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What is GSM?

Short form of Global System for Mobile Communications, is a wireless network system A standard for digital cellular mobile communications International roaming arrangements are enabled among mobile network operators, by providing the subscribers to use their personal mobile phones anywhere in the world. GSM is considered as second generation mobile, as signaling and speech channels are digital The carriers can be replaced without replacing mobile phones. The ubiquity of GSM implementations is also enabling the switching between network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. GSM pioneered low cost SMS implementation The GSM standard includes a worldwide emergency telephone number feature.

Explain the services offered by GSM.

The services offered by GSM are ISDN compatible GSM allows synchronous data and asynchronous data to be transported as bearer service, one of the telecommunication services offered by GSM, and forms ISDN terminal The data could be either transparent service or nontransparent service Telephony is one of the services offered by GSM, which an emergency and the service provider is notified by dialing 3 digits By using appropriate fax adaptor, G3 fax service is supported One of the features of GSM is Short Messaging Service Certain services, namely supplementary services are provided on top of teleservices or bearer services by GSM, such as, caller identification, call forwarding, multiparty conversations, barring outgoing calls and call waiting.

What is the maximum data rate supported by a GSM system?

The maximum data rate supported by a GSM system is 9.6 kbps. However there are extensions to GSM standard to improve throughput. GPRS is one of the extended GSM service. The extended standards of GSM allows theoretical data rates on the order of 114 Kbit/s, but with throughput closer to 40Kbit/s in practice.

Explain the following techniques in GSM: a.) Sectorization of a cell b.) Frequency Re-use c.) Transmitted Power Control d.) Discontinuous Transmission
a.) Sectorization of a cell

Sectorization is a process to cut down equipment costs in a cellular network. It influences in traffic load and cell size Sectorization reduces co-channel interference, when applied to clusters of cells The maximum traffic capacity of sectored antennas is more than omnidirectional antennas.

b.) Frequency Re-use

Frequency re-use is the key factor of cellular network ability for increasing both coverage and capacity. Different frequencies are utilized by adjacent cells; however problem does not arise to determine the cell sufficiently far apart using the same frequency. Reuse distance and the reuse factor are the two elements that influence frequency reusability The frequency is 1/K, where K is the number of cells that cannot use the same frequencies for transmission.

c.) Transmitted Power Control

Transmitted power control is one of the technical mechanism used within some networking devices TPC is used for preventing too much unwanted interference among wireless networks The central idea is to automatically reduce the transmission output power used, when other networks are within the same range. TPC reduces interference problems and increases the battery capacity The power levels of a single mobile device can be reduced by 6dB

d.) Discontinuous Transmission

Discontinuous Transmission, also known as DTX in short is a method of momentarily powering down a mobile set when there is no voice input to the set. The overall efficiency of a wireless voice communication system is optimized by DTX. Each speaker in a two way conversation speaks slightly less than half of the time. The workload of the components in the transmitter amplifiers are made easy and reduces interference.

Which uplink/ downlink spectrum is allocated to following? a.) GSM 900 b.) DCS 1800
a.) GSM 900: Uplink spectrum is 890.2914.8 and downlink spectrum is 935.2959.8 b.) DCS 1800: Uplink spectrum is 1710.21784.8, and downlink spectrum is 1805.21879.8

Name the algorithms used in following: a.) Ciphering b.) Authentication

a.) Ciphering The algorithm 129-EEA3 and 128-EIA3, 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithm is used for ciphering in GSM b.) Authentication The algorithm by name A3 is used for authentication in the GSM systems This algorithm is used in implementing Subscriber Identity Module .

Explain the following: a.) Equalisation b.) Interleaving c.) Speech coding d.) Channel coding
a.) Equalisation: An adaptive equalizer is employed by a GSM receiver for overcoming the impact of non-ideal channel characteristics which are caused by multipath propagation. Adaptive equalizer is required because the channel characteristics are often changing fast. Tuning the for each time slot is done by the equalizer. b.) Interleaving:

Time diversity in a signal communication system is obtained by using Interleaving. The possibility of losing whole bursts will be decreased by interleaving Total 456 bits from convolution encoder, including 20ms of speech, is subdivided into eight blocks. Each block consists of 57 bits. All these blocks are transmitted in consecutive time slots. Enough information is available in 7 blocks, in case one of the blocks is lost due to burst errors. This enables whole segment recovery by using error correction.

