged to have been stolen,

shall not be entertained.

Note: If a prescribed officer is satisfied that a mutilated note

presented to him is one which appears to have been cancelled at any
office of the RBI or claim on which appears to have already been paid
under these Rules, he may reject the claim on such note after making
enquiries under Rule 4 above.

A claim in respect of a note -

which cannot be identified with certainty by the prescribed officer as

a genuine note for which the Bank is liable under the Reserve Bank of
India Act; or

which in the opinion of the prescribed officer has been made

imperfect or has been mutilated, with a view to making it appear to
be of a higher denomination, or has been deliberately cut, torn,
defaced, altered or dealt with in any other manner, not necessarily by
the claimants, with a view to establishing a false claim under these
rules or otherwise to defraud the Bank or the public, or

Explanation: This rule is used in cases where a deliberate intention

appears, but the note/s cannot be rejected under any other rule of
these Rules. Hand-printed portions joined with parts of genuine notes
are rejected under Rule 5(2)(ii).

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which carries any extrinsic words or visible representations intended
to convey or capable of conveying any message of a political
character, or

which has been imported into India by the claimant from any place
outside India, Bhutan and Nepal in contravention of the provision of
any law, or

in respect of which the value is payable not by the Bank but by some
other authority, or

in relation to which any information, which is called for by the

prescribed officer or the Bank as the case may be, is not furnished by
a claimant within a period of three months from the date of receipt of
the notice or letter asking for the information, shall be rejected.

Rule 7: Imperfect notes

The value of an imperfect note of a denomination of one thousand
rupees or less may be paid, if

the matter, which is printed on the note, including the number or

numbers, has not become totally undecipherable, and

the prescribed officer is satisfied, having regard to the printed matter

which is decipherable on the note, that it is a genuine note.

Explanation: This rule refers to notes which are entire (i.e. not
mutilated) but are wholly or partially obliterated. The guiding
principle is that the notes should be established as being genuine
Indian currency notes. In some cases, numbers of the notes may not
be traceable. Payablity of such notes is decided on the basis of other
printed matter available on the note including the watermark which is
generally available even on washed notes.

Rules 9: Mutilated bank notes:

(1) The value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one

thousand rupees or less, on which the number is printed at one place
only may be paid, if-

a) the note presented is in not more than two pieces and of which no
essential feature is missing and the complete number can also be
identified in an undivided area on one of the pieces; or

b) the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has an undivided area

which is not less than half the area of the note and the complete
number can also be identified in an undivided area on such piece; or

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c) the note presented is in pieces none of which may even comprise
half the area of the note, but all the pieces presented can be
identified as belonging to the same note and all the pieces taken
together have an area which is not less than half the area of the note
and a major portion of the number can also be identified in an
undivided area on one of the pieces.

Explanation: Rule 9 (1) applies to the single numbered notes i.e. notes
of Re.1, Rs.2 and Rs.5 denominations. The conditions to be satisfied
for payment of notes under this Rule are as under:

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S. No. 9(1)(a) 9(1)(b) 9(1)(c)

Note is in one piece

Note is in one or
1. or in more than one Note is in pieces.
two pieces.

Major portion of
All essential
Complete undivided the number is
features are
2. number is available available in an
present (even if
on one piece. undivided area on
one of the pieces.

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The piece on which
full number is All the pieces
undivided number
3. available is not less belong to the
is available on
than half the area of same note.
one piece.
the note.

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The sub-rules are applied to a mutilated note one after another to see
whether the claim on it is payable under any of them i.e. if a
particular note is not payable, say, under sub-rule 9(a), the possibility
of its being payable under sub-rule (b) is examined, and if it is not
payable even under sub-rule (b), the possibility of its being payable
under sub-rule (c) is examined.

If only one piece is presented and it is of an area less than half the
area of a note, claim is rejected (cf. Rule 9(1) (b)).

If a note is in pieces and major portion of the number is not

identifiable in an undivided area on one of the pieces, claim is
rejected {cf. Rule 9(1) (c)).

If a note is in pieces none of which is more than half the area of the
note and the pieces presented cannot be identified as belonging to
the same note, claim is rejected {cf. Rule 9(1) (c)).

If a note is in pieces and the pieces can be identified as belonging to

the same note, but the pieces presented together form an area less
than half the area of the note, claim is rejected cf. {Rule 9(1)(c)).

2) The value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one

thousand rupees or less, on which the number is printed at two places
may be paid, if

(a) the note presented is in not more than two pieces and of which no
essential feature is missing and both the pieces can be identified as
belonging to the same note and the complete number can be
identified in an undivided area at each of the two pieces at which it is
printed; or

b) the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has an undivided area

which is not less than three-fourths the area of the note and a major
portion of the number can be identified on such piece in an undivided
area at each of the two places at which it is printed; or

c) the note presented is in pieces none of which may even comprise

half the area of the note but all the pieces presented can be identified
as belonging to the same note and all the pieces taken together have
an area which is not less than half the area of the note and a major
portion of the number can also be identified in an undivided area at
each of the two places at which it is printed.

Explanation: Rule 9 (2) applies to the double numbered notes i.e.

notes in the denominations of Rs. 10 and above. The conditions to be
satisfied for payment of notes under this Rule are as under:

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S. No. 9(2)(a) 9(2)(b) 9(2)(c)

Note is in one piece

Note is in one or
1. or in more than one Note is in pieces.
two pieces.

Major portion of the

All essential
number is available All the pieces
features are
2. at the both the belong to the
present (even if
places on one same note.
undivided piece.

Major portion of
the number is
undivided number This piece is not
available in an
is available at less than three-
3. undivided area at
both places on the fourth the area of
both the places
same piece or on the note.
(even if in two
the two pieces.
separate pieces).

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All the pieces
Both the pieces taken together
4. belong to the - form not less than
same note. half the area of
the note.

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The sub-rules are applied to the note one after another to see
whether the claim on the note is payable for full value under any of
them i.e. if a particular note is not payable, say under sub-rule (a),
the possibility of it being payable under sub-rule (b) is examined, and
if it is not payable even under sub-rule (b), the possibility of it being
payable under sub-rule (c) is examined. If a note is not found payable
for full value under any of these sub-rules, only then it is examined to
see whether it is payable for half value under Rule 9 (3).

(i) If on a note, the number at both places is available on one piece

measuring not less than three-fourth the area of the note, but the
number is not the major portion of the number at both places; the
claim is rejected (cf. Rule 9(2) (b)). If on the other hand, the number is
the major portion at one of the two places, half value is paid under
Rule 9(3).

(ii) If a note is in pieces and together the pieces form an area more
than half the area of the note, but the pieces cannot be identified as
belonging to the same note, claim is rejected (Rule 9(2)(c)).

(iii) If a note is in pieces and the pieces can be identified as belonging

to the same note, but the pieces presented together form an area less
than half the area of a note, claim is rejected (Rule 9(2)(c)).

3) Half the face value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of

one thousand rupees or less on which the number is printed at two
places may be paid, if, the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has
an undivided area which is not less than half the area of the note and
a major portion of the number can also be identified on such piece
atleast at one of the places at which it is printed.

Explanation: This rule applies to double-numbered notes i.e. notes in

the denominations of Rs. 10 and above. The conditions to be satisfied
for payment of half value on such notes are as under:

The piece or one of the pieces presented has an undivided area, not
less than half the area of the note and

Major portion of the number (i.e. one of the two numbers) is available
on such piece.

If one of the pieces qualifies for payment of half value, the other
piece or pieces even if not belonging to the same note, are ignored.

A note is considered for payment of half value only when full value is
not found payable on it under Rule 9(2).

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4) A claim for the full value of a mutilated bank note of a
denomination of one thousand rupees or less on which the number is
printed at two places shall, if the note as presented has been formed
by joining a half note of another note, be dealt with under sub-rule (3)
as if there were separate claims in respect of each of the two half

Explanation: This rule is a corollary to Rule 9 (3) and is also applicable

only to double-numbered notes. Each of the two, either vertically or
horizontally divided half notes is treated as independent notes and
claim dealt with under Rule 9(3).

The number is the sole feature that is used for distinguishing one
note from another. Hence the emphasis is on the number or its major

If the major portion of the number of a double-numbered note is

available at both places on one undivided area measuring at least ¾th
the area of the note, the claim is paid ignoring the remaining portion
of the note, whether presented or not (Rule 9(2)(b)).

Rule 20: Claimants to be bound by rules

For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any payment

which is provided for under these rules shall be made only as of grace
and that the Bank may from time to time issue for the guidance of the
prescribed officers such supplementary or detailed instructions for
carrying out the provisions of these rules as it may deem fit.

Any person who makes any claim on account of an imperfect or

mutilated note shall be deemed to have made the said claim under
the proviso to Section 28 of the Reserve Bank of India Act and subject
to the provisions of these rules, which shall be deemed to be binding
on all claimants and their heirs or assigns.

Rule 21: Decision of the prescribed officer or the Bank

If any question arises whether a note or any portion presented is an

imperfect or mutilated note or is divided vertically or horizontally
through or near the centre or has clearly more than half the area of a
whole note or is a half note or whether all the pieces of a note or a
portion thereof as presented belong or belongs to the same note, or
whether a note is payable under any of the provisions of these rules,
the prescribed officer or the Bank shall be entitled to determine the
question, having regard to the provisions in the foregoing rules and
the condition of the note, and a note shall not be payable unless the
conditions specified in these rules have been clearly satisfied in the
opinion of the prescribed officer or the Bank.

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The decision of the prescribed officer or the Bank in regard to any
claim under these rules shall be final and no appeal from the said
decision shall lie to any other officer or authority.

Rule 22: Retention and destruction of notes

(2) Any note presented in connection with a claim under these rules
shall, whatever be the denomination of the note or the prescribed
officer’s decision on the claim, be retained by the Bank and destroyed
or otherwise disposed of -

in the case of a note in respect of which any payment is made, at any

time after the payment, and

in the case of a note in respect of which no payment is made, on the

expiry of a period of three months from the date of the decision
rejecting the claim.

Stock exchange
refers to an organized market where govt. Securities and shares, bonds and debentures of the
benefited trading units are regularly transacted. Its business is carried on with in a particular
building in which a person can easily convert his shares into cash or new securities. Thus it is a
market for the exchange of transfer able securities by providing a continuous market.

The term stock exchange is referred by some people to stat Market. Therefore some writer says,
"It is a place to get rich quick while others regard as place of gambling.The securities of public
companies can be transacted in the exchange only if they have been approved by the committee of
the stock exchange.

A company desiring its shares to be approved must first satisfy very

rigid rules concerning the prospectus. It must also agree to abide by
the regulations of the stock exchange about any aspects of its conduct.

Some Features of Stock Exchange Market

1. Specialized market. Stock exchange is a specialized market for the
purchase and sale of industrial and financial securities.
2. Rigid rules. There are large number of buyers and sellers who
conduct their activities according to rigid rules.
3. Basis of formation. Its activities are controlled by the company
ordinance in our country. It can be formed as company limited by
guarantee or company limited by shares.

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India has a well developed tax structure with a three-tier federal
structure, comprising the Union Government, the State Governments
and the Urban/Rural Local Bodies. The power to levy taxes and duties
is distributed among the three tiers of Governments, in accordance
with the provisions of the Indian Constitution. The main taxes/duties
that the Union Government is empowered to levy are Income Tax
(except tax on agricultural income, which the State Governments can
levy), Customs duties, Central Excise and Sales Tax and Service Tax.
The principal taxes levied by the State Governments are Sales Tax
(tax on intra-State sale of goods), Stamp Duty (duty on transfer of
property), State Excise (duty on manufacture of alcohol), Land
Revenue (levy on land used for agricultural/non-agricultural
purposes), Duty on Entertainment and Tax on Professions & Callings.
The Local Bodies are empowered to levy tax on properties (buildings,
etc.), Octroi (tax on entry of goods for use/consumption within areas
of the Local Bodies), Tax on Markets and Tax/User Charges for utilities
like water supply, drainage, etc.

Since 1991 tax system in India has under gone a radical change, in
line with liberal economic policy and WTO commitments of the
country. Some of the changes are:

Reduction in customs and excise duties

Lowering corporate Tax

Widening of the tax base and toning up the tax administration

Direct Taxes

Personal Income Tax

Individual income slabs are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% for annual incomes
upto Rs 50,000, 50,000 - 60,000, 60,000 - 1,50,000 and above
1,50,000 respectively.

Corporate Income Tax

For domestic companies, this is levied @ 35% plus surcharge of 5%,

where as for a foreign company (including branch/project offices), it is
@ 40% plus surcharge of 5%. An Indian registered company, which is a
subsidiary of a foreign company, is also considered an Indian company
for this purpose.

Withholding Tax for NRIs and Foreign Companies:

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Withholding Tax Rates for payments made to Non-Residents are
determined by the Finance Act passed by the Parliament for various
years. The current rates are:

1. Interest - 20% of Gross Amount

2. Dividends - 10%

3. Royalties - 20%

4. Technical Services - 20%

5. Any other Services - Individuals - 30% of net income

Companies/Corporates - 40% of net income

The above rates are general and in respect of the countries with
which India does not have a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement
General Tax Incentives for Industries:

100% deduction of profits and gains for ten years is available in

respect of the following:

Any enterprise carrying on the business of developing, maintaining

and operating infrastructure facilities viz., roads, highways, bridges,
airports, ports, rail systems, industrial towns, inland waterways,
water supply projects, water treatment systems, irrigation projects,
sanitation and sewage projects, solid waste management systems.

Undertakings engaged in generation or generation and distribution,

transmission or distribution of power, which commence these
activities before 31.3.2006.

Any company engaged in scientific and industrial research and

development activities, approved by the prescribed authority, before

Any undertaking which develops, operates, maintains an Industrial

Park or Special Economic Zone before 31.3.2006.

Notified Industrial Undertakings set up in the North Eastern region

including seven north-eastern states and the state of Sikkim.

Undertakings developing and building housing projects approved by

the local authority before 31.3.2001and which are completed before

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100% deduction for seven years for undertakings producing or
refining mineral oil.

100% deduction from income for first five years and 30% (for persons
other than companies: 25%) in subsequent five years is available in
respect of the following:

Company which starts providing telecommunication services whether

basic or cellular including radio paging, domestic satellite service,
network or trunking, broad band network and internet services before

Industrial undertakings located in certain specified industrially

backward states and districts.

Undertakings which begin to operate cold chain facilities for

agricultural produce before 31.3.2003.
Undertakings engaged in the business of handling, storage,
transportation of food grains.

50% deduction for a period of five years is available to undertakings

engaged in the business of building, owning and operating multiplex
theatres or convention centres constructed before 31.3.2005.

Tax exemption of 100% on export profits for ten years upto F.Y. 2009-
10, for new industries located in EHTPs and STPs and 100% Export
Oriented Units. For units set up in Special Economic Zones (SEZs),
100% deduction of export income for first five years followed by 50%
for next two years, even beyond 2009-10.

Tax exemption of 100% of Export profits for ten years for new
industries located in Integrated Infrastructure Development Centres
or Industrial Growth Centres of the North Eastern Region.

Deduction of 50% of export profits from the gross total income. The
deduction would be restricted to 30% for financial year 2003-04 and
no deduction is allowable subsequently.

Deduction from the gross total income of 50% of foreign exchange

earnings by hotels and tour operators. The deduction would be
restricted to 30% for financial year 2003-04 and no deduction is
allowable subsequently.

50% deduction of export income due to export of computer software

or film software, television software, music software, from the gross
total income. The deduction would be restricted to 30% for financial
year 2003-04 and no deduction is allowable subsequently.

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Deduction in respect of certain inter-corporate dividends to the
extent of dividend declared.

Exemption of any income by way of dividend, interest or long term

capital gains of an infrastructure capital fund or an infrastructure
capital company from investment made by way of shares or long term
finance in any enterprises carrying on the business of developing,
maintaining and operating infrastructure facility.
Sales Tax

Central Sales Tax (CST)

CST is 4% on manufactured goods.

Local Sales Tax (LST)

Where a sale takes place within a state, LST would be levied. Such a
tax would be governed by the relevant state tax legislation. This is
normally up to 15%.
Excise Duty

Excise duty on most commodities ranges between 0 to 16%. Only on

seven items duty is imposed at 32%, viz., motor cars, tyres, aerated
soft drinks, air conditioners, polyesters filament yarn, pan masala and
chewing tobacco. Duty is charged at 30% on petrol with additional
excise duty at Rs. 7 per litre. The said rates are subject to exemptions
and deductions thereon as may be notified from time to time. Central
VAT (CENVAT) is applicable to practically all manufactured goods, so
as to avoid cascading effect on duty.

Small Scale Sector is exempted from payment of excise duty from

annual production upto Rs.10 million.
Customs Duty

The rates of basic duties vary from 0 to 30%.

Salient features are:

Peak customs duty reduced from 220% (in 1991) to 30% (in 2002).

The general project import duty (for new projects and substantial
expansion of existing projects) reduced from 85% to 25%.

Import duty under EPCG Scheme is 5%.

R&D imports - 5% customs duty.

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Export made with imported inputs get concessions in form of duty
drawback, duty entitlement pass book scheme and advance licence.

Many type of industries such as 100% EOU and units in free trade
zone get facility of zero import duty.

An Authority for Advance Ruling for foreign investor

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SEZ(Special Economic Zone)

Considering the need to enhance foreign investment and promote

exports from the country and realising the need that level playing
field must be made available to the domestic enterprises and
manufacturers to be competitive globally, the government had in April
2000 announced the introduction of Special Economic Zones policy in
the country, deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade
operations, duties and tariffs.

SEZs when operational are expected to offer high quality

infrastructure facilities and support services, besides allowing for the
duty free import of capital goods and raw materials. Additionally,
attractive fiscal incentives and simpler customs, banking and other
procedures are offered in such zones. Setting up of SEZs is also
treated as an infrastructure development activity and offered same

Salient features of the Indian SEZ initiative include:

• Unlike most of the international instances where zones are primarily

developed by Governments, the Indian SEZ policy provides for
development of these zones in the government, private or joint
sector. This offers equal opportunity to both Indian and international
private developers.

• For greenfield SEZs, the Government has specified a minimum

preferable area of 1,000 hectares. However, for sector specific SEZs,
there is no restriction of minimum area.

• 100 per cent FDI is permitted for all investments in SEZs, except for
activities under the negative list.

• SEZ units are required to be positive net foreign exchange earners

and are not subject to any minimum value addition norms or export

• Goods flow into the SEZ area from Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) will be
treated as exports and goods coming from the SEZ area into DTA are
treated as imports.

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Currently, a number of SEZ projects are coming up in the country. The
government has given a go-ahead for around 17 SEZs to be set up in
the private sector or the joint sector. Of these, the projects at Positra
(Gujarat), Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Indore (Madhya
Pradesh) and Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra) are in advanced stages of
planning and development, while the others are preparing to get off
the ground.

Incentives and Benefits

Besides providing state-of-the-art infrastructure and access to a large

well-trained and skilled work force, the SEZ policy also provides
enterprises and developers with a favourable and attractive
framework of incentives:

• 100% income tax exemption for a block of five years and an

additional 50% tax exemption for two years thereafter
• 100% FDI in the manufacturing sector permitted through automatic
route, barring a few sectors.

• External commercial borrowings by SEZ units upto US$500 million in

a year without any maturity restrictions through recognized banking

• Facility to retain 100% foreign exchange receipts in Exchange

Earners’ Foreign Currency Account.

• 100% FDI permitted to SEZ franchisee in providing basic telephone

services in SEZs.

• No cap on foreign investment for small scale sector reserved items.

• Exemption from industrial licensing requirements for items reserved

for the SSI sector.

• No import licence requirements

• Exemption from customs duties on import of capital goods, raw

materials, consumables, spares etc

• Exemption from Central Excise duties on procurement of capital

goods, raw materials, consumable spares etc., from the domestic

• No routine examinations by Customs for export and import cargo.

• Facility to realize and repatriate export proceeds within 12 months.

• Profits allowed to be repatriated without any dividend-balancing


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• Job work on behalf of domestic exporters for direct export allowed.

• Subcontracting both domestic and international is permitted; this

facility is available to jewellery units as well.

• Exemption from Central Sales Tax and Service Tax

• Facilities to set up off-shore banking units in SEZs.

Incentives to Developers

• Exemption from duties on import /procurement of goods for the

development, operation and maintenance of SEZ.

• Income tax exemption for a block of 10 years in 15 years.

• Exemption from Service Tax

• FDI to develop townships within SEZs with residential, educational,

health care and recreational facilities permitted on a case-to-case

Interim budget or Vote on account

YOU'VE heard about it and now it's going to happen. This year, there
won't be an annual full length budget but there will be a Vote on
Account or Interim budget, as it is also referred to, instead. So what
does Vote on Account mean? Let’s find out.

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What is a vote-on-account?
An annual budget is an exercise which the ruling government
undertakes whereby it puts forth a report card of its income and
expenses in the previous year.

It also puts forth provisions to raise money (from taxes) and spend
money (on welfare measures). In doing that, it seeks the parliament’s
approval to spend the requisite amount of money. The Parliament
then votes for or against the proposals and the finance bill gets

This whole process begins on 28th Feb when the Finance Minister
makes the budget speech and goes on till 31st March, when the bill is
passed in the parliament.

Now there might be times when the parliament cannot or does not
have enough time to vote the entire budget before the new financial
year begins. For instance, if a new government comes into power a
few months before February, it may not have enough time to study
the fiscal state and announce a budget. So the new government may
announce an interim budget in February and a full budget in a few
months' time.

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Pre-election is also a time when vote on account kicks in. A few
months before the elections, a code of conduct comes into play during
which the central and state governments cannot announce any major
sops to the electorate to prevent any unfair swings in the voting

Moreover, even if the code of conduct does not come into play, it is
regarded improper for an outgoing government to impose on its
successor changes that may or may not be acceptable to the incoming

When elections are around the corner, like now (elections are likely to
be held in April-May), the government can only present a report card
of last year’s income and expenses. It can also seek the parliament’s
approval for expenses that it foresees for the next few months until
the elections are over and the new government is in place.

This exercise is called vote on account.

So what is the difference between Vote on Account and Budget?

A vote on account only talks about the expenses that the government
is likely to make during the next few months. A budget in turn also
talks about how it proposes to raise the money to meet these
expenses. These are normally in the form of tax sops.

When will the budget be held after the vote on account?

During election year, the budget is held after the new government is

Usually the gap between the vote on account and budget does not
exceed six months.

When was the first VOA held in independent India?


How many times VOA (also called Interim Budget) has been held in
Eleven. Out of this, six times, a new government presented a VOA
because it didn’t have enough time after coming into power to
present a full scale budget.

In the remaining five instances, the outgoing government presented

the VOA.

In how many of these five instances did the outgoing government

come back to power?

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In four out of five instances, the outgoing government came back to

Here are the VOAs after which the same government came back to

FM who presented

CD Deshmukh

TT Krishnamachari

Morarji Desai

Manmohan Singh

Jaswant Singh

Which FMs have presented the most VOAs?

Morarji Desai and Yashwant Sinha have both presented two VOAs

• Indian Constitution And Amendments

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The Constitution of India was enacted on 26th of January, 1950. The
Constituent Assembly of India drafted the nation's Constitution. Being
drafted on 26th of November, 1949, the Indian Constitution laid the
foundations for establishment of the Democratic Republic of India.

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Drafting of the Constitution
The Constitution of India was drafted over a period of 2 years, 11
months and 17 days. The members of Constituent Assembly of India
met for the first time in the year 1946 on December 9. The next
meeting of the Assembly took place on August 14th, 1947 for the
dominion of India in which the proposal of forming various committees
was presented. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental
Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution
Committee. One of the unique factors of this meeting was that the
Assembly gathered as the Sovereign Constituent Assembly of India.

On 29th August, 1947 a Drafting Committee, with Dr. Ambedkar as the

Chairman, was formed on the basis of the various reports submitted
by the previous committees. It was in the year 1948 that a Draft
Constitution including a range of proposals was formed by the
concerned committee. The Constituent Assembly of India held two
meetings in February 1948 and October 1949 to go through the
clauses of the Draft. Finally, from 14th to 26th of November, 1949 the
Constituent Assembly analyzed each and every provision of the Draft.
The then President of the Constituent Assembly of India signed the
Draft on November 26th, 1949.

Today, there are 12 Schedules and 395 Articles in the Constitution of

India. Amendments have been made to the Constitution time and
again as per the need of the hour. Till 2006, there have been 94
Amendments made to the constitution.

Constituent Assembly
The Constituent Assembly of India was formed by the elected
members of the provincial assemblies of the country. Presided over by
Dr. Sachidanand Sinha for the first time, the Indian Constituent
Assembly played the most important role in creating the Constitution
of India. After Dr. Sinha, Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the President of
the Assembly. Comprising over 30 schedule class members, the
Constituent Assembly also included sections of Christians, Anglo-
Indians and Minority Community. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, being
the Minority Community Chairman, also successfully worked for the
Christians. While H P Modi was the representative of the Parsi
community, Frank Anthony headed the Anglo-Indian section of the
country in the Constituent Assembly.

Some of the prominent female personalities of the Constituent

Assembly were Vijaylakshmi Pandit and Sarojini Naidu. From Shyama
Prasad Mukherjee, B N Rau and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad to K M
Munshi, Sardar Patel and Alladi Krishnaswami Aiyer, each one had a
major contribution towards the present form of the Constituent
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The Preamble is one of the most significant parts of the Constitution
List of the 94 Amendments to the Indian Constitution till

There have been 94 amendments made to the Constitution of India.

The Amendment Acts, which are also known as Constitution
(Amendment) Acts, and the date, when they cam into force, are
mentioned below:

The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951: This Act came into
force on 18 June 1951.

The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952: This Act was

introduced on 1 May 1953.

The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954: The date of assent of

this Amendment Act is 22 February 1955.

The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955: This Act became

effective since 27 April 1955.

The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955: The date since when
this Act has been made effective is 24 December 1955.

The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956: Since 11 September

1956, this Act has been in effect.

The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956: As per s.1 (2) of

the Act, this Constitution Act came into force on 1 November 1956.

The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1959: This Act was

introduced on 5 January 1960, when it was given assent by the

The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960: The date on which

this Act came into force is 28 December 1960.

The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961: This Act was made
effective on 11 August 1961 as per the s.1 (2) of the Act.

The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961: The date of assent

of this Constitution Act was 19 December 1961.

The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962: This Act came into
force on 20 December 1961 as per s.1 (2) of the Act.

The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962: Since 1

December 1963, this Constitution Act has been in effect.

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The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962: This Act was
introduced on 28 December 1962.

The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963: This Act was given
assent by the President and was introduced on 5 October 1963.

The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963: The date on

which this Constitution Act was made effective is 5 October 1963.

The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964: The date since

when this Act has been made effective is 20 June 1964.

The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966: This Act came

into force on 27 August 1966.

The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966: The date of

assent of this Constitution Act is 11 December 1966.

The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966: This Constitution

Act was introduced on 22 December 1966.

The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967: The President

gave his assent to this Act on 10 April 1967, since when it has been in

The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969: The Act was

made effective with the assent of the President on 25 September

The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969: The date on

which this Act came into force is 23 January 1970.

The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971: Since 5

November 1971, this Act is in effect.

The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971: With the assent

of the President of India, this Act was introduced on 20 April 1972.

The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971: This Act was

made effective on 28 December 1971.

The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971: As per s.1

(2) of the Act, Sections 1 and 3 were introduced on 30 December
1971. The Sections 2, 4 and 5 came into force much later on 15
February 1972.

The Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972: This Act

came into force on 29 August 1972.

The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972: The date since

when this Constitution Act has been made effective is 9 June 1972.

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The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972: It was on 27
February 1973, when this Act was introduced after assent of the
Indian President.

The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973: This Act came

into force on 17 October 1973.

The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973: This Act was

introduced on 1 July 1974.

The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974: Since 19 May

1974, this Constitution Act has been in effect.

The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974: The President

of India gave assent to this Act on 7 September 1974.

The Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974: This

Constitution Act was made effective on 1 March 1975.
The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975: As per s.1 (2),
this Act came into force on 26 April 1975, when the Bill passed by the
House of People was also passed by the Council of States.

The Constitution (Thirty-seventh) Act, 1975: The date of assent of this

Act is 3 May 1975.

The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975: This Act has

been made effective since 1 August 1975.

The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975: With the assent

of the Indian President, this Constitution Act was introduced on 10
August 1975.

The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976: The date on which

this Act came into force is 27 May 1976.

The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976: This Act was

given assent by the President, and hence introduced on 7 September

The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976: This is one of

the most important amendments made to the Indian Constitution. The
Sections 2-5, 7-17, 20, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36, 43-53, 55, 56, 57 and 59 of
this Constitution Act came into force on 3 January 1977. The Sections
6, 23-26, 37-42, 54 and 58 were introduced on 1 February 1977.
Section 27 was made effective 2 months later on 1 April 1977.

The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977: This Constitution

Act was introduced on 13 April 1978.

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The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978: This is another
important amendment made to the Constitution of India. Sections 2,
4-16, 22, 23, 25-29, 31-42, 44 and 45 of this Constitution Act were
introduced on 20 June 1979. Sections 17-21 and 30 came into force on
1 August 1979, while Sections 24 and 43 were made effective on 6
September 1979.

The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980: As per s.1 (2) of

the Act, this Act was given assent by the President of India on 25
January 1980.

The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982: This 46th

Amendment to the Constitution was made on 2 February 1983.

The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984: The date on

which this Constitution Act was made effective is 26 August 1984.

The Constitution (Forty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1984: This Act came

into force on 1 April 1985.

The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984: The President of

India gave his assent to this Act for amending the Constitution on 11
September 1984.

The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984: This Constitution

Act came into force on 11 September 1984 with the assent of the

The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984: Since 16 June

1986, this Constitution has been effective.

The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985: It was on 1

March, when this Act was introduced.

The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986: The date of

assent of this Act is 20 February 1987.

The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1986: This Act was

made effective in 1986 on 1 April 1986, as per s.1 (2) of the Act.

The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986: With the assent

of the Indian President, this Constitution Act has been made effective
since 20 February 1987.

The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987: This Act was

introduced on 30 May 1987.

The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987: This

Constitution Act was made effective on 21 September 1987.

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The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987: The date of
assent for this Act is 9 December 1987.

The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988: The President

gave his assent for this Constitution Act on 30 March 1988.

The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988: This Act was

introduced with the assent of President on 20 December 1988.

The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988: The date since

when this Act has been made effective is 23 March 1989.

The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1989: As per s.1 (2)

of the Act, it was made effective on 20 December 1989, on the date,
when the Bill for this Constitution Act was introduced to the Council of

The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989: This Act was

introduced on 6 January 1990 with the assent of the President of

The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990: This Act has

been in effect since 16 April 1990, which is the date of assent for it.

The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990: With the assent

of the President of India, this Act was introduced on 12 March 1992.

The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990: The date, when

this Act was given assent by the President of India is 7 June 1990.

The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990: This

Constitution Act was introduced on 4 October 1990.

The Constitution (Sixty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1991: This Act was

made effective on 12 March 1991.

The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991: This Act came

into effect from 1 February 1992.

The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992: As per s.1 (2) of

the Act, the Section 3 of this Act was introduced on 12 December
1991. The Section 2 of the Act is yet to receive assent from the Indian

The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992: The date when

this Constitution Act was made effective is 31 August 1992.

The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992: It was on 5

December 1992, when this Act received assent from the President and
was introduced.

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The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992: With the
assent of the Indian President, this Constitution Act was made
effective on 24 April 1993.

The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992: This Act was

introduced on 1 June 1993.

The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1993: The date on

which this Act was made effective for amending the constitution is 15
May 1994.

The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994: This

Constitution Act was introduced with the assent of the Indian
President on 31 August 1994.

The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995: The date

of assent for this Act is 17 June 1995.
The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, 1995: The
President gave his assent to this Act on 30 August 1995.

The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 2000: This Act came

into force on 25 January 2000.

The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000: 9 June 2000 is the

date, when this Constitution Act was implemented.

The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000: This Act was

introduced on 9 June 2000.

The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000: The date on

which this Act was made effective is 8 September 2000.

The Constitution (Eighty-third Amendment) Act, 2000: It was on 8

September 2000, when this Act came into force with the assent of the
President of India.

The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001: This

Constitution Act was made effective on 21 February 2002.

The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2002: With the assent

of the Indian President, this Act came into force on 4 January 2002.

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002: The date of

assent for this Constitution Act is 12 December 2002.

The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003: Since 22

June 2003, this Act has been in effect.

The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003: This Act came

into force on 15 October 2004.

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The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003: The President
gave his assent for the Bill of this amendment on 28 September 2003.

The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003: The date on which

this Constitution Act was introduced is 28 September 2003.

The Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003: This Act was

introduced with the assent of the President of India on 1 January

The Constitution (Ninety-second Amendment) Act, 2003: This

Constitution Act was given assent by the President on 7 January 2004.

The Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act, 2005: Since 20

January 2006, this Act has been made effective.

The Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006: This

Constitution Act came into force on 12 June 2006, with the assent of
the President of India.