c.) Speech coding:

Speech coding is all about turning voice into digital form Speech is inherently analog, as GSM is a digital system. The digitization is employed by ISDN, and the current telephone systems that are used for multiplexing voice lines, with high speed trunks, optical fiber lines is done by Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) The PCM output is 64 kbps, which is too high over a radio link in feasibility The 64kbps signal is redundant The algorithm used in conventional cellular is Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive speech compression.

d.) Channel coding

The data rate for the radio channel is 270 kbps The data rate is split into 8 full rate or 16 half rate traffic channels, along with signaling channels In order to have the maximum chance for detecting and correcting errors, the code is complex in a typical propagation path Forward Error Correction is applied in order to get the speech coder encryption, coding and interleaving in a sophisticated way The data is sent as bursts in 577 mus time slots. Each contains 116 encrypted bits Every TDMA frame consists of 8 or 16 time slots Transmit time slots are staggered, so that at some instant the mobile station will not receive the same instants while transmitting, which enables the simplifying the filtering requirements At least one spare slot between transmit and receive is available with this scheme.

What is frequency re-use?

Frequency Reuse:

Frequency Reuse is one of the techniques for improving capacity and spectral efficiency Commercial wireless systems are based on Frequency Reuse, that involves the partitioning of an RF radiation area into cell segments. A frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering segment is used by one segment of the cell. Similar frequency is used at least two cells apart from each other. This practice enables various cellular providers to have several customers for a given site license.

What are the interfaces between thee following?a.) BTS and MS b.) BTS and BSC c.) BSS and MSC d.) TRAU and BSC e.) BSC and PCU
a.) BTS and MS

Base station subsystem is a segment of cellular telephone network that is responsible for setting signals and traffic between mobile phone sets and network switching subsystems. Transcoding of speech channels are carried out by BSS. BSS allocates radio channels to mobile phones, paging, transmission and reception over the air interface and many other tasks that are pertaining to the radio network.

b.) BTS and BSC

Base Station Controller provides the intelligence behind the BTSs. A BSC conrolls hundreds of BTSs. Allocation of radio channels, receiving measurements from the mobile phones are some of the major task handlings by BSC. BSC controls BTS to BTS.

BSC acts as a concentrator in which many different low capacity connections to BTSs will become reduced to few numbers of connections towards the mobile switching center. BSC provides the required data to operation support subsystem(OSS) and also to the performance measuring centers BTS supports the key features like, frequency hopping, sectorization, and GPRS. The expansion and upgradation in the field are the features emphasized during its design. The power output of BTS is up to 80W.

c.) BSS and MSC

BSS will send the called number to MSC(Mobile Switching Center) MSC checks the VLR and queries BSS for allocation of resources for the cell Then MSC routes the call to GMSC Switching nodes for base station controls is done by MSC

d.) TRAU and BSC

TRAU (Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit) is an entity to perform a transcoding function for speech channels and RA(Rate Adaptation) for various data channels. BSC and TRAU does not demand specific environmental conditions to perform operations. With this the operator has an option for placing any one or both units at a central location. BSC supports various BSC-BTS configurations like star, multidrop and loop, and star configurations towards TRAU TRAU is a stand alone unit which could be located close to a MSC(Mobile Switching Center), which enables the optimum utilization of 16 kbit/s channel sub multiplexing and saves line costs.

e.) BSC and PCU

The Packet Control Unit is an adaptor / handler unit which enables GPRS and EDGE functionality within Radio Access Network. The BSC from the GSM network is connected with packet core by PCU Motorola PCU is based on certain industry standards like Compact PCI and is highly scaleable.

Explain: a.) Synthesised Frequency Hopping, b.) Base Band Frequency Hopping, c.) Cycling Frequency Hopping
a.) Synthesised Frequency Hopping

The GSMs number of frequencies is 124 When the operators do not have enough frequencies, the range to be used is CDS 1800 Frequency hopping is used when the frequencies used are more with high interference. Frequency hopping is utilized to equalize interference for the frequencies that are used in their range. One of the frequency hoppings is Synthesised Frequency Hopping Synthesized hopping allows the transmitter to change its frequency based on time slots. Because of this process SFH is known as fast hopping.

b.) Base Band Frequency Hopping

Base Band Frequency Hopping is one of the frequency hopping techniques. Time division multiplexing mapping is used in BBFH BBFH is supported by a base station having a broadband transceiver Physical channels are permitted by BBFH based upon mobile subscribers communication with the base station.