Prime Minister and Council of Ministers - India

14th Lok Sabha Council of Ministers

Manmohan Singh Congress Prime Minister
Ministry ofPersonnel,
Public grievenances and
Ministry of Planning
Department of Atomic
Department of Space
Ministry of External
Cabinet Ministers
Pranab Mukherjee Congress Defence
Arjun Singh Congress HRD
Shankersinh Vaghela Congress Textiles
H. R. Bhardwaj Congress Law

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Kamal Nath Congress Commerce and Industry
P. Chidamabaram Congress Finance Minister
Mahavir Prasad Congress Small Scale, Agro and Rural
P. R. Kyndiah Congress Tribal Affairs + North East
Meira Kumar Congress Social Justice and
Shivraj Patil Congress Home
Laloo Prasad Yadav RJD Railways
Raghuvansh Prasad RJD Rural Development
Ram Vilas Paswan LJP Chemical and Fertilizer; Steel
Dayanidhi Maran DMK IT and Telecom
A. Raja DMK Forest + Environment
T. R. Baalu DMK Road Transport, Highways &
A. Ramdoss PMK Health
S.Jaipal Reddy Congress Urban Development
Priyaranjan Dasmunsi Congress Parliamentary Affairs and
Information & Broadcasting
Sushil Kumar Shinde Congress Power
Sis Ram Ola Congress Mines
K. ChandraSekhar Rao TRS Labour & Employment
ManiShankar Aiyar Congress Panchayti Raj and Youth Affairs
& Sports
Murli Deora Congress Petroleum & Natural Gas
Prof. Saif-ud-din Soz Congress Water Resources
Sharad Pawor NCP Agriculture and Consumer
Affairs,Food & Public
Shibu Soren JMM Coal
A.R. Antulay Congress Minority Affairs
Vayalar Ravi Congress Overseas Indian Affairs
Santosh Mohan Dev Congress Heavy Industries and Public

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Ambika Soni Congress Tourism & Culture
Kapil Sibal Congress Science & Technology and
Earth Sciences
Prem Chand Gupta RJD Company Affairs
Ministers Of State (Independent charge)
Praful Patel NCP Civil Aviation
Subodh Kant Sahay Congress Food Processing
Vilas Muttemwar Congress Non-Conventional Energy
Premchand Gupta RJD Company Affairs
Oskar Fernandes Congress Without Portfolio
Renuka Chowdhury Congress Woman and Child Development
Kumari Selja Congress Housing & Urban Poverty
G.K. Vasan Congress Statistics & Programme
Ministers Of State
E Ahmed IUML External Affairs
P Lakshmi Congress Health and Family Welfare
Shakeel Ahmed Congress Communications and IT
Narayanbhai Ratwa Congress Railways
K H Muinayapa Congress Road Transport and Highways
M V Rajashekharan Congress Planning
Manikrao Gavit Congress Home Affairs
Sri Prakash Jaiswal Congress Home Affairs
Prithviraj Chavan Congress Prime Minister's Office
Suryakanta Patil NCP Rural Development
Parliamentary Affairs
Md A A Fatimi RJD Human Resource Development
A Narendra TRS Rural Development
R Velu PMK Railways
S S Padmimanikam DMK Finance

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S Raghupati DMK Home Affairs
K Venkatapati DMK Law and Justice
Subhalaxmi Jagdeesan DMK Social Justice and
Namonarayan Meena Congress Environment and Forest
Akhilesh Singh RJD Agriculture, Food and Civil
Pawan Kumar bansal Congress Finance
Ajay Maken Congress Urban Development
Dinsha J. Patel Congress Petroleum & Natural Gas
M.M. Pallm Raju Congress Defence
Akhilesh Das Congress Steel
Ashwani Kumar Congress Department of Industrial policy
& Promotion,Ministry of
Commece & Industry
Chandra Sekhar Sahu Congress Labour & Employment
Suresh Pachouri Congress Personnel,Public Grievances &
Pensions and Parliamentary
B.K. Handique Congress Chemicals & Fertilizers and
Parliamentary Affairs
Rao Inderjit Singh Congress Defence
Dasari Narayan Rao Congress Coal
T. Subharami Reddy Congress Mines
Anand Sharma Congress External Affairs
Kantilal Bhuria Congress Agriculture and Consumer
Affairs,Food & Public
Taslimuddin RJD Agriculture and Consumer
Affairs,Food & Public
E.V.K.S.E langovan Congress Textiles
Jairam Ramesh Congress Department of
Commerce,Ministry of
Commerce & Industry

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Kanti Singh RJD Department of Heavy
Industry,Ministry of Heavy
Industries & Public Enterprises
D. Purandeswari Congress Human Resource Development
Akhilesh Singh Congress Agriculture,Consumer
Affairs,Food & Public

List of Awards in Different Categories and winners

Civilian Awards
Param Vir Chakra
Jnanpith Awards
Dada Saheb Phalke Awards
Bharat Ratna

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Padma Vibhushan
Padma Bhushan
Padma Shri
Sports Awards
1. Arjuna Award
2. Dronacharya Award
3. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
4. Lifetime Achievement award
5. Dhyanchand Award

The complete list of 2009 padma shri awards recipients:

A total of 133 Padma awards were announced — 10 Padma Vibhushan,

30 Padma Bhushan and 93 Padma Shri.
A list of all Padma awardees for 2009:

Padma Vibhushan

1.Dr Chandrika Prasad Srivastava — Civil Service

2.Sunderlal Bahuguna — Environment
3.Prof D P Chattopadhyaya — Literature
4.Prof Jasbir Singh Bajaj — Medicine
5.Dr Purshotam Lal — Medicine
6.Govind Narain — Public Affairs
7Dr Anil Kakodkar — Science
8.G Madhavan Nair — Science
9.Sister Nirmala — Social Work
10.Dr A S Ganguly — Trade & Industry

Padma Bhushan

1:G Sivarama Krishna Murthy — Art

2:Prof Ramanlal C Mehta — Art
3:Shamshad Begum — Art
4:V P Dhananjayan & Shanta Dhananjayan — Art
5:Dr Vaidyanathan Ganapathi Sthapati — Art
6:S.K. Misra — Civil Service
7:Shekhar Gupta — Journalism
8:Prof. Alappat Sreedhara Menon — Literature
9:C.K. Prahlad — Literature
10:D. Jayakanthan — Literature

Ravindra 162
11:Dr. Isher Judge Ahluwalia — Literature
12:Kunwar Narain — Literature
13:Prof. Minoru Hara — Literature
14:Ramachandra Guha — Literature
15:Dr. Brijendra Kumar Rao — Medicine
16:Vaidya Devendra Triguna — Medicine
17:Dr. Khalid Hameed — Medicine
18:Lt.Gen. (Retd.) Satish Nambiar — Security Affairs
19:Dr. Inderjit Kaur Barthakur — Public Affairs
20:Dr. Kirit Shantilal Parikh — Public Affairs
21:Dr. Bhakta B. Rath — Science
22:Shri Conjeevaram Srirangachari Seshadri — Science
23:Dr. Gurdip Singh Randhawa — Science
24:Sam Pitroda — Science
25:Prof. (Dr.) Sarvagya Singh Katiyar — Science
26:Prof. Thomas Kailath — Science
27:Dr. Naganath Nayakawadi — Social Work
28:Dr. Sarojini Varadappan — Social Work
29:Abhinav Bindra — Sports
30:Anil Manibhai Naik — Trade & Industry

Padma Shri

1:Thilakan — Art
2:A. Vivekh — Art
3:Aishwarya Rai Bachchan — Art
4:Akshay Kumar — Art
5:Dr Ameena Ahmed Ahuja — Art
6:Aruna Sairam — Art
7:Devayani Chaymotty — Art
8:Geeta Kapur — Art
9:Govind Ram Nirmalkar — Art
10:Gurumayum Gourakishor Sharma — Art
11:Hashmat Ullah Khan — Art
12:Helan Khan — Art
13:Hemi Bawa — Art
14:Pandit Hridaynath Mangeshkar — Art
15:Iravatham Mahadevan — Art
16:K.P. Udayabhanu — Art
17:Dr Kanneganti Brahmanandam — Art
18:Prof. Kiran Seth — Art
19:Kumar Sanu Bhattacharjee — Art
20:Prof. Dr Leela Omchery — Art
21:Mattannoor Sankarankutty Marar – Art
22:Niranjan Goswami — Art
23:Bhai Nirmal Singh Khalsa — Art

Ravindra 163
24:Penaz Masani — Art
25:Prakash N. Dubey — Art
26:Dr. Pratapaditya Pal — Art
27:Ram Kishore Chhipa — Art
28:Saoli Mitra — Art
29:Shri Skendrowell Syiemlieh (Posthumous) — Art
30:Dr. Subrahmanyam Krishnaswamy — Art
31:Suresh Dutta — Art
32:Shri Tafazzul Ali (Posthumous) — Art
33:Udit Narayan — Art
34:Vadakka Manalath Govindan alias Kalamandalam Gopi — Art
35:S.B. Ghosh Dastidar — Civil Service
36:Ameen Sayani — Broadcasting
37:Abhay Chhajlani — Journalism
38:Dr. A. Sankara Reddy — Literature
39:Alok Mehta — Literature
40:Dr Bannanje Govindacharya — Literature
41:Dr Birendranath Datta — Literature
42:Prof. Geshe Ngawang Samten — Literature
43:Prof. Jalees Ahmed Khan Tareen — Literature
44:Jayanta Mahapatra — Literature
45:John Ralston Marr — Literature
46:Lalthangfala Sailo — Literature
47:Laxman Bapu Mane — Literature
48:Dr. Mathoor Krishnamurty — Literature
49:Norden Tshering — Literature
50:Dr. Panchapakesa Jayaraman — Literature
51:Prof. Ram Shankar Tripathi — Literature
52:Prof. Ranbir Chander Sobti — Literature
53:Dr. Ravindra Nath Srivastava — Literature
54:Shamsur Rahman Faruqi — Literature
55:Shashi Deshpande — Literature
56:Sunny Varkey — Literature
57:Suresh Gundu Amonkar — Literature
58:Dr. Utpal K. Banerjee — Literature
59:Dr. A.K. Gupta — Medicine
60:Dr. Alampur Saibaba Goud — Medicine
61:Dr. Arvind Lal — Medicine
62:Dr. Ashok K. Vaid — Medicine
63:Dr. Ashok Kumar Grover — Medicine
64:Dr. Balswarup Choubey — Medicine
65:Dr. D. S. Rana — Medicine
66:Dr. Govindan Vijayaraghavan — Medicine
67:Dr. Kalyan Banerjee — Medicine
68:P.R. Krishna Kumar — Medicine
69:Dr. R. Sivaraaman — Medicine

Ravindra 164
70:Dr. Shaik Khader Noordeen — Medicine
71:Prof. (Dr.) Thanikachalam Sadagopan — Medicine
72:Dr. Yash Gulati — Medicine
73:K. Asungba Sangtam — Public Affairs
74:Dr. Shyamlha Pappu — Public Affairs
75:Prof. Syed Iqbal Hasnain — Research on Himalayan Glaciers
76:Goriparthi Narasimha Raju Yadav — Science
77:Prof. Pramod Tandon — Science
78:Bansilal Rathi — Social Work
79:Begum Bilkees I. Latif — Social Work
80:Cheril Krishna Menon — Social Work
81:Rev. Joseph H. Pereira — Social Work
82:K. Viswanathan — Social Work
83:Keepu Tshering Lepcha — Social Work
84:Prof. Shyam Sunder Maheshwari — Social Work
85:Sunil Kanti Roy — Social Work
86:Balbir Singh Khullar — Sports
87:Harbhajan Singh — Sports
88:Mahendra Singh Dhoni — Sports
89:Pankaj Advani — Sports
90:Surinder Mehta — Technology Solutions
91:Arunmugam Sakthivel — Trade & Industry
92:Dr. Bavaguthu Raghuram Shetty — Trade & Industry
93:Shri R.K. Krishna Kumar — Trade & Industry

Bharat Ratna:
highest civilian award given for exceptional service towards the
advancement of Art, Literature and Science, and in recognition of
public service of the highest order. It was established by the President
of India, in 2nd January 1954. The regulations were revised 8 January
1955 (to alter the design) and amended 26 January 1957 (to alter the
depiction of the devices on the obverse and reverse). From 13 July
1977 to 26 January 1980, awards of the Bharat Ratna were suspended.
The original specifications for the award called for a circular gold
medal, 35 mm in diameter, with the sun and the Hindi legend "Bharat
Ratna" above and a floral wreath below. The reverse was to carry the
state emblem and motto. It was to be worn around the neck from a 2
inches white ribbon. There is no indication that any specimens of this
design were ever produced and one year later the design was altered.

Recipients of Bharat Ratna :Pandit Bhimsen Joshi(2008)

Ravindra 165
Dada Saheb Phalke Awards

Jnanpith Award
The country's highest literary award, the Jnanpith Award, is given to any Indian writer for his or
her outstanding contribution in any of the 18 languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the
Constitution. It is given for outstanding contribution to creative writing in a specified period of 15
years but excluding the five years immediately preceding the year.The award was instituted in May
22, 1961. The total prize money for the scheme is Rs. 2.5 lakhs.

Ravindra 166
List of Gallantry Award winners

Param Vir Chakra

Company Havildar Major Abdul Hamid, (4 Grenadiers)

Maha Vir Chakra

Mohammed Ismail: 1947-48 Operation
Brig. Mohammed Usman: Indo-Pakistan War

Ashok Chakra

The Ashok Chakra is awarded for valour, courageous action or

self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peace time
equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra and is awarded for the
"most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent
valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy.

Vir Chakra
Kirti Chakra

Kirti Chakra is awarded for valor, courageous action or self-

sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peacetime
equivalent of the Maha Vir Chakra. It is second in order of
precedence of peacetime gallantry awards.
2007: Mohd. Shan Ahmed (posthumous) was posted as Cash
Overseer at post office Jhansi. On 26 December, 2005, resisted
looting of cash and in the attempt succumbed to fatal injuries
inflicted by armed miscreants. He belonged to Jhansi (UP).
Shaurya Chakra
The Shaurya Chakra is the third level award for gallantry away
from the battlefield and by far the nearest equivalent of the
Vir Chakra Award for Peacetime.
Lance Havildar Aziz Mohd: 20 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles
Sapper/Operator Executive Machinery Budhu Khan
Naik Mohd Sadiq
Rifleman Abdul Hamid Chara: 162 Infantry Battalion TA
(H&H)JAK LI/18 Rashtriya Rifles(posthumous)
Rifleman Raiece Ahmad Ganaie: Jammy & Kashmir Light
Infantry/50 Rashtriya Rifles

Ravindra 167
Nobel Prize Winners (2008)
PEACE: The Swiss Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human
Biotechnology and the citizens of Switzerland for adopting the
legal principle that plants have dignity.

ARCHAEOLOGY: Astolfo Gomes de Mello Araujo and Jose Carlos

Marcelino for showing armadillos can scramble the contents of
an archaeological dig.

BIOLOGY: Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Christel Joubert and

Michel Franc for discovering that fleas that live on a dog can
jump higher than fleas that live on a cat.
MEDICINE: Dan Ariely for demonstrating that expensive fake
medicine is more effective than cheap fake medicine.

COGNITIVE SCIENCE: Toshiyuki Nakagaki, Hiroyasu Yamada, Ryo

Kobayashi, Atsushi Tero, Akio Ishiguro and Agota Toth for
discovering that slime molds can solve puzzles.

ECONOMICS: Geoffrey Miller, Joshua Tyber and Brent Jordan for

discovering that exotic dancers earn more when at peak

PHYSICS: Dorian Raymer and Douglas Smith for proving that

heaps of string or hair will inevitably tangle.

CHEMISTRY: Sheree Umpierre, Joseph Hill and Deborah

Anderson for discovering that Coca-Cola is an effective
spermicide, and C.Y. Hong, C.C. Shieh, P. Wu and B.N. Chiang
for proving it is not.

LITERATURE: David Sims for his study "You Bastard: A Narrative

Exploration of the Experience of Indignation within

Ravindra 168

List of countries participating in the Beijing Olympics 2008 with their
Country Code.

Afghanistan AFG
Albania ALB
Algeria ALG
American Samoa ASA
Andorra AND
Angola ANG
Antigua and Barbuda ANT
Argentina ARG
Armenia ARM
Aruba ARU
Australia AUS
Austria AUT
Azerbaijan AZE
Bahamas BAH
Bahrain BRN
Bangladesh BAN
Barbados BAR
Belarus BLR
Belgium BEL
Belize BIZ
Benin BEN
Bermuda BER

Ravindra 169
Bhutan BHU
Bohemia BOH
Bolivia BOL
Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH
Botswana BOT
Brazil BRA
British Virgin Islands IVB
Brunei BRU
Bulgaria BUL
Burkina Faso BUR
Burundi BDI
Cambodia CAM
Cameroon CMR
Canada CAN
Cape Verde CPV
Cayman Islands CAY
Guatemala GUA
Guinea GUI
Guinea-Bissau GBS
Guyana GUY
Nation Code
Haiti HAI
Honduras HON
Hong Kong HKG
Hungary HUN
Iceland ISL
India IND
Indonesia INA
Iran IRI
Iraq IRQ
Ireland IRL
Israel ISR
Italy ITA
Jamaica JAM
Japan JPN
Jordan JOR
Kazakhstan KAZ
Kenya KEN
Kiribati KIR
North Korea PRK
South Korea KOR
Kuwait KUW
Kyrgyzstan KGZ
Laos LAO

Ravindra 170
Latvia LAT
Lebanon LIB
Lesotho LES
Liberia LBR
Libya LBA
Liechtenstein LIE
Lithuania LTU
Luxembourg LUX
FYR Macedonia MKD
Madagascar MAD
Malawi MAW
Malaysia MAS
Maldives MDV
Mali MLI
Malta MLT
Mauritania MTN
Mauritius MRI
Mexico MEX
Micronesia FSM
Moldova MDA
Monaco MON
Mongolia MGL
Montenegro MNE
Morocco MAR
Mozambique MOZ
Myanmar MYA
Namibia NAM
Nauru NRU
Nepal NEP
Netherlands NED
Netherlands Antilles AHO
New Zealand NZL
Nicaragua NCA
Niger NIG
Nigeria NGR
Norway NOR
Oman OMA
Pakistan PAK
Palau PLW
Palestine PLE
Panama PAN
Papua New Guinea PNG
Paraguay PAR
Peru PER

Ravindra 171
Philippines PHI
Poland POL
Portugal POR
Puerto Rico PUR
Qatar QAT
Romania ROU
Russia RUS
Rwanda RWA
Saar SAA
Saint Kitts And Nevis SKN
Saint Lucia LCA
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines VIN
Samoa SAM
San Marino SMR
São Tomé And Príncipe STP
Saudi Arabia KSA
Senegal SEN
Serbia SRB
Seychelles SEY
Sierra Leone SLE
Singapore SIN
Slovakia SVK
Slovenia SLO
Solomon Islands SOL
Somalia SOM
South Africa RSA
Soviet Union URS
Spain ESP
Sri Lanka SRI
Sudan SUD
Suriname SUR
Swaziland SWZ
Sweden SWE
Switzerland SUI
Syria SYR
Tajikistan TJK
Tanzania TAN
Thailand THA
Timor-Leste TLS
Togo TOG
Tonga TGA
Trinidad And Tobago TRI
Tunisia TUN
Turkey TUR

Ravindra 172
Turkmenistan TKM
Uganda UGA
Ukraine UKR
United Arab Emirates UAE
United States Of America USA
United Kingdom
Uruguay URU
Uzbekistan UZB
Vanuatu VAN
Venezuela VEN
Vietnam VIE
Virgin Islands ISV
Yemen YEM
Yugoslavia YUG
Zambia ZAM
Zimbabwe ZIM

Total Medals By Nation

United States 110 36 38 36
China 51 21 28
Russia 72 23 21 28
Great Britain 47 19 13 15
Australia 46 14 15 17
Germany 41 16 10 15
France 40 7 16 17
South Korea 31 13 10 8
Italy 28 8 10 10
Ukraine 27 7 5 15
Japan 25 9 6 10
Cuba 24 2 11 11
Belarus 19 4 5 10
Spain 18 5 10 3
Canada 18 3 9 6
Netherlands 16 7 5 4
Brazil 15 3 4 8
Kenya 14 5 5 4
Kazakhstan 13 2 4 7
Jamaica 11 6 3 2
Poland 10 3 6 1
Hungary 10 3 5 2
Norway 10 3 5 2

Ravindra 173
New Zealand 9 3 1 5
Romania 8 4 1 3
Turkey 8 1 4 3
Ethiopia 7 4 1 2
Denmark 7 2 2 3
Azerbaijan 7 1 2 4
Czech Republic 6 3 3 0
Slovakia 6 3 2 1
Georgia 6 3 0 3
North Korea 6 2 1 3
Argentina 6 2 0 4
Switzerland 6 2 0 4
Uzbekistan 6 1 2 3
Armenia 6 0 0 6
Slovenia 5 1 2 2
Bulgaria 5 1 1 3
Indonesia 5 1 1 3
Sweden 5 0 4 1
Croatia 5 0 2 3
Lithuania 5 0 2 3
Mongolia 4 2 2 0
Thailand 4 2 2 0
Zimbabwe 4 1 3 0
Finland 4 1 1 2
Greece 4 0 2 2
Nigeria 4 0 1 3
Chinese Taipei 4 0 0 4
Mexico 3 2 0 1
Latvia 3 1 1 1
India 3 1 0 2
Austria 3 0 1 2
Ireland 3 0 1 2
Serbia 3 0 1 2
Belgium 2 1 1 0
Dominican Republic 2 1 1 0
Estonia 2 1 1 0
Portugal 2 1 1 0
Iran 2 1 0 1
Trinidad and Tobago 2 0 2 0
Algeria 2 0 1 1
Bahamas 2 0 1 1
Colombia 2 0 1 1
Kyrgyzstan 2 0 1 1
Morocco 2 0 1 1
Tajikistan 2 0 1 1
Bahrain 1 1 0 0
Cameroon 1 1 0 0

Ravindra 174
Panama 1 1 0 0
Tunisia 1 1 0 0
Chile 1 0 1 0
Ecuador 1 0 1 0
Iceland 1 0 1 0
Malaysia 1 0 1 0
Singapore 1 0 1 0
South Africa 1 0 1 0
Sudan 1 0 1 0
Viet Nam 1 0 1 0
Afghanistan 1 0 0 1
Egypt 1 0 0 1
Israel 1 0 0 1
Mauritius 1 0 0 1
Moldova 1 0 0 1
Togo 1 0 0 1
Venezuela 1 0 0 1

No of Games ,Events
Beach Volleyball
Canoe/Kayak Flatwater
Canoe/Kayak Slalom
Cycling BMX
Cycling Mountain Bike
Cycling Road
Cycling Track

Gymnastics Artistic
Gymnastics Rhythmic
Modern Pentathlon

Ravindra 175
Synchronized Swimming
Table Tennis
Water Polo


1896 - Athens, Greece
1900 - Paris, France
1904 - St. Louis, Missouri USA
1906 - Athens, Greece*
1908 - London, England
1912 - Stockholm, Sweden
1916 - Not held**
1920 - Antwerp, Belgium
1924 - Paris, France
1928 - Amsterdam, Holland
1932 - Los Angeles, California USA
1936 - Berlin, Germany
1940 - Not held***
1944 - Not held***
1948 - London, England
1952 - Helsinki, Finland
1956 - Melbourne, Australia
1960 - Rome, Italy
1964 - Tokyo, Japan
1968 - Mexico City, Mexico
1972 - Munich, Germany
1976 - Montreal, Canada
1980 - Moscow, Russia
1984 - Los Angeles, California USA
1988 - Seoul, South Korea
1992 - Barcelona, Spain
1996 - Atlanta, Georgia USA
2000 - Sydney, Australia
2004 - Athens, Greece
2008 - Beijing, China

Ravindra 176
2012 - London, England
*Games not recognized by the International Olympic Committee.
**Games cancelled due to World War I.
***Games cancelled due to World War II.


1924 - Chamonix, France
1928 - St. Moritz, Switzerland
1932 - Lake Placid, New York USA
1936 - Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
1940 - Not held*
1944 - Not held*
1948 - St. Moritz, Switzerland
1952 - Oslo, Norway
1956 - Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
1960 - Squaw Valley, California USA
1964 - Innsbruck, Austria
1968 - Grenoble, France
1972 - Sapporo, Japan
1976 - Innsbruck, Austria
1980 - Lake Placid, N.Y.
1984 - Sarajevo, Yugoslavia
1988 - Calgary, Alberta, Canada
1992 - Albertville, France
1994 - Lillehammer, Norway
1998 - Nagano, Japan
2002 - Salt Lake City, Utah USA
2006 - Turin, Italy
2010 - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
*Games cancelled due to World War II.

Common Wealth Games

All Sports summary medal table ordered by gold ranking

Rank by Rank by
Gold Gold Silver Bronze Total Total

Ravindra 177
1 Australia 84 69 68 221 1
2 England 36 40 34 110 2
3 Canada 26 29 31 86 3
4 India 22 17 11 50 4
5 South Africa 12 13 13 38 5
6 Scotland 11 7 11 29 =7
7 Jamaica 10 4 8 22 9
8 Malaysia 7 12 10 29 =7
=9 New Zealand 6 12 13 31 6
=9 Kenya 6 5 7 18 =11
11 Singapore 5 6 7 18 =11
12 Nigeria 4 6 7 17 13
=13 Wales 3 5 11 19 10
=13 Cyprus 3 1 2 6 14
=15 Ghana 2 0 1 3 =16
=15 Uganda 2 0 1 3 =16
=17 Pakistan 1 3 1 5 15
=17 Papua New Guinea 1 1 0 2 =21
=17 Isle of Man 1 0 1 2 =21
=17 Namibia 1 0 1 2 =21
=17 Tanzania 1 0 1 2 =21
=17 Sri Lanka 1 0 0 1 =31
=23 Mauritius 0 3 0 3 =16
=23 Bahamas 0 2 0 2 =21
=23 Northern Ireland 0 2 0 2 =21
=23 Cameroon 0 1 2 3 =16
=23 Botswana 0 1 1 2 =21
=23 Malta 0 1 1 2 =21
=23 Nauru 0 1 1 2 =21
=23 Bangladesh 0 1 0 1 =31
=23 Grenada 0 1 0 1 =31
=23 Lesotho 0 1 0 1 =31
=23 Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 3 3 =16
=23 Seychelles 0 0 2 2 =21
=23 Barbados 0 0 1 1 =31
=23 Fiji 0 0 1 1 =31
=23 Mozambique 0 0 1 1 =31
=23 Samoa 0 0 1 1 =31
=23 Swaziland 0 0 1 1 =31

Ravindra 178
Host City List
Year Numb City Country Date
1911 London England
1930 I Hamilton Canada 16-23 Aug
1934 II London England 4-11 Aug
1938 III Sydney Australia 5-12 Feb
1950 IV Auckland New
Zealand 4-11 Feb
1954 V Vancouver Canada 30 July-7 Aug
1958 VI Cardiff Wales 18-26 July
1962 VII Perth Australia 21 Nov-1 Dec
1966 VIII Kingston Jamaica 4-13 Aug
1970 IX Edinburgh Scotland 16-25 July
1974 X Christchurch New
Zealand 24 Jan-2 Feb
1978 XI Edmonton Canada 3-12 Aug
1982 XII Brisbane Australia 30 Sept-9 Oct
1986 XIII Edinburgh Scotland 24 July-2 Aug
1990 XIV Auckland New
Zealand 24 Jan-3 Feb
1994 XV Victoria Canada 18-28 Aug
1998 XVI Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 10-20 Sept
2002 XVII Manchester England 25 July-4 Aug
2006 XVIII Melbourne Australia 15-26 March
2010 XIX Delhi India 3-14 Oct

Ravindra 179
National Games of India
The National Games is a sporting event held in India. It comprises
various disciplines in which sportsmen from the different states of
India participate against each other. It was in 1924, in erstwhile
Punjab, Lahore to be precise, that the Indian chapter of the Olympic
movement was born. The founder was G.D. Sondhi, the first Secretary
of the Punjab Olympic Association. Lt.Col H.L.O. Garrett, vice principal
of Government College, Lahore, was the President of the founder
body. The same year, the country's first Olympic Games, now
christened as National Games, were organised in Lahore, the then
capital of undivided Punjab.[1].[2]


The Olympic movement in the country actually started in 1919 at the

initiative of Dorabjee Jamshedji Tata, the well-known philanthropist.
In 1919, Pune's Deccan Gymkhana invited Sir George Lloyd, the then
Governor of Bombay, where Dorabjee Tata made a suggestion for
according a separate representation to British India in the 1920
Olympic Games. In 1920, India got direct affiliation to the
International Olympic Committee and it sent six sportsmen — P.F.
Chugle and A. Dattar ( marathon and 10,000 m), K.Kaikadi (cross-
country), P.C.Banerjee (440 yards), G. Navale and N. Shinde
(wrestling) to the Antwerp Olympic Games. This brought India on the
horizon of international sports. Four years later Punjab joined the
Olympic movement, started dominating it and organized the first
Indian Olympics Games (now National Games)in Lahore, Punjab.[2]

Indian Olympic Games(Early National Games)

The Games were held every two years from 1924 as Indian Olympic
Games and were renamed as National Games when they were first
held in Lucknow in 1948 post Indian Independence.[2]

Modern National Games

Ravindra 180
The Indian Olympic Association, the premier sports organizing body of
the nation, mooted the concept of the National Games. For several
years it was conducted on a low key note. However, the Modern
National Games on the lines of the Olympics were held in 1985 in New
Delhi. Thereafter Kerala(1987), Pune(1994),
Bangalore(1997),Manipur(1999), Ludhiana(2001), Hyderabad(2002)
and Guwahati(2007) have hosted the Games. The 34th National
Games have been scheduled from 01-14 June, 2009 in Jharkhand. Also
the 35th National Games will be held across seven centres in Kerala
from May 1 to 14, 2010.[3][4][5][6]

Periodicity of National Games

The National Games are required to be held once in two years leaving
those years in which the Olympic Games and Asian Games are
scheduled to be held. Only in exceptional cases or natural calamity,
the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) can allow relaxation from the
general rule. The duration and the regulation of the National Games is
entirely within the jurisdiction of IOA.[2]















Ravindra 181





1954 DELHI



















2009 RANCHI (to be held in June,09)

2010 kerala(to be held in May,10)

Ravindra 182
2011 GOA (to be held) [2]

Men's Grand Slam Title Winners


2009 Australian Open Rafael Nadal Roger Federer
2008 U.S. Open Roger Federer Andy Murray
2008 Wimbledon Rafael Nadal Roger Federer
2008 French Open Rafael Nadal Roger Federer
2008 Australian Open Novak Djokovic Jo-Wilfried Tsonga
2007 U.S. Open Roger Federer Novak Djokovic
2007 Wimbledon Roger Federer Rafael Nadal
2007 French Open Rafael Nadal Roger Federer
2007 Australian Open Roger Federer Fernando Gonzalez
2006 U.S. Open Roger Federer Andy Roddick
2006 Wimbledon Roger Federer Rafael Nadal
2006 French Open Rafael Nadal Roger Federer
2006 Australian Open Roger Federer Marcos Baghdatis
2005 U.S. Open Roger Federer Andre Agassi
2005 Wimbledon Roger Federer Andy Roddick
2005 French Open Rafael Nadal Mariano Puerta
2005 Australian Open Marat Safin Lleyton Hewitt
2004 U.S. Open Roger Federer Lleyton Hewitt
2004 Wimbledon Roger Federer Andy Roddick
2004 French Open Gaston Gaudio Guillermo Coria
2004 Australian Open Roger Federer Marat Safin
2003 U.S. Open Andy Roddick Juan Carlos Ferrero
2003 Wimbledon Roger Federer Mark Philippoussis
2003 French Open Juan Carlos Ferrero Martin Verkerk
2003 Australian Open Andre Agassi Rainer Schuettler

Ravindra 183
2002 U.S. Open Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
2002 Wimbledon Lleyton Hewitt David Nalbandian
2002 French Open Albert Costa Juan Carlos Ferrero
2002 Australian Open Thomas Johannson Marat Safin
2001 U.S. Open Lleyton Hewitt Pete Sampras
2001 Wimbledon Goran Ivanisevic Patrick Rafter
2001 French Open Gustavo Kuerten Alex Corretja
2001 Australian Open Andre Agassi Arnaud Clement
2000 U.S. Open Marat Safin Pete Sampras
2000 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Patrick Rafter
2000 French Open Gustavo Kuerten Magnus Norman
2000 Australian Open Andre Agassi Yevgeny Kafelnikov
1999 U.S. Open Andre Agassi Todd Martin
1999 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
1999 French Open Andre Agassi Andre Medvedev
1999 Australian Open Yevgeny Kafelnikov Thomas Enqvist
1998 U.S. Open Patrick Rafter Mark Philippoussis
1998 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Goran Ivanisevic
1998 French Open Carlos Moya Alex Corretja
1998 Australian Open Petr Korda Marcelo Rios
1997 U.S. Open Patrick Rafter Greg Rusedski
1997 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Cedric Pioline
1997 French Open Gustavo Kuerten Sergi Bruguera
1997 Australian Open Pete Sampras Carlos Moya
1996 U.S. Open Pete Sampras Michael Chang
1996 Wimbledon Richard Krajicek MaliVai Washington
1996 French Open Yevgeny Kafelnikov Michael Stich
1996 Australian Open Boris Becker Michael Chang
1995 U.S. Open Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
1995 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Boris Becker
1995 French Open Thomas Muster Michael Chang
1995 Australian Open Andre Agassi Pete Sampras
1994 U.S. Open Andre Agassi Michael Stich
1994 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Goran Ivanisevic
1994 French Open Sergi Bruguera Alberto Berasategui

Ravindra 184
1994 Australian Open Pete Sampras Todd Martin
1993 U.S. Open Pete Sampras Cedric Pioline
1993 Wimbledon Pete Sampras Jim Courier
1993 French Open Sergi Bruguera Jim Courier
1993 Australian Open Jim Courier Stefan Edberg
1992 U.S. Open Stefan Edberg Pete Sampras
1992 Wimbledon Andre Agassi Goran Ivanisevic
1992 French Open Jim Courier Petr Korda
1992 Australian Open Jim Courier Stefan Edberg
1991 U.S. Open Stefan Edberg Jim Courier
1991 Wimbledon Michael Stich Boris Becker
1991 French Open Jim Courier Andre Agassi
1991 Australian Open Boris Becker Ivan Lendl
1990 U.S. Open Pete Sampras Andre Agassi
1990 Wimbledon Stefan Edberg Boris Becker
1990 French Open Andres Gomez Andre Agassi
1990 Australian Open Ivan Lendl Stefan Edberg
1989 U.S. Open Boris Becker Ivan Lendl
1989 Wimbledon Boris Becker Stefan Edberg
1989 French Open Michael Chang Stefan Edberg
1989 Australian Open Ivan Lendl Miloslav Mecir
1988 U.S. Open Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl
1988 Wimbledon Stefan Edberg Boris Becker
1988 French Open Mats Wilander Henri Leconte
1988 Australian Open Mats Wilander Pat Cash
1987 U.S. Open Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander
1987 Wimbledon Pat Cash Ivan Lendl
1987 French Open Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander
1987 Australian Open Stefan Edberg Pat Cash
1986 U.S. Open Ivan Lendl Miloslav Mecir
1986 Wimbledon Boris Becker Ivan Lendl
1986 French Open Ivan Lendl Mikael Pernfors
1985 Australian Open Stefan Edberg Mats Wilander
1985 U.S. Open Ivan Lendl John McEnroe
1985 Wimbledon Boris Becker Kevin Curren

Ravindra 185
1985 French Open Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl
1984 Australian Open Mats Wilander Kevin Curren
1984 U.S. Open John McEnroe Ivan Lendl
1984 Wimbledon John McEnroe Jimmy Connors
1984 French Open Ivan Lendl John McEnroe
1983 Australian Open Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl
1983 U.S. Open Jimmy Connors Ivan Lendl
1983 Wimbledon John McEnroe Chris Lewis
1983 French Open Yannick Noah Mats Wilander
1982 Australian Open Johan Kriek Steve Denton
1982 U.S. Open Jimmy Connors Ivan Lendl
1982 Wimbledon Jimmy Connors John McEnroe
1982 French Open Mats Wilander Guillermo Vilas
1981 Australian Open Johan Kriek Steve Denton
1981 U.S. Open John McEnroe Bjorn Borg
1981 Wimbledon John McEnroe Bjorn Borg
1981 French Open Bjorn Borg Ivan Lendl
1980 Australian Open Brian Teacher Kim Warwick
1980 U.S. Open John McEnroe Bjorn Borg
1980 Wimbledon Bjorn Borg John McEnroe
1980 French Open Bjorn Borg Vitas Gerulaitis
1979 Australian Open Guillermo Vilas John Sadri
1979 U.S. Open John McEnroe Vitas Gerulaitis
1979 Wimbledon Bjorn Borg Roscoe Tanner
1979 French Open Bjorn Borg Victor Pecci
1978 Australian Open Guillermo Vilas John Marks
1978 U.S. Open Jimmy Connors Bjorn Borg
1978 Wimbledon Bjorn Borg Jimmy Connors
1978 French Open Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas
1977 Australian Open (Dec) Vitas Gerulaitis John Lloyd
1977 U.S. Open Guillermo Vilas Jimmy Connors
1977 Wimbledon Bjorn Borg Jimmy Connors
1977 French Open Guillermo Vilas Brian Gottfried
1977 Australian Open (Jan) Roscoe Tanner Guillermo Vilas
1976 U.S. Open Jimmy Connors Bjorn Borg

Ravindra 186
1976 Wimbledon Bjorn Borg Ilie Nastase
1976 French Open Adriano Panatta Harold Soloman
1976 Australian Open Mark Edmondson John Newcombe
1975 U.S. Open Manuel Orantes Jimmy Connors
1975 Wimbledon Arthur Ashe Jimmy Connors
1975 French Open Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas
1975 Australian Open John Newcombe Jimmy Connors
1974 U.S. Open Jimmy Connors Ken Rosewall
1974 Wimbledon Jimmy Connors Ken Rosewall
1974 French Open Bjorn Borg Manuel Orantes
1974 Australian Open Jimmy Connors Phil Dent
1973 U.S. Open John Newcombe Jan Kodes
1973 Wimbledon Jan Kodes Alex Metreveli
1973 French Open Ilie Nastase Nikola Pilic
1973 Australian Open John Newcombe Onny Parun
1972 U.S. Open Ilie Nastase Arthur Ashe
1972 Wimbledon Stan Smith Ilie Nastase
1972 French Open Andres Gimeno Patrick Proisy
1972 Australian Open Ken Rosewall Mal Anderson
1971 U.S. Open Stan Smith Jan Kodes
1971 Wimbledon John Newcombe Stan Smith
1971 French Open Jan Kodes Ilie Nastase
1971 Australian Open Ken Rosewall Arthur Ashe
1970 U.S. Open Ken Rosewall Tony Roche
1970 Wimbledon John Newcombe Ken Rosewall
1970 French Open Jan Kodes Zeljiko Franulovic
1970 Australian Open Arthur Ashe Dick Crealy
1969 U.S. Open Rod Laver Tony Roche
1969 Wimbledon Rod Laver John Newcombe
1969 French Open Rod Laver Ken Rosewall
1969 Australian Open Rod Laver Andres Gimeno
1968 U.S. Open Arthur Ashe Tom Okker
1968 Wimbledon Rod Laver Tony Roche
1968 French Open Ken Rosewall Rod Laver
1968 Australian Open Bill Bowrey Juan Gisbert

Ravindra 187
1967 U.S. Open John Newcombe Clark Graebner
1967 Wimbledon John Newcombe Wilhelm Bungert
1967 French Open Roy Emerson Tony Roche
1967 Australian Open Roy Emerson Arthur Ashe
1966 U.S. Open Fred Stolle John Newcombe
1966 Wimbledon Manuel Santana Dennis Ralston
1966 French Open Tony Roche Istvan Gulyas
1966 Australian Open Roy Emerson Arthur Ashe
1965 U.S. Open Manuel Santana Cliff Drysdale
1965 Wimbledon Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1965 French Open Fred Stolle Tony Roche
1965 Australian Open Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1964 U.S. Open Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1964 Wimbledon Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1964 French Open Manuel Santana Nicola Pietrangeli
1964 Australian Open Roy Emerson Fred Stolle
1963 U.S. Open Rafael Osuna Frank Froehling, III
1963 Wimbledon C.R. McKinley Fred Stolle
1963 French Open Roy Emerson Pierre Darmon
1963 Australian Open Roy Emerson Ken Fletcher
1962 U.S. Open Rod Laver Roy Emerson
1962 Wimbledon Rod Laver Martin Mulligan
1962 French Open Rod Laver Roy Emerson
1962 Australian Open Rod Laver Roy Emerson
1961 U.S. Open Roy Emerson Rod Laver
1961 Wimbledon Rod Laver Chuck McKinley
1961 French Open Manuel Santana Nicola Pietrangeli
1961 Australian Open Roy Emerson Rod Laver
1960 U.S. Open Neale Fraser Rod Laver
1960 Wimbledon Neale Fraser Rod Laver
1960 French Open Nicola Pietrangeli Luis Ayala
1960 Australian Open Rod Laver Neale Fraser
1959 U.S. Open Neale Fraser Alejandro Olmedo
1959 Wimbledon Alejandro Olmedo Rod Laver
1959 French Open Nicola Pietrangeli Ian Vermaak

Ravindra 188
1959 Australian Open Alex Olmedo Neale Fraser
1958 U.S. Open Ashley J. Cooper Malcolm J. Anderson
1958 Wimbledon Ashley J. Cooper Neale Fraser
1958 French Open Mervyn Rose Luis Ayala
1958 Australian Open Ashley J. Cooper Mal Anderson
1957 U.S. Open Malcolm J. Anderson Ashley J. Cooper
1957 Wimbledon Lewis Hoad Ashley Cooper
1957 French Open Sven Davidson Herbert Flam
1957 Australian Open Ashley J. Cooper Neale Fraser
1956 U.S. Open Ken Rosewall Lewis Hoad
1956 Wimbledon Lewis Hoad Ken Rosewall
1956 French Open Lewis Hoad Sven Davidson
1956 Australian Open Lewis Hoad Ken Rosewall
1955 U.S. Open Tony Trabert Ken Rosewall
1955 Wimbledon Tony Trabert Kurt Nielsen
1955 French Open Tony Trabert Sven Davidson
1955 Australian Open Ken Rosewall Lew Hoad
1954 U.S. Open E. Victor Seixas Jr. Rex Hartwig
1954 Wimbledon Jaroslav Drobny Ken Rosewall
1954 French Open Tony Trabert Sven Davidson
1954 Australian Open Mervyn Rose Rex Hartwig
1953 U.S. Open Tony Trabert E. Victor Seixas, Jr.
1953 Wimbledon E. Victor Seixas Jr. Kurt Nielsen
1953 French Open Ken Rosewall E. Victor Seixas, Jr.
1953 Australian Open Ken Rosewall Mervyn Rose
1952 U.S. Open Frank Sedgman Gardnar Mulloy
1952 Wimbledon Frank Sedgman Jaroslav Drobny
1952 French Open Jaroslav Drobny Frank Sedgman
1952 Australian Open Ken McGregor Frank Sedgman
1951 U.S. Open Frank Sedgman E. Victor Seixas, Jr.
1951 Wimbledon R. Savitt Ken McGregor
1951 French Open Jaroslav Drobny Eric Sturgess
1951 Australian Open Dick Savitt Ken McGregor
1950 U.S. Open Arthur Larsen Herbert Flam
1950 Wimbledon J.E. Patty Frank Sedgman

Ravindra 189
1950 French Open Budge Patty Jaroslav Drobny
1950 Australian Open Frank Sedgman Ken McGregor
1949 U.S. Open Richard A. Gonzales Frederick Schroeder
1949 Wimbledon F.R. Schroeder Jaroslav Drobny
1949 French Open Frank Parker Budge Patty
1949 Australian Open Frank Sedgman John Bromwich
1948 U.S. Open Richard A. Gonzales Eric W. Sturgess
1948 Wimbledon R. Falkenburg John Bromwich
1948 French Open Frank Parker Jaroslav Drobny
1948 Australian Open Adrian Quist John Bromwich
1947 U.S. Open Jack Kramer Frank Parker
1947 Wimbledon Jack Kramer Tom P. Brown
1947 French Open Jozsef Asboth Eric Sturgess
1947 Australian Open Dinny Pails John Bromwich
1946 U.S. Open Jack Kramer Tom Brown, Jr.
1946 Wimbledon Yvon Petra Geoff E. Brown
1946 French Open Marcel Bernard Jaroslav Drobny
1946 Australian Open John Bromwich Dinny Pails
1945 U.S. Open Frank Parker William F. Talbert
1944 U.S. Open Frank Parker William F. Talbert
1943 U.S. Open Lt. Joseph R. Hunt Seaman Jack Kramer
1942 U.S. Open Frederick R. Schroeder, Jr. Frank Parker
1941 U.S. Open Robert Riggs Francis Kovacs, 2d
1940 U.S. Open Donald McNeill Robert Riggs
1940 Australian Open Adrian Quist Jack Crawford
1939 U.S. Open Robert Riggs S. Welby van Horn
1939 Wimbledon Robert Riggs Elwood Cooke
1939 French Open William McNeill Robert Riggs
1939 Australian Open John Bromwich Adrian Quist
1938 U.S. Open Donald Budge C. Gene Mako
1938 Wimbledon Donald Budge Henry Austin
1938 French Open Donald Budge Roderik Menzel
1938 Australian Open Donald Budge John Bromwich
1937 U.S. Open Donald Budge Gottfried Von Cramm
1937 Wimbledon Donald Budge Gottfried Von Cramm

Ravindra 190
1937 French Open Henner Henkel Henry Austin
1937 Australian Open Vivian McGrath John Bromwich
1936 U.S. Open Fred Perry J. Donald Budge
1936 Wimbledon Fred Perry Gottfried Von Cramm
1936 French Open Gottfried Von Cramm Fred Perry
1936 Australian Open Adrian Quist Jack Crawford
1935 U.S. Open Wilmer L. Allison Sidney B. Wood
1935 Wimbledon Fred Perry Gottfried Von Cramm
1935 French Open Fred Perry Gottfried von Cramm
1935 Australian Open Jack Crawford Fred Perry
1934 U.S. Open Fred Perry Wilmer L. Allison
1934 Wimbledon Fred Perry Jack Crawford
1934 French Open Gottfried Von Cramm Jack Crawford
1934 Australian Open Fred Perry Jack Crawford
1933 U.S. Open Fred Perry John H. Crawford
1933 Wimbledon Jack Crawford Ellsworth Vines
1933 French Open John Crawford Henri Cochet
1933 Australian Open Jack Crawford Keith Gledhill
1932 U.S. Open H. Ellsworth Vines Henri Cochet
1932 Wimbledon H. Ellsworth Vines Henry Austin
1932 French Open Henri Cochet Giorgo de Stefani
1932 Australian Open Jack Crawford Harry Hopman
1931 U.S. Open H. Ellsworth Vines George M. Lott, Jr.
1931 Wimbledon S.B. Wood Francis X. Shields
1931 French Open Jean Borotra Christian Boussus
1931 Australian Open Jack Crawford Harry Hopman
1930 U.S. Open John H. Doeg Francis X. Shields
1930 Wimbledon William T. Tilden Wilmer Allison
1930 French Open Henri Cochet William Tilden
1930 Australian Open Gar Moon Harry Hopman
1929 U.S. Open William T. Tilden Francis T. Hunter
1929 Wimbledon Henri Cochet Jean Borotra
1929 French Open Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra
1929 Australian Open John Gregory Richard Schlesinger
1928 U.S. Open Henri Cochet Francis T. Hunter

Ravindra 191
1928 Wimbledon Rene Lacoste Henri Cochet
1928 French Open Henri Cochet René Lacoste
1928 Australian Open Jean Borotra R.Cummings
1927 U.S. Open Rene Lacoste William T. Tilden
1927 Wimbledon Henri Cochet Jean Borotra
1927 French Open Rene Lacoste William Tilden
1927 Australian Open Gerald Patterson John Hawkes
1926 U.S. Open Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra
1926 Wimbledon Jean Borotra Howard Kinsey
1926 French Open Henri Cochet René Lacoste
1926 Australian Open John Hawkes Jim Willard
1925 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1925 Wimbledon Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra
1925 French Open Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra
1925 Australian Open James Anderson Gerald Patterson
1924 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1924 Wimbledon Jean Borotra Rene Lacoste
1924 French Open Jean Borotra René Lacoste
1924 Australian Open James Anderson Richard Schlesinger
1923 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1923 Wimbledon William M. Johnston Francis T. Hunter
1923 French Open Francois Blanchy Max Decugis
1923 Australian Open Pat O'Hara Wood C.St.John
1922 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1922 Wimbledon Gerald Patterson Randolph Lycett
1922 French Open Henri Cochet Jean Samazeuilh
1922 Australian Open Pat O'Hara Wood Gerald Patterson
1921 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1921 Wimbledon William T. Tilden Brian Norton
1921 French Open Jean Samazeuilh André Gobert
1921 Australian Open Rhys Gemmell A. Hedeman
1920 U.S. Open William T. Tilden William M. Johnston
1920 Wimbledon William T. Tilden Gerald Patterson
1920 French Open Andre Gobert Max Decugis
1920 Australian Open Pat O'Hara Wood Ron Thomas

Ravindra 192
1919 U.S. Open William M. Johnston William T. Tilden
1919 Wimbledon Gerald Patterson Norman Brookes
1919 Australian Open A.R.F. Kingscote E. Pockley
1918 U.S. Open R. Lindley Murray William T. Tilden
1917 U.S. Open R. Lindley Murray Nathaniel W. Niles
1916 U.S. Open Richard N. Williams William M. Johnston
1915 U.S. Open William M. Johnston Maurice E. McLoughlin
1915 Australian Open Francis Lowe Horace Rice
1914 U.S. Open Richard N. Williams Maurice E. McLoughlin
1914 Wimbledon Norman Brookes Anthony Wilding
1914 French Open Max Decugis Jean Samazeuilh
1914 Australian Open Pat O'Hara Wood Gerald Patterson
1913 U.S. Open Maurice E. McLoughlin Richard N. Williams
1913 Wimbledon Anthony Wilding Maurice McLoughlin
1913 French Open Max Decugis Georges Gault
1913 Australian Open E.F. Parker Harry Parker
1912 U.S. Open Maurice E. McLoughlin Wallace F. Johnson
1912 Wimbledon Anthony Wilding Arthur Gore
1912 French Open Max Decugis André Gobert
1912 Australian Open Cecil Parke A. Beamish
1911 U.S. Open William A. Larned Maurice E. McLoughlin
1911 Wimbledon Anthony Wilding H. Roper Barrett
1911 French Open Andre Gobert Maurice Germot
1911 Australian Open Norman Brookes Horace Rice
1910 U.S. Open William A. Larned Thomas C. Bundy
1910 Wimbledon Anthony Wilding Arthur Gore
1910 French Open Maurice Germot François Blanchy
1910 Australian Open Rodney Heath Horace Rice
1909 U.S. Open William A. Larned William J. Clothier
1909 Wimbledon Arthur Gore M.J.G. Ritchie
1909 French Open Max Decugis Maurice Germot
1909 Australian Open Tony Wilding Ernie Parker
1908 U.S. Open William A. Larned Beals C. Wright
1908 Wimbledon Arthur Gore Roper Barrett
1908 French Open Max Decugis Maurice Germot

Ravindra 193
1908 Australian Open Fred Alexander Alfred Dunlop
1907 U.S. Open William A. Larned Robert LeRoy
1907 Wimbledon Norman Brookes Arthur Gore
1907 French Open Max Decugis Robert Wallet
1907 Australian Open Horace Rice Harry Parker
1906 U.S. Open William A. Larned Beals C. Wright
1906 Wimbledon Laurie Doherty Frank Riseley
1906 French Open Maurice Germot Max Decugis
1906 Australian Open Tony Wilding Harry Parker
1905 U.S. Open Beals C. Wright Holcombe Ward
1905 Wimbledon Laurie Doherty Norman Brookes
1905 French Open Maurice Germot André Vacherot
1905 Australian Open Rodney Heath A. Curtis
1904 U.S. Open Holcombe Ward William J. Clothier
1904 Wimbledon Laurie Doherty Frank Riseley
1904 French Open Max Decugis André Vacherot
1903 U.S. Open Hugh L. Doherty William A. Larned
1903 Wimbledon Laurie Doherty Frank Riseley
1903 French Open Max Decugis André Vacherot
1902 U.S. Open William A. Larned Reginald F. Doherty
1902 Wimbledon Laurie Doherty Arthur Gore
1902 French Open M. Vacherot Max Decugis
1901 U.S. Open William A. Larned Beals C. Wright
1901 Wimbledon Arthur Gore Reggie Doherty
1901 French Open Andre Vacherot P. Lebreton
1900 U.S. Open Malcolm D. Whitman William A. Larned
1900 Wimbledon Reggie Doherty Sidney Smith
1900 French Open Paul Ayme A. Prévost
1899 U.S. Open Malcolm D. Whitman J. Parmly Paret
1899 Wimbledon Reggie Doherty Arthur Gore
1899 French Open Paul Ayme P. Lebreton
1898 U.S. Open Malcolm D. Whitman Dwight F. Davis
1898 Wimbledon Reggie Doherty Laurie Doherty
1898 French Open Paul Ayme P. Lebreton
1897 U.S. Open Robert D. Wrenn Wilberforce Eaves

Ravindra 194
1897 Wimbledon Reggie Doherty Harold Mahoney
1897 French Open Paul Ayme F. Wardan
1896 U.S. Open Robert D. Wrenn Fred H. Hovey
1896 Wimbledon Harold Mahoney Wilfred Baddeley
1896 French Open Andre Vacherot G. Brosselin
1895 U.S. Open Fred H. Hovey Robert D. Wrenn
1895 Wimbledon Wilfred Baddeley Wilberforce Eaves
1895 French Open Andre Vacherot L. Riboulet
1894 U.S. Open Robert D. Wrenn Manliff Goodbody
1894 Wimbledon Joshua Pim Wilfred Baddeley
1894 French Open Andre Vacherot G. Brosselin
1893 U.S. Open Robert D. Wrenn Fred H. Hovey
1893 Wimbledon Joshua Pim Wilfred Baddeley
1893 French Open L. Riboulet J. Schopfer
1892 U.S. Open Oliver S. Campbell Fred H. Hovey
1892 Wimbledon Wilfred Baddeley Joshua Pim
1892 French Open J. Schopfer Fassitt
1891 U.S. Open Oliver S. Campbell Clarence Hobart
1891 Wimbledon Wilfred Baddeley Joshua Pim
1891 French Open H. Briggs P. Baigneres
1890 U.S. Open Oliver S. Campbell Henry W. Slocum, Jr.
1890 Wimbledon William Hamilton William Renshaw
1889 U.S. Open Henry W. Slocum Jr. Quincy Shaw
1889 Wimbledon William Renshaw Ernest Renshaw
1888 U.S. Open Henry W. Slocum Jr. Howard A. Taylor
1888 Wimbledon Ernest Renshaw Herbert Lawford
1887 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears Henry W. Slocum, Jr.
1887 Wimbledon Herbert Lawford Ernest Renshaw
1886 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears R. Livingston Beeckman
1886 Wimbledon William Renshaw Herbert Lawford
1885 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears Godfrey M. Brinley
1885 Wimbledon William Renshaw Herbert Lawford
1884 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears Howard A. Taylor
1884 Wimbledon William Renshaw Herbert Lawford
1883 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears James Dwight

Ravindra 195
1883 Wimbledon William Renshaw Ernest Renshaw
1882 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears Clarence M. Clark
1882 Wimbledon William Renshaw Ernest Renshaw
1881 U.S. Open Richard D. Sears William E. Glyn
1881 Wimbledon William Renshaw John Hartley
1880 Wimbledon John Hartley Herbert Lawford
1879 Wimbledon John Hartley V. St. Leger Gould
1878 Wimbledon Frank Hadow Spencer Gore
1877 Wimbledon Spencer Gore William Marshall

Women's Grand Slam Title Winners


2009 Australian Open Serena Williams Dinara Safina
2008 U.S. Open Serena Williams Jelena Jankovic
2008 Wimbledon Venus Williams Serena Williams
2008 French Open Ana Ivanovic Dinara Safina
2008 Australian Open Maria Sharapova Ana Ivanovic
2007 U.S. Open Justine Henin Svetlana Kuznetsova
2007 Wimbledon Venus Williams Marion Bartoli
2007 French Open Justine Henin Ana Ivanovic
2007 Australian Open Serena Williams Maria Sharapova
2006 U.S. Open Maria Sharapova Justine Henin-Hardenne
2006 Wimbledon Amelie Mauresmo Justine Henin-Hardenne
2006 French Open Justine Henin-Hardenne Svetlana Kuznetsova
2006 Australian Open Amelie Mauresmo Justine Henin-Hardenne
2005 U.S. Open Kim Clijsters Mary Pierce
2005 Wimbledon Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport
2005 French Open Justine Henin-Hardenne Mary Pierce
2005 Australian Open Serena Williams Lindsay Davenport
2004 U.S. Open Svetlana Kuznetsova Elena Dementieva
2004 Wimbledon Maria Sharapova Serena Williams

Ravindra 196
2004 French Open Anastasia Myskina Elena Dementieva
2004 Australian Open Justine Henin-Hardenne Kim Clijsters
2003 U.S. Open Justine Henin-Hardenne Kim Clijsters
2003 Wimbledon Serena Williams Venus Williams
2003 French Open Justine Henin-Hardenne Kim Clijsters
2003 Australian Open Serena Williams Venus Williams
2002 U.S. Open Serena Williams Venus Williams
2002 Wimbledon Serena Williams Venus Williams
2002 French Open Serena Williams Venus Williams
2002 Australian Open Jennifer Capriati Martina Hingis
2001 U.S. Open Venus Williams Serena Williams
2001 Wimbledon Venus Williams Justine Henin
2001 French Open Jennifer Capriati Kim Clijsters
2001 Australian Open Jennifer Capriati Martina Hingis
2000 U.S. Open Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport
2000 Wimbledon Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport
2000 French Open Mary Pierce Conchita Martinez
2000 Australian Open Lindsay Davenport Martina Hingis
1999 U.S. Open Serena Williams Martina Hingis
1999 Wimbledon Lindsay Davenport Steffi Graf
1999 French Open Steffi Graf Martina Hingis
1999 Australian Open Martina Hingis Amelie Mauresmo
1998 U.S. Open Lindsay Davenport Martina Hingis
1998 Wimbledon Jana Novotna Nathalie Tauziat
1998 French Open Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Monica Seles
1998 Australian Open Martina Hingis Conchita Martinez
1997 U.S. Open Martina Hingis Venus Williams
1997 Wimbledon Martina Hingis Jana Novotna
1997 French Open Iva Majoli Martina Hingis
1997 Australian Open Martina Hingis Mary Pierce
1996 U.S. Open Steffi Graf Monica Seles
1996 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1996 French Open Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1996 Australian Open Monica Seles Anke Huber
1995 U.S. Open Steffi Graf Monica Seles

Ravindra 197
1995 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1995 French Open Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1995 Australian Open Mary Pierce Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1994 U.S. Open Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Steffi Graf
1994 Wimbledon Conchita Martinez Martina Navratilova
1994 French Open Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Mary Pierce
1994 Australian Open Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1993 U.S. Open Steffi Graf Helena Sukova
1993 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Jana Novotna
1993 French Open Steffi Graf Mary Jo Fernandez
1993 Australian Open Monica Seles Steffi Graf
1992 U.S. Open Monica Seles Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1992 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Monica Seles
1992 French Open Monica Seles Steffi Graf
1992 Australian Open Monica Seles Mary Joe Fernandez
1991 U.S. Open Monica Seles Martina Navratilova
1991 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Gabriela Sabatini
1991 French Open Monica Seles Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario
1991 Australian Open Monica Seles Jana Novotna
1990 U.S. Open Gabriela Sabatini Steffi Graf
1990 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Zena Garrison
1990 French Open Monica Seles Steffi Graf
1990 Australian Open Steffi Graf Mary Joe Fernandez
1989 U.S. Open Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova
1989 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova
1989 French Open Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Steffi Graf
1989 Australian Open Steffi Graf Helena Sukova
1988 U.S. Open Steffi Graf Gabriela Sabatini
1988 Wimbledon Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova
1988 French Open Steffi Graf Natasha Zvereva
1988 Australian Open Steffi Graf Chris Evert
1987 U.S. Open Martina Navratilova Steffi Graf
1987 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Steffi Graf
1987 French Open Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova
1987 Australian Open Hana Mandlikova Martina Navratilova

Ravindra 198
1986 U.S. Open Martina Navratilova Helena Sukova
1986 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Hana Mandlikova
1986 French Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova
1985 Australian Open Martina Navratilova Chris Evert
1985 U.S. Open Hana Mandlikova Martina Navratilova
1985 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1985 French Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova
1984 Australian Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Helena Sukova
1984 U.S. Open Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1984 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1984 French Open Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1983 Australian Open Martina Navratilova Kathy Jordan
1983 U.S. Open Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1983 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Andrea Jaeger
1983 French Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Mima Jausovec
1982 Australian Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova
1982 U.S. Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Hana Mandlikova
1982 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1982 French Open Martina Navratilova Andrea Jaeger
1981 Australian Open Martina Navratilova Chris Evert
1981 U.S. Open Tracy Austin Martina Navratilova
1981 Wimbledon Chris Evert-Lloyd Hana Mandlikova
1981 French Open Hana Mandlikova Sylvia Hanika
1980 Australian Open Hana Mandlikova Wendy Turnbull
1980 U.S. Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Hana Mandlikova
1980 Wimbledon R.A. Cawley Chris Evert-Lloyd
1980 French Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Sylvia Hanika
1979 Australian Open Barbara Jordan Sharon Walsh
1979 U.S. Open Tracy Austin Chris Evert-Lloyd
1979 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd
1979 French Open Chris Evert-Lloyd Wendy Turnbull
1978 Australian Open Chris O'Neil Betsy Nagelsen
1978 U.S. Open Chris Evert Pam Shriver
1978 Wimbledon Martina Navratilova Chris Evert
1978 French Open Virginia Ruzici Mima Jausovec

Ravindra 199
1977 Australian Open (Dec) Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Helen Gourlay
1977 U.S. Open Chris Evert Wendy Turnbull
1977 Wimbledon Virginia Wade Betty Stove
1977 French Open Mima Jausovec Florenta Mihai
1977 Australian Open (Jan) Kerry Reid Dianne Fromholtz
1976 U.S. Open Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong-Cawley
1976 Wimbledon Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong-Cawley
1976 French Open Sue Barker Renata Tomanova
1976 Australian Open Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Renata Tomanova
1975 U.S. Open Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong-Cawley
1975 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Evonne Goolagong-Cawley
1975 French Open Chris Evert Martina Navratilova
1975 Australian Open Evonne Goolagong Martina Navratilova
1974 U.S. Open Billie Jean King Evonne Goolagong
1974 Wimbledon Chris Evert Olga Morozova
1974 French Open Chris Evert Olga Morozova
1974 Australian Open Evonne Goolagong Chris Evert
1973 U.S. Open Margaret Smith-Court Evonne Goolagong
1973 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Chris Evert
1973 French Open Margaret Smith-Court Chris Evert
1973 Australian Open Margaret Smith-Court Evonne Goolagong
1972 U.S. Open Billie Jean King Kerry Melville
1972 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Evonne Goolagong
1972 French Open Billie Jean King Evonne Goolagong
1972 Australian Open Virginia Wade Evonne Goolagong
1971 U.S. Open Billie Jean King Rosemary Casals
1971 Wimbledon Evonne Goolagong Margaret Court
1971 French Open Margaret Smith-Court Helen Gourlay
1971 Australian Open Margaret Smith-Court Evonne Goolagong
1970 U.S. Open Margaret Smith-Court Rosemary Casals
1970 Wimbledon Margaret Smith-Court Billie Jean King
1970 French Open Margaret Smith-Court Helga Niessen
1970 Australian Open Margaret Smith-Court Kerry Melville
1969 U.S. Open Margaret Smith-Court Nancy Richey
1969 Wimbledon Ann Haydon Jones Billie Jean King

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1969 French Open Margaret Smith-Court Ann Jones
1969 Australian Open Margaret Smith-Court Billie Jean King
1968 U.S. Open Virginia Wade Billie Jean King
1968 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Judy Tegart
1968 French Open Nancy Richey Ann Jones
1968 Australian Open Billie Jean King Margaret Smith-Court
1967 U.S. Open Billie Jean King Ann Haydon Jones
1967 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Ann Jones
1967 French Open Francoise Durr Lesley Turner
1967 Australian Open Nancy Richey Lesley Turner
1966 U.S. Open Maria Bueno Nancy Richey
1966 Wimbledon Billie Jean King Maria Bueno
1966 French Open Ann Haydon Jones Nancy Richey
1966 Australian Open Margaret Smith Nancy Richey
1965 U.S. Open Margaret Smith Billie Jean Moffitt
1965 Wimbledon Margaret Smith Maria Bueno
1965 French Open Lesley Turner Margaret Smith
1965 Australian Open Margaret Smith Maria Bueno
1964 U.S. Open Maria Bueno Carole Caldwell Graebner
1964 Wimbledon Maria Bueno Margaret Smith
1964 French Open Margaret Smith Maria Bueno
1964 Australian Open Margaret Smith Lesley Turner
1963 U.S. Open Maria Bueno Margaret Smith
1963 Wimbledon Margaret Smith Billie Jean Moffitt
1963 French Open Lesley Turner Ann Jones
1963 Australian Open Margaret Smith Jan Lehane
1962 U.S. Open Margaret Smith Darlene R. Hard
1962 Wimbledon Karen Susman Vera Sukova
1962 French Open Margaret Smith Lesley Turner
1962 Australian Open Margaret Smith Jan Lehane
1961 U.S. Open Darlene R. Hard Ann Haydon
1961 Wimbledon Angela Mortimer Christine Truman
1961 French Open Ann Haydon Yola Ramirez
1961 Australian Open Margaret Smith Jan Lehane
1960 U.S. Open Darlene R. Hard Maria Bueno

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1960 Wimbledon Maria Bueno Sandra Reynolds
1960 French Open Darlene R. Hard Yola Ramirez
1960 Australian Open Margaret Smith Jan Lehane
1959 U.S. Open Maria Bueno Christine Truman
1959 Wimbledon Maria Bueno Darlene Hard
1959 French Open Christine Truman Zsuzsi Kormoczy
1959 Australian Open Mary Carter Reitano Renee Schuurman
1958 U.S. Open Althea Gibson Darlene R. Hard
1958 Wimbledon Althea Gibson Angela Mortimer
1958 French Open Zsuzsi Kormoczy Shirley Bloomer
1958 Australian Open Angela Mortimer Lorraine Coghlan
1957 U.S. Open Althea Gibson A. Louise Brough
1957 Wimbledon Althea Gibson Darlene Hard
1957 French Open Shirley Bloomer Dorothy Head Knode
1957 Australian Open Shirley Fry Althea Gibson
1956 U.S. Open Shirley Fry Althea Gibson
1956 Wimbledon Shirley Fry Angela Buxton
1956 French Open Althea Gibson Angela Mortimer
1956 Australian Open Mary Carter Thelma Long
1955 U.S. Open Doris Hart Patricia Ward
1955 Wimbledon Louise Brough Beverly Fleitz
1955 French Open Angela Mortimer Dorothy Head Knode
1955 Australian Open Beryl Penrose Thelma Long
1954 U.S. Open Doris Hart A. Louise Brough
1954 Wimbledon Maureen Connolly Louise Brough
1954 French Open Maureen Connolly Ginette Bucaille
1954 Australian Open Thelma Long Jennifer Staley
1953 U.S. Open Maureen Connolly Doris Hart
1953 Wimbledon Maureen Connolly Doris Hart
1953 French Open Maureen Connolly Doris Hart
1953 Australian Open Maureen Connolly Julia Sampson
1952 U.S. Open Maureen Connolly Doris Hart
1952 Wimbledon Maureen Connolly Louise Brough
1952 French Open Doris Hart Shirley Fry
1952 Australian Open Thelma Long H. Angwin

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1951 U.S. Open Maureen Connolly Shirley Fry
1951 Wimbledon Doris Hart Shirley Fry
1951 French Open Shirley Fry Doris Hart
1951 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Bolton Thelma Long-Coyne
1950 U.S. Open Margaret Osborne duPont Doris Hart
1950 Wimbledon Louise Brough Margaret Osborne duPont
1950 French Open Doris Hart Patricia Todd
1950 Australian Open A. Louise Brough Doris Hart
1949 U.S. Open Margaret Osborne duPont Doris Hart
1949 Wimbledon Louise Brough Margaret Osborne duPont
1949 French Open Margaret Osborne duPont Nelly Adamson
1949 Australian Open Doris Hart Nancye Bolton
1948 U.S. Open Margaret Osborne duPont A. Louise Brough
1948 Wimbledon Louise Brough Doris Hart
1948 French Open Nelly Landry Shirley Fry
1948 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Bolton Marie Toomey
1947 U.S. Open A. Louise Brough Margaret Osborne
1947 Wimbledon Margaret Osborne duPont Doris Hart
1947 French Open Patricia Todd Doris Hart
1947 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Bolton Nell Hopman
1946 U.S. Open Pauline Betz Patricia Canning
1946 Wimbledon Pauline Betz Louise Brough
1946 French Open Margaret Osborne duPont Pauline Betz
1946 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Bolton Joyce Fitch
1945 U.S. Open Sarah Palfrey Cooke Pauline Betz
1944 U.S. Open Pauline Betz Margaret Osborne
1943 U.S. Open Pauline Betz A. Louise Brough
1942 U.S. Open Pauline Betz A. Louise Brough
1941 U.S. Open Sarah Palfrey Cooke Pauline Betz
1940 U.S. Open Alice Marble Helen Jacobs
1940 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Bolton Thelma Coyne
1939 U.S. Open Alice Marble Helen Jacobs
1939 Wimbledon Alice Marble Kay Stammers
1939 French Open Simone Mathieu Jadwiga Jedrzejowska
1939 Australian Open Emily Westacott Nell Hopman

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1938 U.S. Open Alice Marble Nancye Wynne
1938 Wimbledon Helen Wills Moody Helen Jacobs
1938 French Open Simone Mathieu Nelly Adamson
1938 Australian Open Dorothy Bundy Dorothy Stevenson
1937 U.S. Open Anita Lizana Jadwiga Jedrzejowska
1937 Wimbledon Dorothy Round Jadwiga Jedrzejowska
1937 French Open Hilde Sperling Simone Mathieu
1937 Australian Open Nancye Wynne Emily Westacott
1936 U.S. Open Alice Marble Helen Jacobs
1936 Wimbledon Helen Jacobs Hilde Kranwinkel Sperling
1936 French Open Hilde Sperling Simone Mathieu
1936 Australian Open Joan Hartigan Nancye Wynne
1935 U.S. Open Helen Jacobs Sarah H. Palfrey
1935 Wimbledon Helen Wills Moody Helen Jacobs
1935 French Open Hilde Sperling Simone Mathieu
1935 Australian Open Dorothy Round Nancy Lyle
1934 U.S. Open Helen Jacobs Sarah H. Palfrey
1934 Wimbledon Dorothy Round Helen Jacobs
1934 French Open Margaret Scriven Helen Jacobs
1934 Australian Open Joan Hartigan Margaret Molesworth
1933 U.S. Open Helen Jacobs Helen Wills Moody
1933 Wimbledon Helen Wills Moody Dorothy Round
1933 French Open Margaret Scriven Simone Mathieu
1933 Australian Open Joan Hartigan Coral Buttsworth
1932 U.S. Open Helen Jacobs Carolin A. Babcock
1932 Wimbledon Helen Wills Moody Helen Jacobs
1932 French Open Helen Wills Moody Simone Mathieu
1932 Australian Open Coral Buttsworth Katherine Le Messurier
1931 U.S. Open Helen Wills Moody Eileen Bennett Whitingstall
1931 Wimbledon Cilly Aussem Hilde Kranwinkel
1931 French Open Cilly Aussem Betty Nuthall
1931 Australian Open Coral Buttsworth Margorie Crawford
1930 U.S. Open Betty Nuthall Anna McCune Harper
1930 Wimbledon Helen Wills Moody Elizabeth Ryan
1930 French Open Helen Wills Moody Helen Jacobs

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1930 Australian Open Daphne Akhurst Sylvia Harper
1929 U.S. Open Helen Wills Phoebe Holcroft Watson
1929 Wimbledon Helen Wills Helen Jacobs
1929 French Open Helen Wills Simone Mathieu
1929 Australian Open Daphne Akhurst Louise Bickerton
1928 U.S. Open Helen Wills Helen J. Jacobs
1928 Wimbledon Helen Wills Lili de Alvarez
1928 French Open Helen Wills E. Bennett
1928 Australian Open Daphne Akhurst Esna Boyd
1927 U.S. Open Helen Wills Betty Nuthall
1927 Wimbledon Helen Wills Lili de Alvarez
1927 French Open Kornelia Bouman Irene Peacock
1927 Australian Open Esna Boyd Sylvia Harper
1926 U.S. Open Molla B. Mallory Elizabeth Ryan
1926 Wimbledon Kathleen Godfree Lili de Alvarez
1926 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Mary Browne
1926 Australian Open Daphne Akhurst Esna Boyd
1925 U.S. Open Helen Wills Kathleen McKane
1925 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Joan Fry
1925 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Kathleen McKane
1925 Australian Open Daphne Akhurst Esna Boyd
1924 U.S. Open Helen Wills Molla B. Mallory
1924 Wimbledon Kathleen McKane Helen Wills
1924 French Open Diddie Vlasto Jeanne Vaussard
1924 Australian Open Sylvia Lance Esna Boyd
1923 U.S. Open Helen Wills Molla B. Mallory
1923 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Kathleen McKane
1923 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Germaine Golding
1923 Australian Open Margaret Molesworth Esna Boyd
1922 U.S. Open Molla B. Mallory Helen Wills
1922 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Molla Mallory
1922 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Germaine Golding
1922 Australian Open Margaret Molesworth Esna Boyd
1921 U.S. Open Molla B. Mallory Mary K. Browne
1921 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Elizabeth Ryan