In this, static transceiver frequencies are used while operating with broadband transceiver. This method is an exclusive of switching communication signals between transceivers.

c.) Cycling Frequency Hopping

In Cycling Frequency Hopping, the frequencies are changed, in every TDMA frame. For ex: f1,f2,f3 . Where f1,f2,f3 are frequency hopping sequence numbers The specified setting parameter is HSN. Hopping Sequence Number is set to 0 in a cyclic sequence hopping The sequence of frequencies starts from the lowest absolute frequency number in a set of frequencies specified for a specific channel group, to highest absolute frequency number.

Explain: a.) HSN b.) DTX c.) DRX TRX

a.) HSN

Hopping sequence number is utilized, to spread the interference between all cells that uses the same hopping TCHs The correlation between closely located cells can be avoided by using HSN HSN of zero corresponds to the cyclic hopping sequence, and 1 through 63 corresponds to various pseudo random patterns.

b.) DTX

Discontinuous Transmission is one of the methods which is based on the advantage of the fact that a person speak less Nearly 40% of time in general conversation, the transmitter is turned off during silence periods Mobile phone power conservation is an added benefit of DTX Voice Activity Detection is the most important component of DTX DT X distinguishes between voice and noise inputs. The transmitter is turned off when a voice signal is misinterpreted as noise. This causes annoying effect known as clipping is heard at the receivers end Comfort noise is created at the receiving end, in order to ensure the non-connection.


DRX is referred as driver receiver. DRX performs the transmission and reception of signals Sends and receives the signals to or from higher network entities, as in base station controller in mobile telephony


The transceivers allows to serve several frequencies and different sectors of the cell Sends and receives signals from / to higher network entities.

What do you mean by following? a.) Erlangs b.) GoS

a.) Erlangs

Total traffic volume per hour / 3600 seconds is described by erlang For example, 60 calls in one hour and each lasting 5 minutes results the following: Minutes of traffic in an hour = Number of calls x Duration Minutes of traffic in an hour = 60 x 5 = 300 minutes Hours of traffic in the hour = 300 / 60 = 5 hrs The traffic figure = 5 erlangs

b.) GoS

Grade of Service is a probability of a cell in a circuit group which is blocked / delayed for more than a specified interval GoS is expressed as a vulgar fraction / decimal fraction It is with reference to the busy hour at the time of greatest intensity of the traffic GoS may be viewed independently from the perspective of incoming vs outgoing calls The GoS is not essentially equal between source to destination pairs.

What do following mean? Why do we need them? a.) Location Area b.) Location Update
a.) Location Area

Location Area is a group of cells. The subscriber is paged in this area One or more base station controllers are used to serve each Location Area but by a single MSC. Each Location Area has a unique Location Area Identity number

b.) Location Update

IMSI attach or IMSI detach location update process is to be performed whenever a mobile is switched on or off Each mobile is needed to report regularly its location at a given time of interval by using a periodic location update process A random location update is required, whenever a mobile moves from one location to another while not on a call Hence, the subscriber has reliability to access the network and freedom of mobility within the coverage area. .

Explain: a.) IMSI b.) TMSI c.) IMEI d.) MS-IDN.

a.) IMSI

b.) TMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity a unique identification that is associated with all GSM and UMTS network mobile phones The SIM inside the phone contains it as a 64 bit field. Used for acquiring certain details in Home Location Register or Visitor Location Register IMSI is rarely sent for preventing eavesdroppers to identify and track the subscriber on the radio interface. It is presented as 15 digit long number, where first 3 digits represent the Mobile Country Code and followed by the Mobile Network Code. Remaining digits are mobile station identification number within the customer base network

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity for most commonly sent between the mobile and the network TMSI is assigned randomly by VLR to each mobile in the area