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1921 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Germaine Golding
1920 U.S. Open Molla B. Mallory Marion Zinderstein
1920 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Dorothea Douglass Chambers
1920 French Open Suzanne Lenglen Marguerite Broquedis
1919 U.S. Open Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman Marion Zinderstein
1919 Wimbledon Suzanne Lenglen Dorothea Douglass Chambers
1918 U.S. Open Molla Bjurstedt Eleanor E. Goss
1917 U.S. Open Molla Bjurstedt Marion Vanderhoef
1916 U.S. Open Molla Bjurstedt Louise Hammond Raymond
1915 U.S. Open Molla Bjurstedt Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman
1914 U.S. Open Mary Browne Marie Wagner
1914 Wimbledon Lambert Chambers Ethel Larcombe
1914 French Open Marguerite Broquedis Suzanne Lenglen
1913 U.S. Open Mary Browne Dorothy Green
1913 Wimbledon Lambert Chambers R. McNair
1913 French Open Marguerite Broquedis Jeanne Matthey
1912 U.S. Open Mary Browne Eleonora Sears
1912 Wimbledon Ethel Larcombe Charlotte Cooper Sterry
1912 French Open Jeanne Matthey Marie Daney
1911 U.S. Open Hazel Hotchkiss Florence Sutton
1911 Wimbledon Lambert Chambers Dora Boothby
1911 French Open Jeanne Matthey Marguerite Broquedis
1910 U.S. Open Hazel Hotchkiss Louise Hammond
1910 Wimbledon Lambert Chambers Dora Boothby
1910 French Open Jeanne Matthey Marguerite Broquedis
1909 U.S. Open Hazel Hotchkiss Maud Barger-Wallach
1909 Wimbledon Dora Boothby A. Morton
1909 French Open Jeanne Matthey Gallay
1908 U.S. Open Maud Barger Wallach Evelyn Sears
1908 Wimbledon Charlotte Cooper Sterry A. Morton
1908 French Open Kate Gillou Fenwick A. Pean
1907 U.S. Open Evelyn Sears Carrie Neely
1907 Wimbledon May Sutton Dorothea Douglass Chambers
1907 French Open Comtesse de Kermel D. Elva
1906 U.S. Open Helen Homans Maud Barger-Wallach

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1906 Wimbledon Dorothea Douglass May Sutton
1906 French Open Kate Gillou Fenwick MacVeagh
1905 U.S. Open Elisabeth Moore Helen Homans
1905 Wimbledon May Sutton Dorothea Douglass
1905 French Open Kate Gillou Y. De Pfoeffel
1904 U.S. Open May Sutton Elisabeth Moore
1904 Wimbledon Dorothea Douglass Charlotte Cooper Sterry
1904 French Open Kate Gillou Adine Masson
1903 U.S. Open Elisabeth Moore Marion Jones
1903 Wimbledon Dorothea Douglass E. Thomson
1903 French Open F. Masson Katie Gillou
1902 U.S. Open Marion Jones Elisabeth Moore
1902 Wimbledon Muriel Robb Charlotte Cooper Sterry
1902 French Open F. Masson P. Girod
1901 U.S. Open Elisabeth Moore Myrtle McAteer
1901 Wimbledon Charlotte Cooper Sterry Blanche Bingley Hillyard
1901 French Open P. Girod Leroux
1900 U.S. Open Myrtle McAteer Edith Parker
1900 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Hillyard Charlotte Cooper
1900 French Open Y. Prevost xxx
1899 U.S. Open Marion Jones Maud Banks
1899 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Hillyard Charlotte Cooper
1899 French Open Francoise Masson xxx
1898 U.S. Open Juliette Atkinson Marion Jones
1898 Wimbledon Charlotte Cooper L. Martin
1898 French Open Francoise Masson xxx
1897 U.S. Open Juliette Atkinson Elisabeth Moore
1897 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Hillyard Charlotte Cooper
1897 French Open Francoise Masson P. Girod
1896 U.S. Open Elisabeth Moore Juliette Atkinson
1896 Wimbledon Charlotte Cooper W. H. Pickering
1895 U.S. Open Juliette Atkinson Helen Hellwig
1895 Wimbledon Charlotte Cooper H. Jackson
1894 U.S. Open Helen Hellwig Aline Terry
1894 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Hillyard E. Austin

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1893 U.S. Open Aline Terry Augusta Schultz
1893 Wimbledon Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley Hillyard
1892 U.S. Open Mabel Cahill Elisabeth Moore
1892 Wimbledon Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley Hillyard
1891 U.S. Open Mabel Cahill Ellen C Roosevelt
1891 Wimbledon Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley Hillyard
1890 U.S. Open Ellen C. Roosevelt Bertha L. Townsend
1890 Wimbledon Lena Rice M. Jacks
1889 U.S. Open Bertha L. Townsend Lida D. Voorhes
1889 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Hillyard Lena Rice
1888 U.S. Open Bertha L. Townsend Ellen Hansell
1888 Wimbledon Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley Hillyard
1887 U.S. Open Ellen Hansell Laura Knight
1887 Wimbledon Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley
1886 Wimbledon Blanche Bingley Maud Watson
1885 Wimbledon Maud Watson Blanche Bingley
1884 Wimbledon Maud Watson Lillian Watson

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Grand Slam
The four Grand Slam tournaments are the most important tennis
events of the year in terms of world ranking points, tradition, prize-
money awarded, and public attention. They are:

Australian Open

French Open


US Open

A singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam
tournaments in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand
Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. If the player or team wins all
four consecutively, but not in the same calendar year, it is called a
Non-Calendar Year Grand Slam. If a player wins all four at some point
in his or her career, even if not consecutively, it is called a Career
Grand Slam. Winning three of the four tournaments is called a Small
Slam. If a player wins all the four majors and a gold medal in tennis at
the Summer Olympics in the same calendar year, then its known as
the Golden Slam.


The term Grand Slam, as applied to tennis, was first used by New York Times
columnist John Kieran according to Total Tennis, The Ultimate Tennis
Encyclopedia by Bud Collins. In the chapter about 1933, Collins writes that
after the Australian player Jack Crawford had won the Australian, French, and
Wimbledon Championships, speculation arose about his chances in the U.S.
Championships. Kieran, who was a bridge player, wrote: "If Crawford wins, it
would be something like scoring a grand slam on the courts, doubled and
vulnerable." Crawford, an asthmatic, won two of the first three sets of his
finals match against Fred Perry, then tired in the heat and lost the last two
sets and the match.

The expression Grand Slam, initially used to describe the winning of the
tennis major events in one calendar year, was later incorporated by other
sports, notably golf, to describe a similar accomplishment.

Winning "The Grand Slam" in singles: all four majors in the same calendar year

1. Don Budge 1938

2. Maureen Connolly 1953
3. Rod Laver 1962 and 1969
4. Margaret Smith Court 1970

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5. Steffi Graf 1988

Winning "The Grand Slam" in doubles with the same partner

1. Frank Sedgman and Ken McGregor 1951

2. Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver 1984

Winning "The Grand Slam" in mixed doubles with the same partner

1. Margaret Smith (Court) and Ken Fletcher 1963

Top Five Lists:

Most Grand Slam singles titles: men

1. Pete Sampras 14
2. Roger Federer 13
3. Roy Emerson 12
4. Rod Laver 11
5. Bjorn Borg 11

Most Grand Slam singles titles: women

1. Margaret Smith Court 24

2. Steffi Graf 22
3. Helen Wills Moody 19
4. Martina Navratilova 18
5. Chris Evert 18

Most career singles titles: men

1. Jimmy Connors 109

2. Ivan Lendl 94
3. John McEnroe 77
4. Pete Sampras 64
5. Bjorn Borg and Guillermo Vilas each 62

Most career singles titles: women

1. Martina Navratilova 167

2. Chris Evert 154
3. Steffi Graf 107
4. Margaret Smith Court 92
5. Billie-Jean King 67

Most career singles and doubles* titles: men

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1. John McEnroe 152
2. Jimmy Connors 128
3. Ilie Nastase 108
4. Tom Okker 108
5. Stan Smith 100

Most career singles and doubles* titles: women

1. Martina Navratilova 344

2. Chris Evert 189
3. Billie-Jean King 168
4. Margaret Smith Court 127
5. Rosie Casals 123


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History of Cricket

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The origins of cricket are obscure, and there are several theories on how it
started. One is that shepherds used to play it - one would stand in front of
the wicket gate to the sheep fold, and another would bowl a stone or
something at him, and he would have to hit it with his crook, which was
known as a cricket. Other theories are that it derives from a game called
club-ball, or a game played in churchyards...

The first reference to cricket being played is thought to be in 1300,

between Prince Edward and his friend Piers Gaveston and the first recorded
match took place at Coxheath in Kent in 1646. The first match between
counties on 29th June 1709, when Surrey played Kent at Dartford Brent.

The earliest known cricket photographs were taken in 1857, by Roger

Fenton at the Artillery Ground, when the Royal Artillery played

As well as shepherds' crooks, early bats were clubs and sticks. These gave
way to long, thin battes, which looked a bit like straightened-out hockey
sticks, because the ball was bowled under-arm, and the batters swung their
bats like clubs!!

By the 18th century, the bat had developed into a longer, heavier, curved
version of the one we know now, carved out of a single piece of wood.

Today's bat was invented around 1853, with the blade made of willow, and
a cane handle, which is layered with strips of rubber, tied with twine, and
covered with rubber to make a grip. The 'V' shaped extension of the handle
into the blade is the splice. The early balls were stones and other missiles.
Rather dangerous really, and not surprising that someone came up with an
alternative! They're now made of cork, and covered with hand-stitched
leather quarters dyed red.

The wicket - the stumps are the three posts. Originally there were two, and
at one point, four. The size has varied too - in the 17th century, were up to
two metres wide!! The bails are the two bits of wood on the top, and if they
fall off, it's all over!!

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Test Records :- Highest Team Totals

# Runs Overs Team Opposition Venue Date
2 Aug
1 956-6 dec 270.0 2 Sri Lanka India Colombo (RPS)
20 Aug
2 903-7 dec 335.2 1 England Australia The Oval
3 849 258.2 1 England West Indies Kingston 3 Apr 1930
26 Feb
4 790-3 dec 208.1 2 West Indies Pakistan Kingston
21 Feb
5 765-6 dec 248.5 2 Pakistan Sri Lanka Karachi
11 Jun
6 758-8 dec 245.4 2 Australia West Indies Kingston
South 27 Jul
7 756-5 dec 185.1 2 Sri Lanka Colombo (SSC)
Africa 2006
10 Apr
8 751-5 dec 202.0 1 West Indies England St John's
26 Feb
9 749-9 dec 194.4 2 West Indies England Bridgetown
South 29 Apr
10 747 235.2 2 West Indies St John's
Africa 2005
11 735-6 dec 146.3 1 Australia Zimbabwe Perth 9 Oct 2003
27 Jun
12 729-6 dec 232.0 2 Australia England Lord's
14 May
13 713-3 dec 165.3 2 Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bulawayo
6 Aug
14 708 220.3 1 Pakistan England The Oval
15 705-7 dec 187.3 1 India Australia Sydney 2 Jan 2004
18 Aug
16 701 171.2 1 Australia England The Oval
1 Dec
17 699-5 203.4 2 Pakistan India Lahore
16 Aug
18 695 256.1 2 Australia England The Oval
19 692-8 dec 163.0 2 West Indies England The Oval 24 Aug

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12 Aug
20 687-8 dec 182.5 1 West Indies England The Oval
31 Jul
21 682-6 dec 177.0 2 South Africa England Lord's
17 Mar
22 681-8 dec 198.4 1 West Indies England Port of Spain
13 Jan
23 679-7 dec 167.1 1 Pakistan India Lahore
17 Dec
24 676-7 167.1 2 India Sri Lanka Kanpur
28 Mar
25 675-5 dec 161.5 1 India Pakistan Multan
24 Oct
26 674-6 224.5 2 Pakistan India Faisalabad
23 Jan
27 674 151.3 1 Australia India Adelaide
31 Jan
28 671-4 220.3 3 New Zealand Sri Lanka Wellington
14 May
29 668 235.5 1 Australia West Indies Bridgetown
9 Aug
30 664 170.0 1 India England The Oval
New 10 Feb
31 660-5 dec 169.2 1 West Indies Wellington
Zealand 1995
13 Dec
32 659-8 dec 173.0 2 Australia England Sydney
26 Dec
33 658-9 dec 166.2 2 South Africa West Indies Durban
10 Jun
34 658-8 dec 188.0 1 England Australia Nottingham
17 Jan
35 657-8 dec 319.0 3 Pakistan West Indies Bridgetown
11 Mar
36 657-7 dec 178.0 3 India Australia Kolkata
23 Jul
37 656-8 dec 255.5 1 Australia England Manchester
South 3 Mar
38 654-5 218.2 4 England Durban
Africa 1939

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22 Jul
39 653-4 dec 193.0 1 Australia England Leeds
26 Jul
40 653-4 dec 162.0 1 England India Lord's
23 Aug
41 652-8 dec 168.4 1 West Indies England Lord's
13 Jan
42 652-7 dec 175.0 2 England India Chennai
South 22 Feb
43 652-7 dec 146.0 1 Australia Johannesburg
Africa 2002
44 652 142.4 2 Pakistan India Faisalabad 3 Jan 1983
5 May
45 650-6 dec 189.0 1 Australia West Indies Bridgetown

Test Records:- Most Wickets in a career

# Player Name Team Mat Overs Runs Wickets Ave Best 5w 10w Period
1 SL 127 42020 17081 770 22.1831 9-51 66 22 1992
2 Shane Warne Aus 145 40705 17995 708 25.4167 8-71 37 10
3 Anil Kumble Ind 132 40850 18355 619 29.6527 10-74 35 8
4 Glenn McGrath Aus 124 29248 12186 563 21.6448 8-24 29 3
5 Courtney Walsh WI 132 30019 12688 519 24.4470 7-37 22 3
6 Kapil Dev Ind 131 27740 12867 434 29.6475 9-83 23 2
7 Richard Hadlee NZ 86 21918 9611 431 22.2993 9-52 36 9
8 Shaun Pollock SA 108 24353 9733 421 23.1188 7-87 16 1
9 Wasim Akram Pak 104 22627 9779 414 23.6208 7-119 25 5
10 Curtly Ambrose WI 98 22103 8501 405 20.9901 8-45 22 3

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11 Makhaya Ntini SA 99 20414 11009 388 28.3737 7-37 18 4 1998
12 Ian Botham Eng 102 21815 10878 383 28.4021 8-34 27 4
13 Malcolm Marshall WI 81 17584 7876 376 20.9468 7-22 22 4
14 Waqar Younis Pak 87 16224 8788 373 23.5603 7-76 22 5
15 Imran Khan Pak 88 19458 8258 362 22.8122 8-58 23 6
16 Dennis Lillee Aus 70 18467 8493 355 23.9239 7-83 23 7
17 Chaminda Vaas SL 109 22988 10345 354 29.2232 7-71 12 2 1994
18 Allan Donald SA 72 15519 7344 330 22.2545 8-71 20 3
19 Harbhajan Singh Ind 77 21471 10040 330 30.4242 8-84 23 5 1998
20 Bob Willis Eng 90 17357 8190 325 25.2000 8-43 16 0
21 Brett Lee Aus 76 16531 9554 310 30.8194 5-30 10 0 1999
22 Lance Gibbs WI 79 27115 8989 309 29.0906 8-38 18 2
23 Fred Trueman Eng 67 15178 6625 307 21.5798 8-31 17 3
24 Derek Underwood Eng 86 21862 7674 297 25.8384 8-51 17 6
25 Daniel Vettori NZ 92 22398 9831 293 33.5529 7-87 18 3 1997
26 Craig McDermott Aus 71 16586 8332 291 28.6323 8-97 14 2
27 Bishan Bedi Ind 67 21364 7637 266 28.7105 7-98 14 1
28 Joel Garner WI 58 13169 5433 259 20.9768 6-56 7 0
29 Jason Gillespie Aus 71 14234 6770 259 26.1390 7-37 8 0
30 Jacques Kallis SA 131 17040 8021 258 31.0891 6-54 5 0 1995
31 Brian Statham Eng 70 16056 6261 252 24.8452 7-39 9 1
32 Michael Holding WI 60 1280 5898 249 23.6867 8-92 13 2
33 Richie Benaud Aus 63 19108 6704 248 27.0323 7-72 16 1

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34 Matthew Hoggard Eng 67 13909 7564 248 30.5000 7-61 7 1 2000
35 Garth McKenzie Aus 60 17681 7328 246 29.7886 8-71 16 3
Bhagwat 1964-
36 Ind 58 15963 7199 242 29.7479 8-79 16 2
Chandrasekhar 1979
37 Abdul Qadir Pak 67 17126 7742 236 32.8051 9-56 15 5
38 Javagal Srinath Ind 67 15104 7196 236 30.4915 8-86 10 1
39 Alec Bedser Eng 51 15918 5876 236 24.8983 7-44 15 3
40 Alec Bedser Eng 51 15918 5879 236 24.9110 7-44 15 5
41 Garry Sobers WI 93 21599 7999 235 34.0383 7-46 13 1
42 Andy Caddick Eng 62 13558 6999 234 29.9103 7-46 13 1
43 Darren Gough Eng 58 11821 6503 229 28.3974 6-42 5 0
44 Ray Lindwall Aus 61 13650 5251 228 23.0307 7-38 12 0
45 Danish Kaneria Pak 53 15608 7846 225 34.8711 7-77 12 2 2000
46 Steve Harmison Eng 61 13117 7025 221 31.7873 7-12 8 1 2002
47 Chris Cairns NZ 62 11698 6410 218 29.4037 7-27 13 1
48 Andrew Flintoff Eng 75 14178 6993 218 32.0780 5-58 2 0 1998
49 Clarrie Grimmett Aus 37 14513 5231 216 24.2176 7-40 21 7
50 Heath Streak Zim 65 13559 6079 216 28.1435 6-73 7 0
51 Merv Hughes Aus 53 12285 6017 212 28.3821 8-87 7 1
52 Zaheer Khan Ind 65 12962 7107 210 33.8429 5-29 7 0 2000
53 Stuart MacGill Aus 44 11237 6038 208 29.0288 8-108 12 2
54 Saqlain Mushtaq Pak 49 14070 6206 208 29.8365 8-164 13 3
55 John Snow Eng 49 12021 5387 202 26.6683 7-40 8 1
56 Andy Roberts WI 47 11135 5174 202 25.6139 7-54 11 2 1974-

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57 Jeff Thomson Aus 51 10535 5601 200 28.0050 6-46 8 0 1972-85

Test Records :- Most Runs in a career

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Ravindra 220
Test Records :- Lowest Team Totals

# Runs Overs Team Opposition Venue Date
25 Mar
1 26 27.0 3 New Zealand England Auckland
13 Feb
2 30 18.4 4 South Africa England Port Elizabeth
14 Jun
3 30 12.3 2 South Africa England Birmingham
4 35 22.4 4 South Africa England Cape Town 1 Apr 1899
12 Feb
5 35 23.2 1 South Africa Australia Melbourne
29 May
6 36 23.0 2 Australia England Birmingham
20 Jun
7 42 17.0 3 India England Lord's
10 Feb
8 42 37.3 2 Australia England Sydney
29 Mar
9 42 39.0 1 New Zealand Australia Wellington
25 Mar
10 43 28.2 3 South Africa England Cape Town
10 Aug
11 44 26.0 4 Australia England The Oval
12 Feb
12 45 31.3 3 South Africa Australia Melbourne
28 Jan
13 45 35.3 1 England Australia Sydney
25 Mar
14 46 19.1 4 England West Indies Port of Spain
19 Jun
15 47 32.3 2 New Zealand England Lord's
25 Mar
16 47 47.1 2 South Africa England Cape Town
17 47 25.3 3 West Indies England Kingston 11 Mar

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5 Mar
18 51 19.1 4 West Indies Australia Port of Spain
19 51 33.2 4 England West Indies Jamaica 4 Feb 2009
14 Aug
20 52 42.1 1 England Australia The Oval
24 Oct
21 53 25.3 4 West Indies Pakistan Faisalabad
11 Oct
22 53 24.5 3 Pakistan Australia Sharjah
22 Jun
23 53 22.3 1 Australia England Lord's
16 Jul
24 53 50.0 2 England Australia Lord's
29 Mar
25 54 32.2 3 New Zealand Australia Wellington
South 4 Mar
26 54 31.2 1 Zimbabwe Cape Town
Africa 2005
29 Jun
27 54 26.4 3 West Indies England Lord's
24 Dec
28 57 33.4 4 South Africa England Johannesburg
4 Dec
29 58 12.3 4 Australia England Brisbane
17 Jul
30 58 21.4 2 India England Manchester
10 Jun
31 58 26.1 1 South Africa England Lord's
28 Nov
32 58 21.3 2 India Australia Brisbane
11 Oct
33 59 31.5 1 Pakistan Australia Sharjah
16 Jul
34 60 29.2 3 Australia England Lord's
35 61 15.4 2 England Australia Melbourne 1 Jan 1902
17 Aug
36 61 26.2 3 West Indies England Leeds
37 61 31.2 2 England Australia Melbourne 5 Mar

Ravindra 222
16 Jul
38 62 47.0 4 England Australia Lord's
39 62 25.2 1 Bangladesh Sri Lanka Colombo (PSS) 3 Jul 2007
13 Nov
40 62 21.2 2 Pakistan Australia Perth
28 Aug
41 63 80.0 1 Australia England The Oval
16 Mar
42 63 47.0 4 Zimbabwe West Indies Port of Spain
New 10 Feb
43 64 27.3 4 England Wellington
Zealand 1978
25 Feb
44 65 37.6 1 New Zealand England Christchurch
45 65 38.5 2 England Australia Sydney 1 Feb 1895
19 Aug
46 65 22.4 4 Australia England The Oval
South 26 Dec
47 66 34.1 4 India Durban
Africa 1996
30 Nov
48 66 25.3 4 Australia England Brisbane
49 67 24.2 3 India Australia Melbourne 6 Feb 1948
24 Aug
50 67 37.1 3 New Zealand England Lord's
51 67 59.1 1 New Zealand England Leeds 3 Jul 1958
12 Aug
52 68 60.2 2 Australia England The Oval
7 Nov
53 70 39.2 1 New Zealand Pakistan Dhaka
30 Aug
54 70 31.1 1 Australia England Manchester
55 71 32.5 2 England West Indies Manchester 8 Jul 1976
26 Aug
56 71 28.2 1 Sri Lanka Pakistan Kandy
57 72 50.1 4 South Africa England Cape Town 1 Jan 1957
16 Dec
58 72 31.3 4 Pakistan Australia Perth
59 72 29.1 3 England Australia Sydney 1 Feb 1895

Ravindra 223
60 72 29.1 3 England Australia Sydney 1 Feb 1895
61 73 24.5 3 Sri Lanka Pakistan Kandy 3 Apr 2006
1 May
62 73 30.2 2 New Zealand Pakistan Lahore
63 74 62.2 1 New Zealand West Indies Dunedin 3 Feb 1956
27 May
64 74 46.0 1 Australia England Birmingham
19 Jun
65 74 50.3 3 New Zealand England Lord's
29 Jul
66 75 44.4 4 South Africa England Leeds
29 Dec
67 75 40.1 1 England Australia Melbourne
South 20 Jan
68 75 28.4 2 Australia Durban
Africa 1950
25 Nov
69 75 30.5 1 India West Indies Delhi

ODI Records :- Most Runs in Career

# Player Name Team Mat Inns No Runs Ave HS 100s 50s 0s Period
1668 44.372 1
1 Sachin Tendulkar Ind 425 415 39 43 91 20 1989
4 3 86*
1315 32.713
2 Sanath Jayasuriya SL 432 420 18 189 28 67 33 1989
1 9
39.525 1 1991-
3 Inzamam-ul-Haq Pak 378 350 53 11739 10 83 20
3 37* 2007
4 Ricky Ponting Aus 315 306 35 11523 164 26 67 17 1995
41.021 1992-
5 Sourav Ganguly Ind 311 300 23 11363 183 22 72 16
7 2007
1058 39.496 1996-
6 Rahul Dravid Ind 333 308 40 153 12 81 13
5 3 2007
1040 40.486 1990-
7 Brian Lara WI 299 289 32 169 19 63 16
5 4 2007
1023 45.305
8 Jacques Kallis SA 291 277 51 139 16 73 15 1996
9 3

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35.891 1996-
9 Adam Gilchrist Aus 287 279 11 9619 172 16 55 19
8 2008
Mohammad 36.921 1 1985-
10 Ind 334 308 54 9378 7 58 9
Azharuddin 3 53* 2000
34.902 1984-
11 Aravinda de Silva SL 308 296 30 9284 145 11 64 17
3 2003
43.182 1 1998-
12 Mohammad Yousuf Pak 269 254 40 9241 15 62 15
2 41* 2008
39.213 1989-
13 Saeed Anwar Pak 247 244 19 8823 194 20 43 15
3 2003
41.378 1 1978-
14 Desmond Haynes WI 238 237 28 8648 17 57 13
0 53* 1994
37.572 1 1990-
15 Marvan Atapattu SL 268 259 32 8529 11 59 13
7 32* 2007
39.351 1988-
16 Mark Waugh Aus 244 236 20 8500 173 18 50 16
9 2002
Shivnarine 41.541
17 WI 246 231 37 8059 150 10 53 5 1994
Chanderpaul 2
18 Mahela Jayawardene SL 299 280 29 8042 128 10 49 23 1998
19 Herschelle Gibbs SA 244 237 16 8038 175 21 37 22 1996
32.407 1 1994-
20 Stephen Fleming NZ 280 269 21 8037 8 49 17
3 34* 2007
32.908 1 1986-
21 Steve Waugh Aus 325 288 58 7569 3 45 15
7 20* 2002
35.846 1 1982-
22 Arjuna Ranatunga SL 269 255 47 7456 4 49 18
2 31* 1999
36.313 1
23 Kumar Sangakkara SL 246 229 25 7408 10 48 9 2000
7 38*
41.700 1975-
24 Javed Miandad Pak 233 218 41 7381 119* 8 50 8
6 1996
40.327 1
25 Chris Gayle WI 199 194 14 7259 19 38 18 1999
8 53*
32.889 1982-
26 Saleem Malik Pak 283 256 38 7170 102 5 47 19
9 1999
34.926 1 1995-
27 Nathan Astle NZ 223 217 14 7090 16 41 19
1 45* 2007
28 Michael Bevan Aus 232 196 67 6912 53.581 1 6 46 5 1994-

Ravindra 225
4 08* 2004
29 Yuvraj Singh Ind 232 213 30 6850 139 11 40 12 2000
40.945 1 1993-
30 Gary Kirsten SA 185 185 19 6797 13 45 11
8 88* 2003
35.343 1992-
31 Andy Flower Zim 213 208 16 6786 145 4 55 13
8 2003
47.000 1 1975-
32 Viv Richards WI 187 167 24 6721 11 45 7
0 89* 1991
33 Virender Sehwag Ind 205 200 8 6592 130 11 35 11 1999
32.335 1 1986-
34 Ijaz Ahmed Pak 250 232 29 6564 10 37 14
0 42* 2000
33.690 1 1992-
35 Grant Flower Zim 219 212 18 6536 6 40 18
7 42* 2004
30.629 1 1979-
36 Allan Border Aus 273 252 39 6524 3 39 11
1 27* 1994
37 Richie Richardson WI 224 217 30 6248 33.4118 122 5 44 8
43.807 1
38 Matthew Hayden Aus 161 155 15 6133 10 36 9 1993
1 81*
44.617 1984-
39 Dean Jones Aus 164 161 25 6068 145 7 46 6
6 1994
37.043 1984-
40 David Boon Aus 181 177 16 5964 122 5 37 6
5 1995
41 Jonty Rhodes SA 245 220 51 5935 35.1183 121 2 33 12
32.093 1985-
42 Ramiz Raja Pak 198 197 15 5841 119* 9 31 15
4 1997
35.343 1987-
43 Carl Hooper WI 227 206 43 5761 113* 7 29 7
6 2003
38.645 1992-
44 Hansie Cronje SA 188 175 31 5565 112 2 39 8
8 2000
45 Shahid Afridi Pak 272 254 16 5531 109 4 29 23 1996
37.475 1992-
46 Ajay Jadeja Ind 196 179 36 5359 119 6 30 10
5 2000
40.809 1 1992-
47 Damien Martyn Aus 208 182 51 5346 5 37 10
2 44* 2006

Ravindra 226
48 Younis Khan Pak 182 176 20 5317 144 6 35 15 2000
40.392 1
49 Graeme Smith SA 141 139 9 5251 7 38 8 2002
3 34*
30.500 1 1992-
50 Alistair Campbell Zim 188 184 14 5185 7 30 11
0 31* 2003
29.497 1986-
51 Roshan Mahanama SL 213 198 23 5162 119* 4 35 15
1 1999
45.035 1 1975-
52 Gordon Greenidge WI 128 127 13 5134 11 31 3
1 33* 1991
53 Andrew Symonds Aus 194 158 33 5008 156 6 29 15 1998

ODI Records :- Highest Individual Scores

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ODI Records :- Most Wickets in a Career

# Player Name Team Mat Overs Runs Wkts Ave Best 4w 5w Period
1 SL 329 17713 11485 505 22.7426 7-30 14 10 1993
2 Wasim Akram Pak 356 18186 11812 502 23.5299 5-15 17 6 1984-2003

Ravindra 228
3 Waqar Younis Pak 262 12698 9913 416 23.8293 7-36 14 13 1989-2003
4 Chaminda Vaas SL 322 15775 11014 400 27.5350 8-19 9 4 1994
5 Shaun Pollock SA 303 15712 9631 393 24.5064 6-35 12 5 1996-2008
6 Glenn McGrath Aus 250 12970 8391 381 22.0236 7-15 9 7 1993-2007
7 Anil Kumble Ind 271 14496 10412 337 30.8961 6-12 8 2 1990-2007
8 Javagal Srinath Ind 229 11935 8847 315 28.0857 5-23 7 3 1991-2003
9 Sanath Jayasuriya SL 432 14484 11504 313 36.7540 6-29 8 4 1989
10 Brett Lee Aus 173 8853 6955 303 22.9538 5-22 11 8 2000
11 Shane Warne Aus 194 10642 7541 293 25.7372 5-33 12 1 1993-2005
12 Saqlain Mushtaq Pak 169 8770 6275 288 21.7882 5-20 11 6 1995-2003
13 Ajit Agarkar Ind 191 9484 8021 288 27.8507 6-42 10 2 1998
14 Allan Donald SA 164 8561 5926 272 21.7868 6-23 11 2 1991-2003
15 Makhaya Ntini SA 173 8687 6559 266 24.6579 6-22 8 4 1998
16 Kapil Dev Ind 225 11202 6945 253 27.4506 5-43 3 1 1978-1994
17 Shahid Afridi Pak 272 11224 8667 249 34.8072 6-38 2 3 1996
18 Jacques Kallis SA 291 9790 7881 247 31.9069 5-30 2 2 1996
19 Abdul Razzaq Pak 231 9797 7658 246 31.1301 6-35 8 3 1996-2007
20 Daniel Vettori NZ 239 11234 7819 241 32.4440 5-7 7 2 1997
21 Heath Streak Zim 189 9468 7129 239 29.8285 5-32 7 1 1993-2005
22 Darren Gough Eng 159 8470 6209 235 26.4213 5-44 10 2 1994-2006
23 Courtney Walsh WI 205 10822 6918 227 30.4758 5-1 6 1 1985-2000
24 Curtly Ambrose WI 176 9353 5429 225 24.1289 5-17 6 4 1988-2000
25 Zaheer Khan Ind 162 8097 6566 225 29.1822 5-42 7 1 2000
26 Shoaib Akhtar Pak 141 6672 5204 220 23.6545 6-16 6 4 1998
27 Harbhajan Singh Ind 185 9672 6808 207 32.8889 5-31 2 2 1998
28 Craig McDermott Aus 138 7461 5018 203 24.7192 5-44 4 1 1985-1996
29 Chris Harris NZ 250 10667 7613 203 37.5025 5-42 2 1 1990-2004
30 Chris Cairns NZ 215 8168 6594 201 32.8060 5-42 3 1 1991-2006
31 Venkatesh Prasad Ind 161 8129 6321 196 32.2500 5-27 3 1 1994-2001
32 Steve Waugh Aus 325 8883 6761 195 34.6718 4-33 3 0 1986-2002
33 Carl Hooper WI 227 9573 6958 193 36.0518 4-34 3 0 1987-2003
34 Lance Klusener SA 171 7336 5751 192 29.9531 6-49 1 6 1996-2004
35 Imran Khan Pak 175 7461 4844 182 26.6154 6-14 3 1 1974-1992

Ravindra 229
36 Aaqib Javed Pak 163 8012 5721 182 31.4341 7-37 2 4 1988-1998
37 Andrew Flintoff Eng 141 5624 4121 169 24.3846 5-19 6 2 1999
38 Dilhara Fernando SL 132 5730 4952 166 29.8313 6-27 3 1 2001
39 Nathan Bracken Aus 107 5216 3887 164 23.7012 5-47 5 2 2001
40 Mushtaq Ahmed Pak 144 7543 5361 161 33.2981 5-36 3 1 1989-2003
41 Richard Hadlee NZ 115 6182 3407 158 21.5633 5-25 1 5 1973-1990
42 Manoj Prabhakar Ind 130 6360 4534 157 28.8790 5-33 4 2 1984-1996
43 WI 136 7175 4233 157 26.9618 4-18 6 0 1980-1992
44 Brad Hogg Aus 123 5564 4168 156 26.7179 5-32 4 2 1996-2008
45 Sachin Tendulkar Ind 425 8015 6806 154 44.1948 5-32 4 2 1989
46 Irfan Pathan Ind 107 5194 4547 152 29.9145 5-27 4 1 2004
47 Upul Chandana SL 147 6142 4818 151 31.9073 5-61 4 1 1994-2007
48 Chris Gayle WI 199 6419 5056 151 33.4834 5-46 3 1 1999
49 Kyle Mills NZ 102 5042 3936 149 26.4161 5-25 6 1 2001
50 Joel Garner WI 98 5330 2752 146 18.8493 5-31 2 3 1977-1987
51 Ian Botham Eng 117 6271 4139 145 28.5448 5-56 3 0 1976-1992
52 Jason Gillespie Aus 97 5144 3611 142 25.4296 5-22 3 3 1996-2005
53 Michael Holding WI 102 5473 3034 142 21.3662 5-26 5 1 1976-1992
54 Ewen Chatfield NZ 114 6065 3618 140 25.8429 5-34 3 1 1979-1989
55 SL 141 7009 4998 138 36.2174 4-37 1 0 1994-2004
56 James Anderson Eng 106 5103 4207 136 30.9338 4-23 7 0 2002
57 Mashrafe Mortaza Ban 103 5280 4025 135 29.8148 6-26 5 1 2001
58 Damien Fleming Aus 88 4619 3402 134 25.3881 5-36 4 1 1994-2001
59 Abdul Qadir Pak 104 5100 3454 132 26.1667 5-44 4 2 1983-1993
60 Jacob Oram NZ 130 5506 4050 131 30.9160 5-26 2 2 2001
61 Mervyn Dillon WI 108 5480 4218 130 32.4462 5-29 3 3 1997-2005

ODI Records :- Highest Team Totals

Ravindra 230
# Runs Overs Inn Team Opposition Venue Date
1 443-9 50 1 Sri Lanka Netherlands Amstelveen 4 Jul 2006
2 438-9 49.5 2 South Africa Australia Johannesburg 12 Mar 2006
3 434-4 50 1 Australia South Africa Johannesburg 12 Mar 2006
4 418-5 50 1 South Africa Zimbabwe Potchefstroom 20 Sep 2006
5 413-5 50 1 India Bermuda Port of Spain 19 Mar 2007
6 402-2 50 1 New Zealand Zimbabwe Bulawayo 24 Aug 2005
7 398-5 50 1 Sri Lanka Kenya Kandy 6 Mar 1996
8 397-5 44 1 New Zealand Zimbabwe Bulawayo 24 Aug 2005
9 392-6 50 1 South Africa Pakistan Centurion 4 Feb 2007
10 392-4 50 1 India New Zealand Christchurch 8 Mar 2009
11 391-4 50 1 England Bangladesh Nottingham 21 Jun 2005
12 387-5 50 1 India England Rajkot 14 Nov 2008
13 377-6 50 1 Australia South Africa Basseterre 24 Mar 2007
14 376-2 50 1 India New Zealand Hyderabad (Ind) 8 Nov 1999
15 374-4 50 1 India Hong Kong Karachi 25 Jun 2008
16 373-6 50 1 India Sri Lanka Taunton 26 May 1999
17 371-9 50 1 Pakistan Sri Lanka Nairobi (Gym) 4 Oct 1996
18 368-5 50 1 Australia Sri Lanka Sydney 12 Feb 2006
19 363-7 55 1 England Pakistan Nottingham 20 Aug 1992
20 363-5 50 1 India Sri Lanka Colombo (RPS) 3 Feb 2009
21 363-5 50 1 New Zealand Canada Gros Islet 22 Mar 2007
22 363-3 50 1 South Africa Zimbabwe Bulawayo 23 Sep 2001
23 360-4 50 1 West Indies Sri Lanka Karachi 13 Oct 1987
24 359-5 50 1 Australia India Sydney 8 Feb 2004
25 359-2 50 1 Australia India Johannesburg 23 Mar 2003
26 358-5 50 1 Australia Netherlands Basseterre 18 Mar 2007
27 358-4 50 1 South Africa Bangladesh Benoni 9 Nov 2008
28 357-9 50 1 Sri Lanka Bangladesh Lahore 25 Jun 2008
29 356-9 50 1 India Pakistan Visakhapatnam 5 Apr 2005
30 356-4 50 1 South Africa West Indies St George's 10 Apr 2007
31 354-3 50 1 South Africa Kenya Cape Town 22 Oct 2001
32 353-6 50 1 Pakistan England Karachi 15 Dec 2005

Ravindra 231
33 353-5 50 1 India New Zealand Hyderabad (Ind) 15 Nov 2003
34 353-3 40 1 South Africa Netherlands Basseterre 16 Mar 2007
35 351-7 50 1 Zimbabwe Kenya Mombasa 29 Jan 2009
36 351-4 50 1 Pakistan South Africa Durban 7 Feb 2007
37 351-3 50 1 India Kenya Paarl 24 Oct 2001
38 350-9 49.3 2 New Zealand Australia Hamilton 20 Feb 2007
39 350-6 50 1 India Sri Lanka Nagpur 25 Oct 2005
40 349-9 50 1 New Zealand India Rajkot 5 Nov 1999
41 349-9 50 1 Sri Lanka Pakistan Singapore 2 Apr 1996
42 349-7 50 1 India Pakistan Karachi 13 Mar 2004
43 349-6 50 1 Australia New Zealand Christchurch 26 Feb 2000
44 349 49.5 1 Pakistan Zimbabwe Kingston 21 Mar 2007
45 348-8 50 1 New Zealand India Nagpur 26 Nov 1995
46 348-6 50 1 Australia New Zealand St George's 20 Apr 2007
47 348-5 50 1 India Bangladesh Dhaka 27 Dec 2004
48 347-6 50 1 West Indies Zimbabwe Bulawayo 22 Nov 2003
49 347-5 50 1 Australia New Zealand Napier 5 Mar 2005
50 347-5 50 1 Pakistan Zimbabwe Karachi 21 Jan 2008
51 347-4 50 1 New Zealand USA The Oval 10 Sep 2004
52 347-3 50 1 Kenya Bangladesh Nairobi (Gym) 10 Oct 1997
53 347-2 50 1 Australia India Bangalore 12 Nov 2003
54 346-5 50 1 Australia New Zealand Hamilton 20 Feb 2007
55 344-8 50 2 Pakistan India Karachi 13 Mar 2004
56 344-8 50 1 ICC World XI Asia XI Melbourne 10 Jan 2005
57 344-7 50 1 Australia Zimbabwe Hobart 16 Jan 2004
58 344-6 50 1 Australia South Africa Sydney 5 Feb 2006
59 344-5 50 1 Pakistan Zimbabwe Bulawayo 24 Nov 2002
60 343-5 50 1 Sri Lanka Australia Sydney 9 Jan 2003
61 343-5 50 1 Australia New Zealand Perth 28 Jan 2007
62 343-5 50 1 Pakistan Hong Kong Colombo (SSC) 18 Jul 2004
63 341-8 50 1 Australia West Indies Basseterre 6 Jul 2008
64 341-3 50 1 India West Indies Vadodara 31 Jan 2007
65 340-7 50 2 New Zealand England Napier 20 Feb 2008

Ravindra 232
66 340-6 50 1 England New Zealand Napier 20 Feb 2008
67 340-5 48.4 2 New Zealand Australia Auckland 18 Feb 2007
68 340-2 50 1 Zimbabwe Namibia Harare 10 Feb 2003
69 339-4 50 1 West Indies Pakistan Adelaide 28 Jan 2005
70 339-4 50 1 Sri Lanka Pakistan Mohali 24 May 1997
71 338-7 50 1 Zimbabwe Bermuda Port of Spain 18 May 2006
72 338-6 50 1 Australia West Indies Melbourne 9 Feb 2001
73 338-5 60 1 Pakistan Sri Lanka Swansea 9 Jun 1983
74 338-4 50 1 New Zealand Bangladesh Sharjah 28 Apr 1990
75 338-4 50 1 Australia India Visakhapatnam 3 Apr 2001
76 338-3 50 1 India West Indies Nagpur 21 Jan 2007
77 337-7 50 1 Asia XI Africa XI Chennai 9 Jun 2007
78 337-7 50 1 Australia Pakistan Sydney 4 Feb 2000
79 336-7 50 1 South Africa Kenya Bloemfontein 31 Oct 2008
80 336-4 50 1 Australia New Zealand Auckland 18 Feb 2007
81 335-6 50 1 Pakistan South Africa Port Elizabeth 11 Dec 2002
82 335-5 50 2 New Zealand Australia Perth 28 Jan 2007
83 335-5 50 1 New Zealand Bangladesh Napier 28 Dec 2007
84 334-6 50 1 Australia Scotland Basseterre 14 Mar 2007
85 334-4 60 1 England India Lord's 7 Jun 1975
86 334 45.1 2 New Zealand India Christchurch 8 Mar 2009
87 333-9 60 1 England Sri Lanka Taunton 11 Jun 1983
88 333-8 45 1 West Indies India Jamshedpur 7 Dec 1983
89 333-7 50 1 West Indies Sri Lanka Sharjah 16 Oct 1995
90 333-6 50 1 West Indies Zimbabwe Georgetown 7 May 2006
91 333-6 50 1 India Zimbabwe Guwahati 19 Mar 2002
92 332-8 50 1 Sri Lanka Bangladesh Karachi 30 Jun 2008
93 332-8 49 2 New Zealand Australia Christchurch 10 Dec 2005
94 332-5 50 1 India Sri Lanka Colombo (RPS) 5 Feb, 2009
95 332-5 50 1 Australia Pakistan Nairobi (Gym) 30 Aug 2002
96 332-3 50 1 Australia Sri Lanka Sharjah 2 May 1990
97 331-8 50 1 Asia XI Africa XI Chennai 10 Jun 2007
98 331-7 50 1 Australia New Zealand Christchurch 10 Dec 2005

Ravindra 233
99 330-8 50 1 India Pakistan Dhaka (SBNS) 10 Jun 2008
100 330-7 49.1 2 Australia South Africa Port Elizabeth 6 Apr 2002
101 330-6 60 1 Pakistan Sri Lanka Nottingham 14 Jun 1975
102 329-7 50 1 India England Bristol 24 Aug 2007
103 329-6 50 1 South Africa Zimbabwe Durban 27 Feb 2005
104 329-6 50 1 Pakistan India Rawalpindi 16 Mar 2004
105 329-5 50 1 Australia India Adelaide 26 Jan 2000
106 329-5 50 1 Australia India Adelaide 26 Jan 2000
107 329 49.3 2 Sri Lanka West Indies Sharjah 16 Oct 1995
108 328-5 60 1 Australia Sri Lanka The Oval 11 Jun 1975
109 328-5 50 1 Kenya Scotland Mombasa 17 Jan 2007
110 328-4 50 1 Australia ICC World XI Melbourne 7 Oct 2005
111 328-3 50 1 South Africa Netherlands Rawalpindi 5 Mar 1996
112 328-2 50 1 Pakistan New Zealand Sharjah 20 Apr 1994
113 328 49.4 1 India Pakistan Peshawar 6 Feb 2006
114 327-5 50 1 Pakistan India Chennai 21 May 1997
115 327-4 50 1 England Pakistan Lahore 10 Dec 2005
116 326-8 49.3 2 India England Lord's 13 Jul 2002
117 326-3 50 1 South Africa Australia Port Elizabeth 6 Apr 2002
118 325-6 50 1 Zimbabwe Kenya Dhaka 27 Mar 1999
119 325-5 50 1 England India Lord's 13 Jul 2002
120 325-5 47.4 2 India West Indies Ahmedabad 15 Nov 2002

ODI Records :- Lowest Team Totals

Ravindra 234
Ravindra 235
ODI Records :- Fastest 50s

Ravindra 236



Ravindra 237
ODI Records :- Fastest 100s

Ravindra 238


Ravindra 239
T20I Records :- Most Wickets in a Career

Ravindra 240



Ravindra 241
T20I Records :- Most Runs in Career

# Player Name Team Mat Inns No Runs Ave HS 100s 50s 0s Period
1 NZ 21 21 4 582 34.2353 69* 0 4 0 2005
2 Misbah-ul-Haq Pak 14 13 6 398 56.8571 87* 0 3 0 2007
3 Shoaib Malik Pak 16 15 3 383 31.9167 57 0 2 0 2006
4 Ricky Ponting Aus 15 14 2 376 31.3333 98* 0 2 1 2005
5 Kevin Pietersen Eng 15 15 1 375 26.7857 79 0 1 1 2005
6 Graeme Smith SA 12 12 2 364 36.4000 89* 0 3 0 2005
7 Paul Collingwood Eng 15 14 0 344 24.5714 79 0 2 1 2005
8 Sanath Jayasuriya SL 11 11 1 341 34.1000 88 0 3 2 2006
9 Andrew Symonds Aus 13 10 4 337 56.1667 85* 0 2 1 2005
10 Gautam Gambhir Ind 12 11 0 328 29.8182 75 0 4 1 2007
11 Ross Taylor NZ 17 16 1 323 21.5333 63 0 2 2 2006
12 Matthew Hayden Aus 9 9 3 308 51.3333 73* 0 4 0 2005-2007
13 Jacob Oram NZ 13 12 4 293 36.6250 66* 0 2 1 2005
14 Albie Morkel SA 16 13 1 284 23.6667 43 0 0 0 2005
15 Jean-Paul Duminy SA 10 10 1 279 31.0000 78 0 2 2 2007
16 Adam Gilchrist Aus 13 13 1 272 22.6667 48 0 0 0 2005-2008
17 Scott Styris NZ 15 14 0 272 19.4286 66 0 1 0 2005
18 Salman Butt Pak 12 11 1 266 26.6000 74 0 1 0 2007
19 Yuvraj Singh Ind 10 9 1 262 32.7500 70 0 3 0 2007
20 Chris Gayle WI 7 7 0 261 37.2857 117 1 2 1 2006
21 Younis Khan Pak 15 14 0 260 18.5714 51 0 1 2 2006
22 Zim 7 7 0 258 36.8571 79 0 2 0 2006
23 Herschelle Gibbs SA 14 14 1 245 18.8462 90* 0 2 4 2005
24 Owais Shah Eng 11 10 1 241 26.7778 55* 0 1 0 2007
25 Virender Sehwag Ind 12 11 0 223 20.2727 68 0 1 1 2006
26 Aftab Ahmed Ban 9 9 1 215 26.8750 62* 0 1 0 2006

Ravindra 242
Mahendra Singh
27 Ind 13 12 3 215 23.8889 45 0 0 1 2006
28 SL 11 11 2 210 23.3333 65 0 1 2 2006
29 Mark Boucher SA 13 11 2 203 22.5556 36* 0 0 0 2005
30 Justin Kemp SA 8 7 3 203 50.7500 89* 0 1 0 2005
31 Imran Nazir Pak 10 9 1 201 25.1250 59 0 1 0 2007
32 SL 12 11 2 197 21.8889 61 0 1 1 2006
33 Shahid Afridi Pak 15 14 0 195 13.9286 39 0 0 1 2006
34 Craig McMillan NZ 8 7 1 187 31.1667 57 0 1 0 2005
35 Jehan Mubarak SL 9 8 2 182 30.3333 46* 0 0 1 2007
36 Pak 9 9 0 182 20.2222 46 0 0 0 2006
37 Ban 7 7 0 178 25.4286 81 0 1 2 2007
38 David Hussey Aus 7 6 1 177 35.4000 88* 0 1 1 2008
39 David Warner Aus 5 5 0 177 35.4000 89 0 1 0 2009
40 Michael Clarke Aus 16 12 3 176 19.5556 37* 0 0 0 2005
41 AB de Villiers SA 15 14 3 176 16.0000 52* 0 1 3 2006
42 Lou Vincent NZ 9 9 0 174 19.3333 42 0 0 1 2006
43 Devon Smith WI 5 5 0 166 33.2000 61 0 2 0 2007
44 Eng 3 3 0 166 55.3333 72 0 2 0 2005-2006
45 Ban 9 9 0 164 18.2222 61 0 1 0 2007
46 Cameron White Aus 7 7 3 152 38.0000 40* 0 0 0 2007

ICC Rankings

Ravindra 243







Ravindra 244

Fédération Internationale de Football

Motto For the Good of The Game

Formation May 21, 1904

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for

International Federation of Association Football), commonly known by
its acronym, FIFA (usually pronounced /fi ːf ə / or /fi ː fæ /), is the
international governing body of association football . Its headquarters
are in Zürich , Switzerland, and its current president is Sepp Blatter .
FIFA is responsible for the organization and governance of football's

Ravindra 245
major international tournaments, most notably the FIFA World Cup ,
held since 1930.
FIFA has 208 member associations, which is 16 more than the United
Nations and 3 more than the International Olympic Committee , though
5 fewer than the International Association of Athletics Federations .
The need for a single body to oversee the worldwide game
became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the
increasing popularity of international fixtures. FIFA was
founded in Paris on May 21, 1904 — the French name and
acronym persist to this day, even outside French-speaking
countries. Its first president was Robert Guérin .
FIFA presided over its first international competition in 1906,
but this met with little approval or success. This, in
combination with economic factors, led to the swift
replacement of Guérin with Daniel Burley Woolfall from England,
by now a member association. The next tournament staged, the
football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more
successful, despite the presence of professional footballers,
contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the
application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina and Chile in 1912,
and Canada and the United States in 1913.
FIFA, however, floundered during World War I , with many players
sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international
fixtures severely limited. Post-war, following the death of
Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl
Hirschmann . It was saved from extinction, but at the cost of the
withdrawal of the Home Nations (of the United Kingdom), who
cited an unwillingness to participate in international
competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home
Nations later resumed their membership.
The FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum in

Map of the World with the six confederations.

Ravindra 246
FIFA is an association established under the Laws of
Switzerland. Its headquarters are in Zurich.
FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made
up of representatives from each affiliated member association.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year
and, additionally, extraordinary sessions have been held once a
year since 1998. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's
Congress elects the President of FIFA, its General Secretary
and the other members of FIFA's Executive Committee. The
President and General Secretary are the main officeholders of
FIFA, and are in charge of its daily administration, carried out
by the General Secretariat, with its staff of approximately 280
FIFA's Executive Committee, chaired by the President, is the
main decision-making body of the organization in the intervals
of Congress. FIFA's worldwide organisational structure also
consists of several other bodies, under authority of the
Executive Committee or created by Congress as standing
committees. Among those bodies are the Finance Committee,
the Disciplinary Committee, the Referees Committee, etc.
Aside from its worldwide institutions (presidency, Executive
Committee, Congress, etc.) there are confederations
recognised by FIFA which oversee the game in the different
continents and regions of the world. National associations, and
not the continental confederations, are members of FIFA. The
continental confederations are provided for in FIFA's statutes.
National associations must claim membership to both FIFA and
the confederation in which their nation is geographically
resident for their teams to qualify for entry to FIFA's
competitions (with a few geographic exceptions listed below):
AFC - Asian Football Confederation in Asia and Australia
CAF - Confédération Africaine de Football in Africa
CONCACAF - Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean
Association Football in North America and Central America
CONMEBOL - Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol in South
OFC - Oceania Football Confederation in Oceania
UEFA - Union of European Football Associations in Europe.
Nations straddling the traditional boundary between Europe
and Asia have generally had their choice of confederation. As a
result, a number of transcontinental nations including Russia ,
Turkey , Cyprus , Armenia , Azerbaijan and Georgia have chosen to
become part of UEFA despite the bulk of their land area being
in Asia. Israel , although lying entirely within Asia, joined UEFA
in 1994, after decades of its football teams being boycotted by

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many Arab and predominantly Muslim AFC countries. Kazakhstan
moved from the AFC to UEFA in 2002. Australia was the latest to
move from the OFC to AFC in January 2006.
Guyana and Suriname have always been CONCACAF members
despite being South American countries.
No team from the OFC is offered automatic qualification to the
World Cup. In recent World Cup qualifying cycles, the winner of
their section had to play a play-off against a CONMEBOL side, a
hurdle at which Australia have traditionally fallen. In an effort
to improve their national and domestic teams Australia moved
to the AFC in 2006. This allows Australia to play in Asian
tournaments of a much higher standard (as well as being more
numerous) such as the AFC Asian Cup and the Asian Champions
League .
Australia successfully qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup by
winning just such a playoff in a penalty shootout against Uruguay ,
just a few months after the clearance to move was granted.
Initially, the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification cycle was planned
to provide the winner of OFC qualifying with a place in the final
AFC qualification group, but this was scrapped in favour of a
playoff between the OFC winner and an AFC team for a World
Cup place.
In total, FIFA recognises 208 national associations and their
associated men's national teams as well as 129 women's
national teams; see the list of national football teams and their
respective country codes . Curiously, FIFA has more member
states than the United Nations , as FIFA recognises several non-
sovereign entities as distinct nations, most notably the four
Home Nations within the United Kingdom. The FIFA World Rankings
are updated monthly and rank each team based on their
performance in international competitions, qualifiers, and
friendly matches. There is also a world ranking for women's
football , updated four times a year.
Recognitions and awards
FIFA awards, each year, the title of FIFA World Player of the Year
to the most prestigious player of the year, as part of its annual
awards ceremony which also recognises team and international
football achievements.
In 1994 FIFA published the FIFA World Cup All-Time Team .
In 2002 FIFA announced the FIFA Dream Team , an all-time all-star
team chosen by fans in a poll.
As part of its centennial celebrations in 2004, FIFA organised a
"Match of the Century" between France and Brazil
Governance and game development
Laws of the Game
Main article: Laws of the Game

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The laws that govern football, known officially as the Laws of
the Game, are not solely the responsibility of FIFA; they are
maintained by a body called the International Football Association
Board (IFAB). FIFA has members on its board (four
representatives); the other four are provided by the football
associations of the United Kingdom : England , Scotland , Wales , and
Northern Ireland , in recognition of their contribution to the
creation and history of the game. Changes to the Laws of the
Game must be agreed by at least six of the eight delegates.
Discipline of national associations
FIFA frequently takes active roles in the running of the sport
and developing the game around the world. One of its unique
policies is to suspend teams and associated members from
international competition when a government interferes in the
running of FIFA's associate member organisations or if the
associate is not functioning properly.
A recent high-profile suspension was of the Greek Football
Federation for political interference. [2 ] Another recent
suspension was on the Kenya Football Federation because it
was not running the game in Kenya properly [3 ] and also of Iraq.
The Asia wing of FIFA, the AFC is soon to force 22 leading
associations in Asia to increase transparency, competition,
quality training and a proper league structure with relegation,
promotion and a 2nd division. Suspension will be imposed on
any associate which doesn't co-operate with the reform
outlines. Notably, one of the associations being targeted is that
of Australia , a country whose professional sport leagues are all
organised on the model of franchised teams and closed league
membership, a system most commonly identified with North
America . [4 ]
A 2007 FIFA ruling that a player can be registered with a
maximum of three clubs, and appear in official matches for a
maximum of three, in a year measured from July 1 to June 30
has led to controversy, especially in those countries whose
seasons cross that date barrier, as in the case of two former
Ireland internationals .
The Iraq national team was suspended in May 2008, due to
government interference with independent national sports
authorities. [5 ] However the decision was overturned by FIFA on
May 29, 2008, since the Iraqi government reversed its earlier
decision in dissolving the Iraq Football Association. [6 ]
FIFA altitude ban

La Paz , Bolivia . 3,600 m (12,000 ft) above sea level

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FIFA attempted to address the issue of extreme altitude in May
2007, ruling that no future international matches could be
played at an altitude over 2500 m (8200 ft). [7 ]
The FIFA altitude ban would most notably have affected the
national teams of Andean countries. Under this proposal, Bolivia
would no longer be able to play international matches in La Paz
(3,600 m), Ecuador would be unable to play in Quito (2,800 m),
and Colombia could no longer play in Bogotá (2,640 m).
However, FIFA soon backed away from the proposal after
international condemnation, [8 ] and under political pressure
from the CONMEBOL countries, first extending the maximum
altitude to 2,800 m (9,190 ft) in June 2007, which made Bogotá
and Quito viable international venues once again, and then
waiving the restriction for La Paz in July 2007. [9 ]
The ban was reintroduced in December 2007 by FIFA for
matches 2,750 metres above sea level, unless players were
allowed to acclimatize . [1 0 ] However, the ban was again
suspended by FIFA in May 2008. [1 1 ]
Allegations of financial irregularities
In May 2006 British investigative reporter Andrew Jennings ' book
Foul (Harper Collins ) caused controversy within the football
world by detailing an alleged international cash-for-contracts
scandal following the collapse of FIFA's marketing partner ISL,
and revealed how some football officials have been urged to
secretly repay the sweeteners they received. The book also
exposed the vote-rigging that went on behind closed doors in
the fight for Sepp Blatter's continued control of FIFA.
Nearly simultaneous with the release of Foul was a BBC
television expose by Jennings and BBC producer Roger Corke
for the BBC news programme Panorama . In this hour-long
programme screened on June 11, 2006, Jennings and the
Panorama team submit that Sepp Blatter is being investigated
by Swiss police over his role in a secret deal to repay more than
£1m worth of bribes pocketed by football officials.
All testimonies offered in the Panorama expose were provided
through a disguised voice, appearance, or both, save one; Mel
Brennan , formerly a lecturer at Towson University in the United
States (and from 2001-2003 Head of Special Projects for
CONCACAF , a liaison to the e-FIFA project and a FIFA World Cup
delegate), became the first high-level football insider to go
public with substantial allegations of greed, corruption,
nonfeasance and malfeasance by CONCACAF and FIFA
leadership. During the Panorama expose, Brennan - the
highest-level African-American in the history of world football
governance - Jennings and many others exposed allegedly
inappropriate allocations of money at CONCACAF, and drew

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connections between ostensible CONCACAF criminality and
similar behaviours at FIFA. Brennan's book, The Apprentice:
Tragicomic Times Among the Men Running - and Ruining - World
Football is due out in 2009.
FIFA Anthem
Since the 1994 FIFA World Cup like the UEFA Champions League
FIFA has adopted an anthem composed by the German
composer Franz Lambert . The FIFA Anthem or Hymn is played at
the beginning of FIFA structured matches and tournaments
such as international friendlies, the FIFA World Cup , FIFA Women's
World Cup , FIFA U-20 World Cup and FIFA Club World Cup . [1 2 ]

FIFA World Rankings April 2009

The top three teams in the world in April 2009 are unchanged with Euro 2008 winners Spain at the
top with Germany in second place and the Netherlands in third. England are in 7th after impressive
results in World Cup qualifying.

Japan are in 35th position. South Korea are down one to 45th position.

The USA are up at 15th. Scotland are in 24th position. The Republic of Ireland are down eight to
34th position.

Ranking Team
1 Spain
2 Germany
3 Netherlands
4 Brazil
5 Italy
6 Argentina
7 England
8 Croatia
9 Russia
10 France
11 Portugal
12 Czech Republic
13 Greece

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Ranking Team
14 Turkey
15 USA
16 Uruguay
17 Paraguay
18 Switzerland
19 Cameroon
20 Bulgaria
21 Israel
22 Ukraine
23 Serbia
24 Scotland
25 Mexico
26 Chile
27 Northern Ireland
28 Romania
29 Denmark
30 Nigeria
31 Ghana
32 Australia
33 Sweden
34 Republic of Ireland
35 Japan
36 Côte d'Ivoire
37 Egypt
38 Bosnia-Herzegovina
39 Honduras
40 Costa Rica
41 Poland
42 Ecuador
43 Colombia
44 Hungary
45 Korea Republic

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Ranking Team
46 Norway
47 Slovakia
48 Gabon
49 Mali
50 Morocco
51 Finland
52 Tunisia
53 Iran
53 Guinea
55 Saudi Arabia
56 Burkina Faso
57 Lithuania
58 Venezuela
59 Bolivia
60 Panama
61 Latvia
62 Belgium
63 Slovenia
64 FYR Macedonia
65 Togo
66 Senegal
67 Congo
68 Uganda
69 Gambia
70 Jamaica
71 Bahrain
72 Algeria
73 Wales
74 Cyprus
75 Trinidad and Tobago
76 Uzbekistan
77 South Africa

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Ranking Team
78 Austria
79 New Zealand
80 Belarus
81 Oman
82 Libya
83 Rwanda
84 Sudan
85 Iraq
86 Mozambique
87 Angola
88 Peru
89 Canada
90 Zambia
91 Albania
92 Moldova
93 Iceland
94 Benin
95 Congo DR
96 Qatar
97 Syria
98 Cuba
99 Ethiopia
100 China PR
101 Tanzania
102 El Salvador
103 Cape Verde Islands
104 Korea DPR
105 Fiji
106 Zimbabwe
107 Kenya
108 Grenada
109 Georgia

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Ranking Team
110 Sierra Leone
111 Guatemala
112 Malawi
113 Thailand
114 Bermuda
115 Estonia
116 Antigua and Barbuda
117 Montenegro
118 Equatorial Guinea
118 Haiti
120 Kuwait
121 Namibia
122 United Arab Emirates
123 Barbados
124 Botswana
125 Armenia
126 Luxembourg
127 Jordan
127 Guyana
129 Suriname
130 Chad
131 New Caledonia
132 Burundi
133 Singapore
134 Vietnam
135 Madagascar
136 Swaziland
137 Kazakhstan
138 Indonesia
139 Nicaragua
140 Azerbaijan
140 Liberia

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Ranking Team
142 Hong Kong
143 Vanuatu
144 Tajikistan
145 Niger
146 Yemen
147 India
147 Kyrgyzstan
149 Netherlands Antilles
150 Lebanon
151 Malta
152 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
153 St. Kitts and Nevis
153 Puerto Rico
155 Liechtenstein
156 Mauritania
157 Turkmenistan
158 Maldives
159 Myanmar
160 Eritrea
161 Malaysia
162 Philippines
163 Lesotho
164 Solomon Islands
165 Sri Lanka
166 Faroe Islands
167 Somalia
168 Cayman Islands
169 Nepal
170 Laos
171 Palestine
172 Mauritius
173 Seychelles

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Ranking Team
174 Samoa
175 Cambodia
175 Belize
177 Pakistan
178 Bangladesh
179 Bahamas
180 Chinese Taipei
181 Turks and Caicos Islands
182 Brunei Darussalam
183 Mongolia
184 Afghanistan
185 Djibouti
185 Dominican Republic
187 Guinea-Bissau
188 Guam
189 Bhutan
189 St. Lucia
189 Tahiti
189 Tonga
193 British Virgin Islands
194 Aruba
195 Andorra
196 Macau
197 Dominica
198 Timor-Leste
199 Comoros
199 US Virgin Islands
201 Central African Republic
202 San Marino
202 Anguilla
202 Montserrat
202 American Samoa

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Ranking Team
202 Cook Islands
202 Papua New Guinea

02 May FIFA Interactive World Cup Grand Final 2009 Barcelona
20-21 May Blue Stars/FIFA Youth Cup 2009 Zurich
31 May - 03 June 59th FIFA Congress Bahamas
06-10 June Fixed date for official competition matches
14-28 June FIFA Confederations Cup South Africa 2009 South Africa
03-26 July CONCACAF Gold Cup
12 August Fixed date for friendly matches
05-09 September Fixed date for official competition matches
24 September - 16
FIFA U-20 World Cup Egypt
10-14 October Fixed date for official competition matches
24 October - 15
FIFA U-17 World Cup Nigeria
14-18 November Fixed date for official competition matches
16-22 November FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup UAE -Dubai
Final Draw for the 2010 FIFA World Cup South
04-05 December South Africa
United Arab
09-19 December FIFA Club World Cup
10-31 January CAF Africa Cup of Nations Angola
03 March Fixed date for friendly matches
11 June - 11 July 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™ South Africa
11 August Fixed date for friendly matches
04-08 September Fixed date for official competition matches
09-13 October Fixed date for official competition matches
17 November Fixed date for friendly matches
09 February Fixed date for friendly matches
26-30 March Fixed date for official competition matches
04-08 June Fixed date for official competition matches
10 August Fixed date for friendly matches
03-07 September Fixed date for official competition matches
08-12 October Fixed date for official competition matches

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12-16 November Fixed date for official competition matches
29 February Fixed date for friendly matches
15 August Fixed date for friendly matches
08-12 September Fixed date for official competition matches
13-17 October Fixed date for official competition matches
14 November Fixed date for friendly matches
06 February Fixed date for friendly matches
23-27 March Fixed date for official competition matches
08-12 June Fixed date for official competition matches
14 August Fixed date for friendly matches
07-11 September Fixed date for official competition matches
12-16 October Fixed date for official competition matches
16-20 November Fixed date for official competition matches
05 March Fixed date for friendly matches
13 August Fixed date for friendly matches
06-10 September Fixed date for official competition matches
11-15 October Fixed date for official competition matches
19 November Fixed date for friendly matches

• Laws of the Game.

The Field of Play

The field of play must be rectangular. The
length of the touch line must be greater
than the length of the goal line.
Length: minimum 90 m (100 yds)
maximum 120 m (130 yds)
Width: minimum 45 m (50 yds)
maximum 90 m (100 yds)
International Matches
Length: minimum 100 m (110 yds)
maximum 110 m (120 yds)
Width: minimum 64 m (70 yds)
maximum 75 m (80 yds)
Field Markings
The field of play is marked with lines. These

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lines belong to the areas of which they are
The two longer boundary lines are called
touch lines. The two shorter lines are called
goal lines.
All lines are not more than 12 cm (5 ins)
The field of play is divided into two halves by
a halfway line.
The centre mark is indicated at the midpoint
of the halfway line. A circle with a radius of
9.15 m (10 yds) is marked around it.
The Goal Area
A goal area is defined at each end of the field
as follows:
Two lines are drawn at right angles to the
goal line, 5.5 m (6 yds) from the inside of
each goalpost. These lines extend into the
field of play for a distance of 5.5 m (6 yds)
and are joined by a line drawn parallel with
the goal line. The area bounded by these lines
and the goal line is the goal area.
The Penalty Area
A penalty area is defined at each end of the
field as follows:
Two lines are drawn at right angles to the
goal line, 16.5 m (18 yds) from the inside of
each goalpost. These lines extend into the
field of play for a distance of 16.5 m (18 yds)
and are joined by a line drawn parallel with
the goal line. The area bounded by these lines
and the goal line is the penalty area.
Within each penalty area a penalty mark
is made 11 m (12 yds) from the midpoint
between the goalposts and equidistant to
them. An arc of a circle with a radius of
9.15 m (10 yds) from each penalty mark is
drawn outside the penalty area.
A flagpost, not less than 1.5 m (5 ft) high,
with a non-pointed top and a flag is placed at
each corner.
Flagposts may also be placed at each end of
the halfway line, not less than 1 m (1 yd)
outside the touch line.
The Corner Arc
A quarter circle with a radius of 1 m (1 yd)

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from each corner flagpost is drawn inside the
field of play.

Decisions of the International F.A. Board

_ Decision 1
If the crossbar becomes displaced or
broken, play is stopped until it has been
repaired or replaced in position. If a repair
is not possible, the match is abandoned. The
use of a rope to replace the crossbar is not
permitted. If the crossbar can be repaired,
the match is restarted with a dropped ball
at the place where the ball was located when
play was stopped. * (see page 3)
_ Decision 2
Goalposts and crossbars must be made of
wood, metal or other approved material.
Their shape may be square, rectangular,
round or elliptical and they must not be
dangerous to players.
_ Decision 3
No kind of commercial advertising, whether
real or virtual, is permitted on the field of
play and field equipment (including the
goal nets and the areas they enclose) from
the time the teams enter the field of play
until they have left it at half-time and from
the time the teams re-enter the field of play
until the end of the match. In particular, no
advertising material of any kind may be
displayed on goals, nets, flagposts or their
flags. No extraneous equipment (cameras,
microphones, etc.) may be attached to these
_ Decision 4
There shall be no advertising of any kind
within the technical area or within one
metre from the touch line and outside the
field of play on the ground. Further, no
advertising shall be allowed in the area
between the goal line and the goal nets.
_ Decision 5
The reproduction, whether real or virtual,
of representative logos or emblems of FIFA,
confederations, national associations,
leagues, clubs or other bodies, is forbidden
on the field of play and field equipment

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(including the goal nets and the areas they
enclose) during playing time, as described
in Decision 3.
_ Decision 6
A mark may be made off the field of play,
9.15 metres (10 yds) from the corner arc
and at right angles to the goal lines to
ensure that this distance is observed when a
corner kick is being taken.

The Ball
Qualities and Measurements
The ball is:
_ spherical
_ made of leather or other suitable material
_ of a circumference of not more than 70 cm
(28 ins) and not less than 68 cm (27 ins)
_ not more than 450 g (16 oz) in weight and
not less than 410 g (14 oz) at the start of the
_ of a pressure equal to 0.6 – 1.1 atmosphere
(600 – 1100 g/cm2) at sea level (8.5 lbs/sq in
15.6 lbs/sq in)
Replacement of a Defective Ball
If the ball bursts or becomes defective
during the course of a match:
_ the match is stopped
_ the match is restarted by dropping the
replacement ball at the place where the first
ball became defective * (see page 3)
If the ball bursts or becomes defective
whilst not in play at a kick-off, goal kick,
corner kick, free kick, penalty kick or
_ the match is restarted accordingly
The ball may not be changed during the
match without the authority of the referee.