The TMSI number is local for a specific local area, and need to be updated every time when the mobile moves to a new geographical area Paging a mobile is the key use of the TMSI The communication between the mobile and the base station is known as paging The emphasis of broadcast information is top set up channels for paging Broadcast mechanism is available in every cellular system for distributing broadcast information to a plurality of mobiles

c.) IMEI

International Mobile Equipment Identity is a number usually unique for identifying GSM,WCDMA and iDEN mobile phones It is generally printed inside the battery compartment of the phone. The number can be displayed on the screen by entering *#06# into the keypad on most of the phones A stolen phone can be stopped from accessing the network within the country, by using IMEI number for valid devices Unlike CDMA/MEIDs electronic serial number, the IMEI is only used for identifying the device and has no permanent relation to the subscriber The subscriber is identified by IMSI number, stored on the SIM card, which then can be transferred to any other handset

d.) MS-IDN

Mobile Subscriber Integrated services Digital Network Number, a unique number identifying a subscription in a GSM / UMTS mobile network It is the telephone number of the SIM card in a mobile phone MSIDN and IMSI are important numbers used to identify a mobile subscriber MSIDN is used for routing the calls to the subscriber, where as IMSI identifies the SIM In the HLR, the IMSI is the key, and MSIDN is the number that is dialed for connecting a call to the mobile phone.

What do you mean by ARFCN?

Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number, a code to specify a pair of physical radio carriers and channels within the spectrum that is allocated for cellular mobile communications ARFCN is used for transmitting and receiving on the UM Interface, one to uplink signal and one to downlink signal ARFCNs bandwidth is 270.833 kHz; channel spacing is 200 kHz in a given GSM band The uplink-downlink spacing is generally 45 / 50 MHz If Frequency Division Duplex is operated in the system, then the channel number is associated with both uplink and downlink radio channels ARFCN is 1-124 within GSM900 spectrum, 512-885 within GSM1800, 512-810 within GSM1900, are used.

What is power control?

Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication system for achieving best performance within the system The performance is depend on context and there are chances to include optimizing metrics like link data rate, network capacity, geographic coverage and range A higher transmit power translates into a higher signal power at the receiver The bit error rate will be reduces at the receiver of a digital communication link, by having higher signal-tonoise ratio Higher transmit power provides more protection against a signal fade in a wireless fading channel.

Explain: a.)FDD b.)TDD


Frequency Division Duplex is one of the techniques, in which one frequency band is utilized for transmitting and another used for receiving. To uplink the carrying data from mobile phones to the base station, one electromagnetic block spectrum is allocated Various blocks of spectrum is allocated to downlink carrying data from the base station to the mobile telephone hand sets


Time Division Duplexing, a 3GPP standardized version of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System networks. The designated mobile sends the data in a stipulated time and receives data from the BTS in another time The time is divided into various time slots and user sends data in few time slots and receives the data in the rest of the time slots Alternative downlink and uplink directions are used .

What do you mean by Extended Cell? Does it have any impact on the system? If yes, what?

Extended cell feature enables the operators for extending the coverage without installing new cell cites Extended cell feature is designed specifically for providing covering in rural areas, where density of population is low and installation of additional cell sites New features can be deployed in coastal areas for providing GSM coverage in offshore waters Its impact is : The cell radius could be double or even more, based on the antenna, type of terrain and timing advance Indoor coverage is supported by GSM and could be achieved with the usage of picocell base station or an indoor repeater along with distributed indoor antennas.

Explain GPRS

Short form of General Packet Radio System GPRS is the next generation of GSM, and the basis of the 3G networks A packet oriented data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 type mobile phones It complements the existing services like circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the SMS Shortest set-up time is added for ISP connections An optimized mobile service for sending and receiving information across a mobile telephone network, with less cost GPRS provides data rates of mobile telephony and moderate speed data transfer, using unused TDMA channels GPRS does not need dial-up modem connection Sending and receiving e-mails, surfing internet are among the features of GPRS

What signals are transferred in GPRS?

GPRS uses 2.5 generation of GSM signals The radio interface is the same that of GSM GPRS uses 900 / 1800 Mhz, frequency band and GMSK modulation The bit rates are EGPRS, similar to EDGE Separate hardware and ports need to be added and availed.

How are GPRS terminals classified?