Offside Position
It is not an offence in itself to be in an
offside position.
A player is in an offside position if:
_ he is nearer to his opponents’ goal line than
both the ball and the second last opponent
A player is not in an offside position if:

Ravindra 262
_ he is in his own half of the field of play
_ he is level with the second last opponent
_ he is level with the last two opponents
A player in an offside position is only
penalised if, at the moment the ball touches
or is played by one of his team, he is, in the
opinion of the referee, involved in active play
_ interfering with play
_ interfering with an opponent
_ gaining an advantage by being in that
No Offence
There is no offside offence if a player receives
the ball directly from:
_ a goal kick
_ a throw-in
_ a corner kick

Disciplinary Sanctions
Only a player or substitute or substituted
player may be shown the red or yellow card.
Cautionable Offences
A player is cautioned and shown the yellow
card if he commits any of the following
seven offences:
1. is guilty of unsporting behaviour
2. shows dissent by word or action
3. persistently infringes the Laws of the
4. delays the restart of play
5. fails to respect the required distance
when play is restarted with a corner kick
or free kick
6. enters or re-enters the field of play
without the referee’s permission
7. deliberately leaves the field of play
without the referee’s permission
Law 12
Sending-Off Offences

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A player is sent off and shown the red card
if he commits any of the following seven
1. is guilty of serious foul play
2. is guilty of violent conduct
3. spits at an opponent or any other person
4. denies the opposing team a goal or an
obvious goal-scoring opportunity by
deliberately handling the ball (this does
not apply to a goalkeeper within his own
penalty area)
5. denies an obvious goal-scoring opportunity
to an opponent moving towards the
player’s goal by an offence punishable by
a free kick or a penalty kick
6. uses offensive or insulting or abusive
language and/or gestures
7. receives a second caution in the same
A player who has been sent off must leave
the vicinity of the field of play and the
technical area.

A penalty kick is awarded against a team

which commits one of the ten offences for
which a direct free kick is awarded, inside its
own penalty area and while the ball is in play.
A goal may be scored directly from a penalty
Additional time is allowed for a penalty kick
to be taken at the end of each half or at the
end of periods of extra time.
Position of the Ball and the Players
The ball:
_ is placed on the penalty mark
The player taking the penalty kick:
_ is properly identified
The defending goalkeeper:
_ remains on his goal line, facing the kicker,
between the goalposts until the ball has been
The players other than the kicker are located:
_ inside the field of play
_ outside the penalty area
_ behind the penalty mark
_ at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the penalty

Ravindra 264
The Referee
_ does not signal for a penalty kick to be taken
until the players have taken up position in
accordance with the Law
_ decides when a penalty kick has been
_ the player taking the penalty kicks the ball
_ he does not play the ball a second time until
it has touched another player
_ the ball is in play when it is kicked and
moves forward
When a penalty kick is taken during the
normal course of play, or time has been
extended at half-time or full time to allow a
penalty kick to be taken or retaken, a goal is
awarded if, before passing between the
goalposts and under the crossbar:
_ the ball touches either or both of the
goalposts and/or the crossbar, and/or the
Law 14
If the referee gives the signal for a penalty
kick to be taken and, before the ball is in
play, one of the following situations occurs:
The player taking the penalty kick infringes
the Laws of the Game:
_ the referee allows the kick to proceed
_ if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
_ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is
not retaken
The goalkeeper infringes the Laws of the
_ the referee allows the kick to proceed
_ if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
_ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is
A team-mate of the player taking the kick
enters the penalty area or moves in front of
or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty
_ the referee allows the kick to proceed
_ if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
_ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is

Ravindra 265
not retaken
_ if the ball rebounds from the goalkeeper, the
crossbar or the goal post and is touched by this
player, the referee stops play and restarts the
match with an indirect free kick to the
defending team
A team-mate of the goalkeeper enters the
penalty area or moves in front of or within
9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark:
_ the referee allows the kick to proceed
_ if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
_ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is
A player of both the defending team and the
attacking team infringe the Laws of the
_ the kick is retaken
If, after the penalty kick has been taken:
The kicker touches the ball a second time
(except with his hands) before it has
touched another player:
_ an indirect free kick is awarded to the
opposing team, the kick to be taken from the
place where the infringement occurred *
(see page 3)
The kicker deliberately handles the ball
before it has touched another player:
_ a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing
team, the kick to be taken from the place where
the infringement occurred * (see page 3)
The ball is touched by an outside agent as it
moves forward:
_ the kick is retaken
The ball rebounds into the field of play
from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the
goalposts, and is then touched by an outside
_ the referee stops play
_ play is restarted with a dropped ball at theplace where it touched the outside agent *

Ravindra 266
World Cup summaries
Year Host Nation(s) Final Third Place Match
1930 Winner Score Runner-up 3rd Place Score 4th Place
Details [note 1]
1934 Uruguay Argentina United States Yugoslavia
1938 2–1 aet 3–2
France Italy Czechoslovakia Germany Austria
1950 4–2 Hungary 4–2
Brazil Italy Brazil Sweden
[note 2] [note 2]
1954 Uruguay Brazil Sweden Spain
1958 3–1
Sweden West 3–2 Austria Uruguay
Details Hungary
Chile 6–3 West
Details 5–2 France
Brazil Sweden Germany
Details 3–1 1–0 Yugoslavia
Brazil Czechoslovakia Chile
Details 4–2 aet 2–1
England West Germany Portugal USSR
1974 West
Details Germany 4–1
Brazil Italy West 1–0
1978 Uruguay
Argentina Germany
1982 West 2–1
Netherlands 1–0
Spain Germany Poland Brazil
1986 3–1 aet 2–1
Mexico Argentina Netherlands Brazil Italy
1990 3–1 3–2
Italy Italy West Germany Poland France
1994 United 3–2 4–2 aet
Details States Argentina West Germany France Belgium
France West 1–0 2–1
Details Argentina Italy England
South Germany
2002 0–0 aet 4–0
Korea Sweden Bulgaria
Details (3–2)
& Japan Brazil Italy
pen Croatia 2–1
France Brazil 3–2 Korea
2006 Turkey
Germany 2–0 Republic
Details Brazil Germany
1–1 aet
(5–3) 3–1
Germany Portugal
Italy France

Ravindra 267
Team Titles Runners-up Brazil 5 (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002) 2 (1950*, 1998)

Italy 4 (1934*, 1938, 1982, 2006) 2 (1970, 1994)

Germany^ 3 (1954, 1974*, 1990) 4 (1966, 1982, 1986, 2002)

Argentina 2 (1978*, 1986) 2 (1930, 1990)

Uruguay 2 (1930*, 1950) –

France 1 (1998*) 1 (2006)

England 1 (1966*) –

Netherlands – 2 (1974, 1978)

Czechoslovakia# – 2 (1934, 1962) Hungary – 2 (1938, 1954) Sweden – 1 (1958*)


International Rugby League

International Rugby League: Rugby Football is a popular full-contact team sport, played
worldwide. Believed to have originated in 1823, at the Rugby School, in Warwickshire, England,
this sport has evolved over the years.

With the disbanding from the Rugby Football Union (RFU) in 1895, Northern Union is better
known Rugby League since 1922.

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Sanctioned and overseen by the International Rugby Board (IRB) and the Rugby League
International Federation (RLIF), there are numerous International Rugby League competitions that
are held every year, with various countries participating in them. The countries are distinguished as
Test and Non-Test playing nations and are named below:

• Test Nations – Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, Great Britain/England, New Zealand,
Papua New Guinea, Russia, Samoa, South Africa and Tonga.
• Non-Test Nations - American Samoa, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Czech Republic,
England, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon,
Malta, Moldova, Morocco, Namibia, New Caledonia, Netherlands, Niue, Norfolk Island,
Portugal, Scotland, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, United States, Wales and
West Indies.

The major International Rugby League competitions that are held are listed below as:

• The Rugby League World Cup – this international tournament was first held in France in
1954, and is played to determine the best rugby league playing nation in the world. Its
current champions are Australia which will also be host to the next Cup event in 2008.
• The Ashes – a rugby league Test tournament between Great Britain and Australia, this
event was first played in 1908 in London. While Australia won the 2003 series, they also
expect to be hosts for the 2010 Ashes event.
• The ANZAC Test – its current name being the Bundaberg Rum Test, this Test event
between Australia and New Zealand is held around Anzac Day. The first event was held in
1997 in Australia. Australia have won six of the seven matches played till now, and will
also host the 2007 event in April.
• The Tri-Nations – also known as the Gillette Tri-Nations tournament, it is played amongst
Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. First played in 1999, the next event would be
hosted by United Kingdom in 2009. Its current champions are Australia.
• The Pacific Cup –Started in 1974, this Cup event is for teams from the Pacific region. Held
of and on over the years, the event was recently revived by New Zealand in 2004. Tonga
are the current champions.
• The Pacific Rim Championship – a competition held in conjunction with the Pacific Cup,
and held biennially.
• The Mediterranean Cup – An annual tournament which began in 2000, with an unsteady
run, is held in Lebanon. The countries participating are Lebanon, France, Morocco and
• The European Nations Cup – Earlier known as European Championship, it began in 1935,
and is a Cup event for European nations, which is sanctioned by the Rugby League
European Federation. France are the standing 2005 winners.
• The Emerging Nations Tournament – started in 1995, this international event is for those
nations that have failed to qualify for the World Cup. The standing winners are the British
Amateur Rugby League Association since 2000.
• The World Club Challenge – this annual tournament is held between the winners of the
Australian NRL and the Super League (Europe). The 2007 champions are St Helens RFC.

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• The NRL Telstra Premiership

• The Liberty Bell Cup

List of international Rugby League teams

Current RLIF full-member test nations

Nation 1st Playing Year RLIF Rank

Australia 1908 1st

Cook Islands 1988 14th

England * 1904 3rd

Fiji 1992 4th

France 1934 5th

Great Britain * 1908 n/a

New Zealand 1908 2nd

Papua New Guinea 1975 6th

Russia 1991 13th

Samoa 1988 10th

Lebanon 1998 11th

Tonga 1988 8th

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• * At the beginning of the 2008 international season Great Britain were split up into
England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales on a permanent basis and it was believed all of these
nations were granted full-membership into the top tier.

Current RLIF second-tier member nations

• These are nations that appear in major international competitions such as the European,
Mediterranean and Pacific Cups or in the world cup qualifiers:

Nation 1st Year Played RLIF Rank

American Samoa 1988 n/a

Georgia 2005 15th

South Africa 1995 23rd

Ireland 1989 7th

Italy 1960 18th

Japan 1998 17th

Lebanon 1998 11th

Morocco 1995 24th

Netherlands 2004 n/a

New Caledonia 2004 n/a

Niue 1992 29th

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Scotland 1996 9th

Serbia 2003 16th

Tokelau 1988 30th

United States 1954 15th

Wales 1908 12th

West Indies 2004 n/a

Current RLIF affiliates

• These are nations that are currently officially recognized as affiliates of the RLIF but do not
yet currently compete in major international competitions or world cup qualifiers:

Nation Year joined RLIF Rank

Argentina 2005 n/a

Austria 2006 n/a

Canada 1987 n/a

Catalonia 2006 n/a

Côte d'Ivoire 2006 n/a

Czech Republic 2006 20th

Estonia 2005 22nd

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Germany 2004 19th

Greece 2003 26st

Hungary 2007 n/a

Jamaica 2006 24th

Kazakhstan 2006 n/a

Malta 2004 27th

Moldova 1993 n/a

Norfolk Island 2004 n/a

Norway 2006 n/a

Portugal 2005 n/a

Singapore 2004 n/a

Solomon Islands 2004 n/a

Thailand 2007 n/a

Tuvalu 2004 n/a

Uruguay 2007 n/a

RLIF World Rankings

Rank Change Team

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1 -- Australia
2 -- New Zealand
3 -- England
4 ▲2 Fiji
5 -- France
Papua New
6 ▲1
7 ▲2 Ireland
8 ▼4 Tonga
9 ▲2 Scotland
10 ▲2 Samoa
11 ▼3 Lebanon
12 ▼2 Wales
13 -- Russia
14 ▲3 Cook Islands
15 ▼1 United States
16 ▲4 Serbia
17 ▲11 Japan
18 ▼2 Italy
19 ▲3 Germany
20 ▲11 Czech Republic
21 ? Latvia
22 ▲7 Estonia
23 ▲7 South Africa
24 ▲12 Jamaica
24 ▲3 Morocco
26 ▼5 Greece
27 ▼8 Malta
28 ? Ukraine
29 ▼3 Niue

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History of the Nobel Prizes
A pacifist at heart and an inventor by nature, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite.
However, the invention that he thought would end all wars was seen by many others as an
extremely deadly product. In 1888, when Alfred's brother Ludvig died, a French newspaper
mistakenly ran an obituary for Alfred which called him the "merchant of death."

Not wanting to go down in history with such a horrible epitaph, Nobel created a will that soon
shocked his relatives and established the now famous Nobel Prizes.

Who was Alfred Nobel? Why did Nobel's will make establishing the prizes so difficult?

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel was born on October 21, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. In 1842, when Alfred was
nine years old, his mother (Andrietta Ahlsell) and brothers (Robert and Ludvig) moved to St.
Petersburg, Russia to join Alfred's father (Immanuel), who had moved there five years earlier.
The following year, Alfred's younger brother, Emil, was born.

Immanuel Nobel, an architect, builder, and inventor, opened a machineshop in St. Petersburg
and was soon very successful with contracts from the Russian government to build defense

Because of his father's success, Alfred was tutored at home until the age of 16. Yet, many
consider Alfred Nobel a mostly self-educated man. Besides being a trained chemist, Alfred was
an avid reader of literature and was fluent in English, German, French, Swedish, and Russian.

Alfred also spent two years traveling. He spent much of this time working in a laboratory in
Paris, but also traveled to the United States. Upon his return, Alfred worked in his father's
factory. He worked there until his father went bankrupt in 1859.

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Alfred soon began experimenting with nitroglycerine, creating his first explosions in early
summer 1862. In only a year (October 1863), Alfred received a Swedish patent for his percussion
detonator - the "Nobel lighter."

Having moved back to Sweden to help his father with an invention, Alfred established a small
factory at Helenborg near Stockholm to manufacture nitroglycerine. Unfortunately,
nitroglycerine is a very difficult and dangerous material to handle. In 1864, Alfred's factory blew
up - killing several people, including Alfred's younger brother, Emil.

The explosion did not slow down Alfred, and within only a month, he organized other factories to
manufacture nitroglycerine.

In 1867, Alfred invented a new and safer-to-handle explosive - dynamite.

Though Alfred became famous for his invention of dynamite, many people did not intimately
know Alfred Nobel. He was a quiet man who did not like a lot of pretense or show. He had very
few friends and never married.

And though he recognized the destructive power of dynamite, Alfred believed it was a harbinger
of peace. Alfred told Bertha von Suttner, an advocate for world peace,

My factories may make an end of war sooner than your congresses. The day when two army
corps can annihilate each other in one second, all civilized nations, it is to be hoped, will recoil
from war and discharge their troops.*

Unfortunately, Alfred did not see peace in his time. Alfred Nobel, chemist and inventor, died
alone on December 10, 1896 after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.

After several funeral services were held and Alfred Nobel's body was cremated, the will was
opened. Everyone was shocked.

The Will

Alfred Nobel had written several wills during his lifetime, but the last one was dated November
27, 1895 - a little over a year before he died.

Nobel's last will left approximately 94 percent of his worth to the establishment of five prizes
(physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace) to "those who, during the
preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."

Though Nobel had proposed a very grandiose plan for the prizes in his will, there were a great
many problems with the will.

• Relatives of Alfred Nobel were so shocked that many wanted the will contested.
• The format of the will had formal defects which could have caused the will to be
contested in France.

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• It was unclear which country Alfred had his legal residence. He was a Swedish citizen
until age nine, but after that he had lived in Russia, France, and Italy without becoming
a citizen. Nobel had been making plans for a final home for himself in Sweden when he
died. The location of residency would determine what country's laws would govern the
will and the estate. If determined to be France, the will could have been contested and
French taxes would have been taken.
• Because Nobel had wanted the Norwegian Storting (parliament) to choose the peace prize
winner, many charged Nobel with a lack of patriotism.
• The "fund" that was to implement the prizes did not yet exist and would have to be
• The organizations that Nobel named in his will to award the prizes had not been asked to
take on these duties prior to Nobel's death. Also, there was no plan to compensate these
organizations for their work on the prizes.
• The will did not state what should be done if no prize winners for a year were found.

Because of the incompleteness and other obstacles presented by Alfred's will, it took five years of
hurdles before the Nobel Foundation could be established and the first prizes awarded.

The First Nobel Prizes

On the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death, December 10, 1901, the first set of Nobel Prizes
were awarded.

Chemistry: Jacobus H. van't Hoff

Physics: Wilhelm C. Röntgen
Physiology or Medicine: Emil A. von Behring
Literature: Rene F. A. Sully Prudhomme
Peace: Jean H. Dunant and Frédéric Passy

Background and Establishment of the

Nobel Foundation
Alfred Nobel died on December 10, 1896. The provisions of his will and their unusual purpose,
as well as their partly incomplete form, attracted great attention and soon led to skepticism and
criticism, also aimed at the testator due to his international spirit. Only after several years of
negotiations and often rather bitter conflicts, and after various obstacles had been circumvented
or overcome, could the fundamental concepts presented in the will assume solid form with the
establishment of the Nobel Foundation. On April 26, 1897, the Storting (Norwegian Parliament)
approved the will and soon afterwards elected members to the prize-awarding Norwegian Nobel
Committee of the Storting. In 1898 the other prize-awarding bodies followed suit, approving the
will after mediation: Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9 and the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.

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The testator and his will. The superimposed
photo of Alfred Nobel was taken in 1896, the
year he died.

The will was now settled. The task of achieving unity among all the affected parties on how to
put its provisions into practice remained. The final version of the Statutes of the Nobel
Foundation contained clarifications of the wording of the will and a provision that prizes not
considered possible to award could be allocated to funds that would otherwise promote the
intentions of the testator. The Statutes provided for the establishment of Nobel Committees to
perform prize adjudication work and Nobel Institutes to support this work, as well as the
appointment of a Board of Directors in charge of the Foundation's financial and administrative

On June 29, 1900, the Statutes of the newly created legatee, the Nobel Foundation, and special
regulations for the Swedish Prize-Awarding Institutions were promulgated by the King in
Council (Oscar II). The same year as the political union between Sweden and Norway was
dissolved in 1905, special regulations were adopted on April 10, 1905, by the Nobel Committee of
the Storting (known since January 1, 1977 as the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the awarder of
the Nobel Peace Prize.

Ravindra 278
A century old. The cover of the
Statutes of the Nobel Foundation
when it was promulgated on June 29,

To create a worthy framework around the prizes, the Board decided at an early stage that it
would erect its own building in Stockholm, which would include a hall for the Prize Award
Ceremony and Banquet as well as its own administrative offices. Ferdinand Boberg was selected
as the architect. He presented an ambitious proposal for a Nobel Palace, which generated
extensive publicity but also led to doubts and questions. World War I broke out before any
decision could be made. The proposal was "put on ice" and by the time the matter was revived
after the war, Ivar Tengbom was busily designing what later became the Stockholm Concert Hall.
Meanwhile the Stockholm City Hall was being built under the supervision of Ragnar Östberg.
Boberg, Tengbom, and Östberg were probably the most respected architects in Sweden at that
time. Because it would have access to both these buildings for its events, the Nobel Foundation
now only needed space for its administrative offices. On December 19, 1918, a building at
Sturegatan 14 was bought for this purpose. After years of renovation there, the Foundation
finally left its cramped premises at Norrlandsgatan 6 in 1926 and moved to Sturegatan 14, where
the Foundation has been housed ever since.

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Objectives of the Foundation
The Nobel Foundation is a private institution. It is entrusted with protecting the common
interests of the Prize Awarding Institutions named in the will, as well as representing the Nobel
institutions externally. This includes informational activities as well as arrangements related to
the presentation of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is not, however, involved in the selection
process and the final choice of the Laureates (as Nobel Prize winners are also called). In this
work, the Prize-Awarding Institutions are not only entirely independent of all government
agencies and organizations, but also of the Nobel Foundation. Their autonomy is of crucial
importance to the objectivity and quality of their prize decisions. One vital task of the Foundation
is to manage its assets in such a way as to safeguard the financial base of the prizes themselves
and of the prize selection process.

Statutes and Significant Amendments during 100 Years

The Statutes, as most recently revised in 2000, assign roles to the following bodies or individuals
in the Nobel Foundation's activities:

• The Board and the Executive Director (especially paragraphs 13 and 14)
• The Prize-Awarding Institutions (especially paragraphs 1 and 2)
• The Trustees of the Prize-Awarding Institutions (especially paragraph 18)
• The Nobel Committees and experts (especially paragraph 6)
• Bodies and individuals entitled to submit prize nominations (especially paragraph 7)
• Auditors (especially paragraph 19)

Over the past 100 years, there have been a number of changes in the relationship between the
Foundation's Board of Directors and the Swedish State. Their links have gradually been severed.

According to paragraph 14 of the first Statutes from 1901, the Foundation was to be represented
by a Board with its seat in Stockholm, consisting of five Swedish men. One of these, the
Chairman of the Board, was to be designated by the King in Council. The Trustees of the Prize

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Awarding Institutions would appoint the others. The Board would choose an Executive Director
from among its own members. An alternate (deputy) to the Chairman would be appointed by the
King in Council (effective in 1974, by the Government), and two deputies for the other members
would be elected by the Trustees. Since 1995 the Trustees have appointed all members and
deputies of the Board. The Board chooses a Chairman, Deputy Chairman and Executive
Director from among its own members.

The first Board of Directors of the Nobel Foundation was elected by the Trustees on September
27, 1900 (Hans Forsell, Ragnar Törnebladh, Henrik Santesson, and Ragnar Sohlman, with
Mauritz Salin and Oscar Montelius as Deputies). On the following day, former Prime Minister
Erik Gustaf Boström was appointed Chairman of the Board by the King in Council with the
Justice of the Supreme Court C. G. Hernmarck as Deputy. On October 3, 1900 the Board elected
Assistant Circuit Judge Henrik Santesson as the first Executive Director of the Foundation.
Effective on January 1, 1901 the Board assumed management of the Foundation's assets.

Until 1960 the Chairman was chosen from the small group of "Gentlemen of the Realm" - prime
ministers, ministers for foreign affairs and other high officials. In 1960 for the first time, a
renowned scientist was chosen: Arne Tiselius, Professor of Biochemistry at Uppsala University
and 1948 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. Since then the Chairman has been chosen from among
members of the Prize-Awarding Institutions. It has also become a rule that the Deputy Chairman
as well as one of the members of the Board elected by the Trustees should be persons with
financial expertise. This custom began in 1951, when senior banker and industrialist Jacob
Wallenberg was elected to the Board by the Trustees. He was also a member of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences. When his brother Marcus Wallenberg succeeded him in 1968, it
was the first time that a member of the Board did not belong to a Prize-Awarding Institution. As
to the Deputy Chairman of the Board, appointed by the King in Council, this practice started in
1960, when the prominent banker Gustaf Söderlund was elected to the Board. In most cases, the
Executive Director has had a legal and administrative background. As the Foundation's
investment policy became more active from the early 1950s onward, financial experience coupled
with a knowledge of international relations have been valuable assets for those holding this

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Arne Tiselius was
Chairman of the
Board of the Nobel
Foundation 1960-

An important landmark in the history of the Foundation occurred when it added Norwegian
representation to the Board. In 1901, the Norwegians refrained from representation on the
Board - being appointed by King Oscar at a time when Norway was moving toward a breakup of
its union with Sweden was not considered an attractive idea - and they limited their involvement
to work as Trustees and auditors. In light of this, it is interesting to note that Henrik Santesson,
the first Executive Director of the Foundation, also happened to be the legal counsel of the
Storting in Sweden. But in 1986, paragraph 14 of the Statutes was changed and the Board no
longer had to consist of five Swedish citizens (the original Statutes had said Swedish men), but of
six Swedish or Norwegian citizens. The Statutes were also changed in such a way that
remuneration to the Board members and auditors of the Foundation, as well as the salary of the
Executive Director, would be determined by the Foundation's Board instead of the Swedish

King Oscar II of Sweden

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According to paragraph 17 of the original Statutes, the administration of the Board and the
accounts of the Foundation for each calendar year were to be examined by five auditors. Each
prize-awarding body would elect one of these before the end of the year and the King would
designate one, who would be the chairman of the auditors. In 1955 the number of auditors was
enlarged from five to six; the new auditor would be appointed by the Trustees and had to be an
authorized public accountant. This was a very important change, in line with the Foundation's
more active financial investment policy.

Today the Government's only role in the Nobel Foundation is to appoint one auditor, who is also
to be the chairman of the Foundation's auditors.

Among other changes that have occurred in the Statutes are the following:

Until 1968, in principle more than three persons could share a Nobel Prize, but this never
occurred in practice. The previous wording of paragraph 4 was: "A prize may be equally divided
between two works, each of which may be considered to merit a prize. If a work which is to be
rewarded has been produced by two or more persons together, the prize shall be awarded to them
jointly." In 1968 this section was changed to read that "In no case may a prize be divided
between more than three persons."

In 1974, the Statutes were changed in two respects. The confidential archive material that
formed the basis for the evaluation and selection of candidates for the prizes, which was
previously closed to all outsiders, could now be made available for purposes of historical
research if at least 50 years had elapsed since the decision in question. The other change
concerned deceased persons. Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if
he/she had already been nominated (before February 1 of the same year), which was true of Erik
Axel Karlfeldt (Literature Prize, 1931) and Dag Hammarskjöld (Peace Prize, 1961). Effective
from 1974, the prize may only go to a deceased person to whom it was already awarded (usually
in October) but who had died before he/she could receive the prize on December 10 (William
Vickrey, 1996 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel).

Erik Axel Dag

William Vickrey
Karlfeldt Hammarskjöld
Copyright © The
Copyright © The Copyright © The
Nobel Nobel
Foundation Foundation

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Financial Management
The main task of the Nobel Foundation is to safeguard the financial base of the Nobel Prizes
and of the work connected to the selection of the Nobel Laureates.

In its role as a financial manager, the Nobel Foundation resembles an investment company. The
investment policy of the Foundation is naturally of the greatest importance in preserving and
increasing its funds, thereby ensuring the size of the Nobel Prizes. The provisions of Alfred
Nobel's will instructed his executors to invest his remaining realizable estate, which would
constitute the capital of what eventually became the Nobel Foundation, in "safe securities." In
the original by-laws of the Board, approved by the King in Council on February 15, 1901, the
expression "safe securities" was interpreted in the spirit of that time as referring mainly to bonds
or loans - Swedish as well as foreign - paying fixed interest and backed by solid underlying
security (central or local government, property mortgages or the like). In those days, many bonds
were sold with a so-called gold clause, stipulating that the holder was entitled to demand
payment in gold. The stock market and real estate holdings were beyond the pale. Stocks in
particular were regarded as an excessively risky and speculative form of financial investment.

The first 50 years of management came to be characterized by rigidity in terms of financial

investments and by an increasingly onerous tax burden. Remarkably, the tax issue had not been
addressed when the Nobel Foundation was established. The tax-exempt status that the executors
of the will and others had assumed as self-evident was not granted. Until 1914, the tax was not
excessively heavy, only 10 percent, but when a "temporary defense tax" supplement was
introduced in 1915, the Foundation's tax burden doubled. In 1922, a maximum tax assessment
was imposed which exceeded the sum available for the prizes in 1923, the year when the Nobel
Prize amount reached its absolute low point. For a long time, the Nobel Foundation was the
largest single taxpayer in Stockholm. The question of granting tax-exempt status to the
Foundation was debated back and forth in the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) for years.

In 1946, when the Foundation was finally exempted from national income and wealth tax and
local income tax, this allowed a gradual long-term increase in the size of the Foundation's main
fund, the Nobel Prizes and the sums paid to the Prize-Awarding Institutions for their
adjudication work. Without Swedish tax-exempt status, it would have been impossible for the
Foundation to receive equivalent tax relief for its financial investments in the United States. In
the event, a U.S. Treasury ruling granted the Foundation tax-exempt status in that country
effective from 1953. Tax-exempt status created greater freedom of action, enabling the
Foundation to pursue an investment policy not dominated by tax considerations that characterize
the actions of many investors.

However, the restrictions on the Foundation's freedom of investments continued with minor
changes until 1953, although the gold clause and resulting protection against declining value
had disappeared as early as World War I. Because of two world wars and the depression of the
early 1930s, the prizes shrank in real terms from SEK 150,000 in 1901 (equivalent to 20 times the
annual salary of a university professor) to a mere one third of this value.

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Then, in 1953, the Government approved a radical liberalization of the investment rules. The
Foundation was granted a more extensive freedom to manage its capital independently, as well
as the opportunity to invest in stocks and real estate. Freedom of investment, coupled with tax-
exemption and the financial expertise of the Board, led to a transformation from passive to active
management. This can be regarded as a landmark change in the role of the Foundation's Board.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the value of the Nobel Prizes multiplied in Swedish krona terms but
rapid inflation meanwhile undermined their real value, leaving each prize largely unchanged.
The same was true of the Foundation's capital.

Photo of the check received by Prof. J. C. Kendrew,

1962 Nobel Chemistry Laureate. Nowadays, no
checks are given. The prize money is transferred by
bank according to the Laureate's wishes.

During the 1980s, the Foundation experienced a change for the better. The stock market
performed outstandingly and the Foundation's real estate also climbed in value. A sour note
came in 1985, when Swedish real estate taxes rose sharply and profits consequently vanished. In
1987, the Board decided to transfer most of the Foundation's real estate to a separate company
called Beväringen, which was then floated on the stock exchange. In the same year that
Beväringen was established, the Nobel Foundation surpassed its original value in real terms
(SEK 31 million in 1901 money) for the first time. The Foundation was fortunate enough to sell
its entire holding in Beväringen before the real estate crash of the early 1990s.

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The first Nobel Prize in 1901 amounted to SEK
150,000, equivalent to SEK 7.4 million in 2006

By 1991, the Foundation had restored the Nobel Prizes to their 1901 real value. Today the
nominal fund capital of the Nobel Foundation is about SEK 3.6 billion. In 2006 each of the five
Nobel Prizes as well as the Economics Prize was worth SEK 10 million (about USD 1.45
million). This is well above the nominal value of the entire original fund, and higher than the
real value of the original prizes. Since January 1, 2000, the Nobel Foundation has also been
permitted to apply the capital gains from the sale of assets toward the prize amounts. According
to Alfred Nobel's will, only direct return - interest and dividends - could be used for the prize
amounts. Capital gains from share management could not previously be used. According to the
new rules, return that arises from the sale of Foundation assets may also be used for prize award
events and overhead, to the extent that they are not needed to maintain a good long-term prize-
awarding capacity. This change is necessary to avoid undermining the value of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Foundation may also decide how much of its assets may be invested in shares. In the
long term, this may mean that the Foundation can now have a higher percentage of its assets
invested in shares, leading to higher overall return and thus larger Nobel Prizes.

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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in
Economic Sciences in Memory of
Alfred Nobel
On the occasion of its 300th anniversary in 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank)
made a large donation to the Nobel Foundation. A Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of
Alfred Nobel has been awarded since 1969. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is entrusted
with the role of Prize Awarding-Institution, in accordance with Nobel Prize rules. The Board of
the Nobel Foundation has subsequently decided that it will allow no further new prizes.

The Economics Prize medal's

... and back.
Copyright © The Nobel

Nobel Symposia
An important addition to the activities of the Nobel Foundation is its Symposium program, which
was initiated in 1965 and has achieved a high international standing. Approximately 135 Nobel
Symposia, dealing with topics at the frontiers of science and culture and related to the Prize
categories, have taken place. In addition to these Nobel Symposia, six Nobel Jubilee Symposia
were held in 1991 and six Nobel Centennial Symposia in 2001. Since 1982 the Nobel Symposia
have been financed by the Foundation's Symposium Fund, created in 1982 through an initial
donation from the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg
Foundation, as well as through grants and royalties received by the Nobel Foundation as part of
its informational activities.

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Donations And Prizes
Around the world, new international scientific and cultural prizes have been established, directly
inspired by the Nobel Prize. For example, the Japan Prize and Kyoto Prize - both financially in a
class with the Nobel Prize - were established in 1985 and their statutes directly refer to the Nobel
Prizes as a model and source of inspiration. Donations from these and many other sources have
reached the Foundation over the years. Some of these donations are presented below.

In 1962 the Balzan Foundation, based in Switzerland and Italy, gave its first prize of one million
Swiss francs to the Nobel Foundation for having awarded its Nobel Prizes for 60 years in an
exemplary way, thereby celebrating "l'oeuvre admirable accomplie dans 60 années de travail."

In 1972, Georg von Békésy, 1961 Nobel Laureate in physiology or medicine, donated his
exquisite collection of art objects to the Nobel Foundation - some 150 objects from four
continents (not Australia). The collection is now deposited with various museums in Stockholm,
mainly the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities but also the Museum of Medieval Stockholm, the
Ethnographic Museum and the National Museum.

Cover of The Georg von Békésy Collection published

by the Nobel Foundation in 1974.
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Also in 1972 the Foundation received a donation from the Italian marquis Luigi de Beaumont
Bonelli, who bequeathed his two wine-growing estates outside Taranto, southern Italy, to the
Nobel Foundation. The properties were worth SEK 4.5 million. Their sale made possible the
establishment of an annual Beaumont-Bonelli fellowship to a promising young Italian medical

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The two Japanese prizes were mentioned above. On April 20, 1985, the Science and Technology
Foundation of Japan established the Japan Prize. At the first award ceremony, a special prize of
JPY 50 million was awarded to the Nobel Foundation "in recognition of the role the Nobel
Foundation has played since 1901 in promoting science and international understanding." On
November 10, 1985, the Inamori Foundation in Kyoto awarded its first Kyoto Prize of JPY 45
million to the Nobel Foundation "with the aim of promoting science, technology and the arts in
the spirit of the Nobel Prize."

Nobel Festivities
The Nobel Foundation is an "investment company" with rather unusual facets. Every year this
investment company moves into show business by organizing the Nobel Festivities and numerous
related arrangements that take place in December. The Nobel Foundation is responsible for
organizing the Nobel Festivities in Stockholm, while in Norway the Norwegian Nobel Committee
is in charge of the corresponding arrangements. On December 10, 1901, the Nobel Prizes were
awarded for the first time in Stockholm and in Christiania (now Oslo) respectively.

The Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm took place at the Old Royal Academy of Music during
the years 1901-1925. Parenthetically, it is worth mentioning that during the first years the names
of the Nobel Laureates were not made public until the Award Ceremony itself.

The first Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the

Old Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Since 1926, the Prize Award Ceremony has taken place at the Stockholm Concert Hall with few
exceptions. In 1971 the venue was the Philadelphia Church and in 1972 the St. Erik
International Fair (known today as Stockholm International Fairs) in Älvsjö, both times due to
repairs at the Concert Hall. In 1975 the Ceremony again took place at the St. Erik International

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Fair and in 1991 at the Stockholm Globe Arena, now due to special commemorations of Nobel
history that required large seating capacity. In 1975, it was the 75th anniversary of the Nobel
Foundation that was being commemorated, while in 1991 the 90th anniversary of the first Nobel
Prizes was the focus of the celebrations. In 1975 about 70 pre-1975 Nobel Laureates attended,
and in 1991 approximately 130 pre-1991 Laureates. When the Foundation celebrated the 100th
anniversary of the Nobel Prizes in 2001, the number of pre-2001 Laureates in attendance was
approximately 160.

Crown Prince Carl Gustaf of Sweden (now King),

hands over the 1972 Nobel Prize for Literature to
Heinrich Böll during the Prize Award Ceremony at
the St. Erik International Fair (known today as
Stockholm International Fairs) in Älvsjö.
Copyright © Reportagebild

When the Prize Award Ceremony returned to the Concert Hall in 1973 after an absence of two
years, the whole stage setting had changed. The most significant change was that the King and
Queen of Sweden and other members of the Royal Family, who had previously always sat in the
front row of the auditorium, were moved up and seated on one side of the stage. The Laureates
sat on the other side and members of the Prize-Awarding Institutions behind them. In 1973, Carl
XVI Gustaf presented the Nobel Prizes for the first time as His Majesty the King of Sweden.
Once before, in 1972, owing to the illness of his grandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf, he had
presented the Prizes, but in the capacity of Crown Prince. The next change in the stage at the
Concert Hall was in 1992. The stage design was now changed to resemble that of the first Prize
Award Ceremony held at the Stockholm Concert Hall in 1926. As in 1926, the chairs on the stage
were placed in an amphitheatrical grouping. An effort was made by various means to highlight
the simplicity of the room and to emphasize the academic nature of the festivities.

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Prize Award Ceremony at the Concert
Hall in 1926.
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the

Stockholm Concert Hall in 1973.
Copyright © Pressens Bild

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The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm
Globe Arena in 1991.
Copyright © Pressens Bild

The new stage at the Stockholm Concert Hall in 1992.

Copyright © Reportagebild

Until the early 1930s, the Nobel Banquet took place at the Hall of Mirrors in the Grand Hôtel,
Stockholm. In its very first years, 1901 and 1902, the banquet was an exclusive party for men
only. Once the Stockholm City Hall had been built, in 1930 a decision was made to hold the
Banquet in its fantastic Golden Hall this year and in the future. For some reason the Nobel
Banquets of 1931 and 1932 took place at the Grand Hôtel again, but between 1933 and 1973 it
was held in the Golden Hall. Over time, the character of the Banquets changed and interest in
participating became greater and greater. Starting in 1974, due to the need for more space the
Nobel Banquet was moved from the Golden Hall to the larger Blue Hall of the City Hall, which
today accommodates some 1,300 guests. The Blue Hall had only been used for the Banquet once
before, in 1950, when the Nobel Foundation celebrated its 50th anniversary with approximately
32 pre-1950 Laureates participating.

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The Nobel Banquet at the Golden Hall of the Stockholm City Hall in

The Nobel Banquet at the Blue Hall of the Stockholm

City Hall in 1998.
Photo: Hans Pettersson

There are always exceptions to the rules. In 1907, there were no festivities in Stockholm because
the Royal Court was in mourning. King Oscar II had just died. The Laureates were awarded
their prizes at a ceremony at the auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. During
1914-1918 the Nobel Festivities were called off in Sweden and in Norway, except for a ceremony
in 1917 at the Norwegian Nobel Institute in the presence of King Haakon to announce that the
International Red Cross had been awarded the Peace Prize.

The first Nobel Prizes after the World War I - the 1919 prizes - were awarded in June the next
year in order to give the Festivities an atmosphere of early Swedish summer with sunshine, light
and greenery instead of dark December with cold and wet snow. The Ceremony took place on
June 2, 1920 at the Royal Academy of Music, with the subsequent Banquet at the Hasselbacken
restaurant near the Skansen outdoor museum. This was not a success. No members of the Royal

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Family were present because of the death of Crown Princess Margaretha. The weather was gray,
rainy and cold. As a result of disappointment at the absence of the King, the bad weather and the
questionable suitability of Hasselbacken for banquets of this kind, the Nobel Festivities of 1920
reverted to earlier tradition and were held on December 10; the Prize Award Ceremony - again
attended by His Majesty the King - at the Royal Academy of Music and the Nobel Banquet at the
Hall of Mirrors in the Grand Hôtel.

In 1924 the Nobel Festivities were cancelled in Stockholm. Neither of the two Laureates could be
present: the Laureate in Physiology or Medicine was traveling and the Literature Laureate was
unwell. The Prizes in Physics and Chemistry were reserved that year.

During the period 1939-1943, the Nobel Festivities were called off. In 1939 only the Laureate in
Literature, Frans Eemil Sillanpää from Finland, received his Prize in Stockholm at a small
ceremony, with a subsequent dinner at the restaurant "Den Gyldene Freden" together with the
Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, Anders Österling. During 1940-1942 no Physics,
Chemistry or Medicine Prizes were awarded, during 1940-1943 no Literature Prizes, and during
1939-1943 no Peace Prizes.

In 1944 there were no Festivities in Stockholm, but a luncheon was held at the Waldorf-Astoria
Hotel in New York organized by the American Scandinavian Foundation. Some 1943 and 1944
Laureates received their Prizes from the Swedish Minister (chief diplomat) in Washington, W. F.
Boström; two Physics Laureates - Otto Stern (1943) and Isidor Isaac Rabi (1944) - and four
Laureates in Physiology or Medicine - Henrik Dam and Edward Doisy (1943), and Joseph
Erlanger and Herbert S. Gasser (1944). Speeches by Sweden's Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and
by Professor The Svedberg were broadcast on American radio the same day. The 1943 Laureate
in Chemistry, George de Hevesy, received his Prize in Sweden without any ceremonies and the
1944 Literature Laureate, Johannes V. Jensen from Denmark, received his Prize in Stockholm in

Just before and during the war, Adolf Hitler forbade Laureates from Germany - Richard Kuhn
(Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Friedrich Johan Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939) and Gerhard Domagk
(Physiology or Medicine, 1939) - from accepting their Prizes at that time. However, they received
their insignia on later occasions.

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Guests at the Nobel Dinner at the Swedish Academy
in 1956.
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

In 1956, due to the crisis in Hungary, a smaller, more private dinner at the Swedish Academy
replaced the glittering banquet in the City Hall, although the Prize Award Ceremony took place
as usual at the Concert Hall.

In Norway, during the years 1901-1904 the decision on the Peace Prize was announced at a
meeting of the Storting on December 10, after which the recipients were informed in writing. On
December 10, 1905, the Nobel Institute's new building at Drammensveien 19 was inaugurated in
the presence of the Norwegian Royal Couple, and it was announced that Bertha von Suttner had
received the 1905 Peace Prize. The Laureate herself was not present. During 1905-1946 the Prize
Award Ceremonies were held at the Nobel Institute building, during 1947-1989 in the auditorium
of the University of Oslo and since 1990 at the Oslo City Hall. The King of Norway is present,
but it is the Chairman of the Nobel Committee who hands over the Prize to the Laureate or
Laureates. The Nobel Banquet in Norway is a dignified formal occasion, but much less
pretentious than the Banquet in Stockholm. It takes place at the Grand Hôtel in Oslo, with
approximately 250 guests.

The Peace Prize Award Ceremony at the Oslo City


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The Norwegian Nobel Committee and
the Nobel Foundation during World
War II
In 1940, three members of the Storting's Nobel Committee were in exile due to the occupation of
Norway by Nazi Germany, which lasted until 1945. The remaining members and deputies kept
the work of the Committee going. Because the Storting could not elect new Committee members,
the Nobel Foundation asked existing members to continue in their posts.

In January 1944, pro-Nazi Prime Minister Vidkun Quisling and his administration wanted to
take over the functions of the Nobel Committee in Norway and seize control of the Nobel
Institute's building on Drammensveien. After consultations with the Swedish Foreign Ministry
and the Director of the Nobel Institute, the Nobel Foundation declared that the Nobel Institute
was Swedish property. Those Committee members who had remained in Norway stated in writing
that under the prevailing circumstances, they could not continue their work. Sweden's consul
general in Oslo, who had already moved into an office on the Nobel Institute's premises, took
over the management of the building and the functions of the Nobel Institute. In 1944-1945 the
Nobel Foundation (Hammarskjöld and Ekeberg) together with the members of the Nobel
Committee in exile ensured that nominations were submitted for the 1945 Peace Prize.

Nobel Prize in Physics Winners

The prize is being awarded with one half to:

YOICHIRO NAMBU for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in
subatomic physics

and the other half jointly to:

MAKOTO KOBAYASHI and TOSHIHIDE MASKAWA for the discovery of the origin of the broken

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symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

ALBERT FERT and PETER GRÜNBERG for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance.

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

JOHN C. MATHER and GEORGE C. SMOOT for their discovery of the blackbody form and
anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

The prize is being awarded with one half to:

ROY J. GLAUBER for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence

and one half jointly to

JOHN L. HALL and THEODOR W. HÄNSCH for their contributions to the development of laser-
based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

DAVID J. GROSS, H. DAVID POLITZER and FRANK WILCZEK for the discovery of asymptotic
freedom in the theory of the strong interaction


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The prize is being awarded jointly to:


contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids

The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to:

RAYMOND DAVIS JR., and MASATOSHI KOSHIBA for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in
particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos

and the other half to:

RICCARDO GIACCONI for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery
of cosmic X-ray sources

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

ERIC A. CORNELL, WOLFGANG KETTERLE and CARL E. WIEMAN for the achievement of Bose-
Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the
properties of the condensates.

The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to:

ZHORES I. ALFEROV, and HERBERT KROEMER for developing semiconductor heterostructures

used in high-speed- and opto-electronics


and one half to:

JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.

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The prize was awarded jointly to:

GERARDUS 'T HOOFT, and MARTINUS J.G. VELTMAN for elucidating the quantum structure of
electroweak interactions in physics.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN, HORST L. STORMER and DANIEL C. TSUI for their discovery of a new
form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.

The prize was awarded jointly to:


methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

superfluidity in helium-3.

The prize was awarded for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics, with one half to:

MARTIN L. PERL for the discovery of the tau lepton.

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and the other half to:

FREDERICK REINES for the detection of the neutrino.

The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering
techniques for studies of condensed matter to:

BERTRAM N. BROCKHOUSE for the development of neutron spectroscopy

CLIFFORD G. SHULL for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RUSSELL A. HULSE and JOSEPH H. TAYLOR JR. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a
discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.

GEORGES CHARPAK for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the
multiwire proportional chamber.

PIERRE-GILLES DE GENNES for discovering that methods developed for studying order
phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to
liquid crystals and polymers.

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The prize was awarded jointly to:

investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons,
which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.

One half of the award was given to:

NORMAN F. RAMSEY for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the
hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.

and the other half jointly to:

HANS G. DEHMELT and WOLFGANG PAUL for the development of the ion trap technique.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the
muon neutrino.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

J. GEORG BEDNORZ and K. ALEXANDER MÜLLER for their important breakthrough in the
discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.

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The prize was awarded by one half to:

ERNST RUSKA for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron

GERD BINNIG and HEINRICH ROHRER for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.

KLAUS VON KLITZING for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CARLO RUBBIA and SIMON VAN DER MEER for their decisive contributions to the large project,
which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.

The prize was divided equally between:

SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of

importance to the structure and evolution of the stars.

WILLIAM A. FOWLER for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of
importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.


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KENNETH G. WILSON for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.

The prize was awarded by one half jointly to:

NICOLAAS BLOEMBERGEN and ARTHUR L. SCHAWLOW for their contribution to the development
of laser spectroscopy

and the other half to:

KAI M. SIEGBAHN for his contribution to the development of high- resolution electron

The prize was divided equally between:

JAMES W. CRONIN and VAL L. FITCH for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry
principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.

The prize was divided equally between:

SHELDON L. GLASHOW, ABDUS SALAM and STEVEN WEINBERG for their contributions to the
theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including
inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-

Ravindra 303
temperature physics

and the other half divided equally between:

ARNO A. PENZIAS and ROBERT W. WILSON for their discovery of cosmic microwave background

The prize was divided equally between:

theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.

The prize was divided equally between:

BURTON RICHTER and SAMUEL C. C. TING for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy
elementary particle of a new kind.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

AAGE BOHR, BEN MOTTELSON and JAMES RAINWATER for the discovery of the connection
between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of
the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR MARTIN RYLE and ANTONY HEWISH for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics Ryle
for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for

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his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.

The prize was divided, one half being equally shared between:

LEO ESAKI and IVAR GIAEVER , for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena
in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively,

and the other half to

BRIAN D. JOSEPHSON for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a
tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHN BARDEEN, LEON N. COOPER and J. ROBERT SCHRIEFFER for their jointly developed
theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.

DENNIS GABOR for his invention and development of the holographic method.

The prize was divided equally between:

HANNES ALFVÉN for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful

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applications in different parts of plasma physics

LOUIS NÉEL for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and
ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.

MURRAY GELL-MANN for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of
elementary particles and their interactions.

LUIS W. ALVAREZ for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the
discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the
technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.

HANS ALBRECHT BETHE for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his
discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.

ALFRED KASTLER for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian
resonances in atoms.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary

Ravindra 306

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:


the other half jointly to:


fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of
oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

EUGENE P. WIGNER for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary
particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles

and the other half jointly to:

MARIA GOEPPERT-MAYER and J. HANS D. JENSEN for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell

LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid

The prize was divided equally between:

ROBERT HOFSTADTER for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his

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thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons

RUDOLF LUDWIG MÖSSBAUER for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma
radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.

DONALD A. GLASER for the invention of the bubble chamber.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

EMILIO GINO SEGRÈ and OWEN CHAMBERLAIN for their discovery of the antiproton.

The prize was awarded jointly to:


YEVGENYEVICH TAMM for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CHEN NING YANG and TSUNG-DAO LEE for their penetratinginvestigation of the so-called parity
laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary partic les.


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The prize was awarded jointly, one third each, to:

semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.

The prize was divided equally between:

WILLIS EUGENE LAMB for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum

POLYKARP KUSCH for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.

The prize was divided equally between:

MAX BORN for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical
interpretation of the wavefunction

WALTHER BOTHE for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.

FRITS (FREDERIK) ZERNIKE for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his
invention of the phase contrast microscope.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FELIX BLOCH and EDWARD MILLS PURCELL for their development of new methods for nuclear
magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith.

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The prize was awarded jointly to:

work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially acce lerated atomic particles.

CECIL FRANK POWELL for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear
processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method.

HIDEKI YUKAWA for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on
nuclear forces.

LORD PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber
method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation.

SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere
especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer.

PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high
pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics.

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WOLFGANG PAULI for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle.

ISIDOR ISAAC RABI for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic

OTTO STERN for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery
of the magnetic moment of the proton.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results
obtained with it, especially with regard to artifi cial radioactive elements.

ENRICO FERMI for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by
neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow

Ravindra 311
The prize was awarded jointly to:

discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.

The prize was divided equally between:

VICTOR FRANZ HESS for his discovery of cosmic radiation

CARL DAVID ANDERSON for his discovery of the positron.

SIR JAMES CHADWICK for the discovery of the neutron.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

The prize was awarded jointly to

ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER and PAUL ADRIEN MAURICE DIRAC for the discovery of new productive
forms of atomic theory.

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WERNER HEISENBERG for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter
alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

SIR CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN for his work on the scattering of light and for the
discovery of the effect named after him.

PRINCE LOUIS-VICTOR DE BROGLIE for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons.

SIR OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for
the discovery of the law named after him.

The prize was divided equally between:

ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON for his discovery of the effect named after him

CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON for his method of making the paths of electrically charged
particles visible by condensation of vapour.

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JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for
his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JAMES FRANCK and GUSTAV HERTZ for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an
electron upon an atom.

KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN for his discoveries and researchin the field of X-ray

ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the
photoelectric effect.

NIELS BOHR for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation
emanating from them.

ALBERT EINSTEIN for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the
law of the photoelectric effect.

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CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision
measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.

JOHANNES STARK for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral
lines in electric fields.

MAX KARL ERNST LUDWIG PLANCK in recognition of the services he rendered to the
advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta.

CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the

The prize money for 1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.


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MAX VON LAUE for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

HEIKE KAMERLINGH-ONNES for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures
which led, inter alia to the production of liquid helium.

NILS GUSTAF DALÉN for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas
accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys.

WILHELM WIEN for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat.

JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

GUGLIELMO MARCONI and CARL FERDINAND BRAUN in recognition of their contributions to the
development of wireless telegraphy.

GABRIEL LIPPMANN for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the
phenomenon of interference.

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ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and
metrological investigations carried out with their aid.

SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental
investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.

PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD for his work on cathode rays.

LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH for his investigations of the densities of the most
important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his
discovery of spontaneous radioactivity

the other half jointly to:

PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE, née SKLODOWSKA in recognition of the extraordinary services
they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor
Henri Becquerel.


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The prize was awarded jointly to:

HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ and PIETER ZEEMAN in recognition of the extraordinary service
they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.

WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the
discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winners 2008-1901

The prize goes to:

development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP.

The prize goes to:

GERHARD ERTL for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces.


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The prize goes to:

ROGER D. KORNBERG for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

YVES CHAUVIN, ROBERT H. GRUBBS , and RICHARD R. SCHROCK for the development of the
metathesis method in organic synthesis.

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

AARON CIECHANOVER, AVRAM HERSHKO , and IRWIN ROSE for the discovery of ubiquitin-
mediated protein degradation

The prize is being awarded

for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes

with one half of the prize to:

PETER AGRE, for the discovery of water channels

and the other half of the prize to:

RODERICK MACKINNON for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

The prize is being awarded

for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological

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with one half jointly to:

JOHN B. FENN, and KOICHI TANAKA, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods
for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules

and the other half to:

KURT WÜTHRICH for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for
determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to:

WILLIAM S. KNOWLES, and RYOJI NOYORI, for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation

and the other half to:

K. BARRY SHARPLESS for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.

The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to:

development of conductive polymers.

AHMED ZEWAIL for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond


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The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for
theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are
involved. The prize was divided equally between:

WALTER KOHN for his development of the density-functional theory


JOHN A. POPLE for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to:

PAUL D. BOYER and JOHN E. WALKER for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism
underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

and with one half to:

JENS C. SKOU for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT F. CURL, Jr. , SIR HAROLD W. KROTO , and RICHARD E. SMALLEY for their discovery
of fullerenes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

PAUL CRUTZEN , MARIO MOLINA , and F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND for their work in atmospheric
chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.


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GEORGE A. OLAH for his contribution to carbocation chemistry.

The prize was awarded for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based
chemistry equally between:

KARY B. MULLIS for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.


MICHAEL SMITH for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based,

site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.

RUDOLPH A. MARCUS for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical

RICHARD R. ERNST for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

ELIAS JAMES COREY for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.


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The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIDNEY ALTMAN and THOMAS R. CECH for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre.

The prize was awarded jointly to:


for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

DUDLEY R. HERSCHBACH , YUAN T. LEE and JOHN C. POLANYI for their contributions
concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

HERBERT A. HAUPTMAN and JEROME KARLE for their outstanding achievements in the
development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.


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ROBERT BRUCE MERRIFIELD for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a
solid matrix.

HENRY TAUBE for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal

SIR AARON KLUG for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural
elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

KENICHI FUKUI and ROALD HOFFMANN for their theories, developed independently, concerning
the course of chemical reactions.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

PAUL BERG for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard
to recombinant-DNA

and the other half jointly to:

WALTER GILBERT and FREDERICK SANGER for their contributions concerning the determination
of base sequences in nucleic acids.


Ravindra 324
The prize was divided equally between:

HERBERT C. BROWN and GEORG WITTIG for their development of the use of boron- and
phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis.

PETER D. MITCHELL for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer
through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.

ILYA PRIGOGINE for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory
of dissipative structures.

WILLIAM N.. LIPSCOMB for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of
chemical bonding.

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR JOHN WARCUP CORNFORTH for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed


VLADIMIR PRELOG for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.


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PAUL J. FLORY for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the
physical chemistry of the macromolecules.

The prize was divided equally between:

ERNST OTTO FISCHER and SIR GEOFFREY WILKINSON for their pioneering work, performed
independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

CHRISTIAN B. ANFINSEN for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection
between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation

and the other half jointly to:

STANFORD MOORE and WILLIAM H. STEIN for their contribution to the understanding of the
connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease

GERHARD HERZBERG for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry
of molecules, particularly free radicals.

LUIS F. LELOIR for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of

Ravindra 326
The prize was divided equally between:

SIR DEREK H. R. BARTON and ODD HASSEL for their contributions to the development of the
concept of conformation and its application in chemistry.

LARS ONSAGER for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are
fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:


and the other half jointly to:

extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short
pulses of energy.

ROBERT S. MULLIKEN for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic
structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method.

ROBERT BURNS WOODWARD for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis.


Ravindra 327
DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of
important biochemical substances.

The prize was divided equally between:

KARL ZIEGLER and GIULIO NATTA for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and
technology of high polymers.

The prize was divided equally between:

MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ and SIR JOHN COWDERY KENDREW for their studies of the structures
of globular proteins.

MELVIN CALVIN for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.

WILLARD FRANK LIBBY for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology,
geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.

JAROSLAV HEYROVSKY for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of


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FREDERICK SANGER for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.

LORD ALEXANDER R. TODD for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.

VINCENT DU VIGNEAUD for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially
for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.

LINUS CARL PAULING for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to
the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.

HERMANN STAUDINGER for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.

The prize was awarded jointly to:


Ravindra 329
invention of partition chromatography.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

chemistry of the transuranium elements.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

OTTO PAUL HERMANN DIELS and KURT ALDER for their discovery and development of the diene

WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics,
particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures.

ARNE WILHELM KAURIN TISELIUS for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis,
especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins.

SIR ROBERT ROBINSON for his investigations on plant products of biological importance,
especially the alkaloids.


Ravindra 330
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

JAMES BATCHELLER SUMNER for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized.

the other half jointly to

enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.

ARTTURI ILMARI VIRTANEN for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry,
especially for his fodder preservation method.

OTTO HAHN for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei.

GEORGE DE HEVESY for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

ADOLF FRIEDRICH JOHANN BUTENANDT for his work on sex hormones. (Caused by the
authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal).


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LEOPOLD RUZICKA for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes.

RICHARD KUHN for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. (Caused by the authorities of his
country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.)

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C.


PAUL KARRER for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2.

PETRUS (PETER) JOSEPHUS WILHELMUS DEBYE for his contributions to our knowledge of
molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays
and electrons in gases.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FRÉDÉRIC JOLIOT and IRÈNE JOLIOT-CURIE in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive

HAROLD CLAYTON UREY for his discovery of heavy hydrogen.

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The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

IRVING LANGMUIR for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CARL BOSCH and FRIEDRICH BERGIUS in recognition of their contributions to the invention and
development of chemical high pressure methods.

HANS FISCHER for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for
his synthesis of haemin.

The prize was divided equally between:

investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.

ADOLF OTTO REINHOLD WINDAUS for the services rendered through his research into the
constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.

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HEINRICH OTTO WIELAND for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related

THE (THEODOR) SVEDBERG for his work on disperse systems.

RICHARD ADOLF ZSIGMONDY for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid
solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid

The prize money for 1924 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

FRITZ PREGL for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.

FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a
large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule.

FREDERICK SODDY , for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive

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substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.

WALTHER HERMANN NERNST in recognition of his work in thermochemistry.

The prize money for 1919 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

FRITZ HABER for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements.

The prize money for 1917-1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

RICHARD MARTIN WILLSTÄTTER for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll.

THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS , in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic
weight of a large number of chemical elements.

ALFRED WERNER in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has
thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in

Ravindra 335
inorganic chemistry.

The prize was divided equally between:

VICTOR GRIGNARD for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has
greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry


PAUL SABATIER for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely
disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent

MARIE CURIE, née Marie Sklodowska, in recognition of her services to the advancement of
chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the
study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.

OTTO WALLACH in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by
his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.

WILHELM OSTWALD in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the
fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction.

LORD ERNEST RUTHERFORD for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the

Ravindra 336
chemistry of radioactive substances.

EDUARD BUCHNER for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation.

HENRI MOISSAN in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and
isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace
called after him.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF VON BAEYER in recognition of his services in the
advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and
hydroaromatic compounds.

SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements
in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system.

SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the
advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation.

HERMANN EMIL FISCHER in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work
on sugar and purine syntheses.

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JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by
the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.

Nobel Prize in Literature Winners 2008-

JEAN-MARIE GUSTAVE LE CLÉZIO author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual
ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.

DORIS LESSINGthat epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary
power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny.

ORHAN PAMUKwho in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new
symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.

HAROLD PINTER who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces
entry into oppression's closed rooms.

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ELFRIEDE JELINEKfor her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that
with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clich s and their subjugating

JOHN MAXWELL COETZEE who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of
the outsider

IMRE KERTÉSZ for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the
barbaric arbitrariness of history

V. S. NAIPAUL for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that
compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.

GAO XINGJIANfor an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which
has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.

GUNTER GRASS whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.

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JOSE SARAMAGOwho with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually
enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.

DARIO FO who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the
dignity of the downtrodden.

WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological
context to come to light in fragments of human reality.

SEAMUS HEANEY for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and
the living past.

KENZABURO OE who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense
to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.

TONI MORRISON who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an
essential aspect of American reality.

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DEREK WALCOTT for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the
outcome of a multicultural commitment.

NADINE GORDIMER who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel -
been of very great benefit to humanity.

OCTAVIO PAZ for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence
and humanistic integrity.

CAMILO JOSÉ CELA for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a
challenging vision of man's vulnerability.

NAGUIB MAHFOUZ who, through works rich in nuance-now clearsightedly realistic, now
evocatively ambigous-has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind.

JOSEPH BRODSKY for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic

Ravindra 341
WOLE SOYINKA who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama
of existence.

CLAUDE SIMON who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a
deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.

JAROSLAV SEIFERT for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich
inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.

SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the
diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.

GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the
realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and

ELIAS CANETTI for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power.

Ravindra 342
CZESLAW MILOSZ who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in
a world of severe conflicts.

ODYSSEUS ELYTIS (pen-name of ODYSSEUS ALEPOUDHELIS), for his poetry, which, against the
background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness
modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness.

ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish
cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.

VICENTE ALEIXANDRE for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the
cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions
of Spanish poetry beween the wars.

SAUL BELLOW for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are
combined in his work.


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EUGENIO MONTALE for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted
human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions.

The prize was divided equally between:

EYVIND JOHNSON for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom.

HARRY MARTINSON for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos.

PATRICK WHITE for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent
into literature.

HEINRICH BÖLL for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time
and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature.

PABLO NERUDA for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's
destiny and dreams.


Ravindra 344
ALEKSANDR ISAEVICH SOLZHENITSYN for the ethical force with which he has pursued the
indispensable traditions of Russian literature.

SAMUEL BECKETT for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the
destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.

YASUNARI KAWABATA for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence
of the Japanese mind.

MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits
and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.

The prize was divided equally between:

SHMUEL YOSEF AGNON for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of
the Jewish people.

NELLY SACHS for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny
with touching strength.


Ravindra 345
MICHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH SHOLOKHOV for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his
epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people.

JEAN-PAUL SARTRE for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the
quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age. (Declined the prize.)

GIORGOS SEFERIS (pen-name of GIORGOS SEFERIADIS ), for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired
by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture.

JOHN STEINBECK for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic
humour and keen social perception.

IVO ANDRI´C for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies
drawn from the history of his country.

SAINT-JOHN PERSE (pen-name of ALEXIS LÉGER), for the soaring flight and the evocative
imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.


Ravindra 346
SALVATORE QUASIMODO for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic
experience of life in our own times.

BORIS LEONIDOVICH PASTERNAK for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical
poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition. (Accepted first, later caused by the
authorities of his country to decline the prize.)

ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness
illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.

JUAN RAMÓN JIMÉNEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of
high spirit and artistical purity.

HALLDÓR KILJAN LAXNESS for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of

ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated
in The Old Man and the Sea ,and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.

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SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER CHURCHILL for his mastery of historical and biographical
description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.

FRANÇOIS MAURIAC for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in
his novels penetrated the drama of human life.

PÄR FABIAN LAGERKVIST for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he
endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.

EARL BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL in recognition of his varied and significant
writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.

WILLIAM FAULKNER for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American

THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.

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ANDRÉ PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in
which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen
psychological insight.

HERMANN HESSE for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration,
exemplify the classical humaitarian ideals and high qualities of style.

GABRIELA MISTRAL (pen-name of LUCILA GODOY Y ALCA-YAGA), for her lyric poetry which,
inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the
entire Latin American world.

JOHANNES VILHELM JENSEN for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with
which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize


Ravindra 349
FRANS EEMIL SILLANPÄÄ for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite
art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature.

PEARL BUCK (pen-name of PEARL WALSH née SYDENSTRICKER ), for her rich and truly epic
descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces.

ROGER MARTIN DU GARD for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human
conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novelcycle Les Thibault.

EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic
works, which embody an original concept of tragedy.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

LUIGI PIRANDELLO for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.


Ravindra 350
IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH BUNIN for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical
Russian traditions in prose writing.

JOHN GALSWORTHY for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The
Forsythe Saga.

ERIK AXEL KARLFELDT The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt.

SINCLAIR LEWIS for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit
and humour, new types of characters.

THOMAS MANN principially for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased
recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature.

SIGRID UNDSET principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.

HENRI BERGSON in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brillant skill with which
they have been presented.

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GRAZIA DELEDDA (pen-name of GRAZIA MADESANI née DELEDDA), for her idealistically
inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and
sympathy deal with human problems in general.

GEORGE BERNARD SHAW for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its
stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.

WLADYSLAW STANISLAW REYMONT (pen-name of REYMENT ), for his great national epic, The

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives
expression to the spirit of a whole nation.

JACINTO BENAVENTE for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of
the Spanish drama.


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ANATOLE FRANCE (pen-name of JACQUES ANATOLE THIBAULT), in recognition of his brilliant
literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy,
grace, and a true Gallic temperament.

KNUT PEDERSEN HAMSUN for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG SPITTELER in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring.

The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The prize was divided equally between:

KARL ADOLPH GJELLERUP for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals.

HENRIK PONTOPPIDAN for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.

CARL GUSTAF VERNER VON HEIDENSTAM in recognition of his significance as the leading
representative of a new era in our literature.

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ROMAIN ROLLAND as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy
and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings.

The prize money for 1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

RABINDRANATH TAGORE because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which,
with comsummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part
of the literature of the West.

GERHART JOHANN ROBERT HAUPTMANN primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and
outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art.

his manysided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a
wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a
deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate
their imaginations.


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PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG HEYSE as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism,
which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and
writer of world-renowned short stories.

SELMA OTTILIA LOVISA LAGERLÖF in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and
spiritual perception that characterize her writings.

RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power
of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his
numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life.

RUDYARD KIPLING in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination,
virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-
famous author.

GIOSUÈ CARDUCCI not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above
all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his
poetic masterpieces.

HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.

Ravindra 355
The prize was divided equally between:

FRÉDÉRIC MISTRAL in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic
production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in
addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist.

JOSÉ ECHEGARAY Y EIZAGUIRRE in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions

which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.

BJØRNSTJERNE MARTINUS BJØRNSON as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry,
which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of
its spirit.

CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS THEODOR MOMMSEN the greatest living master of the art of historical
writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome.

SULLY PRUDHOMME (pen-name of RENÉ FRANÇOIS ARMAND ), in special recognition of his
poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare
combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect.

Nobel Peace Prize Winners 2008-1901

Ravindra 356
The prize goes to:

MARTTI AHTISAARI for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three
decades, to resolve international conflicts.

The prize goes to:


GORE JR. for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate
change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.

The prize goes to:

MUHAMMAD YUNUS and GRAMEEN BANK for their efforts to create economic and social
development from below.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for
peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.

The prize was awarded to:


Ravindra 357
for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace

The prize was awarded to:


for her efforts for democracy and human rights

The prize was awarded to:

JIMMY CARTER JR., former President of the United States of America,

for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance
democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development

The prize was awarded to:


KOFI ANNAN, United Nations Secretary General

The prize was awarded to:

KIM DAE JUNG for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in
general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.

Ravindra 358
The prize was awarded to:


The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHN HUME and DAVID TRIMBLE for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in
Northern Ireland.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CARLOS FELIPE XIMENES BELO and JOSE RAMOS-HORTA for their work towards a just and
peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer
run to eliminate such arms.

Ravindra 359

The prize was awarded joinly to:

YASSER ARAFAT , Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO, President of the Palestinian
National Authority.

SHIMON PERES , Foreign Minister of Israel.

YITZHAK RABIN , Prime Minister of Israel.

for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East.


The prize was awarded jointly to:


FREDRIK WILLEM DE KLERK President of the Republic of South Africa.


RIGOBERTA MENCHU TUM, Guatemala. Campaigner for human rights, especially for indigenous


AUNG SAN SUU KYI, Burma. Oppositional leader, human rights advocate.


MIKHAIL SERGEYEVICH GORBACHEV , President of the USSR, helped to bring the Cold War to
an end.


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THE 14TH DALAI LAMA (TENZIN GYATSO) , Tibet. Religious and political leader of the Tibetan




OSCAR ARIAS SANCHEZ , Costa Rica, President of Costa Rica, initiator of peace negotiations in
Central America.


ELIE WIESEL , U.S.A., Chairman of 'The President's Commission on the Holocaust'. Author,




DESMOND MPILO TUTU , South Africa, Bishop of Johannesburg, former Secretary General South
African Council of Churches (S.A.C.C.). for his work against apartheid.


LECH WALESA , Poland. Founder of Solidarity, campaigner for human rights.


The prize was awarded jointly to:

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ALVA MYRDAL , former Cabinet Minister, diplomat, delegate to United Nations General Assembly
on Disarmament, writer.

ALFONSO GARCÍA ROBLES , diplomat, delegate to the United Nations General Assembly on
Disarmament, former Secretary for Foreign Affairs .





ADOLFO PEREZ ESQUIVEL , Argentina, architect, sculptor and human rights leader.


MOTHER TERESA , India, Leader of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity.


The prize was divided equally between:

MOHAMED ANWAR AL-SADAT , President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

MENACHEM BEGIN , Prime Minister of Israel.

for jointly negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel.


AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL London, Great Britain. A worldwide organization for the protection of
the rights of prisoners of conscience.


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BETTY WILLIAMS and MAIREAD CORRIGAN Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement
(later renamed Community of Peace People).


ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV , Soviet nuclear physicist. Campaigner for human rights.


The prize was divided equally between:

SEÁN MAC BRIDE , President of the International Peace Bureau, Geneva, and the Commission of
Namibia, United Nations, New York.

EISAKU SATO , Prime Minister of Japan.


The prize was awarded jointly to:

HENRY A. KISSINGER , Secretary of State, State Department, Washington.

LE DUC THO , Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. (Declined the prize.)

for jointly negotiating the Vietnam peace accord in 1973.


The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.


WILLY BRANDT , Federal Republic of Germany, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany,
initiator of West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East


Ravindra 363
NORMAN BORLAUG , Led research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Mexico City.




RENÉ CASSIN , President of the European Court for Human Rights .

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize


UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) New York, founded by U.N. in 1946. An
international aid organization.


MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. , leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner
for civil rights.


The prize was divided equally between


REDCROSS) Geneva, founded 1863.