The GPRS services are classified into 12 service classes as per the duration of the time slots occupied / frame. Usually 5 time slots per frame are occupied including transmission time slots and reception time slots Increase in the number of occupied time slots certainly causes the increase in the entire duration of the occupied time slots, so that increased amount of data transmission and receipt are enabled All the 12 service classes are further classified into higher and lower classes as per the relative duration of time slots Higher speed data communication can be transmitted with high-class GPRS service by setting high transmission power and setting the duration of the time slots long.

Explain the different coding schemes used in GPRS and their importance.
Multiple Access Coding Scheme:

Multiple access scheme is used in GPRS based on the FDD and TDMA One pair of up-link and down-link frequency channels are assigned to a user during a session The Multiple Access Coding Scheme is combined with statistical multiplexing [packet mode communication], that allows several uses to share the same frequency channel Downlink uses first-come first-served packet scheduling and uplink uses a scheme that is similar to reservation ALOHA. Slotted ALOHA is utilized for reservation inquiries in a contention phase, followed by transferring data by utilizing dynamic TDMA with first-come, first-served scheduling

Channel Encoding Scheme

Channel Encoding Scheme is based on a convolution code at various code rates and GMSK modulation The table below summarizes the options: Coding Scheme Speed CS-1 8.0 CS-2 12.0 CS-3 14.4 CS-4 20.0 The least robust and fasted coding scheme is CS-4 and is available near a Base Transceiver Station The most robust coding scheme is CS-1 and is used in case of mobile station is further away from a BTS A speed of 20.0 Kbit/s/time slots can be achieved with CS-4 and has 25% normal cell coverage A speed of 8.0 Kbit/s/time slots can be achieved with CS-1 and has 98% of normal coverage

Multislot Class

Speed of data transfer available in the Uplink and Downlink directions is determined by Multislot Class The speed varies between 1 and 45 for allocating by the network to allocate radio channels in the uplink and downlink channels The representation of multi slot class is 5+2, for example, where the first number is the number of down link time slots and the second number is the number of up link time slots that are allocated to use by a mobile station

Multislot Classes for GPRS/EGPRS Multislot Class 1 Downlink TS 1 Uplink TS 1 Active TS 2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 30 31 32 33 34

2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5

1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5

3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

What gross data rate does GPRS provide?

GPRS provide gross data rate of 22.80 KBPS / time slot Voice uses only 13KBPS/ time slot and the rest is consumed by Error Correction Code Error connection code is utilized for detecting and correcting the transmission errors As voice is compressed, the usage of Error connection code is mandatory

How does GPRS architecture differ from GSM?

The following table depicts the architectural differences between GPRS and GSM New mobile station is needed for accessing GPRS services. They are backward compatible with GSM for voice calls Software upgrade is needed in the existing BTS Software upgrade and new hardware, Packet Control Unit are needed for GPRS. Installation of new core network elements, known as serving GPRS support node, and gateway GPRS support node are needed to deploy GPRS Requires software upgrade to handle new models and functions to handle databases involved in the network

Mobile Station Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller GPRS Support Nodes Databases

Differentiate between GSM and GPRS.

The differences between GSM and GPRS are depicted in the following table GSM Uses one among 7 slots Connecting resources to each unit from remote location to the back office is done through a direct dial up Circuit switched mode of operations GPRS Uses as many as 4+1 time slots Does not claim any resources until some data is sent. The information is divided into packets Packet switched mode of operations

Dedicated channel all the way to the destination is provided to the customer

One or more dedicated channels are assigned by the operator specifically for shared use

What is CDMA2000?

CDMA2000 is a Multi-carrier code-division multiple access version of IMT-2000 standard CDMA2000 is a 3G wireless technology. Worlds first 3G commercial system was launched by SK Telecom of South Korea using CDMA2000 1X CDMA 2000 supports mobile data communications at speeds from 144KBPS to 3MBPS The versions of CDMA2000 have been developed by Qualcomm and Ericsson There were 250,300,000 subscribes world for CDMA by March 2006.

What is CDMA? Explain the technology.

CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access CDMA is a wireless technology used in transmission of signal from places with high Security and noise reduction. The principle of Spread Spectrum is used to work with CDMA. Spread signal is below the noise level noise and has no effect on the signal. CDMA does not frequency specific to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA always provides better capacity for voice and data communications CDMA is a common platform for 3G technologies Analog radio transmission technologies like Advanced Mobile Phone System were used in CDMA at the time of its inception A unique code is received by all mobile network users and is allowed continuous network access instead of intermittent and timed access.

Explain a.) CDMA One b.) CDMA2000


CDMA one refers original ITU IS-95 CDMA wireless interface protocol. It is considered as a 2G mobile wireless technology The version IS-95A protocol employs a 1.25 Mhz carrier and data speeds up to 14.4 Kbps The version IS-95B support data speeds up to 115 kbps by employing 800 MHz / 1.9 GHz.


Also known as IMT Multi-Carrier, a family of 3G mobile technology standards. Used for sending voice, data and signaling between cell sites and mobile pones The standards such as CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. 0, are approved radio interfaces for ITU IMT-2000 CDMA 2000 is backward compatible with its previous 2G iteration IS-95.

Explain EDGE.

EDGE is an acronym for Enhanced Data GSM Environment An improved wireless technology over GSM A 2nd generation cell phone technology EDGE is used for wireless data transfer via mobile phone connection Data transfer rates up to 4 times more than GSM networks

With the advent of Blackberry and iPhone, faster data transfer is sought Using more sophisticated coding, usually without high end hardware, wireless carriers base stations are supported for data transfer speeds up to 384 KBPS EDGE is an alternative to replacing wireless technology, such as GPRS EDGE will eventually be replaced by 3G technology such as WCDMA.

Explain High Speed Packet Access.

HSPA is a combination of 2 mobile telephony protocols High Speed Downlink Packet Access and High Speed Uplink Packet Access HSPA improves the performance of existing WCDMA protocols. HSPA provide increased performance by utilizing schemes of modulation and refining the protocols, through which the base stations and handsets communicate HSPA is used for better usage of the available bandwidth provided by WCDMA HSPA supports data rates of up to 14 MBit / s in the downlink HSPA supports data rates of up to 5.8 MBit / s in the uplink HSPA reduces the latency and increases up to 5 times more system capacity during downlink and twice more system capacity during uplink HSPA uses 16QAM for yielding higher bit rates HSPA rollouts are achieved by implementing software upgrades to existing 3G networks. This gives HSPA a head start over WiMax.

Explain EV-DO/ EVDO.

EVDO stands for Evolution Data Optimized EVDO is a 3G broadband technology used by Verizon, Spring, Alltel It provides typical download speeds of 600 to 1400 KBPS A personal broadband service for wide range of customers It is always On EVDO utilizes CDMA signals Users can be connected remotely for using email, downloading large files, spreadsheets etc. EVDO is relatively low cost with high capacity Allows rich web browsing and application usage Seamless roaming, internal internet connectivity without relying on others connection, accessibility to the corporate Virtual Private Network by customers are some of the advantages over WiFi .

What is the difference between CDMA and GSM?

The important differences are: Data Transfer Speed:

CDMA is faster than GSM. CDMA2000 downstream rate is 2 megabits / second, through EVDO, where GSM downstream rate is up to 384 kilobits / second, through EDGE technology

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards:

SIM is tied to the network, rather than the actual phone. Phones with card-enabled can be used with any carrier of GSM Proprietary handsets are linked to one carrier only and not card-enabled in CDMA


GSM carriers have wider coverage of more rural areas, where as CDMA may not cover rural areas compared to GSM carriers

International Roaming:

GSM has facility to offer more international roaming, as the number of connections in world market dominate GSM network. CDMA phones do not have the capacity; however, there are more countries that use CDMA networks.

What is the importance of CDMA in todays cellular world?

The transition to digital radio through the process of defining standards is implementing about 90% in the cellular industry. Smooth transition to digital standards is involved in CDMA technology. Most often, it can be viewed as improved and replacement technology of TDMA Moving towards 4G technology is compatible with CDMA technology .