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LINUS CARL PAULING , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Campaigner especially
for an end to nuclear weapons tests.


DAG HJALMAR AGNE CARL HAMMARSKJÖLD , Secretary General of the United Nations
(awarded the Prize posthumously).


ALBERT JOHN LUTULI , President of the South Africal liberation movement, the African National


PHILIP J. NOEL-BAKER , Great Britain, Member of Parliament, life long ardent worker for
international peace and co-operation .


GEORGES HENRI PIRE , Belgium, Father of the Dominican Order, Leader of the relief
organization for refugees, l'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde.


LESTER BOWLES PEARSON , former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada, President
7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly .

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize



international relief organization, founded by U.N. in 1951.

Ravindra 365

GEORGE CATLETT MARSHALL , General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State
and of Defense, Delegate to the U.N., Originator of the Marshall Plan.


ALBERT SCHWEITZER , Missionary surgeon, Founder Lambaréné Hospital in République du



LÉON JOUHAUX , France, President of the trade union C.G.T. Force Ouvrière. President of the
International Committee of the European Council, Vice President of the International Confederation
of Free Trade Unions, Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO
Council, delegate to the UN.


RALPH BUNCHE , Professor Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Director of the UN Division of
Trusteeship, Acting Mediator in Palestine 1948.


LORD JOHN BOYD ORR OF BRECHIN, Physician, Alimentary Politician, prominent organizer and
Director General Food and Agricultural Organization, President National Peace Council and World
Union of Peace Organizations.


The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize


The prize was awarded jointly to:

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THE FRIENDS SERVICE COUNCIL (The Quakers), London. Founded in 1647.

THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE (The Quakers), Washington. The society's first
official meeting was held in 1672.


The prize was divided equally between:

EMILY GREENE BALCH, former Professor of History and Sociology, Honorary International
President Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

JOHN RALEIGH MOTT Chairman of the first International Missionary Council, President of the
World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations .


CORDELL HULL Former Secretary of State. One of the initiators of the United Nations.




The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize



FOR REFUGEES) an international relief organization in Geneva started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921.



Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal. Founder and President of the International Peace Campaign.

Ravindra 367

CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS Foreign Minister. President of the Société des Nations (League of
Nations), Meditator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935.


CARL VON OSSIETZKY Journalist (with Die Weltbühne, among others), pacifist.


ARTHUR HENDERSON Former Foreign Secretary. Chairman of the League of Nations

Disarmament Conference 1932-1934.


SIR NORMAN ANGELL (RALPH LANE) Writer. Member of the Commission Exécutive de la
Société des Nations (Executive Committee of the League of Nations) and the National Peace
Council. Author of the book The Great Illusion, among others.


The prize money for 1932 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The prize was divided equally between:

JANE ADDAMS Sociologist. International President of the Women's International League for Peace
and Freedom.

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER President of Columbia University. Promoter of the Briand-Kellogg



Ravindra 368
LARS OLOF NATHAN (JONATHAN) SÖDERBLOM Archbishop. Leader of the ecumenical


FRANK BILLINGS KELLOGG Former Secretary of State, Negotiated the Briand-Kellogg Pact.


The prize money for 1928 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The prize was divided equally between:

FERDINAND BUISSON Former Professor at the Sorbonne University, Paris. Founder and President
of the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme (League for Human Rights).

LUDWIG QUIDDEHistorian. Professor at Berlin University. Member of Germany's constituent

assembly 1919. Delegate to numerous peace conferences.


The prize was awarded jointly to:

ARISTIDE BRIAND Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty and the Briand-Kellogg

GUSTAV STRESEMANN Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler). Foreign Minister.

Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty.


The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR AUSTEN CHAMBERLAIN Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty.

CHARLES GATES DAWES Vice-President of the United States of America. Chairman of the Allied
Reparation Commission. Originator of the Dawes Plan .

Ravindra 369
The prize money for 1924-1923 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


FRIDTJOF NANSEN , Norway. Scientist. Explorer. Norwegian Delegate to Société des Nations
(League of Nations). Originator of the Nansen passports (for refugees).


The prize was divided equally between:

KARL HJALMAR BRANTING Prime Minister. Swedish Delegate to the Conseil de la Société des
Nations (Council of the League of Nations).

CHRISTIAN LOUS LANGE Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Brussels.


LÉON VICTOR AUGUSTE BOURGEOIS, France. Former Secretary of State. President of the
Parliament (Sénat). President of the Conseil de la Société des Nations (Council of the League of
Nations) .


THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America. Founder of the Société
des Nations (League of Nations)


The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.



REDCROSS) , Geneva.

Ravindra 370
The prize money for 1916-1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


HENRI LA FONTAINE, Belgium. Member of the Belgian Parliament (Sénateur). President of the
Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.


ELIHU ROOT Former Secretary of State. Initiator of several arbitration agreements.


The prize was divided equally between:

TOBIAS MICHAEL CAREL ASSER, the Netherlands. Cabinet Minister. Member of the Privy
Council. Initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law at the Hague.

ALFRED HERMANN FRIED, Austria. Journalist. Founder of the peace journal Die Waffen Nieder
(later renamed Die Friedenswarte).



BUREAU) , Bern.


The prize was divided equally between:

AUGUSTE MARIE FRANÇOIS BEERNAERT, Belgium. Former Prime Minister. Member of the
Belgian Parliament. Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage (International Court of
Arbitration) at the Hague.


DE REBECQUE, France. Member of the French Parliament (Sénateur). Founder and President of the
French parliamentary group for international arbitration (Groupe parlementaire de l'arbitrage

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international). Founder of the Comité de défense des intérêtsnationaux et de conciliation
internationale (Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation).


The prize was divided equally between:

KLAS PONTUS ARNOLDSON, Sweden. Writer. Former Member fo the Swedish Parliament.
Founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League.

FREDRIK BAJER, Denmark. Member of the Danish Parliament. Honorary President of the
Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.


The prize was divided equally between:

ERNESTO TEODORO MONETA, Italy. President of the Lombard League of Peace.

LOUIS RENAULT, France. Professor International Law, Sorbonne University, Paris.


THEODORE ROOSEVELT, USA. President of the United States of America. Drew up the 1905
peace treaty between Russia and Japan.


TETTAU, Austria. Writer. Hon. President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.
Author of Die Waffen Nieder (Lay Down Your Arms).



A scientific society.


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SIR WILLIAM RANDAL CREMER, Great Britain. Member of the British Parliament. Secretary of
the International Arbitration League .


The prize was divided equally between:

ÉLIE DUCOMMUN, Switzerland. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau,

CHARLES ALBERT GOBAT, Switzerland. Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union,

Berne. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.


The prize was divided equally between:

JEAN HENRI DUNANT, Switzerland. Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross,
Geneva; Initiator of the Geneva Convention (Convention de Genève).

FRÉDÉRIC PASSY, France. Founder and President of the first French peace society (since 1889 it
has been called the Société Francaise pour l'arbitrage entre nations).

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic

Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008-

The prize goes to:

PAUL KRUGMAN for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity.

Ravindra 373
The prize was awarded jointly to:

LEONID HURWICZ , ERIC S. MASKIN , and ROGER B. MYERSON for having laid the foundations
of mechanism design theory.

The prize goes to:

EDMUND S. PHELPS for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT J. AUMANN and THOMAS C. SCHELLING for having enhanced our understanding of
conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FINN E. KYDLAND and EDWARD C. PRESCOTT for their contributions to dynamic

macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business

The prize was shared between:

ROBERT F. ENGLE for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility

Ravindra 374


CLIVE W. J. GRANGER , for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends

The prize was shared between:

DANIEL KAHNEMAN for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic
science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty


VERNON L. SMITH, for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic
analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms

The prize was awarded jointly to:

markets with asymmetric information.

The prize will be shared between:

JAMES J. HECKMAN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples


DANIEL L. MCFADDEN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice.

Ravindra 375
ROBERT A. MUNDELLfor his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate
regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas.

AMARTYA SEN for his contributions to welfare economics.

ROBERT C. MERTON and MYRON S. SCHOLES for a new method to determine the value of

JAMES A. MIRRLEES and WILLIAM VICKREY for their fundamental contributions to the economic
theory of incentives under asymmetric information.

ROBERT LUCAS for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and
thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHN C. HARSANYI , JOHN F. NASH and REINHARD SELTEN for their pioneering analysis of
equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games.


Ravindra 376
The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT W. FOGEL and DOUGLASS C. NORTH for having renewed research in economic history
by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and
institutional change.

GARY S. BECKER for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of
human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour.

RONALD H. COASE for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and
property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy.

The prize was awarded with one third each to:

work in the theory of financial economics.

TRYGVE HAAVELMO for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and
his analyses of simultaneous economic structures.

MAURICE ALLAIS for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization
of resources.


Ravindra 377
ROBERT M. SOLOW for his contributions to the theory of economic growth.

JAMES M. BUCHANAN, JR. for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the
theory of economic and political decision-making.

FRANCO MODIGLIANI for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets.

SIR RICHARD STONE for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of
national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis.

GERARD DEBREU for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his
rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium.

GEORGE J. STIGLER for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and
causes and effects of public regulation.

JAMES TOBIN for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions,
employment, production and prices.


Ravindra 378
LAWRENCE R. KLEIN for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of
economic fluctuations and economic policies.

The prize was divided equally between:

THEODORE W. SCHULTZ and SIR ARTHUR LEWIS for their pioneering research into economic
development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.

HERBERT A. SIMON for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic

The prize was divided equally between:

BERTIL OHLIN and JAMES E MEADE for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of
international trade and international capital movements.

MILTON FRIEDMAN for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history
and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy.

The prize was awarded jointly to:


the theory of optimum allocation of resources.

Ravindra 379
The prize was divided equally between:

GUNNAR MYRDAL and FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON HAYEK for their pioneering work in the theory
of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of
economic, social and institutional phenomena.

WASSILY LEONTIEF for the development of the input-output method and for its application to
important economic problems.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR JOHN R. HICKS and KENNETH J. ARROW for their pioneering contributions to general
economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.

SIMON KUZNETS for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to
new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development.

PAUL A SAMUELSON for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic
economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RAGNAR FRISCH and JAN TINBERGEN for having developed and applied dynamic models for the
analysis of economic processes.

Ravindra 380
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2008-

The prize was divided equally, one half to:

HARALD ZUR HAUSEN for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer

and the other half jointly to:

FRANCOISE BARRE SINOUSSI, and LUC MONTAGNIER for their discovery of human
immunodeficiency virus

The prize was awarded jointly to:

principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ANDREW Z. FIRE, and CRAIG C. MELLO for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing
by double-stranded RNA

Ravindra 381
The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARRY J. MARSHALL, and J. ROBIN WARREN for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter
pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the
organization of the olfactory system

The prize was awarded jointly to:

PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic
resonance imaging.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key
regulators of the cell cycle."

Ravindra 382
The prize was awarded jointly to:

ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal
transduction in the nervous system.

The prize was awarded to:

GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport
and localization in the cell.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning
nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection

The prize was awarded jointly to:

PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity
of the cell mediated immune defence.


Ravindra 383
The prize was awarded jointly to:


discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of
these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein
phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion
channels in cells.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

Ravindra 384
JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell
transplantation in the treatment of human disease.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of
retroviral oncogenes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

of important principles for drug treatment.

SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation
of cholesterol metabolism.


Ravindra 385
The prize was awarded jointly to:

NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KÖHLER and CÉSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the
specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for
production of monoclonal antibodies.

BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral

and the other half awarded jointly to:

DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information
processing in the visual system.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning
genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.


Ravindra 386
The prize was awarded jointly to:

ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer
assisted tomography.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction
enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to:

ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide
hormone production of the brain

and the other half awarded to:

ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new
mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

Ravindra 387
The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical
structure of antibodies.

EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning
the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and


Ravindra 388
The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses

and the other half to:

CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FRANÇOIS JACOB , ANDRÉ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning
genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.

Ravindra 389
The prize was awarded jointly to:

KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and
regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the
peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and
its significance for information transfer in living material.

GEORG VON BÉKÉSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the

The prize was awarded jointly to:

immunological tolerance.


Ravindra 390
The prize was awarded jointly to:

SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological
synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to:

GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by
regulating definite chemical events

and the other half to:

JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of
the genetic material of bacteria.

DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain
body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action
of oxidation enzymes.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

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for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle

and the other half to:

FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary

SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective
against tuberculosis.

MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a
coordinator of the activities of the internal organs

Ravindra 392
and the other half to:

ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value
of leucotomy in certain psychoses.

PAUL HERMANN MÜLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison
against several arth ropods.

The prize was divided, one half awarded jointly to:

CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI née RADNITZ for their discovery of the
course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen

the other half awarded to:

BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the
anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar.

HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray

The prize was awarded jointly to:

for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.

The prize was awarded jointly to

Ravindra 393
JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly
differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K.

and the other half to:

EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize

GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the
authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)

CORNEILLE JEAN FRANÇOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and
aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.

ALBERT SZENT-GYÖRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the
biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric


Ravindra 394
The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical
transmission of nerve impulses.

HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia.

THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in

The prize was awarded jointly to:

regarding the functions of neurons.

OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory


Ravindra 395
KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups.

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin

and the other half awarded to:

SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.

CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus.

JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the
treatment of dementia paralytica.

JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.

The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.

Ravindra 396

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle


OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of
oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle.

The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating

JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity.

The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Ravindra 397
ROBERT BÁRÁNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.

CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.

ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-
vessels and organs.

ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made
through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.

EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity.


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CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa
in causing diseases.

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of
the nervous system.

ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.

IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through
which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.

NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially
lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical

SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and
thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating


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EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against
diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed
in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.

Academy Awards -
History Of The Oscar

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From its initial creation in 1927, one of the first goals of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences (AMPAS) was the method to honor achievements in the motion picture industry. A
committee of seven members was formed and given the task of creating an Academy Awards

The first Academy Awards ceremony was held on May 16, 1929. It was definitely a low key affair
compared to the glamor and glitz that surround the ceremonies of today.

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Two hundred and fifty people attended the black-tie banquet that evening in the Blossom Room of
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.

Emil Jannings, who was the winner for best actor, decided to go back to his home in Germany
before the ceremony. But before he departed, Emil Jannings was handed the very first Academy

We all know the focal point is the actual Oscar statuette. Early on, the Academy Awards knew that
the success of the Awards was the centered around the actual trophy, so it could be presented at the
Awards. MGM art director Cedric Gibbons was tasked with designing the statuette.

The statuette is a simple, stylized golden knight standing on a reel of film and gripping a sword.
The award was actually created by sculptor George Stanley.

One question that often arises, is how did the Oscar get its name?

The official name of the statuette is the Academy Award of Merit. The statuette is almost
exclusively known as the Oscar.

The exact reason is not known, but the most popular story involves then Academy librarian and
future executive director, Margaret Herrick. When Herrick saw the statuette sitting on a table, stated
“it looks just like my Uncle Oscar!” The name stuck and that magical golden statuette has been
called Oscar ever since.

Over the past 80 plus years, the actual Oscar statuette has undergone relatively few changes.
Compared to the 1929 version, they are almost exactly the same. It is 13 ½ inches tall and weighs 8
½ pounds.

But there have been some very fundamental changes. 15 Oscar statuettes were awarded during the
first Academy Awards ceremony on May 16th, 1929. They were made of gold-plated solid bronze
and placed upon a pedestal made of Belgian black marble.

In 1945, two minor changes occurred with the pedestal. It was made slightly higher and is currently
made of metal, rather than marble. Beginning in 1949, the statues began to be numbered. For
whatever reason, the starting number began with 501. The number is written behind Oscar’s heels.
An example would be: 2008, 2,698.The record for the most Oscar awards during a career is Walt
Disney, who was awarded the statuette 26 times.

The Academy Awards Oscar presentation

for excellence in the film industry has a
long and rich history.

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In 1927, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)was formed by 36 of the film
industry's most prominent individuals, choosing film actor Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. as its first
president. In 1929, AMPAS presented the first Academy Award. This award was for recognition of
excellence in the motion picture industry. This award has remained the ultimate industry standard of

Voting members of AMPAS represent fourteen branches of the film industry to determine who
receives the coveted awards. The Oscar voting process begins in November of each year. Movie
studios, publicists and film distributors begin their attempts to coax the voting members of AMPAS
to view their film offerings. These attempts are regulated in the interest of fairness. The following
January, the Academy Awards ballots are distributed to voting members, who have one month to
make their nominations and return these nominations to the offices of PricewaterhouseCoopers,
formerly Price Waterhouse, a professional service used to tabulate the votes.
PricewaterhouseCoopers guarantees the security of the balloting. Only two people employed by
PricewaterhouseCoopers know the results of award balloting before the ceremonies.

The nominations for the award are made by members of the craft categories for each of the rewards.
In the Best Picture category, however, all voting members are allowed to submit nominations. In
February, PricewaterhouseCoopers announces the result of the nominations. Voting members then
receive ballots to cast their votes to select winners in each category. They are then returned to the
tabulating service. Although many of the fourteen Oscar categories have been broadened or
changed since 1927, the awards still fall within the main branches of the Academy. This includes
actors, producers, directors, writers and technicians. Even the names of some of the awards have
changed. For example, the Best Picture award was known as the Best Production award prior to
1933. In that year, two Best Picture awards were given. One, to "Wings" for the Best Production
and another to "Sunrise" for the Best Unique and Artistic Picture. After that year's awards the latter
category was dropped. Until 1939, the award was called the "Academy Award of Merit" and was
not a statuette but a plaque. The first Oscar statuette was awarded to actor Emil Jannings, who was
named Best Actor for his role in "The Last Command" and "The Way of All Things".

How the awards statuette came to be known as "Oscar" is not known but it is generally accepted
that Katherine Herrion, a future Academy Executive Director, remarked upon seeing the statue that
it reminded her of her uncle Oscar and began referring to it by that name. Academy staff followed
her lead and the name Oscar has been used ever since. The Oscar itself is a statuette, made by the
R.S. Owens Company of Chicago. It is approximately 13.5 inches high and weighs 8.5 pounds. It is
made from a copper, silver and nickel alloy and covered with 25-Carat gold. During World War II,
the statues were made of plaster. Recipients turned in these plaster statues after the war for golden
Oscars. In the 1930's juvenile recipients of the award were given miniature versions and there is one
instance where a wooden Oscar was awarded to ventriloquist Edgar Bergen. Walt Disney
received seven miniature Oscar statuettes for the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first
all-animated feature film. The statue was designed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer art director Cedric
Gibbon and sculptor George Stanley. The Oscar depicts a knight holding a sword, standing atop a
reel of film. The film reel has five spokes, representing the five original branches of AMPAS. 1949
marked the first year that the Oscar statuettes were numbered, beginning with number 501. In a
surprising turn of events, 55 Oscars vanished before the awards program in March, 2000. Later 52
of the statues were found in a Los Angeles dumpster.

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The first awards presentations were actually large banquet-type dinners. Anyone who wished to
attend could simply purchase a ticket. These affairs were first held in the larger hotels such as the
Ambassador and the Biltmore in Los Angeles. As public interest and crowds increased, the affairs
were moved to larger theaters, where the ever-growing crowds could be accommodated. While
awards programs are now watched by millions on television, the first awards were broadcast live
through radio. The first televised ceremonies took place in 1953, at the 25th annual presentation.
The Academy Awards have been held annually without fail except on three occasions. In 1938, Los
Angeles floods delayed the event for one week. Thirty years later, in 1968, the program was delayed
two days so as not to coincide with the funeral of Martin Luther King. The last postponement to
date was in 1981 when the attempted assassination of US President Ronald Reagan took place,
when the awards were delayed for 24 hours.

The suspense that is now an accepted part of the Oscar ceremony did not always exist. The results
of the Oscar poll was released to the press in advance of the awards ceremony and could be found
in the late edition newspapers on the night of the awards. The tradition of revealing the results on
camera at the awards was not adopted until 1941. As well as the suspense involving the winners, the
Oscar awards programs have had their share of unexpected excitement. In 1973, a nude streaker ran
across the stage of the televised proceedings. In 1972, in a surprise move, winner Marlon Brando
sent an actress who identified herself as Sacheen Littlefeather to

read a political statement and refuse his award.

The awards also broke some barriers. Actress Hattie Mcdaniel received the first Oscar awarded to a
Black actor in any category for her supporting role in Gone with the Wind, amovie which received a
record-breaking 13 nominations and 8 wins.

The Academy Awards continues to evoke the same excitement and intensity that it had at the
beginning. Below is a list of the winners in the five main categories of Best Picture, Best Actor,
Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress which covers the past twenty

Each year, millions of movie fanatics worldwide gather in groups and parties to enjoy the hours-
long Academy Awards extravaganza, filled to the brim with the world's hottest celebs and their
outlandish fashion. But how many of them know the true history behind the Oscar Awards, and
understand exactly what it is they are watching, and how it came to be?

Oscar Awards History dates back 80 years. With only 250 attendees, the very first Academy
Awards, held on May 16, 1929, was not broadcast, and was hosted at the prestigious Hollywood
Roosevelt Hotel. Throughout the years, the Awards were celebrated at Graumen's Chinese Theater,
Melrose Avenue Theater, the Shrine Civic Auditorium and The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. Since
2001, the Kodak Theatre has been home to the Awards festivities

There are numerous theories as to how the Academy Awards became know as "The Oscars"
throughout history. Margaret Herrick, who was a librarian at Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences Awards in the 1920s, once quipped that the award trophy "looked just like my Uncle
Oscar." However, others, including Academy President Bette Davis, have claimed to have come up
with the "Oscar" name themselves. Who to believe? If we told you that, it wouldn't be a "legend!"

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The Oscar Award is an award statue that stands 13.5 inches high and weighs 8.5 lbs. It is comprised
of nickel and silver alloy, and the surface is coated with 25-Karat gold. During the World War II era,
however, such luxuries could not be afforded, and the statues were made from plaster. Marvelously
designed by art director Cedric Gibbons in 1928, the "Oscar" is a knight who stands atop a film
reel, sword in hand.

The electric, captivating aura Oscar Night radiates is simply breathtaking. 24-foot-tall golden Oscar
statues for all to see flank the Kodak Theatre! Oscar Night is thrilling indeed, as it is an infamous
show. This glittery, glamorous event is held once a year, and spectators are allowed (and
encouraged) to gawk at the stars from grandstands near the Kodak Theatre.

The spectacular awards event has morphed into quite a ritual for some, who even conjure up large
gambling pools before the Awards winners are announced. The big winner of the night is likely to
be someone in that very room!

Now that we've given you a glimpse into Oscar Awards History, why not own a piece of that very
history, or better yet, host your very own Oscar Night the day of the big event?
A variety of beautiful, exquisite and unique items and hundreds of complementary accessories can
be found on this website, customized to your specifications:

Background on The Awards:

The Academy Awards®, affectionately known as the Oscars®, are the oldest, best
known, most influential, most prestigious, and famous of film awards. The awards
(and gold-plated statuettes) have been presented annually (the first awards ceremony
was held in May of 1929) by a non-profit professional organization - the Academy of
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), based in Beverly Hills, California, and
founded in 1927. Pricewaterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers) has managed the
Academy Awards balloting process since 1935 - all but the first six years of the
Oscars. Ever since 1941, when their now-famous confidential envelope system was
introduced, marking the first year of complete secrecy, "the Envelope Please" has
become a familiar phrase that evokes the thought of the Academy Awards® ceremony.

Except for the early years of the institution, the awards honored films made during the previous 12-
month calendar year. [At first, to be eligible for an award, a film had to open in Los Angeles during
the twelve months ending on July 31 of the preceding year. To allow each ceremony to cover films
for a single calendar year - matching the eligibility period, the 1932/33 awards were based on a 17-
month qualifying period. Ever since then, beginning with the 1934 awards ceremony, all awards
have been based on openings in the previous calendar year. Films also had to be over 40 minutes
long to qualify as feature-length.] Until 1954, the Oscars were presented mostly on a Thursday
evening. From 1955 to 1958, they were presented on a Wednesday. From 1959 until 1998 the

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Oscars were, with a few exceptions, presented on a Monday night. Only since 1999 has the Awards
ceremony taken place on a Sunday (traditionally in March). In 2004, the ceremony was moved even
earlier to improve ratings and to be more relevant to the awards 'season'.

Comments About the Awards Themselves:

The establishment of the Academy (and its awards system) has had a major effect and influence
upon the film industry, due to the enormous boost a nomination or award (for a film or actor)
creates, by giving prestige and bottom-line profits to a studio or performer. Studios have often
engaged in expensive marketing and advertising campaigns to sway votes, and to encourage
contractual loyalty during voting. The Academy has, with limited success, tried to limit the
influences of pressure groups and promotion, box office gross receipts, and studio public relations
and marketing on voting results. It has also attempted to limit votes for melodramatic
sentimentality, atonement for past mistakes, personal popularity, and "prestige" or epic scale, but
those influences have often had a decided effect upon the outcome of some of the poll results.

Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence, and innovative qualities of many
films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 80s, moneymaking 'formula-made'
blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture
winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any
measure. See The Worst Academy Awards Oscars for more.

Like any other awards, recognitions, or "best" lists, the top nominees and winners do not
necessarily reflect or objectively measure the greatest that cinematic history has to offer. Many of
the most Deserving Films of All Time (see Films Without Awards) did not win Academy Awards®
(and in some cases were not even included in the nominees). In addition, Top Box-Office Films
aren't always guaranteed awards success either. And certain Film Genres (notably westerns, science
fiction, and comedy) as well as independent films are not represented in balanced numbers
throughout Oscar history - see an analysis of Best Picture Genre Biases.

(originally known as Best Production)

(Best achievement in directing)

in a leading role)

in a leading role)

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inasupportingrole -
first awarded in 1936)

inasupportingrole -
first awarded in 1936)

Motion Picture Story, Adaptation, Original Story, Screenplay, Writing Achievement, etc.)


(1927/28 - 1939)

Note: The films that are marked with a yellow star are the films that "The Greatest Films" site has
also selected as the "100 Greatest Films." The winners are listed first, in CAPITAL letters, in each

Production (Picture):
"WINGS", "The Racket", "Seventh Heaven" ["The Way of All Flesh" and "The Last Command" are
omitted from the latest official Academy list]
Unique and Artistic Picture (also known as Artistic Quality of Production):
"SUNRISE", "Chang", "TheCrowd"

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EMIL JANNINGS in "The Way of All Flesh" and "The Last Command", Richard Barthelmess in
"The Noose" and "The Patent Leather Kid" [Charles Chaplin, originally announced for "The
Circus," was removed from the category and given a special Honorary Award instead]
JANET GAYNOR in "Seventh Heaven", "Street Angel", and "Sunrise", Louise Dresser in "A
Ship Comes In", Gloria Swanson in "Sadie Thompson"
FRANK BORZAGE for "Seventh Heaven", Herbert Brenon for "Sorrell and Son", King Vidor for
Comedy Direction:
LEWIS MILESTONE for "Two Arabian Knights", Ted Wilde for "Speedy" [Charles Chaplin,
originally announced for "The Circus," was removed from the category and given a special
Honorary Award instead]

Production (Picture):
"THE BROADWAY MELODY", "Alibi", "Hollywood Revue", "In Old Arizona", "The Patriot"
WARNER BAXTER in "In Old Arizona", George Bancroft in "Thunderbolt", Chester Morris in
"Alibi", Paul Muni in "The Valiant", Lewis Stone in "The Patriot"
MARY PICKFORD in "Coquette", Ruth Chatterton in "Madame X", Betty Compson in "The
Barker", Jeanne Eagels in "The Letter", Corinne Griffith in "The Divine Lady," Bessie Love in
"Broadway Melody"
FRANK LLOYD for "The Divine Lady" (also nominated or considered for "Drag" and "Weary
River"), Lionel Barrymore for "Madame X", Harry Beaumont for "Broadway Melody", Irving
Cummings for "In Old Arizona", Ernst Lubitsch for "The Patriot"
Art Direction:
CEDRIC GIBBONS for "The Bridge of San Luis Rey" and other pictures, Hans Dreier for "The
Patriot", Mitchell Leisen for "Dynamite", William Cameron Menzies for "Alibi" and "The
Awakening", and Harry Oliver for "Street Angel"

Production (Picture):
"ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT", "The Big House", "Disraeli", "The Divorcee",
"The Love Parade"
GEORGE ARLISS in "Disraeli", George Arliss in "The Green Goddess", Wallace Beery in "The
Big House", Maurice Chevalier in "The Big Pond", Maurice Chevalier in "The Love Parade",
Ronald Colman in "Bulldog Drummond", Ronald Colman in "Condemned", Lawrence Tibbett in
"The Rogue Song"
NORMA SHEARER in "The Divorcee", Nancy Carroll in "The Devil's Holiday", Ruth Chatterton
in "Sarah and Son", Greta Garbo in "Anna Christie", Greta Garbo in "Romance", Norma Shearer in
"Their Own Desire", Gloria Swanson in "The Trespasser"

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LEWIS MILESTONE for "All Quiet On The Western Front", Clarence Brown for "Anna
Christie", Robert Z. Leonard for "The Divorcee", Ernst Lubitsch for "The Love Parade", King Vidor
for "Hallelujah"

Production (Picture):
"CIMARRON", "East Lynne", "The Front Page", "Skippy", "Trader Horn"
LIONEL BARRYMORE in "A Free Soul", Jackie Cooper in "Skippy", Richard Dix in "Cimarron",
Fredric March in "The Royal Family of Broadway", Adolphe Menjou in "The Front Page"
MARIE DRESSLER in "Min and Bill", Marlene Dietrich in "Morocco", Irene Dunne in
"Cimarron", Ann Harding in "Holiday", Norma Shearer in "A Free Soul"
NORMAN TAUROG for "Skippy", Clarence Brown for "A Free Soul", Lewis Milestone for "The
Front Page", Wesley Ruggles for "Cimarron", Josef von Sternberg for "Morocco"

Production (Picture):
"GRAND HOTEL", "Arrowsmith", "Bad Girl", "The Champ", "Five Star Final", "One Hour With
You", "ShanghaiExpress", "The Smiling Lieutenant"
FREDRIC MARCH in "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and WALLACE BEERY in "The Champ" (tie),
Alfred Lunt in "The Guardsman"
HELEN HAYES in "The Sin of Madelon Claudet", Marie Dressler in "Emma", Lynn Fontanne in
"The Guardsman"
FRANK BORZAGE for "Bad Girl", King Vidor for "The Champ", Josef von Sternberg for
"Shanghai Express"
Special Award: Walt Disney for creating Mickey Mouse

"CAVALCADE", "A Farewell to Arms", "42nd Street", "I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang",
"Lady for a Day", "Little Women", "The Private Life of Henry VIII", "She Done Him Wrong",
"Smilin' Through", "State Fair"
CHARLES LAUGHTON in "The Private Life of Henry VIII", Leslie Howard in "Berkeley
Square", Paul Muni in "I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang"
KATHARINE HEPBURN in "Morning Glory", May Robson in "Lady for a Day", Diana Wynyard
in "Cavalcade"
FRANK LLOYD for "Cavalcade", Frank Capra for "Lady For a Day", George Cukor for "Little

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"IT HAPPENED ONE NIGHT", "The Barretts of Wimpole Street", "Cleopatra", "Flirtation
Walk", "The Gay Divorcee", "Here Comes the Navy", "The House of Rothschild", "Imitation of
Life", "One Night of Love", "The Thin Man", "Viva Villa!", "The White Parade"
CLARK GABLE in "It Happened One Night", Frank Morgan in "Affairs of Cellini", William
Powell in "The Thin Man"
CLAUDETTE COLBERT in "It Happened One Night", Grace Moore in "One Night of Love",
Norma Shearer in "The Barretts of Wimpole Street"
FRANK CAPRA for "It Happened One Night", Victor Schertzinger for "One Night of Love", W.
S. Van Dyke for "The Thin Man"

"MUTINY ON THE BOUNTY", "Alice Adams", "The Broadway Melody of 1936", "Captain
Blood", "David Copperfield", "The Informer", "Lives of a Bengal Lancer", "A Midsummer Night's
Dream", "Les Miserables", "Naughty Marietta", "Ruggles of Red Gap", "Top Hat"
VICTOR MCLAGLEN in "The Informer", Clark Gable in "Mutiny on the Bounty", Charles
Laughton in "Mutiny on the Bounty", Franchot Tone in "Mutiny on the Bounty"
BETTE DAVIS in "Dangerous", Elisabeth Bergner in "Escape Me Never", Claudette Colbert in
"Private Worlds", Katharine Hepburn in "Alice Adams", Miriam Hopkins in "Becky Sharp", Merle
Oberon in "The Dark Angel"
JOHN FORD for "The Informer", Michael Curtiz for "Captain Blood", Henry Hathaway for "Lives
of a Bengal Lancer", Frank Lloyd for "Mutiny on the Bounty"

"THE GREAT ZIEGFELD", "Anthony Adverse", "Dodsworth", "Libeled Lady", "Mr. Deeds Goes
to Town", "Romeo and Juliet", "San Francisco", "The Story of Louis Pasteur", "A Tale of Two
Cities", "Three Smart Girls"
PAUL MUNI in "The Story of Louis Pasteur", Gary Cooper in "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", Walter
Huston in "Dodsworth", William Powell in "My Man Godfrey", Spencer Tracy in "San Francisco"
LUISE RAINER in "The Great Ziegfeld", Irene Dunne in "Theodora Goes Wild", Gladys George in
"Valiant Is the Word for Carrie", Carole Lombard in "My Man Godfrey", Norma Shearer in "Romeo
and Juliet"

WALTER BRENNAN in "Come and Get It", Mischa Auer in "My Man Godfrey", Stuart Erwin in
"Pigskin Parade", Basil Rathbone in "Romeo and Juliet", Akim Tamiroff in "The General Died at

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Supporting Actress:
GALE SONDERGAARD in "Anthony Adverse", Beulah Bondi in "The Gorgeous Hussy", Alice
Brady in "My Man Godfrey", Bonita Granville in "These Three," Maria Ouspenskaya in
FRANK CAPRA for "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", Gregory La Cava for "My Man Godfrey", Robert
Z. Leonard for "The Great Ziegfeld", W. S. Van Dyke for "San Francisco", William Wyler for

THE LIFE OF EMILE ZOLA, "The Awful Truth", "Captains Courageous", "Dead End", "The Good
Earth", "In Old Chicago", "Lost Horizon", "One Hundred Men and a Girl", "Stage Door", "A Star is
SPENCER TRACY in "Captains Courageous", Charles Boyer in "Conquest", Fredric March in "A
Star is Born", Robert Montgomery in "Night Must Fall", Paul Muni in "The Life of Emile Zola"
LUISE RAINER in "The Good Earth", Irene Dunne in "The Awful Truth", Greta Garbo in
"Camille", Janet Gaynor in "A Star is Born", Barbara Stanwyck in "Stella Dallas"
Supporting Actor:
JOSEPH SCHILDKRAUT in "The Life of Emile Zola", Ralph Bellamy in "The Awful Truth",
Thomas Mitchell in "The Hurricane", H. B. Warner in "Lost Horizon", Roland Young in "Topper"
Supporting Actress:
ALICE BRADY in "In Old Chicago", Andrea Leeds in "Stage Door", Anne Shirley in "Stella
Dallas", Claire Trevor in "Dead End", May Whitty in "Night Must Fall"
Director: LEO MCCAREY for "The Awful Truth", William Dieterle for "The Life of Emile Zola",
Sidney Franklin for "The Good Earth", Gregory La Cava for "Stage Door", William Wellmann for
"A Star is Born"