Differentiate between: a.) CDMA and FDMA b.) CDMA and TDMA
a.) CDMA and FDMA CDMA Same frequency is used by every user and simultaneous transmission occurs Every narrowband signal is multiplied by wideband spreading signal, usually known as codeword Every user has a separate pseudo-codeword, i.e., orthogonal to others Only the desired codeword is detected by the receivers and others appear as noise It is mandatory for the receivers to know about the transmitters codeword FDMA When the channel is not in use, it sits simply idle Bandwidth of Channel is relatively narrow (30 KHz), known as narrowband system Little or no equalization is needed for spreading symbol time Analog links are suitable for FDMA Framing or synchronization bits are not needed for continuous transmission Tight filtering is needed to minimize interference Combined with FDD for duplexing b.) CDMA and TDMA CDMA Power limited system While people talking, random noise band playing occurs Conversation need to be extracted from the background din GP is high when people speak different languages, which is easier to distinguish individual speakers It is difficult for distinguishing individuals, when GP is low. The system performance will be degraded for every user when the number of users increases. Fading would be reduced with wide frequency spectrum Need to have separate multipath signals with different delays by chip unit.

TDMA Receiving or transmission is allowed for only one user in a given slot All slots are assigned cyclically The transmission is non-continuous It is essential to use digital data and modulation Data rate overhead is between 20% 30% Overhead tradeoffs are size of data payload and latency Multiple users are shared with single carrier frequency Handoff is made simpler by using non-continuous transmission All slots are assigned on demand Due to reduced inter user interference, the power control is less stringent

What is the difference between CDMA and GPRS? Which of them is better? Why?
The Differences:

CDMA is one of the types of mobile connections for making calls where as GPRS is a technology for internet connections through a mobile phone. GPRS enables to surf the internet from a mobile phone. GPRS technology is used in other gadgets apart from mobile phones. W-CDMA technology is faster than GPRS, since the user cares about the technology that is applied for air interface. Average latency on GPRS is around 1.3 seconds, where as on CDMA is around 400 milli second GPRS supports only User Datagram Protocol, where as CDMA supports both UDP and TCP GPRS relies on Network Address Translation and a private IP address is assigned to it. On the other hand CDMA assigns a public IP address CDMA is better because: E-mail is pretty light, until you enter MS-Office. Pocket PCs support for office documents with similar functionality which can be had on Palm OS and Symbian Upon availability of APIs, a software developer could write various applications, like voice transfer, data transfer to clients account, integrating billing amount etc. Web services could be utilized .

Explain following forward link channels in CDMA system: a.) Pilot Channel b.) Sync. Channel
Pilot Channel A forward link channel which is a base to mobile that modulates only by the pilot PN. It spreads common codes to all signals transmitted from a given base station. Several critical important functions are provided by the pilot channel for forward links in IS-95 systems The pilot channel modulation facilitates the process of time synchronized replica generation at the receiver of the PN spreading sequences. These are utilized at the transmitter for modulating the synchronization, paging and traffic channels. These are transmitted from the same base station. Sync. Channel A base station transmits a Sync-Channel that spreads with Walsh code 32. The frame of synch channel is 80/3ms long with frame boundary is aligned to the pilot. Sync channel transmits a single message continually, called Sync Channel Message. The Sync Channel Message contains network information, including the PN offset that is used by the Base Station sector. The length and content of the message is dependent on the P_REV. The message transmission rate is 32 bits / frame.

The message is encoded to 128 symbols The message yielding rate is 1200 bits / s.

Explain the following two types of hand off in CDMA system: a.) Soft handoff b.) Softer handoff
a.) Soft handoff

Soft handoff is a feature in which a cellular phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cellular phones during a single call It is he overlapping of repeater coverage ones, which enables every cell phone set is always well within the range of a specific repeater. More than one repeater can send and receive signals to transmit signals to and from mobiles. All repeaters are used with the same frequency channel for each mobile phone set. Practically no dead zones and as result, the connections seldom interrupted or dropped.

b.) Softer handoff

Softer handover is a significant soft handover in which the added and removed links belong to the same node Macro diversity with maximum ratio combining could be performed in the same node The movement of handoff, when a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (less power emission, less interference), is the most obvious cause for better performance.

How are GPRS terminals classified?

The GPRS services are classified into 12 service classes as per the duration of the time slots occupied / frame. Usually 5 time slots per frame are occupied including transmission time slots and reception time slots Increase in the number of occupied time slots certainly causes the increase in the entire duration of the occupied time slots, so that increased amount of data transmission and receipt are enabled All the 12 service classes are further classified into higher and lower classes as per the relative duration of time slots Higher speed data communication can be transmitted with high-class GPRS service by setting high transmission power and setting the duration of the time slots long.

Explain: a.) GPRS ( General Packet Radio Service): b.) GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): c.) HLR (Home Location Register): e.) iDEN(Integrated Digital Enhanced Network): f.) i-appli
GPRS ( General Packet Radio Service)

Packet oriented mobile data service available to the users of 2G cellular systems. It is global system for communicating through mobile phones using GSM as well as in 3G systems. GPRS data transfer is charged per MB of traffic transferred, where as in circuit switching, data transfer is charged per minute of connection time GPRS is better packet switching service, as opposed to circuit switching. 2G cellular systems are combined with GPRS and known as 2.5G. Provides moderate speed data transfer by using unused TDMA channels, such as GSM.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

Most popular standard for mobile telephony systems, originated from Groupe Special Mobile

The ubiquity of GSM enables the international roaming arrangements among mobile phone operators. Both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus GSM is considered as 2G mobile phone system. GSM standard benefited customers the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing the hand sets and network operators. GSM implements low-cost implementation of Short Message Service

HLR (Home Location Register)

For GSM and CDMA wireless networks Its responsibility is to authenticate and authorize subscribers and their services

iDEN(Integrated Digital Enhanced Network)

A wireless technology for Motorola It has the capabilities of digi-cellular phone, 2 way radio, alphanumeric pager and data modem / fax modem in a single network Operational bands are 800 MHz, 900 MHz and 1.5 GHz iDEN is based on TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) and GSM architecture For voice compression it uses Motorolas Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictors vocoder For delivering 64KBPS over a 25 KHz channel, it uses QAM modulation. iDEN is designed to serve the mobile user for accessing information quickly without carrying several devices.


i-appli is a Java environment based on CLDC. Handsets of NTT DoCoMos are utilizing i-appli It is similar to MIDP, however both APIs are incompatible.

Explain and cdma?







GSM refers to Global System for Mobile communications while CDMA refers to Code Division Multiple Access. Both are two diffrent technologies in Telcommunications and behave diffrently in terms of giving voice and data services to the customer. Though GSM is globally used teschnology CDMA technology has more benefits in terms of call clarity, faster data speeds etc while GSM covers most of the network areas and has got variety of handsets to choose from, people prefer this technology. Other than these 2 technologies we have other technologies like TDMA, WCDMA etc 2 :: Do you know For CDMA, which is the weaker Link: FWD or Reverse? Why? Reverse link is weak in CDMA because of use of PN Long codes compared to Walsh codes in the forward link. Since, walsh codes are perfectly orthogonal in nature there is less interference in the forward link. PN long codes on the other hand are non-orthogonal in nature. However, we cant use walsh codes for the reverse link as it may seem from the above as the best possible solution. This is because walsh codes are very small in number (64/128/512 max), and hence are not sufficient for identification of large number of users in the reverse link for which the PN long codes are employed.

3 :: What is Scrambling Code? Scrambling-code identification

During the third and last step of the cell search procedure, the UE determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the found cell. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the second step. After the primary scrambling code has been identified, the Primary CCPCH can be detected and the systemand cell specific BCH information can be read. If the UE has received information about which scrambling codes to search for, steps 2 and 3 above can be simplified 4 What How How it is different from gsm? 1> cdma stands for code division multiple access; its frequency 800 mhz and 1900 mhz 2>channel bandwidth 12mhz with 1.25mhz for spread spectrum 3>in cdma we allocate a unique code to the user separately and allocate the total bandwidth to the user. 4>in gsm we divide the bandwidth into many time slots and allocate each time slot to the user. 5 :: Do you know What is the main difference between 1x RTT and 1X EVDO? 1) For where 2) 1x supports 1xRTT has as in RTT supports four EVDO upto forward and two channel structure 153.2 kbps upto of data, reverse is where as channels, different. EVDO 3.1Mbps. Traffic in :: was it what is its cdma origin technology? ? works?

3)In 1x RTT during measurement pilot power power ratio are also taken into consideration; EVDO FTAP , RTAP with Slots are taken into consideration

ratio where

, as